NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milledge, David; Bellugi, Dino; McKean, Jim; Dietrich, William E.
2013-04-01
Current practice in regional-scale shallow landslide hazard assessment is to adopt a one-dimensional slope stability representation. Such a representation cannot produce discrete landslides and thus cannot make predictions on landslide size. Furthermore, one-dimensional approaches cannot include lateral effects, which are known to be important in defining instability. Here we derive an alternative model that accounts for lateral resistance by representing the forces acting on each margin of an unstable block of soil. We model boundary frictional resistances using 'at rest' earth pressure on the lateral sides, and 'active' and 'passive' pressure, using the log-spiral method, on the upslope and downslope margins. We represent root reinforcement on each margin assuming that root cohesion declines exponentially with soil depth. We test our model's ability to predict failure of an observed landslide where the relevant parameters are relatively well constrained and find that our model predicts failure at the observed location and predicts that larger or smaller failures conformal to the observed shape are indeed more stable. We use a sensitivity analysis of the model to show that lateral reinforcement sets a minimum landslide size, and that the additional strength at the downslope boundary results in optimal shapes that are longer in the downslope direction. However, reinforcement effects alone cannot fully explain the size or shape distributions of observed landslides, highlighting the importance of the spatial pattern of key parameters (e.g. pore water pressure and soil depth) at the watershed scale. The application of the model at this scale requires an efficient method to find unstable shapes among an exponential number of candidates. In this context, the model allows a more extensive examination of the controls on landslide size, shape and location.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milledge, D.; Bellugi, D.; McKean, J. A.; Dietrich, W.
2012-12-01
The infinite slope model is the basis for almost all watershed scale slope stability models. However, it assumes that a potential landslide is infinitely long and wide. As a result, it cannot represent resistance at the margins of a potential landslide (e.g. from lateral roots), and is unable to predict the size of a potential landslide. Existing three-dimensional models generally require computationally expensive numerical solutions and have previously been applied only at the hillslope scale. Here we derive an alternative analytical treatment that accounts for lateral resistance by representing the forces acting on each margin of an unstable block. We apply 'at rest' earth pressure on the lateral sides, and 'active' and 'passive' pressure using a log-spiral method on the upslope and downslope margins. We represent root reinforcement on each margin assuming that root cohesion is an exponential function of soil depth. We benchmark this treatment against other more complete approaches (Finite Element (FE) and closed form solutions) and find that our model: 1) converges on the infinite slope predictions as length / depth and width / depth ratios become large; 2) agrees with the predictions from state-of-the-art FE models to within +/- 30% error, for the specific cases in which these can be applied. We then test our model's ability to predict failure of an actual (mapped) landslide where the relevant parameters are relatively well constrained. We find that our model predicts failure at the observed location with a nearly identical shape and predicts that larger or smaller shapes conformal to the observed shape are indeed more stable. Finally, we perform a sensitivity analysis using our model to show that lateral reinforcement sets a minimum landslide size, while the additional strength at the downslope boundary means that the optimum shape for a given size is longer in a downslope direction. However, reinforcement effects cannot fully explain the size or shape distributions of observed landslides, highlighting the importance of spatial patterns of key parameters (e.g. pore water pressure) and motivating the model's watershed scale application. This watershed scale application requires an efficient method to find the least stable shapes among an almost infinite set. However, when applied in this context, it allows a more complete examination of the controls on landslide size, shape and location.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibuki, Takero; Suzuki, Sei; Inoue, Jun-ichi
We investigate cross-correlations between typical Japanese stocks collected through Yahoo!Japan website ( http://finance.yahoo.co.jp/ ). By making use of multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) for the cross-correlation matrices, we draw two-dimensional scattered plots in which each point corresponds to each stock. To make a clustering for these data plots, we utilize the mixture of Gaussians to fit the data set to several Gaussian densities. By minimizing the so-called Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) with respect to parameters in the mixture, we attempt to specify the best possible mixture of Gaussians. It might be naturally assumed that all the two-dimensional data points of stocks shrink into a single small region when some economic crisis takes place. The justification of this assumption is numerically checked for the empirical Japanese stock data, for instance, those around 11 March 2011.
Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Ion Battery Performance Model
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2007-05-07
The Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Lithium Ion Battery Model allows for computer prediction and engineering optimization of thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of lithium ion cells with realistic geometries. The model introduces separate simulation domains for different scale physics, achieving much higher computational efficiency compared to the single domain approach. It solves a one dimensional electrochemistry model in a micro sub-grid system, and captures the impacts of macro-scale battery design factors on cell performance and materialmore » usage by solving cell-level electron and heat transports in a macro grid system.« less
Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents.
Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
2008-01-01
The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs. PMID:20126371
Development of a Multi-Dimensional Scale for PDD and ADHD
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Funabiki, Yasuko; Kawagishi, Hisaya; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Murai, Toshiya
2011-01-01
A novel assessment scale, the multi-dimensional scale for pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (MSPA), is reported. Existing assessment scales are intended to establish each diagnosis. However, the diagnosis by itself does not always capture individual characteristics or indicate the level of…
Rübel, Oliver; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E Wes; Biggin, Mark D; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Depace, Angela; Eisen, Michael B; Fowlkes, Charless C; Geddes, Cameron G R; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Huang, Min-Yu; Keränen, Soile V E; Knowles, David W; Hendriks, Cris L Luengo; Malik, Jitendra; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Prabhat; Ushizima, Daniela; Weber, Gunther H; Wu, Kesheng
2010-05-01
Knowledge discovery from large and complex scientific data is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the growing number of data dimensions and data objects presents tremendous challenges for effective data analysis and data exploration methods and tools. The combination and close integration of methods from scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies -such as efficient data management- supports knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data. This paper surveys two distinct applications in developmental biology and accelerator physics, illustrating the effectiveness of the described approach. PMID:23762211
Rübel, Oliver; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Biggin, Mark D.; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; DePace, Angela; Eisen, Michael B.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Huang, Min-Yu; Keränen, Soile V. E.; Knowles, David W.; Hendriks, Cris L. Luengo; Malik, Jitendra; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Prabhat; Ushizima, Daniela; Weber, Gunther H.; Wu, Kesheng
2013-01-01
Knowledge discovery from large and complex scientific data is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the growing number of data dimensions and data objects presents tremendous challenges for effective data analysis and data exploration methods and tools. The combination and close integration of methods from scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies —such as efficient data management— supports knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data. This paper surveys two distinct applications in developmental biology and accelerator physics, illustrating the effectiveness of the described approach. PMID:23762211
Rubel, Oliver; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Biggin, Mark D.; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; DePace, Angela; Eisen, Michael B.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Huang, Min-Yu; Keranen, Soile V. E.; Knowles, David W.; Hendriks, Chris L. Luengo; Malik, Jitendra; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Prabhat,; Ushizima, Daniela; Weber, Gunther H.; Wu, Kesheng
2010-06-08
Knowledge discovery from large and complex scientific data is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the growing number of data dimensions and data objects presents tremendous challenges for effective data analysis and data exploration methods and tools. The combination and close integration of methods from scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies"such as efficient data management" supports knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data. This paper surveys two distinct applications in developmental biology and accelerator physics, illustrating the effectiveness of the described approach.
A revised Thai Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support.
Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon
2012-11-01
In order to ensure the construct validity of the three-factor model of the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and based on the assumption that it helps users differentiate between sources of social support, in this study a revised version was created and tested. The aim was to compare the level of model fit of the original version of the MSPSS against the revised version--which contains a minor change from the original. The study was conducted on 486 medical students who completed the original and revised versions of the MSPSS, as well as the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and Beck Depression Inventory II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to compare the results, showing that the revised version of MSPSS demonstrated a good internal consistency--with a Cronbach's alpha of .92 for the MSPSS questionnaire, and a significant correlation with the other scales, as predicted. The revised version provided better internal consistency, increasing the Cronbach's alpha for the Significant Others sub-scale from 0.86 to 0.92. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model fit: chi2 128.11, df 51, p < .001; TLI 0.94; CFI 0.95; GFI 0.90; PNFI 0.71; AGFI 0.85; RMSEA 0.093 (0.073-0.113) and SRMR 0.042, which is better than the original version. The tendency of the new version was to display a better level of fit with a larger sample size. The limitations of the study are discussed, as well as recommendations for further study. PMID:23156952
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiou, Guo-Li; Anderson, O. Roger
2010-01-01
This study proposes a multi-dimensional approach to investigate, represent, and categorize students' in-depth understanding of complex physics concepts. Clinical interviews were conducted with 30 undergraduate physics students to probe their understanding of heat conduction. Based on the data analysis, six aspects of the participants' responses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiou, Guo-Li; Anderson, O. Roger
2010-01-01
This study proposes a multi-dimensional approach to investigate, represent, and categorize students' in-depth understanding of complex physics concepts. Clinical interviews were conducted with 30 undergraduate physics students to probe their understanding of heat conduction. Based on the data analysis, six aspects of the participants' responses…
Nguyen, Lan K.; Degasperi, Andrea; Cotter, Philip; Kholodenko, Boris N.
2015-01-01
Biochemical networks are dynamic and multi-dimensional systems, consisting of tens or hundreds of molecular components. Diseases such as cancer commonly arise due to changes in the dynamics of signalling and gene regulatory networks caused by genetic alternations. Elucidating the network dynamics in health and disease is crucial to better understand the disease mechanisms and derive effective therapeutic strategies. However, current approaches to analyse and visualise systems dynamics can often provide only low-dimensional projections of the network dynamics, which often does not present the multi-dimensional picture of the system behaviour. More efficient and reliable methods for multi-dimensional systems analysis and visualisation are thus required. To address this issue, we here present an integrated analysis and visualisation framework for high-dimensional network behaviour which exploits the advantages provided by parallel coordinates graphs. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework, named “Dynamics Visualisation based on Parallel Coordinates” (DYVIPAC), to a variety of signalling networks ranging in topological wirings and dynamic properties. The framework was proved useful in acquiring an integrated understanding of systems behaviour. PMID:26220783
Method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks
Pfeifer, Kent B; Yelton, William G; Kerr, Dayle R; Bouchier, Francis A
2012-10-23
A method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks can be used to optimize the operation of an analytical system. With a two-dimensional Peclet analysis, the quality and signal fidelity of peaks in a two-dimensional experimental space can be analyzed and scored. This method is particularly useful in determining optimum operational parameters for an analytical system which requires the automated analysis of large numbers of analyte data peaks. For example, the method can be used to optimize analytical systems including an ion mobility spectrometer that uses a temperature stepped desorption technique for the detection of explosive mixtures.
Statistical Projections for Multi-resolution, Multi-dimensional Visual Data Exploration and Analysis
Hoa T. Nguyen; Stone, Daithi; E. Wes Bethel
2016-01-01
An ongoing challenge in visual exploration and analysis of large, multi-dimensional datasets is how to present useful, concise information to a user for some specific visualization tasks. Typical approaches to this problem have proposed either reduced-resolution versions of data, or projections of data, or both. These approaches still have some limitations such as consuming high computation or suffering from errors. In this work, we explore the use of a statistical metric as the basis for both projections and reduced-resolution versions of data, with a particular focus on preserving one key trait in data, namely variation. We use two different case studies to explore this idea, one that uses a synthetic dataset, and another that uses a large ensemble collection produced by an atmospheric modeling code to study long-term changes in global precipitation. The primary findings of our work are that in terms of preserving the variation signal inherent in data, that using a statistical measure more faithfully preserves this key characteristic across both multi-dimensional projections and multi-resolution representations than a methodology based upon averaging.
Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Lee, K. J.
2012-05-01
This 2012 Annual Merit Review presentation gives an overview of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) project and introduces the Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional model for modeling lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.
MD-SeeGH: a platform for integrative analysis of multi-dimensional genomic data
Chi, Bryan; deLeeuw, Ronald J; Coe, Bradley P; Ng, Raymond T; MacAulay, Calum; Lam, Wan L
2008-01-01
Background Recent advances in global genomic profiling methodologies have enabled multi-dimensional characterization of biological systems. Complete analysis of these genomic profiles require an in depth look at parallel profiles of segmental DNA copy number status, DNA methylation state, single nucleotide polymorphisms, as well as gene expression profiles. Due to the differences in data types it is difficult to conduct parallel analysis of multiple datasets from diverse platforms. Results To address this issue, we have developed an integrative genomic analysis platform MD-SeeGH, a software tool that allows users to rapidly and directly analyze genomic datasets spanning multiple genomic experiments. With MD-SeeGH, users have the flexibility to easily update datasets in accordance with new genomic builds, make a quality assessment of data using the filtering features, and identify genetic alterations within single or across multiple experiments. Multiple sample analysis in MD-SeeGH allows users to compare profiles from many experiments alongside tracks containing detailed localized gene information, microRNA, CpG islands, and copy number variations. Conclusion MD-SeeGH is a new platform for the integrative analysis of diverse microarray data, facilitating multiple profile analyses and group comparisons. PMID:18492270
Effective use of metadata in the integration and analysis of multi-dimensional optical data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastorello, G. Z.; Gamon, J. A.
2012-12-01
Data discovery and integration relies on adequate metadata. However, creating and maintaining metadata is time consuming and often poorly addressed or avoided altogether, leading to problems in later data analysis and exchange. This is particularly true for research fields in which metadata standards do not yet exist or are under development, or within smaller research groups without enough resources. Vegetation monitoring using in-situ and remote optical sensing is an example of such a domain. In this area, data are inherently multi-dimensional, with spatial, temporal and spectral dimensions usually being well characterized. Other equally important aspects, however, might be inadequately translated into metadata. Examples include equipment specifications and calibrations, field/lab notes and field/lab protocols (e.g., sampling regimen, spectral calibration, atmospheric correction, sensor view angle, illumination angle), data processing choices (e.g., methods for gap filling, filtering and aggregation of data), quality assurance, and documentation of data sources, ownership and licensing. Each of these aspects can be important as metadata for search and discovery, but they can also be used as key data fields in their own right. If each of these aspects is also understood as an "extra dimension," it is possible to take advantage of them to simplify the data acquisition, integration, analysis, visualization and exchange cycle. Simple examples include selecting data sets of interest early in the integration process (e.g., only data collected according to a specific field sampling protocol) or applying appropriate data processing operations to different parts of a data set (e.g., adaptive processing for data collected under different sky conditions). More interesting scenarios involve guided navigation and visualization of data sets based on these extra dimensions, as well as partitioning data sets to highlight relevant subsets to be made available for exchange. The DAX (Data Acquisition to eXchange) Web-based tool uses a flexible metadata representation model and takes advantage of multi-dimensional data structures to translate metadata types into data dimensions, effectively reshaping data sets according to available metadata. With that, metadata is tightly integrated into the acquisition-to-exchange cycle, allowing for more focused exploration of data sets while also increasing the value of, and incentives for, keeping good metadata. The tool is being developed and tested with optical data collected in different settings, including laboratory, field, airborne, and satellite platforms.
Power, Thomas J; Dombrowski, Stefan C; Watkins, Marley W; Mautone, Jennifer A; Eagle, John W
2007-06-01
Efforts to develop interventions to improve homework performance have been impeded by limitations in the measurement of homework performance. This study was conducted to develop rating scales for assessing homework performance among students in elementary and middle school. Items on the scales were intended to assess student strengths as well as deficits in homework performance. The sample included 163 students attending two school districts in the Northeast. Parents completed the 36-item Homework Performance Questionnaire - Parent Scale (HPQ-PS). Teachers completed the 22-item teacher scale (HPQ-TS) for each student for whom the HPQ-PS had been completed. A common factor analysis with principal axis extraction and promax rotation was used to analyze the findings. The results of the factor analysis of the HPQ-PS revealed three salient and meaningful factors: student task orientation/efficiency, student competence, and teacher support. The factor analysis of the HPQ-TS uncovered two salient and substantive factors: student responsibility and student competence. The findings of this study suggest that the HPQ is a promising set of measures for assessing student homework functioning and contextual factors that may influence performance. Directions for future research are presented. PMID:18516211
Evaluating the use of HILIC in large-scale, multi dimensional proteomics: Horses for courses?
Bensaddek, Dalila; Nicolas, Armel; Lamond, Angus I.
2015-01-01
Despite many recent advances in instrumentation, the sheer complexity of biological samples remains a major challenge in large-scale proteomics experiments, reflecting both the large number of protein isoforms and the wide dynamic range of their expression levels. However, while the dynamic range of expression levels for different components of the proteome is estimated to be ∼107–8, the equivalent dynamic range of LC–MS is currently limited to ∼106. Sample pre-fractionation has therefore become routinely used in large-scale proteomics to reduce sample complexity during MS analysis and thus alleviate the problem of ion suppression and undersampling. There is currently a wide range of chromatographic techniques that can be applied as a first dimension separation. Here, we systematically evaluated the use of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), in comparison with hSAX, as a first dimension for peptide fractionation in a bottom-up proteomics workflow. The data indicate that in addition to its role as a useful pre-enrichment method for PTM analysis, HILIC can provide a robust, orthogonal and high-resolution method for increasing the depth of proteome coverage in large-scale proteomics experiments. The data also indicate that the choice of using either HILIC, hSAX, or other methods, is best made taking into account the specific types of biological analyses being performed. PMID:26869852
The use of multi-dimensional flow and morphodynamic models for restoration design analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, R.; Nelson, J. M.
2013-12-01
River restoration projects with the goal of restoring a wide range of morphologic and ecologic channel processes and functions have become common. The complex interactions between flow and sediment-transport make it challenging to design river channels that are both self-sustaining and improve ecosystem function. The relative immaturity of the field of river restoration and shortcomings in existing methodologies for evaluating channel designs contribute to this problem, often leading to project failures. The call for increased monitoring of constructed channels to evaluate which restoration techniques do and do not work is ubiquitous and may lead to improved channel restoration projects. However, an alternative approach is to detect project flaws before the channels are built by using numerical models to simulate hydraulic and sediment-transport processes and habitat in the proposed channel (Restoration Design Analysis). Multi-dimensional models provide spatially distributed quantities throughout the project domain that may be used to quantitatively evaluate restoration designs for such important metrics as (1) the change in water-surface elevation which can affect the extent and duration of floodplain reconnection, (2) sediment-transport and morphologic change which can affect the channel stability and long-term maintenance of the design; and (3) habitat changes. These models also provide an efficient way to evaluate such quantities over a range of appropriate discharges including low-probability events which often prove the greatest risk to the long-term stability of restored channels. Currently there are many free and open-source modeling frameworks available for such analysis including iRIC, Delft3D, and TELEMAC. In this presentation we give examples of Restoration Design Analysis for each of the metrics above from projects on the Russian River, CA and the Kootenai River, ID. These examples demonstrate how detailed Restoration Design Analysis can be used to guide design elements and how this method can point out potential stability problems or other risks before designs proceed to the construction phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuen, D. A.; Dzwinel, W.; Bollig, E. F.; Kadlec, B. F.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Yoshioka, S.
2003-12-01
We have developed an interactive web-based scheme for data-mining the spatio-temporal patterns of many earthquakes. This novel technique is based on cluster analysis of the multi-resolutional structures of earthquakes. The interactive scheme is based on a client-server paradigm in which we have used the off-screen rendering technique to facilitate the visual interrogation. A powerful 3-D visualization package Amira ( www.amiravis.com ) is also used to visualize the complex clusteral patte nrs in a reduced dimensional space. We have applied our method to observed and synthetic tic seismic catalogs. The observed data represent seismic activities situated around the Japanese islands in the 1997-2003 time interval. The synthetic data were generated by numerical simulations for various cases of a heterogeneous fault governed by quasi-analytical 3-D elastic dislocation models .At the highest resolution, we analyze the local cluster structure in the data space of seismic events for the two types of catalogs by using an agglomerative clustering algorithm. We demonstrate that small magnitude events produce local spatio-temporal patches corresponding to neighboring large events. Seismic events, quantized in space and time, generate the multi-dimensional feature space of the earthquake parameters. Using a non-hierarchical clustering algorithm and multi-dimensional scaling, we explore the multitudinous earthquakes by real-time 3-D visualization and inspection of multivariate clusters. At the resolutions characteristic of the earthquake parameters, all of the ongoing seismicity before and after largest events accumulate to a global structure consisting of a few separate clusters in the feature space . We show that by combining the clustering results from low and high resolution spaces, we can recognize precursory events more precisely. We will discuss how this WEB-IS ( Web-Interrrogative system ) would work. One can also access this by going to the URL http://boy.msi.umn.edu/web-is/. Its implementation and deployment in light of future GRID-computing will be discussed in terms of the recently developed Narada-Brokering (distributed messaging ) system of publishing and subscribing . This will provide a scalable infrastructure for several applications involving a set of nodes communicating with each other. .
Lee, Hyun Jung; McDonnell, Kevin T.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, D.; Mueller, Klaus
2014-03-01
Although the Euclidean distance does well in measuring data distances within high-dimensional clusters, it does poorly when it comes to gauging inter-cluster distances. This significantly impacts the quality of global, low-dimensional space embedding procedures such as the popular multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) where one can often observe non-intuitive layouts. We were inspired by the perceptual processes evoked in the method of parallel coordinates which enables users to visually aggregate the data by the patterns the polylines exhibit across the dimension axes. We call the path of such a polyline its structure and suggest a metric that captures this structure directly in high-dimensional space. This allows us to better gauge the distances of spatially distant data constellations and so achieve data aggregations in MDS plots that are more cognizant of existing high-dimensional structure similarities. Our MDS plots also exhibit similar visual relationships as the method of parallel coordinates which is often used alongside to visualize the high-dimensional data in raw form. We then cast our metric into a bi-scale framework which distinguishes far-distances from near-distances. The coarser scale uses the structural similarity metric to separate data aggregates obtained by prior classification or clustering, while the finer scale employs the appropriate Euclidean distance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Power, Thomas J.; Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Watkins, Marley W.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Eagle, John W.
2007-01-01
Efforts to develop interventions to improve homework performance have been impeded by limitations in the measurement of homework performance. This study was conducted to develop rating scales for assessing homework performance among students in elementary and middle school. Items on the scales were intended to assess student strengths as well as…
Jarraya, Mohamed; Guermazi, Ali; Niu, Jingbo; Duryea, Jeffrey; Lynch, John A; Roemer, Frank W
2015-11-01
The aim of this study has been to test reproducibility of fractal signature analysis (FSA) in a young, active patient population taking into account several parameters including intra- and inter-reader placement of regions of interest (ROIs) as well as various aspects of projection geometry. In total, 685 patients were included (135 athletes and 550 non-athletes, 18-36 years old). Regions of interest (ROI) were situated beneath the medial tibial plateau. The reproducibility of texture parameters was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Multi-dimensional assessment included: (1) anterior-posterior (A.P.) vs. posterior-anterior (P.A.) (Lyon-Schuss technique) views on 102 knees; (2) unilateral (single knee) vs. bilateral (both knees) acquisition on 27 knees (acquisition technique otherwise identical; same A.P. or P.A. view); (3) repetition of the same image acquisition on 46 knees (same A.P. or P.A. view, and same unitlateral or bilateral acquisition); and (4) intra- and inter-reader reliability with repeated placement of the ROIs in the subchondral bone area on 99 randomly chosen knees. ICC values on the reproducibility of texture parameters for A.P. vs. P.A. image acquisitions for horizontal and vertical dimensions combined were 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.74) ranging from 0.47 to 0.81 for the different dimensions. For unilateral vs. bilateral image acquisitions, the ICCs were 0.79 (95% CI 0.76-0.82) ranging from 0.55 to 0.88. For the repetition of the identical view, the ICCs were 0.82 (95% CI 0.80-0.84) ranging from 0.67 to 0.85. Intra-reader reliability was 0.93 (95% CI 0.92-0.94) and inter-observer reliability was 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-0.99). A decrease in reliability was observed with increasing voxel sizes. Our study confirms excellent intra- and inter-reader reliability for FSA, however, results seem to be affected by acquisition technique, which has not been previously recognized. PMID:26343866
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruning, Stephen D.; Ledingham, John A.
1999-01-01
Attempts to design a multiple-item, multiple-dimension organization/public relationship scale. Finds that organizations and key publics have three types of relationships: professional, personal, and community. Provides an instrument that can be used to measure the influence that perceptions of the organization/public relationship have on consumer…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruning, Stephen D.; Ledingham, John A.
1999-01-01
Attempts to design a multiple-item, multiple-dimension organization/public relationship scale. Finds that organizations and key publics have three types of relationships: professional, personal, and community. Provides an instrument that can be used to measure the influence that perceptions of the organization/public relationship have on consumer
Zeng, Wei; Zeng, An; Liu, Hao; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2014-01-01
Recommender systems are designed to assist individual users to navigate through the rapidly growing amount of information. One of the most successful recommendation techniques is the collaborative filtering, which has been extensively investigated and has already found wide applications in e-commerce. One of challenges in this algorithm is how to accurately quantify the similarities of user pairs and item pairs. In this paper, we employ the multidimensional scaling (MDS) method to measure the similarities between nodes in user-item bipartite networks. The MDS method can extract the essential similarity information from the networks by smoothing out noise, which provides a graphical display of the structure of the networks. With the similarity measured from MDS, we find that the item-based collaborative filtering algorithm can outperform the diffusion-based recommendation algorithms. Moreover, we show that this method tends to recommend unpopular items and increase the global diversification of the networks in long term. PMID:25343243
Zeng, Wei; Zeng, An; Liu, Hao; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2014-01-01
Recommender systems are designed to assist individual users to navigate through the rapidly growing amount of information. One of the most successful recommendation techniques is the collaborative filtering, which has been extensively investigated and has already found wide applications in e-commerce. One of challenges in this algorithm is how to accurately quantify the similarities of user pairs and item pairs. In this paper, we employ the multidimensional scaling (MDS) method to measure the similarities between nodes in user-item bipartite networks. The MDS method can extract the essential similarity information from the networks by smoothing out noise, which provides a graphical display of the structure of the networks. With the similarity measured from MDS, we find that the item-based collaborative filtering algorithm can outperform the diffusion-based recommendation algorithms. Moreover, we show that this method tends to recommend unpopular items and increase the global diversification of the networks in long term. PMID:25343243
Large-Scale Multi-Dimensional Document Clustering on GPU Clusters
Cui, Xiaohui; Mueller, Frank; Zhang, Yongpeng; Potok, Thomas E
2010-01-01
Document clustering plays an important role in data mining systems. Recently, a flocking-based document clustering algorithm has been proposed to solve the problem through simulation resembling the flocking behavior of birds in nature. This method is superior to other clustering algorithms, including k-means, in the sense that the outcome is not sensitive to the initial state. One limitation of this approach is that the algorithmic complexity is inherently quadratic in the number of documents. As a result, execution time becomes a bottleneck with large number of documents. In this paper, we assess the benefits of exploiting the computational power of Beowulf-like clusters equipped with contemporary Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) as a means to significantly reduce the runtime of flocking-based document clustering. Our framework scales up to over one million documents processed simultaneously in a sixteennode GPU cluster. Results are also compared to a four-node cluster with higher-end GPUs. On these clusters, we observe 30X-50X speedups, which demonstrates the potential of GPU clusters to efficiently solve massive data mining problems. Such speedups combined with the scalability potential and accelerator-based parallelization are unique in the domain of document-based data mining, to the best of our knowledge.
Nitrogen deposition and multi-dimensional plant diversity at the landscape scale.
Roth, Tobias; Kohli, Lukas; Rihm, Beat; Amrhein, Valentin; Achermann, Beat
2015-04-01
Estimating effects of nitrogen (N) deposition is essential for understanding human impacts on biodiversity. However, studies relating atmospheric N deposition to plant diversity are usually restricted to small plots of high conservation value. Here, we used data on 381 randomly selected 1 km(2) plots covering most habitat types of Central Europe and an elevational range of 2900 m. We found that high atmospheric N deposition was associated with low values of six measures of plant diversity. The weakest negative relation to N deposition was found in the traditionally measured total species richness. The strongest relation to N deposition was in phylogenetic diversity, with an estimated loss of 19% due to atmospheric N deposition as compared with a homogeneously distributed historic N deposition without human influence, or of 11% as compared with a spatially varying N deposition for the year 1880, during industrialization in Europe. Because phylogenetic plant diversity is often related to ecosystem functioning, we suggest that atmospheric N deposition threatens functioning of ecosystems at the landscape scale. PMID:26064640
Nitrogen deposition and multi-dimensional plant diversity at the landscape scale
Roth, Tobias; Kohli, Lukas; Rihm, Beat; Amrhein, Valentin; Achermann, Beat
2015-01-01
Estimating effects of nitrogen (N) deposition is essential for understanding human impacts on biodiversity. However, studies relating atmospheric N deposition to plant diversity are usually restricted to small plots of high conservation value. Here, we used data on 381 randomly selected 1 km2 plots covering most habitat types of Central Europe and an elevational range of 2900 m. We found that high atmospheric N deposition was associated with low values of six measures of plant diversity. The weakest negative relation to N deposition was found in the traditionally measured total species richness. The strongest relation to N deposition was in phylogenetic diversity, with an estimated loss of 19% due to atmospheric N deposition as compared with a homogeneously distributed historic N deposition without human influence, or of 11% as compared with a spatially varying N deposition for the year 1880, during industrialization in Europe. Because phylogenetic plant diversity is often related to ecosystem functioning, we suggest that atmospheric N deposition threatens functioning of ecosystems at the landscape scale. PMID:26064640
Facile multi-dimensional profiling of chemical gradients at the millimetre scale.
Chen, Chih-Lin; Hsieh, Kai-Ta; Hsu, Ching-Fong; Urban, Pawel L
2016-01-01
A vast number of conventional physicochemical methods are suitable for the analysis of homogeneous samples. However, in various cases, the samples exhibit intrinsic heterogeneity. Tomography allows one to record approximate distributions of chemical species in the three-dimensional space. Here we develop a simple optical tomography system which enables performing scans of non-homogeneous samples at different wavelengths. It takes advantage of inexpensive open-source electronics and simple algorithms. The analysed samples are illuminated by a miniature LCD/LED screen which emits light at three wavelengths (598, 547 and 455 nm, corresponding to the R, G, and B channels, respectively). On presentation of every wavelength, the sample vial is rotated by ∼180°, and videoed at 30 frames per s. The RGB values of pixels in the obtained digital snapshots are subsequently collated, and processed to produce sinograms. Following the inverse Radon transform, approximate quasi-three-dimensional images are reconstructed for each wavelength. Sample components with distinct visible light absorption spectra (myoglobin, methylene blue) can be resolved. The system was used to follow dynamic changes in non-homogeneous samples in real time, to visualize binary mixtures, to reconstruct reaction-diffusion fronts formed during the reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol by ascorbic acid, and to visualize the distribution of fungal mycelium grown in a semi-solid medium. PMID:26541202
magHD: a new approach to multi-dimensional data storage, analysis, display and exploitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angleraud, Christophe
2014-06-01
The ever increasing amount of data and processing capabilities - following the well- known Moore's law - is challenging the way scientists and engineers are currently exploiting large datasets. The scientific visualization tools, although quite powerful, are often too generic and provide abstract views of phenomena, thus preventing cross disciplines fertilization. On the other end, Geographic information Systems allow nice and visually appealing maps to be built but they often get very confused as more layers are added. Moreover, the introduction of time as a fourth analysis dimension to allow analysis of time dependent phenomena such as meteorological or climate models, is encouraging real-time data exploration techniques that allow spatial-temporal points of interests to be detected by integration of moving images by the human brain. Magellium is involved in high performance image processing chains for satellite image processing as well as scientific signal analysis and geographic information management since its creation (2003). We believe that recent work on big data, GPU and peer-to-peer collaborative processing can open a new breakthrough in data analysis and display that will serve many new applications in collaborative scientific computing, environment mapping and understanding. The magHD (for Magellium Hyper-Dimension) project aims at developing software solutions that will bring highly interactive tools for complex datasets analysis and exploration commodity hardware, targeting small to medium scale clusters with expansion capabilities to large cloud based clusters.
Riordan, Daniel P.; Varma, Sushama; West, Robert B.; Brown, Patrick O.
2015-01-01
Characterization of the molecular attributes and spatial arrangements of cells and features within complex human tissues provides a critical basis for understanding processes involved in development and disease. Moreover, the ability to automate steps in the analysis and interpretation of histological images that currently require manual inspection by pathologists could revolutionize medical diagnostics. Toward this end, we developed a new imaging approach called multidimensional microscopic molecular profiling (MMMP) that can measure several independent molecular properties in situ at subcellular resolution for the same tissue specimen. MMMP involves repeated cycles of antibody or histochemical staining, imaging, and signal removal, which ultimately can generate information analogous to a multidimensional flow cytometry analysis on intact tissue sections. We performed a MMMP analysis on a tissue microarray containing a diverse set of 102 human tissues using a panel of 15 informative antibody and 5 histochemical stains plus DAPI. Large-scale unsupervised analysis of MMMP data, and visualization of the resulting classifications, identified molecular profiles that were associated with functional tissue features. We then directly annotated H&E images from this MMMP series such that canonical histological features of interest (e.g. blood vessels, epithelium, red blood cells) were individually labeled. By integrating image annotation data, we identified molecular signatures that were associated with specific histological annotations and we developed statistical models for automatically classifying these features. The classification accuracy for automated histology labeling was objectively evaluated using a cross-validation strategy, and significant accuracy (with a median per-pixel rate of 77% per feature from 15 annotated samples) for de novo feature prediction was obtained. These results suggest that high-dimensional profiling may advance the development of computer-based systems for automatically parsing relevant histological and cellular features from molecular imaging data of arbitrary human tissue samples, and can provide a framework and resource to spur the optimization of these technologies. PMID:26176839
2014-01-01
Background Lack of social support is an important risk factor for antenatal depression and anxiety in low- and middle-income countries. We translated, adapted and validated the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) in order to study the relationship between perceived social support, intimate partner violence and antenatal depression in Malawi. Methods The MSPSS was translated and adapted into Chichewa and Chiyao. Five hundred and eighty-three women attending an antenatal clinic were administered the MSPSS, depression screening measures, and a risk factor questionnaire including questions about intimate partner violence. A sub-sample of participants (n = 196) were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to diagnose major depressive episode. Validity of the MSPSS was evaluated by assessment of internal consistency, factor structure, and correlation with Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) score and major depressive episode. We investigated associations between perception of support from different sources (significant other, family, and friends) and major depressive episode, and whether intimate partner violence was a moderator of these associations. Results In both Chichewa and Chiyao, the MSPSS had high internal consistency for the full scale and significant other, family, and friends subscales. MSPSS full scale and subscale scores were inversely associated with SRQ score and major depression diagnosis. Using principal components analysis, the MSPSS had the expected 3-factor structure in analysis of the whole sample. On confirmatory factor analysis, goodness–of-fit indices were better for a 3-factor model than for a 2-factor model, and met standard criteria when correlation between items was allowed. Lack of support from a significant other was the only MSPSS subscale that showed a significant association with depression on multivariate analysis, and this association was moderated by experience of intimate partner violence. Conclusions The MSPSS is a valid measure of perceived social support in Malawi. Lack of support by a significant other is associated with depression in pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in this setting. PMID:24938124
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carkin, Susan
The broad goal of this study is to represent the linguistic variation of textbooks and lectures, the primary input for student learning---and sometimes the sole input in the large introductory classes which characterize General Education at many state universities. Computer techniques are used to analyze a corpus of textbooks and lectures from first-year university classes in macroeconomics and biology. These spoken and written variants are compared to each other as well as to benchmark texts from other multi-dimensional studies in order to examine their patterns, relations, and functions. A corpus consisting of 147,000 words was created from macroeconomics and biology lectures at a medium-large state university and from a set of nationally "best-selling" textbooks used in these same introductory survey courses. The corpus was analyzed using multi-dimensional methodology (Biber, 1988). The analysis consists of both empirical and qualitative phases. Quantitative analyses are undertaken on the linguistic features, their patterns of co-occurrence, and on the contextual elements of classrooms and textbooks. The contextual analysis is used to functionally interpret the statistical patterns of co-occurrence along five dimensions of textual variation, demonstrating patterns of difference and similarity with reference to text excerpts. Results of the analysis suggest that academic discourse is far from monolithic. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes varies by modality and discipline, but not always in the directions expected. In the present study the most abstract texts were biology lectures---more abstract than written genres of academic prose and more abstract than introductory textbooks. Academic lectures in both disciplines, monologues which carry a heavy informational load, were extremely interactive, more like conversation than academic prose. A third finding suggests that introductory survey textbooks differ from those used in upper division classes by being relatively less marked for information density, abstraction, and non-overt argumentation. In addition to the findings mentioned here, numerous other relationships among the texts exhibit complex patterns of variation related to a number of situational variables. Pedagogical implications are discussed in relation to General Education courses, differing student populations, and the reading and listening demands which students encounter in large introductory classes in the university.
Park, Ji-Won; Jeong, Hyobin; Kang, Byeongsoo; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sang Yoon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Hark Kyun; Choi, Joon Sig; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Tae Geol
2015-01-01
Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) emerges as a promising tool to identify the ions (small molecules) indicative of disease states from the surface of patient tissues. In TOF-SIMS analysis, an enhanced ionization of surface molecules is critical to increase the number of detected ions. Several methods have been developed to enhance ionization capability. However, how these methods improve identification of disease-related ions has not been systematically explored. Here, we present a multi-dimensional SIMS (MD-SIMS) that combines conventional TOF-SIMS and metal-assisted SIMS (MetA-SIMS). Using this approach, we analyzed cancer and adjacent normal tissues first by TOF-SIMS and subsequently by MetA-SIMS. In total, TOF- and MetA-SIMS detected 632 and 959 ions, respectively. Among them, 426 were commonly detected by both methods, while 206 and 533 were detected uniquely by TOF- and MetA-SIMS, respectively. Of the 426 commonly detected ions, 250 increased in their intensities by MetA-SIMS, whereas 176 decreased. The integrated analysis of the ions detected by the two methods resulted in an increased number of discriminatory ions leading to an enhanced separation between cancer and normal tissues. Therefore, the results show that MD-SIMS can be a useful approach to provide a comprehensive list of discriminatory ions indicative of disease states. PMID:26046669
Gordon, Scott M.; Deng, Jingyuan; Tomann, Alex B.; Shah, Amy S.; Lu, L. Jason; Davidson, W. Sean
2013-01-01
The distribution of circulating lipoprotein particles affects the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in humans. Lipoproteins are historically defined by their density, with low-density lipoproteins positively and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) negatively associated with CVD risk in large populations. However, these broad definitions tend to obscure the remarkable heterogeneity within each class. Evidence indicates that each class is composed of physically (size, density, charge) and compositionally (protein and lipid) distinct subclasses exhibiting unique functionalities and differing effects on disease. HDLs in particular contain upward of 85 proteins of widely varying function that are differentially distributed across a broad range of particle diameters. We hypothesized that the plasma lipoproteins, particularly HDL, represent a continuum of phospholipid platforms that facilitate specific protein–protein interactions. To test this idea, we separated normal human plasma using three techniques that exploit different lipoprotein physicochemical properties (gel filtration chromatography, ionic exchange chromatography, and preparative isoelectric focusing). We then tracked the co-separation of 76 lipid-associated proteins via mass spectrometry and applied a summed correlation analysis to identify protein pairs that may co-reside on individual lipoproteins. The analysis produced 2701 pairing scores, with the top hits representing previously known protein–protein interactions as well as numerous unknown pairings. A network analysis revealed clusters of proteins with related functions, particularly lipid transport and complement regulation. The specific co-separation of protein pairs or clusters suggests the existence of stable lipoprotein subspecies that may carry out distinct functions. Further characterization of the composition and function of these subspecies may point to better targeted therapeutics aimed at CVD or other diseases. PMID:23882025
Multi-dimensional analysis of combustion instabilities in liquid rocket motors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grenda, Jeffrey M.; Venkateswaran, Sankaran; Merkle, Charles L.
1992-01-01
A three-dimensional analysis of combustion instabilities in liquid rocket engines is presented based on a mixed finite difference/spectral solution methodology for the gas phase and a discrete droplet tracking formulation for the liquid phase. Vaporization is treated by a simplified model based on an infinite thermal conductivitiy assumption for spherical liquid droplets of fuel in a convective environment undergoing transient heating. A simple two parameter phenomenological combustion response model is employed for validation of the results in the small amplitude regime. The computational procedure is demonstrated to capture the phenomena of wave propagation within the combustion chamber accurately. Results demonstrate excellent amplitude and phase agreement with analytical solutions for properly selected grid resolutions under both stable and unstable operating conditions. Computations utilizing the simplified droplet model demonstrate stable response to arbitrary pulsing. This is possibly due to the assumption of uniform droplet temperature which removes the thermal inertia time-lag response of the vaporization process. The mixed-character scheme is sufficiently efficient to allow solutions on workstations at a modest increase in computational time over that required for two-dimensional solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Masi, A.
2015-09-01
The paper describes reading criteria for the documentation for important buildings in Milan, Italy, as a case study of the research on the integration of new technologies to obtain 3D multi-scale representation architectures. In addition, affords an overview of the actual optical 3D measurements sensors and techniques used for surveying, mapping, digital documentation and 3D modeling applications in the Cultural Heritage field. Today new opportunities for an integrated management of data are given by multiresolution models, that can be employed for different scale of representation. The goal of multi-scale representations is to provide several representations where each representation is adapted to a different information density with several degrees of detail. The Digital Representation Platform, along with the 3D City Model, are meant to be particularly useful to heritage managers who are developing recording, documentation, and information management strategies appropriate to territories, sites and monuments. Digital Representation Platform and 3D City Model are central activities in a the decision-making process for heritage conservation management and several urban related problems. This research investigates the integration of the different level-of-detail of a 3D City Model into one consistent 4D data model with the creation of level-of-detail using algorithms from a GIS perspective. In particular, such project is based on open source smart systems, and conceptualizes a personalized and contextualized exploration of the Cultural Heritage through an experiential analysis of the territory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meertens, C. M.; Murray, D.; McWhirter, J.
2004-12-01
Over the last five years, UNIDATA has developed an extensible and flexible software framework for analyzing and visualizing geoscience data and models. The Integrated Data Viewer (IDV), initially developed for visualization and analysis of atmospheric data, has broad interdisciplinary application across the geosciences including atmospheric, ocean, and most recently, earth sciences. As part of the NSF-funded GEON Information Technology Research project, UNAVCO has enhanced the IDV to display earthquakes, GPS velocity vectors, and plate boundary strain rates. These and other geophysical parameters can be viewed simultaneously with three-dimensional seismic tomography and mantle geodynamic model results. Disparate data sets of different formats, variables, geographical projections and scales can automatically be displayed in a common projection. The IDV is efficient and fully interactive allowing the user to create and vary 2D and 3D displays with contour plots, vertical and horizontal cross-sections, plan views, 3D isosurfaces, vector plots and streamlines, as well as point data symbols or numeric values. Data probes (values and graphs) can be used to explore the details of the data and models. The IDV is a freely available Java application using Java3D and VisAD and runs on most computers. UNIDATA provides easy-to-follow instructions for download, installation and operation of the IDV. The IDV primarily uses netCDF, a self-describing binary file format, to store multi-dimensional data, related metadata, and source information. The IDV is designed to work with OPeNDAP-equipped data servers that provide real-time observations and numerical models from distributed locations. Users can capture and share screens and animations, or exchange XML "bundles" that contain the state of the visualization and embedded links to remote data files. A real-time collaborative feature allows groups of users to remotely link IDV sessions via the Internet and simultaneously view and control the visualization. A Jython-based formulation facility allows computations on disparate data sets using simple formulas. Although the IDV is an advanced tool for research, its flexible architecture has also been exploited for educational purposes with the Virtual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) development. The VGEE demonstration added physical concept models to the IDV and curricula for atmospheric science education intended for the high school to graduate student levels.
Data Mining in Multi-Dimensional Functional Data for Manufacturing Fault Diagnosis
Jeong, Myong K; Kong, Seong G; Omitaomu, Olufemi A
2008-09-01
Multi-dimensional functional data, such as time series data and images from manufacturing processes, have been used for fault detection and quality improvement in many engineering applications such as automobile manufacturing, semiconductor manufacturing, and nano-machining systems. Extracting interesting and useful features from multi-dimensional functional data for manufacturing fault diagnosis is more difficult than extracting the corresponding patterns from traditional numeric and categorical data due to the complexity of functional data types, high correlation, and nonstationary nature of the data. This chapter discusses accomplishments and research issues of multi-dimensional functional data mining in the following areas: dimensionality reduction for functional data, multi-scale fault diagnosis, misalignment prediction of rotating machinery, and agricultural product inspection based on hyperspectral image analysis.
Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present new, efficient central schemes for multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These non-oscillatory, non-staggered schemes are first- and second-order accurate and are designed to scale well with an increasing dimension. Efficiency is obtained by carefully choosing the location of the evolution points and by using a one-dimensional projection step. First-and second-order accuracy is verified for a variety of multi-dimensional, convex and non-convex problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalenchuk, K. S.; Hutchinson, D.; Diederichs, M. S.
2013-12-01
Downie Slide, one of the world's largest landslides, is a massive, active, composite, extremely slow rockslide located on the west bank of the Revelstoke Reservoir in British Columbia. It is a 1.5 billion m3 rockslide measuring 2400 m along the river valley, 3300m from toe to headscarp and up to 245 m thick. Significant contributions to the field of landslide geomechanics have been made by analyses of spatially and temporally discriminated slope deformations, and how these are controlled by complex geological and geotechnical factors. Downie Slide research demonstrates the importance of delineating massive landslides into morphological regions in order to characterize global slope behaviour and identify localized events, which may or may not influence the overall slope deformation patterns. Massive slope instabilities do not behave as monolithic masses, rather, different landslide zones can display specific landslide processes occurring at variable rates of deformation. The global deformation of Downie Slide is extremely slow moving; however localized regions of the slope incur moderate to high rates of movement. Complex deformation processes and composite failure mechanism are contributed to by topography, non-uniform shear surfaces, heterogeneous rockmass and shear zone strength and stiffness characteristics. Further, from the analysis of temporal changes in landslide behaviour it has been clearly recognized that different regions of the slope respond differently to changing hydrogeological boundary conditions. State-of-the-art methodologies have been developed for numerical simulation of large landslides; these provide important tools for investigating dynamic landslide systems which account for complex three-dimensional geometries, heterogenous shear zone strength parameters, internal shear zones, the interaction of discrete landslide zones and piezometric fluctuations. Numerical models of Downie Slide have been calibrated to reproduce observed slope behaviour, and the calibration process has provided important insight to key factors controlling massive slope mechanics. Through numerical studies it has been shown that the three-dimensional interpretation of basal slip surface geometry and spatial heterogeneity in shear zone stiffness are important factors controlling large-scale slope deformation processes. The role of secondary internal shears and the interaction between landslide morphological zones has also been assessed. Further, numerical simulation of changing groundwater conditions has produced reasonable correlation with field observations. Calibrated models are valuable tools for the forward prediction of landslide dynamics. Calibrated Downie Slide models have been used to investigate how trigger scenarios may accelerate deformations at Downie Slide. The ability to reproduce observed behaviour and forward test hypothesized changes to boundary conditions has valuable application in hazard management of massive landslides. The capacity of decision makers to interpret large amounts of data, respond to rapid changes in a system and understand complex slope dynamics has been enhanced.
Yang, Hyun-Jin; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Cogliati, Tiziana; Kim, Jung-Woong; Swaroop, Anand
2015-01-01
Genomics and genetics have invaded all aspects of biology and medicine, opening uncharted territory for scientific exploration. The definition of “gene” itself has become ambiguous, and the central dogma is continuously being revised and expanded. Computational biology and computational medicine are no longer intellectual domains of the chosen few. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, together with novel methods of pattern recognition and network analyses, has revolutionized the way we think about fundamental biological mechanisms and cellular pathways. In this review, we discuss NGS-based genome-wide approaches that can provide deeper insights into retinal development, aging and disease pathogenesis. We first focus on gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that govern the differentiation of retinal photoreceptors and modulate adaptive response during aging. Then, we discuss NGS technology in the context of retinal disease and develop a vision for therapies based on network biology. We should emphasize that basic strategies for network construction and analyses can be transported to any tissue or cell type. We believe that specific and uniform guidelines are required for generation of genome, transcriptome and epigenome data to facilitate comparative analysis and integration of multi-dimensional data sets, and for constructing networks underlying complex biological processes. As cellular homeostasis and organismal survival are dependent on gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, we believe that network-based biology will provide the foundation for deciphering disease mechanisms and discovering novel drug targets for retinal neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25668385
A multi-dimensional analysis of the upper Rio Grande-San Luis Valley social-ecological system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mix, Ken
The Upper Rio Grande (URG), located in the San Luis Valley (SLV) of southern Colorado, is the primary contributor to streamflow to the Rio Grande Basin, upstream of the confluence of the Rio Conchos at Presidio, TX. The URG-SLV includes a complex irrigation-dependent agricultural social-ecological system (SES), which began development in 1852, and today generates more than 30% of the SLV revenue. The diversions of Rio Grande water for irrigation in the SLV have had a disproportionate impact on the downstream portion of the river. These diversions caused the flow to cease at Ciudad Juarez, Mexico in the late 1880s, creating international conflict. Similarly, low flows in New Mexico and Texas led to interstate conflict. Understanding changes in the URG-SLV that led to this event and the interactions among various drivers of change in the URG-SLV is a difficult task. One reason is that complex social-ecological systems are adaptive, contain feedbacks, emergent properties, cross-scale linkages, large-scale dynamics and non-linearities. Further, most analyses of SES to date have been qualitative, utilizing conceptual models to understand driver interactions. This study utilizes both qualitative and quantitative techniques to develop an innovative approach for analyzing driver interactions in the URG-SLV. Five drivers were identified for the URG-SLV social-ecological system: water (streamflow), water rights, climate, agriculture, and internal and external water policy. The drivers contained several longitudes (data aspect) relevant to the system, except water policy, for which only discreet events were present. Change point and statistical analyses were applied to the longitudes to identify quantifiable changes, to allow detection of cross-scale linkages between drivers, and presence of feedback cycles. Agricultural was identified as the driver signal. Change points for agricultural expansion defined four distinct periods: 1852--1923, 1924--1948, 1949--1978 and 1979--2007. Changes in streamflow, water allocations and water policy were observed in all agriculture periods. Cross-scale linkages were also evident between climate and streamflow; policy and water rights; and agriculture, groundwater pumping and streamflow.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Papay, John P.; Willett, John B.; Murnane, Richard J.
2011-01-01
We ask whether failing one or more of the state-mandated high-school exit examinations affects whether students graduate from high school. Using a new multi-dimensional regression-discontinuity approach, we examine simultaneously scores on mathematics and English language arts tests. Barely passing both examinations, as opposed to failing them,…
Multi-dimensional admittance spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wieland, K.; Vasko, A.; Karpov, V. G.
2013-01-01
We introduce the concept of multi-dimensional admittance spectroscopy capable of characterizing thin-film diode structures in both the (standard) transversal and lateral directions. This extends the capabilities of standard admittance spectroscopy based on the model of leaky capacitor with area defined by the metal contacts. In our approach, the ac signal spreads in the lateral directions far beyond the contact area. The spreading range defines the area of the effective capacitor determining the measured capacitance and conductance. It depends on the ac signal frequency, dc bias, and various structure parameters. A phenomenological description of these dependencies here is verified numerically using our original software to model the distributed admittance via finite element circuits. We analyze the case of photovoltaic devices and show how the multi-dimensional admittance spectroscopy is sensitive to lateral nonuniformity of the system, particularly to the presence of shunts and weak diodes and their location. In addition, the proposed characterization provides information about the system lump parameters, such as sheet resistance, shunt resistance, and open circuit voltage.
Multi-dimensional laser radars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molebny, Vasyl; Steinvall, Ove
2014-06-01
We introduce the term "multi-dimensional laser radar", where the dimensions mean not only the coordinates of the object in space, but its velocity and orientation, parameters of the media: scattering, refraction, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, etc. The parameters can change in time and can be combined. For example, rendezvous and docking missions, autonomous planetary landing, along with laser ranging, laser altimetry, laser Doppler velocimetry, are thought to have aboard also the 3D ladar imaging. Operating in combinations, they provide more accurate and safer navigation, docking or landing, hazard avoidance capabilities. Combination with Doppler-based measurements provides more accurate navigation for both space and cruise missile applications. Critical is the information identifying the snipers based on combination of polarization and fluctuation parameters with data from other sources. Combination of thermal imaging and vibrometry can unveil the functionality of detected targets. Hyperspectral probing with laser reveals even more parameters. Different algorithms and architectures of ladar-based target acquisition, reconstruction of 3D images from point cloud, information fusion and displaying is discussed with special attention to the technologies of flash illumination and single-photon focal-plane-array detection.
Vargas, Sara E; Fava, Joseph L; Severy, Lawrence; Rosen, Rochelle K; Salomon, Liz; Shulman, Lawrence; Guthrie, Kate Morrow
2016-02-01
Currently available risk perception scales tend to focus on risk behaviors and overall risk (vs partner-specific risk). While these types of assessments may be useful in clinical contexts, they may be inadequate for understanding the relationship between sexual risk and motivations to engage in safer sex or one's willingness to use prevention products during a specific sexual encounter. We present the psychometric evaluation and validation of a scale that includes both general and specific dimensions of sexual risk perception. A one-time, audio computer-assisted self-interview was administered to 531 women aged 18-55 years. Items assessing sexual risk perceptions, both in general and in regards to a specific partner, were examined in the context of a larger study of willingness to use HIV/STD prevention products and preferences for specific product characteristics. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded two subscales: general perceived risk and partner-specific perceived risk. Validity analyses demonstrated that the two subscales were related to many sociodemographic and relationship factors. We suggest that this risk perception scale may be useful in research settings where the outcomes of interest are related to motivations to use HIV and STD prevention products and/or product acceptability. Further, we provide specific guidance on how this risk perception scale might be utilized to understand such motivations with one or more specific partners. PMID:26621151
Progress in multi-dimensional upwind differencing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanleer, Bram
1992-01-01
Multi-dimensional upwind-differencing schemes for the Euler equations are reviewed. On the basis of the first-order upwind scheme for a one-dimensional convection equation, the two approaches to upwind differencing are discussed: the fluctuation approach and the finite-volume approach. The usual extension of the finite-volume method to the multi-dimensional Euler equations is not entirely satisfactory, because the direction of wave propagation is always assumed to be normal to the cell faces. This leads to smearing of shock and shear waves when these are not grid-aligned. Multi-directional methods, in which upwind-biased fluxes are computed in a frame aligned with a dominant wave, overcome this problem, but at the expense of robustness. The same is true for the schemes incorporating a multi-dimensional wave model not based on multi-dimensional data but on an 'educated guess' of what they could be. The fluctuation approach offers the best possibilities for the development of genuinely multi-dimensional upwind schemes. Three building blocks are needed for such schemes: a wave model, a way to achieve conservation, and a compact convection scheme. Recent advances in each of these components are discussed; putting them all together is the present focus of a worldwide research effort. Some numerical results are presented, illustrating the potential of the new multi-dimensional schemes.
Hierarchical tensor approximation of multi-dimensional visual data.
Wu, Qing; Xia, Tian; Chen, Chun; Lin, Hsueh-Yi Sean; Wang, Hongcheng; Yu, Yizhou
2008-01-01
Visual data comprise of multi-scale and inhomogeneous signals. In this paper, we exploit these characteristics and develop a compact data representation technique based on a hierarchical tensor-based transformation. In this technique, an original multi-dimensional dataset is transformed into a hierarchy of signals to expose its multi-scale structures. The signal at each level of the hierarchy is further divided into a number of smaller tensors to expose its spatially inhomogeneous structures. These smaller tensors are further transformed and pruned using a tensor approximation technique. Our hierarchical tensor approximation supports progressive transmission and partial decompression. Experimental results indicate that our technique can achieve higher compression ratios and quality than previous methods, including wavelet transforms, wavelet packet transforms, and single-level tensor approximation. We have successfully applied our technique to multiple tasks involving multi-dimensional visual data, including medical and scientific data visualization, data-driven rendering and texture synthesis. PMID:17993712
Visualisation of synchronous firing in multi-dimensional spike trains.
Stuart, L; Walter, M; Borisyuk, R
2002-01-01
The gravity transform algorithm is used to study the dependencies in firing of multi-dimensional spike trains. The pros and cons of this algorithm are discussed and the necessity for improved representation of output data is demonstrated. Parallel coordinates are introduced to visualise the results of the gravity transform and principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the quantity of data represented whilst minimising loss of information. PMID:12459307
On Multi-Dimensional Unstructured Mesh Adaption
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.
1999-01-01
Anisotropic unstructured mesh adaption is developed for a truly multi-dimensional upwind fluctuation splitting scheme, as applied to scalar advection-diffusion. The adaption is performed locally using edge swapping, point insertion/deletion, and nodal displacements. Comparisons are made versus the current state of the art for aggressive anisotropic unstructured adaption, which is based on a posteriori error estimates. Demonstration of both schemes to model problems, with features representative of compressible gas dynamics, show the present method to be superior to the a posteriori adaption for linear advection. The performance of the two methods is more similar when applied to nonlinear advection, with a difference in the treatment of shocks. The a posteriori adaption can excessively cluster points to a shock, while the present multi-dimensional scheme tends to merely align with a shock, using fewer nodes. As a consequence of this alignment tendency, an implementation of eigenvalue limiting for the suppression of expansion shocks is developed for the multi-dimensional distribution scheme. The differences in the treatment of shocks by the adaption schemes, along with the inherently low levels of artificial dissipation in the fluctuation splitting solver, suggest the present method is a strong candidate for applications to compressible gas dynamics.
Spatial Indexing and Visualization of Large Multi-Dimensional Databases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobos, L.; Csabai, I.; Trencséni, M.; Herczegh, G.; Józsa, P.; Purger, N.
2007-10-01
Scientific endeavors such as large astronomical surveys generate databases on the terabyte scale. These usually multi-dimensional databases must be visualized and mined in order to find interesting objects or to extract meaningful and qualitatively new relationships. Many statistical algorithms required for these tasks run reasonably fast when operating on small sets of in-memory data, but take noticeable performance hits when operating on large databases that do not fit into memory. We utilize new software technologies to develop and evaluate fast multi-dimensional, spatial indexing schemes that inherently follow the underlying highly non-uniform distribution of the data: one of them is hierarchical binary space partitioning; the other is sampled flat Voronoi partitioning of the data. Our working database is the 5-dimensional magnitude space of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with more than 250 million data points. We show that these techniques can dramatically speed up data mining operations such as finding similar objects by example, classifying objects or comparing extensive simulation sets with observations. We are also developing tools to interact with the spatial database and visualize the data real-time at multiple resolutions at different zoom levels in an adaptive manner.
Extended Darknet: Multi-Dimensional Internet Threat Monitoring System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimoda, Akihiro; Mori, Tatsuya; Goto, Shigeki
Internet threats caused by botnets/worms are one of the most important security issues to be addressed. Darknet, also called a dark IP address space, is one of the best solutions for monitoring anomalous packets sent by malicious software. However, since darknet is deployed only on an inactive IP address space, it is an inefficient way for monitoring a working network that has a considerable number of active IP addresses. The present paper addresses this problem. We propose a scalable, light-weight malicious packet monitoring system based on a multi-dimensional IP/port analysis. Our system significantly extends the monitoring scope of darknet. In order to extend the capacity of darknet, our approach leverages the active IP address space without affecting legitimate traffic. Multi-dimensional monitoring enables the monitoring of TCP ports with firewalls enabled on each of the IP addresses. We focus on delays of TCP syn/ack responses in the traffic. We locate syn/ack delayed packets and forward them to sensors or honeypots for further analysis. We also propose a policy-based flow classification and forwarding mechanism and develop a prototype of a monitoring system that implements our proposed architecture. We deploy our system on a campus network and perform several experiments for the evaluation of our system. We verify that our system can cover 89% of the IP addresses while darknet-based monitoring only covers 46%. On our campus network, our system monitors twice as many IP addresses as darknet.
Statistical Downscaling in Multi-dimensional Wave Climate Forecast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camus, P.; Méndez, F. J.; Medina, R.; Losada, I. J.; Cofiño, A. S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.
2009-04-01
Wave climate at a particular site is defined by the statistical distribution of sea state parameters, such as significant wave height, mean wave period, mean wave direction, wind velocity, wind direction and storm surge. Nowadays, long-term time series of these parameters are available from reanalysis databases obtained by numerical models. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technique is applied to characterize multi-dimensional wave climate, obtaining the relevant "wave types" spanning the historical variability. This technique summarizes multi-dimension of wave climate in terms of a set of clusters projected in low-dimensional lattice with a spatial organization, providing Probability Density Functions (PDFs) on the lattice. On the other hand, wind and storm surge depend on instantaneous local large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) fields while waves depend on the recent history of these fields (say, 1 to 5 days). Thus, these variables are associated with large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. In this work, a nearest-neighbors analog method is used to predict monthly multi-dimensional wave climate. This method establishes relationships between the large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns from numerical models (SLP fields as predictors) with local wave databases of observations (monthly wave climate SOM PDFs as predictand) to set up statistical models. A wave reanalysis database, developed by Puertos del Estado (Ministerio de Fomento), is considered as historical time series of local variables. The simultaneous SLP fields calculated by NCEP atmospheric reanalysis are used as predictors. Several applications with different size of sea level pressure grid and with different temporal domain resolution are compared to obtain the optimal statistical model that better represents the monthly wave climate at a particular site. In this work we examine the potential skill of this downscaling approach considering perfect-model conditions, but we will also analyze the suitability of this methodology to be used for seasonal forecast and for long-term climate change scenario projection of wave climate.
The Extraction of One-Dimensional Flow Properties from Multi-Dimensional Data Sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baurle, Robert A.; Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.
2007-01-01
The engineering design and analysis of air-breathing propulsion systems relies heavily on zero- or one-dimensional properties (e.g. thrust, total pressure recovery, mixing and combustion efficiency, etc.) for figures of merit. The extraction of these parameters from experimental data sets and/or multi-dimensional computational data sets is therefore an important aspect of the design process. A variety of methods exist for extracting performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets. Some of the information contained in the multi-dimensional flow is inevitably lost when any one-dimensionalization technique is applied. Hence, the unique assumptions associated with a given approach may result in one-dimensional properties that are significantly different than those extracted using alternative approaches. The purpose of this effort is to examine some of the more popular methods used for the extraction of performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets, reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and highlight various numerical issues that result when mapping data from a multi-dimensional space to a space of one dimension.
The Art of Extracting One-Dimensional Flow Properties from Multi-Dimensional Data Sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baurle, R. A.; Gaffney, R. L.
2007-01-01
The engineering design and analysis of air-breathing propulsion systems relies heavily on zero- or one-dimensional properties (e:g: thrust, total pressure recovery, mixing and combustion efficiency, etc.) for figures of merit. The extraction of these parameters from experimental data sets and/or multi-dimensional computational data sets is therefore an important aspect of the design process. A variety of methods exist for extracting performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets. Some of the information contained in the multi-dimensional flow is inevitably lost when any one-dimensionalization technique is applied. Hence, the unique assumptions associated with a given approach may result in one-dimensional properties that are significantly different than those extracted using alternative approaches. The purpose of this effort is to examine some of the more popular methods used for the extraction of performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets, reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and highlight various numerical issues that result when mapping data from a multi-dimensional space to a space of one dimension.
T. Downar
2009-03-31
The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multi-dimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system.
Vlasov multi-dimensional model dispersion relation
Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Rose, Harvey A.; Silantyev, Denis A.; Vladimirova, Natalia
2014-07-15
A hybrid model of the Vlasov equation in multiple spatial dimension D > 1 [H. A. Rose and W. Daughton, Phys. Plasmas 18, 122109 (2011)], the Vlasov multi dimensional model (VMD), consists of standard Vlasov dynamics along a preferred direction, the z direction, and N flows. At each z, these flows are in the plane perpendicular to the z axis. They satisfy Eulerian-type hydrodynamics with coupling by self-consistent electric and magnetic fields. Every solution of the VMD is an exact solution of the original Vlasov equation. We show approximate convergence of the VMD Langmuir wave dispersion relation in thermal plasma to that of Vlasov-Landau as N increases. Departure from strict rotational invariance about the z axis for small perpendicular wavenumber Langmuir fluctuations in 3D goes to zero like θ{sup N}, where θ is the polar angle and flows are arranged uniformly over the azimuthal angle.
2010-01-01
Background Genomics has substantially changed our approach to cancer research. Gene expression profiling, for example, has been utilized to delineate subtypes of cancer, and facilitated derivation of predictive and prognostic signatures. The emergence of technologies for the high resolution and genome-wide description of genetic and epigenetic features has enabled the identification of a multitude of causal DNA events in tumors. This has afforded the potential for large scale integration of genome and transcriptome data generated from a variety of technology platforms to acquire a better understanding of cancer. Results Here we show how multi-dimensional genomics data analysis would enable the deciphering of mechanisms that disrupt regulatory/signaling cascades and downstream effects. Since not all gene expression changes observed in a tumor are causal to cancer development, we demonstrate an approach based on multiple concerted disruption (MCD) analysis of genes that facilitates the rational deduction of aberrant genes and pathways, which otherwise would be overlooked in single genomic dimension investigations. Conclusions Notably, this is the first comprehensive study of breast cancer cells by parallel integrative genome wide analyses of DNA copy number, LOH, and DNA methylation status to interpret changes in gene expression pattern. Our findings demonstrate the power of a multi-dimensional approach to elucidate events which would escape conventional single dimensional analysis and as such, reduce the cohort sample size for cancer gene discovery. PMID:20478067
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Stahl, Gerry
2007-01-01
In CSCL research, collaboration through chat has primarily been studied in dyadic settings. This article discusses three issues that emerged during the development of a multi-dimensional coding procedure for small-group chat communication: (a) the unit of analysis and unit fragmentation, (b) the reconstruction of the response structure and (c)
Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane; Robertson, Sam
2016-07-01
This study investigated whether a multi-dimensional assessment could assist with talent identification in junior Australian football (AF). Participants were recruited from an elite under 18 (U18) AF competition and classified into two groups; talent identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 42; 17.6 ± 0.4 y) and non-talent identified (non-State U18 Academy representatives; n = 42; 17.4 ± 0.5 y). Both groups completed a multi-dimensional assessment, which consisted of physical (standing height, dynamic vertical jump height and 20 m multistage fitness test), technical (kicking and handballing tests) and perceptual-cognitive (video decision-making task) performance outcome tests. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of status on the test criterions, whilst a receiver operating characteristic curve assessed the discrimination provided from the full assessment. The talent identified players outperformed their non-talent identified peers in each test (P < 0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve reflected near perfect discrimination (AUC = 95.4%), correctly classifying 95% and 86% of the talent identified and non-talent identified participants, respectively. When compared to single assessment approaches, this multi-dimensional assessment reflects a more comprehensive means of talent identification in AF. This study further highlights the importance of assessing multi-dimensional performance qualities when identifying talented team sports. PMID:26862858
Multi-dimensional modelling of gas turbine combustion using a flame sheet model in KIVA II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, W. K.; Lai, M.-C.; Chue, T.-H.
1991-01-01
A flame sheet model for heat release is incorporated into a multi-dimensional fluid mechanical simulation for gas turbine application. The model assumes that the chemical reaction takes place in thin sheets compared to the length scale of mixing, which is valid for the primary combustion zone in a gas turbine combustor. In this paper, the details of the model are described and computational results are discussed.
Xu, Chao; Zhang, Pei-lin; Ren, Guo-quan; Li, Bing; Yang, Ning
2010-11-01
A new method using oil atomic spectrometric analysis technology to monitor the mechanical wear state was proposed. Multi-dimensional time series model of oil atomic spectrometric data of running-in period was treated as the standard model. Residues remained after new data were processed by the standard model. The residues variance matrix was selected as the features of the corresponding wear state. Then, high dimensional feature vectors were reduced through the principal component analysis and the first three principal components were extracted to represent the wear state. Euclidean distance was computed for feature vectors to classify the testing samples. Thus, the mechanical wear state was identified correctly. The wear state of a specified track vehicle engine was effectively identified, which verified the validity of the proposed method. Experimental results showed that introducing the multi-dimensional time series model to oil spectrometric analysis can fuse the spectrum data and improve the accuracy of monitoring mechanical wear state. PMID:21284149
Multi-Dimensional Calibration of Impact Dynamic Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Annett, Martin S.; Jackson, Karen E.
2011-01-01
NASA Langley, under the Subsonic Rotary Wing Program, recently completed two helicopter tests in support of an in-house effort to study crashworthiness. As part of this effort, work is on-going to investigate model calibration approaches and calibration metrics for impact dynamics models. Model calibration of impact dynamics problems has traditionally assessed model adequacy by comparing time histories from analytical predictions to test at only a few critical locations. Although this approach provides for a direct measure of the model predictive capability, overall system behavior is only qualitatively assessed using full vehicle animations. In order to understand the spatial and temporal relationships of impact loads as they migrate throughout the structure, a more quantitative approach is needed. In this work impact shapes derived from simulated time history data are used to recommend sensor placement and to assess model adequacy using time based metrics and orthogonality multi-dimensional metrics. An approach for model calibration is presented that includes metric definitions, uncertainty bounds, parameter sensitivity, and numerical optimization to estimate parameters to reconcile test with analysis. The process is illustrated using simulated experiment data.
High-value energy storage for the grid: a multi-dimensional look
Culver, Walter J.
2010-12-15
The conceptual attractiveness of energy storage in the electrical power grid has grown in recent years with Smart Grid initiatives. But cost is a problem, interwoven with the complexity of quantifying the benefits of energy storage. This analysis builds toward a multi-dimensional picture of storage that is offered as a step toward identifying and removing the gaps and ''friction'' that permeate the delivery chain from research laboratory to grid deployment. (author)
Fast Packet Classification Using Multi-Dimensional Encoding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chi Jia; Chen, Chien
Internet routers need to classify incoming packets quickly into flows in order to support features such as Internet security, virtual private networks and Quality of Service (QoS). Packet classification uses information contained in the packet header, and a predefined rule table in the routers. Packet classification of multiple fields is generally a difficult problem. Hence, researchers have proposed various algorithms. This study proposes a multi-dimensional encoding method in which parameters such as the source IP address, destination IP address, source port, destination port and protocol type are placed in a multi-dimensional space. Similar to the previously best known algorithm, i.e., bitmap intersection, multi-dimensional encoding is based on the multi-dimensional range lookup approach, in which rules are divided into several multi-dimensional collision-free rule sets. These sets are then used to form the new coding vector to replace the bit vector of the bitmap intersection algorithm. The average memory storage of this encoding is Θ (L · N · log N) for each dimension, where L denotes the number of collision-free rule sets, and N represents the number of rules. The multi-dimensional encoding practically requires much less memory than bitmap intersection algorithm. Additionally, the computation needed for this encoding is as simple as bitmap intersection algorithm. The low memory requirement of the proposed scheme means that it not only decreases the cost of packet classification engine, but also increases the classification performance, since memory represents the performance bottleneck in the packet classification engine implementation using a network processor.
The Multi-Dimensional Demands of Reading in the Disciplines
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Carol D.
2014-01-01
This commentary addresses the complexities of reading comprehension with an explicit focus on reading in the disciplines. The author proposes reading as entailing multi-dimensional demands of the reader and posing complex challenges for teachers. These challenges are intensified by restrictive conceptions of relevant prior knowledge and experience…
Image matrix processor for fast multi-dimensional computations
Roberson, G.P.; Skeate, M.F.
1996-10-15
An apparatus for multi-dimensional computation is disclosed which comprises a computation engine, including a plurality of processing modules. The processing modules are configured in parallel and compute respective contributions to a computed multi-dimensional image of respective two dimensional data sets. A high-speed, parallel access storage system is provided which stores the multi-dimensional data sets, and a switching circuit routes the data among the processing modules in the computation engine and the storage system. A data acquisition port receives the two dimensional data sets representing projections through an image, for reconstruction algorithms such as encountered in computerized tomography. The processing modules include a programmable local host, by which they may be configured to execute a plurality of different types of multi-dimensional algorithms. The processing modules thus include an image manipulation processor, which includes a source cache, a target cache, a coefficient table, and control software for executing image transformation routines using data in the source cache and the coefficient table and loading resulting data in the target cache. The local host processor operates to load the source cache with a two dimensional data set, loads the coefficient table, and transfers resulting data out of the target cache to the storage system, or to another destination. 10 figs.
Application of Multi-Dimensional Sensing Technologies in Production Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibuya, Hisae; Kimachi, Akira; Suwa, Masaki; Niwakawa, Makoto; Okuda, Haruhisa; Hashimoto, Manabu
Multi-dimensional sensing has been used for various purposes in the field of production systems. The members of the IEEJ MDS committee investigated the trends in sensing technologies and their applications. In this paper, the result of investigations of auto-guided vehicles, cell manufacturing robots, safety, maintenance, worker monitoring, and sensor networks are discussed.
Novel optimization method for multi-dimensional breast photoacoustic tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Meng; Feng, Ting; Yuan, Jie; Du, Sidan; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.
2014-11-01
Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an effective optical biomedical imaging method which is characterized with noninonizing and noninvasive, presenting good soft tissue contrast with excellent spatial resolution. To build a multi-dimensional breast PAT image, more ultrasound sensors are needed, which brings difficulties to data acquisition. The time complexity for multi-dimensional breast PAT image reconstruction also rises tremendously. Compressive sensing (CS) theory breaks the restriction of Nyquist sampling theorem and is capable to rebuild signals with fewer measurements. In this contribution, we propose an effective optimization method for multi-dimensional breast PAT, which combines the theory of CS and an unevenly, adaptively distributing data acquisition algorithm. With this method, the quality of our reconstructed breast PAT images are better than those using existing multi-dimensional breast PAT system. To build breast PAT images with the same quality, the required number of ultrasound transducers is decreased by using our proposed method. We have verified our method on simulation data and achieved expected results in both two dimensional and three dimensional PAT image reconstruction. In the future, our method can be applied to various aspects of biomedical PAT imaging such as early stage tumor detection and in vivo imaging monitoring.
Image matrix processor for fast multi-dimensional computations
Roberson, George P.; Skeate, Michael F.
1996-01-01
An apparatus for multi-dimensional computation which comprises a computation engine, including a plurality of processing modules. The processing modules are configured in parallel and compute respective contributions to a computed multi-dimensional image of respective two dimensional data sets. A high-speed, parallel access storage system is provided which stores the multi-dimensional data sets, and a switching circuit routes the data among the processing modules in the computation engine and the storage system. A data acquisition port receives the two dimensional data sets representing projections through an image, for reconstruction algorithms such as encountered in computerized tomography. The processing modules include a programmable local host, by which they may be configured to execute a plurality of different types of multi-dimensional algorithms. The processing modules thus include an image manipulation processor, which includes a source cache, a target cache, a coefficient table, and control software for executing image transformation routines using data in the source cache and the coefficient table and loading resulting data in the target cache. The local host processor operates to load the source cache with a two dimensional data set, loads the coefficient table, and transfers resulting data out of the target cache to the storage system, or to another destination.
Multi-dimensional Liquid Chromatography in Proteomics
Zhang, Xiang; Fang, Aiqin; Riley, Catherine P.; Wang, Mu; Regnier, Fred E.; Buck, Charles
2010-01-01
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their expression, structures and functions. This still-emerging combination of technologies aims to describe and characterize all expressed proteins in a biological system. Because of upper limits on mass detection of mass spectrometers, proteins are usually digested into peptides and the peptides are then separated, identified and quantified from this complex enzymatic digest. The problem in digesting proteins first and then analyzing the peptide cleavage fragments by mass spectrometry is that huge numbers of peptides are generated that overwhelm direct mass spectral analyses. The objective in the liquid chromatography approach to proteomics is to fractionate peptide mixtures to enable and maximize identification and quantification of the component peptides by mass spectrometry. This review will focus on existing multidimensional liquid chromatographic (MDLC) platforms developed for proteomics and their application in combination with other techniques such as stable isotope labeling. We also provide some perspectives on likely future developments. PMID:20363391
Towards Semantic Web Services on Large, Multi-Dimensional Coverages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumann, P.
2009-04-01
Observed and simulated data in the Earth Sciences often come as coverages, the general term for space-time varying phenomena as set forth by standardization bodies like the Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO. Among such data are 1-d time series, 2-D surface data, 3-D surface data time series as well as x/y/z geophysical and oceanographic data, and 4-D metocean simulation results. With increasing dimensionality the data sizes grow exponentially, up to Petabyte object sizes. Open standards for exploiting coverage archives over the Web are available to a varying extent. The OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS) standard defines basic extraction operations: spatio-temporal and band subsetting, scaling, reprojection, and data format encoding of the result - a simple interoperable interface for coverage access. More processing functionality is available with products like Matlab, Grid-type interfaces, and the OGC Web Processing Service (WPS). However, these often lack properties known as advantageous from databases: declarativeness (describe results rather than the algorithms), safe in evaluation (no request can keep a server busy infinitely), and optimizable (enable the server to rearrange the request so as to produce the same result faster). WPS defines a geo-enabled SOAP interface for remote procedure calls. This allows to webify any program, but does not allow for semantic interoperability: a function is identified only by its function name and parameters while the semantics is encoded in the (only human readable) title and abstract. Hence, another desirable property is missing, namely an explicit semantics which allows for machine-machine communication and reasoning a la Semantic Web. The OGC Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) language, which has been adopted as an international standard by OGC in December 2008, defines a flexible interface for the navigation, extraction, and ad-hoc analysis of large, multi-dimensional raster coverages. It is abstract in that it does not anticipate any particular protocol. One such protocol is given by the OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS) Processing Extension standard which ties WCPS into WCS. Another protocol which makes WCPS an OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) Profile is under preparation. Thereby, WCPS bridges WCS and WPS. The conceptual model of WCPS relies on the coverage model of WCS, which in turn is based on ISO 19123. WCS currently addresses raster-type coverages where a coverage is seen as a function mapping points from a spatio-temporal extent (its domain) into values of some cell type (its range). A retrievable coverage has an identifier associated, further the CRSs supported and, for each range field (aka band, channel), the interpolation methods applicable. The WCPS language offers access to one or several such coverages via a functional, side-effect free language. The following example, which derives the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from given coverages C1, C2, and C3 within the regions identified by the binary mask R, illustrates the language concept: for c in ( C1, C2, C3 ), r in ( R ) return encode( (char) (c.nir - c.red) / (c.nir + c.red), H˜DF-EOS\\~ ) The result is a list of three HDF-EOS encoded images containing masked NDVI values. Note that the same request can operate on coverages of any dimensionality. The expressive power of WCPS includes statistics, image, and signal processing up to recursion, to maintain safe evaluation. As both syntax and semantics of any WCPS expression is well known the language is Semantic Web ready: clients can construct WCPS requests on the fly, servers can optimize such requests (this has been investigated extensively with the rasdaman raster database system) and automatically distribute them for processing in a WCPS-enabled computing cloud. The WCPS Reference Implementation is being finalized now that the standard is stable; it will be released in open source once ready. Among the future tasks is to extend WCPS to general meshes, in synchronization with the WCS standard. In this talk WCPS is presented in the context of OGC standardization. The author is co-chair of OGC's WCS Working Group (WG) and Coverages WG.
Multi-Dimensional Perception of Parental Involvement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisher, Yael
2016-01-01
The main purpose of this study was to define and conceptualize the term parental involvement. A questionnaire was administrated to parents (140), teachers (145), students (120) and high ranking civil servants in the Ministry of Education (30). Responses were analyzed through Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The SSA solution among all groups rendered…
Multi-dimensional Indoor Location Information Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Zlatanova, S.; Huang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Du, Z.
2013-11-01
Aiming at the increasing requirements of seamless indoor and outdoor navigation and location service, a Chinese standard of Multidimensional Indoor Location Information Model is being developed, which defines ontology of indoor location. The model is complementary to 3D concepts like CityGML and IndoorGML. The goal of the model is to provide an exchange GML-based format for location needed for indoor routing and navigation. An elaborated user requirements analysis and investigation of state-of-the-art technology in expressing indoor location at home and abroad was completed to identify the manner humans specify location. The ultimate goal is to provide an ontology that will allow absolute and relative specification of location such as "in room 321", "on the second floor", as well as, "two meters from the second window", "12 steps from the door".
Advanced numerics for multi-dimensional fluid flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanka, S. P.
1984-01-01
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development and use of mathematical models for the simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer and combustion processes in engineering equipment. The equations representing the multi-dimensional transport of mass, momenta and species are numerically solved by finite-difference or finite-element techniques. However despite the multiude of differencing schemes and solution algorithms, and the advancement of computing power, the calculation of multi-dimensional flows, especially three-dimensional flows, remains a mammoth task. The following discussion is concerned with the author's recent work on the construction of accurate discretization schemes for the partial derivatives, and the efficient solution of the set of nonlinear algebraic equations resulting after discretization. The present work has been jointly supported by the Ramjet Engine Division of the Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, and the NASA Lewis Research Center.
Efficient Subtorus Processor Allocation in a Multi-Dimensional Torus
Weizhen Mao; Jie Chen; William Watson
2005-11-30
Processor allocation in a mesh or torus connected multicomputer system with up to three dimensions is a hard problem that has received some research attention in the past decade. With the recent deployment of multicomputer systems with a torus topology of dimensions higher than three, which are used to solve complex problems arising in scientific computing, it becomes imminent to study the problem of allocating processors of the configuration of a torus in a multi-dimensional torus connected system. In this paper, we first define the concept of a semitorus. We present two partition schemes, the Equal Partition (EP) and the Non-Equal Partition (NEP), that partition a multi-dimensional semitorus into a set of sub-semitori. We then propose two processor allocation algorithms based on these partition schemes. We evaluate our algorithms by incorporating them in commonly used FCFS and backfilling scheduling policies and conducting simulation using workload traces from the Parallel Workloads Archive. Specifically, our simulation experiments compare four algorithm combinations, FCFS/EP, FCFS/NEP, backfilling/EP, and backfilling/NEP, for two existing multi-dimensional torus connected systems. The simulation results show that our algorithms (especially the backfilling/NEP combination) are capable of producing schedules with system utilization and mean job bounded slowdowns comparable to those in a fully connected multicomputer.
Study of multi-dimensional radiative energy transfer in molecular gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Jiwen; Tiwari, S. N.
1993-01-01
The Monte Carlo method (MCM) is applied to analyze radiative heat transfer in nongray gases. The nongray model employed is based on the statistical arrow band model with an exponential-tailed inverse intensity distribution. Consideration of spectral correlation results in some distinguishing features of the Monte Carlo formulations. Validation of the Monte Carlo formulations has been conducted by comparing results of this method with other solutions. Extension of a one-dimensional problem to a multi-dimensional problem requires some special treatments in the Monte Carlo analysis. Use of different assumptions results in different sets of Monte Carlo formulations. The nongray narrow band formulations provide the most accurate results.
Portable laser synthesizer for high-speed multi-dimensional spectroscopy
Demos, Stavros G.; Shverdin, Miroslav Y.; Shirk, Michael D.
2012-05-29
Portable, field-deployable laser synthesizer devices designed for multi-dimensional spectrometry and time-resolved and/or hyperspectral imaging include a coherent light source which simultaneously produces a very broad, energetic, discrete spectrum spanning through or within the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared wavelengths. The light output is spectrally resolved and each wavelength is delayed with respect to each other. A probe enables light delivery to a target. For multidimensional spectroscopy applications, the probe can collect the resulting emission and deliver this radiation to a time gated spectrometer for temporal and spectral analysis.
Numerical Solution of Multi-Dimensional Hyperbolic Conservation Laws on Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The lecture material will discuss the application of one-dimensional approximate Riemann solutions and high order accurate data reconstruction as building blocks for solving multi-dimensional hyperbolic equations. This building block procedure is well-documented in the nationally available literature. The relevant stability and convergence theory using positive operator analysis will also be presented. All participants in the minisymposium will be asked to solve one or more generic test problems so that a critical comparison of accuracy can be made among differing approaches.
Recent development of multi-dimensional chromatography strategies in proteome research.
Tang, Jia; Gao, Mingxia; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangming
2008-04-15
As a complementary approach to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), multi-dimensional chromatography separation methods have been widely applied in all kinds of biological sample investigations. Multi-dimensional liquid chromatography (MDLC) coupled with bio-mass spectrometry (MS) is playing important roles in proteome research due to its high speed, high resolution and high sensitivity. Proteome analysis strategies mainly include bottom-up and top-down approaches which carry out biological sample separation based on peptide and protein levels, respectively. Electrophoretic methods combined with liquid chromatography like IEF-HPLC and HPLC-SDS-PAGE have been successful applied for protein separations. As for MDLC strategy, ion-exchange chromatography (IEX) together with reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is still a most widely used chromatography in proteome analysis, other chromatographic methods are also frequently used in protein pre-fractionations, while affinity chromatography is usually adopted for specific functional protein analysis. Recent MDLC technologies and applications to variety of proteome analysis have been achieved great development. A digest peptide-based approach as so-called "bottom-up" and intact protein-based approach "top-down" analysis of proteome samples were briefly reviewed in this paper. The diversity of combinations of different chromatography modes to set up MDLC systems was demonstrated and discussed. Novel developments of MDLC techniques such as high-abundance protein depletion and chromatography array were also included in this review. PMID:18289947
Yang, Kui; Cheng, Hua; Gross, Richard W.; Han, Xianlin
2009-01-01
This report presents the strategies underlying the automated identification and quantification of individual lipid molecular species through array analysis of multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics (MDMS-SL) data which are acquired directly from lipid extracts after direct infusion and intrasource separation. The automated analyses of individual lipid molecular species in the program employ a strategy where MDMS-SL data from building block analyses using precursor-ion and/or neutral loss scans are used to identify individual molecular species followed by quantitation. Through this strategy, the program screens and identifies species in a high throughput fashion from a built-in database of over 36,000 potential lipid molecular species constructed employing known building blocks. The program then uses a two-step procedure for quantitation of the identified species possessing a linear dynamic range over three orders of magnitude and re-verifies the results when necessary through redundant quantification of multi-dimensional mass spectra. This program is designed to be easily adaptable for other shotgun lipidomics approaches which are currently used for mass spectrometric analysis of lipids in the field. Accordingly, the development of this program should greatly accelerate high throughput analysis of lipids using MDMS-based shotgun lipidomics. PMID:19408941
Stacey, Michael; McGregor, Carolyn; Tracy, Mark
2007-01-01
Temporal abstraction (TA) provides the means to instil domain knowledge into data analysis processes and allows transformation of low level numeric data to high level qualitative narratives. TA mechanisms have been primarily applied to uni-dimensional data sources equating to single patients in the clinical context. This paper presents a framework for multi-dimensional TA (MDTA) enabling analysis of data emanating from numerous patients to detect multiple conditions within the environment of neonatal intensive care. Patient agents which perform temporal reasoning upon patient data streams are based on the Event Calculus and an active ontology provides a central knowledge core where rules are stored and agent responses accumulated, thus permitting a level of multi-dimensionality within data abstraction processes. Facilitation of TA across a ward of patients offers the potential for early detection of debilitating conditions such as Sepsis, Pneumothorax and Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL), which have been shown to exhibit advance indicators in physiological data. Preliminary prototyping for patient agents has begun with promising results and a schema for the active rule repository outlined. PMID:18002814
Multi-dimensional flow effects in pulse tube refrigerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cha, J. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Desai, P. V.; Harvey, J. P.; Kirkconnell, C. S.
2006-09-01
Pulse tube cryocoolers are often modeled as one-dimensional flow fields. We examine the adequacy of this assumption in this study. Two entire inertance tube pulse tube refrigerator (ITPTR) systems operating under a variety of thermal boundary conditions are modeled using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Each simulated ITPTRs includes a compressor, an after cooler, a regenerator, a pulse tube, cold and hot heat exchangers, an inertance tube, and a reservoir, and the simulations represent fully coupled systems operating in steady-periodic mode. The objectives are to ascertain the suitability of CFD methods for ITPTRs, and examine the extent of multi-dimensional flow effects in various ITPTR components. The results confirm that CFD simulations are capable of elucidating complex periodic processes in ITPTRs. The results also show that one-dimensional modeling is appropriate only when all the components in the system have large length-to-diameter ( L/ D) ratios. Significant multi-dimensional flow effects occur at the vicinity of component-to-component junctions, and secondary-flow recirculation patterns develop when one or more components have relatively small L/ D ratios. Parameters in need of experimental measurement are discussed.
Flexible multi-dimensional modulation method for elastic optical networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zilong; Liu, Wentao; Shi, Sheping; Shen, Bailin; Chen, Xue; Gao, Xiqing; Zhang, Qi; Shang, Dongdong; Ji, Yongning; Liu, Yingfeng
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a flexible multi-dimensional modulation method for elastic optical networks. We compare the flexible multi-dimensional modulation formats PM-kSC-mQAM with traditional modulation formats PM-mQAM using numerical simulations in back-to-back and wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) transmission (50 GHz-spaced) scenarios at the same symbol rate of 32 Gbaud. The simulation results show that PM-kSC-QPSK and PM-kSC-16QAM can achieve obvious back-to-back sensitivity gain with respect to PM-QPSK and PM-16QAM at the expense of spectral efficiency reduction. And the WDM transmission simulation results show that PM-2SC-QPSK can achieve 57.5% increase in transmission reach compared to PM-QPSK, and 48.5% increase for PM-2SC-16QAM over PM-16QAM. Furthermore, we also experimentally investigate the back to back performance of PM-2SC-QPSK, PM-4SC-QPSK, PM-2SC-16QAM and PM-3SC-16QAM, and the experimental results agree well with the numerical simulations.
Multi-Dimensional Damage Detection for Surfaces and Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Roberson, Luke; Medelius, Pedro; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steen; Snyder, Sarah
2013-01-01
Current designs for inflatable or semi-rigidized structures for habitats and space applications use a multiple-layer construction, alternating thin layers with thicker, stronger layers, which produces a layered composite structure that is much better at resisting damage. Even though such composite structures or layered systems are robust, they can still be susceptible to penetration damage. The ability to detect damage to surfaces of inflatable or semi-rigid habitat structures is of great interest to NASA. Damage caused by impacts of foreign objects such as micrometeorites can rupture the shell of these structures, causing loss of critical hardware and/or the life of the crew. While not all impacts will have a catastrophic result, it will be very important to identify and locate areas of the exterior shell that have been damaged by impacts so that repairs (or other provisions) can be made to reduce the probability of shell wall rupture. This disclosure describes a system that will provide real-time data regarding the health of the inflatable shell or rigidized structures, and information related to the location and depth of impact damage. The innovation described here is a method of determining the size, location, and direction of damage in a multilayered structure. In the multi-dimensional damage detection system, layers of two-dimensional thin film detection layers are used to form a layered composite, with non-detection layers separating the detection layers. The non-detection layers may be either thicker or thinner than the detection layers. The thin-film damage detection layers are thin films of materials with a conductive grid or striped pattern. The conductive pattern may be applied by several methods, including printing, plating, sputtering, photolithography, and etching, and can include as many detection layers that are necessary for the structure construction or to afford the detection detail level required. The damage is detected using a detector or sensory system, which may include a time domain reflectometer, resistivity monitoring hardware, or other resistance-based systems. To begin, a layered composite consisting of thin-film damage detection layers separated by non-damage detection layers is fabricated. The damage detection layers are attached to a detector that provides details regarding the physical health of each detection layer individually. If damage occurs to any of the detection layers, a change in the electrical properties of the detection layers damaged occurs, and a response is generated. Real-time analysis of these responses will provide details regarding the depth, location, and size estimation of the damage. Multiple damages can be detected, and the extent (depth) of the damage can be used to generate prognostic information related to the expected lifetime of the layered composite system. The detection system can be fabricated very easily using off-the-shelf equipment, and the detection algorithms can be written and updated (as needed) to provide the level of detail needed based on the system being monitored. Connecting to the thin film detection layers is very easy as well. The truly unique feature of the system is its flexibility; the system can be designed to gather as much (or as little) information as the end user feels necessary. Individual detection layers can be turned on or off as necessary, and algorithms can be used to optimize performance. The system can be used to generate both diagnostic and prognostic information related to the health of layer composite structures, which will be essential if such systems are utilized for space exploration. The technology is also applicable to other in-situ health monitoring systems for structure integrity.
Importance of multi-dimensional morphodynamics for habitat evolution: Danube River 1715-2006
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohensinner, Severin; Jungwirth, Mathias; Muhar, Susanne; Schmutz, Stefan
2014-06-01
Human-unimpaired braided and anabranched river systems are characterized by manifold multi-dimensional exchange processes. The intensity of hydrological surface/subsurface connectivity of riverine habitats depends on more than regular or episodic water level fluctuations due to the hydrological regime. Morphodynamic changes are also a basic underlying factor. In order to provide new insights into the long-term habitat configuration of large rivers prior to channelization, this study discusses the hydromorphological alterations of an alluvial section of the Austrian Danube based on historical records from 1715 to 2006. The study combines the analysis of habitat patterns and intensity of hydrological connectivity over the long term with the reconstruction of short-term morphodynamic processes between 1812 and 1821. The main research questions are (1) whether the intensive morphodynamics prior to channelization are reflected by a marked variation in habitat patterns or whether the variation remained within a small range, and (2) which fluvial processes contributed to the evolution of the habitat configuration identified. The study reveals that the mean variations in the habitat patterns and the intensity of hydrological connectivity were only between 3% and 10% before 1821, although the river landscape was subject to intensive fluvial disturbances. An exception was the expansion of aquatic habitats between low and mean flow, which deviated by 15%. Habitat evolution was affected by morphodynamic processes occurring across different temporal scales. Both gradual channel changes such as incision or migration and sudden processes such as avulsions (cut-offs) contributed to the patterns identified. Locally, sudden channel changes extensively altered the habitat conditions with regard to hydrological surface/subsurface connectivity. Such alterations foster or restrain the potential evolution and the ecological succession of the riparian vegetation at the respective sites. On a larger spatial and temporal scale, however, the changes in the intensity of hydrological connectivity were largely balanced. The results support the hypothesis that a resilient “shifting mosaic steady-state” existed over the long term as long as the framework conditions (e.g. climate) did not significantly change. The habitat mosaic representing different types and different ages potentially allowed many riverine species to co-exist in an environment with frequent perturbations. From 1821 onwards, river engineering measures significantly altered habitat patterns and severely truncated the potential of the system to recover from disturbances.
Multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geroux, C.; Baraffe, I.; Viallet, M.; Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Constantino, T.; Folini, D.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.
2016-04-01
This work is the first attempt to describe the multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars based on fully compressible time implicit multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations. One major motivation is to analyse the validity of accretion treatment used in previous 1D stellar evolution studies. We analyse the effect of accretion on the structure of a realistic stellar model of the young Sun. Our work is inspired by the numerical work of Kley & Lin (1996, ApJ, 461, 933) devoted to the structure of the boundary layer in accretion disks, which provides the outer boundary conditions for our simulations. We analyse the redistribution of accreted material with a range of values of specific entropy relative to the bulk specific entropy of the material in the accreting object's convective envelope. Low specific entropy accreted material characterises the so-called cold accretion process, whereas high specific entropy is relevant to hot accretion. A primary goal is to understand whether and how accreted energy deposited onto a stellar surface is redistributed in the interior. This study focusses on the high accretion rates characteristic of FU Ori systems. We find that the highest entropy cases produce a distinctive behaviour in the mass redistribution, rms velocities, and enthalpy flux in the convective envelope. This change in behaviour is characterised by the formation of a hot layer on the surface of the accreting object, which tends to suppress convection in the envelope. We analyse the long-term effect of such a hot buffer zone on the structure and evolution of the accreting object with 1D stellar evolution calculations. We study the relevance of the assumption of redistribution of accreted energy into the stellar interior used in the literature. We compare results obtained with the latter treatment and those obtained with a more physical accretion boundary condition based on the formation of a hot surface layer suggested by present multi-dimensional simulations. One conclusion is that, for a given amount of accreted energy transferred to the accreting object, a treatment assuming accretion energy redistribution throughout the stellar interior could significantly overestimate the effects on the stellar structure and, in particular, on the resulting expansion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
2013-01-01
In the past, students' science learning self-efficacy (SLSE) was usually measured by questionnaires that consisted of only a single scale, which might be insufficient to fully understand their SLSE. In this study, a multi-dimensional instrument, the SLSE instrument, was developed and validated to assess students' SLSE based on the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
2013-01-01
In the past, students' science learning self-efficacy (SLSE) was usually measured by questionnaires that consisted of only a single scale, which might be insufficient to fully understand their SLSE. In this study, a multi-dimensional instrument, the SLSE instrument, was developed and validated to assess students' SLSE based on the
The Multi-Dimensional Character of Core-Collapse Supernovae
Hix, William Raphael; Lentz, E. J.; Bruenn, S. W.; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Messer, Bronson; Endeve, Eirik; Blondin, J. M.; Harris, James Austin; Marronetti, Pedro; Yakunin, Konstantin N
2016-01-01
Core-collapse supernovae, the culmination of massive stellar evolution, are spectacular astronomical events and the principle actors in the story of our elemental origins. Our understanding of these events, while still incomplete, centers around a neutrino-driven central engine that is highly hydrodynamically unstable. Increasingly sophisticated simulations reveal a shock that stalls for hundreds of milliseconds before reviving. Though brought back to life by neutrino heating, the development of the supernova explosion is inextricably linked to multi-dimensional fluid flows. In this paper, the outcomes of three-dimensional simulations that include sophisticated nuclear physics and spectral neutrino transport are juxtaposed to learn about the nature of the three dimensional fluid flow that shapes the explosion. Comparison is also made between the results of simulations in spherical symmetry from several groups, to give ourselves confidence in the understanding derived from this juxtaposition.
A Multi-Dimensional Classification Model for Scientific Workflow Characteristics
Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Plale, Beth
2010-04-05
Workflows have been used to model repeatable tasks or operations in manufacturing, business process, and software. In recent years, workflows are increasingly used for orchestration of science discovery tasks that use distributed resources and web services environments through resource models such as grid and cloud computing. Workflows have disparate re uirements and constraints that affects how they might be managed in distributed environments. In this paper, we present a multi-dimensional classification model illustrated by workflow examples obtained through a survey of scientists from different domains including bioinformatics and biomedical, weather and ocean modeling, astronomy detailing their data and computational requirements. The survey results and classification model contribute to the high level understandingof scientific workflows.
Multi-dimensional Longwave Forcing of Boundary Layer Cloud Systems
Mechem, David B.; Kogan, Y. L.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Davis, Anthony B; Evans, K. F.; Ellingson, Robert G.
2008-12-20
The importance of multi-dimensional (MD) longwave radiative effects on cloud dynamics is evaluated in a large eddy simulation (LES) framework employing multi-dimensional radiative transfer (Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method —SHDOM). Simulations are performed for a case of unbroken, marine boundary layer stratocumulus and a broken field of trade cumulus. “Snapshot” calculations of MD and IPA (independent pixel approximation —1D) radiative transfer applied to LES cloud fields show that the total radiative forcing changes only slightly, although the MD effects significantly modify the spatial structure of the radiative forcing. Simulations of each cloud type employing MD and IPA radiative transfer, however, differ little. For the solid cloud case, relative to using IPA, the MD simulation exhibits a slight reduction in entrainment rate and boundary layer TKE relative to the IPA simulation. This reduction is consistent with both the slight decrease in net radiative forcing and a negative correlation between local vertical velocity and radiative forcing, which implies a damping of boundary layer eddies. Snapshot calculations of the broken cloud case suggest a slight increase in radiative cooling, though few systematic differences are noted in the interactive simulations. We attribute this result to the fact that radiative cooling is a relatively minor contribution to the total energetics. For the cloud systems in this study, the use of IPA longwave radiative transfer is sufficiently accurate to capture the dynamical behavior of BL clouds. Further investigations are required in order to generalize this conclusion for other cloud types and longer time integrations. 1
2011-01-01
Background The concept of resilience has captured the imagination of researchers and policy makers over the past two decades. However, despite the ever growing body of resilience research, there is a paucity of relevant, comprehensive measurement tools. In this article, the development of a theoretically based, comprehensive multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents is described. Methods Extensive literature review and focus groups with young people living with chronic illness informed the conceptual development of scales and items. Two sequential rounds of factor and scale analyses were undertaken to revise the conceptually developed scales using data collected from young people living with a chronic illness and a general population sample. Results The revised Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire comprises 93 items and 12 scales measuring resilience factors in the domains of self, family, peer, school and community. All scales have acceptable alpha coefficients. Revised scales closely reflect conceptually developed scales. Conclusions It is proposed that, with further psychometric testing, this new measure of resilience will provide researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive and developmentally appropriate instrument to measure a young person's capacity to achieve positive outcomes despite life stressors. PMID:21970409
On Multi-Dimensional Vocabulary Teaching Mode for College English Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhou, Li-na
2010-01-01
This paper analyses the major approaches in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) vocabulary teaching from historical perspective and puts forward multi-dimensional vocabulary teaching mode for college English. The author stresses that multi-dimensional approaches of communicative vocabulary teaching, lexical phrase teaching method, the grammar…
Multi-dimensional limiting process for three-dimensional flow physics analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Chongam; Kim, Kyu-Hong
2008-06-01
The present paper deals with an efficient and accurate limiting strategy for multi-dimensional compressible flows. The multi-dimensional limiting process (MLP) which was successfully proposed in two-dimensional case [K.H. Kim, C. Kim, Accurate, efficient and monotonic numerical methods for multi-dimensional compressible flows. Part II: Multi-dimensional limiting process, J. Comput. Phys. 208 (2) (2005) 570-615] is modified and refined for three-dimensional application. For computational efficiency and easy implementation, the formulation of MLP is newly derived and extended to three-dimensional case without assuming local gradient. Through various test cases and comparisons, it is observed that the newly developed MLP is quite effective in controlling numerical oscillation in multi-dimensional flows including both continuous and discontinuous regions. In addition, compared to conventional TVD approach, MLP combined with improved flux functions does provide remarkable increase in accuracy, convergence and robustness in steady and unsteady three-dimensional compressible flows.
Wildfire Detection using by Multi Dimensional Histogram in Boreal Forest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honda, K.; Kimura, K.; Honma, T.
2008-12-01
Early detection of wildfires is an issue for reduction of damage to environment and human. There are some attempts to detect wildfires by using satellite imagery, which are mainly classified into three methods: Dozier Method(1981-), Threshold Method(1986-) and Contextual Method(1994-). However, the accuracy of these methods is not enough: some commission and omission errors are included in the detected results. In addition, it is not so easy to analyze satellite imagery with high accuracy because of insufficient ground truth data. Kudoh and Hosoi (2003) developed the detection method by using three-dimensional (3D) histogram from past fire data with the NOAA-AVHRR imagery. But their method is impractical because their method depends on their handworks to pick up past fire data from huge data. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to collect fire points as hot spots efficiently from satellite imagery and to improve the method to detect wildfires with the collected data. As our method, we collect past fire data with the Alaska Fire History data obtained by the Alaska Fire Service (AFS). We select points that are expected to be wildfires, and pick up the points inside the fire area of the AFS data. Next, we make 3D histogram with the past fire data. In this study, we use Bands 1, 21 and 32 of MODIS. We calculate the likelihood to detect wildfires with the three-dimensional histogram. As our result, we select wildfires with the 3D histogram effectively. We can detect the troidally spreading wildfire. This result shows the evidence of good wildfire detection. However, the area surrounding glacier tends to rise brightness temperature. It is a false alarm. Burnt area and bare ground are sometimes indicated as false alarms, so that it is necessary to improve this method. Additionally, we are trying various combinations of MODIS bands as the better method to detect wildfire effectively. So as to adjust our method in another area, we are applying our method to tropical forest in Kalimantan, Indonesia and around Chiang Mai, Thailand. But the ground truth data in these areas is lesser than the one in Alaska. Our method needs lots of accurate observed data to make multi-dimensional histogram in the same area. In this study, we can show the system to select wildfire data efficiently from satellite imagery. Furthermore, the development of multi-dimensional histogram from past fire data makes it possible to detect wildfires accurately.
Pointwise estimates of solutions for the multi-dimensional bipolar Euler-Poisson system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhigang; Li, Yeping
2016-06-01
In the paper, we consider a multi-dimensional bipolar hydrodynamic model from semiconductor devices and plasmas. This system takes the form of Euler-Poisson with electric field and frictional damping added to the momentum equations. By making a new analysis on Green's functions for the Euler system with damping and the Euler-Poisson system with damping, we obtain the pointwise estimates of the solution for the multi-dimensions bipolar Euler-Poisson system. As a by-product, we extend decay rates of the densities {ρ_i(i=1,2)} in the usual L 2-norm to the L p -norm with {p≥1} and the time-decay rates of the momentums m i ( i = 1,2) in the L 2-norm to the L p -norm with p > 1 and all of the decay rates here are optimal.
Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Dynamic Human Information Interaction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Park, Minsoo
2013-01-01
Introduction: This study aims to understand the interactions of perception, effort, emotion, time and performance during the performance of multiple information tasks using Web information technologies. Method: Twenty volunteers from a university participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to obtain general background information and…
Developing a Multi-Dimensional Hydrodynamics Code with Astrochemical Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwak, Kyujin; Yang, Seungwon
2015-08-01
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) revealed high resolution molecular lines some of which are still unidentified yet. Because formation of these astrochemical molecules has been seldom studied in traditional chemistry, observations of new molecular lines drew a lot of attention from not only astronomers but also chemists both experimental and theoretical. Theoretical calculations for the formation of these astrochemical molecules have been carried out providing reaction rates for some important molecules, and some of theoretical predictions have been measured in laboratories. The reaction rates for the astronomically important molecules are now collected to form databases some of which are publically available. By utilizing these databases, we develop a multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code that includes the reaction rates of astrochemical molecules. Because this type of hydrodynamics code is able to trace the molecular formation in a non-equilibrium fashion, it is useful to study the formation history of these molecules that affects the spatial distribution of some specific molecules. We present the development procedure of this code and some test problems in order to verify and validate the developed code.
Multi-Dimensional Dynamics of Human Electromagnetic Brain Activity
Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke
2016-01-01
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency), which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory) analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain. PMID:26834608
Multi-Dimensional Dynamics of Human Electromagnetic Brain Activity.
Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke
2015-01-01
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency), which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory) analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain. PMID:26834608
Advanced multi-dimensional imaging of gamma-ray radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodring, Mitchell; Beddingfield, David; Souza, David; Entine, Gerald; Squillante, Michael; Christian, James; Kogan, Alex
2003-06-01
The tracking of radiation contamination and distribution has become a high-priority US DOE task. To support DOE needs, Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc. has been actively carrying out research and development on a gamma-radiation imager, RadCam 2000 TM. The imager is based upon a position-sensitive PMT coupled to a scintillator near a MURA coded aperture. The modulated gamma flux detected by the PSPMT is mathematically decoded to produce images that are computer displayed in near real time. Additionally, we have developed a data-manipulation scheme which allows a multi-dimensional data array, comprised of x position, y position, and energy, to be used in the imaging process. In the imager software a gate can be set on a specific isotope energy to reveal where in the field of view the gated data lies or, conversely, a gate can be set on an area in the field of view to examine what isotopes are present in that area. This process is complicated by the FFT decoding process used with the coded aperture; however, we have achieved excellent performance and results are presented here.
Spiritual Competency Scale: Further Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.
2015-01-01
This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…
Development of a Scale Measuring Trait Anxiety in Physical Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barkoukis, Vassilis; Rodafinos, Angelos; Koidou, Eirini; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos
2012-01-01
The aim of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of a multi-dimensional measure of trait anxiety specifically designed for the physical education lesson. The Physical Education Trait Anxiety Scale was initially completed by 774 high school students during regular school classes. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the…
Accessing Multi-Dimensional Images and Data Cubes in the Virtual Observatory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tody, Douglas; Plante, R. L.; Berriman, G. B.; Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; Good, J.; Graham, M.; Greene, G.; Hanisch, R. J.; Jenness, T.; Lazio, J.; Norris, P.; Pevunova, O.; Rots, A. H.
2014-01-01
Telescopes across the spectrum are routinely producing multi-dimensional images and datasets, such as Doppler velocity cubes, polarization datasets, and time-resolved movies. Examples of current telescopes producing such multi-dimensional images include the JVLA, ALMA, and the IFU instruments on large optical and near-infrared wavelength telescopes. In the near future, both the LSST and JWST will also produce such multi-dimensional images routinely. High-energy instruments such as Chandra produce event datasets that are also a form of multi-dimensional data, in effect being a very sparse multi-dimensional image. Ensuring that the data sets produced by these telescopes can be both discovered and accessed by the community is essential and is part of the mission of the Virtual Observatory (VO). The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO, http://www.usvao.org/), in conjunction with its international partners in the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), has developed a protocol and an initial demonstration service designed for the publication, discovery, and access of arbitrarily large multi-dimensional images. The protocol describing multi-dimensional images is the Simple Image Access Protocol, version 2, which provides the minimal set of metadata required to characterize a multi-dimensional image for its discovery and access. A companion Image Data Model formally defines the semantics and structure of multi-dimensional images independently of how they are serialized, while providing capabilities such as support for sparse data that are essential to deal effectively with large cubes. A prototype data access service has been deployed and tested, using a suite of multi-dimensional images from a variety of telescopes. The prototype has demonstrated the capability to discover and remotely access multi-dimensional data via standard VO protocols. The prototype informs the specification of a protocol that will be submitted to the IVOA for approval, with an operational data cube service to be delivered in mid-2014. An associated user-installable VO data service framework will provide the capabilities required to publish VO-compatible multi-dimensional images or data cubes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kipka, H.; Pfennig, B.; Fink, M.; Kralisch, S.; Krause, P.; Flügel, W.
2010-12-01
Fully spatially distributed hydrological modeling requires a topological linkage of single modeling entities (e.g. Hydrological Response Units - HRU) in order to reproduce relevant attenuation and translation processes within the stream but also during the transport of water in form of lateral surface or subsurface flow. Most often such linkage is considered by a one dimensional (1D) approach which links one modeling entity to only one receiver that follows in flow direction. The comparison with actual lateral water movement in catchments show that such a 1D routing scheme is often too simple which can lead to an overestimation of the runoff concentration along the 1D flow paths. On the other hand an underestimation of runoff in flow cascades that do not reside next to the main 1D flow paths can occur as the affected HRUs don’t receive realistic inflow from their source entities above. As a catchment-wide consequence the 1D routing scheme can result in a significant over- or underestimation of the contributing area for specific parts of a catchment which can have important implications on the spatial distribution of accompanying processes such as spatial variation of soil moisture, soil erosion or nutrient/contaminant transport. To address the problems outlined above a new approach has been developed that allows a multi-dimensional linkage of model entities in such a way that each entity can have various receivers to which the water is passed. This extended routing scheme was implemented in the hydrological, nutrient transport and erosion modeling system J2000-S-E and was used for the simulation of the hydrological processes of a number of meso-scaled catchments in Thuringia, Germany. This work will present the most important facts of the extended routing scheme, the simulation results along with the comparison of those obtained with the 1D linkage and will highlight the impacts on the hydrological process dynamics as well as on the HRU-based mass transport and balancing.
Chemistry and Transport in a Multi-Dimensional Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yung, Yuk L.
2004-01-01
Our work has two primary scientific goals, the interannual variability (IAV) of stratospheric ozone and the hydrological cycle of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Our efforts are aimed at integrating new information obtained by spacecraft and aircraft measurements to achieve a better understanding of the chemical and dynamical processes that are needed for realistic evaluations of human impact on the global environment. A primary motivation for studying the ozone layer is to separate the anthropogenic perturbations of the ozone layer from natural variability. Using the recently available merged ozone data (MOD), we have carried out an empirical orthogonal function EOF) study of the temporal and spatial patterns of the IAV of total column ozone in the tropics. The outstanding problem about water in the stratosphere is its secular increase in the last few decades. The Caltech/PL multi-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) photochemical model is used to simulate the processes that control the water vapor and its isotopic composition in the stratosphere. Datasets we will use for comparison with model results include those obtained by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV and SBUV/2), Stratosphere Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE I and II), the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), the Atmospheric Trace Molecular Spectroscopy (ATMOS) and those soon to be obtained by the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) mission. The focus of the investigations is the exchange between the stratosphere and the troposphere, and between the troposphere and the biosphere.
Bina, Rena; Harrington, Donna
2016-04-01
Objectives The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was originally created as a uni-dimensional scale to screen for postpartum depression (PPD); however, evidence from various studies suggests that it is a multi-dimensional scale measuring mainly anxiety in addition to depression. The factor structure of the EPDS seems to differ across various language translations, raising questions regarding its stability. This study examined the factor structure of the Hebrew version of the EPDS to assess whether it is uni- or multi-dimensional. Methods Seven hundred and fifteen (n = 715) women were screened at 6 weeks postpartum using the Hebrew version of the EPDS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test four models derived from the literature. Results Of the four CFA models tested, a 9-item two factor model fit the data best, with one factor representing an underlying depression construct and the other representing an underlying anxiety construct. Conclusions for Practice The Hebrew version of the EPDS appears to consist of depression and anxiety sub-scales. Given the widespread PPD screening initiatives, anxiety symptoms should be addressed in addition to depressive symptoms, and a short scale, such as the EPDS, assessing both may be efficient. PMID:26649883
All-optical multi-dimensional imaging of energy-materials beyond the diffraction limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Steve; Dagel, D. J.; Zhong, L.; Kolla, P.; Ding, S.-Y.
2012-02-01
Efficient, environmentally-friendly, harvesting, storage, transport and conversion of energy are some of the foremost challenges now facing mankind. An important facet of this challenge is the development of new materials with improved electronic and photonic properties. Nano-scale metrology will be important in developing these materials, and optical methods have many advantages over electrons or proximal probes. To surpass the diffraction limit, near-field methods can be used. Alternatively, the concept of imaging in a multi-dimensional space is employed, where, in addition to spatial dimensions, the added dimensions of energy and time allow to distinguish objects which are closely spaced, and in effect increase the achievable resolution of optical microscopy towards the molecular level. We have employed these methods towards the study of materials relevant to renewable energy processes. Specifically, we image the position and orientation of single carbohydrate binding modules and visualize their interaction with cellulose with ~ 10nm resolution, an important step in identifying the molecular underpinnings of bio-processing and the development of low-cost alternative fuels, and describe our current work implementing these concepts towards characterizing the ultrafast carrier dynamics (~ 100fs) in a new class of nano-structured solar cells, predicted to have theoretical efficiencies exceeding 60%, using femtosecond laser spectroscopy.
All-optical multi-dimensional imaging of energy-materials beyond the diffraction limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Steve; Dagel, D. J.; Zhong, L.; Kolla, P.; Ding, S.-Y.
2011-09-01
Efficient, environmentally-friendly, harvesting, storage, transport and conversion of energy are some of the foremost challenges now facing mankind. An important facet of this challenge is the development of new materials with improved electronic and photonic properties. Nano-scale metrology will be important in developing these materials, and optical methods have many advantages over electrons or proximal probes. To surpass the diffraction limit, near-field methods can be used. Alternatively, the concept of imaging in a multi-dimensional space is employed, where, in addition to spatial dimensions, the added dimensions of energy and time allow to distinguish objects which are closely spaced, and in effect increase the achievable resolution of optical microscopy towards the molecular level. We have employed these methods towards the study of materials relevant to renewable energy processes. Specifically, we image the position and orientation of single carbohydrate binding modules and visualize their interaction with cellulose with ~ 10nm resolution, an important step in identifying the molecular underpinnings of bio-processing and the development of low-cost alternative fuels, and describe our current work implementing these concepts towards characterizing the ultrafast carrier dynamics (~ 100fs) in a new class of nano-structured solar cells, predicted to have theoretical efficiencies exceeding 60%, using femtosecond laser spectroscopy.
Relaxation-time limit in the multi-dimensional bipolar nonisentropic Euler-Poisson systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yeping; Zhou, Zhiming
2015-05-01
In this paper, we consider the multi-dimensional bipolar nonisentropic Euler-Poisson systems, which model various physical phenomena in semiconductor devices, plasmas and channel proteins. We mainly study the relaxation-time limit of the initial value problem for the bipolar full Euler-Poisson equations with well-prepared initial data. Inspired by the Maxwell iteration, we construct the different approximation states for the case ?? = 1 and ? = 1, respectively, and show that periodic initial-value problems of the certain scaled bipolar nonisentropic Euler-Poisson systems in the case ?? = 1 and ? = 1 have unique smooth solutions in the time interval where the classical energy transport equation and the drift-diffusive equation have smooth solution. Moreover, it is also obtained that the smooth solutions converge to those of energy-transport models at the rate of ?2 and those of the drift-diffusive models at the rate of ?, respectively. The proof of these results is based on the continuation principle and the error estimates.
Psychometric properties and confirmatory factor analysis of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy
2011-01-01
Background Empathy towards patients is considered to be associated with improved health outcomes. Many scales have been developed to measure empathy in health care professionals and students. The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) has been widely used. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the JSPE. Methods A total of 853 medical students responded to the JSPE questionnaire. A hypothetical model was evaluated by structural equation modelling to determine the adequacy of goodness-of-fit to sample data. Results The model showed excellent goodness-of-fit. Further analysis showed that the hypothesised three-factor model of the JSPE structure fits well across the gender differences of medical students. Conclusions The results supported scale multi-dimensionality. The 20 item JSPE provides a valid and reliable scale to measure empathy among not only undergraduate and graduate medical education programmes, but also practising doctors. The limitations of the study are discussed and some recommendations are made for future practice. PMID:21810268
Scaling analysis of stock markets.
Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian
2014-06-01
In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis. PMID:24985421
Scaling analysis of stock markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian
2014-06-01
In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis.
Towards Optimal Multi-Dimensional Query Processing with BitmapIndices
Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng
2005-09-30
Bitmap indices have been widely used in scientific applications and commercial systems for processing complex, multi-dimensional queries where traditional tree-based indices would not work efficiently. This paper studies strategies for minimizing the access costs for processing multi-dimensional queries using bitmap indices with binning. Innovative features of our algorithm include (a) optimally placing the bin boundaries and (b) dynamically reordering the evaluation of the query terms. In addition, we derive several analytical results concerning optimal bin allocation for a probabilistic query model. Our experimental evaluation with real life data shows an average I/O cost improvement of at least a factor of 10 for multi-dimensional queries on datasets from two different applications. Our experiments also indicate that the speedup increases with the number of query dimensions.
Multi-dimensional high-order numerical schemes for Lagrangian hydrodynamics
Dai, William W; Woodward, Paul R
2009-01-01
An approximate solver for multi-dimensional Riemann problems at grid points of unstructured meshes, and a numerical scheme for multi-dimensional hydrodynamics have been developed in this paper. The solver is simple, and is developed only for the use in numerical schemes for hydrodynamics. The scheme is truely multi-dimensional, is second order accurate in both space and time, and satisfies conservation laws exactly for mass, momentum, and total energy. The scheme has been tested through numerical examples involving strong shocks. It has been shown that the scheme offers the principle advantages of high-order Codunov schemes; robust operation in the presence of very strong shocks and thin shock fronts.
Catley, Christina; Stratti, Heidi; McGregor, Carolyn
2008-01-01
This paper presents emerging trends in the area of temporal abstraction and data mining, as applied to multi-dimensional data. The clinical context is that of Neonatal Intensive Care, an acute care environment distinguished by multi-dimensional and high-frequency data. Six key trends are identified and classified into the following categories: (1) data; (2) results; (3) integration; and (4) knowledge base. These trends form the basis of next-generation knowledge discovery in data systems, which must address challenges associated with supporting multi-dimensional and real-world clinical data, as well as null hypothesis testing. Architectural drivers for frameworks that support data mining and temporal abstraction include: process-level integration (i.e. workflow order); synthesized knowledge bases for temporal abstraction which combine knowledge derived from both data mining and domain experts; and system-level integration. PMID:19163669
Continuation and bifurcation analysis of large-scale dynamical systems with LOCA.
Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Phipps, Eric Todd; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick
2010-06-01
Dynamical systems theory provides a powerful framework for understanding the behavior of complex evolving systems. However applying these ideas to large-scale dynamical systems such as discretizations of multi-dimensional PDEs is challenging. Such systems can easily give rise to problems with billions of dynamical variables, requiring specialized numerical algorithms implemented on high performance computing architectures with thousands of processors. This talk will describe LOCA, the Library of Continuation Algorithms, a suite of scalable continuation and bifurcation tools optimized for these types of systems that is part of the Trilinos software collection. In particular, we will describe continuation and bifurcation analysis techniques designed for large-scale dynamical systems that are based on specialized parallel linear algebra methods for solving augmented linear systems. We will also discuss several other Trilinos tools providing nonlinear solvers (NOX), eigensolvers (Anasazi), iterative linear solvers (AztecOO and Belos), preconditioners (Ifpack, ML, Amesos) and parallel linear algebra data structures (Epetra and Tpetra) that LOCA can leverage for efficient and scalable analysis of large-scale dynamical systems.
Steps Toward a Large-Scale Solar Image Data Analysis to Differentiate Solar Phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banda, J. M.; Angryk, R. A.; Martens, P. C. H.
2013-11-01
We detail the investigation of the first application of several dissimilarity measures for large-scale solar image data analysis. Using a solar-domain-specific benchmark dataset that contains multiple types of phenomena, we analyzed combinations of image parameters with different dissimilarity measures to determine the combinations that will allow us to differentiate between the multiple solar phenomena from both intra-class and inter-class perspectives, where by class we refer to the same types of solar phenomena. We also investigate the problem of reducing data dimensionality by applying multi-dimensional scaling to the dissimilarity matrices that we produced using the previously mentioned combinations. As an early investigation into dimensionality reduction, we investigate by applying multidimensional scaling (MDS) how many MDS components are needed to maintain a good representation of our data (in a new artificial data space) and how many can be discarded to enhance our querying performance. Finally, we present a comparative analysis of several classifiers to determine the quality of the dimensionality reduction achieved with this combination of image parameters, similarity measures, and MDS.
Mokken Scale Analysis Using Hierarchical Clustering Procedures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Abswoude, Alexandra A. H.; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Hemker, Bas T.; van der Ark, L. Andries
2004-01-01
Mokken scale analysis (MSA) can be used to assess and build unidimensional scales from an item pool that is sensitive to multiple dimensions. These scales satisfy a set of scaling conditions, one of which follows from the model of monotone homogeneity. An important drawback of the MSA program is that the sequential item selection and scale
A Multi-Dimensional Approach to Measuring News Media Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vraga, Emily; Tully, Melissa; Kotcher, John E.; Smithson, Anne-Bennett; Broeckelman-Post, Melissa
2015-01-01
Measuring news media literacy is important in order for it to thrive in a variety of educational and civic contexts. This research builds on existing measures of news media literacy and two new scales are presented that measure self-perceived media literacy (SPML) and perceptions of the value of media literacy (VML). Research with a larger sample…
Evidencing Learning Outcomes: A Multi-Level, Multi-Dimensional Course Alignment Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sridharan, Bhavani; Leitch, Shona; Watty, Kim
2015-01-01
This conceptual framework proposes a multi-level, multi-dimensional course alignment model to implement a contextualised constructive alignment of rubric design that authentically evidences and assesses learning outcomes. By embedding quality control mechanisms at each level for each dimension, this model facilitates the development of an aligned
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ibrahim, Mohammed Sani; Mujir, Siti Junaidah Mohd
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to determine if the multi-dimensional leadership orientation of the heads of departments in Malaysian polytechnics affects their leadership effectiveness and the lecturers' commitment to work as perceived by the lecturers. The departmental heads' leadership orientation was determined by five leadership dimensions
Evidencing Learning Outcomes: A Multi-Level, Multi-Dimensional Course Alignment Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sridharan, Bhavani; Leitch, Shona; Watty, Kim
2015-01-01
This conceptual framework proposes a multi-level, multi-dimensional course alignment model to implement a contextualised constructive alignment of rubric design that authentically evidences and assesses learning outcomes. By embedding quality control mechanisms at each level for each dimension, this model facilitates the development of an aligned…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Gi-Zen; Liu, Zih-Hui; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
2011-01-01
Many English learning websites have been developed worldwide, but little research has been conducted concerning the development of comprehensive evaluation criteria. The main purpose of this study is thus to construct a multi-dimensional set of criteria to help learners and teachers evaluate the quality of English learning websites. These…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Gi-Zen; Liu, Zih-Hui; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
2011-01-01
Many English learning websites have been developed worldwide, but little research has been conducted concerning the development of comprehensive evaluation criteria. The main purpose of this study is thus to construct a multi-dimensional set of criteria to help learners and teachers evaluate the quality of English learning websites. These
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ibrahim, Mohammed Sani; Mujir, Siti Junaidah Mohd
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to determine if the multi-dimensional leadership orientation of the heads of departments in Malaysian polytechnics affects their leadership effectiveness and the lecturers' commitment to work as perceived by the lecturers. The departmental heads' leadership orientation was determined by five leadership dimensions…
Developing a Hypothetical Multi-Dimensional Learning Progression for the Nature of Matter
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stevens, Shawn Y.; Delgado, Cesar; Krajcik, Joseph S.
2010-01-01
We describe efforts toward the development of a hypothetical learning progression (HLP) for the growth of grade 7-14 students' models of the structure, behavior and properties of matter, as it relates to nanoscale science and engineering (NSE). This multi-dimensional HLP, based on empirical research and standards documents, describes how students…
Developing a Hypothetical Multi-Dimensional Learning Progression for the Nature of Matter
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stevens, Shawn Y.; Delgado, Cesar; Krajcik, Joseph S.
2010-01-01
We describe efforts toward the development of a hypothetical learning progression (HLP) for the growth of grade 7-14 students' models of the structure, behavior and properties of matter, as it relates to nanoscale science and engineering (NSE). This multi-dimensional HLP, based on empirical research and standards documents, describes how students
A class of time-optimum FSSP algorithms for multi-dimensional cellular arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umeo, Hiroshi; Kubo, Keisuke; Nishide, Kinuo
2015-04-01
The firing squad synchronization problem (FSSP) on cellular automata has been studied extensively for more than fifty years, and a rich variety of synchronization algorithms has been proposed not only for one-dimensional arrays but also for two-dimensional arrays. In the present paper, we propose a new class of time-optimum FSSP algorithms for multi-dimensional cellular arrays. The algorithm is based on a simple recursive-halving marking schema and it can synchronize any two-dimensional (2D) rectangular arrays of size m × n with a general at one corner in m + n + max (m, n) - 3 optimum-steps. The algorithm is a natural expansion of the well-known one-dimensional (1D) FSSP algorithms proposed by Balzer (1967), Gerken (1987), and Waksman (1966) and it can be easily expanded to three-dimensional (3D) arrays, even to multi-dimensional arrays. The algorithm proposed is isotropic concerning the side-lengths of multi-dimensional arrays and this isotropic property yields algorithmic correctness and easy verification for the multi-dimensional time-optimum FSSP algorithms designed.
Stability of shock waves for multi-dimensional hyperbolic-parabolic conservation laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dening
1988-01-01
The uniform linear stability of shock waves is considerd for quasilinear hyperbolic-parabolic coupled conservation laws in multi-dimensional space. As an example, the stability condition and its dynamic meaning for isothermal shock wave in radiative hydrodynamics are analyzed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andreev, Valentin I.
2014-01-01
The main aim of this research is to disclose the essence of students' multi-dimensional thinking, also to reveal the rating of factors which stimulate the raising of effectiveness of self-development of students' multi-dimensional thinking in terms of subject-oriented teaching. Subject-oriented learning is characterized as a type of learning where…
Multi-dimensional fission barriers for heavy and superheavy nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobiczewski, A.; Kowal, M.
2006-07-01
Recent macroscopic-microscopic studies of the heights of (static) fission barriers Bfst of the heaviest nuclei are reviewed. The studies are motivated by the importance of this quantity in calculation of cross-sections for synthesis of these nuclei. Large deformation spaces, including as high multipolarities of deformation as λ=8, are used for the analysis of Bfst. The importance of non-axial shapes in this analysis is shown. They reduce Bfst by up to about 2 MeV. The origin of this large reduction is explained. This is a large (negative) shell correction to the energy, which overcomes a significant stiffness of the macroscopic part of this energy to non-axial deformations of a nucleus.
Quantum enhanced estimation of a multi-dimensional field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, Animesh; Baumgratz, Tillmann
We present a framework for the quantum-enhanced estimation of multiple parameters corresponding to non-commuting unitary generators. We derive the quantum Fisher information matrix to put a lower bound on the total variance of all the parameters involved. We present the conditions for the attainment of the multi-parameter bound, which is not guaranteed unlike the quantum metrology of single parameters. Our study also reveals that too much quantum entanglement may be detrimental to attaining the Heisenberg scaling in the estimation of unitarily generated parameters. One particular case of our framework is the simultaneous estimation of all three components of a magnetic field. We propose a probe state that demonstrates that the simultaneous estimation of the three components is better than the precision of estimating the three components individually. We provide realistic measurements that come close to attaining the quantum limit, exhibiting the advantage of simultaneous quantum estimation even in the case of non-commuting generators. Our work applies to precision estimation any Hamiltonian, and may be employed in efficient process tomography and verification. Our theoretical proposal can be implement in any finite dimensional quantum system such as trapped ions and nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond. Acknowledgement: UK EPSRC.
Publishing and sharing multi-dimensional image data with OMERO.
Burel, Jean-Marie; Besson, Sébastien; Blackburn, Colin; Carroll, Mark; Ferguson, Richard K; Flynn, Helen; Gillen, Kenneth; Leigh, Roger; Li, Simon; Lindner, Dominik; Linkert, Melissa; Moore, William J; Ramalingam, Balaji; Rozbicki, Emil; Tarkowska, Aleksandra; Walczysko, Petr; Allan, Chris; Moore, Josh; Swedlow, Jason R
2015-10-01
Imaging data are used in the life and biomedical sciences to measure the molecular and structural composition and dynamics of cells, tissues, and organisms. Datasets range in size from megabytes to terabytes and usually contain a combination of binary pixel data and metadata that describe the acquisition process and any derived results. The OMERO image data management platform allows users to securely share image datasets according to specific permissions levels: data can be held privately, shared with a set of colleagues, or made available via a public URL. Users control access by assigning data to specific Groups with defined membership and access rights. OMERO's Permission system supports simple data sharing in a lab, collaborative data analysis, and even teaching environments. OMERO software is open source and released by the OME Consortium at www.openmicroscopy.org. PMID:26223880
Hitchhiker's guide to multi-dimensional plant pathology.
Saunders, Diane G O
2015-02-01
Filamentous pathogens pose a substantial threat to global food security. One central question in plant pathology is how pathogens cause infection and manage to evade or suppress plant immunity to promote disease. With many technological advances over the past decade, including DNA sequencing technology, an array of new tools has become embedded within the toolbox of next-generation plant pathologists. By employing a multidisciplinary approach plant pathologists can fully leverage these technical advances to answer key questions in plant pathology, aimed at achieving global food security. This review discusses the impact of: cell biology and genetics on progressing our understanding of infection structure formation on the leaf surface; biochemical and molecular analysis to study how pathogens subdue plant immunity and manipulate plant processes through effectors; genomics and DNA sequencing technologies on all areas of plant pathology; and new forms of collaboration on accelerating exploitation of big data. As we embark on the next phase in plant pathology, the integration of systems biology promises to provide a holistic perspective of plant–pathogen interactions from big data and only once we fully appreciate these complexities can we design truly sustainable solutions to preserve our resources. PMID:25729800
A Shell Multi-dimensional Hierarchical Cubing Approach for High-Dimensional Cube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Shuzhi; Zhao, Li; Hu, Kongfa
The pre-computation of data cubes is critical for improving the response time of OLAP systems and accelerating data mining tasks in large data warehouses. However, as the sizes of data warehouses grow, the time it takes to perform this pre-computation becomes a significant performance bottleneck. In a high dimensional data warehouse, it might not be practical to build all these cuboids and their indices. In this paper, we propose a shell multi-dimensional hierarchical cubing algorithm, based on an extension of the previous minimal cubing approach. This method partitions the high dimensional data cube into low multi-dimensional hierarchical cube. Experimental results show that the proposed method is significantly more efficient than other existing cubing methods.
Multi-dimensional hybrid Fourier continuation-WENO solvers for conservation laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahbazi, Khosro; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Zhu, Xueyu
2013-11-01
We introduce a multi-dimensional point-wise multi-domain hybrid Fourier-Continuation/WENO technique (FC-WENO) that enables high-order and non-oscillatory solution of systems of nonlinear conservation laws, and essentially dispersionless, spectral, solution away from discontinuities, as well as mild CFL constraints for explicit time stepping schemes. The hybrid scheme conjugates the expensive, shock-capturing WENO method in small regions containing discontinuities with the efficient FC method in the rest of the computational domain, yielding a highly effective overall scheme for applications with a mix of discontinuities and complex smooth structures. The smooth and discontinuous solution regions are distinguished using the multi-resolution procedure of Harten [A. Harten, Adaptive multiresolution schemes for shock computations, J. Comput. Phys. 115 (1994) 319-338]. We consider a WENO scheme of formal order nine and a FC method of order five. The accuracy, stability and efficiency of the new hybrid method for conservation laws are investigated for problems with both smooth and non-smooth solutions. The Euler equations for gas dynamics are solved for the Mach 3 and Mach 1.25 shock wave interaction with a small, plain, oblique entropy wave using the hybrid FC-WENO, the pure WENO and the hybrid central difference-WENO (CD-WENO) schemes. We demonstrate considerable computational advantages of the new FC-based method over the two alternatives. Moreover, in solving a challenging two-dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), the hybrid solver results in seven-fold speedup over the pure WENO scheme. Thanks to the multi-domain formulation of the solver, the scheme is straightforwardly implemented on parallel processors using message passing interface as well as on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) using CUDA programming language. The performance of the solver on parallel CPUs yields almost perfect scaling, illustrating the minimal communication requirements of the multi-domain strategy. For the same RMI test, the hybrid computations on a single GPU, in double precision arithmetics, displays five- to six-fold speedup over the hybrid computations on a single CPU. The relative speedup of the hybrid computation over the WENO computations on GPUs is similar to that on CPUs, demonstrating the advantage of hybrid schemes technique on both CPUs and GPUs.
Path Integral Approach for Multi-dimensional Polarons in a Symmetric Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qing-hu; Ren, Yu-hang; Cao, Yi-gang; Jiao, Zheng-kuan
1998-08-01
Within the framework of Feynman-Haken path-integral theory, the general expression of the ground-state energy for multi-dimensional polarons in symmetric quantum dots for arbitrary electron-phonon coupling constants are derived. Moreover, in the weak-coupling limit, the previous results by the second-order Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbative theory are completely recovered. More interestingly, the extended- and localized-state solutions to the ground-state energy are obtained analytically.
Multi-dimensional Reduction and Transfer Function Design using Parallel Coordinates
Zhao, X.; Kaufman, A.
2010-01-01
Multi-dimensional transfer functions are widely used to provide appropriate data classification for direct volume rendering. Nevertheless, the design of a multi-dimensional transfer function is a complicated task. In this paper, we propose to use parallel coordinates, a powerful tool to visualize high-dimensional geometry and analyze multivariate data, for multi-dimensional transfer function design. This approach has two major advantages: (1) Combining the information of spatial space (voxel position) and parameter space; (2) Selecting appropriate high-dimensional parameters to obtain sophisticated data classification. Although parallel coordinates offers simple interface for the user to design the high-dimensional transfer function, some extra work such as sorting the coordinates is inevitable. Therefore, we use a local linear embedding technique for dimension reduction to reduce the burdensome calculations in the high dimensional parameter space and to represent the transfer function concisely. With the aid of parallel coordinates, we propose some novel high-dimensional transfer function widgets for better visualization results. We demonstrate the capability of our parallel coordinates based transfer function (PCbTF) design method for direct volume rendering using CT and MRI datasets. PMID:26278929
Minimizing I/O Costs of Multi-Dimensional Queries with BitmapIndices
Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng
2006-03-30
Bitmap indices have been widely used in scientific applications and commercial systems for processing complex,multi-dimensional queries where traditional tree-based indices would not work efficiently. A common approach for reducing the size of a bitmap index for high cardinality attributes is to group ranges of values of an attribute into bins and then build a bitmap for each bin rather than a bitmap for each value of the attribute. Binning reduces storage costs,however, results of queries based on bins often require additional filtering for discarding it false positives, i.e., records in the result that do not satisfy the query constraints. This additional filtering,also known as ''candidate checking,'' requires access to the base data on disk and involves significant I/O costs. This paper studies strategies for minimizing the I/O costs for ''candidate checking'' for multi-dimensional queries. This is done by determining the number of bins allocated for each dimension and then placing bin boundaries in optimal locations. Our algorithms use knowledge of data distribution and query workload. We derive several analytical results concerning optimal bin allocation for a probabilistic query model. Our experimental evaluation with real life data shows an average I/O cost improvement of at least a factor of 10 for multi-dimensional queries on datasets from two different applications. Our experiments also indicate that the speedup increases with the number of query dimensions.
Research on multi-dimensional N-back task induced EEG variations.
Chen, Runge; Wang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Weibo; Ke, Yufeng; Qi, Hongzhi; He, Feng; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Xuemin; Ming, Dong; Zhou, Peng
2015-01-01
In order to test the effectiveness of multi-dimensional N-back task for inducing deeper brain fatigue, we conducted a series of N*L-back experiments: 1*1-back, 1*2-back, 2*1-back and 2*2-back tasks. We analyzed and compared the behavioral results, EEG variations and mutual information among these four different tasks. There was no significant difference in average EEG power and power spectrum entropy (PSE) among the tasks. However, the behavioral result of N*2-back task showed significant difference compared to traditional one dimensional N-back task. Connectivity changes were observed with the addition of one more matching task in N-back. We suggest that multi-dimensional N-back task consume more brain resources and activate different brain areas. These results provide a basis for multi-dimensional N-back tasks that can be used to induce deeper mental fatigue or exert more workload. PMID:26737454
Fernandes, Michelle; Stein, Alan; Newton, Charles R.; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Kihara, Michael; Wulff, Katharina; de León Quintana, Enrique; Aranzeta, Luis; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Acedo, Javier; Ibanez, David; Abubakar, Amina; Giuliani, Francesca; Lewis, Tamsin; Kennedy, Stephen; Villar, Jose
2014-01-01
Background The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) Project is a population-based, longitudinal study describing early growth and development in an optimally healthy cohort of 4607 mothers and newborns. At 24 months, children are assessed for neurodevelopmental outcomes with the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package. This paper describes neurodevelopment tools for preschoolers and the systematic approach leading to the development of the Package. Methods An advisory panel shortlisted project-specific criteria (such as multi-dimensional assessments and suitability for international populations) to be fulfilled by a neurodevelopment instrument. A literature review of well-established tools for preschoolers revealed 47 candidates, none of which fulfilled all the project's criteria. A multi-dimensional assessment was, therefore, compiled using a package-based approach by: (i) categorizing desired outcomes into domains, (ii) devising domain-specific criteria for tool selection, and (iii) selecting the most appropriate measure for each domain. Results The Package measures vision (Cardiff tests); cortical auditory processing (auditory evoked potentials to a novelty oddball paradigm); and cognition, language skills, behavior, motor skills and attention (the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment) in 35–45 minutes. Sleep-wake patterns (actigraphy) are also assessed. Tablet-based applications with integrated quality checks and automated, wireless electroencephalography make the Package easy to administer in the field by non-specialist staff. The Package is in use in Brazil, India, Italy, Kenya and the United Kingdom. Conclusions The INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package is a multi-dimensional instrument measuring early child development (ECD). Its developmental approach may be useful to those involved in large-scale ECD research and surveillance efforts. PMID:25423589
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coclite, G. M.; Mishra, S.; Risebro, N. H.
2010-01-01
We consider a multi-dimensional triangular system of conservation laws. This system arises as a model of three-phase flow in porous media and includes multi-dimensional conservation laws with discontinuous coefficients as a special case. The system is neither strictly hyperbolic nor symmetric. We propose an Engquist-Osher type scheme for this system and show that the approximate solutions generated by the scheme converge to a weak solution. Numerical examples are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Cheng; Dong, XinZhuang; Shu, Chi-Wang
2015-10-01
For numerical simulation of detonation, computational cost using uniform meshes is large due to the vast separation in both time and space scales. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is advantageous for problems with vastly different scales. This paper aims to propose an AMR method with high order accuracy for numerical investigation of multi-dimensional detonation. A well-designed AMR method based on finite difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme, named as AMR&WENO is proposed. A new cell-based data structure is used to organize the adaptive meshes. The new data structure makes it possible for cells to communicate with each other quickly and easily. In order to develop an AMR method with high order accuracy, high order prolongations in both space and time are utilized in the data prolongation procedure. Based on the message passing interface (MPI) platform, we have developed a workload balancing parallel AMR&WENO code using the Hilbert space-filling curve algorithm. Our numerical experiments with detonation simulations indicate that the AMR&WENO is accurate and has a high resolution. Moreover, we evaluate and compare the performance of the uniform mesh WENO scheme and the parallel AMR&WENO method. The comparison results provide us further insight into the high performance of the parallel AMR&WENO method.
Scaling analysis of affinity propagation.
Furtlehner, Cyril; Sebag, Michèle; Zhang, Xiangliang
2010-06-01
We analyze and exploit some scaling properties of the affinity propagation (AP) clustering algorithm proposed by Frey and Dueck [Science 315, 972 (2007)]. Following a divide and conquer strategy we setup an exact renormalization-based approach to address the question of clustering consistency, in particular, how many cluster are present in a given data set. We first observe that the divide and conquer strategy, used on a large data set hierarchically reduces the complexity O(N2) to O(N((h+2)/(h+1))) , for a data set of size N and a depth h of the hierarchical strategy. For a data set embedded in a d -dimensional space, we show that this is obtained without notably damaging the precision except in dimension d=2 . In fact, for d larger than 2 the relative loss in precision scales such as N((2-d)/(h+1)d). Finally, under some conditions we observe that there is a value s* of the penalty coefficient, a free parameter used to fix the number of clusters, which separates a fragmentation phase (for ss*) of the underlying hidden cluster structure. At this precise point holds a self-similarity property which can be exploited by the hierarchical strategy to actually locate its position, as a result of an exact decimation procedure. From this observation, a strategy based on AP can be defined to find out how many clusters are present in a given data set. PMID:20866473
Fawley, William M.
2002-03-25
We discuss the underlying reasoning behind and the details of the numerical algorithm used in the GINGER free-electron laser(FEL) simulation code to load the initial shot noise microbunching on the electron beam. In particular, we point out that there are some additional subtleties which must be followed for multi-dimensional codes which are not necessary for one-dimensional formulations. Moreover, requiring that the higher harmonics of the microbunching also be properly initialized with the correct statistics leads to additional complexities. We present some numerical results including the predicted incoherent, spontaneous emission as tests of the shot noise algorithm's correctness.
2-D/Axisymmetric Formulation of Multi-dimensional Upwind Scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.
2001-01-01
A multi-dimensional upwind discretization of the two-dimensional/axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations is detailed for unstructured meshes. The algorithm is an extension of the fluctuation splitting scheme of Sidilkover. Boundary conditions are implemented weakly so that all nodes are updated using the base scheme, and eigen-value limiting is incorporated to suppress expansion shocks. Test cases for Mach numbers ranging from 0.1-17 are considered, with results compared against an unstructured upwind finite volume scheme. The fluctuation splitting inviscid distribution requires fewer operations than the finite volume routine, and is seen to produce less artificial dissipation, leading to generally improved solution accuracy.
Investigation of multi-dimensional computational models for calculating pollutant transport
Pepper, D W; Cooper, R E; Baker, A J
1980-01-01
A performance study of five numerical solution algorithms for multi-dimensional advection-diffusion prediction on mesoscale grids was made. Test problems include transport of point and distributed sources, and a simulation of a continuous source. In all cases, analytical solutions are available to assess relative accuracy. The particle-in-cell and second-moment algorithms, both of which employ sub-grid resolution coupled with Lagrangian advection, exhibit superior accuracy in modeling a point source release. For modeling of a distributed source, algorithms based upon the pseudospectral and finite element interpolation concepts, exhibit improved accuracy on practical discretizations.
Structural diversity: a multi-dimensional approach to assess recreational services in urban parks.
Voigt, Annette; Kabisch, Nadja; Wurster, Daniel; Haase, Dagmar; Breuste, Jürgen
2014-05-01
Urban green spaces provide important recreational services for urban residents. In general, when park visitors enjoy "the green," they are in actuality appreciating a mix of biotic, abiotic, and man-made park infrastructure elements and qualities. We argue that these three dimensions of structural diversity have an influence on how people use and value urban parks. We present a straightforward approach for assessing urban parks that combines multi-dimensional landscape mapping and questionnaire surveys. We discuss the method as well the results from its application to differently sized parks in Berlin and Salzburg. PMID:24740619
Hu, Shao-Ying; Feng, Liang; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Gu, Jun-Fei; Jia, Xiao-Bin
2013-12-01
As the preparation process from Salvia miltiorrhiz herbs to S. miltiorrhiz injection involves complicated technology and has relatively more factors impacting quality safety, the overall quality control is required for its effectiveness and safety. On the basis of the component structure theory, and according to the material basis of S. miltiorrhiz injection, we discussed the multi-dimensional structure and process dynamic quality control technology system of the preparation, in order to achieve the quality control over the material basis with safety and effectiveness of S. miltiorrhiz injection, and provide new ideas and methods for production quality standardization of S. miltiorrhis injection. PMID:24791548
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Darmofal, David L.
2003-01-01
The use of computational simulations in the prediction of complex aerodynamic flows is becoming increasingly prevalent in the design process within the aerospace industry. Continuing advancements in both computing technology and algorithmic development are ultimately leading to attempts at simulating ever-larger, more complex problems. However, by increasing the reliance on computational simulations in the design cycle, we must also increase the accuracy of these simulations in order to maintain or improve the reliability arid safety of the resulting aircraft. At the same time, large-scale computational simulations must be made more affordable so that their potential benefits can be fully realized within the design cycle. Thus, a continuing need exists for increasing the accuracy and efficiency of computational algorithms such that computational fluid dynamics can become a viable tool in the design of more reliable, safer aircraft. The objective of this research was the development of an error estimation and grid adaptive strategy for reducing simulation errors in integral outputs (functionals) such as lift or drag from from multi-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes simulations. In this final report, we summarize our work during this grant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N.
2012-02-01
The solution of polarized radiative transfer equation with angle-dependent (AD) partial frequency redistribution (PRD) is a challenging problem. Modeling the observed, linearly polarized strong resonance lines in the solar spectrum often requires the solution of the AD line transfer problems in one-dimensional or multi-dimensional (multi-D) geometries. The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the relative importance of the AD PRD effects and the multi-D transfer effects and particularly their combined influence on the line polarization. This would help in a quantitative analysis of the second solar spectrum (the linearly polarized spectrum of the Sun). We consider both non-magnetic and magnetic media. In this paper we reduce the Stokes vector transfer equation to a simpler form using a Fourier decomposition technique for multi-D media. A fast numerical method is also devised to solve the concerned multi-D transfer problem. The numerical results are presented for a two-dimensional medium with a moderate optical thickness (effectively thin) and are computed for a collisionless frequency redistribution. We show that the AD PRD effects are significant and cannot be ignored in a quantitative fine analysis of the line polarization. These effects are accentuated by the finite dimensionality of the medium (multi-D transfer). The presence of magnetic fields (Hanle effect) modifies the impact of these two effects to a considerable extent.
A lock-free priority queue design based on multi-dimensional linked lists
Dechev, Damian; Zhang, Deli
2015-04-03
The throughput of concurrent priority queues is pivotal to multiprocessor applications such as discrete event simulation, best-first search and task scheduling. Existing lock-free priority queues are mostly based on skiplists, which probabilistically create shortcuts in an ordered list for fast insertion of elements. The use of skiplists eliminates the need of global rebalancing in balanced search trees and ensures logarithmic sequential search time on average, but the worst-case performance is linear with respect to the input size. In this paper, we propose a quiescently consistent lock-free priority queue based on a multi-dimensional list that guarantees worst-case search time of O(logN) for key universe of size N. The novel multi-dimensional list (MDList) is composed of nodes that contain multiple links to child nodes arranged by their dimensionality. The insertion operation works by first injectively mapping the scalar key to a high-dimensional vector, then uniquely locating the target position by using the vector as coordinates. Nodes in MDList are ordered by their coordinate prefixes and the ordering property of the data structure is readily maintained during insertion without rebalancing nor randomization. Furthermore, in our experimental evaluation using a micro-benchmark, our priority queue achieves an average of 50% speedup over the state of the art approaches under high concurrency.
A lock-free priority queue design based on multi-dimensional linked lists
Dechev, Damian; Zhang, Deli
2015-04-03
The throughput of concurrent priority queues is pivotal to multiprocessor applications such as discrete event simulation, best-first search and task scheduling. Existing lock-free priority queues are mostly based on skiplists, which probabilistically create shortcuts in an ordered list for fast insertion of elements. The use of skiplists eliminates the need of global rebalancing in balanced search trees and ensures logarithmic sequential search time on average, but the worst-case performance is linear with respect to the input size. In this paper, we propose a quiescently consistent lock-free priority queue based on a multi-dimensional list that guarantees worst-case search time of O(logN)more » for key universe of size N. The novel multi-dimensional list (MDList) is composed of nodes that contain multiple links to child nodes arranged by their dimensionality. The insertion operation works by first injectively mapping the scalar key to a high-dimensional vector, then uniquely locating the target position by using the vector as coordinates. Nodes in MDList are ordered by their coordinate prefixes and the ordering property of the data structure is readily maintained during insertion without rebalancing nor randomization. Furthermore, in our experimental evaluation using a micro-benchmark, our priority queue achieves an average of 50% speedup over the state of the art approaches under high concurrency.« less
Ng, Elaine; Chen, Kaina; Hang, Annie; Syed, Abeer; Zhang, John X J
2016-04-01
Rapid screening of biomarkers, with high specificity and accuracy, is critical for many point-of-care diagnostics. Microfluidics, the use of microscale channels to manipulate small liquid samples and carry reactions in parallel, offers tremendous opportunities to address fundamental questions in biology and provide a fast growing set of clinical tools for medicine. Emerging multi-dimensional nanostructures, when coupled with microfluidics, enable effective and efficient screening with high specificity and sensitivity, both of which are important aspects of biological detection systems. In this review, we provide an overview of current research and technologies that utilize nanostructures to facilitate biological separation in microfluidic channels. Various important physical parameters and theoretical equations that characterize and govern flow in nanostructure-integrated microfluidic channels will be introduced and discussed. The application of multi-dimensional nanostructures, including nanoparticles, nanopillars, and nanoporous layers, integrated with microfluidic channels in molecular and cellular separation will also be reviewed. Finally, we will close with insights on the future of nanostructure-integrated microfluidic platforms and their role in biological and biomedical applications. PMID:26692080
Multi-dimensional self-esteem and magnitude of change in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.
Collin, Paula; Karatzias, Thanos; Power, Kevin; Howard, Ruth; Grierson, David; Yellowlees, Alex
2016-03-30
Self-esteem improvement is one of the main targets of inpatient eating disorder programmes. The present study sought to examine multi-dimensional self-esteem and magnitude of change in eating psychopathology among adults participating in a specialist inpatient treatment programme for anorexia nervosa. A standardised assessment battery, including multi-dimensional measures of eating psychopathology and self-esteem, was completed pre- and post-treatment for 60 participants (all white Scottish female, mean age=25.63 years). Statistical analyses indicated that self-esteem improved with eating psychopathology and weight over the course of treatment, but that improvements were domain-specific and small in size. Global self-esteem was not predictive of treatment outcome. Dimensions of self-esteem at baseline (Lovability and Moral Self-approval), however, were predictive of magnitude of change in dimensions of eating psychopathology (Shape and Weight Concern). Magnitude of change in Self-Control and Lovability dimensions were predictive of magnitude of change in eating psychopathology (Global, Dietary Restraint, and Shape Concern). The results of this study demonstrate that the relationship between self-esteem and eating disorder is far from straightforward, and suggest that future research and interventions should focus less exclusively on self-esteem as a uni-dimensional psychological construct. PMID:26837476
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaerer, Joël; Fassi, Aurora; Riboldi, Marco; Cerveri, Pietro; Baroni, Guido; Sarrut, David
2012-01-01
Real-time optical surface imaging systems offer a non-invasive way to monitor intra-fraction motion of a patient's thorax surface during radiotherapy treatments. Due to lack of point correspondence in dynamic surface acquisition, such systems cannot currently provide 3D motion tracking at specific surface landmarks, as available in optical technologies based on passive markers. We propose to apply deformable mesh registration to extract surface point trajectories from markerless optical imaging, thus yielding multi-dimensional breathing traces. The investigated approach is based on a non-rigid extension of the iterative closest point algorithm, using a locally affine regularization. The accuracy in tracking breathing motion was quantified in a group of healthy volunteers, by pair-wise registering the thoraco-abdominal surfaces acquired at three different respiratory phases using a clinically available optical system. The motion tracking accuracy proved to be maximal in the abdominal region, where breathing motion mostly occurs, with average errors of 1.09 mm. The results demonstrate the feasibility of recovering multi-dimensional breathing motion from markerless optical surface acquisitions by using the implemented deformable registration algorithm. The approach can potentially improve respiratory motion management in radiation therapy, including motion artefact reduction or tumour motion compensation by means of internal/external correlation models.
Barth, Jens; Oberndorfer, Cäcilia; Pasluosta, Cristian; Schülein, Samuel; Gassner, Heiko; Reinfelder, Samuel; Kugler, Patrick; Schuldhaus, Dominik; Winkler, Jürgen; Klucken, Jochen; Eskofier, Björn M.
2015-01-01
Changes in gait patterns provide important information about individuals’ health. To perform sensor based gait analysis, it is crucial to develop methodologies to automatically segment single strides from continuous movement sequences. In this study we developed an algorithm based on time-invariant template matching to isolate strides from inertial sensor signals. Shoe-mounted gyroscopes and accelerometers were used to record gait data from 40 elderly controls, 15 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 15 geriatric patients. Each stride was manually labeled from a straight 40 m walk test and from a video monitored free walk sequence. A multi-dimensional subsequence Dynamic Time Warping (msDTW) approach was used to search for patterns matching a pre-defined stride template constructed from 25 elderly controls. F-measure of 98% (recall 98%, precision 98%) for 40 m walk tests and of 97% (recall 97%, precision 97%) for free walk tests were obtained for the three groups. Compared to conventional peak detection methods up to 15% F-measure improvement was shown. The msDTW proved to be robust for segmenting strides from both standardized gait tests and free walks. This approach may serve as a platform for individualized stride segmentation during activities of daily living. PMID:25789489
Radiative interactions in multi-dimensional chemically reacting flows using Monte Carlo simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Jiwen; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1994-01-01
The Monte Carlo method (MCM) is applied to analyze radiative heat transfer in nongray gases. The nongray model employed is based on the statistical narrow band model with an exponential-tailed inverse intensity distribution. The amount and transfer of the emitted radiative energy in a finite volume element within a medium are considered in an exact manner. The spectral correlation between transmittances of two different segments of the same path in a medium makes the statistical relationship different from the conventional relationship, which only provides the non-correlated results for nongray methods is discussed. Validation of the Monte Carlo formulations is conducted by comparing results of this method of other solutions. In order to further establish the validity of the MCM, a relatively simple problem of radiative interactions in laminar parallel plate flows is considered. One-dimensional correlated Monte Carlo formulations are applied to investigate radiative heat transfer. The nongray Monte Carlo solutions are also obtained for the same problem and they also essentially match the available analytical solutions. the exact correlated and non-correlated Monte Carlo formulations are very complicated for multi-dimensional systems. However, by introducing the assumption of an infinitesimal volume element, the approximate correlated and non-correlated formulations are obtained which are much simpler than the exact formulations. Consideration of different problems and comparison of different solutions reveal that the approximate and exact correlated solutions agree very well, and so do the approximate and exact non-correlated solutions. However, the two non-correlated solutions have no physical meaning because they significantly differ from the correlated solutions. An accurate prediction of radiative heat transfer in any nongray and multi-dimensional system is possible by using the approximate correlated formulations. Radiative interactions are investigated in chemically reacting compressible flows of premixed hydrogen and air in an expanding nozzle. The governing equations are based on the fully elliptic Navier-Stokes equations. Chemical reaction mechanisms were described by a finite rate chemistry model. The correlated Monte Carlo method developed earlier was employed to simulate multi-dimensional radiative heat transfer. Results obtained demonstrate that radiative effects on the flowfield are minimal but radiative effects on the wall heat transfer are significant. Extensive parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of equivalence ratio, wall temperature, inlet flow temperature, and nozzle size on the radiative and conductive wall fluxes.
Radiative interactions in multi-dimensional chemically reacting flows using Monte Carlo simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jiwen; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1994-10-01
The Monte Carlo method (MCM) is applied to analyze radiative heat transfer in nongray gases. The nongray model employed is based on the statistical narrow band model with an exponential-tailed inverse intensity distribution. The amount and transfer of the emitted radiative energy in a finite volume element within a medium are considered in an exact manner. The spectral correlation between transmittances of two different segments of the same path in a medium makes the statistical relationship different from the conventional relationship, which only provides the non-correlated results for nongray methods is discussed. Validation of the Monte Carlo formulations is conducted by comparing results of this method of other solutions. In order to further establish the validity of the MCM, a relatively simple problem of radiative interactions in laminar parallel plate flows is considered. One-dimensional correlated Monte Carlo formulations are applied to investigate radiative heat transfer. The nongray Monte Carlo solutions are also obtained for the same problem and they also essentially match the available analytical solutions. the exact correlated and non-correlated Monte Carlo formulations are very complicated for multi-dimensional systems. However, by introducing the assumption of an infinitesimal volume element, the approximate correlated and non-correlated formulations are obtained which are much simpler than the exact formulations. Consideration of different problems and comparison of different solutions reveal that the approximate and exact correlated solutions agree very well, and so do the approximate and exact non-correlated solutions. However, the two non-correlated solutions have no physical meaning because they significantly differ from the correlated solutions. An accurate prediction of radiative heat transfer in any nongray and multi-dimensional system is possible by using the approximate correlated formulations. Radiative interactions are investigated in chemically reacting compressible flows of premixed hydrogen and air in an expanding nozzle. The governing equations are based on the fully elliptic Navier-Stokes equations. Chemical reaction mechanisms were described by a finite rate chemistry model. The correlated Monte Carlo method developed earlier was employed to simulate multi-dimensional radiative heat transfer. Results obtained demonstrate that radiative effects on the flowfield are minimal but radiative effects on the wall heat transfer are significant. Extensive parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of equivalence ratio, wall temperature, inlet flow temperature, and nozzle size on the radiative and conductive wall fluxes.
Singh, Brajesh K.; Srivastava, Vineet K.
2015-01-01
The main goal of this paper is to present a new approximate series solution of the multi-dimensional (heat-like) diffusion equation with time-fractional derivative in Caputo form using a semi-analytical approach: fractional-order reduced differential transform method (FRDTM). The efficiency of FRDTM is confirmed by considering four test problems of the multi-dimensional time fractional-order diffusion equation. FRDTM is a very efficient, effective and powerful mathematical tool which provides exact or very close approximate solutions for a wide range of real-world problems arising in engineering and natural sciences, modelled in terms of differential equations. PMID:26064639
Singh, Brajesh K; Srivastava, Vineet K
2015-04-01
The main goal of this paper is to present a new approximate series solution of the multi-dimensional (heat-like) diffusion equation with time-fractional derivative in Caputo form using a semi-analytical approach: fractional-order reduced differential transform method (FRDTM). The efficiency of FRDTM is confirmed by considering four test problems of the multi-dimensional time fractional-order diffusion equation. FRDTM is a very efficient, effective and powerful mathematical tool which provides exact or very close approximate solutions for a wide range of real-world problems arising in engineering and natural sciences, modelled in terms of differential equations. PMID:26064639
Scale Free Reduced Rank Image Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horst, Paul
In the traditional Guttman-Harris type image analysis, a transformation is applied to the data matrix such that each column of the transformed data matrix is the best least squares estimate of the corresponding column of the data matrix from the remaining columns. The model is scale free. However, it assumes (1) that the correlation matrix is…
Nardin, Gaël; Li, Hebin; Autry, Travis M.; Moody, Galan; Singh, Rohan; Cundiff, Steven T.
2015-03-21
We review our recent work on multi-dimensional coherent optical spectroscopy (MDCS) of semiconductor nanostructures. Two approaches, appropriate for the study of semiconductor materials, are presented and compared. A first method is based on a non-collinear geometry, where the Four-Wave-Mixing (FWM) signal is detected in the form of a radiated optical field. This approach works for samples with translational symmetry, such as Quantum Wells (QWs) or large and dense ensembles of Quantum Dots (QDs). A second method detects the FWM in the form of a photocurrent in a collinear geometry. This second approach extends the horizon of MDCS to sub-diffraction nanostructures, such as single QDs, nanowires, or nanotubes, and small ensembles thereof. Examples of experimental results obtained on semiconductor QW structures are given for each method. In particular, it is shown how MDCS can assess coupling between excitons confined in separated QWs.
Multi-Dimensional Simulations of Radiative Transfer in Aspherical Core-Collapse Supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi
2008-05-01
We study optical radiation of aspherical supernovae (SNe) and present an approach to verify the asphericity of SNe with optical observations of extragalactic SNe. For this purpose, we have developed a multi-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, SAMURAI (SupernovA Multidimensional RAdIative transfer code). The code can compute the optical light curve and spectra both at early phases (<~40 days after the explosion) and late phases (~1 year after the explosion), based on hydrodynamic and nucleosynthetic models. We show that all the optical observations of SN 1998bw (associated with GRB 980425) are consistent with polar-viewed radiation of the aspherical explosion model with kinetic energy 20×1051 ergs. Properties of off-axis hypernovae are also discussed briefly.
A G-FDTD scheme for solving multi-dimensional open dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moxley, Frederick Ira; Byrnes, Tim; Ma, Baoling; Yan, Yun; Dai, Weizhong
2015-02-01
Behaviors of dark soliton propagation, collision, and vortex formation in the context of a non-equilibrium condensate are interesting to study. This can be achieved by solving open dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equations (dGPEs) in multiple dimensions, which are a generalization of the standard Gross-Pitaevskii equation that includes effects of the condensate gain and loss. In this article, we present a generalized finite-difference time-domain (G-FDTD) scheme, which is explicit, stable, and permits an accurate solution with simple computation, for solving the multi-dimensional dGPE. The scheme is tested by solving a steady state problem in the non-equilibrium condensate. Moreover, it is shown that the stability condition for the scheme offers a more relaxed time step restriction than the popular pseudo-spectral method. The G-FDTD scheme is then employed to simulate the dark soliton propagation, collision, and the formation of vortex-antivortex pairs.
Multi-dimensional single-spin nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanodiamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neukirch, Levi P.; von Haartman, Eva; Rosenholm, Jessica M.; Nick Vamivakas, A.
2015-10-01
Considerable advances made in the development of nanomechanical and nano-optomechanical devices have enabled the observation of quantum effects, improved sensitivity to minute forces, and provided avenues to probe fundamental physics at the nanoscale. Concurrently, solid-state quantum emitters with optically accessible spin degrees of freedom have been pursued in applications ranging from quantum information science to nanoscale sensing. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid nano-optomechanical system composed of a nanodiamond (containing a single nitrogen-vacancy centre) that is levitated in an optical dipole trap. The mechanical state of the diamond is controlled by modulation of the optical trapping potential. We demonstrate the ability to imprint the multi-dimensional mechanical motion of the cavity-free mechanical oscillator into the nitrogen-vacancy centre fluorescence and manipulate the mechanical system's intrinsic spin. This result represents the first step towards a hybrid quantum system based on levitating nanoparticles that simultaneously engages optical, phononic and spin degrees of freedom.
Multi-Dimensional Simulations of Radiative Transfer in Aspherical Core-Collapse Supernovae
Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi
2008-05-21
We study optical radiation of aspherical supernovae (SNe) and present an approach to verify the asphericity of SNe with optical observations of extragalactic SNe. For this purpose, we have developed a multi-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, SAMURAI (SupernovA Multidimensional RAdIative transfer code). The code can compute the optical light curve and spectra both at early phases (< or approx. 40 days after the explosion) and late phases ({approx}1 year after the explosion), based on hydrodynamic and nucleosynthetic models. We show that all the optical observations of SN 1998bw (associated with GRB 980425) are consistent with polar-viewed radiation of the aspherical explosion model with kinetic energy 20x10{sup 51} ergs. Properties of off-axis hypernovae are also discussed briefly.
Han, Xianlin; Yang, Kui; Gross, Richard W.
2011-01-01
Since our last comprehensive review on multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics (Mass Spectrom. Rev. 24 (2005), 367), many new developments in the field of lipidomics have occurred. These developments include new strategies and refinements for shotgun lipidomic approaches that use direct infusion, including novel fragmentation strategies, identification of multiple new informative dimensions for mass spectrometric interrogation, and the development of new bioinformatic approaches for enhanced identification and quantitation of the individual molecular constituents that comprise each cell’s lipidome. Concurrently, advances in liquid chromatography-based platforms and novel strategies for quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for lipidomic analyses have been developed. Through the synergistic use of this repertoire of new mass spectrometric approaches, the power and scope of lipidomics has been greatly expanded to accelerate progress toward the comprehensive understanding of the pleiotropic roles of lipids in biological systems. PMID:21755525
Multi-dimensional on-particle detection technology for multi-category disease classification.
Tan, Jie; Chen, Xiaomin; Du, Guansheng; Luo, Qiaohui; Li, Xiao; Liu, Yaqing; Liang, Xiao; Wu, Jianmin
2016-02-28
A serum peptide profile contains important bio-information, which may help disease classification. The motivation of this study is to take advantage of porous silicon microparticles with multiple surface chemistries to reduce the loss of peptide information and simplify the sample pretreatment. We developed a multi-dimensional on-particle MALDI-TOF technology to acquire high fidelity and cross-reactive molecular fingerprints for mining disease information. The peptide fingerprint of serum samples from colorectal cancer patients, liver cancer patients and healthy volunteers were measured with this technology. The featured mass spectral peaks can successfully discriminate and predict the multi-category disease. Data visualization for future clinical application was also demonstrated. PMID:26839921
Ionizing shocks in argon. Part II: Transient and multi-dimensional effects
Kapper, M. G.; Cambier, J.-L.
2011-06-01
We extend the computations of ionizing shocks in argon to the unsteady and multi-dimensional, using a collisional-radiative model and a single-fluid, two-temperature formulation of the conservation equations. It is shown that the fluctuations of the shock structure observed in shock-tube experiments can be reproduced by the numerical simulations and explained on the basis of the coupling of the nonlinear kinetics of the collisional-radiative model with wave propagation within the induction zone. The mechanism is analogous to instabilities of detonation waves and also produces a cellular structure commonly observed in gaseous detonations. We suggest that detailed simulations of such unsteady phenomena can yield further information for the validation of nonequilibrium kinetics.
Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Heidelberger, Philip
2013-01-29
A computer implemented method and a system for routing data packets in a multi-dimensional computer network. The method comprises routing a data packet among nodes along one dimension towards a root node, each node having input and output communication links, said root node not having any outgoing uplinks, and determining at each node if the data packet has reached a predefined coordinate for the dimension or an edge of the subrectangle for the dimension, and if the data packet has reached the predefined coordinate for the dimension or the edge of the subrectangle for the dimension, determining if the data packet has reached the root node, and if the data packet has not reached the root node, routing the data packet among nodes along another dimension towards the root node.
Multi-dimensional surface NMR imaging and characterization of selected aquifers in the Western US.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, D. O.
2006-12-01
This work outlines the development of a multi-channel surface NMR instrument and its application to 2-D and 3-D imaging and characterization of various aquifers in the western US. The multi-channel surface NMR instrumentation and the mathematical foundations for multi-dimensional surface NMR are described. Experimental results, including 2-D and 3-D estimates of porosity and T2* (a measured NMR signal parameter empirically related to permeability), are presented from field tests conducted over a variety of aquifer types: an alluvial aquifer system in western Nebraska, an alluvial and fractured bedrock environment in central Iowa, a Karst environment in southeast Minnesota, and a basaltic aquifer system near the Columbia River in south- central Washington.
High-Order Central WENO Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present new third- and fifth-order Godunov-type central schemes for approximating solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation in an arbitrary number of space dimensions. These are the first central schemes for approximating solutions of the HJ equations with an order of accuracy that is greater than two. In two space dimensions we present two versions for the third-order scheme: one scheme that is based on a genuinely two-dimensional Central WENO reconstruction, and another scheme that is based on a simpler dimension-by-dimension reconstruction. The simpler dimension-by-dimension variant is then extended to a multi-dimensional fifth-order scheme. Our numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions verify the expected order of accuracy of the schemes.
Racial-ethnic self-schemas: Multi-dimensional identity-based motivation
Oyserman, Daphna
2008-01-01
Prior self-schema research focuses on benefits of being schematic vs. aschematic in stereotyped domains. The current studies build on this work, examining racial-ethnic self-schemas as multi-dimensional, containing multiple, conflicting, and non-integrated images. A multidimensional perspective captures complexity; examining net effects of dimensions predicts within-group differences in academic engagement and well-being. When racial-ethnicity self-schemas focus attention on membership in both in-group and broader society, engagement with school should increase since school is not seen as out-group defining. When racial-ethnicity self-schemas focus attention on inclusion (not obstacles to inclusion) in broader society, risk of depressive symptoms should decrease. Support for these hypotheses was found in two separate samples (8th graders, n = 213, 9th graders followed to 12th grade n = 141). PMID:19122837
Gattol, Valentin; Sääksjärvi, Maria; Carbon, Claus-Christian
2011-01-01
Background The authors present a procedural extension of the popular Implicit Association Test (IAT; [1]) that allows for indirect measurement of attitudes on multiple dimensions (e.g., safe–unsafe; young–old; innovative–conventional, etc.) rather than on a single evaluative dimension only (e.g., good–bad). Methodology/Principal Findings In two within-subjects studies, attitudes toward three automobile brands were measured on six attribute dimensions. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the methodological appropriateness of the new procedure, providing strong evidence for its reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Conclusions/Significance This new procedure yields detailed information on the multifaceted nature of brand associations that can add up to a more abstract overall attitude. Just as the IAT, its multi-dimensional extension/application (dubbed md-IAT) is suited for reliably measuring attitudes consumers may not be consciously aware of, able to express, or willing to share with the researcher [2], [3]. PMID:21246037
Optimal sensor configuration for flexible structures with multi-dimensional mode shapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Minwoo; Pakzad, Shamim N.
2015-05-01
A framework for deciding the optimal sensor configuration is implemented for civil structures with multi-dimensional mode shapes, which enhances the applicability of structural health monitoring for existing structures. Optimal sensor placement (OSP) algorithms are used to determine the best sensor configuration for structures with a priori knowledge of modal information. The signal strength at each node is evaluated by effective independence and modified variance methods. Euclidean norm of signal strength indices associated with each node is used to expand OSP applicability into flexible structures. The number of sensors for each method is determined using the threshold for modal assurance criterion (MAC) between estimated (from a set of observations) and target mode shapes. Kriging is utilized to infer the modal estimates for unobserved locations with a weighted sum of known neighbors. A Kriging model can be expressed as a sum of linear regression and random error which is assumed as the realization of a stochastic process. This study presents the effects of Kriging parameters for the accurate estimation of mode shapes and the minimum number of sensors. The feasible ranges to satisfy MAC criteria are investigated and used to suggest the adequate searching bounds for associated parameters. The finite element model of a tall building is used to demonstrate the application of optimal sensor configuration. The dynamic modes of flexible structure at centroid are appropriately interpreted into the outermost sensor locations when OSP methods are implemented. Kriging is successfully used to interpolate the mode shapes from a set of sensors and to monitor structures associated with multi-dimensional mode shapes.
Two-dimensional Core-collapse Supernova Models with Multi-dimensional Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolence, Joshua C.; Burrows, Adam; Zhang, Weiqun
2015-02-01
We present new two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric neutrino radiation/hydrodynamic models of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) cores. We use the CASTRO code, which incorporates truly multi-dimensional, multi-group, flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) neutrino transport, including all relevant {O}(v/c) terms. Our main motivation for carrying out this study is to compare with recent 2D models produced by other groups who have obtained explosions for some progenitor stars and with recent 2D VULCAN results that did not incorporate {O}(v/c) terms. We follow the evolution of 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar-mass progenitors to approximately 600 ms after bounce and do not obtain an explosion in any of these models. Though the reason for the qualitative disagreement among the groups engaged in CCSN modeling remains unclear, we speculate that the simplifying "ray-by-ray" approach employed by all other groups may be compromising their results. We show that "ray-by-ray" calculations greatly exaggerate the angular and temporal variations of the neutrino fluxes, which we argue are better captured by our multi-dimensional MGFLD approach. On the other hand, our 2D models also make approximations, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions concerning the root of the differences between groups. We discuss some of the diagnostics often employed in the analyses of CCSN simulations and highlight the intimate relationship between the various explosion conditions that have been proposed. Finally, we explore the ingredients that may be missing in current calculations that may be important in reproducing the properties of the average CCSNe, should the delayed neutrino-heating mechanism be the correct mechanism of explosion.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA MODELS WITH MULTI-DIMENSIONAL TRANSPORT
Dolence, Joshua C.; Burrows, Adam; Zhang, Weiqun E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu
2015-02-10
We present new two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric neutrino radiation/hydrodynamic models of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) cores. We use the CASTRO code, which incorporates truly multi-dimensional, multi-group, flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) neutrino transport, including all relevant O(v/c) terms. Our main motivation for carrying out this study is to compare with recent 2D models produced by other groups who have obtained explosions for some progenitor stars and with recent 2D VULCAN results that did not incorporate O(v/c) terms. We follow the evolution of 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar-mass progenitors to approximately 600 ms after bounce and do not obtain an explosion in any of these models. Though the reason for the qualitative disagreement among the groups engaged in CCSN modeling remains unclear, we speculate that the simplifying ''ray-by-ray'' approach employed by all other groups may be compromising their results. We show that ''ray-by-ray'' calculations greatly exaggerate the angular and temporal variations of the neutrino fluxes, which we argue are better captured by our multi-dimensional MGFLD approach. On the other hand, our 2D models also make approximations, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions concerning the root of the differences between groups. We discuss some of the diagnostics often employed in the analyses of CCSN simulations and highlight the intimate relationship between the various explosion conditions that have been proposed. Finally, we explore the ingredients that may be missing in current calculations that may be important in reproducing the properties of the average CCSNe, should the delayed neutrino-heating mechanism be the correct mechanism of explosion.
A scaling analysis of ozone photochemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ainslie, B.; Steyn, D. G.
2006-09-01
A scaling analysis has been used to capture the integrated behaviour of several photochemical mechanisms for a wide range of precursor concentrations and a variety of environmental conditions. The Buckingham Pi method of dimensional analysis was used to express the relevant variables in terms of dimensionless groups. These grouping show maximum ozone, initial NOx and initial VOC concentrations are made non-dimensional by the average NO2 photolysis rate (jav) and the rate constant for the NO-O3 titration reaction (kNO); temperature by the NO-O3 activation energy (ENO) and Boltzmann constant (k) and total irradiation time by the cumulative javΔt photolysis rate. The analysis shows dimensionless maximum ozone concentration can be described by a product of powers of dimensionless initial NOx concentration, dimensionless temperature, and a similarity curve directly dependent on the ratio of initial VOC to NOx concentration and implicitly dependent on the cumulative NO2 photolysis rate. When Weibull transformed, the similarity relationship shows a scaling break with dimensionless model output clustering onto two straight line segments, parameterized using four variables: two describing the slopes of the line segments and two giving the location of their intersection. A fifth parameter is used to normalize the model output. The scaling analysis, similarity curve and parameterization appear to be independent of the details of the chemical mechanism, hold for a variety of VOC species and mixtures and a wide range of temperatures and actinic fluxes.
Bengtsson, Henrik; Hössjer, Ola
2006-01-01
Background Low-level processing and normalization of microarray data are most important steps in microarray analysis, which have profound impact on downstream analysis. Multiple methods have been suggested to date, but it is not clear which is the best. It is therefore important to further study the different normalization methods in detail and the nature of microarray data in general. Results A methodological study of affine models for gene expression data is carried out. Focus is on two-channel comparative studies, but the findings generalize also to single- and multi-channel data. The discussion applies to spotted as well as in-situ synthesized microarray data. Existing normalization methods such as curve-fit ("lowess") normalization, parallel and perpendicular translation normalization, and quantile normalization, but also dye-swap normalization are revisited in the light of the affine model and their strengths and weaknesses are investigated in this context. As a direct result from this study, we propose a robust non-parametric multi-dimensional affine normalization method, which can be applied to any number of microarrays with any number of channels either individually or all at once. A high-quality cDNA microarray data set with spike-in controls is used to demonstrate the power of the affine model and the proposed normalization method. Conclusion We find that an affine model can explain non-linear intensity-dependent systematic effects in observed log-ratios. Affine normalization removes such artifacts for non-differentially expressed genes and assures that symmetry between negative and positive log-ratios is obtained, which is fundamental when identifying differentially expressed genes. In addition, affine normalization makes the empirical distributions in different channels more equal, which is the purpose of quantile normalization, and may also explain why dye-swap normalization works or fails. All methods are made available in the aroma package, which is a platform-independent package for R. PMID:16509971
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Basantia, Tapan Kumar; Panda, B. N.; Sahoo, Dukhabandhu
2012-01-01
Cognitive development of the learners is the prime task of each and every stage of our school education and its importance especially in elementary state is quite worth mentioning. Present study investigated the effectiveness of a new and innovative strategy (i.e., MAI (multi-dimensional activity based integrated approach)) for the development of…
Luong, J; Gras, R; Cortes, H; Shellie, R A
2012-09-14
Oxygenated compounds like methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, ethylene oxide, tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, 1,3-dioxolane, and 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane are commonly encountered in industrial manufacturing processes. Despite the availability of a variety of column stationary phases for chromatographic separation, it is difficult to separate these solutes from their respective matrices using single dimension gas chromatography. Implemented with a planar microfluidic device, conventional two-dimensional gas chromatography and the employment of chromatographic columns using dissimilar separation mechanisms like that of a selective wall-coated open tubular column and an ionic sorbent column have been successfully applied to resolve twelve industrially significant volatile oxygenated compounds in both gas and aqueous matrices. A Large Volume Gas Injection System (LVGIS) was also employed for sample introduction to enhance system automation and precision. By successfully integrating these concepts, in addition to having the capability to separate all twelve components in one single analysis, features associated with multi-dimensional gas chromatography like dual retention time capability, and the ability to quarantine undesired chromatographic contaminants or matrix components in the first dimension column to enhance overall system cleanliness were realized. With this technique, a complete separation for all the compounds mentioned can be carried out in less than 15 min. The compounds cited can be analyzed over a range of 250 ppm (v/v) to 100 ppm (v/v) with a relative standard deviation of less than 5% (n=20) with high degree of reliability. PMID:22410155
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ono, Junichi; Ando, Koji
2012-11-01
A semiquantal (SQ) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method based on an extended Hamiltonian formulation has been developed using multi-dimensional thawed Gaussian wave packets (WPs), and applied to an analysis of hydrogen-bond (H-bond) dynamics in liquid water. A set of Hamilton's equations of motion in an extended phase space, which includes variance-covariance matrix elements as auxiliary coordinates representing anisotropic delocalization of the WPs, is derived from the time-dependent variational principle. The present theory allows us to perform real-time and real-space SQMD simulations and analyze nuclear quantum effects on dynamics in large molecular systems in terms of anisotropic fluctuations of the WPs. Introducing the Liouville operator formalism in the extended phase space, we have also developed an explicit symplectic algorithm for the numerical integration, which can provide greater stability in the long-time SQMD simulations. The application of the present theory to H-bond dynamics in liquid water is carried out under a single-particle approximation in which the variance-covariance matrix and the corresponding canonically conjugate matrix are reduced to block-diagonal structures by neglecting the interparticle correlations. As a result, it is found that the anisotropy of the WPs is indispensable for reproducing the disordered H-bond network compared to the classical counterpart with the use of the potential model providing competing quantum effects between intra- and intermolecular zero-point fluctuations. In addition, the significant WP delocalization along the out-of-plane direction of the jumping hydrogen atom associated with the concerted breaking and forming of H-bonds has been detected in the H-bond exchange mechanism. The relevance of the dynamical WP broadening to the relaxation of H-bond number fluctuations has also been discussed. The present SQ method provides the novel framework for investigating nuclear quantum dynamics in the many-body molecular systems in which the local anisotropic fluctuations of nuclear WPs play an essential role.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Güçlü, Y.; Hitchon, W. N. G.
2012-04-01
The term 'Convected Scheme' (CS) refers to a family of algorithms, most usually applied to the solution of Boltzmann's equation, which uses a method of characteristics in an integral form to project an initial cell forward to a group of final cells. As such the CS is a 'forward-trajectory' semi-Lagrangian scheme. For multi-dimensional simulations of neutral gas flows, the cell-centered version of this semi-Lagrangian (CCSL) scheme has advantages over other options due to its implementation simplicity, low memory requirements, and easier treatment of boundary conditions. The main drawback of the CCSL-CS to date has been its high numerical diffusion in physical space, because of the 2nd order remapping that takes place at the end of each time step. By means of a modified equation analysis, it is shown that a high order estimate of the remapping error can be obtained a priori, and a small correction to the final position of the cells can be applied upon remapping, in order to achieve full compensation of this error. The resulting scheme is 4th order accurate in space while retaining the desirable properties of the CS: it is conservative and positivity-preserving, and the overall algorithm complexity is not appreciably increased. Two monotone (i.e. non-oscillating) versions of the fourth order CCSL-CS are also presented: one uses a common flux-limiter approach; the other uses a non-polynomial reconstruction to evaluate the derivatives of the density function. The method is illustrated in simple one- and two-dimensional examples, and a fully 3D solution of the Boltzmann equation describing expansion of a gas into vacuum through a cylindrical tube.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, Chun Sing
This thesis studies two types of problems in financial derivatives pricing. The first type is the free boundary problem, which can be formulated as a partial differential equation (PDE) subject to a set of free boundary condition. Although the functional form of the free boundary condition is given explicitly, the location of the free boundary is unknown and can only be determined implicitly by imposing continuity conditions on the solution. Two specific problems are studied in details, namely the valuation of fixed-rate mortgages and CEV American options. The second type is the multi-dimensional problem, which involves multiple correlated stochastic variables and their governing PDE. One typical problem we focus on is the valuation of basket-spread options, whose underlying asset prices are driven by correlated geometric Brownian motions (GBMs). Analytic approximate solutions are derived for each of these three problems. For each of the two free boundary problems, we propose a parametric moving boundary to approximate the unknown free boundary, so that the original problem transforms into a moving boundary problem which can be solved analytically. The governing parameter of the moving boundary is determined by imposing the first derivative continuity condition on the solution. The analytic form of the solution allows the price and the hedging parameters to be computed very efficiently. When compared against the benchmark finite-difference method, the computational time is significantly reduced without compromising the accuracy. The multi-stage scheme further allows the approximate results to systematically converge to the benchmark results as one recasts the moving boundary into a piecewise smooth continuous function. For the multi-dimensional problem, we generalize the Kirk (1995) approximate two-asset spread option formula to the case of multi-asset basket-spread option. Since the final formula is in closed form, all the hedging parameters can also be derived in closed form. Numerical examples demonstrate that the pricing and hedging errors are in general less than 1% relative to the benchmark prices obtained by numerical integration or Monte Carlo simulation. By exploiting an explicit relationship between the option price and the underlying probability distribution, we further derive an approximate distribution function for the general basket-spread variable. It can be used to approximate the transition probability distribution of any linear combination of correlated GBMs. Finally, an implicit perturbation is applied to reduce the pricing errors by factors of up to 100. When compared against the existing methods, the basket-spread option formula coupled with the implicit perturbation turns out to be one of the most robust and accurate approximation methods.
Optimizing threshold for extreme scale analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maynard, Robert; Moreland, Kenneth; Atyachit, Utkarsh; Geveci, Berk; Ma, Kwan-Liu
2013-01-01
As the HPC community starts focusing its efforts towards exascale, it becomes clear that we are looking at machines with a billion way concurrency. Although parallel computing has been at the core of the performance gains achieved until now, scaling over 1,000 times the current concurrency can be challenging. As discussed in this paper, even the smallest memory access and synchronization overheads can cause major bottlenecks at this scale. As we develop new software and adapt existing algorithms for exascale, we need to be cognizant of such pitfalls. In this paper, we document our experience with optimizing a fairly common and parallelizable visualization algorithm, threshold of cells based on scalar values, for such highly concurrent architectures. Our experiments help us identify design patterns that can be generalized for other visualization algorithms as well. We discuss our implementation within the Dax toolkit, which is a framework for data analysis and visualization at extreme scale. The Dax toolkit employs the patterns discussed here within the framework's scaffolding to make it easier for algorithm developers to write algorithms without having to worry about such scaling issues.
On SCALE Validation for PBR Analysis
Ilas, Germina
2010-01-01
Studies were performed to assess the capabilities of the SCALE code system to provide accurate cross sections for analyses of pebble bed reactor configurations. The analyzed configurations are representative of fuel in the HTR-10 reactor in the first critical core and at full power operation conditions. Relevant parameters-multiplication constant, spectral indices, few-group cross sections-are calculated with SCALE for the considered configurations. The results are compared to results obtained with corresponding consistent MCNP models. The code-to-code comparison shows good agreement at both room and operating temperatures, indicating a good performance of SCALE for analysis of doubly heterogeneous fuel configurations. The development of advanced methods and computational tools for the analysis of pebble bed reactor (PBR) configurations has been a research area of renewed interest for the international community during recent decades. The PBR, which is a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) system, represents one of the potential candidates for future deployment throughout the world of reactor systems that would meet the increased requirements of efficiency, safety, and proliferation resistance and would support other applications such as hydrogen production or nuclear waste recycling. In the U.S, the pebble bed design is one of the two designs under consideration by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program.
Large-Scale Visual Data Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Chris
2014-04-01
Modern high performance computers have speeds measured in petaflops and handle data set sizes measured in terabytes and petabytes. Although these machines offer enormous potential for solving very large-scale realistic computational problems, their effectiveness will hinge upon the ability of human experts to interact with their simulation results and extract useful information. One of the greatest scientific challenges of the 21st century is to effectively understand and make use of the vast amount of information being produced. Visual data analysis will be among our most most important tools in helping to understand such large-scale information. Our research at the Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Institute at the University of Utah has focused on innovative, scalable techniques for large-scale 3D visual data analysis. In this talk, I will present state- of-the-art visualization techniques, including scalable visualization algorithms and software, cluster-based visualization methods and innovate visualization techniques applied to problems in computational science, engineering, and medicine. I will conclude with an outline for a future high performance visualization research challenges and opportunities.
Evaluation of an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) modeling strategy in multiple sclerosis.
Cao, Hua; Peyrodie, Laurent; Agnani, Olivier; Cavillon, Fabrice; Hautecoeur, Patrick; Donzé, Cécile
2015-11-01
The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is the most widely used scale to evaluate the degree of neurological impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this paper, we report on the evaluation of an EDSS modeling strategy based on recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) of posturographic data (i.e., center of pressure, COP). A total of 133 volunteers with EDSS ranging from 0 to 4.5 participated in this study, with eyes closed. After selection of time delay (τ), embedding dimension (m) as well as threshold (radius, r) to identify recurrent points, several RQA measures were calculated for each COP's position and velocity data in the mono- and multi-dimensional RQAs. Estimation results lead to the selection of the recurrence rate (RR) of the COP's position as the most pertinent RQA measure. The performance of the models versus raw and noisy data was higher in the mono-dimensional analysis than in the multi-dimensional. This study suggests that the posturographic signal's mono-dimensional RQA is a more pertinent method to quantify disability in MS than the multi-dimensional RQA. PMID:26345244
Nemoto, T; Funatogawa, T; Takeshi, K; Tobe, M; Yamaguchi, T; Morita, K; Katagiri, N; Tsujino, N; Mizuno, M
2012-09-01
Early intervention for psychosis in Japan has lagged behind that in western countries, but has rapidly begun to attract attention in recent years. As part of a worldwide trend, a multi-dimensional treatment centre for early psychosis consisting of a Youth Clinic, which specialises in young individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis, and Il Bosco, a special day-care service for individuals with early psychosis, was initiated at the Toho University Omori Medical Center in Japan in 2007. The treatment centre aims to provide early intervention to prevent the development of full-blown psychosis in patients with an at-risk mental state and intensive rehabilitation to enable first-episode schizophrenia patients to return to the community. We presently provide the same programmes for both groups at Il Bosco. However, different approaches may need to be considered for patients with an at-risk mental state and for those with first-episode schizophrenia. More phase-specific and need-specific services will be indispensable for early psychiatric interventions in the future. PMID:23019284
Operationalising the Sustainable Knowledge Society Concept through a Multi-dimensional Scorecard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dragomirescu, Horatiu; Sharma, Ravi S.
Since the early 21st Century, building a Knowledge Society represents an aspiration not only for the developed countries, but for the developing ones too. There is an increasing concern worldwide for rendering this process manageable towards a sustainable, equitable and ethically sound societal system. As proper management, including at the societal level, requires both wisdom and measurement, the operationalisation of the Knowledge Society concept encompasses a qualitative side, related to vision-building, and a quantitative one, pertaining to designing and using dedicated metrics. The endeavour of enabling policy-makers mapping, steering and monitoring the sustainable development of the Knowledge Society at national level, in a world increasingly based on creativity, learning and open communication, led researchers to devising a wide range of composite indexes. However, as such indexes are generated through weighting and aggregation, their usefulness is limited to retrospectively assessing and comparing levels and states already attained; therefore, to better serve policy-making purposes, composite indexes should be complemented by other instruments. Complexification, inspired by the systemic paradigm, allows obtaining "rich pictures" of the Knowledge Society; to this end, a multi-dimensional scorecard of the Knowledge Society development is hereby suggested, that seeks a more contextual orientation towards sustainability. It is assumed that, in the case of the Knowledge Society, the sustainability condition goes well beyond the "greening" desideratum and should be of a higher order, relying upon the conversion of natural and productive life-cycles into virtuous circles of self-sustainability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKean, J.; Tonina, D.; Bohn, C.; Wright, C. W.
2014-03-01
New remote sensing technologies and improved computer performance now allow numerical flow modeling over large stream domains. However, there has been limited testing of whether channel topography can be remotely mapped with accuracy necessary for such modeling. We assessed the ability of the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar, to support a multi-dimensional fluid dynamics model of a small mountain stream. Random point elevation errors were introduced into the lidar point cloud, and predictions of water surface elevation, velocity, bed shear stress, and bed mobility were compared to those made without the point errors. We also compared flow model predictions using the lidar bathymetry with those made using a total station channel field survey. Lidar errors caused < 1 cm changes in the modeled water surface elevations. Effects of the point errors on other flow characteristics varied with both the magnitude of error and the local spatial density of lidar data. Shear stress errors were greatest where flow was naturally shallow and fast, and lidar errors caused the greatest changes in flow cross-sectional area. The majority of the stress errors were less than ± 5 Pa. At near bankfull flow, the predicted mobility state of the median grain size changed over ≤ 1.3% of the model domain as a result of lidar elevation errors and ≤ 3% changed mobility in the comparison of lidar and ground-surveyed topography. In this riverscape, results suggest that an airborne bathymetric lidar can map channel topography with sufficient accuracy to support a numerical flow model.
Kitsiou, Dimitra; Coccossis, Harry; Karydis, Michael
2002-02-01
Coastal ecosystems are increasingly threatened by short-sighted management policies that focus on human activities rather than the systems that sustain them. The early assessment of the impacts of human activities on the quality of the environment in coastal areas is important for decision-making, particularly in cases of environment/development conflicts, such as environmental degradation and saturation in tourist areas. In the present study, a methodology was developed for the multi-dimensional evaluation and ranking of coastal areas using a set of criteria and based on the combination of multiple criteria choice methods and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The northeastern part of the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea, Greece was the case study area. A distinction in sub-areas was performed and they were ranked according to socio-economic and environmental parameters. The robustness of the proposed methodology was assessed using different configurations of the initial criteria and reapplication of the process. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the usefulness of this methodology for comparing the status of coastal areas and evaluating their potential for further development based on various criteria, is further discussed. PMID:11846155
A multi-dimensional experiment for characterization of pore structure heterogeneity using NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Rhiannon T.; Seland, John Georg
2016-02-01
In a liquid saturated porous sample the spatial inhomogeneous internal magnetic field in general depends on the strength of the static magnetic field, the differences in magnetic susceptibilities, but also on the geometry of the porous network. To thoroughly investigate how the internal field can be used to determine various properties of the porous structure, we present a novel multi-dimensional NMR experiment that enables us to measure several dynamic correlations in one experiment, and where all of the correlations involve the internal magnetic field and its dependence on the geometry of the porous network. (Correlations: internal gradient - pore size, internal gradient - magnetic susceptibility difference, internal gradient - longitudinal relaxation, longitudinal relaxation - magnetic susceptibility difference.) It is always a spatial average of the internal magnetic field, or one of the related properties, that is measured, which is important to take into consideration when analyzing the obtained results. We demonstrate how these correlations can be an indicator for pore structure heterogeneity, and focus in particular on how the effect from spatial averaging can be evaluated and taken into account in the different cases.
Hierarchical multi-dimensional limiting strategy for correction procedure via reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Chongam
2016-03-01
Hierarchical multi-dimensional limiting process (MLP) is improved and extended for flux reconstruction or correction procedure via reconstruction (FR/CPR) on unstructured grids. MLP was originally developed in finite volume method (FVM) and it provides an accurate, robust and efficient oscillation-control mechanism in multiple dimensions for linear reconstruction. This limiting philosophy can be hierarchically extended into higher-order Pn approximation or reconstruction. The resulting algorithm is referred to as the hierarchical MLP and facilitates detailed capture of flow structures while maintaining formal order-of-accuracy in a smooth region and providing accurate non-oscillatory solutions across a discontinuous region. This algorithm was developed within modal DG framework, but it can also be formulated into a nodal framework, most notably the FR/CPR framework. Troubled-cells are detected by applying the MLP concept, and the final accuracy is determined by a projection procedure and the hierarchical MLP limiting step. Extensive numerical analyses and computations, ranging from two-dimensional to three-dimensional fluid systems, have demonstrated that the proposed limiting approach yields outstanding performances in capturing compressible inviscid and viscous flow features.
Vogt, Stefan; Ralle, Martina
2012-01-01
Copper plays an important role in numerous biological processes across all living systems predominantly because of its versatile redox behavior. Cellular copper homeostasis is tightly regulated and disturbances lead to severe disorders such as Wilson disease (WD) and Menkes disease. Age related changes of copper metabolism have been implicated in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The role of copper in these diseases has been topic of mostly bioinorganic research efforts for more than a decade, metal-protein interactions have been characterized and cellular copper pathways have been described. Despite these efforts, crucial aspects of how copper is associated with AD, for example, is still only poorly understood. To take metal related disease research to the next level, emerging multi dimensional imaging techniques are now revealing the copper metallome as the basis to better understand disease mechanisms. This review will describe how recent advances in X-ray fluorescence microscopy and fluorescent copper probes have started to contribute to this field specifically WD and AD. It furthermore provides an overview of current developments and future applications in X-ray microscopic methodologies. PMID:23079951
A Second-order Godunov Method for Multi-dimensional Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beckwith, Kris; Stone, James M.
2011-03-01
We describe a new Godunov algorithm for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) that combines a simple, unsplit second-order accurate integrator with the constrained transport (CT) method for enforcing the solenoidal constraint on the magnetic field. A variety of approximate Riemann solvers are implemented to compute the fluxes of the conserved variables. The methods are tested with a comprehensive suite of multi-dimensional problems. These tests have helped us develop a hierarchy of correction steps that are applied when the integration algorithm predicts unphysical states due to errors in the fluxes, or errors in the inversion between conserved and primitive variables. Although used exceedingly rarely, these corrections dramatically improve the stability of the algorithm. We present preliminary results from the application of these algorithms to two problems in RMHD: the propagation of supersonic magnetized jets and the amplification of magnetic field by turbulence driven by the relativistic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). Both of these applications reveal important differences between the results computed with Riemann solvers that adopt different approximations for the fluxes. For example, we show that the use of Riemann solvers that include both contact and rotational discontinuities can increase the strength of the magnetic field within the cocoon by a factor of 10 in simulations of RMHD jets and can increase the spectral resolution of three-dimensional RMHD turbulence driven by the KHI by a factor of two. This increase in accuracy far outweighs the associated increase in computational cost. Our RMHD scheme is publicly available as part of the Athena code.
A Second-order Godunov Method for Multi-dimensional Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beckwith, Kris; Stone, J. M.
2011-05-01
We describe a new Godunov algorithm for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) that combines a simple, unsplit second-order accurate integrator with the constrained transport (CT) method for enforcing the solenoidal constraint on the magnetic field. A variety of approximate Riemann solvers are implemented to compute the fluxes of the conserved variables. The methods are tested with a comprehensive suite of multi-dimensional problems. These tests have helped us develop a hierarchy of correction steps that are applied when the integration algorithm predicts unphysical states due to errors in the fluxes, or errors in the inversion between conserved and primitive variables. Although used exceedingly rarely, these corrections dramatically improve the stability of the algorithm. We present preliminary results from the application of these algorithms to two problems in RMHD: the propagation of supersonic magnetized jets and the amplification of magnetic field by turbulence driven by the relativistic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). Both of these applications reveal important differences between the results computed with Riemann solvers that adopt different approximations for the fluxes. For example, we show that the use of Riemann solvers that include both contact and rotational discontinuities can increase the strength of the magnetic field within the cocoon by a factor of 10 in simulations of RMHD jets and can increase the spectral resolution of three-dimensional RMHD turbulence driven by the KHI by a factor of two. This increase in accuracy far outweighs the associated increase in computational cost. Our RMHD scheme is publicly available as part of the Athena code.
A SECOND-ORDER GODUNOV METHOD FOR MULTI-DIMENSIONAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS
Beckwith, Kris; Stone, James M. E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu
2011-03-15
We describe a new Godunov algorithm for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) that combines a simple, unsplit second-order accurate integrator with the constrained transport (CT) method for enforcing the solenoidal constraint on the magnetic field. A variety of approximate Riemann solvers are implemented to compute the fluxes of the conserved variables. The methods are tested with a comprehensive suite of multi-dimensional problems. These tests have helped us develop a hierarchy of correction steps that are applied when the integration algorithm predicts unphysical states due to errors in the fluxes, or errors in the inversion between conserved and primitive variables. Although used exceedingly rarely, these corrections dramatically improve the stability of the algorithm. We present preliminary results from the application of these algorithms to two problems in RMHD: the propagation of supersonic magnetized jets and the amplification of magnetic field by turbulence driven by the relativistic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). Both of these applications reveal important differences between the results computed with Riemann solvers that adopt different approximations for the fluxes. For example, we show that the use of Riemann solvers that include both contact and rotational discontinuities can increase the strength of the magnetic field within the cocoon by a factor of 10 in simulations of RMHD jets and can increase the spectral resolution of three-dimensional RMHD turbulence driven by the KHI by a factor of two. This increase in accuracy far outweighs the associated increase in computational cost. Our RMHD scheme is publicly available as part of the Athena code.
Amado, Diana; Del Villar, Fernando; Leo, Francisco Miguel; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio; García-Calvo, Tomás
2014-01-01
This research study purports to verify the effect produced on the motivation of physical education students of a multi-dimensional programme in dance teaching sessions. This programme incorporates the application of teaching skills directed towards supporting the needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with two natural groups of 4th year Secondary Education students - control and experimental -, delivering 12 dance teaching sessions. A prior training programme was carried out with the teacher in the experimental group to support these needs. An initial and final measurement was taken in both groups and the results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed an increase of the perception of autonomy and, in general, of the level of self-determination towards the curricular content of corporal expression focused on dance in physical education. To this end, we highlight the programme's usefulness in increasing the students' motivation towards this content, which is so complicated for teachers of this area to develop. PMID:24454831
Multi-dimensional SAR tomography for monitoring the deformation of newly built concrete buildings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Peifeng; Lin, Hui; Lan, Hengxing; Chen, Fulong
2015-08-01
Deformation often occurs in buildings at early ages, and the constant inspection of deformation is of significant importance to discover possible cracking and avoid wall failure. This paper exploits the multi-dimensional SAR tomography technique to monitor the deformation performances of two newly built buildings (B1 and B2) with a special focus on the effects of concrete creep and shrinkage. To separate the nonlinear thermal expansion from total deformations, the extended 4-D SAR technique is exploited. The thermal map estimated from 44 TerraSAR-X images demonstrates that the derived thermal amplitude is highly related to the building height due to the upward accumulative effect of thermal expansion. The linear deformation velocity map reveals that B1 is subject to settlement during the construction period, in addition, the creep and shrinkage of B1 lead to wall shortening that is a height-dependent movement in the downward direction, and the asymmetrical creep of B2 triggers wall deflection that is a height-dependent movement in the deflection direction. It is also validated that the extended 4-D SAR can rectify the bias of estimated wall shortening and wall deflection by 4-D SAR.
Yin, Rong; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Li, Xiu-Feng; Jia, Xiao-Bin
2013-11-01
Danmu is one of common medicines in folks of Li nationality, with such effects in clearing heat and removing toxicity, antisepsis and anti-inflammation. Danmu injection, which is developed with Danmu herbs, has been clinically applied for years and showed curative efficacy. Currently, though many studies have been conducted to analyze chemical constituents in Danmu in details, its pharmacodynamic material basis related to disease prevention and treatment has not been defined. Furthermore, as the quality control methods for Danmu and its preparations remain restricted to single index component and irrational to some extent, it fails to ensure their inherent quality. On the basis of the summary of previous study results, as well as the "component structural theory" of the material basis, we established a "multi-dimensional structure quality control technology system" that is capable of reflecting the integrity of effects of Danmu injection and component structure hierarchy, and performed a dynamic monitoring over the whole process from medicinal materials and preparation products, so as to ensure the inherent quality of Danmu injection. PMID:24494545
Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Ancona, Mario G.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Yu, Zhiping
2000-01-01
We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction ot the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.
Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Ancona, Mario G.; Yu, Zhi-Ping
2000-01-01
We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction to the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion or quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Z.; Hsu, T. J.; Calantoni, J.
2014-12-01
In the past decade, researchers have clearly been making progress in predicting coastal erosion/recovery; however, evidences are also clear that existing coastal evolution models cannot predict coastal responses subject to extreme storm events. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of momentary bed failure driven by large horizontal pressure gradients, which may be the dominant sediment transport mechanism under intense storm condition. Recently, a multi-dimensional two-phase Eulerian sediment transport model has been developed and disseminated to the research community as an open-source code. The numerical model is based on extending an open-source CFD library of solvers, OpenFOAM. Model results were validated with published sediment concentration and velocity data measured in steady and oscillatory flow. The 2DV Reynolds-averaged model showed wave-like bed instabilities when the criteria of momentary bed failure was exceeded. These bed instabilities were responsible for the large transport rate observed during plug flow and the onset of the instabilities was associated with a large erosion depth. To better resolve the onset of bed instabilities, subsequent energy cascade and the resulting large sediment transport rate and sediment pickup flux, 3D turbulence-resolving simulations were also carried out. Detailed validation of the 3D turbulence-resolving Eulerian two-phase model will be presented along with the expanded investigation on the dynamics of momentary bed failure.
Multi-dimensional permutation-modulation format for coherent optical communications.
Ishimura, Shota; Kikuchi, Kazuro
2015-06-15
We introduce the multi-dimensional permutation-modulation format in coherent optical communication systems and analyze its performance, focusing on the power efficiency and the spectral efficiency. In the case of four-dimensional (4D) modulation, the polarization-switched quadrature phase-shift keying (PS-QPSK) modulation format and the polarization quadrature-amplitude modulation (POL-QAM) format can be classified into the permutation modulation format. Other than these well-known modulation formats, we find novel modulation formats trading-off between the power efficiency and the spectral efficiency. With the increase in the dimension, the spectral efficiency can more closely approach the channel capacity predicted from the Shannon's theory. We verify these theoretical characteristics through computer simulations of the symbol-error rate (SER) and bit-error rate (BER) performances. For example, the newly-found eight-dimensional (8D) permutation-modulation format can improve the spectral efficiency up to 2.75 bit/s/Hz/pol/channel, while the power penalty against QPSK is about 1 dB at BER=10(-3). PMID:26193538
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hui; Xiong, Qianjin; Qiu, Shaofeng
2014-08-01
Ultrahigh throughout capacity requirement is challenging the current optical switching nodes with the fast development of data center networks. Pbit/s level all optical switching networks need to be deployed soon, which will cause the high complexity of node architecture. How to control the future network and node equipment together will become a new problem. An enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN) control architecture is proposed in the paper, which consists of Provider NOX (P-NOX) and Node NOX (N-NOX). With the cooperation of P-NOX and N-NOX, the flexible control of the entire network can be achieved. All optical switching network testbed has been experimentally demonstrated with efficient control of enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN). Pbit/s level all optical switching nodes in the testbed are implemented based on multi-dimensional switching architecture, i.e. multi-level and multi-planar. Due to the space and cost limitation, each optical switching node is only equipped with four input line boxes and four output line boxes respectively. Experimental results are given to verify the performance of our proposed control and switching architecture.
Multi-dimensional tumor detection in automated whole breast ultrasound using topographic watershed.
Lo, Chung-Ming; Chen, Rong-Tai; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Yang, Ya-Wen; Hung, Ming-Jen; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Chang, Ruey-Feng
2014-07-01
Automated whole breast ultrasound (ABUS) is becoming a popular screening modality for whole breast examination. Compared to conventional handheld ultrasound, ABUS achieves operator-independent and is feasible for mass screening. However, reviewing hundreds of slices in an ABUS image volume is time-consuming. A computer-aided detection (CADe) system based on watershed transform was proposed in this study to accelerate the reviewing. The watershed transform was applied to gather similar tissues around local minima to be homogeneous regions. The likelihoods of being tumors of the regions were estimated using the quantitative morphology, intensity, and texture features in the 2-D/3-D false positive reduction (FPR). The collected database comprised 68 benign and 65 malignant tumors. As a result, the proposed system achieved sensitivities of 100% (133/133), 90% (121/133), and 80% (107/133) with FPs/pass of 9.44, 5.42, and 3.33, respectively. The figure of merit of the combination of three feature sets is 0.46 which is significantly better than that of other feature sets ( [Formula: see text]). In summary, the proposed CADe system based on the multi-dimensional FPR using the integrated feature set is promising in detecting tumors in ABUS images. PMID:24718570
Cressman, Ross; Hofbauer, Josef; Riedel, Frank
2006-03-21
The replicator equation model for the evolution of individual behaviors in a single species with a multi-dimensional continuous trait space is developed as a dynamics on the set of probability measures. Stability of monomorphisms in this model using the weak topology is compared to more traditional methods of adaptive dynamics. For quadratic fitness functions and initial normal trait distributions, it is shown that the multi-dimensional continuously stable strategy (CSS) of adaptive dynamics is often relevant for predicting stability of the measure-theoretic model but may be too strong in general. For general fitness functions and trait distributions, the CSS is related to dominance solvability which can be used to characterize local stability for a large class of trait distributions that have no gaps in their supports whereas the stronger neighborhood invader strategy (NIS) concept is needed if the supports are arbitrary. PMID:16246372
Tong, Jianhua; Matsumura, Yasuyuki
2004-11-01
The big surface pores of a porous stainless steel (PSS) tube filter with marked roughness were jammed with aluminium hydroxide gel by a combination of ultrasonic vibration and vacuum suction, then a thin dense Pd membrane (6 microm) was plated in-situ on this pre-jammed filter by a multi-dimensional plating mechanism; after recovering the substrate pores by high temperature treatment, higher H2 permeance and complete H2 selectivity were obtained. PMID:15514815
Pauly, Anne; Wolf, Carolin; Mayr, Andreas; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes; Friedland, Kristina
2015-01-01
Background In psychiatry, hospital stays and transitions to the ambulatory sector are susceptible to major changes in drug therapy that lead to complex medication regimens and common non-adherence among psychiatric patients. A multi-dimensional and inter-sectoral intervention is hypothesized to improve the adherence of psychiatric patients to their pharmacotherapy. Methods 269 patients from a German university hospital were included in a prospective, open, clinical trial with consecutive control and intervention groups. Control patients (09/2012-03/2013) received usual care, whereas intervention patients (05/2013-12/2013) underwent a program to enhance adherence during their stay and up to three months after discharge. The program consisted of therapy simplification and individualized patient education (multi-dimensional component) during the stay and at discharge, as well as subsequent phone calls after discharge (inter-sectoral component). Adherence was measured by the “Medication Adherence Report Scale” (MARS) and the “Drug Attitude Inventory” (DAI). Results The improvement in the MARS score between admission and three months after discharge was 1.33 points (95% CI: 0.73–1.93) higher in the intervention group compared to controls. In addition, the DAI score improved 1.93 points (95% CI: 1.15–2.72) more for intervention patients. Conclusion These two findings indicate significantly higher medication adherence following the investigated multi-dimensional and inter-sectoral program. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00006358 PMID:26437449
TimeSpan: Using Visualization to Explore Temporal Multi-dimensional Data of Stroke Patients.
Loorak, Mona Hosseinkhani; Perin, Charles; Kamal, Noreen; Hill, Michael; Carpendale, Sheelagh
2016-01-01
We present TimeSpan, an exploratory visualization tool designed to gain a better understanding of the temporal aspects of the stroke treatment process. Working with stroke experts, we seek to provide a tool to help improve outcomes for stroke victims. Time is of critical importance in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients. Every minute that the artery stays blocked, an estimated 1.9 million neurons and 12 km of myelinated axons are destroyed. Consequently, there is a critical need for efficiency of stroke treatment processes. Optimizing time to treatment requires a deep understanding of interval times. Stroke health care professionals must analyze the impact of procedures, events, and patient attributes on time-ultimately, to save lives and improve quality of life after stroke. First, we interviewed eight domain experts, and closely collaborated with two of them to inform the design of TimeSpan. We classify the analytical tasks which a visualization tool should support and extract design goals from the interviews and field observations. Based on these tasks and the understanding gained from the collaboration, we designed TimeSpan, a web-based tool for exploring multi-dimensional and temporal stroke data. We describe how TimeSpan incorporates factors from stacked bar graphs, line charts, histograms, and a matrix visualization to create an interactive hybrid view of temporal data. From feedback collected from domain experts in a focus group session, we reflect on the lessons we learned from abstracting the tasks and iteratively designing TimeSpan. PMID:26390482
Multi-dimensional Conjunctive Operation Rule for the Water Supply System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiu, Y.; Tan, C. A.; CHEN, Y.; Tung, C.
2011-12-01
In recent years, with the increment of floods and droughts, not only in numbers but also in intensities, floods were severer during the wet season and the droughts were more serious during the dry season. In order to reduce their impact on agriculture, industry, and even human being, the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater has been paid much attention and become a new direction for the future research. Traditionally, the reservoir operation usually follows the operation rule curve to satisfy the water demand and considers only water levels at the reservoirs and time series. The strategy used in the conjunctive-use management model is that the water demand is first satisfied with the reservoirs operated based on the rule curves, and the deficit between demand and supply, if exists, is provided by the groundwater. In this study, we propose a new operation rule, named multi-dimensional conjunctive operation rule curve (MCORC), which is extended from the concept of reservoir operation rule curve. The MCORC is a three-dimensional curve and is applied to both surface water and groundwater. Three sets of parameters, water levels and the supply percentage at reservoirs, groundwater levels and the supply percentage, and time series, are considered simultaneously in the curve. The zonation method and heuristic algorithm are applied to optimize the curve subject to the constraints of the reservoir operation rules and the safety yield of groundwater. The proposed conjunctive operation rule was applied to the water supply system which is analogue to the area in northern Taiwan. The results showed that the MCORC could increase the efficiency of water use and reduce the risk of serious water deficits.
Overview of NASA Multi-dimensional Stirling Convertor Code Development and Validation Effort
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tew, Roy C.; Cairelli, James E.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Simon, Terrence W.; Gedeon, David
2002-01-01
A NASA grant has been awarded to Cleveland State University (CSU) to develop a multi-dimensional (multi-D) Stirling computer code with the goals of improving loss predictions and identifying component areas for improvements. The University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates are teamed with CSU. Development of test rigs at UMN and CSU and validation of the code against test data are part of the effort. The one-dimensional (1-D) Stirling codes used for design and performance prediction do not rigorously model regions of the working space where abrupt changes in flow area occur (such as manifolds and other transitions between components). Certain hardware experiences have demonstrated large performance gains by varying manifolds and heat exchanger designs to improve flow distributions in the heat exchangers. 1-D codes were not able to predict these performance gains. An accurate multi-D code should improve understanding of the effects of area changes along the main flow axis, sensitivity of performance to slight changes in internal geometry, and, in general, the understanding of various internal thermodynamic losses. The commercial CFD-ACE code has been chosen for development of the multi-D code. This 2-D/3-D code has highly developed pre- and post-processors, and moving boundary capability. Preliminary attempts at validation of CFD-ACE models of MIT gas spring and "two space" test rigs were encouraging. Also, CSU's simulations of the UMN oscillating-flow fig compare well with flow visualization results from UMN. A complementary Department of Energy (DOE) Regenerator Research effort is aiding in development of regenerator matrix models that will be used in the multi-D Stirling code. This paper reports on the progress and challenges of this
Mechem, David B.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Kogan, Y. L.; Davis, Anthony B; Cahalan, Robert F.; Takara, Ezra E.; Ellingson, Robert G.
2002-06-03
In order to address the interactive and evolutionary nature of the cloud-radiation interaction, we have coupled to a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model the sophisticated multi-dimensional radiative transfer (MDRT) scheme of Evans (Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method; 1998). Because of computational expense, we are at this time only able to run 2D experiments. Preliminary runs consider only the broadband longwave component, in large part because IR cloud top cooling is the significant forcing mechanism for marine stratocumulus. Little difference is noted in the evolution of unbroken stratocumulus between three-hour runs using MDRT and independent pixel approximation (IPA) for 2D domains of 50 km in the horizontal and 1.5 km in the vertical. Local heating rates differ slightly near undulating regions of cloud top, and a slight bias in mean heating rate from 1 to 3 h is present, yet the differences are never strong enough to result in a pronounced evolutionary bias in typical boundary layer metrics (e.g. inversion height, vertical velocity variance, TKE). Longer integration times may eventually produce a physical response to the bias in radiative cooling rates. A low-CCN case, designed to produce significant drizzle and induce cloud breakup does show subtle differences between MDRT and IPA. Over the course of the 6 hour simulations, entrainment is slightly less in the MDRT case, and the transition to the surface-based trade cumulus regime is delayed. Mean cooling rates appear systematically weaker in the MDRT case, indicative of a less energetic PBL and reflected in profiles of vertical velocity variance and TKE.
Mihaljević, Bojan; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro
2014-01-01
Interneuron classification is an important and long-debated topic in neuroscience. A recent study provided a data set of digitally reconstructed interneurons classified by 42 leading neuroscientists according to a pragmatic classification scheme composed of five categorical variables, namely, of the interneuron type and four features of axonal morphology. From this data set we now learned a model which can classify interneurons, on the basis of their axonal morphometric parameters, into these five descriptive variables simultaneously. Because of differences in opinion among the neuroscientists, especially regarding neuronal type, for many interneurons we lacked a unique, agreed-upon classification, which we could use to guide model learning. Instead, we guided model learning with a probability distribution over the neuronal type and the axonal features, obtained, for each interneuron, from the neuroscientists' classification choices. We conveniently encoded such probability distributions with Bayesian networks, calling them label Bayesian networks (LBNs), and developed a method to predict them. This method predicts an LBN by forming a probabilistic consensus among the LBNs of the interneurons most similar to the one being classified. We used 18 axonal morphometric parameters as predictor variables, 13 of which we introduce in this paper as quantitative counterparts to the categorical axonal features. We were able to accurately predict interneuronal LBNs. Furthermore, when extracting crisp (i.e., non-probabilistic) predictions from the predicted LBNs, our method outperformed related work on interneuron classification. Our results indicate that our method is adequate for multi-dimensional classification of interneurons with probabilistic labels. Moreover, the introduced morphometric parameters are good predictors of interneuron type and the four features of axonal morphology and thus may serve as objective counterparts to the subjective, categorical axonal features. PMID:25505405
Mihaljević, Bojan; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro
2014-01-01
Interneuron classification is an important and long-debated topic in neuroscience. A recent study provided a data set of digitally reconstructed interneurons classified by 42 leading neuroscientists according to a pragmatic classification scheme composed of five categorical variables, namely, of the interneuron type and four features of axonal morphology. From this data set we now learned a model which can classify interneurons, on the basis of their axonal morphometric parameters, into these five descriptive variables simultaneously. Because of differences in opinion among the neuroscientists, especially regarding neuronal type, for many interneurons we lacked a unique, agreed-upon classification, which we could use to guide model learning. Instead, we guided model learning with a probability distribution over the neuronal type and the axonal features, obtained, for each interneuron, from the neuroscientists' classification choices. We conveniently encoded such probability distributions with Bayesian networks, calling them label Bayesian networks (LBNs), and developed a method to predict them. This method predicts an LBN by forming a probabilistic consensus among the LBNs of the interneurons most similar to the one being classified. We used 18 axonal morphometric parameters as predictor variables, 13 of which we introduce in this paper as quantitative counterparts to the categorical axonal features. We were able to accurately predict interneuronal LBNs. Furthermore, when extracting crisp (i.e., non-probabilistic) predictions from the predicted LBNs, our method outperformed related work on interneuron classification. Our results indicate that our method is adequate for multi-dimensional classification of interneurons with probabilistic labels. Moreover, the introduced morphometric parameters are good predictors of interneuron type and the four features of axonal morphology and thus may serve as objective counterparts to the subjective, categorical axonal features. PMID:25505405
MULTI-DIMENSIONAL FEATURES OF NEUTRINO TRANSFER IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE
Sumiyoshi, K.; Takiwaki, T.; Matsufuru, H.; Yamada, S. E-mail: takiwaki.tomoya@nao.ac.jp E-mail: shoichi@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp
2015-01-01
We study the multi-dimensional properties of neutrino transfer inside supernova cores by solving the Boltzmann equations for neutrino distribution functions in genuinely six-dimensional phase space. Adopting representative snapshots of the post-bounce core from other supernova simulations in three dimensions, we solve the temporal evolution to stationary states of neutrino distribution functions using our Boltzmann solver. Taking advantage of the multi-angle and multi-energy feature realized by the S {sub n} method in our code, we reveal the genuine characteristics of spatially three-dimensional neutrino transfer, such as nonradial fluxes and nondiagonal Eddington tensors. In addition, we assess the ray-by-ray approximation, turning off the lateral-transport terms in our code. We demonstrate that the ray-by-ray approximation tends to propagate fluctuations in thermodynamical states around the neutrino sphere along each radial ray and overestimate the variations between the neutrino distributions on different radial rays. We find that the difference in the densities and fluxes of neutrinos between the ray-by-ray approximation and the full Boltzmann transport becomes ∼20%, which is also the case for the local heating rate, whereas the volume-integrated heating rate in the Boltzmann transport is found to be only slightly larger (∼2%) than the counterpart in the ray-by-ray approximation due to cancellation among different rays. These results suggest that we should carefully assess the possible influences of various approximations in the neutrino transfer employed in current simulations of supernova dynamics. Detailed information on the angle and energy moments of neutrino distribution functions will be profitable for the future development of numerical methods in neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics.
Detection and analysis of multi-dimensional pulse wave based on optical coherence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yihui; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Chen, Haiyu
2014-11-01
Pulse diagnosis is an important method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Doctors diagnose the patients' physiological and pathological statuses through the palpation of radial artery for radial artery pulse information. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an useful tool for medical optical research. Current conventional diagnostic devices only function as a pressure sensor to detect the pulse wave - which can just partially reflect the doctors feelings and lost large amounts of useful information. In this paper, the microscopic changes of the surface skin above radial artery had been studied in the form of images based on OCT. The deformation of surface skin in a cardiac cycle which is caused by arterial pulse is detected by OCT. The patient's pulse wave is calculated through image processing. It is found that it is good consistent with the result conducted by pulse analyzer. The real-time patient's physiological and pathological statuses can be monitored. This research provides a kind of new method for pulse diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine.
Correlation network analysis for multi-dimensional data in stocks market
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazemilari, Mansooreh; Djauhari, Maman Abdurachman
2015-07-01
This paper shows how the concept of vector correlation can appropriately measure the similarity among multivariate time series in stocks network. The motivation of this paper is (i) to apply the RV coefficient to define the network among stocks where each of them is represented by a multivariate time series; (ii) to analyze that network in terms of topological structure of the stocks of all minimum spanning trees, and (iii) to compare the network topology between univariate correlation based on r and multivariate correlation network based on RV coefficient.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meier, D. L.
1998-01-01
A new field of numerical astrophysics is introduced which addresses the solution of large, multidimensional structural or slowly-evolving problems (rotating stars, interacting binaries, thick advective accretion disks, four dimensional spacetimes, etc.), as well as rapidly evolving systems.
Multi-dimensional forward modeling of frequency-domain helicopter-borne electromagnetic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miensopust, M.; Siemon, B.; Brner, R.; Ansari, S.
2013-12-01
Helicopter-borne frequency-domain electromagnetic (HEM) surveys are used for fast high-resolution, three-dimensional (3-D) resistivity mapping. Nevertheless, 3-D modeling and inversion of an entire HEM data set is in many cases impractical and, therefore, interpretation is commonly based on one-dimensional (1-D) modeling and inversion tools. Such an approach is valid for environments with horizontally layered targets and for groundwater applications but there are areas of higher dimension that are not recovered correctly applying 1-D methods. The focus of this work is the multi-dimensional forward modeling. As there is no analytic solution to verify (or falsify) the obtained numerical solutions, comparison with 1-D values as well as amongst various two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D codes is essential. At the center of a large structure (a few hundred meters edge length) and above the background structure in some distance to the anomaly 2-D and 3-D values should match the 1-D solution. Higher dimensional conditions are present at the edges of the anomaly and, therefore, only a comparison of different 2-D and 3-D codes gives an indication of the reliability of the solution. The more codes - especially if based on different methods and/or written by different programmers - agree the more reliable is the obtained synthetic data set. Very simple structures such as a conductive or resistive block embedded in a homogeneous or layered half-space without any topography and using a constant sensor height were chosen to calculate synthetic data. For the comparison one finite element 2-D code and numerous 3-D codes, which are based on finite difference, finite element and integral equation approaches, were applied. Preliminary results of the comparison will be shown and discussed. Additionally, challenges that arose from this comparative study will be addressed and further steps to approach more realistic field data settings for forward modeling will be discussed. As the driving engine of an inversion algorithm is its forward solver, applying inversion codes to HEM data is only sensible once the forward modeling results are reliable (and their limits and weaknesses are known and manageable).
The New Environmental Paradigm and Further Scale Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noe, Francis P.; Snow, Rob
1990-01-01
Examined were the responses of park visitors to the New Environmental Paradigm scale. Research methods, and results including reliabilities and factor analysis of the scales on the survey are discussed. (CW)
Developmental Work Personality Scale: An Initial Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strauser, David R.; Keim, Jeanmarie
2002-01-01
The research reported in this article involved using the Developmental Model of Work Personality to create a scale to measure work personality, the Developmental Work Personality Scale (DWPS). Overall, results indicated that the DWPS may have potential applications for assessing work personality prior to client involvement in comprehensive…
Kaethner, Christian Ahlborg, Mandy; Buzug, Thorsten M.; Knopp, Tobias; Sattel, Timo F.
2014-01-28
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a tomographic imaging modality capable to visualize tracers using magnetic fields. A high magnetic gradient strength is mandatory, to achieve a reasonable image quality. Therefore, a power optimization of the coil configuration is essential. In order to realize a multi-dimensional efficient gradient field generator, the following improvements compared to conventionally used Maxwell coil configurations are proposed: (i) curved rectangular coils, (ii) interleaved coils, and (iii) multi-layered coils. Combining these adaptions results in total power reduction of three orders of magnitude, which is an essential step for the feasibility of building full-body human MPI scanners.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaethner, Christian; Ahlborg, Mandy; Knopp, Tobias; Sattel, Timo F.; Buzug, Thorsten M.
2014-01-01
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a tomographic imaging modality capable to visualize tracers using magnetic fields. A high magnetic gradient strength is mandatory, to achieve a reasonable image quality. Therefore, a power optimization of the coil configuration is essential. In order to realize a multi-dimensional efficient gradient field generator, the following improvements compared to conventionally used Maxwell coil configurations are proposed: (i) curved rectangular coils, (ii) interleaved coils, and (iii) multi-layered coils. Combining these adaptions results in total power reduction of three orders of magnitude, which is an essential step for the feasibility of building full-body human MPI scanners.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ducrot, Arnaud
2015-04-01
This paper is concerned with the study of the asymptotic behaviour of a multi-dimensional Fisher-KPP equation posed in an asymptotically homogeneous medium and supplemented together with a compactly supported initial datum. We derive precise estimates for the location of the front before proving the convergence of the solutions towards the travelling front. In particular, we show that the location of the front drastically depends on the rate at which the medium becomes homogeneous at infinity. Fast rate of convergence only changes the location by some constant while lower rate of convergence induces further logarithmic delay.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delzanno, G. L.
2015-11-01
A spectral method for the numerical solution of the multi-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equations is presented. The plasma distribution function is expanded in Fourier (for the spatial part) and Hermite (for the velocity part) basis functions, leading to a truncated system of ordinary differential equations for the expansion coefficients (moments) that is discretized with an implicit, second order accurate Crank-Nicolson time discretization. The discrete non-linear system is solved with a preconditioned Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov method. It is shown analytically that the Fourier-Hermite method features exact conservation laws for total mass, momentum and energy in discrete form. Standard tests involving plasma waves and the whistler instability confirm the validity of the conservation laws numerically. The whistler instability test also shows that we can step over the fastest time scale in the system without incurring in numerical instabilities. Some preconditioning strategies are presented, showing that the number of linear iterations of the Krylov solver can be drastically reduced and a significant gain in performance can be obtained.
Dynamical scaling analysis of plant callus growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galeano, J.; Buceta, J.; Juarez, K.; Pumariño, B.; de la Torre, J.; Iriondo, J. M.
2003-07-01
We present experimental results for the dynamical scaling properties of the development of plant calli. We have assayed two different species of plant calli, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa, under different growth conditions, and show that their dynamical scalings share a universality class. From a theoretical point of view, we introduce a scaling hypothesis for systems whose size evolves in time. We expect our work to be relevant for the understanding and characterization of other systems that undergo growth due to cell division and differentiation, such as, for example, tumor development.
A Dual Scaling Analysis for Paired Compositions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bechtel, Gordon G.
1971-01-01
A sensitive measurement model is developed that provides transactional scale values for individual members of a group, as well as an evaluation of pairwise interactions and balances that are emergent properties of the group itself. (Author/DG)
Convective scale weather analysis and forecasting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Purdom, J. F. W.
1984-01-01
How satellite data can be used to improve insight into the mesoscale behavior of the atmosphere is demonstrated with emphasis on the GOES-VAS sounding and image data. This geostationary satellite has the unique ability to observe frequently the atmosphere (sounders) and its cloud cover (visible and infrared) from the synoptic scale down to the cloud scale. These uniformly calibrated data sets can be combined with conventional data to reveal many of the features important in mesoscale weather development and evolution.
Lamani, Xolelwa; Horst, Simeon; Zimmermann, Thomas; Schmidt, Torsten C
2015-01-01
Aromatic amines are an important class of harmful components of cigarette smoke. Nevertheless, only few of them have been reported to occur in urine, which raises questions on the fate of these compounds in the human body. Here we report on the results of a new analytical method, in situ derivatization solid phase microextraction (SPME) multi-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-qMS), that allows for a comprehensive fingerprint analysis of the substance class in complex matrices. Due to the high polarity of amino compounds, the complex urine matrix and prevalence of conjugated anilines, pretreatment steps such as acidic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and derivatization of amines to their corresponding aromatic iodine compounds are necessary. Prior to detection, the derivatives were enriched by headspace SPME with the extraction efficiency of the SPME fiber ranging between 65 % and 85 %. The measurements were carried out in full scan mode with conservatively estimated limits of detection (LOD) in the range of several ng/L and relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 20 %. More than 150 aromatic amines have been identified in the urine of a smoking person, including alkylated and halogenated amines as well as substituted naphthylamines. Also in the urine of a non-smoker, a number of aromatic amines have been identified, which suggests that the detection of biomarkers in urine samples using a more comprehensive analysis as detailed in this report may be essential to complement the approach of the use of classic biomarkers. PMID:25142049
Minimum Sample Size Requirements for Mokken Scale Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Straat, J. Hendrik; van der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas
2014-01-01
An automated item selection procedure in Mokken scale analysis partitions a set of items into one or more Mokken scales, if the data allow. Two algorithms are available that pursue the same goal of selecting Mokken scales of maximum length: Mokken's original automated item selection procedure (AISP) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Minimum…
A Scale Analysis of the Effects of US Federal Policy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pandya, Jessica Zacher
2012-01-01
In this essay I argue that the effects of federal policy can be examined through a scale analysis that helps deconstruct the effect of the current widespread accountability movement in the US educational system. I first discuss the concept of scale, including its thus-far limited use in educational research. I define scales not only as…
Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Cancer Locus of Control Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henderson, Jessica W.; Donatelle, Rebecca J.; Acock, Alan C.
2002-01-01
Conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of the Cancer Locus of Control scale (M. Watson and others, 1990), administered to 543 women with a history of breast cancer. Results support a three-factor model of the scale and support use of the scale to assess control dimensions. (SLD)
Detection of crossover time scales in multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Erjia; Leung, Yee
2013-04-01
Fractal is employed in this paper as a scale-based method for the identification of the scaling behavior of time series. Many spatial and temporal processes exhibiting complex multi(mono)-scaling behaviors are fractals. One of the important concepts in fractals is crossover time scale(s) that separates distinct regimes having different fractal scaling behaviors. A common method is multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The detection of crossover time scale(s) is, however, relatively subjective since it has been made without rigorous statistical procedures and has generally been determined by eye balling or subjective observation. Crossover time scales such determined may be spurious and problematic. It may not reflect the genuine underlying scaling behavior of a time series. The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical procedure to model complex fractal scaling behaviors and reliably identify the crossover time scales under MF-DFA. The scaling-identification regression model, grounded on a solid statistical foundation, is first proposed to describe multi-scaling behaviors of fractals. Through the regression analysis and statistical inference, we can (1) identify the crossover time scales that cannot be detected by eye-balling observation, (2) determine the number and locations of the genuine crossover time scales, (3) give confidence intervals for the crossover time scales, and (4) establish the statistically significant regression model depicting the underlying scaling behavior of a time series. To substantive our argument, the regression model is applied to analyze the multi-scaling behaviors of avian-influenza outbreaks, water consumption, daily mean temperature, and rainfall of Hong Kong. Through the proposed model, we can have a deeper understanding of fractals in general and a statistical approach to identify multi-scaling behavior under MF-DFA in particular.
Scientific design of Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) for GE SBWR
Ishii, M.; Ravankar, S.T.; Dowlati, R.
1996-04-01
The scaled facility design was based on the three level scaling method; the first level is based on the well established approach obtained from the integral response function, namely integral scaling. This level insures that the stead-state as well as dynamic characteristics of the loops are scaled properly. The second level scaling is for the boundary flow of mass and energy between components; this insures that the flow and inventory are scaled correctly. The third level is focused on key local phenomena and constitutive relations. The facility has 1/4 height and 1/100 area ratio scaling; this corresponds to the volume scale of 1/400. Power scaling is 1/200 based on the integral scaling. The time will run twice faster in the model as predicted by the present scaling method. PUMA is scaled for full pressure and is intended to operate at and below 150 psia following scram. The facility models all the major components of SBWR (Simplified Boiling Water Reactor), safety and non-safety systems of importance to the transients. The model component designs and detailed instrumentations are presented in this report.
Vigelius, Matthias; Meyer, Bernd
2012-01-01
For many biological applications, a macroscopic (deterministic) treatment of reaction-drift-diffusion systems is insufficient. Instead, one has to properly handle the stochastic nature of the problem and generate true sample paths of the underlying probability distribution. Unfortunately, stochastic algorithms are computationally expensive and, in most cases, the large number of participating particles renders the relevant parameter regimes inaccessible. In an attempt to address this problem we present a genuine stochastic, multi-dimensional algorithm that solves the inhomogeneous, non-linear, drift-diffusion problem on a mesoscopic level. Our method improves on existing implementations in being multi-dimensional and handling inhomogeneous drift and diffusion. The algorithm is well suited for an implementation on data-parallel hardware architectures such as general-purpose graphics processing units (GPUs). We integrate the method into an operator-splitting approach that decouples chemical reactions from the spatial evolution. We demonstrate the validity and applicability of our algorithm with a comprehensive suite of standard test problems that also serve to quantify the numerical accuracy of the method. We provide a freely available, fully functional GPU implementation. Integration into Inchman, a user-friendly web service, that allows researchers to perform parallel simulations of reaction-drift-diffusion systems on GPU clusters is underway. PMID:22506001
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Gregory K.; Petti, David A.; Varacalle, Dominic J.; Maki, John T.
2003-04-01
The fundamental design for a gas-cooled reactor relies on the behavior of the coated particle fuel. The coating layers, termed the TRISO coating, act as a mini-pressure vessel that retains fission products. Results of US irradiation experiments show that many more fuel particles have failed than can be attributed to one-dimensional pressure vessel failures alone. Post-irradiation examinations indicate that multi-dimensional effects, such as the presence of irradiation-induced shrinkage cracks in the inner pyrolytic carbon layer, contribute to these failures. To address these effects, the methods of prior one-dimensional models are expanded to capture the stress intensification associated with multi-dimensional behavior. An approximation of the stress levels enables the treatment of statistical variations in numerous design parameters and Monte Carlo sampling over a large number of particles. The approach is shown to make reasonable predictions when used to calculate failure probabilities for irradiation experiments of the New Production - Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Cheng, Gary
2013-01-01
With the wide availability of affordable multiple-core parallel supercomputers, next generation numerical simulations of flow physics are being focused on unsteady computations for problems involving multiple time scales and multiple physics. These simulations require higher solution accuracy than most algorithms and computational fluid dynamics codes currently available. This paper focuses on the developmental effort for high-fidelity multi-dimensional, unstructured-mesh flow solvers using the space-time conservation element, solution element (CESE) framework. Two approaches have been investigated in this research in order to provide high-accuracy, cross-cutting numerical simulations for a variety of flow regimes: 1) time-accurate local time stepping and 2) highorder CESE method. The first approach utilizes consistent numerical formulations in the space-time flux integration to preserve temporal conservation across the cells with different marching time steps. Such approach relieves the stringent time step constraint associated with the smallest time step in the computational domain while preserving temporal accuracy for all the cells. For flows involving multiple scales, both numerical accuracy and efficiency can be significantly enhanced. The second approach extends the current CESE solver to higher-order accuracy. Unlike other existing explicit high-order methods for unstructured meshes, the CESE framework maintains a CFL condition of one for arbitrarily high-order formulations while retaining the same compact stencil as its second-order counterpart. For large-scale unsteady computations, this feature substantially enhances numerical efficiency. Numerical formulations and validations using benchmark problems are discussed in this paper along with realistic examples.
Multidimensional Scaling versus Components Analysis of Test Intercorrelations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davison, Mark L.
1985-01-01
Considers the relationship between coordinate estimates in components analysis and multidimensional scaling. Reports three small Monte Carlo studies comparing nonmetric scaling solutions to components analysis. Results are related to other methodological issues surrounding research on the general ability factor, response tendencies in…
Relations Between Multidimensional Scaling and Three-Mode Factor Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tucker, Ledyard R.
Two lines of psychometric interest are combined: a) multidimensional scaling and, b) factor analysis. This is achieved by employing three-mode factor analysis of scalar product matrices, one for each subject. Two of the modes are the group of objects scaled and the third is the sample of subjects. Resulting from this are, an object space, a person…
Allu, Srikanth; Velamur Asokan, Badri; Shelton, William A; Philip, Bobby; Pannala, Sreekanth
2014-01-01
A generalized three dimensional computational model based on unied formulation of electrode- electrolyte-electrode system of a electric double layer supercapacitor has been developed. The model accounts for charge transport across the solid-liquid system. This formulation based on volume averaging process is a widely used concept for the multiphase ow equations ([28] [36]) and is analogous to porous media theory typically employed for electrochemical systems [22] [39] [12]. This formulation is extended to the electrochemical equations for a supercapacitor in a consistent fashion, which allows for a single-domain approach with no need for explicit interfacial boundary conditions as previously employed ([38]). In this model it is easy to introduce the spatio-temporal variations, anisotropies of physical properties and it is also conducive for introducing any upscaled parameters from lower length{scale simulations and experiments. Due to the irregular geometric congurations including porous electrode, the charge transport and subsequent performance characteristics of the super-capacitor can be easily captured in higher dimensions. A generalized model of this nature also provides insight into the applicability of 1D models ([38]) and where multidimensional eects need to be considered. In addition, simple sensitivity analysis on key input parameters is performed in order to ascertain the dependence of the charge and discharge processes on these parameters. Finally, we demonstarted how this new formulation can be applied to non-planar supercapacitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allu, S.; Velamur Asokan, B.; Shelton, W. A.; Philip, B.; Pannala, S.
2014-06-01
A generalized three dimensional computational model based on unified formulation of electrode-electrolyte system of an electric double layer supercapacitor has been developed. This model accounts for charge transport across the electrode-electrolyte system. It is based on volume averaging, a widely used technique in multiphase flow modeling ([1,2]) and is analogous to porous media theory employed for electrochemical systems [3-5]. A single-domain approach is considered in the formulation where there is no need to model the interfacial boundary conditions explicitly as done in prior literature ([6]). Spatio-temporal variations, anisotropic physical properties, and upscaled parameters from lower length-scale simulations and experiments can be easily introduced in the formulation. Model complexities like irregular geometric configuration, porous electrodes, charge transport and related performance characteristics of the supercapacitor can be effectively captured in higher dimensions. This generalized model also provides insight into the applicability of 1D models ([6]) and where multidimensional effects need to be considered. A sensitivity analysis is presented to ascertain the dependence of the charge and discharge processes on key model parameters. Finally, application of the formulation to non-planar supercapacitors is presented.
Longitudinal Network Analysis Using Multidimensional Scaling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnett, George A.; Palmer, Mark T.
The Galileo System, a variant of metric multidimensional scaling, is used in this paper to analyze over-time changes in social networks. The paper first discusses the theoretical necessity for the use of this procedure and the methodological problems associated with its use. It then examines the air traffic network among 31 major cities in the…
Gu, Jun-Fei; Feng, Liang; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Wu, Chan; Jia, Xiao-Bin
2013-11-01
Safety is an important component of the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation products, as well as an important guarantee for clinical application. Currently, the quality control of TCMs in Chinese Pharmacopoeia mostly focuses on indicative compounds for TCM efficacy. TCM preparations are associated with multiple links, from raw materials to products, and each procedure may have impacts on the safety of preparation. We make a summary and analysis on the factors impacting safety during the preparation of TCM products, and then expound the important role of the "multi-dimensional structure and process dynamic quality control technology system" in the quality safety of TCM preparations. Because the product quality of TCM preparation is closely related to the safety, the control over safety-related material basis is an important component of the product quality control of TCM preparations. The implementation of the quality control over the dynamic process of TCM preparations from raw materials to products, and the improvement of the TCM quality safety control at the microcosmic level help lay a firm foundation for the development of the modernization process of TCM preparations. PMID:24494541
Local variance for multi-scale analysis in geomorphometry
Drăguţ, Lucian; Eisank, Clemens; Strasser, Thomas
2011-01-01
Increasing availability of high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is leading to a paradigm shift regarding scale issues in geomorphometry, prompting new solutions to cope with multi-scale analysis and detection of characteristic scales. We tested the suitability of the local variance (LV) method, originally developed for image analysis, for multi-scale analysis in geomorphometry. The method consists of: 1) up-scaling land-surface parameters derived from a DEM; 2) calculating LV as the average standard deviation (SD) within a 3 × 3 moving window for each scale level; 3) calculating the rate of change of LV (ROC-LV) from one level to another, and 4) plotting values so obtained against scale levels. We interpreted peaks in the ROC-LV graphs as markers of scale levels where cells or segments match types of pattern elements characterized by (relatively) equal degrees of homogeneity. The proposed method has been applied to LiDAR DEMs in two test areas different in terms of roughness: low relief and mountainous, respectively. For each test area, scale levels for slope gradient, plan, and profile curvatures were produced at constant increments with either resampling (cell-based) or image segmentation (object-based). Visual assessment revealed homogeneous areas that convincingly associate into patterns of land-surface parameters well differentiated across scales. We found that the LV method performed better on scale levels generated through segmentation as compared to up-scaling through resampling. The results indicate that coupling multi-scale pattern analysis with delineation of morphometric primitives is possible. This approach could be further used for developing hierarchical classifications of landform elements. PMID:21779138
Cho, H.K.; Park, G.C.; Yun, B.J.; Kwon, T.S.; Song, C.H.
2002-07-01
From the two dimensional two-fluid model a new scaling methodology, named the 'modified linear scaling', is suggested for the scientific design of a scaled-down experimental facility and data analysis of the direct ECC bypass under LBLOCA reflood phase. The characteristics of the scaling law are its velocity is scaled by a Wallis-type parameter and the aspect ratio of experimental facility is preserved with that of prototype. For the experimental validation of the proposed scaling law, the air-water tests for direct ECC bypass were performed in the 1/4.0 and 1/7.3 scaled UPTF downcomer test section. The obtained data are compared with those of UPTF Test 21-D. It is found that the modified linear scaling methodology is appropriate for the preservation of multi-dimensional flow phenomena in downcomer annulus, such as direct ECC bypass. (authors)
Analysis of a municipal wastewater treatment plant using a neural network-based pattern analysis.
Hong, Yoon-Seok Timothy; Rosen, Michael R; Bhamidimarri, Rao
2003-04-01
This paper addresses the problem of how to capture the complex relationships that exist between process variables and to diagnose the dynamic behaviour of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WTP). Due to the complex biological reaction mechanisms, the highly time-varying, and multivariable aspects of the real WTP, the diagnosis of the WTP are still difficult in practice. The application of intelligent techniques, which can analyse the multi-dimensional process data using a sophisticated visualisation technique, can be useful for analysing and diagnosing the activated-sludge WTP. In this paper, the Kohonen Self-Organising Feature Maps (KSOFM) neural network is applied to analyse the multi-dimensional process data, and to diagnose the inter-relationship of the process variables in a real activated-sludge WTP. By using component planes, some detailed local relationships between the process variables, e.g., responses of the process variables under different operating conditions, as well as the global information is discovered. The operating condition and the inter-relationship among the process variables in the WTP have been diagnosed and extracted by the information obtained from the clustering analysis of the maps. It is concluded that the KSOFM technique provides an effective analysing and diagnosing tool to understand the system behaviour and to extract knowledge contained in multi-dimensional data of a large-scale WTP. PMID:12600389
Analysis of a municipal wastewater treatment plant using a neural network-based pattern analysis
Hong, Y.-S.T.; Rosen, Michael R.; Bhamidimarri, R.
2003-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of how to capture the complex relationships that exist between process variables and to diagnose the dynamic behaviour of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WTP). Due to the complex biological reaction mechanisms, the highly time-varying, and multivariable aspects of the real WTP, the diagnosis of the WTP are still difficult in practice. The application of intelligent techniques, which can analyse the multi-dimensional process data using a sophisticated visualisation technique, can be useful for analysing and diagnosing the activated-sludge WTP. In this paper, the Kohonen Self-Organising Feature Maps (KSOFM) neural network is applied to analyse the multi-dimensional process data, and to diagnose the inter-relationship of the process variables in a real activated-sludge WTP. By using component planes, some detailed local relationships between the process variables, e.g., responses of the process variables under different operating conditions, as well as the global information is discovered. The operating condition and the inter-relationship among the process variables in the WTP have been diagnosed and extracted by the information obtained from the clustering analysis of the maps. It is concluded that the KSOFM technique provides an effective analysing and diagnosing tool to understand the system behaviour and to extract knowledge contained in multi-dimensional data of a large-scale WTP. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Discrete implementations of scale transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djurdjanovic, Dragan; Williams, William J.; Koh, Christopher K.
1999-11-01
Scale as a physical quantity is a recently developed concept. The scale transform can be viewed as a special case of the more general Mellin transform and its mathematical properties are very applicable in the analysis and interpretation of the signals subject to scale changes. A number of single-dimensional applications of scale concept have been made in speech analysis, processing of biological signals, machine vibration analysis and other areas. Recently, the scale transform was also applied in multi-dimensional signal processing and used for image filtering and denoising. Discrete implementation of the scale transform can be carried out using logarithmic sampling and the well-known fast Fourier transform. Nevertheless, in the case of the uniformly sampled signals, this implementation involves resampling. An algorithm not involving resampling of the uniformly sampled signals has been derived too. In this paper, a modification of the later algorithm for discrete implementation of the direct scale transform is presented. In addition, similar concept was used to improve a recently introduced discrete implementation of the inverse scale transform. Estimation of the absolute discretization errors showed that the modified algorithms have a desirable property of yielding a smaller region of possible error magnitudes. Experimental results are obtained using artificial signals as well as signals evoked from the temporomandibular joint. In addition, discrete implementations for the separable two-dimensional direct and inverse scale transforms are derived. Experiments with image restoration and scaling through two-dimensional scale domain using the novel implementation of the separable two-dimensional scale transform pair are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grenga, Temistocle
The aim of this research is to further develop a dynamically adaptive algorithm based on wavelets that is able to solve efficiently multi-dimensional compressible reactive flow problems. This work demonstrates the great potential for the method to perform direct numerical simulation (DNS) of combustion with detailed chemistry and multi-component diffusion. In particular, it addresses the performance obtained using a massive parallel implementation and demonstrates important savings in memory storage and computational time over conventional methods. In addition, fully-resolved simulations of challenging three dimensional problems involving mixing and combustion processes are performed. These problems are particularly challenging due to their strong multiscale characteristics. For these solutions, it is necessary to combine the advanced numerical techniques applied to modern computational resources.
High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present the first fifth order, semi-discrete central upwind method for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Unlike most of the commonly used high order upwind schemes, our scheme is formulated as a Godunov-type scheme. The scheme is based on the fluxes of Kurganov-Tadmor and Kurganov-Tadmor-Petrova, and is derived for an arbitrary number of space dimensions. A theorem establishing the monotonicity of these fluxes is provided. The spacial discretization is based on a weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction of the derivative. The accuracy and stability properties of our scheme are demonstrated in a variety of examples. A comparison between our method and other fifth-order schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations shows that our method exhibits smaller errors without any increase in the complexity of the computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Dapeng; He, Jinjin; Zhang, Shuo; Cao, Kun; Gao, Zhiyong; Xu, Fang; Jiang, Kai
2015-05-01
Multi-dimensional TiO2 hierarchal structures (MD-THS) assembled by mesoporous nanoribbons consisted of oriented aligned nanocrystals are prepared via thermal decomposing Ti-contained gelatin-like precursor. A unique bridge linking mechanism is proposed to illustrate the formation process of the precursor. Moreover, the as-prepared MD-THS possesses high surface area of ∼106 cm2 g-1, broad pore size distribution from several nanometers to ∼100 nm and oriented assembled primary nanocrystals, which gives rise to high CdS/CdSe quantum dots loading amount and inhibits the carries recombination in the photoanode. Thanks to these structural advantages, the cell derived from MD-THS demonstrates a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.15%, representing ∼36% improvement compared with that of the nanocrystal based cell, which permits the promising application of MD-THS as photoanode material in quantum-dot sensitized solar cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.; Simó, C.
2003-08-01
In this paper we deal with an alternative technique to study global dynamics in Hamiltonian systems, the mean exponential growth factor of nearby orbits (MEGNO), that proves to be efficient to investigate both regular and stochastic components of phase space. It provides a clear picture of resonance structures, location of stable and unstable periodic orbits as well as a measure of hyperbolicity in chaotic domains which coincides with that given by the Lyapunov characteristic number. Here the MEGNO is applied to a rather simple model, the 3D perturbed quartic oscillator, in order to visualize the structure of its phase space and obtain a quite clear picture of its resonance structure. Examples of application to multi-dimensional canonical maps are also included.
EL-Shamy, E. F.
2014-08-15
The solitary structures of multi–dimensional ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) have been considered in magnetoplasmas consisting of electron-positron-ion with high-energy (superthermal) electrons and positrons are investigated. Using a reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. The multi-dimensional instability of obliquely propagating (with respect to the external magnetic field) IASWs has been studied by the small-k (long wavelength plane wave) expansion perturbation method. The instability condition and the growth rate of the instability have been derived. It is shown that the instability criterion and their growth rate depend on the parameter measuring the superthermality, the ion gyrofrequency, the unperturbed positrons-to-ions density ratio, the direction cosine, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio. Clearly, the study of our model under consideration is helpful for explaining the propagation and the instability of IASWs in space observations of magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walton, Jay R.; Rivera-Rivera, Luis A.; Lucchese, Robert R.; Bevan, John W.
2016-05-01
A canonical approach is used to investigate prototypical multi-dimensional intermolecular interaction potentials characteristic of categories in van der Waals, hydrogen-bonded, and halogen-bonded intermolecular interactions. It is demonstrated that well-characterized potentials in Ar·HI, OC·HI, OC·HF, and OC·BrCl, can be canonically transformed to a common dimensionless potential with relative error less than 0.010. The results indicate common intrinsic bonding properties despite other varied characteristics in the systems investigated. The results of these studies are discussed in the context of the previous statement made by Slater (1972) concerning fundamental bonding properties in the categories of interatomic interactions analyzed.
High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bran R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present high-order semi-discrete central-upwind numerical schemes for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. This scheme is based on the use of fifth-order central interpolants like those developed in [1], in fluxes presented in [3]. These interpolants use the weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) approach to avoid spurious oscillations near singularities, and become "central-upwind" in the semi-discrete limit. This scheme provides numerical approximations whose error is as much as an order of magnitude smaller than those in previous WENO-based fifth-order methods [2, 1]. Thee results are discussed via examples in one, two and three dimensions. We also pregnant explicit N-dimensional formulas for the fluxes, discuss their monotonicity and tl!e connection between this method and that in [2].
The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire: Mokken Scaling Analysis
Shenkin, Susan D.; Watson, Roger; Laidlaw, Ken; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
2014-01-01
Background Hierarchical scales are useful in understanding the structure of underlying latent traits in many questionnaires. The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) explored the attitudes to ageing of older people themselves, and originally described three distinct subscales: (1) Psychosocial Loss (2) Physical Change and (3) Psychological Growth. This study aimed to use Mokken analysis, a method of Item Response Theory, to test for hierarchies within the AAQ and to explore how these relate to underlying latent traits. Methods Participants in a longitudinal cohort study, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, completed a cross-sectional postal survey. Data from 802 participants were analysed using Mokken Scaling analysis. These results were compared with factor analysis using exploratory structural equation modelling. Results Participants were 51.6% male, mean age 74.0 years (SD 0.28). Three scales were identified from 18 of the 24 items: two weak Mokken scales and one moderate Mokken scale. (1) ‘Vitality’ contained a combination of items from all three previously determined factors of the AAQ, with a hierarchy from physical to psychosocial; (2) ‘Legacy’ contained items exclusively from the Psychological Growth scale, with a hierarchy from individual contributions to passing things on; (3) ‘Exclusion’ contained items from the Psychosocial Loss scale, with a hierarchy from general to specific instances. All of the scales were reliable and statistically significant with ‘Legacy’ showing invariant item ordering. The scales correlate as expected with personality, anxiety and depression. Exploratory SEM mostly confirmed the original factor structure. Conclusions The concurrent use of factor analysis and Mokken scaling provides additional information about the AAQ. The previously-described factor structure is mostly confirmed. Mokken scaling identifies a new factor relating to vitality, and a hierarchy of responses within three separate scales, referring to vitality, legacy and exclusion. This shows what older people themselves consider important regarding their own ageing. PMID:24892302
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Xiaodong; Xu, Kun; Shyy, Wei; Gu, Chunwei
2015-07-01
This paper presents a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method based on a multi-dimensional gas kinetic evolution model for viscous flow computations. Generally, the DG methods for equations with higher order derivatives must transform the equations into a first order system in order to avoid the so-called "non-conforming problem". In the traditional DG framework, the inviscid and viscous fluxes are numerically treated differently. Differently from the traditional DG approaches, the current method adopts a kinetic evolution model for both inviscid and viscous flux evaluations uniformly. By using a multi-dimensional gas kinetic formulation, we can obtain a spatial and temporal dependent gas distribution function for the flux integration inside the cell and at the cell interface, which is distinguishable from the Gaussian Quadrature point flux evaluation in the traditional DG method. Besides the initial higher order non-equilibrium states inside each control volume, a Linear Least Square (LLS) method is used for the reconstruction of smooth distributions of macroscopic flow variables around each cell interface in order to construct the corresponding equilibrium state. Instead of separating the space and time integrations and using the multistage Runge-Kutta time stepping method for time accuracy, the current method integrates the flux function in space and time analytically, which subsequently saves the computational time. Many test cases in two and three dimensions, which include high Mach number compressible viscous and heat conducting flows and the low speed high Reynolds number laminar flows, are presented to demonstrate the performance of the current scheme.
Rose, Donald; Bodor, J Nicholas; Hutchinson, Paul L; Swalm, Chris M
2010-06-01
Research on neighborhood food access has focused on documenting disparities in the food environment and on assessing the links between the environment and consumption. Relatively few studies have combined in-store food availability measures with geographic mapping of stores. We review research that has used these multi-dimensional measures of access to explore the links between the neighborhood food environment and consumption or weight status. Early research in California found correlations between red meat, reduced-fat milk, and whole-grain bread consumption and shelf space availability of these products in area stores. Subsequent research in New York confirmed the low-fat milk findings. Recent research in Baltimore has used more sophisticated diet assessment tools and store-based instruments, along with controls for individual characteristics, to show that low availability of healthy food in area stores is associated with low-quality diets of area residents. Our research in southeastern Louisiana has shown that shelf space availability of energy-dense snack foods is positively associated with BMI after controlling for individual socioeconomic characteristics. Most of this research is based on cross-sectional studies. To assess the direction of causality, future research testing the effects of interventions is needed. We suggest that multi-dimensional measures of the neighborhood food environment are important to understanding these links between access and consumption. They provide a more nuanced assessment of the food environment. Moreover, given the typical duration of research project cycles, changes to in-store environments may be more feasible than changes to the overall mix of retail outlets in communities. PMID:20410084
Component Cost Analysis of Large Scale Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skelton, R. E.; Yousuff, A.
1982-01-01
The ideas of cost decomposition is summarized to aid in the determination of the relative cost (or 'price') of each component of a linear dynamic system using quadratic performance criteria. In addition to the insights into system behavior that are afforded by such a component cost analysis CCA, these CCA ideas naturally lead to a theory for cost-equivalent realizations.
Some Fit Issues in Rating Scale Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Masters, Geoff N.; Wright, Benjamin D.
The analysis of fit of data to a measurement model for graded responses is described. The model is an extension of Rasch's dichotomous model to formats which provide more than two levels of response to items. The model contains one parameter for each person and one parameter for each "step" in an item. A dichotomously-scored item provides only one…
SCALE ANALYSIS OF CONVECTIVE MELTING WITH INTERNAL HEAT GENERATION
John Crepeau
2011-03-01
Using a scale analysis approach, we model phase change (melting) for pure materials which generate internal heat for small Stefan numbers (approximately one). The analysis considers conduction in the solid phase and natural convection, driven by internal heat generation, in the liquid regime. The model is applied for a constant surface temperature boundary condition where the melting temperature is greater than the surface temperature in a cylindrical geometry. We show the time scales in which conduction and convection heat transfer dominate.
Evidence for a Multi-Dimensional Latent Structural Model of Externalizing Disorders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Witkiewitz, Katie; King, Kevin; McMahon, Robert J.; Wu, Johnny; Luk, Jeremy; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lochman, John E.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.
2013-01-01
Strong associations between conduct disorder (CD), antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and substance use disorders (SUD) seem to reflect a general vulnerability to externalizing behaviors. Recent studies have characterized this vulnerability on a continuous scale, rather than as distinct categories, suggesting that the revision of the…
Efficient High Order Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations: Talk Slides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Brian R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This viewgraph presentation presents information on the attempt to produce high-order, efficient, central methods that scale well to high dimension. The central philosophy is that the equations should evolve to the point where the data is smooth. This is accomplished by a cyclic pattern of reconstruction, evolution, and re-projection. One dimensional and two dimensional representational methods are detailed, as well.
Scaling Limit Analysis of Borromean Halos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, L. A.; Bellotti, F. F.; Frederico, T.; Yamashita, M. T.; Tomio, Lauro
2016-05-01
The analysis of the core recoil momentum distribution of neutron-rich isotopes of light exotic nuclei is performed within a model of halo nuclei described by a core and two neutrons dominated by the s-wave channel. We adopt the renormalized three-body model with a zero-range force, which accounts for the Efimov physics. This model is applicable to nuclei with large two-neutron halos compared to the core size, and a neutron-core scattering length larger than the interaction range. The halo wave function in momentum space is obtained by using as inputs the two-neutron separation energy and the energies of the singlet neutron-neutron and neutron-core virtual states. Within our model, we obtain the momentum probability densities for the Borromean exotic nuclei Lithium-11 (^{11}Li), Berylium-14 (^{14}Be) and Carbon-22 (^{22}C). A fair reproduction of the experimental data was obtained in the case of the core recoil momentum distribution of ^{11}Li and ^{14}Be, without free parameters. By extending the model to ^{22}C, the combined analysis of the core momentum distribution and matter radius suggest (i) a ^{21}C virtual state well below 1 MeV; (ii) an overestimation of the extracted matter ^{22}C radius; and (iii) a two-neutron separation energy between 100 and 400 keV.
Multiple Time Scale Complexity Analysis of Resting State FMRI
Smith, Robert X.; Yan, Lirong; Wang, Danny J.J.
2014-01-01
The present study explored multi-scale entropy (MSE) analysis to investigate the entropy of resting state fMRI signals across multiple time scales. MSE analysis was developed to distinguish random noise from complex signals since the entropy of the former decreases with longer time scales while the latter signal maintains its entropy due to a self-resemblance” across time scales. A long resting state BOLD fMRI (rs-fMRI) scan with 1000 data points was performed on five healthy young volunteers to investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of entropy across multiple time scales. A shorter rs-fMRI scan with 240 data points was performed on a cohort of subjects consisting of healthy young (age 23±2 years, n=8) and aged volunteers (age 66±3 years, n=8) to investigate the effect of healthy aging on the entropy of rs-fMRI. The results showed that MSE of gray matter, rather than white matter, resembles closely that of f−1 noise over multiple time scales. By filtering out high frequency random fluctuations, MSE analysis is able to reveal enhanced contrast in entropy between gray and white matter, as well as between age groups at longer time scales. Our data support the use of MSE analysis as a validation metric for quantifying the complexity of rs-fMRI signals. PMID:24242271
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tan, Aik Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung
2013-01-01
Due to the scarcity of cross-cultural comparative studies in exploring students' self-efficacy in science learning, this study attempted to develop a multi-dimensional science learning self-efficacy (SLSE) instrument to measure 316 Singaporean and 303 Taiwanese eighth graders' SLSE and further to examine the differences between the two…
McDonald, Richard; Nelson, Jonathan; Kinzel, Paul; Conaway, Jeff
2006-01-01
The Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) is a Graphical User Interface for surface-water flow and sediment-transport models. The capabilities of MD_SWMS for developing models include: importing raw topography and other ancillary data; building the numerical grid and defining initial and boundary conditions; running simulations; visualizing results; and comparing results with measured data.
Design and rigorous analysis of transformation-optics scaling devices.
Jiang, Wei Xiang; Xu, Bai Bing; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun; Yu, Guan Xia
2013-08-01
Scaling devices that can shrink or enlarge an object are designed using transformation optics. The electromagnetic scattering properties of such scaling devices with anisotropic parameters are rigorously analyzed using the eigenmode expansion method. If the radius of the virtual object is smaller than that of the real object, it is a shrinking device with positive material parameters; if the radius of the virtual object is larger than the real one, it is an enlarging device with positive or negative material parameters. Hence, a scaling device can make a dielectric or metallic object look smaller or larger. The rigorous analysis shows that the scattering coefficients of the scaling devices are the same as those of the equivalent virtual objects. When the radius of the virtual object approaches zero, the scaling device will be an invisibility cloak. In such a case, the scattering effect of the scaling device will be sensitive to material parameters of the device. PMID:24323231
A variational principle for compressible fluid mechanics: Discussion of the multi-dimensional theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prozan, R. J.
1982-01-01
The variational principle for compressible fluid mechanics previously introduced is extended to two dimensional flow. The analysis is stable, exactly conservative, adaptable to coarse or fine grids, and very fast. Solutions for two dimensional problems are included. The excellent behavior and results lend further credence to the variational concept and its applicability to the numerical analysis of complex flow fields.
On Multi-dimensional Steady Subsonic Flows Determined by Physical Boundary Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weng, Shangkun
In this thesis, we investigate an inflow-outflow problem for subsonic gas flows in a nozzle with finite length, aiming at finding intrinsic (physically acceptable) boundary conditions on upstream and downstream. We first characterize a set of physical boundary conditions that ensure the existence and uniqueness of a subsonic irrotational flow in a rectangle. Our results show that suppose we prescribe the horizontal incoming flow angle at the inlet and an appropriate pressure at the exit, there exists two positive constants m 0 and m1 with m0 < m1, such that a global subsonic irrotational flow exists uniquely in the nozzle, provided that the incoming mass flux m ∈ [m0, m 1). The maximum speed will approach the sonic speed as the mass flux m tends to m1. The new difficulties arise from the nonlocal term involved in the mass flux and the pressure condition at the exit. We first introduce an auxiliary problem with the Bernoulli's constant as a parameter to localize the nonlocal term and then establish a monotonic relation between the mass flux and the Bernoulli's constant to recover the original problem. To deal with the loss of obliqueness induced by the pressure condition at the exit, we employ the formulation in terms of the angular velocity and the density. A Moser iteration is applied to obtain the Linfinity estimate of the angular velocity, which guarantees that the flow possesses a positive horizontal velocity in the whole nozzle. As a continuation, we investigate the influence of the incoming flow angle and the geometry structure of the nozzle walls on subsonic flows in a finitely long curved nozzle. It turns out to be interesting that the incoming flow angle and the angles of inclination of nozzle walls play the same role as the end pressure. The curvatures of the nozzle walls play an important role. We also extend our results to subsonic Euler flows in the 2-D and 3-D asymmetric cases. Then it comes to the most interesting and difficult case--the 3-D subsonic Euler flow in a bounded nozzle, which is also the essential part of this thesis. The boundary conditions we have imposed in the 2-D case have a natural extension in the 3-D case. These important clues help us a lot to develop a new formulation to get some insights on the coupling structure between hyperbolic and elliptic modes in the Euler equations. The key idea in our new formulation is to use the Bernoulli's law to reduce the dimension of the velocity field by defining new variables (1,b2=u2u 1,b3=u3 u1) and replacing u1 by the Bernoulli's function B through u21=2B-h r1+ b22+b23 . In this way, we can explore the role of the Bernoulli's law in greater depth and hope that may simplify the Euler equations a little bit. We find a new conserved quantity for flows with a constant Bernoulli's function, which behaves like the scaled vorticity in the 2-D case. More surprisingly, a system of new conservation laws can be derived, which is never been observed before, even in the two dimensional case. We employ this formulation to construct a smooth subsonic Euler flow in a rectangular cylinder by assigning the incoming flow angles and the Bernoulli's function at the inlet and the end pressure at the exit, which is also required to be adjacent to some special subsonic states. The same idea can be applied to obtain similar information for the incompressible Euler equations, the self-similar Euler equations, the steady Euler equations with damping, the steady Euler-Poisson equations and the steady Euler-Maxwell equations. Last, we are concerned with the structural stability of some steady subsonic solutions for the Euler-Poisson system. A steady subsonic solution with subsonic background charge is proven to be structurally stable with respect to small perturbations of the background charge, the incoming flow angles and the end pressure, provided the background solution has a low Mach number and a small electric field. The new ingredient in our mathematical analysis is the solvability of a new second order elliptic system supplemented with oblique derivative conditions at the inlet and Dirichlet boundary conditions at the exit of the nozzle.
Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal
2014-01-01
A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reinke, William A.
1999-01-01
Presents an algorithm for integrating evaluative concerns of cost effectiveness, equity, quality, and sustainability in program evaluation and offers suggestions for refining the system of measurement and analysis. (SLD)
Scaling range of power laws that originate from fluctuation analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grech, Dariusz; Mazur, Zygmunt
2013-05-01
We extend our previous study of scaling range properties performed for detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) [Physica A0378-437110.1016/j.physa.2013.01.049 392, 2384 (2013)] to other techniques of fluctuation analysis (FA). The new technique, called modified detrended moving average analysis (MDMA), is introduced, and its scaling range properties are examined and compared with those of detrended moving average analysis (DMA) and DFA. It is shown that contrary to DFA, DMA and MDMA techniques exhibit power law dependence of the scaling range with respect to the length of the searched signal and with respect to the accuracy R2 of the fit to the considered scaling law imposed by DMA or MDMA methods. This power law dependence is satisfied for both uncorrelated and autocorrelated data. We find also a simple generalization of this power law relation for series with a different level of autocorrelations measured in terms of the Hurst exponent. Basic relations between scaling ranges for different techniques are also discussed. Our findings should be particularly useful for local FA in, e.g., econophysics, finances, or physiology, where the huge number of short time series has to be examined at once and wherever the preliminary check of the scaling range regime for each of the series separately is neither effective nor possible.
Scaling range of power laws that originate from fluctuation analysis.
Grech, Dariusz; Mazur, Zygmunt
2013-05-01
We extend our previous study of scaling range properties performed for detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) [Physica A 392, 2384 (2013)] to other techniques of fluctuation analysis (FA). The new technique, called modified detrended moving average analysis (MDMA), is introduced, and its scaling range properties are examined and compared with those of detrended moving average analysis (DMA) and DFA. It is shown that contrary to DFA, DMA and MDMA techniques exhibit power law dependence of the scaling range with respect to the length of the searched signal and with respect to the accuracy R^{2} of the fit to the considered scaling law imposed by DMA or MDMA methods. This power law dependence is satisfied for both uncorrelated and autocorrelated data. We find also a simple generalization of this power law relation for series with a different level of autocorrelations measured in terms of the Hurst exponent. Basic relations between scaling ranges for different techniques are also discussed. Our findings should be particularly useful for local FA in, e.g., econophysics, finances, or physiology, where the huge number of short time series has to be examined at once and wherever the preliminary check of the scaling range regime for each of the series separately is neither effective nor possible. PMID:23767586
Multi-Dimensional Quantum Tunneling and Transport Using the Density-Gradient Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Yu, Zhi-Ping; Ancona, Mario; Rafferty, Conor; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
We show that quantum effects are likely to significantly degrade the performance of MOSFETs (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) as these devices are scaled below 100 nm channel length and 2 nm oxide thickness over the next decade. A general and computationally efficient electronic device model including quantum effects would allow us to monitor and mitigate these effects. Full quantum models are too expensive in multi-dimensions. Using a general but efficient PDE solver called PROPHET, we implemented the density-gradient (DG) quantum correction to the industry-dominant classical drift-diffusion (DD) model. The DG model efficiently includes quantum carrier profile smoothing and tunneling in multi-dimensions and for any electronic device structure. We show that the DG model reduces DD model error from as much as 50% down to a few percent in comparison to thin oxide MOS capacitance measurements. We also show the first DG simulations of gate oxide tunneling and transverse current flow in ultra-scaled MOSFETs. The advantages of rapid model implementation using the PDE solver approach will be demonstrated, as well as the applicability of the DG model to any electronic device structure.
An Analysis of Model Scale Data Transformation to Full Scale Flight Using Chevron Nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Clifford; Bridges, James
2003-01-01
Ground-based model scale aeroacoustic data is frequently used to predict the results of flight tests while saving time and money. The value of a model scale test is therefore dependent on how well the data can be transformed to the full scale conditions. In the spring of 2000, a model scale test was conducted to prove the value of chevron nozzles as a noise reduction device for turbojet applications. The chevron nozzle reduced noise by 2 EPNdB at an engine pressure ratio of 2.3 compared to that of the standard conic nozzle. This result led to a full scale flyover test in the spring of 2001 to verify these results. The flyover test confirmed the 2 EPNdB reduction predicted by the model scale test one year earlier. However, further analysis of the data revealed that the spectra and directivity, both on an OASPL and PNL basis, do not agree in either shape or absolute level. This paper explores these differences in an effort to improve the data transformation from model scale to full scale.
Bauer, Matthias; Gastl, Christoph
2010-06-01
A survey over X-ray absorption methods in homogeneous catalysis research is given with the example of the iron-catalyzed Michael addition reaction. A thorough investigation of the catalytic cycle was possible by combination of conventional X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and multi-dimensional spectroscopy. The catalytically active compound formed in the first step of the Michael reaction of methyl vinyl ketone with 2-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate (1) could be elucidated in situ by RIXS spectroscopy, and the reduced catalytic activity of FeCl(3) x 6 H(2)O (2) compared to Fe(ClO(4))(3) x 9 H(2)O (3) could be further explained by the formation of a [Fe(III)Cl(4)(-)](3)[Fe(III)(1-H)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(+)][H(+)](2) complex. Chloride was identified as catalyst poison with a combined XAS-UV/vis study, which revealed that Cl(-) binds quantitatively to the available iron centers that are deactivated by formation of [FeCl(4)(-)]. Operando studies in the course of the reaction of methyl vinyl ketone with 1 by combined XAS-Raman spectroscopy allowed the exclusion of changes in the oxidation state and the octahedral geometry at the iron site; a reaction order of two with respect to methyl vinyl ketone and a rate constant of k = 1.413 min(-2) were determined by analysis of the C=C and C=O vibration band. Finally, a dedicated experimental set-up for three-dimensional spectroscopic studies (XAS, UV/vis and Raman) of homogeneous catalytic reactions under laboratory conditions, which emerged from the discussed investigations, is presented. PMID:20405080
Multiple-length-scale deformation analysis in a thermoplastic polyurethane
Sui, Tan; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Prisacariu, Cristina; Korsunsky, Alexander M.
2015-01-01
Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers enjoy an exceptionally wide range of applications due to their remarkable versatility. These block co-polymers are used here as an example of a structurally inhomogeneous composite containing nano-scale gradients, whose internal strain differs depending on the length scale of consideration. Here we present a combined experimental and modelling approach to the hierarchical characterization of block co-polymer deformation. Synchrotron-based small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and radiography are used for strain evaluation across the scales. Transmission electron microscopy image-based finite element modelling and fast Fourier transform analysis are used to develop a multi-phase numerical model that achieves agreement with the combined experimental data using a minimal number of adjustable structural parameters. The results highlight the importance of fuzzy interfaces, that is, regions of nanometre-scale structure and property gradients, in determining the mechanical properties of hierarchical composites across the scales. PMID:25758945
Ultralow-velocity zone geometries resolved by multi-dimensional waveform modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanacore, E. A.; Rost, S.; Thorne, M. S.
2016-03-01
Ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) are thin patches of material with strongly reduced seismic wave speeds situated on top of the core-mantle boundary (CMB). A common phase used to detect ULVZs is SPdKS (SKPdS), an SKS wave with a short diffracted P leg along the CMB. Most previous efforts have examined ULVZ properties using 1D waveform modeling approaches. We present waveform modeling results using the 2.5D finite difference algorithm PSVaxi allowing us better insight into ULVZ structure and location. We characterize ULVZ waveforms based on ULVZ elastic properties, shape, and position along the SPdKS raypath. In particular, we vary the ULVZ location (e.g. source or receiver side), ULVZ topographical profiles (e.g. boxcar, trapezoidal, or Gaussian) and ULVZ lateral scale along great circle path (2.5º, 5º, 10º). We observe several waveform effects absent in 1D ULVZ models and show evidence for waveform effects allowing the differentiation between source and receiver side ULVZs. Early inception of the SPdKS/SKPdS phase is difficult to detect for receiver-side ULVZs with maximum shifts in SKPdS initiation of ˜3º in epicentral distance, whereas source-side ULVZs produce maximum shifts of SPdKS initiation of ˜5º, allowing clear separation of source- versus receiver-side structure. We present a case study using data from up to 300 broadband stations in Turkey recorded between 2005 and 2010. We observe a previously undetected ULVZ in the southern Atlantic Ocean region centered near 45º S, 12.5ºW, with a lateral scale of ˜3°, VP reduction of 10%, VS reduction of 30%, and density increase of 10% relative to PREM.
Voice Dysfunction in Dysarthria: Application of the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kent, R. D.; Vorperian, H. K.; Kent, J. F.; Duffy, J. R.
2003-01-01
Part 1 of this paper recommends procedures and standards for the acoustic analysis of voice in individuals with dysarthria. In Part 2, acoustic data are reviewed for dysarthria associated with Parkinson disease (PD), cerebellar disease, amytrophic lateral sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, unilateral hemispheric stroke, and essential tremor.
Multi-Dimensional Evaluation for Module Improvement: A Mathematics-Based Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellery, Karen
2006-01-01
Due to a poor module evaluation, mediocre student grades and a difficult teaching experience in lectures, the Data Analysis section of a first year core module, Research Methods for Social Sciences (RMSS), offered at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa, was completely revised. In order to review the effectiveness of these changes in…
Voice Dysfunction in Dysarthria: Application of the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kent, R. D.; Vorperian, H. K.; Kent, J. F.; Duffy, J. R.
2003-01-01
Part 1 of this paper recommends procedures and standards for the acoustic analysis of voice in individuals with dysarthria. In Part 2, acoustic data are reviewed for dysarthria associated with Parkinson disease (PD), cerebellar disease, amytrophic lateral sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, unilateral hemispheric stroke, and essential tremor.…
Multi-dimensionality of Idea Framing in Group Work in Academic Settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tin, Tan Bee
2000-01-01
Reports findings from a study that investigated the group interaction patterns of overseas Malaysian students in a British undergraduate program. Discusses the theoretical issues underlying the study. Findings and categories of idea framing, which arise from the analysis of group interaction data are highlighted. (Author/VWL)
Spectral image fusion based on multi-scale wavelet analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machikhin, Alexander S.
2015-11-01
The problem of spectral image fusion in order to combine the most informative areas into one image is considered. Algorithm based on joint multi-scale image analysis is discussed. Processing of the images at each pyramid level allows to extract and to combine image features of the same scale. This approach provides a high speed of processing and high quality of the resulting image and may be applicable for real-time applications.
Scaling properties of image textures: A detrending fluctuation analysis approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Cervantes, Ilse; Carlos Echeverria, Juan
2006-03-01
The aim of this paper is to explore the application of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study roughness features of images. Unidimensional sequences at different image orientations are extracted and their average scaling exponent is estimated. In this form, the existence of anisotropies can be detected when considerable variations in the scaling exponent at different image orientation are observed. Different images from grass to solar granulation are analyzed and the underlying physics of such results is briefly commented.
Proteomics beyond large-scale protein expression analysis.
Boersema, Paul J; Kahraman, Abdullah; Picotti, Paola
2015-08-01
Proteomics is commonly referred to as the application of high-throughput approaches to protein expression analysis. Typical results of proteomics studies are inventories of the protein content of a sample or lists of differentially expressed proteins across multiple conditions. Recently, however, an explosion of novel proteomics workflows has significantly expanded proteomics beyond the analysis of protein expression. Targeted proteomics methods, for example, enable the analysis of the fine dynamics of protein systems, such as a specific pathway or a network of interacting proteins, and the determination of protein complex stoichiometries. Structural proteomics tools allow extraction of restraints for structural modeling and identification of structurally altered proteins on a proteome-wide scale. Other variations of the proteomic workflow can be applied to the large-scale analysis of protein activity, location, degradation and turnover. These exciting developments provide new tools for multi-level 'omics' analysis and for the modeling of biological networks in the context of systems biology studies. PMID:25636126
Geographical Scale Effects on the Analysis of Leptospirosis Determinants
Gracie, Renata; Barcellos, Christovam; Magalhães, Mônica; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Barrocas, Paulo Rubens Guimarães
2014-01-01
Leptospirosis displays a great diversity of routes of exposure, reservoirs, etiologic agents, and clinical symptoms. It occurs almost worldwide but its pattern of transmission varies depending where it happens. Climate change may increase the number of cases, especially in developing countries, like Brazil. Spatial analysis studies of leptospirosis have highlighted the importance of socioeconomic and environmental context. Hence, the choice of the geographical scale and unit of analysis used in the studies is pivotal, because it restricts the indicators available for the analysis and may bias the results. In this study, we evaluated which environmental and socioeconomic factors, typically used to characterize the risks of leptospirosis transmission, are more relevant at different geographical scales (i.e., regional, municipal, and local). Geographic Information Systems were used for data analysis. Correlations between leptospirosis incidence and several socioeconomic and environmental indicators were calculated at different geographical scales. At the regional scale, the strongest correlations were observed between leptospirosis incidence and the amount of people living in slums, or the percent of the area densely urbanized. At the municipal scale, there were no significant correlations. At the local level, the percent of the area prone to flooding best correlated with leptospirosis incidence. PMID:25310536
Rasch analysis of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29)
Ramp, Melina; Khan, Fary; Misajon, Rose Anne; Pallant, Julie F
2009-01-01
Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative neurological disease that causes impairments, including spasticity, pain, fatigue, and bladder dysfunction, which negatively impact on quality of life. The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) is a disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, developed using the patient's perspective on disease impact. It consists of two subscales assessing the physical (MSIS-29-PHYS) and psychological (MSIS-29-PSYCH) impact of MS. Although previous studies have found support for the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 using traditional methods of scale evaluation, the scale has not been subjected to a detailed Rasch analysis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the internal validity of the scale, and its response format, item fit, targeting, internal consistency and dimensionality. Methods Ninety-two persons with definite MS residing in the community were recruited from a tertiary hospital database. Patients completed the MSIS-29 as part of a larger study. Rasch analysis was undertaken to assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29. Results Rasch analysis showed overall support for the psychometric properties of the two MSIS-29 subscales, however it was necessary to reduce the response format of the MSIS-29-PHYS to a 3-point response scale. Both subscales were unidimensional, had good internal consistency, and were free from item bias for sex and age. Dimensionality testing indicated it was not appropriate to combine the two subscales to form a total MSIS score. Conclusion In this first study to use Rasch analysis to fully assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 support was found for the two subscales but not for the use of the total scale. Further use of Rasch analysis on the MSIS-29 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm these findings. PMID:19545445
Static Aeroelastic Scaling and Analysis of a Sub-Scale Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh
2014-01-01
This paper presents an approach to the development of a scaled wind tunnel model for static aeroelastic similarity with a full-scale wing model. The full-scale aircraft model is based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with flexible wing structures referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The baseline stiffness of the ESAC wing represents a conventionally stiff wing model. Static aeroelastic scaling is conducted on the stiff wing configuration to develop the wind tunnel model, but additional tailoring is also conducted such that the wind tunnel model achieves a 10% wing tip deflection at the wind tunnel test condition. An aeroelastic scaling procedure and analysis is conducted, and a sub-scale flexible wind tunnel model based on the full-scale's undeformed jig-shape is developed. Optimization of the flexible wind tunnel model's undeflected twist along the span, or pre-twist or wash-out, is then conducted for the design test condition. The resulting wind tunnel model is an aeroelastic model designed for the wind tunnel test condition.
Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Weigold, Ingrid K; McCurdy, Eric R
2015-07-01
Focusing on a set of 3 multidimensional measures of conceptually related but different aspects of masculinity, we use factor analytic techniques to address 2 issues: (a) whether psychological constructs that are theoretically distinct but require fairly subtle discriminations by survey respondents can be accurately captured by self-report measures, and (b) how to better understand sources of variance in subscale and total scores developed from such measures. The specific measures investigated were the: (a) Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF); (b) Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CMNI-46); and (c) Gender Role Conflict Scale-Short Form (GRCS-SF). Data (N = 444) were from community-dwelling and college men who responded to an online survey. EFA results demonstrated the discriminant validity of the 20 subscales comprising the 3 instruments, thus indicating that relatively subtle distinctions between norms, conformity, and conflict can be captured with self-report measures. CFA was used to compare 2 different methods of modeling a broad/general factor for each of the 3 instruments. For the CMNI-46 and MRNI-SF, a bifactor model fit the data significantly better than did a hierarchical factor model. In contrast, the hierarchical model fit better for the GRCS-SF. The discussion addresses implications of these specific findings for use of the measures in research studies, as well as broader implications for measurement development and assessment in other research domains of counseling psychology which also rely on multidimensional self-report instruments. PMID:26167651
Full-scale system impact analysis: Digital document storage project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1989-01-01
The Digital Document Storage Full Scale System can provide cost effective electronic document storage, retrieval, hard copy reproduction, and remote access for users of NASA Technical Reports. The desired functionality of the DDS system is highly dependent on the assumed requirements for remote access used in this Impact Analysis. It is highly recommended that NASA proceed with a phased, communications requirement analysis to ensure that adequate communications service can be supplied at a reasonable cost in order to validate recent working assumptions upon which the success of the DDS Full Scale System is dependent.
Multi-scale analysis for environmental dispersion in wetland flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zi; Li, Z.; Chen, G. Q.
2011-08-01
Presented in this work is a multi-scale analysis for longitudinal evolution of contaminant concentration in a fully developed flow through a shallow wetland channel. An environmental dispersion model for the mean concentration is devised as an extension of Taylor's classical formulation by a multi-scale analysis. Corresponding environmental dispersivity is found identical to that determined by the method of concentration moments. For typical contaminant constituents of chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and heavy metal, the evolution of contaminant cloud is illustrated with the critical length and duration of the contaminant cloud with constituent concentration beyond some given environmental standard level.
ITQ-54: a multi-dimensional extra-large pore zeolite with 20 × 14 × 12-ring channels
Jiang, Jiuxing; Yun, Yifeng; Zou, Xiaodong; Jorda, Jose Luis; Corma, Avelino
2015-01-01
A multi-dimensional extra-large pore silicogermanate zeolite, named ITQ-54, has been synthesised by in situ decomposition of the N,N-dicyclohexylisoindolinium cation into the N-cyclohexylisoindolinium cation. Its structure was solved by 3D rotation electron diffraction (RED) from crystals of ca. 1 μm in size. The structure of ITQ-54 contains straight intersecting 20 × 14 × 12-ring channels along the three crystallographic axes and it is one of the few zeolites with extra-large channels in more than one direction. ITQ-54 has a framework density of 11.1 T atoms per 1000 Å^{3}, which is one of the lowest among the known zeolites. ITQ-54 was obtained together with GeO_{2} as an impurity. A heavy liquid separation method was developed and successfully applied to remove this impurity from the zeolite. ITQ-54 is stable up to 600 °C and exhibits permanent porosity. The structure was further refined using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data for both as-made and calcined samples.
Jeffery, Kathryn J
2007-11-01
Neurobiologists are becoming increasingly interested in how complex cognitive representations are formed by the integration of sensory stimuli. To this end, discrimination tasks are frequently used to assess perceptual and cognitive processes in animals, because they are easy to administer and score, and the ability of an animal to make a particular discrimination establishes beyond doubt that the necessary perceptual/cognitive processes are present. It does not, however, follow that absence of discrimination means the animal cannot make a particular perceptual judgement; it may simply mean that the animal did not manage to discover the relevant discriminative stimulus when trying to learn the task. Here, it is shown that rats did not learn a cross-modal object discrimination (requiring association of each object's visual appearance with its odour) when trained on the complete task from the beginning. However, they could eventually make the discrimination when trained on the component parts step by step, showing that they were able to do the necessary cross-modal integration in the right circumstances. This finding adds to growing evidence that discrimination tasks tend to encourage feature-based discrimination, perhaps by engaging automatic, habit-based brain systems. Thus, they may not be the best way to assess the formation of multi-dimensional stimulus representations of the kind needed in more complex cognitive processes such as declarative memory. Instead, more natural tasks such as spontaneous exploration may be preferable. PMID:17692934
ITQ-54: a multi-dimensional extra-large pore zeolite with 20 × 14 × 12-ring channels
Jiang, Jiuxing; Yun, Yifeng; Zou, Xiaodong; Jorda, Jose Luis; Corma, Avelino
2015-01-01
A multi-dimensional extra-large pore silicogermanate zeolite, named ITQ-54, has been synthesised by in situ decomposition of the N,N-dicyclohexylisoindolinium cation into the N-cyclohexylisoindolinium cation. Its structure was solved by 3D rotation electron diffraction (RED) from crystals of ca. 1 μm in size. The structure of ITQ-54 contains straight intersecting 20 × 14 × 12-ring channels along the three crystallographic axes and it is one of the few zeolites with extra-large channels in more than one direction. ITQ-54 has a framework density of 11.1 T atoms per 1000 Å3, which is one of the lowest among the known zeolites. ITQ-54 was obtainedmore » together with GeO2 as an impurity. A heavy liquid separation method was developed and successfully applied to remove this impurity from the zeolite. ITQ-54 is stable up to 600 °C and exhibits permanent porosity. The structure was further refined using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data for both as-made and calcined samples.« less
Zhang, Ming-Hua; Gu, Jun-Fei; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-Bin
2013-11-01
The quality control is one of the key problems in the modernization and internationalization of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). As TCMs have the characteristics of integrity and systematicness, their effect in disease prevention and treatment is the result of multi-component synergistic effect. Currently, the quality control of TCMs is mostly measured with a single index, which can not reflect the integrity of TCMs. As TCM components could play the role in preventing and treating diseases through multiple targets and channels, only if we expound the specific composition and structural relations among inherent components, and determine the optimum composition and structure ratio of TCMs in preventing and treating diseases and revealing their optimal efficiency, safety and stability, can we get rid of the conventional quantitative model, and realize the scientific integral quality control in a real sense. On the basis of the component structure theory, we propose "multi-dimensional structure and process dynamics quality control system" in this article, and systematically expound the optimal efficiency of TCMs, in order to provide a theoretical basis for improving the efficacy of TCM preparation products. PMID:24494540
Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S. Peter; Lusseau, David
2012-01-01
Understanding human cognitive evolution, and that of the other primates, means taking sociality very seriously. For humans, this requires the recognition of the sociocultural and historical means by which human minds and selves are constructed, and how this gives rise to the reflexivity and ability to respond to novelty that characterize our species. For other, non-linguistic, primates we can answer some interesting questions by viewing social life as a feedback process, drawing on cybernetics and systems approaches and using social network neo-theory to test these ideas. Specifically, we show how social networks can be formalized as multi-dimensional objects, and use entropy measures to assess how networks respond to perturbation. We use simulations and natural ‘knock-outs’ in a free-ranging baboon troop to demonstrate that changes in interactions after social perturbations lead to a more certain social network, in which the outcomes of interactions are easier for members to predict. This new formalization of social networks provides a framework within which to predict network dynamics and evolution, helps us highlight how human and non-human social networks differ and has implications for theories of cognitive evolution. PMID:22734054
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.
2015-03-01
Fifteen multi-dimensional diagrams for basic and ultrabasic rocks, based on log-ratio transformations, were used to infer tectonic setting for eight case studies of Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The applications of these diagrams indicated the following results: (1) a mid-ocean ridge setting for Forquilha eclogites (Central Ceará domain) during the Mesoproterozoic; (2) an oceanic plateau setting for Algodões amphibolites (Central Ceará domain) during the Paleoproterozoic; (3) an island arc setting for Brejo Seco amphibolites (Riacho do Pontal belt) during the Proterozoic; (4) an island arc to mid-ocean ridge setting for greenschists of the Monte Orebe Complex (Riacho do Pontal belt) during the Neoproterozoic; (5) within-plate (continental) setting for Vaza Barris domain mafic rocks (Sergipano belt) during the Neoproterozoic; (6) a less precise arc to continental rift for the Gentileza unit metadiorite/gabbro (Sergipano belt) during the Neoproterozoic; (7) an island arc setting for the Novo Gosto unit metabasalts (Sergipano belt) during Neoproterozoic; (8) continental rift setting for Rio Grande do Norte basic rocks during Miocene.
Finite-volume application of high order ENO schemes to multi-dimensional boundary-value problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Casper, Jay; Dorrepaal, J. Mark
1990-01-01
The finite volume approach in developing multi-dimensional, high-order accurate essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes is considered. In particular, a two dimensional extension is proposed for the Euler equation of gas dynamics. This requires a spatial reconstruction operator that attains formal high order of accuracy in two dimensions by taking account of cross gradients. Given a set of cell averages in two spatial variables, polynomial interpolation of a two dimensional primitive function is employed in order to extract high-order pointwise values on cell interfaces. These points are appropriately chosen so that correspondingly high-order flux integrals are obtained through each interface by quadrature, at each point having calculated a flux contribution in an upwind fashion. The solution-in-the-small of Riemann's initial value problem (IVP) that is required for this pointwise flux computation is achieved using Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Issues to be considered in this two dimensional extension include the implementation of boundary conditions and application to general curvilinear coordinates. Results of numerical experiments are presented for qualitative and quantitative examination. These results contain the first successful application of ENO schemes to boundary value problems with solid walls.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuki, Yoh; Nakamura, Shinji; Fukui, Shigeo; Suematsu, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Toshimichi
2015-10-01
Magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR is a powerful tool for studying molecular structure and dynamics, but suffers from its low sensitivity. Here, we developed a novel helium-cooling MAS NMR probe system adopting a closed-loop gas recirculation mechanism. In addition to the sensitivity gain due to low temperature, the present system has enabled highly stable MAS (vR = 4-12 kHz) at cryogenic temperatures (T = 35-120 K) for over a week without consuming helium at a cost for electricity of 16 kW/h. High-resolution 1D and 2D data were recorded for a crystalline tri-peptide sample at T = 40 K and B0 = 16.4 T, where an order of magnitude of sensitivity gain was demonstrated versus room temperature measurement. The low-cost and long-term stable MAS strongly promotes broader application of the brute-force sensitivity-enhanced multi-dimensional MAS NMR, as well as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced NMR in a temperature range lower than 100 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haferman, J. L.; Smith, T. F.; Krajewski, W. F.
1997-09-01
A polarized multi-dimensional radiative transfer model based on the discrete-ordinates method is presented. The model solves the monochromatic vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) that considers polarization using the four Stokes parameters. For the VRTE, the intensity of the scalar radiative transfer equation is replaced by the Stokes intensity vector; the position-dependent scalar extinction coefficient is replaced by a direction- and position-dependent 4×4 extinction matrix; the position-dependent scalar absorption coefficient is replaced by a direction- and position-dependent emission (absorption) vector; and the scalar phase function is replaced by a scattering phase matrix. The model can solve the VRTE for anisotropically scattering one-, two-, or three-dimensional Cartesian geometries. Validation for one-dimensional polarized radiative transfer compares model results with benchmark cases available in the literature. For two- and three-dimensional geometries, the model is tested by using a one-dimensional system as input and running in three-dimensional mode. A validation for a three-dimensional geometry based on Kirchoff's law for an isothermal enclosure is also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, Ruth; Gossmann, Joachim; Margolis, Todd; Schulze, Jurgen P.; Lewis, J. P.; Hackbarth, Ben; Mostafavi, Iman
2009-02-01
ATLAS in silico is an interactive installation/virtual environment that provides an aesthetic encounter with metagenomics data (and contextual metadata) from the Global Ocean Survey (GOS). The installation creates a visceral experience of the abstraction of nature in to vast data collections - a practice that connects expeditionary science of the 19th Century with 21st Century expeditions like the GOS. Participants encounter a dream-like, highly abstract, and datadriven virtual world that combines the aesthetics of fine-lined copper engraving and grid-like layouts of 19th Century scientific representation with 21st Century digital aesthetics including wireframes and particle systems. It is resident at the Calit2 Immersive visualization Laboratory on the campus of UC San Diego, where it continues in active development. The installation utilizes a combination of infrared motion tracking, custom computer vision, multi-channel (10.1) spatialized interactive audio, 3D graphics, data sonification, audio design, networking, and the VarrierTM 60 tile, 100-million pixel barrier strip auto-stereoscopic display. Here we describe the physical and audio display systems for the installation and a hybrid strategy for multi-channel spatialized interactive audio rendering in immersive virtual reality that combines amplitude, delay and physical modeling-based, real-time spatialization approaches for enhanced expressivity in the virtual sound environment that was developed in the context of this artwork. The desire to represent a combination of qualitative and quantitative multidimensional, multi-scale data informs the artistic process and overall system design. We discuss the resulting aesthetic experience in relation to the overall system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiyan, D.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Ledo, J.; Siniscalchi, A.; Romano, G.
2014-12-01
The PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) project and the concomitant TopoMed (Plate re-organization in the western Mediterranean: Lithospheric causes and topographic consequences - an ESF EUROSCORES TOPO-EUROPE project) project were designed to collect high resolution, multi-disciplinary lithospheric scale data in order to understand the tectonic evolution and lithospheric structure of the western Mediterranean. The over-arching objectives of the magnetotelluric (MT) component of the projects are (i) to provide new electrical conductivity constraints on the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Atlas Mountains, and (ii) to test the hypotheses for explaining the purported lithospheric cavity beneath the Middle and High Atlas inferred from potential-field lithospheric modeling. We present the results of an MT experiment we carried out in Morocco along two profiles: an approximately N-S oriented profile crossing the Middle Atlas, the High Atlas and the eastern Anti-Atlas to the east (called the MEK profile, for Meknes) and NE-SW oriented profile through western High Atlas to the west (called the MAR profile, for Marrakech). Our results are derived from three-dimensional (3-D) MT inversion of the MT data set employing the parallel version of Modular system for Electromagnetic inversion (ModEM) code. The distinct conductivity differences between the Middle-High Atlas (conductive) and the Anti-Atlas (resistive) correlates with the South Atlas Front fault, the depth extent of which appears to be limited to the uppermost mantle (approx. 60 km). In all inverse solutions, the crust and the upper mantle show resistive signatures (approx. 1,000 Ωm) beneath the Anti-Atlas, which is the part of stable West African Craton. Partial melt and/or exotic fluids enriched in volatiles produced by the melt can account for the high middle to lower crustal and uppermost mantle conductivity in the Folded Middle Atlas, the High Moulouya Plain and the central High Atlas.
Philip E. Wannamaker
2007-12-31
The overall goal of this project has been to develop desktop capability for 3-D EM inversion as a complement or alternative to existing massively parallel platforms. We have been fortunate in having a uniquely productive cooperative relationship with Kyushu University (Y. Sasaki, P.I.) who supplied a base-level 3-D inversion source code for MT data over a half-space based on staggered grid finite differences. Storage efficiency was greatly increased in this algorithm by implementing a symmetric L-U parameter step solver, and by loading the parameter step matrix one frequency at a time. Rules were established for achieving sufficient jacobian accuracy versus mesh discretization, and regularization was much improved by scaling the damping terms according to influence of parameters upon the measured response. The modified program was applied to 101 five-channel MT stations taken over the Coso East Flank area supported by the DOE and the Navy. Inversion of these data on a 2 Gb desktop PC using a half-space starting model recovered the main features of the subsurface resistivity structure seen in a massively parallel inversion which used a series of stitched 2-D inversions as a starting model. In particular, a steeply west-dipping, N-S trending conductor was resolved under the central-west portion of the East Flank. It may correspond to a highly saline magamtic fluid component, residual fluid from boiling, or less likely cryptic acid sulphate alteration, all in a steep fracture mesh. This work gained student Virginia Maris the Best Student Presentation at the 2006 GRC annual meeting.
Amir, El-Ad David; Kalisman, Nir; Keasar, Chen
2008-07-01
Rotatable torsion angles are the major degrees of freedom in proteins. Adjacent angles are highly correlated and energy terms that rely on these correlations are intensively used in molecular modeling. However, the utility of torsion based terms is not yet fully exploited. Many of these terms do not capture the full scale of the correlations. Other terms, which rely on lookup tables, cannot be used in the context of force-driven algorithms because they are not fully differentiable. This study aims to extend the usability of torsion terms by presenting a set of high-dimensional and fully-differentiable energy terms that are derived from high-resolution structures. The set includes terms that describe backbone conformational probabilities and propensities, side-chain rotamer probabilities, and an elaborate term that couples all the torsion angles within the same residue. The terms are constructed by cubic spline interpolation with periodic boundary conditions that enable full differentiability and high computational efficiency. We show that the spline implementation does not compromise the accuracy of the original database statistics. We further show that the side-chain relevant terms are compatible with established rotamer probabilities. Despite their very local characteristics, the new terms are often able to identify native and native-like structures within decoy sets. Finally, force-based minimization of NMR structures with the new terms improves their torsion angle statistics with minor structural distortion (0.5 A RMSD on average). The new terms are freely available in the MESHI molecular modeling package. The spline coefficients are also available as a documented MATLAB file. PMID:18186478
Tools for Large-Scale Mobile Malware Analysis
Bierma, Michael
2014-01-01
Analyzing mobile applications for malicious behavior is an important area of re- search, and is made di cult, in part, by the increasingly large number of appli- cations available for the major operating systems. There are currently over 1.2 million apps available in both the Google Play and Apple App stores (the respec- tive o cial marketplaces for the Android and iOS operating systems)[1, 2]. Our research provides two large-scale analysis tools to aid in the detection and analysis of mobile malware. The rst tool we present, Andlantis, is a scalable dynamic analysis system capa- ble of processing over 3000 Android applications per hour. Traditionally, Android dynamic analysis techniques have been relatively limited in scale due to the compu- tational resources required to emulate the full Android system to achieve accurate execution. Andlantis is the most scalable Android dynamic analysis framework to date, and is able to collect valuable forensic data, which helps reverse-engineers and malware researchers identify and understand anomalous application behavior. We discuss the results of running 1261 malware samples through the system, and provide examples of malware analysis performed with the resulting data. While techniques exist to perform static analysis on a large number of appli- cations, large-scale analysis of iOS applications has been relatively small scale due to the closed nature of the iOS ecosystem, and the di culty of acquiring appli- cations for analysis. The second tool we present, iClone, addresses the challenges associated with iOS research in order to detect application clones within a dataset of over 20,000 iOS applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shu, Chi-Wang
1992-01-01
The nonlinear stability of compact schemes for shock calculations is investigated. In recent years compact schemes were used in various numerical simulations including direct numerical simulation of turbulence. However to apply them to problems containing shocks, one has to resolve the problem of spurious numerical oscillation and nonlinear instability. A framework to apply nonlinear limiting to a local mean is introduced. The resulting scheme can be proven total variation (1D) or maximum norm (multi D) stable and produces nice numerical results in the test cases. The result is summarized in the preprint entitled 'Nonlinearly Stable Compact Schemes for Shock Calculations', which was submitted to SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis. Research was continued on issues related to two and three dimensional essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes. The main research topics include: parallel implementation of ENO schemes on Connection Machines; boundary conditions; shock interaction with hydrogen bubbles, a preparation for the full combustion simulation; and direct numerical simulation of compressible sheared turbulence.
A genuinely multi-dimensional upwind cell-vertex scheme for the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, Kenneth G.; Vanleer, Bram
1989-01-01
The solution of the two-dimensional Euler equations is based on the two-dimensional linear convection equation and the Euler-equation decomposition developed by Hirsch et al. The scheme is genuinely two-dimensional. At each iteration, the data are locally decomposed into four variables, allowing convection in appropriate directions. This is done via a cell-vertex scheme with a downwind-weighted distribution step. The scheme is conservative, and third-order accurate in space. The derivation and stability analysis of the scheme for the convection equation, and the derivation of the extension to the Euler equations are given. Preconditioning techniques based on local values of the convection speeds are discussed. The scheme for the Euler equations is applied to two channel-flow problems. It is shown to converge rapidly to a solution that agrees well with that of a third-order upwind solver.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shu, Chi-Wang
1998-01-01
This project is about the development of high order, non-oscillatory type schemes for computational fluid dynamics. Algorithm analysis, implementation, and applications are performed. Collaborations with NASA scientists have been carried out to ensure that the research is relevant to NASA objectives. The combination of ENO finite difference method with spectral method in two space dimension is considered, jointly with Cai [3]. The resulting scheme behaves nicely for the two dimensional test problems with or without shocks. Jointly with Cai and Gottlieb, we have also considered one-sided filters for spectral approximations to discontinuous functions [2]. We proved theoretically the existence of filters to recover spectral accuracy up to the discontinuity. We also constructed such filters for practical calculations.
New enhancements to SCALE for criticality safety analysis
Hollenbach, D.F.; Bowman, S.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Parks, C.V.
1995-09-01
As the speed, available memory, and reliability of computer hardware increases and the cost decreases, the complexity and usability of computer software will increase, taking advantage of the new hardware capabilities. Computer programs today must be more flexible and user friendly than those of the past. Within available resources, the SCALE staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is committed to upgrading its computer codes to keep pace with the current level of technology. This paper examines recent additions and enhancements to the criticality safety analysis sections of the SCALE code package. These recent additions and enhancements made to SCALE can be divided into nine categories: (1) new analytical computer codes, (2) new cross-section libraries, (3) new criticality search sequences, (4) enhanced graphical capabilities, (5) additional KENO enhancements, (6) enhanced resonance processing capabilities, (7) enhanced material information processing capabilities, (8) portability of the SCALE code package, and (9) other minor enhancements, modifications, and corrections to SCALE. Each of these additions and enhancements to the criticality safety analysis capabilities of the SCALE code system are discussed below.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.
2013-12-01
Geological carbon sequestration can significantly contribute to climate-change mitigation only if it is deployed at a very large scale. This means that injection scenarios must occur, and be analyzed, at the basin scale. Various mathematical models of different complexity may be used to assess the fate of injected CO2 and/or resident brine. These models span the range from multi-dimensional, multi-phase numerical simulators to simple single-phase analytical solutions. In this study, we consider a range of models, all based on vertically-integrated governing equations, to predict the basin-scale pressure response to specific injection scenarios. The Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer is used as a test site to compare the different modeling approaches. The model domain covers an area of approximately 811,000 km2, and the total injection rate is 63 Mt/yr, corresponding to 9 locations where large point sources have been identified. Predicted areas of critical pressure exceedance are used as a comparison metric among the different modeling approaches. Comparison of the results shows that single-phase numerical models may be good enough to predict the pressure response over a large aquifer; however, a simple superposition of semi-analytical or analytical solutions is not sufficiently accurate because spatial variability of formation properties plays an important role in the problem, and these variations are not captured properly with simple superposition. We consider two different injection scenarios: injection at the source locations and injection at locations with more suitable aquifer properties. Results indicate that in formations with significant spatial variability of properties, strong variations in injectivity among the different source locations can be expected, leading to the need to transport the captured CO2 to suitable injection locations, thereby necessitating development of a pipeline network. We also consider the sensitivity of porosity and permeability data, and assess how data uncertainties affect model comparison results.
Complexity of carbon market from multi-scale entropy analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Xinghua; Li, Shasha; Tian, Lixin
2016-06-01
Complexity of carbon market is the consequence of economic dynamics and extreme social political events in global carbon markets. The multi-scale entropy can measure the long-term structures in the daily price return time series. By using multi-scale entropy analysis, we explore the complexity of carbon market and mean reversion trend of daily price return. The logarithmic difference of data Dec16 from August 6, 2010 to May 22, 2015 is selected as the sample. The entropy is higher in small time scale, while lower in large. The dependence of the entropy on the time scale reveals the mean reversion of carbon prices return in the long run. A relatively great fluctuation over some short time period indicates that the complexity of carbon market evolves consistently with economic development track and the events of international climate conferences.
Analysis of a scaling rate meter for geothermal systems
Kreid, D.K.
1980-03-01
A research project was conducted to investigate an experimental technique for measuring the rate of formation of mineral scale and corrosion in geothermal systems. A literature review was performed first to identify and evaluate available techniques for measuring scale in heat transfer equipment. As a result of these evaluations, a conceptual design was proposed for a geothermal Scaling Rate Meter (SRM) that would combine features of certain techniques used (or proposed for use) in other applications. An analysis was performed to predict the steady-state performance and expected experimental uncertainty of the proposed SRM. Sample computations were then performed to illustrate the system performance for conditions typical of a geothermal scaling application. Based on these results, recommendations are made regarding prototype SRM construction and testing.
The science of visual analysis at extreme scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowell, Lucy T.
2011-01-01
Driven by market forces and spanning the full spectrum of computational devices, computer architectures are changing in ways that present tremendous opportunities and challenges for data analysis and visual analytic technologies. Leadership-class high performance computing system will have as many as a million cores by 2020 and support 10 billion-way concurrency, while laptop computers are expected to have as many as 1,000 cores by 2015. At the same time, data of all types are increasing exponentially and automated analytic methods are essential for all disciplines. Many existing analytic technologies do not scale to make full use of current platforms and fewer still are likely to scale to the systems that will be operational by the end of this decade. Furthermore, on the new architectures and for data at extreme scales, validating the accuracy and effectiveness of analytic methods, including visual analysis, will be increasingly important.
Multi-dimensional combustor flowfield analyses in gas-gas rocket engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsuei, Hsin-Hua; Merkle, Charles L.
1994-01-01
The objectives of the present research are to improve design capabilities for low thrust rocket engines through understanding of the detailed mixing and combustions processes. Of particular interest is a small gaseous hydrogen-oxygen thruster which is considered as a coordinated part of an on-going experimental program at NASA LeRC. Detailed computational modeling requires the application of the full three-dimensional Navier Stokes equations, coupled with species diffusion equations. The numerical procedure is performed on both time-marching and time-accurate algorithms and using an LU approximate factorization in time, flux split upwinding differencing in space. The emphasis in this paper is focused on using numerical analysis to understand detailed combustor flowfields, including the shear layer dynamics created between fuel film cooling and the core gas in the vicinity on the nearby combustor wall; the integrity and effectiveness of the coolant film; three-dimensional fuel jets injection/mixing/combustion characteristics; and their impacts on global engine performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhiyong; Huang, Yuqing; Smith, Pieter E. S.; Wang, Kaiyu; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong
2014-05-01
Heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy is an extremely powerful tool for determining the structures of organic molecules and is of particular significance in the structural analysis of proteins. In order to leverage the method’s potential for structural investigations, obtaining high-resolution NMR spectra is essential and this is generally accomplished by using very homogeneous magnetic fields. However, there are several situations where magnetic field distortions and thus line broadening is unavoidable, for example, the samples under investigation may be inherently heterogeneous, and the magnet’s homogeneity may be poor. This line broadening can hinder resonance assignment or even render it impossible. We put forth a new class of pulse sequences for obtaining high-resolution heteronuclear spectra in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations based on distant dipolar field modulations. This strategy’s capabilities are demonstrated with the acquisition of high-resolution 2D gHSQC and gHMBC spectra. These sequences’ performances are evaluated on the basis of their sensitivities and acquisition efficiencies. Moreover, we show that by encoding and decoding NMR observables spatially, as is done in ultrafast NMR, an extra dimension containing J-coupling information can be obtained without increasing the time necessary to acquire a heteronuclear correlation spectrum. Since the new sequences relax magnetic field homogeneity constraints imposed upon high-resolution NMR, they may be applied in portable NMR sensors and studies of heterogeneous chemical and biological materials.
Exploratory Factor Analysis of African Self-Consciousness Scale Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bhagwat, Ranjit; Kelly, Shalonda; Lambert, Michael C.
2012-01-01
This study replicates and extends prior studies of the dimensionality, convergent, and external validity of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores with appropriate exploratory factor analysis methods and a large gender balanced sample (N = 348). Viable one- and two-factor solutions were cross-validated. Both first factors overlapped significantly
A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Professional Opinion Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greeno, Elizabeth J.; Hughes, Anne K.; Hayward, R. Anna; Parker, Karen L.
2007-01-01
The Professional Opinion Scale (POS) was developed to measure social work values orientation. Objective: A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the POS. Method: This cross-sectional study used a mailed survey design with a national random (simple) sample of members of the National Association of Social Workers. Results: The study…
Exploratory Factor Analysis of African Self-Consciousness Scale Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bhagwat, Ranjit; Kelly, Shalonda; Lambert, Michael C.
2012-01-01
This study replicates and extends prior studies of the dimensionality, convergent, and external validity of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores with appropriate exploratory factor analysis methods and a large gender balanced sample (N = 348). Viable one- and two-factor solutions were cross-validated. Both first factors overlapped significantly…
Large-scale data analysis using the Wigner function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Earnshaw, R. A.; Lei, C.; Li, J.; Mugassabi, S.; Vourdas, A.
2012-04-01
Large-scale data are analysed using the Wigner function. It is shown that the 'frequency variable' provides important information, which is lost with other techniques. The method is applied to 'sentiment analysis' in data from social networks and also to financial data.
The Hong Psychological Reactance Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Adrian; Donnell, Alison J.; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.
2001-01-01
Study uses confirmatory factor analysis to assess four models of the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale (HPRS) and attempts to provide psychometric information about the subscales. Results found inadequate fit for Hong's four orthogonal models but sufficient fit for two nonorthogonal models. (Contains 29 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)
Raje, Satyajeet; Kite, Bobbie; Ramanathan, Jay; Payne, Philip
2015-01-01
Systems designed to expedite data preprocessing tasks such as data discovery, interpretation, and integration that are required before data analysis drastically impact the pace of biomedical informatics research. Current commercial interactive and real-time data integration tools are designed for large-scale business analytics requirements. In this paper we identify the need for end-to-end data fusion platforms from the researcher's perspective, supporting ad-hoc data interpretation and integration. PMID:26262406
Instrumentation development for multi-dimensional two-phase flow modeling
Kirouac, G.J.; Trabold, T.A.; Vassallo, P.F.; Moore, W.E.; Kumar, R.
1999-06-01
A multi-faceted instrumentation approach is described which has played a significant role in obtaining fundamental data for two-phase flow model development. This experimental work supports the development of a three-dimensional, two-fluid, four field computational analysis capability. The goal of this development is to utilize mechanistic models and fundamental understanding rather than rely on empirical correlations to describe the interactions in two-phase flows. The four fields (two dispersed and two continuous) provide a means for predicting the flow topology and the local variables over the full range of flow regimes. The fidelity of the model development can be verified by comparisons of the three-dimensional predictions with local measurements of the flow variables. Both invasive and non-invasive instrumentation techniques and their strengths and limitations are discussed. A critical aspect of this instrumentation development has been the use of a low pressure/temperature modeling fluid (R-134a) in a vertical duct which permits full optical access to visualize the flow fields in all two-phase flow regimes. The modeling fluid accurately simulates boiling steam-water systems. Particular attention is focused on the use of a gamma densitometer to obtain line-averaged and cross-sectional averaged void fractions. Hot-film anemometer probes provide data on local void fraction, interfacial frequency, bubble and droplet size, as well as information on the behavior of the liquid-vapor interface in annular flows. A laser Doppler velocimeter is used to measure the velocity of liquid-vapor interfaces in bubbly, slug and annular flows. Flow visualization techniques are also used to obtain a qualitative understanding of the two-phase flow structure, and to obtain supporting quantitative data on bubble size. Examples of data obtained with these various measurement methods are shown.
The vulnerability cube: a multi-dimensional framework for assessing relative vulnerability.
Lin, Brenda B; Morefield, Philip E
2011-09-01
The diversity and abundance of information available for vulnerability assessments can present a challenge to decision-makers. Here we propose a framework to aggregate and present socioeconomic and environmental data in a visual vulnerability assessment that will help prioritize management options for communities vulnerable to environmental change. Socioeconomic and environmental data are aggregated into distinct categorical indices across three dimensions and arranged in a cube, so that individual communities can be plotted in a three-dimensional space to assess the type and relative magnitude of the communities' vulnerabilities based on their position in the cube. We present an example assessment using a subset of the USEPA National Estuary Program (NEP) estuaries: coastal communities vulnerable to the effects of environmental change on ecosystem health and water quality. Using three categorical indices created from a pool of publicly available data (socioeconomic index, land use index, estuary condition index), the estuaries were ranked based on their normalized averaged scores and then plotted along the three axes to form a vulnerability cube. The position of each community within the three-dimensional space communicates both the types of vulnerability endemic to each estuary and allows for the clustering of estuaries with like-vulnerabilities to be classified into typologies. The typologies highlight specific vulnerability descriptions that may be helpful in creating specific management strategies. The data used to create the categorical indices are flexible depending on the goals of the decision makers, as different data should be chosen based on availability or importance to the system. Therefore, the analysis can be tailored to specific types of communities, allowing a data rich process to inform decision-making. PMID:21638079
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Over, M. W.; Murakami, H.; Hahn, M. S.; Yang, Y.; Rubin, Y.
2010-12-01
The method of anchored distributions (MAD, Rubin et al., Water Resour. Res., 2010) is a Bayesian inversion technique that combines geostatistical concepts with a strategy for localization of data that is indirectly related to the target variables, using anchors. Anchors are statistical distributions of the target variables (e.g., the hydraulic conductivity) at specific locations The variable field is described by the statistical distributions of structural parameters that characterize global features and by anchor distributions that intend to capture local effects. The posterior distributions of structural and anchor parameter sets are used to update the approximate spatial distribution of target variable and are generated by re-sampling the parameter sets using their normalized likelihood estimates as the probability of being selected. Increasing the dimension of the data, to include additional information in the likelihood estimate, increases the computational burden. Two measures are taken to accommodate the advantageous additional data without spurious side effects. (1) Partitioning parameter sets into hypercubes, based upon the similarity of the structural parameter values. (2) Principal component analysis, to reduce the dimensionality by discarding a certain percentage of principal components. As an additional feature for large sample sets, or faster calculation, a ‘bundling’ regime can be implemented. Bundling is employed immediately after partitioning the parameter sets into hypercubes. Bundling identifies spatial patterns amongst the realizations generated from the distributions defining the anchor parameters. The added organizational step allows data with reduced sample sizes to be passed to the PCA algorithm. The division of the data set allows for simple parallelization of the computation and our case study achieved a three-fold dimension reduction. Because of the high dimension involved in the calculation, without absurdly large sample sizes, it is reasonable to assume that the data sparsely populates the hyperspace. In order to avoid using an interpolation scheme that would average and smooth the likelihood distribution over extensive regions of unpopulated hyperspace, the data is scanned for clusters using the HOPACH algorithm authored by M. Van der Laan. The density is estimated, over the clusters, non-parametrically. The cluster approximations are summed up using a mixture model to achieve the final likelihood estimate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hao; Chen, Luyi; Liang, Yeru; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai
2015-11-01
A novel active yolk@conductive shell nanofiber web with a unique synergistic advantage of various hierarchical nanodimensional objects including the 0D monodisperse SiO2 yolks, the 1D continuous carbon shell and the 3D interconnected non-woven fabric web has been developed by an innovative multi-dimensional construction method, and thus demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties as a self-standing LIB anode.A novel active yolk@conductive shell nanofiber web with a unique synergistic advantage of various hierarchical nanodimensional objects including the 0D monodisperse SiO2 yolks, the 1D continuous carbon shell and the 3D interconnected non-woven fabric web has been developed by an innovative multi-dimensional construction method, and thus demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties as a self-standing LIB anode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and additional information about material characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06531c
Song, Yang; Zhu, Li-an; Wang, Su-li; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Lu, Liang-Jing
2014-01-01
Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of Chinese Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ-C) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China. Methods 162 RA patients were recruited in the evaluation process. The reliability of the questionnaire was tested by internal consistency and item analysis. Convergent validity was assessed by correlations of MDHAQ-C with Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital anxiety and depression scales (HAD). Discriminant validity was tested in groups of patients with varied disease activities and functional classes. To evaluate the clinical values, correlations were calculated between MDHAQ-C and indices of clinical relevance and disease activity. Agreement with the Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was estimated. Results The Cronbach's alpha was 0.944 in the Function scale (FN) and 0.768 in the scale of psychological status (PS). The item analysis indicated all the items of FN and PS are correlated at an acceptable level. MDHAQ-C correlated with the questionnaires significantly in most scales and scores of scales differed significantly in groups of different disease activity and functional status. MDHAQ-C has moderate to high correlation with most clinical indices and high correlation with a spearman coefficient of 0.701 for DAS 28 and 0.843 for CDAI. The overall agreement of categories was satisfying. Conclusion MDHAQ-C is a reliable, valid instrument for functional measurement and a feasible, informative quantitative index for busy clinical settings in Chinese RA patients. PMID:24848431
Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment eXtreme scale (EDENx)
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2015-07-01
EDENx is a multivariate data visualization tool that allows interactive user driven analysis of large-scale data sets with high dimensionality. EDENx builds on our earlier system, called EDEN to enable analysis of more dimensions and larger scale data sets. EDENx provides an initial overview of summary statistics for each variable in the data set under investigation. EDENx allows the user to interact with graphical summary plots of the data to investigate subsets and their statisticalmore » associations. These plots include histograms, binned scatterplots, binned parallel coordinate plots, timeline plots, and graphical correlation indicators. From the EDENx interface, a user can select a subsample of interest and launch a more detailed data visualization via the EDEN system. EDENx is best suited for high-level, aggregate analysis tasks while EDEN is more appropriate for detail data investigations.« less
Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment eXtreme scale (EDENx)
Steed, Chad Allen
2015-07-01
EDENx is a multivariate data visualization tool that allows interactive user driven analysis of large-scale data sets with high dimensionality. EDENx builds on our earlier system, called EDEN to enable analysis of more dimensions and larger scale data sets. EDENx provides an initial overview of summary statistics for each variable in the data set under investigation. EDENx allows the user to interact with graphical summary plots of the data to investigate subsets and their statistical associations. These plots include histograms, binned scatterplots, binned parallel coordinate plots, timeline plots, and graphical correlation indicators. From the EDENx interface, a user can select a subsample of interest and launch a more detailed data visualization via the EDEN system. EDENx is best suited for high-level, aggregate analysis tasks while EDEN is more appropriate for detail data investigations.
Quantification of focal dystonia in pianists using scale analysis.
Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Vauth, Henning; Altenmüller, Eckart
2004-02-01
Focal dystonia in pianists is a task-specific movement disorder that causes loss of pianistic skills and provokes irregularities in playing. So far, no method has been available for objective quantification of the disorder. Eight professional pianists with focal dystonia and eight healthy professional pianists matched by age, gender, and handedness were examined, using a newly developed MIDI-based Scale Analysis as well as the Arm Dystonia Disability Scale (ADDS). Key velocities and timing parameters were analyzed. In 5 pianists with dystonia, follow-up examinations were carried out after treatment with botulinum toxin-A. In affected hands, significantly higher mean standard deviations of timing parameters were seen compared with healthy reference hands. After treatment with botulinum toxin-A, significant improvements in performance parameters were monitored by Scale Analysis. Mean standard deviations of inter-onset intervals correlated with ADDS scores. We conclude that Scale Analysis is an effective and precise tool for quantification of focal dystonia in pianists and provides fine resolution. It is independent of rating methods and allows reliable follow-up examinations during treatment. PMID:14978672
Quantification of focal dystonia in pianists using scale analysis.
TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information
Jabusch HC; Vauth H; Altenmüller E
2004-02-01
Focal dystonia in pianists is a task-specific movement disorder that causes loss of pianistic skills and provokes irregularities in playing. So far, no method has been available for objective quantification of the disorder. Eight professional pianists with focal dystonia and eight healthy professional pianists matched by age, gender, and handedness were examined, using a newly developed MIDI-based Scale Analysis as well as the Arm Dystonia Disability Scale (ADDS). Key velocities and timing parameters were analyzed. In 5 pianists with dystonia, follow-up examinations were carried out after treatment with botulinum toxin-A. In affected hands, significantly higher mean standard deviations of timing parameters were seen compared with healthy reference hands. After treatment with botulinum toxin-A, significant improvements in performance parameters were monitored by Scale Analysis. Mean standard deviations of inter-onset intervals correlated with ADDS scores. We conclude that Scale Analysis is an effective and precise tool for quantification of focal dystonia in pianists and provides fine resolution. It is independent of rating methods and allows reliable follow-up examinations during treatment.
SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis
Hathout, A.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.
1980-01-01
The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO/sub 2/ fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments.
Quantitative analysis of scale of aeromagnetic data raises questions about geologic-map scale
Nykanen, V.; Raines, G.L.
2006-01-01
A recently published study has shown that small-scale geologic map data can reproduce mineral assessments made with considerably larger scale data. This result contradicts conventional wisdom about the importance of scale in mineral exploration, at least for regional studies. In order to formally investigate aspects of scale, a weights-of-evidence analysis using known gold occurrences and deposits in the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt of Finland as training sites provided a test of the predictive power of the aeromagnetic data. These orogenic-mesothermal-type gold occurrences and deposits have strong lithologic and structural controls associated with long (up to several kilometers), narrow (up to hundreds of meters) hydrothermal alteration zones with associated magnetic lows. The aeromagnetic data were processed using conventional geophysical methods of successive upward continuation simulating terrane clearance or 'flight height' from the original 30 m to an artificial 2000 m. The analyses show, as expected, that the predictive power of aeromagnetic data, as measured by the weights-of-evidence contrast, decreases with increasing flight height. Interestingly, the Moran autocorrelation of aeromagnetic data representing differing flight height, that is spatial scales, decreases with decreasing resolution of source data. The Moran autocorrelation coefficient scems to be another measure of the quality of the aeromagnetic data for predicting exploration targets. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.
MULTI-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE TRANSFER TO ANALYZE HANLE EFFECT IN Ca II K LINE AT 3933 A
Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in
2013-04-20
Radiative transfer (RT) studies of the linearly polarized spectrum of the Sun (the second solar spectrum) have generally focused on line formation, with an aim to understand the vertical structure of the solar atmosphere using one-dimensional (1D) model atmospheres. Modeling spatial structuring in the observations of the linearly polarized line profiles requires the solution of multi-dimensional (multi-D) polarized RT equation and a model solar atmosphere obtained by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of the solar atmosphere. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the chromospheric resonance line Ca II K at 3933 A using multi-D polarized RT with the Hanle effect and partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in line scattering. We use an atmosphere that is constructed by a two-dimensional snapshot of the three-dimensional MHD simulations of the solar photosphere, combined with columns of a 1D atmosphere in the chromosphere. This paper represents the first application of polarized multi-D RT to explore the chromospheric lines using multi-D MHD atmospheres, with PRD as the line scattering mechanism. We find that the horizontal inhomogeneities caused by MHD in the lower layers of the atmosphere are responsible for strong spatial inhomogeneities in the wings of the linear polarization profiles, while the use of horizontally homogeneous chromosphere (FALC) produces spatially homogeneous linear polarization in the line core. The introduction of different magnetic field configurations modifies the line core polarization through the Hanle effect and can cause spatial inhomogeneities in the line core. A comparison of our theoretical profiles with the observations of this line shows that the MHD structuring in the photosphere is sufficient to reproduce the line wings and in the line core, but only line center polarization can be reproduced using the Hanle effect. For a simultaneous modeling of the line wings and the line core (including the line center), MHD atmospheres with inhomogeneities in the chromosphere are required.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandarinath, Kailasa
2014-12-01
Several new multi-dimensional tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams employing log-ratio variables of chemical elements and probability based procedure have been developed during the last 10 years for basic-ultrabasic, intermediate and acid igneous rocks. There are numerous studies on extensive evaluations of these newly developed diagrams which have indicated their successful application to know the original tectonic setting of younger and older as well as sea-water and hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks. In the present study, these diagrams were applied to Precambrian rocks of Mexico (southern and north-eastern) and Argentina. The study indicated the original tectonic setting of Precambrian rocks from the Oaxaca Complex of southern Mexico as follows: (1) dominant rift (within-plate) setting for rocks of 1117-988 Ma age; (2) dominant rift and less-dominant arc setting for rocks of 1157-1130 Ma age; and (3) a combined tectonic setting of collision and rift for Etla Granitoid Pluton (917 Ma age). The diagrams have indicated the original tectonic setting of the Precambrian rocks from the north-eastern Mexico as: (1) a dominant arc tectonic setting for the rocks of 988 Ma age; and (2) an arc and collision setting for the rocks of 1200-1157 Ma age. Similarly, the diagrams have indicated the dominant original tectonic setting for the Precambrian rocks from Argentina as: (1) with-in plate (continental rift-ocean island) and continental rift (CR) setting for the rocks of 800 Ma and 845 Ma age, respectively; and (2) an arc setting for the rocks of 1174-1169 Ma and of 1212-1188 Ma age. The inferred tectonic setting for these Precambrian rocks are, in general, in accordance to the tectonic setting reported in the literature, though there are some inconsistence inference of tectonic settings by some of the diagrams. The present study confirms the importance of these newly developed discriminant-function based diagrams in inferring the original tectonic setting of Precambrian rocks.
Shatkay, Hagit; Pan, Fengxia; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Wilbur, W. John
2008-01-01
Motivation: Much current research in biomedical text mining is concerned with serving biologists by extracting certain information from scientific text. We note that there is no ‘average biologist’ client; different users have distinct needs. For instance, as noted in past evaluation efforts (BioCreative, TREC, KDD) database curators are often interested in sentences showing experimental evidence and methods. Conversely, lab scientists searching for known information about a protein may seek facts, typically stated with high confidence. Text-mining systems can target specific end-users and become more effective, if the system can first identify text regions rich in the type of scientific content that is of interest to the user, retrieve documents that have many such regions, and focus on fact extraction from these regions. Here, we study the ability to characterize and classify such text automatically. We have recently introduced a multi-dimensional categorization and annotation scheme, developed to be applicable to a wide variety of biomedical documents and scientific statements, while intended to support specific biomedical retrieval and extraction tasks. Results: The annotation scheme was applied to a large corpus in a controlled effort by eight independent annotators, where three individual annotators independently tagged each sentence. We then trained and tested machine learning classifiers to automatically categorize sentence fragments based on the annotation. We discuss here the issues involved in this task, and present an overview of the results. The latter strongly suggest that automatic annotation along most of the dimensions is highly feasible, and that this new framework for scientific sentence categorization is applicable in practice. Contact: shatkay@cs.queensu.ca PMID:18718948
Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Speckens, Anne E M
2015-02-01
To illuminate candidate neural working mechanisms of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in the treatment of recurrent depressive disorder, parallel to the potential interplays between modulations in electro-cortical dynamics and depressive symptom severity and self-compassionate experience. Linear and nonlinear α and γ EEG oscillatory dynamics were examined concomitant to an affective Go/NoGo paradigm, pre-to-post MBCT or natural wait-list, in 51 recurrent depressive patients. Specific EEG variables investigated were; (1) induced event-related (de-) synchronisation (ERD/ERS), (2) evoked power, and (3) inter-/intra-hemispheric coherence. Secondary clinical measures included depressive severity and experiences of self-compassion. MBCT significantly downregulated α and γ power, reflecting increased cortical excitability. Enhanced α-desynchronisation/ERD was observed for negative material opposed to attenuated α-ERD towards positively valenced stimuli, suggesting activation of neural networks usually hypoactive in depression, related to positive emotion regulation. MBCT-related increase in left-intra-hemispheric α-coherence of the fronto-parietal circuit aligned with these synchronisation dynamics. Ameliorated depressive severity and increased self-compassionate experience pre-to-post MBCT correlated with α-ERD change. The multi-dimensional neural mechanisms of MBCT pertain to task-specific linear and non-linear neural synchronisation and connectivity network dynamics. We propose MBCT-related modulations in differing cortical oscillatory bands have discrete excitatory (enacting positive emotionality) and inhibitory (disengaging from negative material) effects, where mediation in the α and γ bands relates to the former. PMID:26052359
A scaling analysis of ozone photochemistry: I Model development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ainslie, B.; Steyn, D. G.
2005-12-01
A scaling analysis has been used to capture the integrated behaviour of several photochemical mechanisms for a wide range of precursor concentrations and a variety of environmental conditions. The Buckingham Pi method of dimensional analysis was used to express the relevant variables in terms of dimensionless groups. These grouping show maximum ozone, initial NOx and initial VOC concentrations are made non-dimensional by the average NO2 photolysis rate (jav) and the rate constant for the NO-O3 titration reaction (kNO); temperature by the NO-O3 activation energy (ENO) and Boltzmann constant (k) and total irradiation time by the cumulative javΔt photolysis rate (π3). The analysis shows dimensionless maximum ozone concentration can be described by a product of powers of dimensionless initial NOx concentration, dimensionless temperature, and a similarity curve directly dependent on the ratio of initial VOC to NOx concentration and implicitly dependent on the cumulative NO2 photolysis rate. When Weibull transformed, the similarity relationship shows a scaling break with dimensionless model output clustering onto two straight line segments, parameterized using four variables: two describing the slopes of the line segments and two giving the location of their intersection. A fifth parameter is used to normalize the model output. The scaling analysis, similarity curve and parameterization appear to be independent of the details of the chemical mechanism, hold for a variety of VOC species and mixtures and a wide range of temperatures and actinic fluxes.
New Criticality Safety Analysis Capabilities in SCALE 5.1
Bowman, Stephen M; DeHart, Mark D; Dunn, Michael E; Goluoglu, Sedat; Horwedel, James E; Petrie Jr, Lester M; Rearden, Bradley T; Williams, Mark L
2007-01-01
Version 5.1 of the SCALE computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in 2006, contains several significant enhancements for nuclear criticality safety analysis. This paper highlights new capabilities in SCALE 5.1, including improved resonance self-shielding capabilities; ENDF/B-VI.7 cross-section and covariance data libraries; HTML output for KENO V.a; analytical calculations of KENO-VI volumes with GeeWiz/KENO3D; new CENTRMST/PMCST modules for processing ENDF/B-VI data in TSUNAMI; SCALE Generalized Geometry Package in NEWT; KENO Monte Carlo depletion in TRITON; and plotting of cross-section and covariance data in Javapeno.
Bridgman crystal growth in low gravity - A scaling analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, J. I. D.; Rosenberger, Franz
1990-01-01
The results of an order-of-magnitude or scaling analysis are compared with those of numerical simulations of the effects of steady low gravity on compositional nonuniformity in crystals grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. In particular, the results are examined of numerical simulations of the effect of steady residual acceleration on the transport of solute in a gallium-doped germanium melt during directional solidification under low-gravity conditions. The results are interpreted in terms of the relevant dimensionless groups associated with the process, and scaling techniques are evaluated by comparing their predictions with the numerical results. It is demonstrated that, when convective transport is comparable with diffusive transport, some specific knowledge of the behavior of the system is required before scaling arguments can be used to make reasonable predictions.
Analysis of Reynolds number scaling for viscous vortex reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Qionglin; Hussain, Fazle; Wang, Jianchun; Chen, Shiyi
2012-10-01
A theoretical analysis of viscous vortex reconnection is developed based on scale separation, and the Reynolds number, Re (= circulation/viscosity), scaling for the reconnection time Trec is derived. The scaling varies continuously as Re increases from T_{rec} ˜ {mathopRenolimits} ^{ - 1} to T_{rec} ˜ {mathopRenolimits} ^{ - 1/2}. This theoretical prediction agrees well with direct numerical simulations by Garten et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 426, 1 (2001)], 10.1017/S0022112000002251 and Hussain and Duraisamy [Phys. Fluids 23, 021701 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3532039. Moreover, our analysis yields two Re's, namely, a characteristic Re {mathopRenolimits} _{0.75} in left[ {Oleft({10^2 } right),Oleft({10^3 } right)} right] for the T_{rec} ˜ {mathopRenolimits} ^{ - 0.75} scaling given by Hussain and Duraisamy and the critical Re {mathopRenolimits} _c ˜ Oleft({10^4 } right) for the transition after which the first reconnection is completed. For {mathopRenolimits} > {mathopRenolimits} _c, a quiescent state follows, and then, a second reconnection may occur.
Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.
Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus
2015-03-01
Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale. PMID:25245398
Empirical analysis of scaling and fractal characteristics of outpatients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Li-Jiang; Liu, Zi-Xian; Guo, Jin-Li
2014-01-01
The paper uses power-law frequency distribution, power spectrum analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and surrogate data testing to evaluate outpatient registration data of two hospitals in China and to investigate the human dynamics of systems that use the “first come, first served” protocols. The research results reveal that outpatient behavior follow scaling laws. The results also suggest that the time series of inter-arrival time exhibit 1/f noise and have positive long-range correlation. Our research may contribute to operational optimization and resource allocation in hospital based on FCFS admission protocols.
Bicoherence analysis of model-scale jet noise.
Gee, Kent L; Atchley, Anthony A; Falco, Lauren E; Shepherd, Micah R; Ukeiley, Lawrence S; Jansen, Bernard J; Seiner, John M
2010-11-01
Bicoherence analysis has been used to characterize nonlinear effects in the propagation of noise from a model-scale, Mach-2.0, unheated jet. Nonlinear propagation effects are predominantly limited to regions near the peak directivity angle for this jet source and propagation range. The analysis also examines the practice of identifying nonlinear propagation by comparing spectra measured at two different distances and assuming far-field, linear propagation between them. This spectral comparison method can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the role of nonlinearity when the observations are made in the geometric near field of an extended, directional radiator, such as a jet. PMID:21110528
Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.
2009-01-01
The Copper River Basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. Bridges along the Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, have been impacted by channel migration. Due to a major channel change in 2001, Bridge 339 at Mile 36 of the highway has undergone excessive scour, resulting in damage to its abutments and approaches. During the snow- and ice-melt runoff season, which typically extends from mid-May to September, the design discharge for the bridge often is exceeded. The approach channel shifts continuously, and during our study it has shifted back and forth from the left bank to a course along the right bank nearly parallel to the road. Maintenance at Bridge 339 has been costly and will continue to be so if no action is taken. Possible solutions to the scour and erosion problem include (1) constructing a guide bank to redirect flow, (2) dredging approximately 1,000 feet of channel above the bridge to align flow perpendicular to the bridge, and (3) extending the bridge. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) was used to assess these possible solutions. The major limitation of modeling these scenarios was the inability to predict ongoing channel migration. We used a hybrid dataset of surveyed and synthetic bathymetry in the approach channel, which provided the best approximation of this dynamic system. Under existing conditions and at the highest measured discharge and stage of 32,500 ft3/s and 51.08 ft, respectively, the velocities and shear stresses simulated by MD_SWMS indicate scour and erosion will continue. Construction of a 250-foot-long guide bank would not improve conditions because it is not long enough. Dredging a channel upstream of Bridge 339 would help align the flow perpendicular to Bridge 339, but because of the mobility of the channel bed, the dredged channel would likely fill in during high flows. Extending Bridge 339 would accommodate higher discharges and re-align flow to the bridge.
An operational global-scale ocean thermal analysis system
Clancy, R. M.; Pollak, K.D.; Phoebus, P.A. U.S. Navy, Ocean Sensing and Prediction Div., Bay Saint Louis, MS )
1990-04-01
The Optimum Thermal Interpolation System (OTIS) is an ocean thermal analysis system designed for operational use at FNOC. It is based on the optimum interpolation of the assimilation technique and functions in an analysis-prediction-analysis data assimilation cycle with the TOPS mixed-layer model. OTIS provides a rigorous framework for combining real-time data, climatology, and predictions from numerical ocean prediction models to produce a large-scale synoptic representation of ocean thermal structure. The techniques and assumptions used in OTIS are documented and results of operational tests of global scale OTIS at FNOC are presented. The tests involved comparisons of OTIS against an existing operational ocean thermal structure model and were conducted during February, March, and April 1988. Qualitative comparison of the two products suggests that OTIS gives a more realistic representation of subsurface anomalies and horizontal gradients and that it also gives a more accurate analysis of the thermal structure, with improvements largest below the mixed layer. 37 refs.
Confirmatory factor analysis of the supports intensity scale for children.
Verdugo, Miguel A; Guillén, Verónica M; Arias, Benito; Vicente, Eva; Badia, Marta
2016-01-01
Support needs assessment instruments and recent research related to this construct have been more focused on adults with intellectual disability than on children. However, the design and implementation of Individualized Support Plans (ISP) must start at an early age. Currently, a project for the translation, adaptation and validation of the supports intensity scale for children (SIS-C) is being conducted in Spain. In this study, the internal structure of the scale was analyzed to shed light on the nature of this construct when evaluated in childhood. A total of 814 children with intellectual disability between 5 and 16 years of age participated in the study. Their support need level was assessed by the SIS-C, and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), including different hypotheses, was carried out to identify the optimal factorial structure of this scale. The CFA results indicated that a unidimensional model is not sufficient to explain our data structure. On the other hand, goodness-of-fit indices showed that both correlated first-order factors and higher-order factor models of the construct could explain the data obtained from the scale. Specifically, a better fit of our data with the correlated first-order factors model was found. These findings are similar to those identified in previous analyses performed with adults. Implications and directions for further research are discussed. PMID:26707926
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sengupta, Atanu; Pal, Naibedya Prasun
2012-01-01
Primary education is essential for the economic development in any country. Most studies give more emphasis to the final output (such as literacy, enrolment etc.) rather than the delivery of the entire primary education system. In this paper, we study the school level data from an Indian district, collected under the official DISE statistics. We…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Recent advances in technology have led to the collection of high-dimensional data not previously encountered in many scientific environments. As a result, scientists are often faced with the challenging task of including these high-dimensional data into statistical models. For example, data from sen...
Not Available
1982-01-01
The Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been supporting the development of flow models for Devonian shale gas reservoirs. The broad objectives of this modeling program are: (1) To develop and validate a mathematical model which describes gas flow through Devonian shales. (2) To determine the sensitive parameters that affect deliverability and recovery of gas from Devonian shales. (3) To recommend laboratory and field measurements for determination of those parameters critical to the productivity and timely recovery of gas from the Devonian shales. (4) To analyze pressure and rate transient data from observation and production gas wells to determine reservoir parameters and well performance. (5) To study and determine the overall performance of Devonian shale reservoirs in terms of well stimulation, well spacing, and resource recovery as a function of gross reservoir properties such as anisotropy, porosity and thickness variations, and boundary effects. The flow equations that are the mathematical basis of the two-dimensional model are presented. It is assumed that gas transport to producing wells in Devonian shale reservoirs occurs through a natural fracture system into which matrix blocks of contrasting physical properties deliver contained gas. That is, the matrix acts as a uniformly distributed gas source in a fracture medium. Gas desorption from pore walls is treated as a uniformly distributed source within the matrix blocks. 24 references.
A scale analysis of the D region winter anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Offermann, D.; Brueckelmann, H. G. K.; Barnett, J. J.; Labitzke, K.; Torkar, K. M.; Widdel, H. U.
1982-10-01
A scale analysis, i.e., an estimation of typical values of important atmospheric and ionospheric parameters and time scales is performed for the meteorological type of winter anomaly at medium latitudes (40 deg N). An interpretative model of the winter anomaly is developed by a correlation analysis on the basis of data obtained from the Western European Winter Anomaly Campaign 1975/76 at El Arenosillo, Spain, and a simultaneous winter anomaly campaign at Wallops Island, U.S. A large number of rocket experiments performed in six previous winters in Spain are also analyzed and found to support the model. The model explains the buildup and decay of the winter anomaly by combined action of temperature, turbulent downward transport of nitric oxide, and horizontal transport of nitric oxide by winds. The horizontal wind direction is not important for the picture. Mechanisms involved are fast enough to explain the rapid variations of the winter anomaly. Large-scale winter anomaly structure is linked to planetary wave number 2. The model picture is found to be compatible with quite a number of experimentally known features of the winter anomaly. There are hints to a more general validity of the model.
Scaling analysis for the investigation of slip mechanisms in nanofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savithiri, S.; Pattamatta, Arvind; Das, Sarit K.
2011-07-01
The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effect of slip mechanisms in nanofluids through scaling analysis. The role of nanoparticle slip mechanisms in both water- and ethylene glycol-based nanofluids is analyzed by considering shape, size, concentration, and temperature of the nanoparticles. From the scaling analysis, it is found that all of the slip mechanisms are dominant in particles of cylindrical shape as compared to that of spherical and sheet particles. The magnitudes of slip mechanisms are found to be higher for particles of size between 10 and 80 nm. The Brownian force is found to dominate in smaller particles below 10 nm and also at smaller volume fraction. However, the drag force is found to dominate in smaller particles below 10 nm and at higher volume fraction. The effect of thermophoresis and Magnus forces is found to increase with the particle size and concentration. In terms of time scales, the Brownian and gravity forces act considerably over a longer duration than the other forces. For copper-water-based nanofluid, the effective contribution of slip mechanisms leads to a heat transfer augmentation which is approximately 36% over that of the base fluid. The drag and gravity forces tend to reduce the Nusselt number of the nanofluid while the other forces tend to enhance it.
Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emerson, Charles W.
1998-01-01
Fractals embody important ideas of self-similarity, in which the spatial behavior or appearance of a system is largely independent of scale. Self-similarity is defined as a property of curves or surfaces where each part is indistinguishable from the whole, or where the form of the curve or surface is invariant with respect to scale. An ideal fractal (or monofractal) curve or surface has a constant dimension over all scales, although it may not be an integer value. This is in contrast to Euclidean or topological dimensions, where discrete one, two, and three dimensions describe curves, planes, and volumes. Theoretically, if the digital numbers of a remotely sensed image resemble an ideal fractal surface, then due to the self-similarity property, the fractal dimension of the image will not vary with scale and resolution. However, most geographical phenomena are not strictly self-similar at all scales, but they can often be modeled by a stochastic fractal in which the scaling and self-similarity properties of the fractal have inexact patterns that can be described by statistics. Stochastic fractal sets relax the monofractal self-similarity assumption and measure many scales and resolutions in order to represent the varying form of a phenomenon as a function of local variables across space. In image interpretation, pattern is defined as the overall spatial form of related features, and the repetition of certain forms is a characteristic pattern found in many cultural objects and some natural features. Texture is the visual impression of coarseness or smoothness caused by the variability or uniformity of image tone or color. A potential use of fractals concerns the analysis of image texture. In these situations it is commonly observed that the degree of roughness or inexactness in an image or surface is a function of scale and not of experimental technique. The fractal dimension of remote sensing data could yield quantitative insight on the spatial complexity and information content contained within these data. A software package known as the Image Characterization and Modeling System (ICAMS) was used to explore how fractal dimension is related to surface texture and pattern. The ICAMS software was verified using simulated images of ideal fractal surfaces with specified dimensions. The fractal dimension for areas of homogeneous land cover in the vicinity of Huntsville, Alabama was measured to investigate the relationship between texture and resolution for different land covers.
Reactor Physics Methods and Analysis Capabilities in SCALE
Mark D. DeHart; Stephen M. Bowman
2011-05-01
The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for performing reactor physics analysis. This paper presents a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as next-generation power reactors and space reactors require new high-fidelity physics methods, such as those available in SCALE/TRITON, that accurately represent the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light water reactor designs.
SCALE 6: Comprehensive Nuclear Safety Analysis Code System
Bowman, Stephen M
2011-01-01
Version 6 of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in February 2009, contains significant new capabilities and data for nuclear safety analysis and marks an important update for this software package, which is used worldwide. This paper highlights the capabilities of the SCALE system, including continuous-energy flux calculations for processing multigroup problem-dependent cross sections, ENDF/B-VII continuous-energy and multigroup nuclear cross-section data, continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations, Monte Carlo radiation shielding analyses with automated three-dimensional variance reduction techniques, one- and three-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for criticality safety evaluations, two- and three-dimensional lattice physics depletion analyses, fast and accurate source terms and decay heat calculations, automated burnup credit analyses with loading curve search, and integrated three-dimensional criticality accident alarm system analyses using coupled Monte Carlo criticality and shielding calculations.
Reactor Physics Methods and Analysis Capabilities in SCALE
DeHart, Mark D; Bowman, Stephen M
2011-01-01
The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for performing reactor physics analysis. This paper presents a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as next-generation power reactors and space reactors require new high-fidelity physics methods, such as those available in SCALE/TRITON, that accurately represent the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light water reactor designs.
Scaling and dimensional analysis of acoustic streaming jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moudjed, B.; Botton, V.; Henry, D.; Ben Hadid, H.; Garandet, J.-P.
2014-09-01
This paper focuses on acoustic streaming free jets. This is to say that progressive acoustic waves are used to generate a steady flow far from any wall. The derivation of the governing equations under the form of a nonlinear hydrodynamics problem coupled with an acoustic propagation problem is made on the basis of a time scale discrimination approach. This approach is preferred to the usually invoked amplitude perturbations expansion since it is consistent with experimental observations of acoustic streaming flows featuring hydrodynamic nonlinearities and turbulence. Experimental results obtained with a plane transducer in water are also presented together with a review of the former experimental investigations using similar configurations. A comparison of the shape of the acoustic field with the shape of the velocity field shows that diffraction is a key ingredient in the problem though it is rarely accounted for in the literature. A scaling analysis is made and leads to two scaling laws for the typical velocity level in acoustic streaming free jets; these are both observed in our setup and in former studies by other teams. We also perform a dimensional analysis of this problem: a set of seven dimensionless groups is required to describe a typical acoustic experiment. We find that a full similarity is usually not possible between two acoustic streaming experiments featuring different fluids. We then choose to relax the similarity with respect to sound attenuation and to focus on the case of a scaled water experiment representing an acoustic streaming application in liquid metals, in particular, in liquid silicon and in liquid sodium. We show that small acoustic powers can yield relatively high Reynolds numbers and velocity levels; this could be a virtue for heat and mass transfer applications, but a drawback for ultrasonic velocimetry.
Scaling and dimensional analysis of acoustic streaming jets
Moudjed, B.; Botton, V.; Henry, D.; Ben Hadid, H.
2014-09-15
This paper focuses on acoustic streaming free jets. This is to say that progressive acoustic waves are used to generate a steady flow far from any wall. The derivation of the governing equations under the form of a nonlinear hydrodynamics problem coupled with an acoustic propagation problem is made on the basis of a time scale discrimination approach. This approach is preferred to the usually invoked amplitude perturbations expansion since it is consistent with experimental observations of acoustic streaming flows featuring hydrodynamic nonlinearities and turbulence. Experimental results obtained with a plane transducer in water are also presented together with a review of the former experimental investigations using similar configurations. A comparison of the shape of the acoustic field with the shape of the velocity field shows that diffraction is a key ingredient in the problem though it is rarely accounted for in the literature. A scaling analysis is made and leads to two scaling laws for the typical velocity level in acoustic streaming free jets; these are both observed in our setup and in former studies by other teams. We also perform a dimensional analysis of this problem: a set of seven dimensionless groups is required to describe a typical acoustic experiment. We find that a full similarity is usually not possible between two acoustic streaming experiments featuring different fluids. We then choose to relax the similarity with respect to sound attenuation and to focus on the case of a scaled water experiment representing an acoustic streaming application in liquid metals, in particular, in liquid silicon and in liquid sodium. We show that small acoustic powers can yield relatively high Reynolds numbers and velocity levels; this could be a virtue for heat and mass transfer applications, but a drawback for ultrasonic velocimetry.
A research on analysis method of land environment big data storage based on air-earth-life
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yanling; Li, Jingwen
2015-12-01
Many problems of land environment in urban development, with the support of 3S technology, the research of land environment evolved into the stage of spatial-temporal scales. This paper combining space, time and attribute features in land environmental change, with elements of "air-earth-life" framework for the study of pattern, researching the analysis method of land environment big data storage due to the limitations of traditional processing method in land environment spatial-temporal data, to reflect the organic couping relationship among the multi-dimensional elements in land environment and provide the theory basis of data storage for implementing big data analysis application platform in land environment.
Dimensional analysis scaling of impact craters in unconsolidated granular materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowling, David R.; Dowling, Thomas R.
2013-11-01
Dimensional analysis is a general technique for determining how the independent parameters that describe physical phenomena must be arranged to produce dimensionally self-consistent results. This presentation describes how dimensional analysis may be successfully applied to the formation of impact craters produced by dropping spherical objects into a bed of unconsolidated granular material. The experiment is simple and safe, and laboratory results for different impact energies (0.001 to 1.6 J), seven different spheres (masses from 4 to 64 grams, diameters from 1.0 to 4.3 cm), and two different dry granular materials (granulated sugar, and playground sand) may be collapsed to a single power-law using parametric scaling determined from dimensional analysis. Thus, impact crater formation may provide a useful validation test for simulations of granular material dynamics. Interestingly, the scaling law shows that the impacting sphere's diameter is not a parameter. And, the resulting power law can be extrapolated, with some success, over more than 16 orders of magnitude to produce an independent estimate of the impact energy that formed the 1.2-km-diameter Barringer Meteor Crater in northern Arizona.
Dehazing method through polarimetric imaging and multi-scale analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Lei; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fei; Wang, Lin
2015-05-01
An approach for haze removal utilizing polarimetric imaging and multi-scale analysis has been developed to solve one problem that haze weather weakens the interpretation of remote sensing because of the poor visibility and short detection distance of haze images. On the one hand, the polarization effects of the airlight and the object radiance in the imaging procedure has been considered. On the other hand, one fact that objects and haze possess different frequency distribution properties has been emphasized. So multi-scale analysis through wavelet transform has been employed to make it possible for low frequency components that haze presents and high frequency coefficients that image details or edges occupy are processed separately. According to the measure of the polarization feather by Stokes parameters, three linear polarized images (0°, 45°, and 90°) have been taken on haze weather, then the best polarized image min I and the worst one max I can be synthesized. Afterwards, those two polarized images contaminated by haze have been decomposed into different spatial layers with wavelet analysis, and the low frequency images have been processed via a polarization dehazing algorithm while high frequency components manipulated with a nonlinear transform. Then the ultimate haze-free image can be reconstructed by inverse wavelet reconstruction. Experimental results verify that the dehazing method proposed in this study can strongly promote image visibility and increase detection distance through haze for imaging warning and remote sensing systems.
Irregularities and scaling in signal and image processing: multifractal analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abry, Patrice; Jaffard, Herwig; Wendt, Stéphane
2015-03-01
B. Mandelbrot gave a new birth to the notions of scale invariance, self-similarity and non-integer dimensions, gathering them as the founding corner-stones used to build up fractal geometry. The first purpose of the present contribution is to review and relate together these key notions, explore their interplay and show that they are different facets of a single intuition. Second, we will explain how these notions lead to the derivation of the mathematical tools underlying multifractal analysis. Third, we will reformulate these theoretical tools into a wavelet framework, hence enabling their better theoretical understanding as well as their efficient practical implementation. B. Mandelbrot used his concept of fractal geometry to analyze real-world applications of very different natures. As a tribute to his work, applications of various origins, and where multifractal analysis proved fruitful, are revisited to illustrate the theoretical developments proposed here.
Scaling analysis of biogeochemical parameters in coastal waters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zongo, Sylvie; Schmitt, Franois
2010-05-01
Monitoring data are very useful for rapidly providing quality controlled measurements of many environmental aquatic, and thus understanding the spatio-temporal structure which governs the dynamics. We consider here the long time biogeochemical time series from automatic continuous monitoring. These biogeochemical time series from in Eastern English Channel: coastal waters, estuarine waters and river waters. In the first analysis, we consider data from the MAREL system (Automatic monitoring network): MAREL Carnot buoy that is situated in the coastal waters of Boulogne-sur-mer with data from the Honfleur MAREL buoy (an estuarine station in the bay of Seine). Marel system is based on the deployment of data buoys having marine water analysis capabilities on an automated mode. It is equipped with high performance technologies for water analysis and real time data transmission and record many parameters at fixed locations: temperature, dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, chlorophyll a (Chla), salinity with high frequency resolution (10 or 20 minutes). We consider also the data from Wimereux river off Boulogne-sur mer. Two sets of data were recorded in the river Wimereux in downstream and upstream using a temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and salinity sensors. This monitoring provided an approach of spatial temporal functional dynamism, with these two zones: the first is represented by downstream related to hydrodynamic marine; the second is related to the upstream flow waters. All these time series reveal large fluctuations at many time scales. The large number of data provided by the sensors enables the estimation of Fourier spectral analysis, in order to consider the dominant frequencies associated to the dynamics. This shows the impact of turbulence and of the tidal cycle on the high variability of these parameters. These spectra show quite nice scaling regimes which are compared to the one of temperature, as a reference turbulent passive scalar.
A Multi-scale Approach to Urban Thermal Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gluch, Renne; Quattrochi, Dale A.
2005-01-01
An environmental consequence of urbanization is the urban heat island effect, a situation where urban areas are warmer than surrounding rural areas. The urban heat island phenomenon results from the replacement of natural landscapes with impervious surfaces such as concrete and asphalt and is linked to adverse economic and environmental impacts. In order to better understand the urban microclimate, a greater understanding of the urban thermal pattern (UTP), including an analysis of the thermal properties of individual land covers, is needed. This study examines the UTP by means of thermal land cover response for the Salt Lake City, Utah, study area at two scales: 1) the community level, and 2) the regional or valleywide level. Airborne ATLAS (Advanced Thermal Land Applications Sensor) data, a high spatial resolution (10-meter) dataset appropriate for an environment containing a concentration of diverse land covers, are used for both land cover and thermal analysis at the community level. The ATLAS data consist of 15 channels covering the visible, near-IR, mid-IR and thermal-IR wavelengths. At the regional level Landsat TM data are used for land cover analysis while the ATLAS channel 13 data are used for the thermal analysis. Results show that a heat island is evident at both the community and the valleywide level where there is an abundance of impervious surfaces. ATLAS data perform well in community level studies in terms of land cover and thermal exchanges, but other, more coarse-resolution data sets are more appropriate for large-area thermal studies. Thermal response per land cover is consistent at both levels, which suggests potential for urban climate modeling at multiple scales.
Problems of allometric scaling analysis: examples from mammalian reproductive biology.
Martin, Robert D; Genoud, Michel; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K
2005-05-01
Biological scaling analyses employing the widely used bivariate allometric model are beset by at least four interacting problems: (1) choice of an appropriate best-fit line with due attention to the influence of outliers; (2) objective recognition of divergent subsets in the data (allometric grades); (3) potential restrictions on statistical independence resulting from phylogenetic inertia; and (4) the need for extreme caution in inferring causation from correlation. A new non-parametric line-fitting technique has been developed that eliminates requirements for normality of distribution, greatly reduces the influence of outliers and permits objective recognition of grade shifts in substantial datasets. This technique is applied in scaling analyses of mammalian gestation periods and of neonatal body mass in primates. These analyses feed into a re-examination, conducted with partial correlation analysis, of the maternal energy hypothesis relating to mammalian brain evolution, which suggests links between body size and brain size in neonates and adults, gestation period and basal metabolic rate. Much has been made of the potential problem of phylogenetic inertia as a confounding factor in scaling analyses. However, this problem may be less severe than suspected earlier because nested analyses of variance conducted on residual variation (rather than on raw values) reveals that there is considerable variance at low taxonomic levels. In fact, limited divergence in body size between closely related species is one of the prime examples of phylogenetic inertia. One common approach to eliminating perceived problems of phylogenetic inertia in allometric analyses has been calculation of 'independent contrast values'. It is demonstrated that the reasoning behind this approach is flawed in several ways. Calculation of contrast values for closely related species of similar body size is, in fact, highly questionable, particularly when there are major deviations from the best-fit line for the scaling relationship under scrutiny. PMID:15855404
Surface Roughness from Point Clouds - A Multi-Scale Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milenkovi?, Milutin; Ressl, Camillo; Hollaus, Markus; Pfeifer, Norbert
2013-04-01
Roughness is a physical parameter of surfaces which should include the surface complexity in geophysical models. In hydrodynamic modeling, e.g., roughness should estimate the resistance caused by the surface on the flow, or in remote sensing, how the signal is scattered. Roughness needs to be estimated as a parameter of the model. This has been identified as main source of the uncertainties in model prediction, mainly due to the errors that follow a traditional roughness estimation, e.g. from surface profiles, or by a visual interpretation and manual delineation from aerial photos. Currently, roughness estimation is shifting towards point clouds of surfaces, which primarily come from laser scanning and image matching techniques. However, those data sets are also not free of errors and may affect roughness estimation. Our study focusses on the estimation of roughness indices from different point clouds, and the uncertainties that follow such a procedure. The analysis is performed on a graveled surface of a river bed in Eastern Austria, using point clouds acquired by a triangulating laser scanner (Minolta Vivid 910), photogrammetry (DSLR camera), and terrestrial laser scanner (Riegl FWF scanner). To enable their comparison, all the point clouds are transformed to a superior coordinate system. Then, different roughness indices are calculated and compared at different scales, including stochastic and features-based indices like RMS of elevation, std.dev., Peak to Valley height, openness. The analysis is additionally supported with the spectral signatures (frequency domain) of the different point clouds. The selected techniques provide point clouds of different resolution (0.1-10cm) and coverage (0.3-10m), which also justifies the multi-scale roughness analysis. By doing this, it becomes possible to differentiate between the measurement errors and the roughness of the object at the resolutions of the point clouds. Parts of this study have been funded by the project NEWFOR in the framework of European Territorial Cooperation Alpine Space.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A., III
2002-01-01
A multi-dimensional upwind fluctuation splitting scheme is developed and implemented for two-dimensional and axisymmetric formulations of the Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. Key features of the scheme are the compact stencil, full upwinding, and non-linear discretization which allow for second-order accuracy with enforced positivity. Throughout, the fluctuation splitting scheme is compared to a current state-of-the-art finite volume approach, a second-order, dual mesh upwind flux difference splitting scheme (DMFDSFV), and is shown to produce more accurate results using fewer computer resources for a wide range of test cases. A Blasius flat plate viscous validation case reveals a more accurate upsilon-velocity profile for fluctuation splitting, and the reduced artificial dissipation production is shown relative to DMFDSFV. Remarkably, the fluctuation splitting scheme shows grid converged skin friction coefficients with only five points in the boundary layer for this case. The second half of the report develops a local, compact, anisotropic unstructured mesh adaptation scheme in conjunction with the multi-dimensional upwind solver, exhibiting a characteristic alignment behavior for scalar problems. The adaptation strategy is extended to the two-dimensional and axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations of motion through the concept of fluctuation minimization.
Nishikido, Noriko; Yuasa, Akiko; Motoki, Chiharu; Tanaka, Mika; Arai, Sumiko; Matsuda, Kazumi; Ikeda, Tomoko; Iijima, Miyoko; Hirata, Mamoru; Hojoh, Minoru; Tsutaki, Miho; Ito, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Kazutoshi; Miyoshi, Yukari; Mitsuhashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Eiko; Kawakami, Yuko
2006-01-01
To meet diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in developed countries, occupational safety and health (OSH) activities should be extended. The objective of this study is to develop a new multi-dimensional action checklist that can support employers and workers in understanding a wide range of OSH activities and to promote participation in OSH in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The general structure of and specific items in the new action checklist were discussed in a focus group meeting with OSH specialists based upon the results of a literature review and our previous interviews with company employers and workers. To assure practicality and validity, several sessions were held to elicit the opinions of company members and, as a result, modifications were made. The new multi-dimensional action checklist was finally formulated consisting of 6 core areas, 9 technical areas, and 61 essential items. Each item was linked to a suitable section in the information guidebook that we developed concomitantly with the action checklist. Combined usage of the action checklist with the information guidebook would provide easily comprehended information and practical support. Intervention studies using this newly developed action checklist will clarify the effectiveness of the new approach to OSH in SMEs. PMID:16610531
The effect of temporal observation scale on extreme rainfall analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camarasa, A. M.; Soriano, J.
2009-09-01
Mediterranean storms usually show high intensity and irregularity of rainfall. A single torrential event can double, even triplicate, the average annual rainfall. These features, in turn, determine rainfall-runoff conversion and other hydrological processes. As a consequence flash-floods and hydrological behaviour of ephemeral streams are dominated by these extreme events. However the internal structure of storms varies according to the time scale at which data are collected. As the observation interval is reduced, intensity becomes more significant and emphasizes the concentrated character of the precipitation. Moreover, an equivalent amount of rainfall, registered at different time scales, can result in different rainfall spatial patterns, and it can help to indentify which factors are important at each time measurement scale. This paper analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall pattern, associated with different time scales in data collection. The study area involves the whole territory of the River Jcar Water Authority. This area covers a surface of 43.000 km2, and shows different geographical features (topography ranking from 2000 to 0 m, sea influence, inland and coastal territories, different exposure to wet winds, etc....). Rainfall data are collected, every five minutes, by the Automatic Hydrological Information System (SAIH), from 147 rain gauges, covering a 13 years continuous period (1994-2007). Precipitation data have been rescaling in order to obtain rainfall parameters every five minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours. Indicators of cumulative rainfall, maximum intensity, irregularity, probability of rain and persistence of rain have been estimated for every time scale. From a time scale perspective, results show that there are two variables, "cumulative rainfall" and "probability of rain", that follow a positive logarithmic trend, time-dependent. "Cumulative rainfall" shows a change of trend at 6 hours time scale, while the variable "probability of rain" changes its trend after 1 hour. Variables of "maximum intensity", "irregularity" and "persistence of rain" show negative trends, fitting power curves functions time-dependent. All of these variables show a change of trend after 1 hour. Regarding the spatial pattern of these variables qualitative analysis have been made. Result show changes in the factors influencing this pattern, depending on the length of the measurement time interval. Thus, for the variables of "cumulative rainfall" and "maximum intensity", increasing time interval implies a reduction of the area affected by the maximum values. Moreover, in the interval of 5 minutes the factor altitude is determinant, while for longer time intervals, factors as distance to the sea and the orographic structures exposure to wet dominant winds gain importance. The "irregularity" shows, for 5 minutes, the highest values in the plains near the sea, (exposed to wind of component E) and in the first line of relief or valleys opened to the sea (which acts as a trigger of instability). As the time interval increases, other factors, as distance to the sea, the effect of a second inland alignment of relieves, and the exposure to wet wind of component NE, become important. Concerning the "probability of rain" the interval of five minutes, shows the importance of exposure to wet winds of component NE plus the effect of the relief as a trigger. As the time interval increases, the presence of mountainous area in combination with wind of component W acquires prominence. The "persistence of rain" is related to the distance to the sea from the first mountainous alignments and to the exposure to winds of components NE and SE. As the time interval increases the persistence of higher values are reduced to the area exposed to winds of component NE in combination with the effect of the relief as a trigger. Finally, although the results are preliminary, authors would remark their great applicability to detect thresholds of different rainfall behaviour and its spatial distribution in order to estimate indicators for water management.
13C metabolic flux analysis at a genome-scale.
Gopalakrishnan, Saratram; Maranas, Costas D
2015-11-01
Metabolic models used in 13C metabolic flux analysis generally include a limited number of reactions primarily from central metabolism. They typically omit degradation pathways, complete cofactor balances, and atom transition contributions for reactions outside central metabolism. This study addresses the impact on prediction fidelity of scaling-up mapping models to a genome-scale. The core mapping model employed in this study accounts for (75 reactions and 65 metabolites) primarily from central metabolism. The genome-scale metabolic mapping model (GSMM) (697 reaction and 595 metabolites) is constructed using as a basis the iAF1260 model upon eliminating reactions guaranteed not to carry flux based on growth and fermentation data for a minimal glucose growth medium. Labeling data for 17 amino acid fragments obtained from cells fed with glucose labeled at the second carbon was used to obtain fluxes and ranges. Metabolic fluxes and confidence intervals are estimated, for both core and genome-scale mapping models, by minimizing the sum of square of differences between predicted and experimentally measured labeling patterns using the EMU decomposition algorithm. Overall, we find that both topology and estimated values of the metabolic fluxes remain largely consistent between core and GSM model. Stepping up to a genome-scale mapping model leads to wider flux inference ranges for 20 key reactions present in the core model. The glycolysis flux range doubles due to the possibility of active gluconeogenesis, the TCA flux range expanded by 80% due to the availability of a bypass through arginine consistent with labeling data, and the transhydrogenase reaction flux was essentially unresolved due to the presence of as many as five routes for the inter-conversion of NADPH to NADH afforded by the genome-scale model. By globally accounting for ATP demands in the GSMM model the unused ATP decreased drastically with the lower bound matching the maintenance ATP requirement. A non-zero flux for the arginine degradation pathway was identified to meet biomass precursor demands as detailed in the iAF1260 model. Inferred ranges for 81% of the reactions in the genome-scale metabolic (GSM) model varied less than one-tenth of the basis glucose uptake rate (95% confidence test). This is because as many as 411 reactions in the GSM are growth coupled meaning that the single measurement of biomass formation rate locks the reaction flux values. This implies that accurate biomass formation rate and composition are critical for resolving metabolic fluxes away from central metabolism and suggests the importance of biomass composition (re)assessment under different genetic and environmental backgrounds. In addition, the loss of information associated with mapping fluxes from MFA on a core model to a GSM model is quantified. PMID:26358840
Large-scale Biomedical Image Analysis in Grid Environments
Kumar, Vijay S.; Rutt, Benjamin; Kurc, Tahsin; Catalyurek, Umit; Pan, Tony; Saltz, Joel; Chow, Sunny; Lamont, Stephan; Martone, Maryann
2012-01-01
Digital microscopy scanners are capable of capturing multi-Gigapixel images from single slides, thus producing images of sizes up to several tens of Gigabytes each, and a research study may have hundreds of slides from a specimen. The sheer size of the images and the complexity of image processing operations create roadblocks to effective integration of large-scale imaging data in research. This paper presents the application of a component-based Grid middleware system for processing extremely large images obtained from digital microscopy devices. We have developed parallel, out-of-core techniques for different classes of data processing operations commonly employed on images from confocal microscopy scanners. These techniques are combined into data pre-processing and analysis pipelines using the component-based middleware system. The experimental results show that 1) our implementation achieves good performance and can handle very large (terabyte-scale) datasets on high-performance Grid nodes, consisting of computation and/or storage clusters, and 2) it can take advantage of multiple Grid nodes connected over high-bandwidth wide-area networks by combining task- and data-parallelism. PMID:18348945
Parallel Index and Query for Large Scale Data Analysis
Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Ruebel, Oliver; Howison, Mark; Qiang, Ji; Prabhat,; Austin, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes; Ryne, Rob D.; Shoshani, Arie
2011-07-18
Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the-art index and query technologies are critical for facilitating interactive exploration of large datasets, but numerous challenges remain in terms of designing a system for process- ing general scientific datasets. The system needs to be able to run on distributed multi-core platforms, efficiently utilize underlying I/O infrastructure, and scale to massive datasets. We present FastQuery, a novel software framework that address these challenges. FastQuery utilizes a state-of-the-art index and query technology (FastBit) and is designed to process mas- sive datasets on modern supercomputing platforms. We apply FastQuery to processing of a massive 50TB dataset generated by a large scale accelerator modeling code. We demonstrate the scalability of the tool to 11,520 cores. Motivated by the scientific need to search for inter- esting particles in this dataset, we use our framework to reduce search time from hours to tens of seconds.
Anomaly Detection in Multiple Scale for Insider Threat Analysis
Kim, Yoohwan; Sheldon, Frederick T; Hively, Lee M
2012-01-01
We propose a method to quantify malicious insider activity with statistical and graph-based analysis aided with semantic scoring rules. Different types of personal activities or interactions are monitored to form a set of directed weighted graphs. The semantic scoring rules assign higher scores for the events more significant and suspicious. Then we build personal activity profiles in the form of score tables. Profiles are created in multiple scales where the low level profiles are aggregated toward more stable higherlevel profiles within the subject or object hierarchy. Further, the profiles are created in different time scales such as day, week, or month. During operation, the insider s current activity profile is compared to the historical profiles to produce an anomaly score. For each subject with a high anomaly score, a subgraph of connected subjects is extracted to look for any related score movement. Finally the subjects are ranked by their anomaly scores to help the analysts focus on high-scored subjects. The threat-ranking component supports the interaction between the User Dashboard and the Insider Threat Knowledge Base portal. The portal includes a repository for historical results, i.e., adjudicated cases containing all of the information first presented to the user and including any additional insights to help the analysts. In this paper we show the framework of the proposed system and the operational algorithms.
Two-field analysis of no-scale supergravity inflation
Ellis, John; García, Marcos A.G.; Olive, Keith A.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. E-mail: garciagarcia@physics.umn.edu E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu
2015-01-01
Since the building-blocks of supersymmetric models include chiral superfields containing pairs of effective scalar fields, a two-field approach is particularly appropriate for models of inflation based on supergravity. In this paper, we generalize the two-field analysis of the inflationary power spectrum to supergravity models with arbitrary Kähler potential. We show how two-field effects in the context of no-scale supergravity can alter the model predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, yielding results that interpolate between the Planck-friendly Starobinsky model and BICEP2-friendly predictions. In particular, we show that two-field effects in a chaotic no-scale inflation model with a quadratic potential are capable of reducing r to very small values || 0.1. We also calculate the non-Gaussianity measure f{sub NL}, finding that is well below the current experimental sensitivity.
Scaling law analysis of paraffin thin films on different surfaces
Dotto, M. E. R.; Camargo, S. S. Jr.
2010-01-15
The dynamics of paraffin deposit formation on different surfaces was analyzed based on scaling laws. Carbon-based films were deposited onto silicon (Si) and stainless steel substrates from methane (CH{sub 4}) gas using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The different substrates were characterized with respect to their surface energy by contact angle measurements, surface roughness, and morphology. Paraffin thin films were obtained by the casting technique and were subsequently characterized by an atomic force microscope in noncontact mode. The results indicate that the morphology of paraffin deposits is strongly influenced by substrates used. Scaling laws analysis for coated substrates present two distinct dynamics: a local roughness exponent ({alpha}{sub local}) associated to short-range surface correlations and a global roughness exponent ({alpha}{sub global}) associated to long-range surface correlations. The local dynamics is described by the Wolf-Villain model, and a global dynamics is described by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang model. A local correlation length (L{sub local}) defines the transition between the local and global dynamics with L{sub local} approximately 700 nm in accordance with the spacing of planes measured from atomic force micrographs. For uncoated substrates, the growth dynamics is related to Edwards-Wilkinson model.
Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong
2014-12-01
Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.
Large-scale quantitative analysis of painting arts.
Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong
2014-01-01
Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances. PMID:25501877
Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts
Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong
2014-01-01
Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images – the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances. PMID:25501877
Large scale rigidity-based flexibility analysis of biomolecules
Streinu, Ileana
2016-01-01
KINematics And RIgidity (KINARI) is an on-going project for in silico flexibility analysis of proteins. The new version of the software, Kinari-2, extends the functionality of our free web server KinariWeb, incorporates advanced web technologies, emphasizes the reproducibility of its experiments, and makes substantially improved tools available to the user. It is designed specifically for large scale experiments, in particular, for (a) very large molecules, including bioassemblies with high degree of symmetry such as viruses and crystals, (b) large collections of related biomolecules, such as those obtained through simulated dilutions, mutations, or conformational changes from various types of dynamics simulations, and (c) is intended to work as seemlessly as possible on the large, idiosyncratic, publicly available repository of biomolecules, the Protein Data Bank. We describe the system design, along with the main data processing, computational, mathematical, and validation challenges underlying this phase of the KINARI project. PMID:26958583
Large scale rigidity-based flexibility analysis of biomolecules.
Streinu, Ileana
2016-01-01
KINematics And RIgidity (KINARI) is an on-going project for in silico flexibility analysis of proteins. The new version of the software, Kinari-2, extends the functionality of our free web server KinariWeb, incorporates advanced web technologies, emphasizes the reproducibility of its experiments, and makes substantially improved tools available to the user. It is designed specifically for large scale experiments, in particular, for (a) very large molecules, including bioassemblies with high degree of symmetry such as viruses and crystals, (b) large collections of related biomolecules, such as those obtained through simulated dilutions, mutations, or conformational changes from various types of dynamics simulations, and (c) is intended to work as seemlessly as possible on the large, idiosyncratic, publicly available repository of biomolecules, the Protein Data Bank. We describe the system design, along with the main data processing, computational, mathematical, and validation challenges underlying this phase of the KINARI project. PMID:26958583
Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of the Dynamics of a Country Economy
Mata, Maria Eugénia
2013-01-01
This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process. PMID:24294132
Fine-scale genetic mapping using independent component analysis.
Dawy, Zaher; Sarkis, Michel; Hagenauer, Joachim; Mueller, Jakob C
2008-01-01
The aim of genetic mapping is to locate the loci responsible for specific traits such as complex diseases. These traits are normally caused by mutations at multiple loci of unknown locations and interactions. In this work, we model the biological system that relates DNA polymorphisms with complex traits as a linear mixing process. Given this model, we propose a new fine-scale genetic mapping method based on independent component analysis. The proposed method outputs both independent associated groups of SNPs in addition to specific associated SNPs with the phenotype. It is applied to a clinical data set for the Schizophrenia disease with 368 individuals and 42 SNPs. It is also applied to a simulation study to investigate in more depth its performance. The obtained results demonstrate the novel characteristics of the proposed method compared to other genetic mapping methods. Finally, we study the robustness of the proposed method with missing genotype values and limited sample sizes. PMID:18670047
Genome-scale network analysis of imprinted human metabolic genes.
Sigurdsson, Martin I; Jamshidi, Neema; Jonsson, Jon J; Palsson, Bernhard O
2009-01-01
System analysis of metabolic network reconstructions can be used to calculate functional states or phenotypes. This provides tools to study the metabolic effects of genetic and epigenetic properties, such as dosage sensitivity. We used the genome-scale reconstruction of human metabolism (Recon 1) to analyze the effect of nine known or predicted imprinted genes on metabolic phenotypes. Simulations of maternal deletion of ATP10A indicated an anabolic metabolism consistent with the known clinical phenotypes of obesity. The abnormal expression of the other genes affected fewer subsections of metabolism consistent with a lack of established clinical phenotypes. We found that four of nine genes had metabolic effect as predicted by the Haig's parental conflict theory. PMID:19218833
Multidimensional scaling analysis of the dynamics of a country economy.
Tenreiro Machado, J A; Mata, Maria Eugénia
2013-01-01
This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process. PMID:24294132
Bioinformatics analysis of large-scale viral sequences
2013-01-01
Due to a significant decrease in the cost of DNA sequencing, the number of sequences submitted to the public databases has dramatically increased in recent years. Efficient analysis of these data sets may lead to a significant understanding of the nature of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, etc. However, this has raised questions about the efficacy of currently available algorithms for the study of pathogen evolution and construction of phylogenetic trees. While the advanced algorithms and corresponding programs are being developed, it is crucial to optimize the available ones in order to cope with the current need. The protocol presented in this study is optimized using a number of strategies currently being proposed for handling large-scale DNA sequence data sets, and offers a highly efficacious and accurate method for computing phylogenetic trees with limited computer resources. The protocol may take up to 36 h for construction and annotation of a final tree of about 20,000 sequences. PMID:23314574
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.
2013-08-01
In present work, we applied two sets of new multi-dimensional geochemical diagrams (Verma et al., 2013) obtained from linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of natural logarithm-transformed ratios of major elements and immobile major and trace elements in acid magmas to decipher plate tectonic settings and corresponding probability estimates for Paleoproterozoic rocks from Amazonian craton, São Francisco craton, São Luís craton, and Borborema province of Brazil. The robustness of LDA minimizes the effects of petrogenetic processes and maximizes the separation among the different tectonic groups. The probability based boundaries further provide a better objective statistical method in comparison to the commonly used subjective method of determining the boundaries by eye judgment. The use of readjusted major element data to 100% on an anhydrous basis from SINCLAS computer program, also helps to minimize the effects of post-emplacement compositional changes and analytical errors on these tectonic discrimination diagrams. Fifteen case studies of acid suites highlighted the application of these diagrams and probability calculations. The first case study on Jamon and Musa granites, Carajás area (Central Amazonian Province, Amazonian craton) shows a collision setting (previously thought anorogenic). A collision setting was clearly inferred for Bom Jardim granite, Xingú area (Central Amazonian Province, Amazonian craton) The third case study on Older São Jorge, Younger São Jorge and Maloquinha granites Tapajós area (Ventuari-Tapajós Province, Amazonian craton) indicated a within-plate setting (previously transitional between volcanic arc and within-plate). We also recognized a within-plate setting for the next three case studies on Aripuanã and Teles Pires granites (SW Amazonian craton), and Pitinga area granites (Mapuera Suite, NW Amazonian craton), which were all previously suggested to have been emplaced in post-collision to within-plate settings. The seventh case studies on Cassiterita-Tabuões, Ritápolis, São Tiago-Rezende Costa (south of São Francisco craton, Minas Gerais) showed a collision setting, which agrees fairly reasonably with a syn-collision tectonic setting indicated in the literature. A within-plate setting is suggested for the Serrinha magmatic suite, Mineiro belt (south of São Francisco craton, Minas Gerais), contrasting markedly with the arc setting suggested in the literature. The ninth case study on Rio Itapicuru granites and Rio Capim dacites (north of São Francisco craton, Serrinha block, Bahia) showed a continental arc setting. The tenth case study indicated within-plate setting for Rio dos Remédios volcanic rocks (São Francisco craton, Bahia), which is compatible with these rocks being the initial, rift-related igneous activity associated with the Chapada Diamantina cratonic cover. The eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth case studies on Bom Jesus-Areal granites, Rio Diamante-Rosilha dacite-rhyolite and Timbozal-Cantão granites (São Luís craton) showed continental arc, within-plate and collision settings, respectively. Finally, the last two case studies, fourteenth and fifteenth showed a collision setting for Caicó Complex and continental arc setting for Algodões (Borborema province).
Carson, Cecyle Perry; Ingrisano, Dennis R S; Eggleston, K Donald
2003-03-01
The effect of noise on computer-derived samples of voice was compared across three different hardware/software configurations. The hardware/software systems included a stand-alone A/D converter (CSL Module 4300B) coupled to a custom Pentium PC used in conjunction with the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, and a Creative Labs A/D converter coupled to the same custom PC under software control of MDVP/Multispeech and CSpeechSP. Voice samples were taken from 10 female subjects, then mixed with computer fan noise creating three different signal-to-noise (S/N) levels. Mixed signals were analyzed on the three hardware/software systems. Results revealed that fundamental frequency was most resistant to the degradation effect of noise across systems; jitter and shimmer values, however, were more variable across all configurations. Jitter and shimmer values were significantly higher under certain S/N levels for the MDVP 4300B based system as compared to MDVP for Multi-Speech and CSpeechSP. The findings punctuate the need for sensitivity to recording environments, careful selection of hardware/software equipment arrays, and the establishment of minimal recording conditions (>25 dBA S/N) for voice sampling and analysis using computer-assisted methods. PMID:12705815
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan
2010-01-01
Equivalent plate analysis is often used to replace the computationally expensive finite element analysis in initial design stages or in conceptual design of aircraft wing structures. The equivalent plate model can also be used to design a wind tunnel model to match the stiffness characteristics of the wing box of a full-scale aircraft wing model while satisfying strength-based requirements An equivalent plate analysis technique is presented to predict the static and dynamic response of an aircraft wing with or without damage. First, a geometric scale factor and a dynamic pressure scale factor are defined to relate the stiffness, load and deformation of the equivalent plate to the aircraft wing. A procedure using an optimization technique is presented to create scaled equivalent plate models from the full scale aircraft wing using geometric and dynamic pressure scale factors. The scaled models are constructed by matching the stiffness of the scaled equivalent plate with the scaled aircraft wing stiffness. It is demonstrated that the scaled equivalent plate model can be used to predict the deformation of the aircraft wing accurately. Once the full equivalent plate geometry is obtained, any other scaled equivalent plate geometry can be obtained using the geometric scale factor. Next, an average frequency scale factor is defined as the average ratio of the frequencies of the aircraft wing to the frequencies of the full-scaled equivalent plate. The average frequency scale factor combined with the geometric scale factor is used to predict the frequency response of the aircraft wing from the scaled equivalent plate analysis. A procedure is outlined to estimate the frequency response and the flutter speed of an aircraft wing from the equivalent plate analysis using the frequency scale factor and geometric scale factor. The equivalent plate analysis is demonstrated using an aircraft wing without damage and another with damage. Both of the problems show that the scaled equivalent plate analysis can be successfully used to predict the frequencies and flutter speed of a typical aircraft wing.
Secondary Analysis of Large-Scale Assessment Data: An Alternative to Variable-Centred Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chow, Kui Foon; Kennedy, Kerry John
2014-01-01
International large-scale assessments are now part of the educational landscape in many countries and often feed into major policy decisions. Yet, such assessments also provide data sets for secondary analysis that can address key issues of concern to educators and policymakers alike. Traditionally, such secondary analyses have been based on a…
Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de
2014-06-10
Considering six general relativistic, two-dimensional (2D) supernova (SN) explosion models of progenitor stars between 8.1 and 27 M {sub ☉}, we systematically analyze the properties of the neutrino emission from core collapse and bounce to the post-explosion phase. The models were computed with the VERTEX-COCONUT code, using three-flavor, energy-dependent neutrino transport in the ray-by-ray-plus approximation. Our results confirm the close similarity of the mean energies, (E), of ν-bar {sub e} and heavy-lepton neutrinos and even their crossing during the accretion phase for stars with M ≳ 10 M {sub ☉} as observed in previous 1D and 2D simulations with state-of-the-art neutrino transport. We establish a roughly linear scaling of 〈E{sub ν-bar{sub e}}〉 with the proto-neutron star (PNS) mass, which holds in time as well as for different progenitors. Convection inside the PNS affects the neutrino emission on the 10%-20% level, and accretion continuing beyond the onset of the explosion prevents the abrupt drop of the neutrino luminosities seen in artificially exploded 1D models. We demonstrate that a wavelet-based time-frequency analysis of SN neutrino signals in IceCube will offer sensitive diagnostics for the SN core dynamics up to at least ∼10 kpc distance. Strong, narrow-band signal modulations indicate quasi-periodic shock sloshing motions due to the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), and the frequency evolution of such 'SASI neutrino chirps' reveals shock expansion or contraction. The onset of the explosion is accompanied by a shift of the modulation frequency below 40-50 Hz, and post-explosion, episodic accretion downflows will be signaled by activity intervals stretching over an extended frequency range in the wavelet spectrogram.
Age Differences on Alcoholic MMPI Scales: A Discriminant Analysis Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Faulstich, Michael E.; And Others
1985-01-01
Administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory to 91 male alcoholics after detoxification. Results indicated that the Psychopathic Deviant and Paranoia scales declined with age, while the Responsibility scale increased with age. (JAC)
In situ vitrification large-scale operational acceptance test analysis
Buelt, J.L.; Carter, J.G.
1986-05-01
A thermal treatment process is currently under study to provide possible enhancement of in-place stabilization of transuranic and chemically contaminated soil sites. The process is known as in situ vitrification (ISV). In situ vitrification is a remedial action process that destroys solid and liquid organic contaminants and incorporates radionuclides into a glass-like material that renders contaminants substantially less mobile and less likely to impact the environment. A large-scale operational acceptance test (LSOAT) was recently completed in which more than 180 t of vitrified soil were produced in each of three adjacent settings. The LSOAT demonstrated that the process conforms to the functional design criteria necessary for the large-scale radioactive test (LSRT) to be conducted following verification of the performance capabilities of the process. The energy requirements and vitrified block size, shape, and mass are sufficiently equivalent to those predicted by the ISV mathematical model to confirm its usefulness as a predictive tool. The LSOAT demonstrated an electrode replacement technique, which can be used if an electrode fails, and techniques have been identified to minimize air oxidation, thereby extending electrode life. A statistical analysis was employed during the LSOAT to identify graphite collars and an insulative surface as successful cold cap subsidence techniques. The LSOAT also showed that even under worst-case conditions, the off-gas system exceeds the flow requirements necessary to maintain a negative pressure on the hood covering the area being vitrified. The retention of simulated radionuclides and chemicals in the soil and off-gas system exceeds requirements so that projected emissions are one to two orders of magnitude below the maximum permissible concentrations of contaminants at the stack.
Large-scale reconstruction and phylogenetic analysis of metabolic environments
Borenstein, Elhanan; Kupiec, Martin; Feldman, Marcus W.; Ruppin, Eytan
2008-01-01
The topology of metabolic networks may provide important insights not only into the metabolic capacity of species, but also into the habitats in which they evolved. Here we introduce the concept of a metabolic network's “seed set”—the set of compounds that, based on the network topology, are exogenously acquired—and provide a methodological framework to computationally infer the seed set of a given network. Such seed sets form ecological “interfaces” between metabolic networks and their surroundings, approximating the effective biochemical environment of each species. Analyzing the metabolic networks of 478 species and identifying the seed set of each species, we present a comprehensive large-scale reconstruction of such predicted metabolic environments. The seed sets' composition significantly correlates with several basic properties characterizing the species' environments and agrees with biological observations concerning major adaptations. Species whose environments are highly predictable (e.g., obligate parasites) tend to have smaller seed sets than species living in variable environments. Phylogenetic analysis of the seed sets reveals the complex dynamics governing gain and loss of seeds across the phylogenetic tree and the process of transition between seed and non-seed compounds. Our findings suggest that the seed state is transient and that seeds tend either to be dropped completely from the network or to become non-seed compounds relatively fast. The seed sets also permit a successful reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree of life. The “reverse ecology” approach presented lays the foundations for studying the evolutionary interplay between organisms and their habitats on a large scale. PMID:18787117
Dynamics of banded materials and structures: Analysis, design and computation in multiple scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussein, Mahmoud Ismail
Within periodically heterogeneous structures, wave scattering and dispersion occur across constituent material interfaces inducing mechanisms of constructive and destructive interference that lead to a banded frequency response. These phenomena are studied and utilized towards developing composite materials and structures with tailored frequency-dependent dynamical characteristics. In the first part of the thesis, time and frequency domain analyses of linear elastic wave motion in infinite and finite periodic, or partially periodic, structures are conducted using analytical (transfer matrix) and numerical (finite element and finite difference) methods. Both single and multi-dimensional models are considered. Conformity of the frequency band structure between infinite and finite periodic systems is shown, analyzed, and its conditions established. It is concluded that at least four to five unit cells of a periodic material are required for "frequency bandness" to carry through to a finite structure. Consequences of this result on the dynamical characteristics of finite fully/partially periodic structures are studied especially in the contexts of resonance properties and mode localization. It is shown that significant wave attenuation is realizable at stop-band frequencies, and the converse is true at pass bands. Motivated by this outcome, a novel multiscale design methodology is developed whereby periodic materials are synthesized, and subsequently used as building blocks for forming, at a larger length scale, finite bounded structures. Applications are presented for vibration minimization, vibration/shock isolation, waveguiding, frequency filtering, and control of velocities of wave propagation. The designed structures are more amenable to manufacturing compared to counterparts generated via traditional topology optimization methods. In the second part of the dissertation, a multiscale, global-local, finite element based computational methodology is developed for high frequency dispersive modeling of periodic materials. Rooted in an available two-field assumed strain variational formulation, a method is proposed that introduces mode projections selected in both the temporal and spatial frequency domains. Along with controllable extendibility to higher frequencies, and improvements in accuracy, the new method provides substantial savings in computational cost compared to the original reduction technique. An order of magnitude in savings is achieved for large problems compared to direct application of the finite element method.
Analysis of scale-invariant slab avalanche size distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faillettaz, J.; Louchet, F.; Grasso, J.-R.; Daudon, D.
2003-04-01
Scale invariance of snow avalanche sizes was reported for the first time in 2001 by Louchet et al. at the EGS conference, using both acoustic emission duration, and the surface of the crown step left at the top of the starting zone, where the former parameter characterises the size of the total avalanche flow, and the latter that of the starting zone. The present paper focuses on parameters of the second type, that are more directly related to precise release mechanisms, vz. the crown crack length L, the crown crack or slab depth H, the crown step surface HxL, the volume HxL^2 of the snow involved in the starting zone, and LxH^2 which is a measure of the stress concentration at the basal crack tip at failure. The analysis is performed on two data sets, from la Grande Plagne (GP) and Tignes (T) ski resorts. For both catalogs, cumulative distributions of L, H, HxL, HxL^2 and LxH^2 are shown to be roughly linear in a log-log plot. i.e. consistent with so-called scale invariant (or power law) distributions for both triggered and natural avalanches. Plateaus are observed at small sizes, and roll-offs at large sizes. The power law exponents for each of these quantities are roughly independent of the ski resort (GP or T) they come from. In contrast, exponents for natural events are significantly smaller than those for artificial ones. We analyse the possible reasons for the scale invariance of these quantities, for the possible "universality" of the exponents corresponding to a given triggering mode, and for the difference in exponents between triggered and natural events. The physical meaning of the observed roll-offs and plateaus is also discussed. The power law distributions analysed here provide the occurrence probability of an avalanche of a given (starting) volume in a given time period on a given area. A possible use of this type of distributions for snow avalanche hazard assessment is contemplated, as it is for earthquakes or rockfalls.
Large-scale dimension densities for heart rate variability analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raab, Corinna; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen
2006-04-01
In this work, we reanalyze the heart rate variability (HRV) data from the 2002 Computers in Cardiology (CiC) Challenge using the concept of large-scale dimension densities and additionally apply this technique to data of healthy persons and of patients with cardiac diseases. The large-scale dimension density (LASDID) is estimated from the time series using a normalized Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm, which leads to a suitable correction of systematic errors produced by boundary effects in the rather large scales of a system. This way, it is possible to analyze rather short, nonstationary, and unfiltered data, such as HRV. Moreover, this method allows us to analyze short parts of the data and to look for differences between day and night. The circadian changes in the dimension density enable us to distinguish almost completely between real data and computer-generated data from the CiC 2002 challenge using only one parameter. In the second part we analyzed the data of 15 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), 15 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 elderly healthy subjects (EH), as well as 18 young and healthy persons (YH). With our method we are able to separate completely the AF (ρlsμ=0.97±0.02) group from the others and, especially during daytime, the CHF patients show significant differences from the young and elderly healthy volunteers (CHF, 0.65±0.13 ; EH, 0.54±0.05 ; YH, 0.57±0.05 ; p<0.05 for both comparisons). Moreover, for the CHF patients we find no circadian changes in ρlsμ (day, 0.65±0.13 ; night, 0.66±0.12 ; n.s.) in contrast to healthy controls (day, 0.54±0.05 ; night, 0.61±0.05 ; p=0.002 ). Correlation analysis showed no statistical significant relation between standard HRV and circadian LASDID, demonstrating a possibly independent application of our method for clinical risk stratification.
Multiple-scales analysis of non-stationary biological signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, C.-K.
1997-05-01
We discuss multiple-time scale properties of neuralphysiological control mechanisms, using heart rate regulation as a model system. We find that scaling exponents can be used as prognostic indicators. Furthermore, detection of more subtle degradation of scaling properties may provide a novel early warning system in subjects with a variety of pathologies including those at high risk of sudden death.
Revision and Factor Analysis of a Death Anxiety Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, James A.; Powell, F. C.
Earlier research on death anxiety using the 34-item scale developed by Nehrke-Templer-Boyar (NTB) indicated that females and younger persons have significantly higher death anxiety. To simplify a death anxiety scale for use with different age groups, and to determine the conceptual factors actually measured by the scale, a revised 25-item…
Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Educators' Attitudes toward Educational Research Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozturk, Mehmet Ali
2011-01-01
This article reports results of a confirmatory factor analysis performed to cross-validate the factor structure of the Educators' Attitudes Toward Educational Research Scale. The original scale had been developed by the author and revised based on the results of an exploratory factor analysis. In the present study, the revised scale was given to…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boehm, H. F.; Link, T. M.; Monetti, R. A.; Kuhn, V.; Eckstein, F.; Raeth, C. W.; Reiser, M.
2006-03-01
In our recent studies on the analysis of bone texture in the context of Osteoporosis, we could already demonstrate the great potential of the topological evaluation of bone architecture based on the Minkowski Functionals (MF) in 2D and 3D for the prediction of the mechanical strength of cubic bone specimens depicted by high resolution MRI. Other than before, we now assess the mechanical characteristics of whole hip bone specimens imaged by multi-detector computed tomography. Due to the specific properties of the imaging modality and the bone tissue in the proximal femur, this requires to introduce a new analysis method. The internal architecture of the hip is functionally highly specialized to withstand the complex pattern of external and internal forces associated with human gait. Since the direction, connectivity and distribution of the trabeculae changes considerably within narrow spatial limits it seems most reasonable to evaluate the femoral bone structure on a local scale. The Minkowski functionals are a set of morphological descriptors for the topological characterization of binarized, multi-dimensional, convex objects with respect to shape, structure, and the connectivity of their components. The MF are usually used as global descriptors and may react very sensitively to minor structural variations which presents a major limitation in a number of applications. The objective of this work is to assess the mechanical competence of whole hip bone specimens using parameters based on the MF. We introduce an algorithm that considers the local topological aspects of the bone architecture of the proximal femur allowing to identify regions within the bone that contribute more to the overall mechanical strength than others.
Scaling analysis of baseline dual-axis cervical accelerometry signals.
Sejdić, Ervin; Steele, Catriona M; Chau, Tom
2011-09-01
Dual-axis cervical accelerometry is an emerging approach for the assessment of swallowing difficulties. However, the baseline signals, i.e., vibration signals with only quiet breathing or apnea but without swallowing, are not well understood. In particular, to comprehend the contaminant effects of head motion on cervical accelerometry, we need to study the scaling behavior of these baseline signals. Dual-axis accelerometry data were collected from 50 healthy adult participants under conditions of quiet breathing, apnea and selected head motions, all in the absence of swallowing. The denoised cervical vibrations were subjected to detrended fluctuation analysis with empirically determined first-order detrending. Strong persistence was identified in cervical vibration signals in both anterior-posterior (A-P) and superior-inferior (S-I) directions, under all the above experimental conditions. Vibrations in the A-P axes exhibited stronger correlations than those in the S-I axes, possibly as a result of axis-specific effects of vasomotion. In both axes, stronger correlations were found in the presence of head motion than without, suggesting that head movement significantly impacts baseline cervical accelerometry. No gender or age effects were found on statistical persistence of either vibration axes. Future developments of cervical accelerometry-based medical devices should actively mitigate the effects of head movement. PMID:20708292
Heterogeneous reactions over fractal surfaces: A multifractal scaling analysis
Lee, Shyi-Long; Lee, Chung-Kung
1996-12-31
Monte Carlo simulations of modified Eley-Rideal mechanisms possessing decay-type and enhance-type sticking probabilities as well as a three-step catalytic reaction over fractal surfaces were performed to examine the morphological effect on the above-mentioned surface reactions. Effects of decay and enhancing profiles on reaction probability distribution for Eley-Rideal reactions as well as effects of varying probability of reaction steps and cluster sizes on the normalized selectivity distribution for the three-step reaction were then analyzed by multifractal scaling techniques. For the Eley-Rideal mechanism, it is found that reaction probability distribution tends to be spatially uniform at fast decay and rather concentrated at faster enhancing rate. For the three-step reaction, increase of cluster size is found to lower the position sensitivity of normalized selectivity distribution. Large dimerization to isomerization ratio increases position distinction among active sites as the adsorption probability equals to 1. At small adsorption probability, the dimerization/isomerization ratio causes no effect on the normalized selectivity distribution. Heterogeneity of surfaces as reflected in the multifractal analysis will also be discussed.
Integrated Water and Energy Analysis at Decision Relevant Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yates, D. N.; Sieber, J.; Heaps, C.; Purkey, D.; Mehta, V. K.
2012-12-01
While the energy-water nexus information-base has been growing, there remains few modeling tools able to evaluate the interactions and feedbacks between these sectors at decision relevant scales. In particular, a spatially explicit coupled modeling system would facilitate a more complete and accurate evaluation of the workability and consequences of alternative climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. For example, in order to evaluate a region's changing water supply sources, it will be important to represent the water side of a coupled modeling system in some detail. It would also be valuable to simultaneously work through the energy use and carbon emission consequences of the region's water adaptation alternatives, as well as the potential feedbacks associated with new energy system developments on system-wide water demands. The Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) and Long Range Energy Alternatives (LEAP) tools have been integrated to explicitly couple water and energy systems to conduct such analysis. We demonstrate the merits of this integration for the Southwestern U.S.he Integration of LEAP (left) and WEAP (right)
Full-scale testing and analysis of fuselage structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, M.; Gruber, M. L.; Wilkins, K. E.; Worden, R. E.
1994-01-01
This paper presents recent results from a program in the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group to study the behavior of cracks in fuselage structures. The goal of this program is to improve methods for analyzing crack growth and residual strength in pressurized fuselages, thus improving new airplane designs and optimizing the required structural inspections for current models. The program consists of full-scale experimental testing of pressurized fuselage panels in both wide-body and narrow-body fixtures and finite element analyses to predict the results. The finite element analyses are geometrically nonlinear with material and fastener nonlinearity included on a case-by-case basis. The analysis results are compared with the strain gage, crack growth, and residual strength data from the experimental program. Most of the studies reported in this paper concern the behavior of single or multiple cracks in the lap joints of narrow-body airplanes (such as 727 and 737 commercial jets). The phenomenon where the crack trajectory is curved creating a 'flap' and resulting in a controlled decompression is discussed.
Numerical Simulation and Scaling Analysis of Cell Printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Rui; He, Ping
2011-11-01
Cell printing, i.e., printing three dimensional (3D) structures of cells held in a tissue matrix, is gaining significant attention in the biomedical community. The key idea is to use inkjet printer or similar devices to print cells into 3D patterns with a resolution comparable to the size of mammalian cells. Achieving such a resolution in vitro can lead to breakthroughs in areas such as organ transplantation. Although the feasibility of cell printing has been demonstrated recently, the printing resolution and cell viability remain to be improved. Here we investigate a unit operation in cell printing, namely, the impact of a cell-laden droplet into a pool of highly viscous liquids. The droplet and cell dynamics are quantified using both direct numerical simulation and scaling analysis. These studies indicate that although cell experienced significant stress during droplet impact, the duration of such stress is very short, which helps explain why many cells can survive the cell printing process. These studies also revealed that cell membrane can be temporarily ruptured during cell printing, which is supported by indirect experimental evidence.
MIXREGLS: A Program for Mixed-Effects Location Scale Analysis.
Hedeker, Donald; Nordgren, Rachel
2013-03-01
MIXREGLS is a program which provides estimates for a mixed-effects location scale model assuming a (conditionally) normally-distributed dependent variable. This model can be used for analysis of data in which subjects may be measured at many observations and interest is in modeling the mean and variance structure. In terms of the variance structure, covariates can by specified to have effects on both the between-subject and within-subject variances. Another use is for clustered data in which subjects are nested within clusters (e.g., clinics, hospitals, schools, etc.) and interest is in modeling the between-cluster and within-cluster variances in terms of covariates. MIXREGLS was written in Fortran and uses maximum likelihood estimation, utilizing both the EM algorithm and a Newton-Raphson solution. Estimation of the random effects is accomplished using empirical Bayes methods. Examples illustrating stand-alone usage and features of MIXREGLS are provided, as well as use via the SAS and R software packages. PMID:23761062
MIXREGLS: A Program for Mixed-Effects Location Scale Analysis
Hedeker, Donald; Nordgren, Rachel
2013-01-01
MIXREGLS is a program which provides estimates for a mixed-effects location scale model assuming a (conditionally) normally-distributed dependent variable. This model can be used for analysis of data in which subjects may be measured at many observations and interest is in modeling the mean and variance structure. In terms of the variance structure, covariates can by specified to have effects on both the between-subject and within-subject variances. Another use is for clustered data in which subjects are nested within clusters (e.g., clinics, hospitals, schools, etc.) and interest is in modeling the between-cluster and within-cluster variances in terms of covariates. MIXREGLS was written in Fortran and uses maximum likelihood estimation, utilizing both the EM algorithm and a Newton-Raphson solution. Estimation of the random effects is accomplished using empirical Bayes methods. Examples illustrating stand-alone usage and features of MIXREGLS are provided, as well as use via the SAS and R software packages. PMID:23761062
Feng, Liang; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Gu, Jun-Fei; Wang, Gui-You; Zhao, Zi-Yu; Jia, Xiao-Bin
2013-11-01
As traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation products feature complex compounds and multiple preparation processes, the implementation of quality control in line with the characteristics of TCM preparation products provides a firm guarantee for the clinical efficacy and safety of TCM preparation products. Danshen infusion solution is a preparation commonly used in clinic, but its quality control is restricted to indexes of finished products, which can not guarantee its inherent quality. Our study group has proposed "multi-dimensional structure and process dynamics quality control system" on the basis of "component structure theory", for the purpose of controlling the quality of Danshen infusion solution at multiple levels and in multiple links from the efficacy-related material basis, the safety-related material basis, the characteristics of dosage form to the preparation process. This article, we bring forth new ideas and models to the quality control of TCM preparation products. PMID:24494543
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zhiwen; Xu, Yongjian; Yu, Zengliang
2006-05-01
Single-particle microbeam as a powerful tool can open a research field to find answers to many enigmas in radiobiology. A single-particle microbeam facility has been constructed at the Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering (LIBB), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China. However there has been less research activities in this field concerning the original process of the interaction between low-energy ions and complicated organisms. To address this challenge, an in situ multi-dimensional quantitative fluorescence microscopy system combined with the CAS-LIBB single-particle microbeam II endstation is proposed. In this article, the rationale, logistics and development of many aspects of the proposed system are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Run-Fan; Chen, Diyi; Yang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Juan
2012-06-01
This paper focuses on anti-synchronization for a class of chaotic systems with noise on the basis of the sliding mode control strategy. In order to achieve this target, a proportional integral surface is proposed to simplify the task of assigning the performance of the error system in sliding motion. We use fewer control items but realize a globally and exponentially asymptotical anti-synchronization. Furthermore, three typical examples are presented: a three-dimensional (3D) autonomous chaotic system, a 4D autonomous chaotic system and a 5D non-autonomous chaotic system. Finally, simulation results are demonstrated for multi-dimensional chaotic systems to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
The Effect of Data Scaling on Dual Prices and Sensitivity Analysis in Linear Programs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adlakha, V. G.; Vemuganti, R. R.
2007-01-01
In many practical situations scaling the data is necessary to solve linear programs. This note explores the relationships in translating the sensitivity analysis between the original and the scaled problems.
Stochastic analysis of shear-wave splitting length scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Thorsten W.; Browaeys, Jules T.; Jordan, Thomas H.
2007-07-01
The coherence of azimuthal seismic anisotropy, as inferred from shear-wave splitting measurements, decreases with the relative distance between stations. Stochastic models of a two-dimensional vector field defined by a von Karma'n [T. von Karma'n, Progress in the statistical theory of turbulence, J. Mar. Res., 7 (1948) 252-264.] autocorrelation function with horizontal correlation length L provide a useful means to evaluate this heterogeneity and coherence lengths. We use the compilation of SKS splitting measurements by Fouch [M. Fouch, Upper mantle anisotropy database, accessed in 06/2006, http://geophysics.asu.edu/anisotropy/upper/] and supplement it with additional studies, including automated measurements by Evans et al. [Evans, M.S., Kendall, J.-M., Willemann, R.J., 2006. Automated SKS splitting and upper-mantle anisotropy beneath Canadian seismic stations, Geophys. J. Int. 165, 931-942, Evans, M.S., Kendall, J.-M., Willemann, R.J. Automated splitting project database, Online at http://www.isc.ac.uk/SKS/, accessed 02/2006]. The correlation lengths of this dataset depend on the geologic setting in the continental regions: in young Phanerozoic orogens and magmatic zones L ˜ 600 km, smaller than the smooth L ˜ 1600 km patterns in tectonically more stable regions such as Phanerozoic platforms. Our interpretation is that the relatively large coherence underneath older crust reflects large-scale tectonic processes (e.g. continent-continent collisions) that are frozen into the tectosphere. In younger continental regions, smaller scale flow (e.g. slab anomaly induced) may predominantly affect anisotropy. In this view, remnant anisotropy is dominant in the old continents and deformation-induced anisotropy caused by recent asthenospheric flow is dominant in active continental regions and underneath oceanic plates. Auxiliary analysis of surface-wave anisotropy and combined mantle flow and anisotropic texture modeling is consistent with this suggestion. In continental regions, the further exploration of a stochastic description of seismic anisotropy may form a useful counterpart to deterministic forward modeling, particularly if we wish to understand the origin of discrepancies in heterogeneity estimates based on different seismological data sets.
Scale invariance analysis for genetic networks applying homogeneity.
Bernuau, Emmanuel; Efimov, Denis; Perruquetti, Wilfrid
2016-05-01
Scalability is a property describing the change of the trajectory of a dynamical system under a scaling of the input stimulus and of the initial conditions. Particular cases of scalability include the scale invariance and fold change detection (when the scaling of the input does not influence the system output). In the present paper it is shown that homogeneous systems have this scalability property while locally homogeneous systems approximately possess this property. These facts are used for detecting scale invariance or approximate scalability (far from a steady state) in several biological systems. The results are illustrated by various regulatory networks. PMID:26304616
JOHNSON, M.D.
1999-11-30
Fairbanks Weight Scales are used at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility to determine the weight of waste drums as they are received, processed, and shipped. Due to recent problems, discovered during calibration, the WRAP Engineering Department has completed this document which outlines both the investigation of the infeed conveyor scale failure in September of 1999 and recommendations for calibration procedure modifications designed to correct deficiencies in the current procedures.
Nanometer to Centimeter Scale Analysis and Modeling of Pore Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wesolowski, D. J.; Anovitz, L.; Vlcek, L.; Rother, G.; Cole, D. R.
2011-12-01
The microstructure and evolution of pore space in rocks is a critically important factor controlling fluid flow. The size, distribution and connectivity of these confined geometries dictate how fluids including H2O and CO2, migrate into and through these micro- and nano-environments, wet and react with the solid. (Ultra)small-angle neutron scattering and autocorrelations derived from BSE imaging provide a method of quantifying pore structures in a statistically significant manner from the nanometer to the centimeter scale. Multifractal analysis provides additional constraints. These methods were used to characterize the pore features of a variety of potential CO2 geological storage formations and geothermal systems such as the shallow buried quartz arenites from the St. Peter Sandstone and the deeper Mt. Simon quartz arenite in Ohio as well as the Eau Claire shale and mudrocks from the Cranfield MS CO2 injection test and the normal temperature and high-temperature vapor-dominated parts of the Geysers geothermal system in California. For example, analyses of samples of St. Peter sandstone show total porosity correlates with changes in pores structure including pore size ratios, surface fractal dimensions, and lacunarity. These samples contain significant large-scale porosity, modified by quartz overgrowths, and neutron scattering results show significant sub-micron porosity, which may make up fifty percent or more of the total pore volume. While previous scattering data from sandstones suggest scattering is dominated by surface fractal behavior, our data are both fractal and pseudo-fractal. The scattering curves are composed of steps, modeled as polydispersed assemblages of pores with log-normal distributions. In some samples a surface-fractal overprint is present. There are also significant changes in the mono and multifractal dimensions of the pore structure as the pore fraction decreases. There are strong positive correlations between D(0) and image and total scattering porosities, and strong negative correlations between these and multifractality, which increases as pore fraction decreases and the percent of (U)SANS porosity increases. Individual fractal dimensions at all q values from the BSE images decrease during silcrete formation. These data suggest that microporosity is more prevalent and may play a much more important role than previously thought in fluid/rock interactions in coarse-grained sandstone. Preliminary results from shale and mudrocks indicate there are dramatic differences not only in terms of total micro- to nano-porosity, but also in terms of pore surface fractal (roughness) and mass fractal (pore distributions) dimensions as well as size distributions. Information from imaging and scattering data can also be used to constrain computer-generated, random, three-dimensional porous structures. The results integrate various sources of experimental information and are statistically compatible with the real rock. This allows a more detailed multiscale analysis of structural correlations in the material. Acknowledgements. Research sponsored by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.
Analysis of Hydrogen Depletion Using a Scaled Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner
Blanchat, T.K.; Malliakos, A.
1998-10-28
Hydrogen depletion tests of a scaled passive autocatalytic recombine (pAR) were performed in the Surtsey test vessel at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The experiments were used to determine the hydrogen depletion rate of a PAR in the presence of steam and also to evaluate the effect of scale (number of cartridges) on the PAR performance at both low and high hydrogen concentrations.
Tennessee Self Concept Scale: Factor Analysis Using a Rehabilitation Population.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salbod, Stephen; And Others
The Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) contains 100 items and 12 scales designed to assess self concept in three areas: total self esteem, self-criticism, and self-consistency. One hundred and seventeen females and three males, 75% of whom were black, attending a Work Incentive training program were administered the TSCS to examine its construct…
A theoretical analysis of basin-scale groundwater temperature distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Ran; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Wan, Li; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong
2015-03-01
The theory of regional groundwater flow is critical for explaining heat transport by moving groundwater in basins. Domenico and Palciauskas's (1973) pioneering study on convective heat transport in a simple basin assumed that convection has a small influence on redistributing groundwater temperature. Moreover, there has been no research focused on the temperature distribution around stagnation zones among flow systems. In this paper, the temperature distribution in the simple basin is reexamined and that in a complex basin with nested flow systems is explored. In both basins, compared to the temperature distribution due to conduction, convection leads to a lower temperature in most parts of the basin except for a small part near the discharge area. There is a high-temperature anomaly around the basin-bottom stagnation point where two flow systems converge due to a low degree of convection and a long travel distance, but there is no anomaly around the basin-bottom stagnation point where two flow systems diverge. In the complex basin, there are also high-temperature anomalies around internal stagnation points. Temperature around internal stagnation points could be very high when they are close to the basin bottom, for example, due to the small permeability anisotropy ratio. The temperature distribution revealed in this study could be valuable when using heat as a tracer to identify the pattern of groundwater flow in large-scale basins. Domenico PA, Palciauskas VV (1973) Theoretical analysis of forced convective heat transfer in regional groundwater flow. Geological Society of America Bulletin 84:3803-3814
GAS MIXING ANALYSIS IN A LARGE-SCALED SALTSTONE FACILITY
Lee, S
2008-05-28
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been used to estimate the flow patterns mainly driven by temperature gradients inside vapor space in a large-scaled Saltstone vault facility at Savannah River site (SRS). The purpose of this work is to examine the gas motions inside the vapor space under the current vault configurations by taking a three-dimensional transient momentum-energy coupled approach for the vapor space domain of the vault. The modeling calculations were based on prototypic vault geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Waste Solidification Engineering. The modeling analysis was focused on the air flow patterns near the ventilated corner zones of the vapor space inside the Saltstone vault. The turbulence behavior and natural convection mechanism used in the present model were benchmarked against the literature information and theoretical results. The verified model was applied to the Saltstone vault geometry for the transient assessment of the air flow patterns inside the vapor space of the vault region using the potential operating conditions. The baseline model considered two cases for the estimations of the flow patterns within the vapor space. One is the reference nominal case. The other is for the negative temperature gradient between the roof inner and top grout surface temperatures intended for the potential bounding condition. The flow patterns of the vapor space calculated by the CFD model demonstrate that the ambient air comes into the vapor space of the vault through the lower-end ventilation hole, and it gets heated up by the Benard-cell type circulation before leaving the vault via the higher-end ventilation hole. The calculated results are consistent with the literature information. Detailed results and the cases considered in the calculations will be discussed here.
Regional Scale Analysis of Extremes in an SRM Geoengineering Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muthyala, R.; Bala, G.
2014-12-01
Only a few studies in the past have investigated the statistics of extreme events under geoengineering. In this study, a global climate model is used to investigate the impact of solar radiation management on extreme precipitation events on regional scale. Solar constant was reduced by 2.25% to counteract the global mean surface temperature change caused by a doubling of CO2 (2XCO2) from its preindustrial control value. Using daily precipitation rates, extreme events are defined as those which exceed 99.9th percentile precipitation threshold. Extremes are substantially reduced in geoengineering simulation: the magnitude of change is much smaller than those that occur in a simulation with doubled CO2. Regional analysis over 22 Giorgi land regions is also performed. Doubling of CO2 leads to an increase in intensity of extreme (99.9th percentile) precipitation by 17.7% on global-mean basis with maximum increase in intensity over South Asian region by 37%. In the geoengineering simulation, there is a global-mean reduction in intensity of 3.8%, with a maximum reduction over Tropical Ocean by 8.9%. Further, we find that the doubled CO2 simulation shows an increase in the frequency of extremes (>50 mm/day) by 50-200% with a global mean increase of 80%. In contrast, in geo-engineering climate there is a decrease in frequency of extreme events by 20% globally with a larger decrease over Tropical Ocean by 30%. In both the climate states (2XCO2 and geo-engineering) change in "extremes" is always greater than change in "means" over large domains. We conclude that changes in precipitation extremes are larger in 2XCO2 scenario compared to preindustrial climate while extremes decline slightly in the geoengineered climate. We are also investigating the changes in extreme statistics for daily maximum and minimum temperature, evapotranspiration and vegetation productivity. Results will be presented at the meeting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Andrew J.; Yu, Kai; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Collie, Rebecca J.
2015-01-01
This study explored motivation and engagement among North American (the United States and Canada; n = 1,540), U.K. (n = 1,558), Australian (n = 2,283), and Chinese (n = 3,753) secondary school students. Motivation and engagement were assessed via students' responses to the Motivation and Engagement Scale-High School (MES-HS). Confirmatory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Andrew J.; Yu, Kai; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Collie, Rebecca J.
2015-01-01
This study explored motivation and engagement among North American (the United States and Canada; n = 1,540), U.K. (n = 1,558), Australian (n = 2,283), and Chinese (n = 3,753) secondary school students. Motivation and engagement were assessed via students' responses to the Motivation and Engagement Scale-High School (MES-HS). Confirmatory…
Impact and fracture analysis of fish scales from Arapaima gigas.
Torres, F G; Malásquez, M; Troncoso, O P
2015-06-01
Fish scales from the Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas have been characterised to study their impact and fracture behaviour at three different environmental conditions. Scales were cut in two different directions to analyse the influence of the orientation of collagen layers. The energy absorbed during impact tests was measured for each sample and SEM images were taken after each test in order to analyse the failure mechanisms. The results showed that scales tested at cryogenic temperatures display fragile behaviour, while scales tested at room temperature did not fracture. Different failure mechanisms have been identified, analysed and compared with the failure modes that occur in bone. The impact energy obtained for fish scales was two to three times higher than the values reported for bone in the literature. PMID:25842120
Huerta, M.
1981-06-01
This report describes the mathematical analysis, the physical scale modeling, and a full-scale crash test of a railcar spent-nuclear-fuel shipping system. The mathematical analysis utilized a lumped-parameter model to predict the structural response of the railcar and the shipping cask. The physical scale modeling analysis consisted of two crash tests that used 1/8-scale models to assess railcar and shipping cask damage. The full-scale crash test, conducted with retired railcar equipment, was carefully monitored with onboard instrumentation and high-speed photography. Results of the mathematical and scale modeling analyses are compared with the full-scale test. 29 figures.
PROMIS Pediatric Anger Scale: An Item Response Theory Analysis
Irwin, Debra E.; Stucky, Brian D.; Langer, Michelle M.; Thissen, David; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Lai, Jin-Shei; Yeatts, Karin B.; Varni, James W.; DeWalt, Darren A.
2011-01-01
Purpose The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) aims to develop patient-reported outcome (PROs) instruments for use in clinical research. The PROMIS pediatrics (ages 8–17) project focuses on the development of PROs across several health domains (physical function, pain, fatigue, emotional distress, social role relationships, and asthma symptoms). The objective of the present study is to report on the psychometric properties of the PROMIS Pediatric Anger Scale. Methods Participants (n=759) were recruited in public school settings, hospital-based outpatient and subspecialty pediatrics clinics. The anger items (k=10) were administered on one test form. A hierarchical confirmatory factor analytic model (CFA) was conducted to evaluate scale dimensionality and local dependence. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were then used to finalize the item scale and short form. Results CFA confirmed that the anger items are representative of a unidimensional scale and items with local dependence were removed resulting in a six-item short form. The IRT-scaled scores from summed scores and each score’s conditional standard error were calculated for the new six-item PROMIS Pediatric Anger Scale. Conclusions This study provides initial calibrations of the anger items and creates the PROMIS Pediatric Anger Scale, version 1.0 PMID:21785833
Scaling parameters for PFBC cyclone separator system analysis
Gil, A.; Romeo, L.M.; Cortes, C.
1999-07-01
Laboratory-scale cold flow models have been used extensively to study the behavior of many installations. In particular, fluidized bed cold flow models have allowed developing the knowledge of fluidized bed hydrodynamics. In order for the results of the research to be relevant to commercial power plants, cold flow models must be properly scaled. Many efforts have been made to understand the performance of fluidized beds, but up to now no attention has been paid in developing the knowledge of cyclone separator systems. CIRCE has worked on the development of scaling parameters to enable laboratory-scale equipment operating at room temperature to simulate the performance of cyclone separator systems. This paper presents the simplified scaling parameters and experimental comparison of a cyclone separator system and a cold flow model constructed and based on those parameters. The cold flow model has been used to establish the validity of the scaling laws for cyclone separator systems and permits detailed room temperature studies (determining the filtration effects of varying operating parameters and cyclone design) to be performed in a rapid and cost effective manner. This valuable and reliable design tool will contribute to a more rapid and concise understanding of hot gas filtration systems based on cyclones. The study of the behavior of the cold flow model, including observation and measurements of flow patterns in cyclones and diplegs will allow characterizing the performance of the full-scale ash removal system, establishing safe limits of operation and testing design improvements.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaffhauser, Dian
2009-01-01
The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaffhauser, Dian
2009-01-01
The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail
Analysis of small scale turbulent structures and the effect of spatial scales on gas transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnieders, Jana; Garbe, Christoph
2014-05-01
The exchange of gases through the air-sea interface strongly depends on environmental conditions such as wind stress and waves which in turn generate near surface turbulence. Near surface turbulence is a main driver of surface divergence which has been shown to cause highly variable transfer rates on relatively small spatial scales. Due to the cool skin of the ocean, heat can be used as a tracer to detect areas of surface convergence and thus gather information about size and intensity of a turbulent process. We use infrared imagery to visualize near surface aqueous turbulence and determine the impact of turbulent scales on exchange rates. Through the high temporal and spatial resolution of these types of measurements spatial scales as well as surface dynamics can be captured. The surface heat pattern is formed by distinct structures on two scales - small-scale short lived structures termed fish scales and larger scale cold streaks that are consistent with the footprints of Langmuir Circulations. There are two key characteristics of the observed surface heat patterns: 1. The surface heat patterns show characteristic features of scales. 2. The structure of these patterns change with increasing wind stress and surface conditions. In [2] turbulent cell sizes have been shown to systematically decrease with increasing wind speed until a saturation at u* = 0.7 cm/s is reached. Results suggest a saturation in the tangential stress. Similar behaviour has been observed by [1] for gas transfer measurements at higher wind speeds. In this contribution a new model to estimate the heat flux is applied which is based on the measured turbulent cell size und surface velocities. This approach allows the direct comparison of the net effect on heat flux of eddies of different sizes and a comparison to gas transfer measurements. Linking transport models with thermographic measurements, transfer velocities can be computed. In this contribution, we will quantify the effect of small scale processes on interfacial transport and relate it to gas transfer. References [1] T. G. Bell, W. De Bruyn, S. D. Miller, B. Ward, K. Christensen, and E. S. Saltzman. Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) gas transfer in the North Atlantic: evidence for limited interfacial gas exchange at high wind speed. Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 13:11073-11087, 2013. [2] J Schnieders, C. S. Garbe, W.L. Peirson, and C. J. Zappa. Analyzing the footprints of near surface aqueous turbulence - an image processing based approach. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 2013.
A Critical Analysis of the Concept of Scale Dependent Macrodispersivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zech, A.; Attinger, S.; Cvetkovic, V.; Dagan, G.; Dietrich, P.; Fiori, A.; Rubin, Y.; Teutsch, G.
2014-12-01
Transport by groundwater occurs over the different scales encountered by moving solute plumes. Spreading of plumes is often quantified by the longitudinal macrodispersivity αL (half the rate of change of the second spatial moment divided by the mean velocity). It was found that generally αL is scale dependent, increasing with the travel distance L of the plume centroid, stabilizing eventually at a constant value (Fickian regime).It was surmised in the literature that αL(L) scales up with travel distance following a universal scaling law. Attempts to define the scaling law were pursued by several authors (Arya et al, 1988, Neuman, 1990, Xu and Eckstein, 1995, Schulze-Makuch, 2005), by fitting a regression line in the log-log representation of results from an ensemble of field experiment, primarily those experiments included by the compendium of experiments summarized by Gelhar et al, 1992.Despite concerns raised about universality of scaling laws (e.g., Gelhar, 1992, Anderson, 1991), such relationships are being employed by practitioners for modeling multiscale transport (e.g., Fetter, 1999), because they, presumably, offer a convenient prediction tool, with no need for detailed site characterization. Several attempts were made to provide theoretical justifications for the existence of a universal scaling law (e.g. Neuman, 1990 and 2010, Hunt et al, 2011).Our study revisited the concept of universal scaling through detailed analyses of field data (including the most recent tracer tests reported in the literature), coupled with a thorough re-evaluation of the reliability of the reported αL values. Our investigation concludes that transport, and particularly αL(L), is formation-specific, and that modeling of transport cannot be relegated to a universal scaling law. Instead, transport requires characterization of aquifer properties, e.g. spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity, and the use of adequate models.
A Critical Analysis of the Concept of Scale Dependent Macrodispersivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zech, Alraune; Attinger, Sabine; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Dagan, Gedeon; Dietrich, Peter; Fiori, Aldo; Rubin, Yoram; Teutsch, Georg
2015-04-01
Transport by groundwater occurs over the different scales encountered by moving solute plumes. Spreading of plumes is often quantified by the longitudinal macrodispersivity αL (half the rate of change of the second spatial moment divided by the mean velocity). It was found that generally αL is scale dependent, increasing with the travel distance L of the plume centroid, stabilizing eventually at a constant value (Fickian regime). It was surmised in the literature that αL scales up with travel distance L following a universal scaling law. Attempts to define the scaling law were sursued by several authors (Arya et al, 1988, Neuman, 1990, Xu and Eckstein, 1995, Schulze-Makuch, 2005), by fitting a regression line in the log-log representation of results from an ensemble of field experiment, primarily those experiments included by the compendium of experiments summarized by Gelhar et al, 1992. Despite concerns raised about universality of scaling laws (e.g., Gelhar, 1992, Anderson, 1991), such relationships are being employed by practitioners for modeling multiscale transport (e.g., Fetter, 1999), because they, presumably, offer a convenient prediction tool, with no need for detailed site characterization. Several attempts were made to provide theoretical justifications for the existence of a universal scaling law (e.g. Neuman, 1990 and 2010, Hunt et al, 2011). Our study revisited the concept of universal scaling through detailed analyses of field data (including the most recent tracer tests reported in the literature), coupled with a thorough re-evaluation of the reliability of the reported αL values. Our investigation concludes that transport, and particularly αL, is formation-specific, and that modeling of transport cannot be relegated to a universal scaling law. Instead, transport requires characterization of aquifer properties, e.g. spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity, and the use of adequate models.
Multidimensional analysis of the large-scale segregation of luminosity
Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.; Martinez, V.J.
1989-04-01
The multidimensional or multifractal formalism has been applied to analyze the CfA catalog. The spectrum of scaling indices and the generalized dimensions D(q) have been found to be scale-invariant in certain scaling regions. This invariance means that the multidimensional formalism is a good tool to characterize galaxy distributions. By means of this formalism it has been found that CfA galaxies brighter than about M(c) = -20(H0 = 100 km/s/Mpc) are most clustered than fainter galaxies. 42 refs.
MDI-GPU: accelerating integrative modelling for genomic-scale data using GP-GPU computing.
Mason, Samuel A; Sayyid, Faiz; Kirk, Paul D W; Starr, Colin; Wild, David L
2016-03-01
The integration of multi-dimensional datasets remains a key challenge in systems biology and genomic medicine. Modern high-throughput technologies generate a broad array of different data types, providing distinct - but often complementary - information. However, the large amount of data adds burden to any inference task. Flexible Bayesian methods may reduce the necessity for strong modelling assumptions, but can also increase the computational burden. We present an improved implementation of a Bayesian correlated clustering algorithm, that permits integrated clustering to be routinely performed across multiple datasets, each with tens of thousands of items. By exploiting GPU based computation, we are able to improve runtime performance of the algorithm by almost four orders of magnitude. This permits analysis across genomic-scale data sets, greatly expanding the range of applications over those originally possible. MDI is available here: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/systemsbiology/research/software/. PMID:26910751
An item response theory analysis of the Olweus Bullying scale.
Breivik, Kyrre; Olweus, Dan
2014-12-01
In the present article, we used IRT (graded response) modeling as a useful technology for a detailed and refined study of the psychometric properties of the various items of the Olweus Bullying scale and the scale itself. The sample consisted of a very large number of Norwegian 4th-10th grade students (n = 48 926). The IRT analyses revealed that the scale was essentially unidimensional and had excellent reliability in the upper ranges of the latent bullying tendency trait, as intended and desired. Gender DIF effects were identified with regard to girls' use of indirect bullying by social exclusion and boys' use of physical bullying by hitting and kicking but these effects were small and worked in opposite directions, having negligible effects at the scale level. Also scale scores adjusted for DIF effects differed very little from non-adjusted scores. In conclusion, the empirical data were well characterized by the chosen IRT model and the Olweus Bullying scale was considered well suited for the conduct of fair and reliable comparisons involving different gender-age groups. Information Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25460720
A Factor Analysis of the Laurelton Self-Concept Scale. Volume 1, Number 14.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harrison, Robert H.; Budoff, Milton
Items from the Laurelton Self Concept Scale (LSCS) and the Locus of Control Scale for Children were administered to 172 male and female educable mental retardates to examine the LSCS by R factor analysis. It was found that the Self Concept Scale is factor analyzable when appropriately administered to educables. The small factors grouped into…
Rating Scale Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cipriani, Daniel J.; Hensen, Francine E.; McPeck, Danielle L.; Kubec, Gina L. D.; Thomas, Julie J.
2012-01-01
Parents and caregivers faced with the challenges of transferring children with disability are at risk of musculoskeletal injuries and/or emotional stress. The Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers (CSEST) is a 14-item questionnaire that measures self-efficacy for transferring under common conditions. The CSEST yields reliable data and valid…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryser, Gail R.; Campbell, Hilary L.; Miller, Brian K.
2010-01-01
The diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have evolved over time with current versions of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual", (4th edition), text revision, ("DSM-IV-TR") suggesting that two constellations of symptoms may be present alone or in combination. The SCALES instrument for diagnosing attention deficit…
Refining a self-assessment of informatics competency scale using Mokken scaling analysis.
Yoon, Sunmoo; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Bakken, Suzanne
2015-01-01
Healthcare environments are increasingly implementing health information technology (HIT) and those from various professions must be competent to use HIT in meaningful ways. In addition, HIT has been shown to enable interprofessional approaches to health care. The purpose of this article is to describe the refinement of the Self-Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies Scale (SANICS) using analytic techniques based upon item response theory (IRT) and discuss its relevance to interprofessional education and practice. In a sample of 604 nursing students, the 93-item version of SANICS was examined using non-parametric IRT. The iterative modeling procedure included 31 steps comprising: (1) assessing scalability, (2) assessing monotonicity, (3) assessing invariant item ordering, and (4) expert input. SANICS was reduced to an 18-item hierarchical scale with excellent reliability. Fundamental skills for team functioning and shared decision making among team members (e.g. "using monitoring systems appropriately," "describing general systems to support clinical care") had the highest level of difficulty, and "demonstrating basic technology skills" had the lowest difficulty level. Most items reflect informatics competencies relevant to all health professionals. Further, the approaches can be applied to construct a new hierarchical scale or refine an existing scale related to informatics attitudes or competencies for various health professions. PMID:26652630
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Redfield, Joel
1978-01-01
TMFA, a FORTRAN program for three-mode factor analysis and individual-differences multidimensional scaling, is described. Program features include a variety of input options, extensive preprocessing of input data, and several alternative methods of analysis. (Author)
Wu, Hui-Chun; Hegelich, B.M.; Fernandez, J.C.; Shah, R.C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Jung, D.; Yin, L; Albright, B.J.; Bowers, K.; Huang, C.; Kwan, T.J.
2012-06-19
Two new experimental technologies enabled realization of Break-out afterburner (BOA) - High quality Trident laser and free-standing C nm-targets. VPIC is an powerful tool for fundamental research of relativistic laser-matter interaction. Predictions from VPIC are validated - Novel BOA and Solitary ion acceleration mechanisms. VPIC is a fully explicit Particle In Cell (PIC) code: models plasma as billions of macro-particles moving on a computational mesh. VPIC particle advance (which typically dominates computation) has been optimized extensively for many different supercomputers. Laser-driven ions lead to realization promising applications - Ion-based fast ignition; active interrogation, hadron therapy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reid, Corinne; Davis, Helen; Horlin, Chiara; Anderson, Mike; Baughman, Natalie; Campbell, Catherine
2013-01-01
Empathy is an essential building block for successful interpersonal relationships. Atypical empathic development is implicated in a range of developmental psychopathologies. However, assessment of empathy in children is constrained by a lack of suitable measurement instruments. This article outlines the development of the Kids' Empathic…
Stochastic averaging and sensitivity analysis for two scale reaction networks.
Hashemi, Araz; Nez, Marcel; Plech?, Petr; Vlachos, Dionisios G
2016-02-21
In the presence of multiscale dynamics in a reaction network, direct simulation methods become inefficient as they can only advance the system on the smallest scale. This work presents stochastic averaging techniques to accelerate computations for obtaining estimates of expected values and sensitivities with respect to the steady state distribution. A two-time-scale formulation is used to establish bounds on the bias induced by the averaging method. Further, this formulation provides a framework to create an accelerated "averaged" version of most single-scale sensitivity estimation methods. In particular, we propose the use of a centered ergodic likelihood ratio method for steady state estimation and show how one can adapt it to accelerated simulations of multiscale systems. Finally, we develop an adaptive "batch-means" stopping rule for determining when to terminate the micro-equilibration process. PMID:26896973
'Scaling' analysis of the ice accretion process on aircraft surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keshock, E. G.; Tabrizi, A. H.; Missimer, J. R.
1982-01-01
A comprehensive set of scaling parameters is developed for the ice accretion process by analyzing the energy equations of the dynamic freezing zone and the already frozen ice layer, the continuity equation associated with supercooled liquid droplets entering into and impacting within the dynamic freezing zone, and energy equation of the ice layer. No initial arbitrary judgments are made regarding the relative magnitudes of each of the terms. The method of intrinsic reference variables in employed in order to develop the appropriate scaling parameters and their relative significance in rime icing conditions in an orderly process, rather than utilizing empiricism. The significance of these parameters is examined and the parameters are combined with scaling criteria related to droplet trajectory similitude.
Stochastic averaging and sensitivity analysis for two scale reaction networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashemi, Araz; Núñez, Marcel; Plecháč, Petr; Vlachos, Dionisios G.
2016-02-01
In the presence of multiscale dynamics in a reaction network, direct simulation methods become inefficient as they can only advance the system on the smallest scale. This work presents stochastic averaging techniques to accelerate computations for obtaining estimates of expected values and sensitivities with respect to the steady state distribution. A two-time-scale formulation is used to establish bounds on the bias induced by the averaging method. Further, this formulation provides a framework to create an accelerated "averaged" version of most single-scale sensitivity estimation methods. In particular, we propose the use of a centered ergodic likelihood ratio method for steady state estimation and show how one can adapt it to accelerated simulations of multiscale systems. Finally, we develop an adaptive "batch-means" stopping rule for determining when to terminate the micro-equilibration process.
Guttman Facet Design and Analysis: A Technique for Attitude Scale Construction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamersma, Richard J.
The main import of the present paper is to discuss what Guttman facet design and analysis is and then to show how this technique can be used in attitude scale construction. Since Guttman is best known for his contribution to scaling theory known as scalogram analysis, a brief historical background is given to indicate how Guttman moved from a…
Murray Gibson
2007-04-27
Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).
Murray Gibson
2010-01-08
Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).
SCALING ANALYSIS OF REPOSITORY HEAT LOAD FOR REDUCED DIMENSIONALITY MODELS
MICHAEL T. ITAMUA AND CLIFFORD K. HO
1998-06-04
The thermal energy released from the waste packages emplaced in the potential Yucca Mountain repository is expected to result in changes in the repository temperature, relative humidity, air mass fraction, gas flow rates, and other parameters that are important input into the models used to calculate the performance of the engineered system components. In particular, the waste package degradation models require input from thermal-hydrologic models that have higher resolution than those currently used to simulate the T/H responses at the mountain-scale. Therefore, a combination of mountain- and drift-scale T/H models is being used to generate the drift thermal-hydrologic environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desbarats, A. J.; Bachu, S.
1994-03-01
This study examines the spatial variability of conductivity within the sandstone Wabiskaw member of the Lower Cretaceous, Middle Mannville in the Alberta Basin. The Wabiskaw is an important regional hydrostratigraphic unit. Vertical variability within the aquifer is characterized by downhole variograms of log conductivity from core measurements. They are found to exhibit pseudoperiodic structures due to alternating sand and shale layers. Horizontal spatial variability is characterized using variograms of log transmissivity and indicator data. These variograms show a steady increase in spatial variability over length scales ranging from 400 m to 100 km, characteristic of self-similar or fractal behavior. They also reveal distinct correlation structures related to both high and low transmissivity depositional features. This study also considers the upscaling of conductivity vertically, from the core to the well scale, and horizontally, from the well to the basin scale. It is shown that traditional vertical upscaling of conductivities by arithmetic averaging causes an overestimation of transmissivity in two-dimensional areal flow models. An alternative approach, based on power averaging, is proposed. Transmissivities derived by vertical upscaling of core measurements are compared with values derived from drill-stem tests in the same well. No correlation between these quantities is observed. An average transmissivity for the Wabiskaw in the study area is determined by geometric spatial averaging; however, the highly clustered spatial distribution of well locations requires a weighting of sample values using ordinary kriging.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glaspey, Amy M.; MacLeod, Andrea A. N.
2010-01-01
The purpose of the current study is to document phonological change from a multidimensional perspective for a 3-year-old boy with phonological disorder by comparing three measures: (1) accuracy of consonant productions, (2) dynamic assessment, and (3) acoustic analysis. The methods included collecting a sample of the targets /s, [image omitted],
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glaspey, Amy M.; MacLeod, Andrea A. N.
2010-01-01
The purpose of the current study is to document phonological change from a multidimensional perspective for a 3-year-old boy with phonological disorder by comparing three measures: (1) accuracy of consonant productions, (2) dynamic assessment, and (3) acoustic analysis. The methods included collecting a sample of the targets /s, [image omitted],…
A Factor Analysis of the Research Self-Efficacy Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bieschke, Kathleen J.; And Others
Counseling professionals' and counseling psychology students' interest in performing research seems to be waning. Identifying the impediments to graduate students' interest and participation in research is important if systematic efforts to engage them in research are to succeed. The Research Self-Efficacy Scale (RSES) was designed to measure…
THE USEFULNESS OF SCALE ANALYSIS: EXAMPLES FROM EASTERN MASSACHUSETTS
Many water system managers and operators are curious about the value of analyzing the scales of drinking water pipes. Approximately 20 sections of lead service lines were removed in 2002 from various locations throughout the greater Boston distribution system, and were sent to ...
Imaginal Behavioral Analysis: Multisensory Imagery Scale for Predicting Teacher Competency.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reing, Alvin B.
The study developed and used a self-report graphic Multisensory Imagery Scale (MIS) to analyze imaginal behavior, and to test the hypothesis that multisensory (MS) imagery is a specific teacher competency associated with effective teaching, particularly in special education. The MIS was field-tested, abbreviated, performed on teacher trainees,…
A Rasch Analysis of the Teachers Music Confidence Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry; Lee, Lai Wan Maria
2007-01-01
This article presents a new measure of teachers' confidence to conduct musical activities with young children; Teachers Music Confidence Scale (TMCS). The TMCS was developed using a sample of 284 in-service and pre-service early childhood teachers in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The TMCS consisted of 10 musical activities.…
Analysis of the time scales in time periodic Darcy flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, T.; Waluga, C.; Wohlmuth, B.; Manhart, M.
2014-12-01
We investigate unsteady flow in a porous medium under time - periodic (sinusoidal) pressure gradient. DNS were performed to benchmark the analytical solution of the unsteady Darcy equation with two different expressions of the time scale : one given by a consistent volume averaging of the Navier - Stokes equation [1] with a steady state closure for the flow resistance term, another given by volume averaging of the kinetic energy equation [2] with a closure for the dissipation rate . For small and medium frequencies, the analytical solutions with the time scale obtained by the energy approach compare well with the DNS results in terms of amplitude and phase lag. For large frequencies (f > 100 [Hz]) we observe a slightly smaller damping of the amplitude. This study supports the use of the unsteady form of Darcy's equation with constant coefficients to solve time - periodic Darcy flows at low and medium frequencies. Our DNS simulations, however, indicate that the time scale predicted by the VANS approach together with a steady - state closure for the flow resistance term is too small. The one obtained by the energy approach matches the DNS results well. At large frequencies, the amplitudes deviate slightly from the analytical solution of the unsteady Darcy equation. Note that at those high frequencies, the flow amplitudes remain below 1% of those of steady state flow. This result indicates that unsteady porous media flow can approximately be described by the unsteady Darcy equation with constant coefficients for a large range of frequencies, provided, the proper time scale has been found.
Introducing Scale Analysis by Way of a Pendulum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lira, Ignacio
2007-01-01
Empirical correlations are a practical means of providing approximate answers to problems in physics whose exact solution is otherwise difficult to obtain. The correlations relate quantities that are deemed to be important in the physical situation to which they apply, and can be derived from experimental data by means of dimensional and/or scale
SU-E-T-472: A Multi-Dimensional Measurements Comparison to Analyze a 3D Patient Specific QA Tool
Ashmeg, S; Jackson, J; Zhang, Y; Oldham, M; Yin, F; Ren, L
2014-06-01
Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate a 3D patient specific QA tool using 2D film and 3D Presage dosimetry. Methods: A brain IMRT case was delivered to Delta4, EBT2 film and Presage plastic dosimeter. The film was inserted in the solid water slabs at 7.5cm depth for measurement. The Presage dosimeter was inserted into a head phantom for 3D dose measurement. Delta4's Anatomy software was used to calculate the corresponding dose to the film in solid water slabs and to Presage in the head phantom. The results from Anatomy were compared to both calculated results from Eclipse and measured dose from film and Presage to evaluate its accuracy. Using RIT software, we compared the “Anatomy” dose to the EBT2 film measurement and the film measurement to ECLIPSE calculation. For 3D analysis, DICOM file of “Anatomy” was extracted and imported to CERR software, which was used to compare the Presage dose to both “Anatomy” calculation and ECLIPSE calculation. Gamma criteria of 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm was used for comparison. Results: Gamma passing rates of film vs “Anatomy”, “Anatomy” vs ECLIPSE and film vs ECLIPSE were 82.8%, 70.9% and 87.6% respectively when 3% - 3mm criteria is used. When the criteria is changed to 5% - 5mm, the passing rates became 87.8%, 76.3% and 90.8% respectively. For 3D analysis, Anatomy vs ECLIPSE showed gamma passing rate of 86.4% and 93.3% for 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm respectively. The rate is 77.0% for Presage vs ECLIPSE analysis. The Anatomy vs ECLIPSE were absolute dose comparison. However, film and Presage analysis were relative comparison Conclusion: The results show higher passing rate in 3D than 2D in “Anatomy” software. This could be due to the higher degrees of freedom in 3D than in 2D for gamma analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, G.; Sharma, S.; Vyas, A.; Rajawat, A. S.
2014-11-01
This study attempts to measure and characterize urban sprawl using its multiple dimensions in the Jamnagar city, India. The study utilized the multi-date satellite images acquired by CORONA, IRS 1D PAN & LISS-3, IRS P6 LISS-4 and Resourcesat-2 LISS-4 sensors. The extent of urban growth in the study area was mapped at 1 : 25,000 scale for the years 1965, 2000, 2005 and 2011. The growth of urban areas was further categorized into infill growth, expansion and leapfrog development. The city witnessed an annual growth of 1.60 % per annum during the period 2000-2011 whereas the population growth during the same period was observed at less than 1.0 % per annum. The new development in the city during 2000-2005 time period comprised of 22 % as infill development, 60 % as extension of the peripheral urbanized areas, and 18 % as leapfrogged development. However, during 2005-2011 timeframe the proportion of leapfrog development increased to 28 % whereas due to decrease in availability of developable area within the city, the infill developments declined to 9 %. The urban sprawl in Jamnagar city was further characterized on the basis of five dimensions of sprawl viz. population density, continuity, clustering, concentration and centrality by integrating the population data with sprawl for year 2001 and 2011. The study characterised the growth of Jamnagar as low density and low concentration outwardly expansion.
Scale Issues in Remote Sensing: A Review on Analysis, Processing and Modeling
Wu, Hua; Li, Zhao-Liang
2009-01-01
With the development of quantitative remote sensing, scale issues have attracted more and more the attention of scientists. Research is now suffering from a severe scale discrepancy between data sources and the models used. Consequently, both data interpretation and model application become difficult due to these scale issues. Therefore, effectively scaling remotely sensed information at different scales has already become one of the most important research focuses of remote sensing. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate scale issues from the points of view of analysis, processing and modeling and to provide technical assistance when facing scale issues in remote sensing. The definition of scale and relevant terminologies are given in the first part of this paper. Then, the main causes of scale effects and the scaling effects on measurements, retrieval models and products are reviewed and discussed. Ways to describe the scale threshold and scale domain are briefly discussed. Finally, the general scaling methods, in particular up-scaling methods, are compared and summarized in detail. PMID:22573986
Crater ejecta scaling laws - Fundamental forms based on dimensional analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Housen, K. R.; Schmidt, R. M.; Holsapple, K. A.
1983-03-01
Self-consistent scaling laws are developed for meteoroid impact crater ejecta. Attention is given to the ejection velocity of material as a function of the impact point, the volume of ejecta with a threshold velocity, and the thickness of ejecta deposit in terms of the distance from the impact. Use is made of recently developed equations for energy and momentum coupling in cratering events. Consideration is given to scaling of laboratory trials up to real-world events and formulations are developed for calculating the ejection velocities and ejecta blanket profiles in the gravity and strength regimes of crater formation. It is concluded that, in the gravity regime, the thickness of an ejecta blanket is the same in all directions if the thickness and range are expressed in terms of the crater radius. In the strength regime, however, the ejecta velocities are independent of crater size, thereby allowing for asymmetric ejecta blankets. Controlled experiments are recommended for the gravity/strength transition.
Crater ejecta scaling laws - Fundamental forms based on dimensional analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Housen, K. R.; Schmidt, R. M.; Holsapple, K. A.
1983-01-01
Self-consistent scaling laws are developed for meteoroid impact crater ejecta. Attention is given to the ejection velocity of material as a function of the impact point, the volume of ejecta with a threshold velocity, and the thickness of ejecta deposit in terms of the distance from the impact. Use is made of recently developed equations for energy and momentum coupling in cratering events. Consideration is given to scaling of laboratory trials up to real-world events and formulations are developed for calculating the ejection velocities and ejecta blanket profiles in the gravity and strength regimes of crater formation. It is concluded that, in the gravity regime, the thickness of an ejecta blanket is the same in all directions if the thickness and range are expressed in terms of the crater radius. In the strength regime, however, the ejecta velocities are independent of crater size, thereby allowing for asymmetric ejecta blankets. Controlled experiments are recommended for the gravity/strength transition.
Analysis plan for 1985 large-scale tests. Technical report
McMullan, F.W.
1983-01-01
The purpose of this effort is to assist DNA in planning for large-scale (upwards of 5000 tons) detonations of conventional explosives in the 1985 and beyond time frame. Primary research objectives were to investigate potential means to increase blast duration and peak pressures. This report identifies and analyzes several candidate explosives. It examines several charge designs and identifies advantages and disadvantages of each. Other factors including terrain and multiburst techniques are addressed as are test site considerations.
Wavelet multiscale analysis for Hedge Funds: Scaling and strategies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conlon, T.; Crane, M.; Ruskin, H. J.
2008-09-01
The wide acceptance of Hedge Funds by Institutional Investors and Pension Funds has led to an explosive growth in assets under management. These investors are drawn to Hedge Funds due to the seemingly low correlation with traditional investments and the attractive returns. The correlations and market risk (the Beta in the Capital Asset Pricing Model) of Hedge Funds are generally calculated using monthly returns data, which may produce misleading results as Hedge Funds often hold illiquid exchange-traded securities or difficult to price over-the-counter securities. In this paper, the Maximum Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) is applied to measure the scaling properties of Hedge Fund correlation and market risk with respect to the S&P 500. It is found that the level of correlation and market risk varies greatly according to the strategy studied and the time scale examined. Finally, the effects of scaling properties on the risk profile of a portfolio made up of Hedge Funds is studied using correlation matrices calculated over different time horizons.
Norman, Matthew R
2014-01-01
The novel ADER-DT time discretization is applied to two-dimensional transport in a quadrature-free, WENO- and FCT-limited, Finite-Volume context. Emphasis is placed on (1) the serial and parallel computational properties of ADER-DT and this framework and (2) the flexibility of ADER-DT and this framework in efficiently balancing accuracy with other constraints important to transport applications. This study demonstrates a range of choices for the user when approaching their specific application while maintaining good parallel properties. In this method, genuine multi-dimensionality, single-step and single-stage time stepping, strict positivity, and a flexible range of limiting are all achieved with only one parallel synchronization and data exchange per time step. In terms of parallel data transfers per simulated time interval, this improves upon multi-stage time stepping and post-hoc filtering techniques such as hyperdiffusion. This method is evaluated with standard transport test cases over a range of limiting options to demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively what a user should expect when employing this method in their application.
Kato, Takahiro A.; Watabe, Motoki; Kanba, Shigenobu
2013-01-01
Neurons and synapses have long been the dominant focus of neuroscience, thus the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders has come to be understood within the neuronal doctrine. However, the majority of cells in the brain are not neurons but glial cells including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Traditionally, neuroscientists regarded glial functions as simply providing physical support and maintenance for neurons. Thus, in this limited role glia had been long ignored. Recently, glial functions have been gradually investigated, and increasing evidence has suggested that glial cells perform important roles in various brain functions. Digging up the glial functions and further understanding of these crucial cells, and the interaction between neurons and glia may shed new light on clarifying many unknown aspects including the mind-brain gap, and conscious-unconscious relationships. We briefly review the current situation of glial research in the field, and propose a novel translational research with a multi-dimensional model, combining various experimental approaches such as animal studies, in vitro & in vivo neuron-glia studies, a variety of human brain imaging investigations, and psychometric assessments. PMID:24155727
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taleei, Ameneh; Dehghan, Mehdi
2014-06-01
In this paper, we study the simulation of nonlinear Schrödinger equation in one, two and three dimensions. The proposed method is based on a time-splitting method that decomposes the original problem into two parts, a linear equation and a nonlinear equation. The linear equation in one dimension is approximated with the Chebyshev pseudo-spectral collocation method in space variable and the Crank-Nicolson method in time; while the nonlinear equation with constant coefficients can be solved exactly. As the goal of the present paper is to study the nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the large finite domain, we propose a domain decomposition method. In comparison with the single-domain, the multi-domain methods can produce a sparse differentiation matrix with fewer memory space and less computations. In this study, we choose an overlapping multi-domain scheme. By applying the alternating direction implicit technique, we extend this efficient method to solve the nonlinear Schrödinger equation both in two and three dimensions, while for the solution at each time step, it only needs to solve a sequence of linear partial differential equations in one dimension, respectively. Several examples for one- and multi-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equations are presented to demonstrate high accuracy and capability of the proposed method. Some numerical experiments are reported which show that this scheme preserves the conservation laws of charge and energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norman, Matthew R.
2014-10-01
The novel ADER-DT time discretization is applied to two-dimensional transport in a quadrature-free, WENO- and FCT-limited, Finite-Volume context. Emphasis is placed on (1) the serial and parallel computational properties of ADER-DT and this framework and (2) the flexibility of ADER-DT and this framework in efficiently balancing accuracy with other constraints important to transport applications. This study demonstrates a range of choices for the user when approaching their specific application while maintaining good parallel properties. In this method, genuine multi-dimensionality, single-step and single-stage time stepping, strict positivity, and a flexible range of limiting are all achieved with only one parallel synchronization and data exchange per time step. In terms of parallel data transfers per simulated time interval, this improves upon multi-stage time stepping and post-hoc filtering techniques such as hyperdiffusion. This method is evaluated with standard transport test cases over a range of limiting options to demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively what a user should expect when employing this method in their application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tominaga, Nozomu; Shibata, Sanshiro; Blinnikov, Sergei I.
2015-08-01
We develop a time-dependent, multi-group, multi-dimensional relativistic radiative transfer code, which is required to numerically investigate radiation from relativistic fluids that are involved in, e.g., gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei. The code is based on the spherical harmonic discrete ordinate method (SHDOM) which evaluates a source function including anisotropic scattering in spherical harmonics and implicitly solves the static radiative transfer equation with ray tracing in discrete ordinates. We implement treatments of time dependence, multi-frequency bins, Lorentz transformation, and elastic Thomson and inelastic Compton scattering to the publicly available SHDOM code. Our code adopts a mixed-frame approach; the source function is evaluated in the comoving frame, whereas the radiative transfer equation is solved in the laboratory frame. This implementation is validated using various test problems and comparisons with the results from a relativistic Monte Carlo code. These validations confirm that the code correctly calculates the intensity and its evolution in the computational domain. The code enables us to obtain an Eddington tensor that relates the first and third moments of intensity (energy density and radiation pressure) and is frequently used as a closure relation in radiation hydrodynamics calculations.
Two scale analysis applied to low permeability sandstones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davy, Catherine; Song, Yang; Nguyen Kim, Thang; Adler, Pierre
2015-04-01
Low permeability materials are often composed of several pore structures of various scales, which are superposed one to another. It is often impossible to measure and to determine the macroscopic properties in one step. In the low permeability sandstones that we consider, the pore space is essentially made of micro-cracks between grains. These fissures are two dimensional structures, which aperture is roughly on the order of one micron. On the grain scale, i.e., on the scale of 1 mm, the fissures form a network. These two structures can be measured by using two different tools [1]. The density of the fissure networks is estimated by trace measurements on the two dimensional images provided by classical 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with a pixel size of 2.2 micron. The three dimensional geometry of the fissures is measured by X-Ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) in the laboratory, with a voxel size of 0.6x0.6x0.6microns3. The macroscopic permeability is calculated in two steps. On the small scale, the fracture transmissivity is calculated by solving the Stokes equation on several portions of the measured fissures by micro-CT. On the large scale, the density of the fissures is estimated by three different means based on the number of intersections with scanlines, on the surface density of fissures and on the intersections between fissures per unit surface. These three means show that the network is relatively isotropic and they provide very close estimations of the density. Then, a general formula derived from systematic numerical computations [2] is used to derive the macroscopic dimensionless permeability which is proportional to the fracture transmissivity. The combination of the two previous results yields the dimensional macroscopic permeability which is found to be in acceptable agreement with the experimental measurements. Some extensions of these preliminary works will be presented as a tentative conclusion. References [1] Z. Duan, C. A. Davy, F. Agostini, L. Jeannin, D. Troadec, F. Skoczylas, Hydraulic cut-off and gas recovery potential of sandstones from Tight Gas Reservoirs: a laboratory investigation, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, Vol.65, pp.75-85, 2014. [2] P.M. Adler, J.-F. Thovert, V.V. Mourzenko: Fractured porous media, Oxford University Press, 2012.
Lopez, C.; Koski, J.A.; Razani, A.
2000-01-06
A study of the errors introduced when one-dimensional inverse heat conduction techniques are applied to problems involving two-dimensional heat transfer effects was performed. The geometry used for the study was a cylinder with similar dimensions as a typical container used for the transportation of radioactive materials. The finite element analysis code MSC P/Thermal was used to generate synthetic test data that was then used as input for an inverse heat conduction code. Four different problems were considered including one with uniform flux around the outer surface of the cylinder and three with non-uniform flux applied over 360{degree}, 180{degree}, and 90{degree} sections of the outer surface of the cylinder. The Sandia One-Dimensional Direct and Inverse Thermal (SODDIT) code was used to estimate the surface heat flux of all four cases. The error analysis was performed by comparing the results from SODDIT and the heat flux calculated based on the temperature results obtained from P/Thermal. Results showed an increase in error of the surface heat flux estimates as the applied heat became more localized. For the uniform case, SODDIT provided heat flux estimates with a maximum error of 0.5% whereas for the non-uniform cases, the maximum errors were found to be about 3%, 7%, and 18% for the 360{degree}, 180{degree}, and 90{degree} cases, respectively.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.
2012-01-01
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.
2012-01-01
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken…
John Arrington
2003-05-01
Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei at low momentum transfer (corresponding to x>1) and moderate Q^2 is dominated by quasifree scattering from nucleons. In the impulse approximation, the cross section can be directly connected to the nucleon momentum distribution via the scaling function F(y). The breakdown of the y-scaling assumptions in certain kinematic regions have prevented extraction of nucleon momentum distributions from such a scaling analysis. With a slight modification to the y-scaling assumptions, it is found that scaling functions can be extracted which are consistent with the expectations for the nucleon momentum distributions.
Arrington, J.
2002-05-15
Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei at low momentum transfer (corresponding to x {ge} 1) and moderate Q{sup 2} is dominated by quasifree scattering from nucleons. In the impulse approximation, the cross section can be directly connected to the nucleon momentum distribution via the scaling function F(y). The breakdown of the y-scaling assumptions in certain kinematic regions have prevented extraction of nucleon momentum distributions from such a scaling analysis. With a slight modification to the y-scaling assumptions, it is found that scaling functions can be extracted which are consistent with the expectations for the nucleon momentum distributions.
A quality assessment of 3D video analysis for full scale rockfall experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkwein, A.; Glover, J.; Bourrier, F.; Gerber, W.
2012-04-01
Main goal of full scale rockfall experiments is to retrieve a 3D trajectory of a boulder along the slope. Such trajectories then can be used to calibrate rockfall simulation models. This contribution presents the application of video analysis techniques capturing rock fall velocity of some free fall full scale rockfall experiments along a rock face with an inclination of about 50 degrees. Different scaling methodologies have been evaluated. They mainly differ in the way the scaling factors between the movie frames and the reality and are determined. For this purpose some scale bars and targets with known dimensions have been distributed in advance along the slope. The single scaling approaches are briefly described as follows: (i) Image raster is scaled to the distant fixed scale bar then recalibrated to the plane of the passing rock boulder by taking the measured position of the nearest impact as the distance to the camera. The distance between the camera, scale bar, and passing boulder are surveyed. (ii) The image raster was scaled using the four nearest targets (identified using frontal video) from the trajectory to be analyzed. The average of the scaling factors was finally taken as scaling factor. (iii) The image raster was scaled using the four nearest targets from the trajectory to be analyzed. The scaling factor for one trajectory was calculated by balancing the mean scaling factors associated with the two nearest and the two farthest targets in relation to their mean distance to the analyzed trajectory. (iv) Same as previous method but with varying scaling factors during along the trajectory. It has shown that a direct measure of the scaling target and nearest impact zone is the most accurate. If constant plane is assumed it doesn't account for the lateral deviations of the rock boulder from the fall line consequently adding error into the analysis. Thus a combination of scaling methods (i) and (iv) are considered to give the best results. For best results regarding the lateral rough positioning along the slope, the frontal video must also be scaled. The error in scaling the video images can be evaluated by comparing the data by additional combination of the vertical trajectory component over time with the theoretical polynomial trend according to gravity. The different tracking techniques used to plot the position of the boulder's center of gravity all generated positional data with minimal error acceptable for trajectory analysis. However, when calculating instantaneous velocities an amplification of this error becomes un acceptable. A regression analysis of the data is helpful to optimize trajectory and velocity, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Surendra P.; Pandarinath, Kailasa; Verma, Sanjeet K.; Agrawal, Salil
2013-05-01
For the discrimination of four tectonic settings of island arc, continental arc, within-plate (continental rift and ocean island together), and collision, we present three sets of new diagrams obtained from linear discriminant analysis of natural logarithm transformed ratios of major elements, immobile major and trace elements, and immobile trace elements in acid magmas. The use of discordant outlier-free samples prior to linear discriminant analysis had improved the success rates by about 3% on the average. Success rates of these new diagrams were acceptably high (about 69% to 97% for the first set, about 69% to 99% for the second set, and about 60% to 96% for the third set). Testing of these diagrams for acid rock samples (not used for constructing them) from known tectonic settings confirmed their overall good performance. Application of these new diagrams to Precambrian case studies provided the following generally consistent results: a continental arc setting for the Caribou greenstone belt (Canada) at about 3000 Ma, São Francisco craton (Brazil) at about 3085-2983 Ma, Penakacherla greenstone terrane (Dharwar craton, India) at about 2700 Ma, and Adola (Ethiopia) at about 885-765 Ma; a transitional continental arc to collision setting for the Rio Maria terrane (Brazil) at about 2870 Ma and Eastern felsic volcanic terrain (India) at about 2700 Ma; a collision setting for the Kolar suture zone (India) at about 2610 Ma and Korpo area (Finland) at about 1852 Ma; and a within-plate (likely a continental rift) setting for Malani igneous suite (India) at about 745-700 Ma. These applications suggest utility of the new discrimination diagrams for all four tectonic settings. In fact, all three sets of diagrams were shown to be robust against post-emplacement compositional changes caused by analytical errors, element mobility related to low or high temperature alteration, or Fe-oxidation caused by weathering.
Stochastic analysis of a field-scale unsaturated transport experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Severino, G.; Comegna, A.; Coppola, A.; Sommella, A.; Santini, A.
2010-10-01
Modelling of field-scale transport of chemicals is of deep interest to public as well as private sectors, and it represents an area of active theoretical research in many environmentally-based disciplines. However, the experimental data needed to validate field-scale transport models are very limited due to the numerous logistic difficulties that one faces out. In the present paper, the migration of a tracer (Cl -) was monitored during its movement in the unsaturated zone beneath the surface of 8 m × 50 m sandy soil. Under flux-controlled, steady-state water flow ( Jw = 10 mm/day) was achieved by bidaily sprinkler irrigation. A pulse of 105 g/m 2 KCl was applied uniformly to the surface, and subsequently leached downward by the same (chloride-free) flux Jw over the successive two months. Chloride concentration monitoring was carried out in seven measurement campaigns (each one corresponding to a given time) along seven (parallel) transects. The mass recovery was near 100%, therefore underlining the very good-quality of the concentration data-set. The chloride concentrations are used to test two field-scale models of unsaturated transport: (i) the Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE), which models transport far from the zone of solute entry, and (ii) the Stochastic- Convective Log- normal (CLT) transfer function model, which instead accounts for transport near the release zone. Both the models provided an excellent representation of the solute spreading at z > 0.45 m (being z = 0.45 m the calibration depth). As a consequence, by the depth z ≈ 50 cm one can regard transport as Fickian. The ADE model dramatically underestimates solute spreading at shallow depths. This is due to the boundary effects which are not captured by the ADE. The CLT model appears to be a more robust tool to mimic transport at every depth.
Validation of Normalizations, Scaling, and Photofading Corrections for FRAP Data Analysis
Kang, Minchul; Andreani, Manuel; Kenworthy, Anne K.
2015-01-01
Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) has been a versatile tool to study transport and reaction kinetics in live cells. Since the fluorescence data generated by fluorescence microscopy are in a relative scale, a wide variety of scalings and normalizations are used in quantitative FRAP analysis. Scaling and normalization are often required to account for inherent properties of diffusing biomolecules of interest or photochemical properties of the fluorescent tag such as mobile fraction or photofading during image acquisition. In some cases, scaling and normalization are also used for computational simplicity. However, to our best knowledge, the validity of those various forms of scaling and normalization has not been studied in a rigorous manner. In this study, we investigate the validity of various scalings and normalizations that have appeared in the literature to calculate mobile fractions and correct for photofading and assess their consistency with FRAP equations. As a test case, we consider linear or affine scaling of normal or anomalous diffusion FRAP equations in combination with scaling for immobile fractions. We also consider exponential scaling of either FRAP equations or FRAP data to correct for photofading. Using a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches, we show that compatible scaling schemes should be applied in the correct sequential order; otherwise, erroneous results may be obtained. We propose a hierarchical workflow to carry out FRAP data analysis and discuss the broader implications of our findings for FRAP data analysis using a variety of kinetic models. PMID:26017223
Enabling Large-Scale Biomedical Analysis in the Cloud
Lin, Ying-Chih; Yu, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Yen-Jen
2013-01-01
Recent progress in high-throughput instrumentations has led to an astonishing growth in both volume and complexity of biomedical data collected from various sources. The planet-size data brings serious challenges to the storage and computing technologies. Cloud computing is an alternative to crack the nut because it gives concurrent consideration to enable storage and high-performance computing on large-scale data. This work briefly introduces the data intensive computing system and summarizes existing cloud-based resources in bioinformatics. These developments and applications would facilitate biomedical research to make the vast amount of diversification data meaningful and usable. PMID:24288665
Enabling large-scale biomedical analysis in the cloud.
Lin, Ying-Chih; Yu, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Yen-Jen
2013-01-01
Recent progress in high-throughput instrumentations has led to an astonishing growth in both volume and complexity of biomedical data collected from various sources. The planet-size data brings serious challenges to the storage and computing technologies. Cloud computing is an alternative to crack the nut because it gives concurrent consideration to enable storage and high-performance computing on large-scale data. This work briefly introduces the data intensive computing system and summarizes existing cloud-based resources in bioinformatics. These developments and applications would facilitate biomedical research to make the vast amount of diversification data meaningful and usable. PMID:24288665
Analysis of World Economic Variables Using Multidimensional Scaling
Machado, J.A. Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia
2015-01-01
Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene. PMID:25811177
Analysis of world economic variables using multidimensional scaling.
Machado, J A Tenreiro; Mata, Maria Eugénia
2015-01-01
Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene. PMID:25811177
On the analysis of large-scale genomic structures.
Oiwa, Nestor Norio; Goldman, Carla
2005-01-01
We apply methods from statistical physics (histograms, correlation functions, fractal dimensions, and singularity spectra) to characterize large-scale structure of the distribution of nucleotides along genomic sequences. We discuss the role of the extension of noncoding segments ("junk DNA") for the genomic organization, and the connection between the coding segment distribution and the high-eukaryotic chromatin condensation. The following sequences taken from GenBank were analyzed: complete genome of Xanthomonas campestri, complete genome of yeast, chromosome V of Caenorhabditis elegans, and human chromosome XVII around gene BRCA1. The results are compared with the random and periodic sequences and those generated by simple and generalized fractal Cantor sets. PMID:15858230
Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surface, Nicholas James
The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.
Scaling analysis of energy transfer in the inertial range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Ye
1991-12-01
Addressed here is a fundamental question regarding the energy transfer process. At issue is the appropriate choice of a statistical quantity to indicate the nature of energy transfer across the spectrum. Basically, the problem is that the system is conservative, with T(k) less than 0 for small k and T(k) greater than 0 for large k, but since we cannot tag energy, we cannot follow its flow. Our investigation indicates that although the quantity measured by cited papers is a mathematical building block in the energy transfer process, it is not the appropriate physical quantity one should use to determine whether the nonlinear interactions are local or nonlocal. With the use of an existing DNS flow database, we have clarified these issues by making measurements of quantities that directly reflect the actual scale disparity of the interactions contributing to the energy transfer process. We found that the net flux results primarily from interaction in which the ratio of largest to smallest scale is less than 10.
Bench-scale Analysis of Surrogates for Anaerobic Digestion Processes.
Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C
2016-05-01
Frequent monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes for pathogen destruction is both cost and time prohibitive. The use of surrogates to supplement regulatory monitoring may be one solution. To evaluate surrogates, a semi-batch bench-scale anaerobic digester design was tested. Bench-scale reactors were operated under mesophilic (36 °C) and thermophilic (53-55 °C) conditions, with a 15 day solids retention time. Biosolids from different facilities and during different seasons were examined. USEPA regulated pathogens and surrogate organisms were enumerated at different times throughout each experiment. The surrogate organisms included fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, male-specific and somatic coliphages, Clostridium perfringens, and bacterial spores. Male-specific coliphages tested well as a potential surrogate organism for virus inactivation. None of the tested surrogate organisms correlated well with helminth inactivation under the conditions studied. There were statistically significant differences in the inactivation rates between the facilities in this study, but not between seasons. PMID:27131309
Monte Carlo Criticality Methods and Analysis Capabilities in SCALE
Goluoglu, Sedat; Petrie Jr, Lester M; Dunn, Michael E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Rearden, Bradley T
2011-01-01
This paper describes the Monte Carlo codes KENO V.a and KENO-VI in SCALE that are primarily used to calculate multiplication factors and flux distributions of fissile systems. Both codes allow explicit geometric representation of the target systems and are used internationally for safety analyses involving fissile materials. KENO V.a has limiting geometric rules such as no intersections and no rotations. These limitations make KENO V.a execute very efficiently and run very fast. On the other hand, KENO-VI allows very complex geometric modeling. Both KENO codes can utilize either continuous-energy or multigroup cross-section data and have been thoroughly verified and validated with ENDF libraries through ENDF/B-VII.0, which has been first distributed with SCALE 6. Development of the Monte Carlo solution technique and solution methodology as applied in both KENO codes is explained in this paper. Available options and proper application of the options and techniques are also discussed. Finally, performance of the codes is demonstrated using published benchmark problems.
Boularas, A. Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Clain, S.; Teyssedre, G.
2014-08-28
Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction Operator—PRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tip–sample distances (from 0 to 600 nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20 V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beard, Daniel A.; Liang, Shou-Dan; Qian, Hong; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Predicting behavior of large-scale biochemical metabolic networks represents one of the greatest challenges of bioinformatics and computational biology. Approaches, such as flux balance analysis (FBA), that account for the known stoichiometry of the reaction network while avoiding implementation of detailed reaction kinetics are perhaps the most promising tools for the analysis of large complex networks. As a step towards building a complete theory of biochemical circuit analysis, we introduce energy balance analysis (EBA), which compliments the FBA approach by introducing fundamental constraints based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Fluxes obtained with EBA are thermodynamically feasible and provide valuable insight into the activation and suppression of biochemical pathways.