Science.gov

Sample records for multi-objective decision making

  1. Multi-objective decision-making under uncertainty: Fuzzy logic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    1995-01-01

    Fuzzy logic allows for quantitative representation of vague or fuzzy objectives, and therefore is well-suited for multi-objective decision-making. This paper presents methods employing fuzzy logic concepts to assist in the decision-making process. In addition, this paper describes software developed at NASA Lewis Research Center for assisting in the decision-making process. Two diverse examples are used to illustrate the use of fuzzy logic in choosing an alternative among many options and objectives. One example is the selection of a lunar lander ascent propulsion system, and the other example is the selection of an aeration system for improving the water quality of the Cuyahoga River in Cleveland, Ohio. The fuzzy logic techniques provided here are powerful tools which complement existing approaches, and therefore should be considered in future decision-making activities.

  2. Fuzzy Logic Approaches to Multi-Objective Decision-Making in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    Fuzzy logic allows for the quantitative representation of multi-objective decision-making problems which have vague or fuzzy objectives and parameters. As such, fuzzy logic approaches are well-suited to situations where alternatives must be assessed by using criteria that are subjective and of unequal importance. This paper presents an overview of fuzzy logic and provides sample applications from the aerospace industry. Applications include an evaluation of vendor proposals, an analysis of future space vehicle options, and the selection of a future space propulsion system. On the basis of the results provided in this study, fuzzy logic provides a unique perspective on the decision-making process, allowing the evaluator to assess the degree to which each option meets the evaluation criteria. Future decision-making should take full advantage of fuzzy logic methods to complement existing approaches in the selection of alternatives.

  3. Multi-objective decision-making under uncertainty: Fuzzy logic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    Selecting the best option among alternatives is often a difficult process. This process becomes even more difficult when the evaluation criteria are vague or qualitative, and when the objectives vary in importance and scope. Fuzzy logic allows for quantitative representation of vague or fuzzy objectives, and therefore is well-suited for multi-objective decision-making. This paper presents methods employing fuzzy logic concepts to assist in the decision-making process. In addition, this paper describes software developed at NASA Lewis Research Center for assisting in the decision-making process. Two diverse examples are used to illustrate the use of fuzzy logic in choosing an alternative among many options and objectives. One example is the selection of a lunar lander ascent propulsion system, and the other example is the selection of an aeration system for improving the water quality of the Cuyahoga River in Cleveland, Ohio. The fuzzy logic techniques provided here are powerful tools which complement existing approaches, and therefore should be considered in future decision-making activities.

  4. Selection of Cluster Well Pumping Unit Wire Rope Based on Fuzzy Multi-Objective Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Wentao; Wang, Yajuan; Kang, Xianzhi; Xi, Xiaopeng; Zou, Wei

    Influencing factors in cluster well pumping unit wire rope was analyzed corresponding index system. According to its characteristics, combined with fuzzy set theory, a multi-objective decision-making model of luster well pumping unit wire rope was set up, and the example of application was given to verify its feasibility.

  5. Constrained consumable resource allocation in alternative stochastic networks via multi-objective decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemin, Seyed Saeid; Fatemi Ghomi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi

    2012-08-01

    Many real projects complete through the realization of one and only one path of various possible network paths. Here, these networks are called alternative stochastic networks (ASNs). It is supposed that the nodes of considered network are probabilistic with exclusive-or receiver and exclusive-or emitter. First, an analytical approach is proposed to simplify the structure of the network. This approach transforms the network into a simpler equivalent one. This paper discusses the constrained consumable resource allocation problem in an ASN. Many recent researchers apply heuristic and simulation methods to solve the constrained resource allocation in these problems. In this paper, we propose an analytical approach based on multi-objective modeling. The objective functions of this model are the cumulative distribution function of the completion time of ASN paths. These functions must be maximized within the desired network completion time. Lexicographic method is used to solve the proposed multi-objective model. The proposed method is illustrated by an example.

  6. Using multi-objective robust decision making to support seasonal water management in the Chao Phraya River basin, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegels, Niels; Jessen, Oluf; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    A multi-objective robust decision making approach is demonstrated that supports seasonal water management in the Chao Phraya River basin in Thailand. The approach uses multi-objective optimization to identify a Pareto-optimal set of management alternatives. Ensemble simulation is used to evaluate how each member of the Pareto set performs under a range of uncertain future conditions, and a robustness criterion is used to select a preferred alternative. Data mining tools are then used to identify ranges of uncertain factor values that lead to unacceptable performance for the preferred alternative. The approach is compared to a multi-criteria scenario analysis approach to estimate whether the introduction of additional complexity has the potential to improve decision making. Dry season irrigation in Thailand is managed through non-binding recommendations about the maximum extent of rice cultivation along with incentives for less water-intensive crops. Management authorities lack authority to prevent river withdrawals for irrigation when rice cultivation exceeds recommendations. In practice, this means that water must be provided to irrigate the actual planted area because of downstream municipal water supply requirements and water quality constraints. This results in dry season reservoir withdrawals that exceed planned withdrawals, reducing carryover storage to hedge against insufficient wet season runoff. The dry season planning problem in Thailand can therefore be framed in terms of decisions, objectives, constraints, and uncertainties. Decisions include recommendations about the maximum extent of rice cultivation and incentives for growing less water-intensive crops. Objectives are to maximize benefits to farmers, minimize the risk of inadequate carryover storage, and minimize incentives. Constraints include downstream municipal demands and water quality requirements. Uncertainties include the actual extent of rice cultivation, dry season precipitation, and

  7. Multi-objective, multiple participant decision support for water management in the Andarax catchment, Almeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Cauwenbergh, N.; Pinte, D.; Tilmant, A.; Frances, I.; Pulido-Bosch, A.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-04-01

    Water management in the Andarax river basin (Almeria, Spain) is a multi-objective, multi-participant, long-term decision-making problem that faces several challenges. Adequate water allocation needs informed decisions to meet increasing socio-economic demands while respecting the environmental integrity of this basin. Key players in the Andarax water sector include the municipality of Almeria, the irrigators involved in the intensive greenhouse agricultural sector, and booming second residences. A decision support system (DSS) is developed to rank different sustainable planning and management alternatives according to their socio-economic and environmental performance. The DSS is intimately linked to sustainability indicators and is designed through a public participation process. Indicators are linked to criteria reflecting stakeholders concerns in the 2005 field survey, such as fulfilling water demand, water price, technical and economical efficiency, social and environmental impacts. Indicators can be partly quantified after simulating the operation of the groundwater reservoir over a 20-year planning period and partly through a parallel expert evaluation process. To predict the impact of future water demand in the catchment, several development scenarios are designed to be evaluated in the DSS. The successive multi-criteria analysis of the performance indicators permits the ranking of the different management alternatives according to the multiple objectives formulated by the different sectors/participants. This allows more informed and transparent decision-making processes for the Andarax river basin, recognizing both the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of water resources management.

  8. A GIS-based Adaptive Management Decision Support System to Develop a Multi-Objective Framework: A case study utilizing GIS technologies and physically-based models to archieve improved decision making for site management.

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Lane, Leonard J.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Roberts, Damon

    2008-06-26

    The notion of Adaptive Management (AM) allows for the realization and adjustment of management practices in response to elements of uncertainty. In terms of natural resource management, this will typically integrate monitoring, databases, simulation modeling, decision theory, and expert judgment to evaluate management alternatives and adapt them as necessary to continually improve the natural resource condition as defined by the stakeholders. Natural resource management scenarios can often be expressed, viewed, and understood as a spatial and temporal problem. The integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies and physically-based models provide an effective state-of-the-art solution for deriving, understanding, and applying AM scenarios for land use and remediation. A recently developed GIS-based adaptive management decision support system is presented for the U.S. Department of Defense Yakima Training Center near Yakima, Washington.

  9. Parameter Estimation of Computationally Expensive Watershed Models Through Efficient Multi-objective Optimization and Interactive Decision Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Taimoor; Shoemaker, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Watershed model calibration is inherently a multi-criteria problem. Conflicting trade-offs exist between different quantifiable calibration criterions indicating the non-existence of a single optimal parameterization. Hence, many experts prefer a manual approach to calibration where the inherent multi-objective nature of the calibration problem is addressed through an interactive, subjective, time-intensive and complex decision making process. Multi-objective optimization can be used to efficiently identify multiple plausible calibration alternatives and assist calibration experts during the parameter estimation process. However, there are key challenges to the use of multi objective optimization in the parameter estimation process which include: 1) multi-objective optimization usually requires many model simulations, which is difficult for complex simulation models that are computationally expensive; and 2) selection of one from numerous calibration alternatives provided by multi-objective optimization is non-trivial. This study proposes a "Hybrid Automatic Manual Strategy" (HAMS) for watershed model calibration to specifically address the above-mentioned challenges. HAMS employs a 3-stage framework for parameter estimation. Stage 1 incorporates the use of an efficient surrogate multi-objective algorithm, GOMORS, for identification of numerous calibration alternatives within a limited simulation evaluation budget. The novelty of HAMS is embedded in Stages 2 and 3 where an interactive visual and metric based analytics framework is available as a decision support tool to choose a single calibration from the numerous alternatives identified in Stage 1. Stage 2 of HAMS provides a goodness-of-fit measure / metric based interactive framework for identification of a small subset (typically less than 10) of meaningful and diverse set of calibration alternatives from the numerous alternatives obtained in Stage 1. Stage 3 incorporates the use of an interactive visual

  10. A Generalized Decision Framework Using Multi-objective Optimization for Water Resources Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdekas, L.; Stewart, N.; Triana, E.

    2013-12-01

    Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) is currently engaged in an Integrated Water Resource Plan (IWRP) to address the complex planning scenarios, across multiple time scales, currently faced by CSU. The modeling framework developed for the IWRP uses a flexible data-centered Decision Support System (DSS) with a MODSIM-based modeling system to represent the operation of the current CSU raw water system coupled with a state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithm. Three basic components are required for the framework, which can be implemented for planning horizons ranging from seasonal to interdecadal. First, a water resources system model is required that is capable of reasonable system simulation to resolve performance metrics at the appropriate temporal and spatial scales of interest. The system model should be an existing simulation model, or one developed during the planning process with stakeholders, so that 'buy-in' has already been achieved. Second, a hydrologic scenario tool(s) capable of generating a range of plausible inflows for the planning period of interest is required. This may include paleo informed or climate change informed sequences. Third, a multi-objective optimization model that can be wrapped around the system simulation model is required. The new generation of multi-objective optimization models do not require parameterization which greatly reduces problem complexity. Bridging the gap between research and practice will be evident as we use a case study from CSU's planning process to demonstrate this framework with specific competing water management objectives. Careful formulation of objective functions, choice of decision variables, and system constraints will be discussed. Rather than treating results as theoretically Pareto optimal in a planning process, we use the powerful multi-objective optimization models as tools to more efficiently and effectively move out of the inferior decision space. The use of this framework will help CSU

  11. Multi-objective Decision Based Available Transfer Capability in Deregulated Power System Using Heuristic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasam, Gopi Krishna; Manohar, T. Gowri

    2015-07-01

    Determination of available transfer capability (ATC) requires the use of experience, intuition and exact judgment in order to meet several significant aspects in the deregulated environment. Based on these points, this paper proposes two heuristic approaches to compute ATC. The first proposed heuristic algorithm integrates the five methods known as continuation repeated power flow, repeated optimal power flow, radial basis function neural network, back propagation neural network and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system to obtain ATC. The second proposed heuristic model is used to obtain multiple ATC values. Out of these, a specific ATC value will be selected based on a number of social, economic, deregulated environmental constraints and related to specific applications like optimization, on-line monitoring, and ATC forecasting known as multi-objective decision based optimal ATC. The validity of results obtained through these proposed methods are scrupulously verified on various buses of the IEEE 24-bus reliable test system. The results presented and derived conclusions in this paper are very useful for planning, operation, maintaining of reliable power in any power system and its monitoring in an on-line environment of deregulated power system. In this way, the proposed heuristic methods would contribute the best possible approach to assess multiple objective ATC using integrated methods.

  12. Confronting Decision Cliffs: Diagnostic Assessment of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms' Performance for Addressing Uncertain Environmental Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, V. L.; Singh, R.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2014-12-01

    As water resources problems typically involve several stakeholders with conflicting objectives, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are now key tools for understanding management tradeoffs. Given the growing complexity of water planning problems, it is important to establish if an algorithm can consistently perform well on a given class of problems. This knowledge allows the decision analyst to focus on eliciting and evaluating appropriate problem formulations. This study proposes a multi-objective adaptation of the classic environmental economics "Lake Problem" as a computationally simple but mathematically challenging MOEA benchmarking problem. The lake problem abstracts a fictional town on a lake which hopes to maximize its economic benefit without degrading the lake's water quality to a eutrophic (polluted) state through excessive phosphorus loading. The problem poses the challenge of maintaining economic activity while confronting the uncertainty of potentially crossing a nonlinear and potentially irreversible pollution threshold beyond which the lake is eutrophic. Objectives for optimization are maximizing economic benefit from lake pollution, maximizing water quality, maximizing the reliability of remaining below the environmental threshold, and minimizing the probability that the town will have to drastically change pollution policies in any given year. The multi-objective formulation incorporates uncertainty with a stochastic phosphorus inflow abstracting non-point source pollution. We performed comprehensive diagnostics using 6 algorithms: Borg, MOEAD, eMOEA, eNSGAII, GDE3, and NSGAII to ascertain their controllability, reliability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The lake problem abstracts elements of many current water resources and climate related management applications where there is the potential for crossing irreversible, nonlinear thresholds. We show that many modern MOEAs can fail on this test problem, indicating its suitability as a

  13. Multi-Objective Trajectory Optimization by a Hierarchical Gradient Algorithm with Fuzzy Decision Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hirohisa; Nakajima, Nobuyuki

    The rest-to-rest maneuver problem of the flexible space structure is the two point boundary value problem (TPBVP) and is solved by some gradient methods. If TPBVP is strongly restricted by the constraints, TBVP becomes ill-defined problem, and the solution meeting all constraints cannot be obtained. However, reasonable suboptimal solutions are often needed since real plants are necessary to be controlled. In order to obtain such suboptimal solutions, we have developed a modified version of the hierarchy gradient method by installing fuzzy decision logic. Constraints are classified into non-fuzzy constraints and fuzzy constraints according to their priorities. Fuzzy constraints having trade-off relationship with each other are compromised reasonably by fuzzy decision logic. The usefulness of the proposed method is numerically and experimentally demonstrated by applying to the rest-to-rest slew maneuver problem of a flexible space structure, where fuzzy constraints are final time, sensitivity of residual vibration energy with respect to the structure frequency uncertainty, and maximum bending moment at the root of flexible appendage.

  14. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

  15. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    Shared decision making is when health care providers and patients work together to decide the best way to test ... you. The two of you will make a decision based on your provider's expertise and your values ...

  16. Deciding about Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitson, Mal

    Educational administrators have the power to determine the nature of decision-making structures and processes within their institutions and the extent to which decisions are implemented. This paper reviews assumptions underlying decision-making structures and processes established by school administrators; examines potential individual motives…

  17. Sustainability Based Decision Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    With sustainability as the “true north” for EPA research, a premium is placed on the ability to make decisions under highly complex and uncertain conditions. The primary challenge is reconciling disparate criteria toward credible and defensible decisions. Making decisions on on...

  18. Reinventing Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klempen, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how three Wisconsin school superintendents used the process of situation appraisal and decision analysis to improve their problem-solving and decision-making capabilities and those of their leadership teams. Provides several examples. (PKP)

  19. Make better decisions.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Traditionally, decision making in organizations has rarely been the focus of systematic analysis. That may account for the astounding number of recent poor calls, such as decisions to invest in and securitize subprime mortgage loans or to hedge risk with credit default swaps. Business books are rich with insights about the decision process, but organizations have been slow to adopt their recommendations. It's time to focus on decision making, Davenport says, and he proposes four steps: (1) List and prioritize the decisions that must be made; (2) assess the factors that go into each, such as who plays what role, how often the decision must be made, and what information is available to support it; (3) design the roles, processes, systems, and behaviors your organization needs; and (4) institutionalize decision tools and assistance. The Educational Testing Service and The Stanley Works, among others, have succeeded in improving their decisions. ETS established a centralized deliberative body to make evidence-based decisions about new-product offerings, and Stanley has a Pricing Center of Excellence with internal consultants dedicated to its various business units. Leaders should bring multiple perspectives to their decision making, beware of analytical models that managers don't understand, be clear about their assumptions, practice "model management," and--because only people can revise decision criteria over time--cultivate human backups. PMID:19891389

  20. Decision Making and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Nelson, Wendy L.; Han, Paul K.; Pignone, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    We review decision-making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making, in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cognition, emotion, and their interaction are described, including classical psychophysical approaches, dual-process approaches that focus on conflicts between emotion versus cognition (or reason), and modern integrative approaches such as fuzzy-trace theory. In contrast to the earlier emphasis on rote use of numerical detail, modern approaches emphasize understanding the bottom-line gist of options (which encompasses emotion and other influences on meaning) and retrieving relevant social and moral values to apply to those gist representations. Finally, research on interventions to support better decision making in clinical settings is reviewed, drawing out implications for future research on decision making and cancer. PMID:25730718

  1. Decision Making in Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  2. A fuzzy multi-objective linear programming approach for integrated sheep farming and wildlife in land management decisions: a case study in the Patagonian rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metternicht, Graciela; Blanco, Paula; del Valle, Hector; Laterra, Pedro; Hardtke, Leonardo; Bouza, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Wildlife is part of the Patagonian rangelands sheep farming environment, with the potential of providing extra revenue to livestock owners. As sheep farming became less profitable, farmers and ranchers could focus on sustainable wildlife harvesting. It has been argued that sustainable wildlife harvesting is ecologically one of the most rational forms of land use because of its potential to provide multiple products of high value, while reducing pressure on ecosystems. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is the most conspicuous wild ungulate of Patagonia. Guanaco ?bre, meat, pelts and hides are economically valuable and have the potential to be used within the present Patagonian context of production systems. Guanaco populations in South America, including Patagonia, have experienced a sustained decline. Causes for this decline are related to habitat alteration, competition for forage with sheep, and lack of reasonable management plans to develop livelihoods for ranchers. In this study we propose an approach to explicitly determinate optimal stocking rates based on trade-offs between guanaco density and livestock grazing intensity on rangelands. The focus of our research is on finding optimal sheep stocking rates at paddock level, to ensure the highest production outputs while: a) meeting requirements of sustainable conservation of guanacos over their minimum viable population; b) maximizing soil carbon sequestration, and c) minimizing soil erosion. In this way, determination of optimal stocking rate in rangelands becomes a multi-objective optimization problem that can be addressed using a Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming (MOLP) approach. Basically, this approach converts multi-objective problems into single-objective optimizations, by introducing a set of objective weights. Objectives are represented using fuzzy set theory and fuzzy memberships, enabling each objective function to adopt a value between 0 and 1. Each objective function indicates the satisfaction of

  3. Designing for Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…

  4. Quantitative Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Grover H.

    The use of quantitative decision making tools provides the decision maker with a range of alternatives among which to decide, permits acceptance and use of the optimal solution, and decreases risk. Training line administrators in the use of these tools can help school business officials obtain reliable information upon which to base district…

  5. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  6. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shared decision making to improve care and reduce costs. N Engl J Med . 2013 Jan 3;368(1):6-8. ... UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  7. Argumentation for Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amgoud, Leila

    Decision making, often viewed as a form of reasoning toward action, has raised the interest of many scholars including economists, psychologists, and computer scientists for a long time. Any decision problem amounts to selecting the “best” or sufficiently “good” action(s) that are feasible among different alternatives, given some available information about the current state of the world and the consequences of potential actions. Available information may be incomplete or pervaded with uncertainty. Besides, the goodness of an action is judged by estimating how much its possible consequences fit the preferences of the decision maker. This agent is assumed to behave in a rational way [29] amgoud-woold, at least in the sense that his decisions should be as much as possible consistent with his preferences.

  8. Shared clinical decision making

    PubMed Central

    AlHaqwi, Ali I.; AlDrees, Turki M.; AlRumayyan, Ahmad; AlFarhan, Ali I.; Alotaibi, Sultan S.; AlKhashan, Hesham I.; Badri, Motasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine preferences of patients regarding their involvement in the clinical decision making process and the related factors in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a major family practice center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March and May 2012. Multivariate multinomial regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with patients preferences. Results: The study included 236 participants. The most preferred decision-making style was shared decision-making (57%), followed by paternalistic (28%), and informed consumerism (14%). The preference for shared clinical decision making was significantly higher among male patients and those with higher level of education, whereas paternalism was significantly higher among older patients and those with chronic health conditions, and consumerism was significantly higher in younger age groups. In multivariate multinomial regression analysis, compared with the shared group, the consumerism group were more likely to be female [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.27, p=0.008] and non-dyslipidemic (AOR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.03-8.09, p=0.04), and the paternalism group were more likely to be older (AOR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p=0.04), and female (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.32-4.06, p=0.008). Conclusion: Preferences of patients for involvement in the clinical decision-making varied considerably. In our setting, underlying factors that influence these preferences identified in this study should be considered and tailored individually to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. PMID:26620990

  9. Making Decisions in Quality Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Mildred

    This monograph provides educational staff with a theoretical basis for decision-making skills for application in quality circles. Roadblocks to good decisions are outlined, as well as the differences between group decision-making and individual decision-making (both have problems). The influence of values and personality characteristics on…

  10. Toward a multi-objective decision support framework to support regulations of unconventional oil and gas development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, M.; Howard, C.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) using hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has recently fostered an unprecedented acceleration in energy development. Regulations seek to protect environmental quality of areas surrounding UOGD, while maintaining economic benefits. One such regulation is a setback distance, which dictates the minimum proximity between an oil and gas well and an object such as a residential or commercial building, property line, or water source. In general, most setback regulations have been strongly politically motivated without a clear scientific basis for understanding the relationship between the setback distance and various performance outcomes. This presentation discusses a new decision support framework for setback regulations, as part of a large NSF-funded sustainability research network (SRN) on UOGD. The goal of the decision support framework is to integrate a wide array of scientific information from the SRN into a coherent framework that can help inform policy regarding UOGD. The decision support framework employs multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) optimization coupled with simulation models of air quality and other performance-based outcomes on UOGD. The result of the MOEA optimization runs are quantitative tradeoff curves among different objectives. For example, one such curve could demonstrate air pollution concentrations versus estimates of energy development profits, for different levels of setback distance. Our results will also inform policy-relevant discussions surrounding UOGD such as comparing single- and multi-well pads, as well as regulations on the density of well development over a spatial area.

  11. [Decision Making and Electrodermal Activity].

    PubMed

    Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka

    2016-08-01

    Decision making is aided by emotions. Bodily responses, such as sweating, heartbeat, and visceral sensation, are used to monitor the emotional state during decision making. Because decision making in dairy life is complicated and cognitively demanding, these bodily signals are thought to facilitate the decision making process by assigning positive or negative values for each of the behavioral options. The sweat response in a decision making task is measured by skin conductance response (SCR). SCR in decision making is divided into two categories: anticipatory SCR is observed before making decisions, and reward/punishment SCR is observed after the outcome of the decision is perceived. Brain lesion studies in human revealed that the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are important in decision making. Patients with lesinon in the amygdala exhibit neither the anticipatory nor reward/punishment SCRs, while patients with the ventromedial prefrontal lesions have deficits only in the anticipatory SCRs. Decision making tasks and SCR analysis have contributed to reveal the implicit aspects of decision making. Further research is necessary for clarifying the role of explicit process of decision making and its relationship with the implicit process. PMID:27503819

  12. Composite collective decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Czaczkes, Tomer J.; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155

  13. Composite collective decision-making.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-06-22

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155

  14. Electronic Communication and Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, M. S.; Sarbaugh-Thompson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Electronic communication can either facilitate or sabotage decision-making contexts. This article formulates recommendations about when and how to use electronic communication to enhance decision making and describes various decision contexts. Solutions to communication problems such as groupthink, social deadlock, bureaucratic isolation from…

  15. [Medical decision making: some aspects].

    PubMed

    Steurer, J

    2004-09-22

    Three main aspects of medical decision making will be shortly described in this article. Comprehensible information is required to make decisions. The question is, how much information is needed to make decisions, and a third aspect in this article concerns the decision maker. Research in the field of information transfer has shown that medical information, as presented in most journals, is difficult to understand. According to the classic decision theory, decisions are taken after collecting all available information. More recent research in decision making proves the hypothesis that human beings are able to decide correctly with much less information than presumed earlier. In medicine the patient is the decision maker, and the primary task of physicians is to inform the patient about his health status and enable him to reach a conclusion. PMID:15500244

  16. Sterilization surgery - making a decision

    MedlinePlus

    ... have sterilization surgery. However, some may regret the decision later. Men or women who are younger at ... the options available to you before making the decision to have a sterilization procedure.

  17. Inertia and Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Li, Jiahui

    2016-01-01

    Decision inertia is the tendency to repeat previous choices independently of the outcome, which can give rise to perseveration in suboptimal choices. We investigate this tendency in probability-updating tasks. Study 1 shows that, whenever decision inertia conflicts with normatively optimal behavior (Bayesian updating), error rates are larger and decisions are slower. This is consistent with a dual-process view of decision inertia as an automatic process conflicting with a more rational, controlled one. We find evidence of decision inertia in both required and autonomous decisions, but the effect of inertia is more clear in the latter. Study 2 considers more complex decision situations where further conflict arises due to reinforcement processes. We find the same effects of decision inertia when reinforcement is aligned with Bayesian updating, but if the two latter processes conflict, the effects are limited to autonomous choices. Additionally, both studies show that the tendency to rely on decision inertia is positively associated with preference for consistency. PMID:26909061

  18. Inertia and Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Li, Jiahui

    2016-01-01

    Decision inertia is the tendency to repeat previous choices independently of the outcome, which can give rise to perseveration in suboptimal choices. We investigate this tendency in probability-updating tasks. Study 1 shows that, whenever decision inertia conflicts with normatively optimal behavior (Bayesian updating), error rates are larger and decisions are slower. This is consistent with a dual-process view of decision inertia as an automatic process conflicting with a more rational, controlled one. We find evidence of decision inertia in both required and autonomous decisions, but the effect of inertia is more clear in the latter. Study 2 considers more complex decision situations where further conflict arises due to reinforcement processes. We find the same effects of decision inertia when reinforcement is aligned with Bayesian updating, but if the two latter processes conflict, the effects are limited to autonomous choices. Additionally, both studies show that the tendency to rely on decision inertia is positively associated with preference for consistency. PMID:26909061

  19. Decision making in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Lamb, B; Green, J S A; Vincent, C; Sevdalis, N

    2011-09-01

    Decisions in surgical oncology are increasingly being made by multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs). Although MDTs have been widely accepted as the preferred model for cancer service delivery, the process of decision making has not been well described and there is little evidence pointing to the ideal structure of an MDT. Performance in surgery has been shown to depend on non-technical skills, such as decision making, as well as patient factors and the technical skills of the healthcare team. Application of this systems approach to MDT working allows the identification of factors that affect the quality of decision making for cancer patients. In this article we review the literature on decision making in surgical oncology and by drawing from the systems approach to surgical performance we provide a framework for understanding the process of decision making in MDTs. Technical factors that affect decision making include the information about patients, robust ICT and video-conferencing equipment, a minimum dataset with expert review of radiological and pathological information, implementation and recording of the MDTs decision. Non-technical factors with an impact on decision making include attendance of team members at meetings, leadership, teamwork, open discussion, consensus on decisions and communication with patients and primary care. Optimising these factors will strengthen the decision making process and raise the quality of care for cancer patients. PMID:20719499

  20. Hospice Decision Making: Diagnosis Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Deborah P.; Meeker, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the process of decision making about hospice enrollment and identified factors that influence the timing of that decision. Methods: This study employed an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional design and was conducted using qualitative methods. In-depth in-person semistructured interviews were conducted with 36…

  1. Robust Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher A. Dieckmann, PE, CSEP-Acq

    2010-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is funded through the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy and other customers who have direct contracts with the Laboratory. The people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure at the laboratory require continual investment to maintain and improve the laboratory’s capabilities. With ever tightening federal and customer budgets, the ability to direct investments into the people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure which are most closely aligned with the laboratory’s mission and customers’ goals grows increasingly more important. The ability to justify those investment decisions based on objective criteria that can withstand political, managerial and technical criticism also becomes increasingly more important. The Systems Engineering tools of decision analysis, risk management and roadmapping, when properly applied to such problems, can provide defensible decisions.

  2. Decision making: the neuroethological turn.

    PubMed

    Pearson, John M; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Neuroeconomics applies models from economics and psychology to inform neurobiological studies of choice. This approach has revealed neural signatures of concepts like value, risk, and ambiguity, which are known to influence decision making. Such observations have led theorists to hypothesize a single, unified decision process that mediates choice behavior via a common neural currency for outcomes like food, money, or social praise. In parallel, recent neuroethological studies of decision making have focused on natural behaviors like foraging, mate choice, and social interactions. These decisions strongly impact evolutionary fitness and thus are likely to have played a key role in shaping the neural circuits that mediate decision making. This approach has revealed a suite of computational motifs that appear to be shared across a wide variety of organisms. We argue that the existence of deep homologies in the neural circuits mediating choice may have profound implications for understanding human decision making in health and disease. PMID:24908481

  3. Decision making: the neuroethological turn

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, John M.; Watson, Karli K.; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroeconomics applies models from economics and psychology to inform neurobiological studies of choice. This approach has revealed neural signatures of concepts like value, risk, and ambiguity, which are known to influence decision-making. Such observations have led theorists to hypothesize a single, unified decision process that mediates choice behavior via a common neural currency for outcomes like food, money, or social praise. In parallel, recent neuroethological studies of decision-making have focused on natural behaviors like foraging, mate choice, and social interactions. These decisions strongly impact evolutionary fitness and thus are likely to have played a key role in shaping the neural circuits that mediate decision-making. This approach has revealed a suite of computational motifs that appear to be shared across a wide variety of organisms. We argue that the existence of deep homologies in the neural circuits mediating choice may have profound implications for understanding human decision-making in health and disease. PMID:24908481

  4. Decision Making: The Underdeveloped Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Robert

    1974-01-01

    Business educators should give students specific training in a methodology which will enable them to make logical, systematic, and rational decisions. Kepner-Tregoe Analysis (KTA), a decision making model, is described and illustrated with an example of a student buying his first car. (SC)

  5. Adolescent Decision Making: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    An important developmental task during adolescence is learning to make decisions, experiencing the related positive and negative consequences, and learning from these outcomes. However, a youth's ability to make competent decisions is sometimes called into question because adolescence is also often a time of engagement in risky behaviors. This…

  6. Decision Making and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Elias J.

    1983-01-01

    A position statement is offered that clarifies the function, role, and emphasis of decision making within the field of health education, and a rationale that proposes that health decision-making efforts be limited to areas where evidence links a health behavior (i.e., smoking) to a health problem (i.e., lung cancer) is presented. (Author/CJ)

  7. Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

    2008-01-01

    Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

  8. Decision Making in the Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers, aviation, and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful In improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multi-dimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that

  9. Weather to Make a Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Julie E.; Mjelde, James W.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2006-01-01

    DECIDE is a teacher-friendly, integrated approach designed to stimulate learning by allowing students to make decisions about situations they face in their lives while using scientific weather principles. This learning unit integrates weather science, decision theory, mathematics, statistics, geography, and reading in a context of decision…

  10. Sterilization surgery - making a decision

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes be reversed, both must be considered permanent forms of birth control. When deciding if you want to have a ... other options for preventing pregnancy that are not permanent. Talk ... before making the decision to have a sterilization procedure.

  11. Aging and consumer decision making

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephanie M.; Yoon, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Research on consumer decision making and aging is especially important for fostering a better understanding of ways to maintain consumer satisfaction and high decision quality across the life span. We provide a review of extant research on the effects of normal aging on cognition and decision processes and how these age-related processes are influenced by task environment, meaningfulness of the task, and consumer expertise. We consider how research centered on these topics generates insights about changes in consumption decisions that occur with aging and identify a number of gaps and directions for future research. PMID:22360794

  12. Heuristic decision making in medicine

    PubMed Central

    Marewski, Julian N.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care. PMID:22577307

  13. Training for Aviation Decision Making: The Naturalistic Decision Making Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implications of a naturalistic decision making (NDM) perspective for training air crews to make flight-related decisions. The implications are based on two types of analyses: (a) identification of distinctive features that serve as a basis for classifying a diverse set of decision events actually encountered by flight crews, and (b) performance strategies that distinguished more from less effective crews flying full-mission simulators, as well as performance analyses from NTSB accident investigations. Six training recommendations are offered: (1) Because of the diversity of decision situations, crews need to be aware that different strategies may be appropriate for different problems; (2) Given that situation assessment is essential to making a good decision, it is important to train specific content knowledge needed to recognize critical conditions, to assess risks and available time, and to develop strategies to verify or diagnose the problem; (3) Tendencies to oversimplify problems may be overcome by training to evaluate options in terms of goals, constraints, consequences, and prevailing conditions; (4) In order to provide the time to gather information and consider options, it is essential to manage the situation, which includes managing crew workload, prioritizing tasks, contingency planning, buying time (e.g., requesting holding or vectors), and using low workload periods to prepare for high workload; (5) Evaluating resource requirements ("What do I need?") and capabilities ("'What do I have?" ) are essential to making good decisions. Using resources to meet requirements may involve the cabin crew, ATC, dispatchers, and maintenance personnel; (6) Given that decisions must often be made under high risk, time pressure, and workload, train under realistic flight conditions to promote the development of robust decision skills.

  14. A Method for Decision Making using Sustainability Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calculations aimed at representing the thought process of decision makers are common within multi-objective decision support tools. These calculations that mathematically describe preferences most often combine various utility scores (i.e., abilities to satisfy desires) with weig...

  15. Structured decision making: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.

  16. Writing as decision-making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souther, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The need to teach informational writing as a decision-making process is discussed. Situational analysis, its relationship to decisions in writing, and the need for relevant assignments are considered. Teaching students to ask the right questions is covered. The need to teach writing responsiveness is described. Three steps to get started and four teaching techniques are described. The information needs of the 'expert' and the 'manager' are contrasted.

  17. Crew decision making under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, J.

    1992-01-01

    Flight crews must make decisions and take action when systems fail or emergencies arise during flight. These situations may involve high stress. Full-missiion flight simulation studies have shown that crews differ in how effectively they cope in these circumstances, judged by operational errors and crew coordination. The present study analyzed the problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains fitting three different personality profiles. Our goal was to identify more and less effective strategies that could serve as the basis for crew selection or training. Methods: Twelve 3-member B-727 crews flew a 5-leg mission simulated flight over 1 1/2 days. Two legs included 4 abnormal events that required decisions during high workload periods. Transcripts of videotapes were analyzed to describe decision making strategies. Crew performance (errors and coordination) was judged on-line and from videotapes by check airmen. Results: Based on a median split of crew performance errors, analyses to date indicate a difference in general strategy between crews who make more or less errors. Higher performance crews showed greater situational awareness - they responded quickly to cues and interpreted them appropriately. They requested more decision relevant information and took into account more constraints. Lower performing crews showed poorer situational awareness, planning, constraint sensitivity, and coordination. The major difference between higher and lower performing crews was that poorer crews made quick decisions and then collected information to confirm their decision. Conclusion: Differences in overall crew performance were associated with differences in situational awareness, information management, and decision strategy. Captain personality profiles were associated with these differences, a finding with implications for crew selection and training.

  18. Decision making: rational or hedonic?

    PubMed Central

    Cabanac, Michel; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments studied the hedonicity of decision making. Participants rated their pleasure/displeasure while reading item-sentences describing political and social problems followed by different decisions (Questionnaire 1). Questionnaire 2 was multiple-choice, grouping the items from Questionnaire 1. In Experiment 1, participants answered Questionnaire 2 rapidly or slowly. Both groups selected what they had rated as pleasant, but the 'leisurely' group maximized pleasure less. In Experiment 2, participants selected the most rational responses. The selected behaviors were pleasant but less than spontaneous behaviors. In Experiment 3, Questionnaire 2 was presented once with items grouped by theme, and once with items shuffled. Participants maximized the pleasure of their decisions, but the items selected on Questionnaires 2 were different when presented in different order. All groups maximized pleasure equally in their decisions. These results support that decisions are made predominantly in the hedonic dimension of consciousness. PMID:17848195

  19. Models of Affective Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Caroline J.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Li, Xinyi; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Sharot, Tali

    2016-01-01

    Intuitively, how you feel about potential outcomes will determine your decisions. Indeed, an implicit assumption in one of the most influential theories in psychology, prospect theory, is that feelings govern choice. Surprisingly, however, very little is known about the rules by which feelings are transformed into decisions. Here, we specified a computational model that used feelings to predict choices. We found that this model predicted choice better than existing value-based models, showing a unique contribution of feelings to decisions, over and above value. Similar to the value function in prospect theory, our feeling function showed diminished sensitivity to outcomes as value increased. However, loss aversion in choice was explained by an asymmetry in how feelings about losses and gains were weighted when making a decision, not by an asymmetry in the feelings themselves. The results provide new insights into how feelings are utilized to reach a decision. PMID:27071751

  20. Pharmacoeconomics and formulary decision making.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, L A

    1996-01-01

    Pharmacoeconomic assessment of formulary actions has become increasingly common in local, national, and international formulary decision making. Tactics for managing medication use include formulary management and drug policies. Pharmacoeconomic data can provide support for these formulary decisions. For example, pharmacoeconomic data can support the inclusion or exclusion of a drug on or from the formulary and support practice guidelines that promote the most cost-effective or appropriate utilisation of pharmaceutical products. Various strategies can be used to incorporate pharmacoeconomics into formulary decision making. These include using published pharmacoeconomic studies and economic modelling techniques, and conducting local pharmacoeconomic research. Criteria for evaluating the pharmacoeconomic literature, suggestions for employing economic models, and suggested guidelines for conducting pharmacoeconomic projects are discussed. Although most formularies are viewed as cost-containment tools, formularies should not be a list of the 'cheapest' alternatives. Today's formulary should contain agents that optimise therapeutic outcomes while controlling cost. Pharmacoeconomic assessments of formulary decisions help to ensure that the agents promoted by our formularies yield the highest outcome per dollar spent. A discussion of the process for formulary action in a US hospital, the influence of pharmacoeconomics on US formularies, and strategies for incorporating pharmacoeconomics into formulary decision making are presented in this paper. PMID:10160112

  1. Teaching Rational Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolever, Roberts

    1978-01-01

    Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)

  2. Participation in Educational Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Deborah D.

    1979-01-01

    The author suggests that teachers should be involved in the decision making process and that the administrator should structure meetings to generate such participation. Discussed are the National Group Technique (NGT) and the Delphi Technique as means of facilitating pooled judgments. (KC)

  3. Enhanced decision making through neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Jung, TP; Makeig, Scott

    2012-06-01

    We propose to enhance the decision making of pilot, co-pilot teams, over a range of vehicle platforms, with the aid of neuroscience. The goal is to optimize this collaborative decision making interplay in time-critical, stressful situations. We will research and measure human facial expressions, personality typing, and brainwave measurements to help answer questions related to optimum decision-making in group situations. Further, we propose to examine the nature of intuition in this decision making process. The brainwave measurements will be facilitated by a University of California, San Diego (UCSD) developed wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) sensing cap. We propose to measure brainwaves covering the whole head area with an electrode density of N=256, and yet keep within the limiting wireless bandwidth capability of m=32 readouts. This is possible because solving Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and finding the hidden brainwave sources allow us to concentrate selective measurements with an organized sparse source -->s sensing matrix [Φs], rather than the traditional purely random compressive sensing (CS) matrix[Φ].

  4. Curriculum Decision Making in TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeath, Clare

    A study examined the decision-making stage in the curriculum development process in vocational programs throughout Australia. Data were collected from interviews from a network of persons currently involved in curriculum development and case studies of the curriculum development process in action at 16 vocational schools throughout Australia.…

  5. Unplanned Pregnancy: Making a Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, William J.; Brick, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    This lesson helps participants examine their own attitudes and feelings about being faced with an unplanned pregnancy and understand the difficult choices involved when women need to make a decision about unplanned pregnancy. The lesson uses brainstorming, discussion, an examination of "case studies," and role-playing to help participants develop…

  6. Making a decision to forgive.

    PubMed

    Davis, Don E; Hook, Joshua N; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Rice, Kenneth G; Worthington, Everett L

    2015-04-01

    Prominent models and interventions designed to promote forgiveness have distinguished one's decision to forgive from achieving forgiveness as an end state, but because of a lack of a strong measure, there is a weak research base on making a decision to forgive. Thus, in three studies, the authors developed the Decision to Forgive Scale (DTFS) and examined evidence for its reliability and construct validity. The article focused on distinguishing making a decision to forgive from achieved level of forgiveness. Scores on the DTFS showed evidence of reliability, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from .92 to .94, and a 1-week temporal stability coefficient of .68. Using several strategies, the authors demonstrated that the DTFS is empirically distinct from the Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations scale (TRIM; McCullough et al., 1998). Namely, a 3-factor confirmatory factor analysis that included the DTFS and the 2 TRIM subscales showed excellent fit, suggesting these instruments assess 3 different constructs. The DTFS was only moderately related to the TRIM subscales, was more strongly related to stage of change than the TRIM, and predicted subsequent TRIM scores in a cross-lagged model. Finally, although decisions to forgive generally suggested greater forgiveness, these constructs interacted to predict existential distress. Namely, as decisional forgiveness increased, revenge was more strongly related to existential distress. Overall, the DTFS shows considerable promise for further clinical and basic research applications. PMID:25621589

  7. Reasoning, decision making and rationality.

    PubMed

    Evans, J S; Over, D E; Manktelow, K I

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that reasoning in the real world supports decision making and is aimed at the achievement of goals. A distinction is developed between two notions of rationality: rationality which is reasoning in such a way as to achieve one's goals--within cognitive constraints--and rationality which is reasoning by a process of logic. This dichotomy is related to the philosophical distinction between practical and theoretical reasoning. It is argued that logicality (rationality) does not provide a good basis for rationality and some psychological research on deductive reasoning is re-examined in this light. First, we review belief bias effects in syllogistic reasoning, and argue that the phenomena do not support the interpretations of irrationality that are often placed upon them. Second, we review and discuss recent studies of deontic reasoning in the Wason selection task, which demonstrate the decision making, and rational nature of reasoning in realistic contexts. The final section of the paper examines contemporary decision theory and shows how it fails, in comparable manner to formal logic, to provide an adequate model for assessing the rationality of human reasoning and decision making. PMID:8287673

  8. Decision making in xia2.

    PubMed

    Winter, Graeme; Lobley, Carina M C; Prince, Stephen M

    2013-07-01

    xia2 is an expert system for the automated reduction of macromolecular crystallography (MX) data employing well trusted existing software. The system can process a full MX data set consisting of one or more sequences of images at one or more wavelengths from images to structure-factor amplitudes with no user input. To achieve this many decisions are made, the rationale for which is described here. In addition, it is critical to support the testing of hypotheses and to allow feedback of results from later stages in the analysis to earlier points where decisions were made: the flexible framework employed by xia2 to support this feedback is summarized here. While the decision-making protocols described here were developed for xia2, they are equally applicable to interactive data reduction. PMID:23793152

  9. An ABC for decision making.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. PMID:25987751

  10. An ABC for decision making*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. PMID:25987751

  11. Group performance and decision making.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Norbert L; Tindale, R Scott

    2004-01-01

    Theory and research on small group performance and decision making is reviewed. Recent trends in group performance research have found that process gains as well as losses are possible, and both are frequently explained by situational and procedural contexts that differentially affect motivation and resource coordination. Research has continued on classic topics (e.g., brainstorming, group goal setting, stress, and group performance) and relatively new areas (e.g., collective induction). Group decision making research has focused on preference combination for continuous response distributions and group information processing. New approaches (e.g., group-level signal detection) and traditional topics (e.g., groupthink) are discussed. New directions, such as nonlinear dynamic systems, evolutionary adaptation, and technological advances, should keep small group research vigorous well into the future. PMID:14744229

  12. Wildfire Decision Making Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Decisions relating to wildfire management are subject to multiple sources of uncertainty, and are made by a broad range of individuals, across a multitude of environmental and socioeconomic contexts. In this presentation I will review progress towards identification and characterization of uncertainties and how this information can support wildfire decision-making. First, I will review a typology of uncertainties common to wildfire management, highlighting some of the more salient sources of uncertainty and how they present challenges to assessing wildfire risk. This discussion will cover the expanding role of burn probability modeling, approaches for characterizing fire effects, and the role of multi-criteria decision analysis, and will provide illustrative examples of integrated wildfire risk assessment across a variety of planning scales. Second, I will describe a related uncertainty typology that focuses on the human dimensions of wildfire management, specifically addressing how social, psychological, and institutional factors may impair cost-effective risk mitigation. This discussion will encompass decision processes before, during, and after fire events, with a specific focus on active management of complex wildfire incidents. An improved ability to characterize uncertainties faced in wildfire management could lead to improved delivery of decision support, targeted communication strategies, and ultimately to improved wildfire management outcomes.

  13. Neuroethology of Decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Geoffrey K.; Watson, Karli K.; Pearson, John; Platt, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    A neuroethological approach to decision-making considers the effect of evolutionary pressures on neural circuits mediating choice. In this view, decision systems are expected to enhance fitness with respect to the local environment, and particularly efficient solutions to specific problems should be conserved, expanded, and repurposed to solve other problems. Here, we discuss basic prerequisites for a variety of decision systems from this viewpoint. We focus on two of the best-studied and most widely represented decision problems. First, we examine patch leaving, a prototype of environmentally based switching between action patterns. Second, we consider social information seeking, a process resembling foraging with search costs. We argue that while the specific neural solutions to these problems sometimes differ across species, both the problems themselves and the algorithms instantiated by biological hardware are repeated widely throughout nature. The behavioral and mathematical study of ubiquitous decision processes like patch leaving and social information seeking thus provides a powerful new approach to uncovering the fundamental design structure of nervous systems. PMID:22902613

  14. Improved multi-objective ant colony optimization algorithm and its application in complex reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinqing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Huijie; Zhang, Qing

    2013-09-01

    The problem of fault reasoning has aroused great concern in scientific and engineering fields. However, fault investigation and reasoning of complex system is not a simple reasoning decision-making problem. It has become a typical multi-constraint and multi-objective reticulate optimization decision-making problem under many influencing factors and constraints. So far, little research has been carried out in this field. This paper transforms the fault reasoning problem of complex system into a paths-searching problem starting from known symptoms to fault causes. Three optimization objectives are considered simultaneously: maximum probability of average fault, maximum average importance, and minimum average complexity of test. Under the constraints of both known symptoms and the causal relationship among different components, a multi-objective optimization mathematical model is set up, taking minimizing cost of fault reasoning as the target function. Since the problem is non-deterministic polynomial-hard(NP-hard), a modified multi-objective ant colony algorithm is proposed, in which a reachability matrix is set up to constrain the feasible search nodes of the ants and a new pseudo-random-proportional rule and a pheromone adjustment mechinism are constructed to balance conflicts between the optimization objectives. At last, a Pareto optimal set is acquired. Evaluation functions based on validity and tendency of reasoning paths are defined to optimize noninferior set, through which the final fault causes can be identified according to decision-making demands, thus realize fault reasoning of the multi-constraint and multi-objective complex system. Reasoning results demonstrate that the improved multi-objective ant colony optimization(IMACO) can realize reasoning and locating fault positions precisely by solving the multi-objective fault diagnosis model, which provides a new method to solve the problem of multi-constraint and multi-objective fault diagnosis and

  15. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  16. [Decision-making and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Adida, M; Maurel, M; Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Lazerges, P; Da Fonseca, D; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Abnormalities involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have long been postulated to underpin the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Investigations of PFC integrity have focused mainly on the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and abnormalities in this region have been extensively documented. However, defects in schizophrenia may extend to other prefrontal regions, including the ventromedial PFC (VMPFC), and evidence of VMPFC abnormalities comes from neuropathological, structural and functional studies. Patients with acquired brain injury to the VMPFC display profound disruption of social behaviour and poor judgment in their personal lives. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was developed to assess decision-making in these neurological cases : it presents a series of 100 choices from four card decks that differ in the distribution of rewarding and punishing outcomes. Whilst healthy volunteers gradually develop a preference for the two "safe" decks over the course of the task, patients with VMPFC lesions maintain a preference for the two "risky" decks which are associated with high reinforcement in the short term, but significant long-term debt. Interestingly, damage to VMPFC may cause both poor performance on the IGT and lack of insight concerning the acquired personality modification. Recently, our group reported a trait-related decisionmaking impairment in the three phases of bipolar disorder. In a PET study, VMPFC dysfunction was shown in bipolar manic patients impaired on a decision-making task and an association between decision-making cognition and lack of insight was described in mania. A quantitative association between grey matter volume of VMPFC and memory impairment was previously reported in schizophrenia. Research suggests that lack of insight is a prevalent feature in schizophrenia patients, like auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, and disorganized speech and thinking. Because schizophrenia is associated with significant social or occupational

  17. Simulation of human decision making

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Speed, Ann E.; Jordan, Sabina E.; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2008-05-06

    A method for computer emulation of human decision making defines a plurality of concepts related to a domain and a plurality of situations related to the domain, where each situation is a combination of at least two of the concepts. Each concept and situation is represented in the computer as an oscillator output, and each situation and concept oscillator output is distinguishable from all other oscillator outputs. Information is input to the computer representative of detected concepts, and the computer compares the detected concepts with the stored situations to determine if a situation has occurred.

  18. Decision Technology Systems: A Vehicle to Consolidate Decision Making Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgionne, Guisseppi A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of management decision making and the support needed to manage successfully highlights a Decision Technology System (DTS) that integrates other information systems. Topics discussed include computer information systems (CISs); knowledge gateways; the decision-making process; decision support systems (DSS); expert systems; and facility…

  19. [Decision making in cannabis users].

    PubMed

    Alameda Bailén, Jose Ramón; Paíno Quesada, Susana; Mogedas Valladares, Ana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have shown that chronic cannabis users have cognitive impairments, including decision-making process. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the process, through the somatic marker hypothesis in a sample of 41 cannabis users compared with a control group of equal size, and to analyze the influence of age, sex, education level, age of onset and amount of daily consumption. In order to do that, the software "Cartas" (similar to the Iowa Gambling Task), was used, implementing its two versions: normal and reverse. The results show significant differences between cannabis users and control group in the normal and reverse task execution. By block analysis, the control group obtained higher scores in the normal task execution, however, in the reverse task, the differences between groups are present in the initial task execution but not final task execution. None of the analyzed variables (age, sex ...) are significantly related to task performance. These results suggest the existence of alterations in the decision making process of consumers cannabis, which may relate to the difficulty in generating somatic markers, and not for insensitivity punishments insensitivity. PMID:22648319

  20. Decision making in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Labrecque, Michel; Ratté, Stéphane; Frémont, Pierre; Cauchon, Michel; Ouellet, Jérôme; Hogg, William; McGowan, Jessie; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Njoya, Merlin; Légaré, France

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare the ability of users of 2 medical search engines, InfoClinique and the Trip database, to provide correct answers to clinical questions and to explore the perceived effects of the tools on the clinical decision-making process. Design Randomized trial. Setting Three family medicine units of the family medicine program of the Faculty of Medicine at Laval University in Quebec city, Que. Participants Fifteen second-year family medicine residents. Intervention Residents generated 30 structured questions about therapy or preventive treatment (2 questions per resident) based on clinical encounters. Using an Internet platform designed for the trial, each resident answered 20 of these questions (their own 2, plus 18 of the questions formulated by other residents, selected randomly) before and after searching for information with 1 of the 2 search engines. For each question, 5 residents were randomly assigned to begin their search with InfoClinique and 5 with the Trip database. Main outcome measures The ability of residents to provide correct answers to clinical questions using the search engines, as determined by third-party evaluation. After answering each question, participants completed a questionnaire to assess their perception of the engine’s effect on the decision-making process in clinical practice. Results Of 300 possible pairs of answers (1 answer before and 1 after the initial search), 254 (85%) were produced by 14 residents. Of these, 132 (52%) and 122 (48%) pairs of answers concerned questions that had been assigned an initial search with InfoClinique and the Trip database, respectively. Both engines produced an important and similar absolute increase in the proportion of correct answers after searching (26% to 62% for InfoClinique, for an increase of 36%; 24% to 63% for the Trip database, for an increase of 39%; P = .68). For all 30 clinical questions, at least 1 resident produced the correct answer after searching with either

  1. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  2. Facilitating Consensual Labor-Management Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Grant T.

    Facilitating consensual labor-management decision making may require interventions during, after, and before meetings. These interventions--including persuasion and mediation--may affect both the internal and the external processes of decision making. Communicative actions may help both the internal and the external decision making processes of a…

  3. Values in Decision Making: The INVOLVE Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfrink, Victoria L.; Coldwell, LuAnn Linson

    1993-01-01

    Describes the function of values and participatory decision making within the student affairs profession. Introduces a process model as a means of operationalizing values in the decision-making process and uses case studies to illustrate how the model can be used to improve student affairs professionals' decision making. (RJM)

  4. Changing Times, Complex Decisions: Presidential Values and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornak, Anne M.; Garza Mitchell, Regina L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to delve more deeply into the thought processes of the key decision makers at community colleges and understand how they make decisions. Specifically, this article focuses on the role of the community college president's personal values in decision making. Method: We conducted interviews with 13…

  5. The Self in Decision Making and Decision Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Lee Roy; Mitchell, Terence R.

    Since the early 1950's the principal prescriptive model in the psychological study of decision making has been maximization of Subjective Expected Utility (SEU). This SEU maximization has come to be regarded as a description of how people go about making decisions. However, while observed decision processes sometimes resemble the SEU model,…

  6. Multi-Objective Bidding Strategy for Genco Using Non-Dominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksinchai, Apinat; Boonchuay, Chanwit; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2010-06-01

    This paper proposes a multi-objective bidding strategy for a generation company (GenCo) in uniform price spot market using non-dominated sorting particle swarm optimization (NSPSO). Instead of using a tradeoff technique, NSPSO is introduced to solve the multi-objective strategic bidding problem considering expected profit maximization and risk (profit variation) minimization. Monte Carlo simulation is employed to simulate rivals' bidding behavior. Test results indicate that the proposed approach can provide the efficient non-dominated solution front effectively. In addition, it can be used as a decision making tool for a GenCo compromising between expected profit and price risk in spot market.

  7. Application of fuzzy goal programming approach to multi-objective linear fractional inventory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, Pavan

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a model and solution approach for a multi-item inventory problem without shortages. The proposed model is formulated as a fractional multi-objective optimisation problem along with three constraints: budget constraint, space constraint and budgetary constraint on ordering cost of each item. The proposed inventory model becomes a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem in fuzzy environment. This model is solved by multi-objective fuzzy goal programming (MOFGP) approach. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed model.

  8. Modelling decision-making by pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Nicholas J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Our scientific goal is to understand the process of human decision-making. Specifically, a model of human decision-making in piloting modern commercial aircraft which prescribes optimal behavior, and against which we can measure human sub-optimality is sought. This model should help us understand such diverse aspects of piloting as strategic decision-making, and the implicit decisions involved in attention allocation. Our engineering goal is to provide design specifications for (1) better computer-based decision-aids, and (2) better training programs for the human pilot (or human decision-maker, DM).

  9. Decision-Making Theories and Career Assessment: A Psychometric Evaluation of the Decision Making Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Erin E.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2004-01-01

    To address criticisms that the empirical literature on assessment of career decision making has tended to lack a theoretical base, the present study explored the relevance of a general theory of decision making to career decision making by assessing the psychometric properties of the Decision Making Inventory (DMI), designed to measure Johnson's…

  10. Multi-Objective Trajectory Optimization by a Hierarchical Gradient Algorithm with Fuzzy Decision Logic —Application to Slew Maneuver Problems of a Flexible Space Structure—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hirohisa; Nakajima, Nobuyuki

    The rest-to-rest maneuver problem of a flexible space structure is a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP) and is solved by some gradient methods. If TPBVP is strongly restricted by constraints, TBVP becomes an ill-defined problem, and the solution meeting all constraints cannot be obtained. However, reasonable suboptimal solutions are often needed since real plant systems are necessary to be controlled. In order to obtain such suboptimal solutions, we have developed a modified version of the hierarchy gradient method by installing fuzzy decision logic. Constraints are classified into non-fuzzy constraints and fuzzy constraints according to their priorities. Fuzzy constraints having a trade-off relationship with each other are compromised reasonably by fuzzy decision logic. The usefulness of the proposed method is numerically and experimentally verified by applying it to the rest-to-rest slew maneuver problem of a flexible space structure, where fuzzy constraints are final time, sensitivity of residual vibration energy with respect to the structure frequency uncertainty and maximum bending moment at the root of the flexible appendage.

  11. Factors influencing dental decision making.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1988-01-01

    In clinical decision making, dentists routinely choose between alternative treatments such as crown vs amalgam/composite buildup, root canal vs extraction, fixed bridge vs removable partial denture, and prophylaxis vs subgingival curettage or periodontal scaling. A number of technical and patient factors can influence dentists' choice of treatment in these situations; however, little is known about their relative importance. To address this issue, a list of technical (e.g., periodontal status and caries rate) and patient (e.g., cost and patient preference) factors possibly influencing choice of treatment was developed for each pair of services. Responding to a mail questionnaire, 156 general dentists in Washington State listed the top three factors influencing their choice of service in each pair. Results revealed that dentists took different factors into account in choosing among alternative treatments. Technical factors dominated over patient concerns; only about 33 percent of the dentists considered patient factors important in choosing alternative therapies. The latter group was less preventively oriented, were solo practitioners, worked longer hours, and had lower prices. Results suggest patients may have little influence on prescriptions of therapy among experienced general dentists. PMID:3045303

  12. Decision-Making Strategies for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Janis T.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    2010-01-01

    College students' decision making is often less than optimal and sometimes leads to negative consequences. The effectiveness of two strategies for improving student decision making--node-link mapping and social perspective taking (SPT)--are examined. Participants using SPT were significantly better able to evaluate decision options and develop…

  13. Decision Making and Confidence Given Uncertain Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael D.; Dry, Matthew J.

    2006-01-01

    We study human decision making in a simple forced-choice task that manipulates the frequency and accuracy of available information. Empirically, we find that people make decisions consistent with the advice provided, but that their subjective confidence in their decisions shows 2 interesting properties. First, people's confidence does not depend…

  14. Assessing Adolescent Decision-Making Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral decision research offers a general approach to studying cognitive aspects of decision making, as well as a platform for studying their interplay with social and affective processes. Applied to any decision, behavioral decision research involves three interrelated tasks: (a) "normative" analysis, identifying the expected impacts of…

  15. The art of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Thomas R

    2003-06-01

    As important as sound decision-making is, many executives neglect to utilize any formal decisionmaking process. As many executives know, making the wrong decision can be disastrous, if not career ending. In today's high-pressure, complex, and challenging healthcare environment, it makes sense to follow a tried and true process for making decisions. The author examines the traditional method of problem identification, setting objectives, listing alternatives and consequences, and selecting the best solution in the decision-making process as well as new research in this field. PMID:12796632

  16. Decision making and prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Knight, Sara J

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the challenges that men encounter in making decisions about prostate cancer screening, including complex affective and cognitive factors and controversies in the interpretation of the evidence on prostate cancer screening. Shared decision making involving patient decision aids are discussed as approaches that can be used to improve the quality of prostate cancer screening decisions, including a close alignment between a man's values, goals, and preferences and his choice about screening. PMID:24725488

  17. Quality decision making in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, L G; Anderberg, C; Ipsen, R; Persson, E; Andersson, G

    1998-01-01

    A patient approaching the final stage of his renal disease is faced with many difficult questions. Should he opt for a transplant or start on dialysis? In the case of dialysis, can he manage his treatment at home or will he need to be cared for in a clinic? Should be choose peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis? Is the freedom of being independent from a machine, given by CAPD, as valuable as the freedom of having days without treatment, given by HD? The issues are complex and do not have a given answer. To make the proper decisions about his treatment the patient needs extensive information and support from the caregivers. Likewise, the caregivers need to know the patient well in order to give appropriate advice. In this exchange of information, the renal nurse has a very important role. Some patients may need to be dialysed in a hospital but most can get an equally good or even better dialysis treatment in a less stressful environment. A high degree of self-care is preferred by people who value independence and freedom of movement. Self-care also improves the self-confidence and increases the chances of maintaining employment and a rich social life. Self-care could mean both PD and HD, sometimes with the assistance of a spouse or a nurse. But a certain degree of self-care can also be maintained in limited-care centres and satellites, where the presence of nursing staff gives the feeling of security. For everybody involved, not least the purchasers of health care, it is desirable to keep the patients out of the costly hospital environment for as long as possible. PMID:10222906

  18. Shared Problem Models and Crew Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of crew decision making to aviation safety has been well established through NTSB accident analyses: Crew judgment and decision making have been cited as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents in commercial air transport, general aviation, and military aviation. Yet the bulk of research on decision making has not proven helpful in improving the quality of decisions in the cockpit. One reason is that traditional analytic decision models are inappropriate to the dynamic complex nature of cockpit decision making and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions. A new model of dynamic naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove more useful for training or aiding cockpit decision making. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulation and National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation and reflect the crew's metacognitive skill. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relation between communication that serves to build performance. Implications of these findings for crew training will be discussed.

  19. Decision story strategy: a practical approach for teaching decision making.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Hamrick, M H; Anspaugh, D J

    1981-12-01

    Teachers are usually very enthusiastic in their evaluations of decision stories. Decision Story Strategies offer a change of pace, promote student involvement and stimulate creative thinking, problem solving and everpresent creative teaching-learning opportunities. The real-life problems presented within the structure of a decision story provide meaningful learning opportunities for students. Students begin to think in a broader perspective when considering other points of view and information sources. The Decision Story Strategy used with the Decision-Making Model provides a powerful tool for health educators to develop skills for making and evaluating decisions in an interesting and meaningful context. It may not be a panacea for all health educators, but is an effective strategy for the teacher concerned with developing independent decision makers. Most importantly, students are provided opportunities to solve their present problems as well as develop decision-making skills for the future. PMID:6916032

  20. Surrogate decision making in neurocritical care.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Eric E; Zahuranec, Darin B

    2012-06-01

    Patients with critical neurologic illness typically have impaired capacity to make their own medical decisions. In these cases, neurologists need to make medical decisions based on advance directives (such as a living will) or the decisions of a surrogate. A hypothetical case of a 60-year-old man with an intracerebral hemorrhage is used to highlight some of the difficulties that can occur when attempting to apply general statements made in a living will to a specific medical treatment decision. The ethical and legal issues surrounding surrogate decision making as they apply to acute critical neurologic disease are discussed, along with suggestions for how to resolve potential disagreements. PMID:22810254

  1. Making the Right Investment Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1984-01-01

    Issues in college divestiture of investments based on moral considerations, such as South Africa's apartheid system, are outlined. A governing board's options, role, and responsibility to the institution in the face of such decisions are discussed. (MSE)

  2. Computer Graphics and Administrative Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Reduction in prices now makes it possible for almost any institution to use computer graphics for administrative decision making and research. Current and potential uses of computer graphics in these two areas are discussed. (JN)

  3. Clinical Decision Making of Rural Novice Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seright, Teresa J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop substantive theory regarding decision making by the novice nurse in a rural hospital setting. Interviews were guided by the following research questions: What cues were used by novice rural registered nurses in order to make clinical decisions? What were the sources of feedback which influenced subsequent…

  4. Decision Making: Rational, Nonrational, and Irrational.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the current state of knowledge about human decision-making and problem-solving processes, explaining recent developments and their implications for management and management training. Rational goal-setting is the key to effective decision making and accomplishment. Bounded rationality is a realistic orientation, because the world is too…

  5. Decision Making in Educational Settings. Fastback 211.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Charles S.

    This booklet reviews decision-making, an important part of administrative processes, from the perspective of school teachers and other educators. The two most commonly used processes are the rational decision-making process (identify the problem, evaluate the problem, collect information, identify alternative solutions, select and implement…

  6. Making Insulation Decisions through Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanik, H. Bahadir; Memis, Yasin

    2014-01-01

    Engaging students in studies about conservation and sustainability can support their understanding of making environmental conscious decisions to conserve Earth. This article aims to contribute these efforts and direct students' attention to how they can use mathematics to make environmental decisions. Contributors to iSTEM: Integrating…

  7. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630

  8. Ethical Decision Making and Effective Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaucher, Ellie

    2010-01-01

    The problem. Educational leaders face challenges in the 21st century, make numerous decisions daily, and have the choice to make decisions based on ethics. Educational leaders may follow a corporate model regarding expenses and revenues while ignoring the best interests of children and their academic achievement. The alternative to the corporate…

  9. Somatic markers, working memory, and decision making.

    PubMed

    Hinson, John M; Jameson, Tina L; Whitney, Paul

    2002-12-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis formulated by Damasio (e.g., 1994; Damasio, Tranel, & Damasio, 1991) argues that affective reactions ordinarily guide and simplify decision making. Although originally intended to explain decision-making deficits in people with specific frontal lobe damage, the hypothesis also applies to decision-making problems in populations without brain injury. Subsequently, the gambling task was developed by Bechara (Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994) as a diagnostic test of decision-making deficit in neurological populations. More recently, the gambling task has been used to explore implications of the somatic marker hypothesis, as well as to study suboptimal decision making in a variety of domains. We examined relations among gambling task decision making, working memory (WM) load, and somatic markers in a modified version of the gambling task. Increased WM load produced by secondary tasks led to poorer gambling performance. Declines in gambling performance were associated with the absence of the affective reactions that anticipate choice outcomes and guide future decision making. Our experiments provide evidence that WM processes contribute to the development of somatic markers. If WM functioning is taxed, somatic markers may not develop, and decision making may thereby suffer. PMID:12641178

  10. Transformational Leadership & Decision Making in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Robert E.; Balch, Bradley V.

    2005-01-01

    It is essential for every school leader to possess the savvy to effect positive change, raise achievement levels, and foster a positive school climate. Now it seems that the struggle for school leaders to make productive decisions has become clouded with ever-growing uncertainty and skepticism. "Transformational Leadership & Decision Making in…

  11. Reading and Consumer Decision Making Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Michaeleen P.; Laughlin, Margaret A.

    Teachers at all grade levels need to recognize the importance of instruction in consumer reading and decision making skills. The definitions and prerequisites of a literate consumer underscore the importance of reading and reasoning skills development for making effective decisions. Consumer educators must also recognize that economic…

  12. Decision Making: New Paradigm for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Charles E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Defines education's new paradigm as schooling based on decision making, the critical thinking skills serving it, and the knowledge base supporting it. Outlines a model decision-making process using a hypothetical breakfast problem; a late riser chooses goals, generates ideas, develops an action plan, and implements and evaluates it. (4 references)…

  13. A Multi-object Exoplanet Detecting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.

    2011-05-01

    2010. A related spectrum reduction program and the instrumental stability were tested by obtaining some multi-object interference spectrum. Thirdly, studying the parameter optimization of fixed-delay Michelson interferometer is helpful to increase its inner thermal stability and reduce the external environmental requirement. Referring to Wide-angle Michelson Interferometer successfully used in Upper Atmospheric Wind field, a glass pair selecting scheme is given. By choosing a suitable glass pair of interference arms, the RV error can be stable as several hundred m\\cdots^{-1}\\cdot{dg}C^{-1}. Therefore, this work is helpful to deeply study EDI technique and speed up the development of multi-object exoplanet survey system. LAMOST will make a greater contribution to astronomy when the combination between its spectrographs and EDI technique comes true.

  14. The semantic side of decision making.

    PubMed

    Medin, D L; Schwartz, H C; Blok, S V; Birnbaum, L A

    1999-12-01

    The research reported in this paper follows the perspective that decision making is a meaningful act that conveys information. Furthermore, the potential meanings associated with decision options may affect the decisions themselves. This idea is examined in the contexts of compensation, donation, and exchange. In general, judgments were relation dependent and meaning dependent. Furthermore, the results show nonmonotonicities and limited substitutability in a pattern that challenges straightforward ways of mapping decisions onto a common currency of utility. PMID:10682198

  15. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448

  16. The Relations between Decision Making in Social Relationships and Decision Making Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Enver

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this paper aimed to examine the relationships between decisiveness in social relationships, and the decision-making styles of a group of university students and to investigate the contributions of decision-making styles in predicting decisiveness in social relationship (conflict resolution, social relationship selection…

  17. Decomposition-Based Decision Making for Aerospace Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Mavris, DImitri N.

    2005-01-01

    Most practical engineering systems design problems have multiple and conflicting objectives. Furthermore, the satisfactory attainment level for each objective ( requirement ) is likely uncertain early in the design process. Systems with long design cycle times will exhibit more of this uncertainty throughout the design process. This is further complicated if the system is expected to perform for a relatively long period of time, as now it will need to grow as new requirements are identified and new technologies are introduced. These points identify a need for a systems design technique that enables decision making amongst multiple objectives in the presence of uncertainty. Traditional design techniques deal with a single objective or a small number of objectives that are often aggregates of the overarching goals sought through the generation of a new system. Other requirements, although uncertain, are viewed as static constraints to this single or multiple objective optimization problem. With either of these formulations, enabling tradeoffs between the requirements, objectives, or combinations thereof is a slow, serial process that becomes increasingly complex as more criteria are added. This research proposal outlines a technique that attempts to address these and other idiosyncrasies associated with modern aerospace systems design. The proposed formulation first recasts systems design into a multiple criteria decision making problem. The now multiple objectives are decomposed to discover the critical characteristics of the objective space. Tradeoffs between the objectives are considered amongst these critical characteristics by comparison to a probabilistic ideal tradeoff solution. The proposed formulation represents a radical departure from traditional methods. A pitfall of this technique is in the validation of the solution: in a multi-objective sense, how can a decision maker justify a choice between non-dominated alternatives? A series of examples help the

  18. Smoking: Making the risky decision

    SciTech Connect

    Viscusi, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    This book approaches the smoking debate from a new angle. The thrust of the study was to determine if smokers are cognizant of the risks connected with smoking, and if so, how these risk beliefs influence the decision to smoke. The study evaluates the government's anti-smoking policies and recommends changes to these policies. Viscusi does not address the actual health risks of smoking independent of risk perception and subsequent behavioral data; the US Surgeon General's smoking risk assessments are acknowledged at face vale.

  19. Gender and internet consumers' decision-making.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chyan; Wu, Chia-Chun

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide managers of shopping websites information regarding consumer purchasing decisions based on the Consumer Styles Inventory (CSI). According to the CSI, one can capture what decision-making styles online shoppers use. Furthermore, this research also discusses the gender differences among online shoppers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to understand the decision-making styles and discriminant analysis was used to distinguish the differences between female and male shoppers. The result shows that there are differences in purchasing decisions between online female and male Internet users. PMID:17305453

  20. Intergroup Conflict and Rational Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A.; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict –associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)– has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making. PMID:25461384

  1. Adolescent women's contraceptive decision making.

    PubMed

    Weisman, C S; Plichta, S; Nathanson, C A; Chase, G A; Ensminger, M E; Robinson, J C

    1991-06-01

    A modified rational decision model incorporating salient events and social influences (particularly from sexual partners) is used to analyze adolescent women's consistent use of oral contraceptives (OCs) over a six-month period. Data are taken from a panel study of 308 clients of an inner-city family planning clinic. Expected OC use was computed for each subject on the basis of subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, and is found in multivariate analyses to be a significant predictor of actual OC use. In addition, variables representing baseline and follow-up partner influences, the salience of pregnancy for the subject, and positive side effects of OCs during the first months of use are found to predict OC use. Partner's support of OC use during follow-up and positive side effects of OCs are found to predict OC use among subjects for whom OC use was not the expected decision according to baseline SEU. Implications of the findings for models of adolescents' contraceptive behavior and for clinicians are discussed. PMID:1861049

  2. Multi-objective optimization for deepwater dynamic umbilical installation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, HeZhen; Wang, AiJun; Li, HuaJun

    2012-08-01

    We suggest a method of multi-objective optimization based on approximation model for dynamic umbilical installation. The optimization aims to find out the most cost effective size, quantity and location of buoyancy modules for umbilical installation while maintaining structural safety. The approximation model is constructed by the design of experiment (DOE) sampling and is utilized to solve the problem of time-consuming analyses. The non-linear dynamic analyses considering environmental loadings are executed on these sample points from DOE. Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) is employed to obtain the Pareto solution set through an evolutionary optimization process. Intuitionist fuzzy set theory is applied for selecting the best compromise solution from Pareto set. The optimization results indicate this optimization strategy with approximation model and multiple attribute decision-making method is valid, and provide the optimal deployment method for deepwater dynamic umbilical buoyancy modules.

  3. Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, C. A.; Crimmins, M.; Ferguson, D. B.; Garfin, G. M.; Scott, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    As society is confronted with population growth, limited resources, and the impacts of climate variability and change, it is vital that institutions of higher education promote the development of professionals who can work with decision-makers to incorporate scientific information into environmental planning and management. Skills for the communication of science are essential, but equally important is the ability to understand decision-making contexts and engage with resource managers and policy makers. It is increasingly being recognized that people who understand the linkages between science and decision making are crucial if science is to better support planning and policy. A new graduate-level seminar, "Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making," is a core course for a new post-baccalaureate certificate program, Connecting Environmental Science and Decision Making at the University of Arizona. The goal of the course is to provide students with a basic understanding of the dynamics between scientists and decision makers that result in scientific information being incorporated into environmental planning, policy, and management decisions. Through readings from the environmental and social sciences, policy, and planning literature, the course explores concepts including scientific information supply and demand, boundary organizations, co-production of knowledge, platforms for engagement, and knowledge networks. Visiting speakers help students understand some of the challenges of incorporating scientific information into planning and decision making within institutional and political contexts. The course also includes practical aspects of two-way communication via written, oral, and graphical presentations as well as through the interview process to facilitate the transfer of scientific information to decision makers as well as to broader audiences. We aspire to help students develop techniques that improve communication and

  4. Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-01-30

    A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making. PMID:23262407

  5. Making Sustainable Decisions Using the KONVERGENCE Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven James; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Kerr, Thomas A; Nitschke, Robert Leon; Dakins, Maxine Ellen

    2003-02-01

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. “Cleanup” includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done - some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches, including: • New ways (mental model) to analyze and visualize the problem, • Awareness of the option to shift strategy or reframe from a single decision to an adaptable network of decisions, and • Improved tactical processes that account for several challenges. These include the following: • Stakeholder values are a more fundamental basis for decision making and keeping than “meeting regulations.” • Late-entry players and future generations will question decisions. • People may resist making “irreversible” decisions. • People need “compelling reasons” to take action in the face of uncertainties. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period—from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept “as is” or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: • Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? • Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? • Resources: what is available to implement

  6. Shared Decision Making in Cancer Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butow, Phyllis; Tattersall, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Cancer treatment outcomes have improved over the past 20 years, but treatment decision making in this context remains complex. There are often a number of reasonable treatment alternatives, including no treatment in some circumstances. Patients and doctors often have to weigh up uncertain benefits against uncertain costs. Shared decision making…

  7. Teaching Decision-Making Using Situational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Daniel W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the basic tenets of the Situational Leadership model, examines the steps of the Conflict Model for decision making, and presents a conceptual model that integrates the two. The integrated model aims to provide a systematic means for allowing individuals to learn how to participate in organizational decisions. (JDD)

  8. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  9. The Basic Teaching Skill: Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.

    Any teaching act is the result of a decision, either conscious or unconscious. Previous research on basic teaching skills examined alternative teaching acts, such as explaining, questioning, reinforcing, without examining how teachers choose between one or another act. This paper argues that the basic teaching skill is decision making. This…

  10. Decision-Making When Public Opinion Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppock, Rob

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the impact of public opinion on government decision-making, and develops a model that describes how certain input or control factors can combine to produce discontinuous or divergent policy decisions. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies available. (Author/JG)

  11. Legal Considerations in Clinical Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursu, Samuel C.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of legal issues in dental clinical decision making looks at the nature and elements of applicable law, especially malpractice, locus of responsibility, and standards of care. Greater use of formal decision analysis in clinical dentistry and better research on diagnosis and treatment are recommended, particularly in light of increasing…

  12. The Development of Decision-Making Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettas, Alexandros

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests an innovative idea of using the "technology fair" as a means for promoting pre-service teachers (university students) decision-making skills. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of a procedure of working with primary school children to complete and present a technology fair project, on the decision-making…

  13. Teacher Empowerment in the Decision Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, George E.; DeWalt, Cassandra Sligh

    2006-01-01

    According to Erlandson and Bifano (1987), teacher empowerment is a vital dimension of the school's organization. Lieberman (1989) defined teacher empowerment as "empowering teachers to participate in group decisions and to have real decision-making roles in the school community" (p. 24). Furthermore, Summers (2006) addressed the need for…

  14. Strategies for promoting ethical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Mysak, S

    1997-01-01

    The structured controversy as a strategy for helping the non-licensed caregiver make ethical decisions as well as develop critical thinking skills was an innovative teaching technique. Students in the Homecare/Special care aide program are essential providers of care to residents or clients in a special care facility or in a homecare setting. Theory and practice of ethical decision-making is not usually dealt with in the curriculum of the non-licensed caregiver. Implementation of this approach helped students learn theory and skills necessary when dealing with controversial issues in making ethical decisions. Thompson and Thompson's (1985) ten steps of bioethical decision-making were implemented to assist in the process. Structured controversy was defined and the process of implementing structured controversy outlined. A variety of ethical issues were presented based on the ethical principles of beneficence, justice, autonomy, truthfulness, confidentiality, and integrity (Yeo, 1991). Several definitions of critical thinking are presented. PMID:9136367

  15. [Aeromedical Decision-Making in Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Weber, F

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews aeromedical decision-making in psychiatry. It explains the "one-percent rule", the general medical criteria for fitness for flying and how they are applied to psychiatric disorders. PMID:27607071

  16. Characterization of Ambiguity in Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, J. Frank; Zukowski, Lisa G.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a psychology experiment that investigated the effect of ambiguity on human decision-making behavior. (Available from Behavioral Science, University of Louisville, P.O. Box 1055, Louisville, KY 40201; $3.50 single copy.) (JG)

  17. Values and Decision Making in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakomski, Gabriele

    1987-01-01

    Argues against the current trends in giving importance to subjective values in educational administration, particularly the argument that attention to subjective values can overcome the perceived irrelevance of scientific administration and organization theory and help administrators make better decisions. (MD)

  18. Cognitive reflection vs. calculation in decision making

    PubMed Central

    Sinayev, Aleksandr; Peters, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT's ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes); Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1) or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2). These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead. PMID:25999877

  19. Decision blocks: A tool for automating decision making in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eick, Christoph F.; Mehta, Nikhil N.

    1991-01-01

    The human capability of making complex decision is one of the most fascinating facets of human intelligence, especially if vague, judgemental, default or uncertain knowledge is involved. Unfortunately, most existing rule based forward chaining languages are not very suitable to simulate this aspect of human intelligence, because of their lack of support for approximate reasoning techniques needed for this task, and due to the lack of specific constructs to facilitate the coding of frequently reoccurring decision block to provide better support for the design and implementation of rule based decision support systems. A language called BIRBAL, which is defined on the top of CLIPS, for the specification of decision blocks, is introduced. Empirical experiments involving the comparison of the length of CLIPS program with the corresponding BIRBAL program for three different applications are surveyed. The results of these experiments suggest that for decision making intensive applications, a CLIPS program tends to be about three times longer than the corresponding BIRBAL program.

  20. Biologically inspired intelligent decision making

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D; Walsh, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a class of powerful machine learning models for classification and function approximation which have analogs in nature. An ANN learns to map stimuli to responses through repeated evaluation of exemplars of the mapping. This learning approach results in networks which are recognized for their noise tolerance and ability to generalize meaningful responses for novel stimuli. It is these properties of ANNs which make them appealing for applications to bioinformatics problems where interpretation of data may not always be obvious, and where the domain knowledge required for deductive techniques is incomplete or can cause a combinatorial explosion of rules. In this paper, we provide an introduction to artificial neural network theory and review some interesting recent applications to bioinformatics problems. PMID:24335433

  1. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  2. Economic Decision-Making. Decision-Making in Contemporary America, Unit III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Donald P.; And Others

    This unit on economic decision-making is the third of five units in a ninth grade social studies course (see SO 010 891 for course description). Major objectives are to help students analyze alternative choices in consumer decision situations and defend the selections; evaluate information and make decisions about what to produce, how to produce,…

  3. From Career Decision-Making Styles to Career Decision-Making Profiles: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Landman, Shiri; Davidovitch, Shlomit; Asulin-Peretz, Lisa; Gadassi, Reuma

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on individual differences in career decision-making processes has often focused on classifying individuals into a few types of decision-making "styles" based on the most dominant trait or characteristic of their approach to the decision process (e.g., rational, intuitive, dependent; Harren, 1979). In this research, an alternative…

  4. Patients’ decision making in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, T.; Griffin, D.; Barlow, D.; Realpe, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A patient-centred approach, usually achieved through shared decision making, has the potential to help improve decision making around knee arthroplasty surgery. However, such an approach requires an understanding of the factors involved in patient decision making. This review’s objective is to systematically examine the qualitative literature surrounding patients’ decision making in knee arthroplasty. Methods A systematic literature review using Medline and Embase was conducted to identify qualitative studies that examined patients’ decision making around knee arthroplasty. An aggregated account of what is known about patients’ decision making in knee arthroplasties is provided. Results Seven studies with 234 participants in interviews or focus groups are included. Ten themes are replicated across studies, namely: expectations of surgery; coping mechanisms; relationship with clinician; fear; pain; function; psychological implications; social network; previous experience of surgery; and conflict in opinions. Conclusions This review is helpful in not only directing future research to areas that are not understood, or require confirmation, but also in highlighting areas that future interventions could address. These include those aimed at delivering information, which are likely to affect the satisfaction rate, demand, and use of knee arthroplasties. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4;163–169. PMID:26450640

  5. Making Sustainable Decisions Using The KONVERGENCE Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S. J.; Gibson, P. L.; Joe, J. C.; Kerr, T. A.; Nitschke, R. L.; Dakins, M. E.

    2003-02-25

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. ''Cleanup'' includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done--some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period-from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept ''as is'' or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: (1) Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? (2) Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? (3) Resources: what is available to implement possible solutions or improve knowledge? This mental model helps analyze and visualize what is happening as decisions are made and kept. Why is there disagreement? Is there movement toward konvergence? Is a past decision drifting out of konvergence? The framework includes strategic improvements, i.e., expand the spectrum of alternatives to include adaptable alternatives and decision networks. It includes tactical process improvements derived from experience, values, and relevant literature. This paper includes diagnosis and medication (suggested path forward) for intractable cases.

  6. A Practical Method for Multi-Objective Scheduling through Soft Computing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Yasutsugu

    Due to diversified customer demands and global competition, scheduling has been increasingly notified as an important problem-solving in manufacturing. Since the scheduling is considered at stage close to the practical operation in production planning, flexibility and agility in decision making should be most important in real world applications. In addition, since the final goal of such scheduling has many attributes, and their relative importance is likely changed depending on the decision environment, it is of great significance to derive a flexible scheduling through plain multi-objective optimization method. To derive such a rational scheduling, in this paper, we have applied a novel multi-objective optimization named MOON2R (MOON2 of radial basis function) by incorporating with simulated annealing as a solution algorithm. Finally, illustrative examples are provided to outline and verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Decision-making based on emotional images.

    PubMed

    Katahira, Kentaro; Fujimura, Tomomi; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    The emotional outcome of a choice affects subsequent decision making. While the relationship between decision making and emotion has attracted attention, studies on emotion and decision making have been independently developed. In this study, we investigated how the emotional valence of pictures, which was stochastically contingent on participants' choices, influenced subsequent decision making. In contrast to traditional value-based decision-making studies that used money or food as a reward, the "reward value" of the decision outcome, which guided the update of value for each choice, is unknown beforehand. To estimate the reward value of emotional pictures from participants' choice data, we used reinforcement learning models that have successfully been used in previous studies for modeling value-based decision making. Consequently, we found that the estimated reward value was asymmetric between positive and negative pictures. The negative reward value of negative pictures (relative to neutral pictures) was larger in magnitude than the positive reward value of positive pictures. This asymmetry was not observed in valence for an individual picture, which was rated by the participants regarding the emotion experienced upon viewing it. These results suggest that there may be a difference between experienced emotion and the effect of the experienced emotion on subsequent behavior. Our experimental and computational paradigm provides a novel way for quantifying how and what aspects of emotional events affect human behavior. The present study is a first step toward relating a large amount of knowledge in emotion science and in taking computational approaches to value-based decision making. PMID:22059086

  8. Quantum probability and quantum decision-making.

    PubMed

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2016-01-13

    A rigorous general definition of quantum probability is given, which is valid not only for elementary events but also for composite events, for operationally testable measurements as well as for inconclusive measurements, and also for non-commuting observables in addition to commutative observables. Our proposed definition of quantum probability makes it possible to describe quantum measurements and quantum decision-making on the same common mathematical footing. Conditions are formulated for the case when quantum decision theory reduces to its classical counterpart and for the situation where the use of quantum decision theory is necessary. PMID:26621989

  9. Examining Decision-Making Regarding Environmental Information

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, Julie Lynne; Medema, Heather Dawne; Hill, Susan Gardiner

    2001-10-01

    Eight participants were asked to view a computer-based multimedia presentation on an environmental phenomenon. Participants were asked to play a role as a senior aide to a national legislator. In this role, they were told that the legislator had asked them to review a multimedia presentation regarding the hypoxic zone phenomenon in the Gulf of Mexico. Their task in assuming the role of a senior aide was to decide how important a problem this issue was to the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the legislator’s research budget that should be devoted to study of the problem. The presentation was divided into 7 segments, each containing some new information not contained in the previous segments. After viewing each segment, participants were asked to indicate how close they were to making a decision and how certain they were that their current opinion would be their final decision. After indicating their current state of decision-making, participants were interviewed regarding the factors affecting their decision-making. Of interest was the process by which participants moved toward a decision. This experiment revealed a number of possible directions for future research. There appeared to be two approaches to decision-making: Some decision-makers moved steadily toward a decision, and occasionally reversed decisions after viewing information, while others abruptly reached a decision after a certain time period spent reviewing the information. Although the difference in estimates of distance to decisions did not differ statistically for these two groups, that difference was reflected in the participants’ estimates of confidence that their current opinion would be their final decision. The interviews revealed that the primary difference between these two groups was in their trade-offs between willingness to spend time in information search and the acquisition of new information. Participants who were less confident about their final decision, tended to be

  10. Zeno's paradox in decision-making.

    PubMed

    Yearsley, James M; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2016-04-13

    Classical probability theory has been influential in modelling decision processes, despite empirical findings that have been persistently paradoxical from classical perspectives. For such findings, some researchers have been successfully pursuing decision models based on quantum theory (QT). One unique feature of QT is the collapse postulate, which entails that measurements (or in decision-making, judgements) reset the state to be consistent with the measured outcome. If there is quantum structure in cognition, then there has to be evidence for the collapse postulate. A striking, a prioriprediction, is that opinion change will be slowed down (under idealized conditions frozen) by continuous judgements. In physics, this is the quantum Zeno effect. We demonstrate a quantum Zeno effect in decision-making in humans and so provide evidence that advocates the use of quantum principles in decision theory, at least in some cases. PMID:27053743

  11. How well-run boards make decisions.

    PubMed

    Useem, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the aftermath of seismic debacles like those that toppled Enron and WorldCom, corporate boards have been shaken up and made over. More directors are independent these days, for instance, and corporations now disclose directors' salaries and committee members' names. Research shows that most of the changes are having a positive effect on companies' performance. They are primarily structural, though, and don't go to the heart of a board's work: making the choices that shape a firm's future. Which decisions boards own and how those calls are made are largely hidden from the public. As a result, boards are often unable to learn from the best governance practices of their counterparts at other companies. This article pulls back the curtain and provides an inside look. Drawing on interviews with board members and executives at 31 companies, along with a close examination of three boardroom decisions, the author identifies several formal processes that can help companies improve their decision making: creating calendars that specify when the board and the standing committees will consider key items; drafting charters that define the decisions committees are responsible for; and developing decision protocols that divvy up responsibilities between directors and executives. The author also identifies a number of informal decision-making principles: Items that are strategically significant and touch on the firm's core values should go to the board. Large decisions should be divided into small pieces, so the board can devote sufficient attention to each one. Directors must remain vigilant to ensure that their decisions are effectively implemented. The CEO and either the nonexecutive chair or the lead director should engage in ongoing dialogue regarding which decisions to take to the full board and when. And directors should challenge assumptions before making yes-or-no decisions on management proposals. PMID:17131569

  12. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions. PMID:26666393

  13. Decision-making processes of youth.

    PubMed

    Moore, J W; Jensen, B; Hauck, W E

    1990-01-01

    Research supports the theory that after administrators make a decision, feedback, both positive and negative, and also the administrators' perceived security vis-à-vis their position affect their level of commitment to a course of action. However, this research fails to recognize that subjects of college age playing administrators in the simulated, experimental treatments which have been presented in the research had nothing personally to lose if they made a bad decision--an orientation contradictory to the reality of most actual administrative positions. Additionally, the research ignores the interactional effects of the personality of decision makers in terms of their anxiety levels and the judgments they make. This study took both of these considerations into account by creating a decision-making situation within which prospective administrators made monetary commitments to long-term goals while their anxiety level, both as a basic personality attribute and an index of the reality of the decision-making process, was monitored under conditions of varying levels of job insecurity and resistance to their policies in relation to their decisions. Analyses revealed that contrary to the results of past research which used college students as subjects: (1) there is a significant negative correlation between levels of anxiety and commitments to previously chosen courses of action; (2) there are no significant effects of job security on commitment; and, most importantly, (3) high resistance to a policy decision leads to significantly less monetary commitments to long-term goals. The findings suggest that the basis for the contradictory results lies with the anxiety level of decision makers and the realism of experiencing a loss by making poor decisions. PMID:2264508

  14. Staged decision making based on probabilistic forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booister, Nikéh; Verkade, Jan; Werner, Micha; Cranston, Michael; Cumiskey, Lydia; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Flood forecasting systems reduce, but cannot eliminate uncertainty about the future. Probabilistic forecasts explicitly show that uncertainty remains. However, as - compared to deterministic forecasts - a dimension is added ('probability' or 'likelihood'), with this added dimension decision making is made slightly more complicated. A technique of decision support is the cost-loss approach, which defines whether or not to issue a warning or implement mitigation measures (risk-based method). With the cost-loss method a warning will be issued when the ratio of the response costs to the damage reduction is less than or equal to the probability of the possible flood event. This cost-loss method is not widely used, because it motivates based on only economic values and is a technique that is relatively static (no reasoning, yes/no decision). Nevertheless it has high potential to improve risk-based decision making based on probabilistic flood forecasting because there are no other methods known that deal with probabilities in decision making. The main aim of this research was to explore the ways of making decision making based on probabilities with the cost-loss method better applicable in practice. The exploration began by identifying other situations in which decisions were taken based on uncertain forecasts or predictions. These cases spanned a range of degrees of uncertainty: from known uncertainty to deep uncertainty. Based on the types of uncertainties, concepts of dealing with situations and responses were analysed and possible applicable concepts where chosen. Out of this analysis the concepts of flexibility and robustness appeared to be fitting to the existing method. Instead of taking big decisions with bigger consequences at once, the idea is that actions and decisions are cut-up into smaller pieces and finally the decision to implement is made based on economic costs of decisions and measures and the reduced effect of flooding. The more lead-time there is in

  15. Use of ultrasonography to make management decisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transrectal ultrasonography has been available for making management decisions since the mid 1980’s. This technology allows for the real-time visualization of internal structures (i.e. ovary and fetus) that are otherwise difficult to evaluate. The use of this technology in making reproductive manag...

  16. Nonrational Processes in Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasi-legal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior,…

  17. A brief history of decision making.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Leigh; O'Connell, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Sometime around the middle of the past century, telephone executive Chester Barnard imported the term decision making from public administration into the business world. There it began to replace narrower terms, like "resource allocation" and "policy making," shifting the way managers thought about their role from continuous, Hamlet-like deliberation toward a crisp series of conclusions reached and actions taken. Yet, decision making is, of course, a broad and ancient human pursuit, flowing back to a time when people sought guidance from the stars. From those earliest days, we have strived to invent better tools for the purpose, from the Hindu-Arabic systems for numbering and algebra, to Aristotle's systematic empiricism, to friar Occam's advances in logic, to Francis Bacon's inductive reasoning, to Descartes's application of the scientific method. A growing sophistication with managing risk, along with a nuanced understanding of human behavior and advances in technology that support and mimic cognitive processes, has improved decision making in many situations. Even so, the history of decision-making strategies--captured in this time line and examined in the four accompanying essays on risk, group dynamics, technology, and instinct--has not marched steadily toward perfect rationalism. Twentieth-century theorists showed that the costs of acquiring information lead executives to make do with only good-enough decisions. Worse, people decide against their own economic interests even when they know better. And in the absence of emotion, it's impossible to make any decisions at all. Erroneous framing, bounded awareness, excessive optimism: The debunking of Descartes's rational man threatens to swamp our confidence in our choices. Is it really surprising, then, that even as technology dramatically increases our access to information, Malcolm Gladwell extols the virtues of gut decisions made, literally, in the blink of an eye? PMID:16447367

  18. Making better decisions in uncertain times (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St John, C.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific information about climate change and other human impacts on the environment are increasingly available and sought after (often in the form of probabilistic forecasts or technical information related to engineering solutions). However, it is increasingly apparent that there are barriers to the use of this information by decision makers - either from its lack of application altogether, its usability for people without scientific backgrounds, or its ability to inform sound decisions and widespread behavior change. While the argument has been made that an information deficit is to blame, we argue that there is also a motivation deficit contributing to a lack of understanding of information about climate change impacts and solutions. Utilizing insight from over thirty years of research in social and cognitive psychology, in addition to other social sciences, the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) seeks to understand how people make environmental decisions under conditions of uncertainty, and how these decisions can be improved. This presentation will focus specifically on recent research that has come forth since the 2009 publication of CRED's popular guide 'The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public.' Utilizing case studies from real world examples, this talk will explore how decision making can be improved through a better understanding of how people perceive and process uncertainty and risk. It will explore techniques such as choice architecture and 'nudging' behavior change, how social goals and group participation affect decision making, and how framing of environmental information influences mitigative behavior.

  19. Whose decision is it? The microstructure of medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Simon N

    2008-01-01

    Medical decision making is sometimes viewed as a relatively simple process in which a decision may be made by the patient, by the physician, or by both patient and physician working together. This two-dimensional portrayal eclipses the important role that others, such as other professionals, family, and friends, may play in the process; as an example of this phenomenon, we trace the evolution of a decision of a teenager with cancer who is contemplating discontinuing chemotherapy. This example also shows how a decision can usefully be understood as consisting of a number of identifiable substeps--what we call the "microstructure" of the decision. These steps show how the physician can play an important role without usurping the patient's rightful decisional authority. PMID:19209569

  20. Acceptable regret in medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Djulbegovic, B; Hozo, I; Schwartz, A; McMasters, K M

    1999-09-01

    When faced with medical decisions involving uncertain outcomes, the principles of decision theory hold that we should select the option with the highest expected utility to maximize health over time. Whether a decision proves right or wrong can be learned only in retrospect, when it may become apparent that another course of action would have been preferable. This realization may bring a sense of loss, or regret. When anticipated regret is compelling, a decision maker may choose to violate expected utility theory to avoid regret. We formulate a concept of acceptable regret in medical decision making that explicitly introduces the patient's attitude toward loss of health due to a mistaken decision into decision making. In most cases, minimizing expected regret results in the same decision as maximizing expected utility. However, when acceptable regret is taken into consideration, the threshold probability below which we can comfortably withhold treatment is a function only of the net benefit of the treatment, and the threshold probability above which we can comfortably administer the treatment depends only on the magnitude of the risks associated with the therapy. By considering acceptable regret, we develop new conceptual relations that can help decide whether treatment should be withheld or administered, especially when the diagnosis is uncertain. This may be particularly beneficial in deciding what constitutes futile medical care. PMID:10580533

  1. Multi-objective Optimization of the Mississippi Headwaters Reservoir System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, B. A.; Harou, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is participating in a re- operation study of the Mississippi Headwaters reservoir system. The study, termed ROPE (Reservoir Operation Plan Evaluation), will develop a new operation policy for the reservoir system in a Shared Vision Planning effort. The current operating plan is 40 years old and does not account for the diverse objectives of the system altered by increased development and resource awareness. Functions of the six-reservoir system include flood damage reduction, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat considerations, tribal resources, water quality, water supply, erosion and sedimentation control, and hydropower production. Experience has shown that a modeling approach using both optimization, which makes decisions based on their value to objectives, and simulation, which makes decisions that follow operating instructions or rules, is an effective way to improve or develop new operating policies. HEC's role in this study was to develop a multi- objective optimization model of the system using HEC-PRM (Prescriptive Reservoir Model), a generalized computer program that performs multi-period deterministic network-flow optimization of reservoir systems. The optimization model's purpose is to enable stakeholders and decision makers to select appropriate tradeoffs between objectives, and have these tradeoffs reflected in proposed rules. Initial single-objective optimizations allow stakeholders to verify that the penalty functions developed by experts accurately represent their interests. Once penalty functions are confirmed, trade-off curves between pairs of system objectives are developed, and stakeholders and decision makers choose a desired balance between the two objectives. These chosen balance points are maintained in optimizations that consider all objectives. Finally, optimal system decisions are studied to infer operating patterns that embody the chosen tradeoffs. The

  2. Combined Economic and Hydrologic Modeling to Support Collaborative Decision Making Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    For more than a decade, the core concept of the author's efforts in support of collaborative decision making has been a combination of hydrologic simulation and multi-objective optimization. The modeling has generally been used to support collaborative decision making processes. The OASIS model developed by HydroLogics Inc. solves a multi-objective optimization at each time step using a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The MILP can be configured to include any user defined objective, including but not limited too economic objectives. For example, an estimated marginal value for water for crops and M&I use were included in the objective function to drive trades in a model of the lower Rio Grande. The formulation of the MILP, constraints and objectives, in any time step is conditional: it changes based on the value of state variables and dynamic external forcing functions, such as rainfall, hydrology, market prices, arrival of migratory fish, water temperature, etc. It therefore acts as a dynamic short term multi-objective economic optimization for each time step. MILP is capable of solving a general problem that includes a very realistic representation of the physical system characteristics in addition to the normal multi-objective optimization objectives and constraints included in economic models. In all of these models, the short term objective function is a surrogate for achieving long term multi-objective results. The long term performance for any alternative (especially including operating strategies) is evaluated by simulation. An operating rule is the combination of conditions, parameters, constraints and objectives used to determine the formulation of the short term optimization in each time step. Heuristic wrappers for the simulation program have been developed improve the parameters of an operating rule, and are initiating research on a wrapper that will allow us to employ a genetic algorithm to improve the form of the rule (conditions, constraints

  3. NASA Risk-Informed Decision Making Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Stamatelatos, Michael; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher; Youngblood, Robert; Rutledge, Peter; Benjamin, Allan; Williams, Rodney; Smith, Curtis; Guarro, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This handbook provides guidance for conducting risk-informed decision making in the context of NASA risk management (RM), with a focus on the types of direction-setting key decisions that are characteristic of the NASA program and project life cycles, and which produce derived requirements in accordance with existing systems engineering practices that flow down through the NASA organizational hierarchy. The guidance in this handbook is not meant to be prescriptive. Instead, it is meant to be general enough, and contain a sufficient diversity of examples, to enable the reader to adapt the methods as needed to the particular decision problems that he or she faces. The handbook highlights major issues to consider when making decisions in the presence of potentially significant uncertainty, so that the user is better able to recognize and avoid pitfalls that might otherwise be experienced.

  4. Quality of decision making and group norms.

    PubMed

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    2001-06-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink. PMID:11414374

  5. [Kairos. Decision-making in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Jousset, David

    2014-06-01

    This paper assesses the decision making patterns in medical ethics: the formalized pattern of decision science, the meditative pattern of an art of judgement and lastly the still-to-be-elaborated pattern of kairology or sense of the right time. The ethical decision is to be thought out in the conditions of medical action while resorting to the philosophical concepts that shed light on the issue. And it is precisely where medicine and philosophy of human action meet that the Greek notion of kairos, or "propitious moment", evokes the critical point where decision has to do with what is vital. Reflection shows that this kairos can be thought out outside the sacrificial pattern (deciding comes down to killing a possibility) by understanding the opportune moment as a sign of ethical action, as the condition for the formation of the subject (making a decision) and finally as a new relationship to time, including in the context of medical urgency. Thus with an approach to clinical ethics centred on the relation to the individual, the focus is less on the probabilistic knowledge of the decidable than on the meaning of the decision, and the undecidable comes to be accepted as an infinite dimension going beyond the limits of our acts, which makes the contingency and the grandeur of human responsibility. PMID:25272798

  6. Decision making of vending machine users.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, L W

    1988-06-01

    This article discusses two possible solutions to decision making about controls by users of vending machines: the 'one button to press' system (requiring a compound decision - the pressing of one button only); the 'several buttons to press' system (requiring a compound decision - the pressing of several buttons). The basis for the discussion is a field evaluation of a train ticket vending machine (TVM) that can sell 800 different types of tickets and can accept all kinds of payment. For this evaluation several hundred TVM users and ticket window users were observed and interviewed. Special attention was paid to the errors which were made. PMID:15676652

  7. Interference effects of categorization on decision making.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2016-05-01

    Many decision making tasks in life involve a categorization process, but the effects of categorization on subsequent decision making has rarely been studied. This issue was explored in three experiments (N=721), in which participants were shown a face stimulus on each trial and performed variations of categorization-decision tasks. On C-D trials, they categorized the stimulus and then made an action decision; on X-D trials, they were told the category and then made an action decision; on D-alone trials, they only made an action decision. An interference effect emerged in some of the conditions, such that the probability of an action on the D-alone trials (i.e., when there was no explicit categorization before the decision) differed from the total probability of the same action on the C-D or X-D trials (i.e., when there was explicit categorization before the decision). Interference effects are important because they indicate a violation of the classical law of total probability, which is assumed by many cognitive models. Across all three experiments, a complex pattern of interference effects systematically occurred for different types of stimuli and for different types of categorization-decision tasks. These interference effects present a challenge for traditional cognitive models, such as Markov and signal detection models, but a quantum cognition model, called the belief-action entanglement (BAE) model, predicted that these results could occur. The BAE model employs the quantum principles of superposition and entanglement to explain the psychological mechanisms underlying the puzzling interference effects. The model can be applied to many important and practical categorization-decision situations in life. PMID:26896726

  8. The Evolutionary Roots of Human Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Laurie R.; Rosati, Alexandra G.

    2015-01-01

    Humans exhibit a suite of biases when making economic decisions. We review recent research on the origins of human decision making by examining whether similar choice biases are seen in nonhuman primates, our closest phylogenetic relatives. We propose that comparative studies can provide insight into four major questions about the nature of human choice biases that cannot be addressed by studies of our species alone. First, research with other primates can address the evolution of human choice biases and identify shared versus human-unique tendencies in decision making. Second, primate studies can constrain hypotheses about the psychological mechanisms underlying such biases. Third, comparisons of closely related species can identify when distinct mechanisms underlie related biases by examining evolutionary dissociations in choice strategies. Finally, comparative work can provide insight into the biological rationality of economically irrational preferences. PMID:25559115

  9. Understanding Decision Making in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Lighthall, Geoffrey K.; Vazquez-Guillamet, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Human decision making involves the deliberate formulation of hypotheses and plans as well as the use of subconscious means of judging probability, likely outcome, and proper action. Rationale There is a growing recognition that intuitive strategies such as use of heuristics and pattern recognition described in other industries are applicable to high-acuity environments in medicine. Despite the applicability of theories of cognition to the intensive care unit, a discussion of decision-making strategies is currently absent in the critical care literature. Content This article provides an overview of known cognitive strategies, as well as a synthesis of their use in critical care. By understanding the ways by which humans formulate diagnoses and make critical decisions, we may be able to minimize errors in our own judgments as well as build training activities around known strengths and limitations of cognition. PMID:26387708

  10. Re-engineering shared decision-making.

    PubMed

    Gillick, Muriel R

    2015-09-01

    Shared decision-making is widely accepted as the gold standard of clinical care. Numerous obstacles to achieving shared decision-making have been identified, including patient factors, physician factors and systemic factors. Until now, the paradigm is seldom successfully implemented in clinical practice, raising questions about the practicality of the process recommended for its use. A re-engineered model is proposed in which physicians elicit and prioritise patients' goals of care and then help translate those goals into treatment options, after clarifying the patient's underlying health status. Preliminary evidence suggests that each step of this revised process is feasible and that patients and physicians are comfortable with this strategy. Adoption of this model, after further testing, would allow the goal of shared decision-making to be realised. PMID:25926672

  11. Dynamical decision making in a genetic perceptron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filicheva, Svetlana; Zaikin, Alexey; Kanakov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    Decision making is an essential element of cell functioning, which determines milestones of its evolution including differentiation, apoptosis and possible transition to cancerous state. Recently the concept of stochastic resonance in decision making (SRIDM) was introduced, demonstrated and explained using a synthetic genetic classifier circuit as an example. It manifests itself as a maximum in the dependence of classification accuracy upon noise intensity, and was caused by the concurrent action of two factors, both coarsening the classification accuracy by themselves, but found to extenuate the effect of each other: perturbation of classifier threshold and additive noise in classifier inputs. In the present work we extend the SRIDM concept to dynamical decision making, in which a classifier keeps track of the changeable input. We reproduce the stochastic resonance effect caused by noise and threshold perturbation, and demonstrate a new mechanism of SRIDM, which is associated with bistability and not connected with threshold perturbation.

  12. Correlates of risky decision-making.

    PubMed

    Plax, T G; Rosenfeld, L B

    1976-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a personality pattern which could be used for both the explication and prediction of risky behavior in a variety of decision-making situations. Two months after the completion of a battery of psychological examinations, 240 randomly selected subjects responded to three problems adapted from the Kogan and Wallach Choice Dilemma Problems. Analyses of the data (correlational, factor analytic, and stepwise multiple regression) revealed a stable personality index representative of individuals exhibiting riskiness in decision-making. Variables contributing to this pattern characterized a dynamic task oriented individual. The results of this study should prove useful to future decision-making research by providing a framework for prediction. PMID:957088

  13. Collective decision-making in microbes

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Gillespie, Adin; Kümmerli, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are intensely social organisms that routinely cooperate and coordinate their activities to express elaborate population level phenotypes. Such coordination requires a process of collective decision-making, in which individuals detect and collate information not only from their physical environment, but also from their social environment, in order to arrive at an appropriately calibrated response. Here, we present a conceptual overview of collective decision-making as it applies to all group-living organisms; we introduce key concepts and principles developed in the context of animal and human group decisions; and we discuss, with appropriate examples, the applicability of each of these concepts in microbial contexts. In particular, we discuss the roles of information pooling, control skew, speed vs. accuracy trade-offs, local feedbacks, quorum thresholds, conflicts of interest, and the reliability of social information. We conclude that collective decision-making in microbes shares many features with collective decision-making in higher taxa, and we call for greater integration between this fledgling field and other allied areas of research, including in the humanities and the physical sciences. PMID:24624121

  14. Computer modeling of human decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human decision making are reviewed. Models which treat just the cognitive aspects of human behavior are included as well as models which include motivation. Both models which have associated computer programs, and those that do not, are considered. Since flow diagrams, that assist in constructing computer simulation of such models, were not generally available, such diagrams were constructed and are presented. The result provides a rich source of information, which can aid in construction of more realistic future simulations of human decision making.

  15. Multi-objective optimization of solid waste flows: environmentally sustainable strategies for municipalities.

    PubMed

    Minciardi, Riccardo; Paolucci, Massimo; Robba, Michela; Sacile, Roberto

    2008-11-01

    An approach to sustainable municipal solid waste (MSW) management is presented, with the aim of supporting the decision on the optimal flows of solid waste sent to landfill, recycling and different types of treatment plants, whose sizes are also decision variables. This problem is modeled with a non-linear, multi-objective formulation. Specifically, four objectives to be minimized have been taken into account, which are related to economic costs, unrecycled waste, sanitary landfill disposal and environmental impact (incinerator emissions). An interactive reference point procedure has been developed to support decision making; these methods are considered appropriate for multi-objective decision problems in environmental applications. In addition, interactive methods are generally preferred by decision makers as they can be directly involved in the various steps of the decision process. Some results deriving from the application of the proposed procedure are presented. The application of the procedure is exemplified by considering the interaction with two different decision makers who are assumed to be in charge of planning the MSW system in the municipality of Genova (Italy). PMID:18042369

  16. Visually Guided Decision Making in Foraging Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaowu; Si, Aung; Pahl, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees can easily be trained to perform different types of discrimination tasks under controlled laboratory conditions. This review describes a range of experiments carried out with free-flying forager honeybees under such conditions. The research done over the past 30 or so years suggests that cognitive abilities (learning and perception) in insects are more intricate and flexible than was originally imagined. It has become apparent that honeybees are capable of a variety of visually guided tasks, involving decision making under challenging situations: this includes simultaneously making use of different sensory modalities, such as vision and olfaction, and learning to use abstract concepts such as “sameness” and “difference.” Many studies have shown that decision making in foraging honeybees is highly flexible. The trained animals learn how to solve a task, and do so with a high accuracy, but when they are presented with a new variation of the task, they apply the learnt rules from the earlier setup to the new situation, and solve the new task as well. Honeybees therefore not only feature a rich behavioral repertoire to choose from, but also make decisions most apt to the current situation. The experiments in this review give an insight into the environmental cues and cognitive resources that are probably highly significant for a forager bee that must continually make decisions regarding patches of resources to be exploited. PMID:22719721

  17. How Decisions Emerge: Action Dynamics in Intertemporal Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dshemuchadse, Maja; Scherbaum, Stefan; Goschke, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In intertemporal decision making, individuals prefer smaller rewards delivered sooner over larger rewards delivered later, often to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. This behavior has been attributed to a lack of self-control and reflection, the nonlinearity of human time perception, and several other sources.…

  18. Helping novice nurses make effective clinical decisions: the situated clinical decision-making framework.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Mary; Peterson, Barbara L

    2009-01-01

    The nature of novice nurses' clinical decision-making has been well documented as linear, based on limited knowledge and experience in the profession, and frequently focused on single tasks or problems. Theorists suggest that, with sufficient experience in the clinical setting, novice nurses will move from reliance on abstract principles to the application of concrete experience and to view a clinical situation within its context and as a whole. In the current health care environment, novice nurses frequently work with few clinical supports and mentors while facing complex patient situations that demand skilled decision-making. The Situated Clinical Decision-Making Framework is presented for use by educators and novice nurses to support development of clinical decision-making. It provides novice nurses with a tool that a) assists them in making decisions; b) can be used to guide retrospective reflection on decision-making processes and outcomes; c) socializes them to an understanding of the nature of decision-making in nursing; and d) fosters the development of their knowledge, skill, and confidence as nurses. This article provides an overview of the framework, including its theoretical foundations and a schematic representation of its components. A case exemplar illustrates one application of the framework in assisting novice nurses in developing their decision-making skills. Future directions regarding the use and study of this framework in nursing education are considered. PMID:19606659

  19. Motivations Underlying Career Decision-Making Activities: The Career Decision-Making Autonomy Scale (CDMAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to develop and validate a measure of motivation toward career decision-making activities, the Career Decision-Making Autonomy Scale (CDMAS). The CDMAS is designed to assess the constructs of intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation. A longitudinal study was…

  20. Career Planning and Decision-Making for College. AEL Career Decision-Making Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Lola, Ed.

    Six course units and learning activities for the Career Planning and Decision-Making course is presented. The course emphasizes career comprehension, career values, and career action. Career comprehension includes developing knowledge of the world of work and planning and decision-making skills. Career values focus on clarifying, identifying, and…

  1. Medical decision making for the incompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Drane, J F; Roth, R B

    1987-12-01

    In America competent adult patients have a right to refuse unwanted medical treatments. For incompetent patients who have made no advance directive, the family ordinarily makes decisions about medical treatments. But in many healthcare facilities, problems arise in choosing a surrogate to make decisions for an incompetent patient and in working with that surrogate. Concrete, step-by-step procedures for resolving conflict are needed. Every effort should be made to have competent patients fill out advance directives or indicate their treatment preferences in the event of loss of competence. Family members may not override decisions made by competent patients, but anyone closely involved with the patients' care may question their competence. The physician generally assesses the patients' competence, but sometimes the courts are involved. The physician may be the appropriate person to choose a surrogate for a patient with limited competence or to make decisions for a totally incompetent patient. The surrogate may be a relative, close friend, physician who knows the patient well, or someone provided by the hospital or government. Treatment decisions are made within the surrogate-patient-physician triad. When different value judgments about the proper treatment conflict, the surrogate may have to mediate to restore physician-patient communication, or institutional proceedings through the ethics committee may be needed to resolve disputes quickly, amicably, and at low cost. As a last resort, the case may be referred to the courts. PMID:10285412

  2. The precautionary principle and medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    The precautionary principle is a useful strategy for decision-making when physicians and patients lack evidence relating to the potential outcomes associated with various choices. According to a version of the principle defended here, one should take reasonable measures to avoid threats that are serious and plausible. The reasonableness of a response to a threat depends on several factors, including benefit vs. harm, realism, proportionality, and consistency. Since a concept of reasonableness plays an essential role in applying the precautionary principle, this principle gives physicians and patients a decision-making strategy that encourages the careful weighing and balancing of different values that one finds in humanistic approaches to clinical reasoning. Properly understood, the principle presents a worthwhile alternative to approaches to clinical reasoning that apply expected utility theory to decision problems. PMID:15512973

  3. How expert advice influences decision making.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Biele, Guido; Korn, Christoph W; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2012-01-01

    People often use expert advice when making decisions in our society, but how we are influenced by this advice has yet to be understood. To address this, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provided expert and novice advice to participants during an estimation task. Participants reported that they valued expert advice more than novice advice, and activity in the ventral striatum correlated with this valuation, even before decisions with the advice were made. When using advice, participants compared their initial opinion to their advisor's opinion. This comparison, termed the "opinion difference", influenced advice utilization and was represented in reward-sensitive brain regions. Finally, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex integrated both the size of the opinion difference and the advisor's level of expertise, and average activity in this area correlated with mean advice utilization across participants. Taken together, these findings provide neural evidence for how advice engenders behavioral change during the decision-making process. PMID:23185425

  4. How Expert Advice Influences Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Biele, Guido; Korn, Christoph W.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2012-01-01

    People often use expert advice when making decisions in our society, but how we are influenced by this advice has yet to be understood. To address this, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provided expert and novice advice to participants during an estimation task. Participants reported that they valued expert advice more than novice advice, and activity in the ventral striatum correlated with this valuation, even before decisions with the advice were made. When using advice, participants compared their initial opinion to their advisor’s opinion. This comparison, termed the “opinion difference”, influenced advice utilization and was represented in reward-sensitive brain regions. Finally, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex integrated both the size of the opinion difference and the advisor’s level of expertise, and average activity in this area correlated with mean advice utilization across participants. Taken together, these findings provide neural evidence for how advice engenders behavioral change during the decision-making process. PMID:23185425

  5. Decision making dynamics in corporate boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Bonabeau, Eric; Weisbuch, Gérard

    2003-05-01

    Members of boards of directors of large corporations who also serve together on an outside board, form the so-called interlock graph of the board and are assumed to have a strong influence on each others’ opinion. We here study how the size and the topology of the interlock graph affect the probability that the board approves a strategy proposed by the Chief Executive Officer. We propose a measure of the impact of the interlock on the decision making, which is found to be a good predictor of the decision dynamics outcome. We present two models of decision making dynamics, and we apply them to the data of the boards of the largest US corporations in 1999.

  6. Decision Making in Health and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunink, Myriam; Glasziou, Paul; Siegel, Joanna; Weeks, Jane; Pliskin, Joseph; Elstein, Arthur; Weinstein, Milton C.

    2001-11-01

    Decision making in health care means navigating through a complex and tangled web of diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainties, patient preferences and values, and costs. In addition, medical therapies may include side effects, surgery may lead to undesirable complications, and diagnostic technologies may produce inconclusive results. In many clinical and health policy decisions it is necessary to counterbalance benefits and risks, and to trade off competing objectives such as maximizing life expectancy vs optimizing quality of life vs minimizing the required resources. This textbook plots a clear course through these complex and conflicting variables. It clearly explains and illustrates tools for integrating quantitative evidence-based data and subjective outcome values in making clinical and health policy decisions. An accompanying CD-ROM features solutions to the exercises, PowerPoint® presentations of the illustrations, and sample models and tables.

  7. Model choice for decision making under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bàrdossy, Andràs

    2015-04-01

    Present and future water management decisions are often supported by modelling. The choice of the appropriate model and model parameters depend on the decision related question, the quality of the model and the available information. While spatially detailed physics based models might seem very transferable, the uncertainty of the parametrization and of the input may lead to highly diverging results, which are of no use for decision making. The optimal model choice requires a quantification of the input/natural parameter uncertainty. As a next step the influence of this uncertainty on predictions using models with different complexity has to be quantified. Finally the influence of this prediction uncertainty on the decisions to be taken has to be assessed. Different data/information availability and modelling questions thus might require different modelling approaches. A framework for this model choice and parametrization problem will be presented together with examples from regions with very different data availability and data quality.

  8. Making business decisions using trend information

    SciTech Connect

    Prevette, S.S., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

    1997-11-24

    Performance Measures, and the trend information that results from their analyses, can help managers in their decision making process. The business decisions that are to be discussed are: Assignment of limited Resources, Funding, Budget; Contractor Rewards/Incentives; Where to focus Process Improvement, Reengineering efforts; When to ask ``What Happened?!!``; Determine if a previous decision was effectively implemented. Trending can provide an input for rational Business Decisions. Key Element is determination of whether or not a significant trend exists - segregating Common Cause from Special Cause. The Control Chart is the tool for accomplishment of trending and determining if you are meeting your Business Objectives. Eliminate Numerical Targets; the goal is Significant Improvement. Profound Knowledge requires integrating data results with gut feeling.

  9. Emerging Educational Institutional Decision-Making Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford-Rowe, Kevin H.; Holt, Marnie

    2011-01-01

    The "emerging educational institutional decision-making matrix" is developed to allow educational institutions to adopt a rigorous and consistent methodology of determining which of the myriad of emerging educational technologies will be the most compelling for the institution, particularly ensuring that it is the educational or pedagogical but…

  10. Optimal Decision Making in Neural Inhibition Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2012-01-01

    In their influential "Psychological Review" article, Bogacz, Brown, Moehlis, Holmes, and Cohen (2006) discussed optimal decision making as accomplished by the drift diffusion model (DDM). The authors showed that neural inhibition models, such as the leaky competing accumulator model (LCA) and the feedforward inhibition model (FFI), can mimic the…

  11. Regents Make History: The DNA Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, Joseph C.

    1977-01-01

    A routine-sounding request for a science lab renovation grew into a controversy with immense implications: Is DNA research safe? Does it belong on campus? Is it beyond human capacity to control? The decision-making role of the University of Michigan regents is described. (Editor/LBH)

  12. Ultrasound technology: A decision-making tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultrasound demonstration was conducted for participants (~ 110 people) of the Arkansas Cattle Grower’s Conference, Hope, AR. Evaluation of live animals with ultrasound technology allows beef producers the ability to make selection and management decisions. Specifically, ultrasound at the conclu...

  13. Personal Decision Making. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leet, Don R.; Charkins, R. J.; Lang, Nancy A.; Lopus, Jane S.; Tamaribuchi, Gail

    This book highlights and examines basic economic concepts as they relate to consumer, business, social, and personal choices. Students are shown connections between their classroom learning and their real-world experiences in budgeting, career planning, credit management, and housing. The set of 15 lessons include: (1) "Decision Making: Scarcity,…

  14. Supporting Medical Decision Making with Argumentation Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jingyan; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the collaborative decision-making and communicative discourse of groups of learners engaged in a simulated medical emergency in two conditions. In one condition subgroups used a traditional whiteboard (TW group) to document medical arguments on how to solve a medical emergency. In the other condition subgroups used…

  15. Student decision making in large group discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  16. International Students Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillo, Jose Maria; Sanchez, Joaquin; Cervino, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model that integrates the different groups of factors which influence the decision-making process of international students, analysing different dimensions of this process and explaining those factors which determine students' choice. Design/methodology/approach--A hypothetical model…

  17. How Do You Measure Shared Decision Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, John J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Teacher Involvement and Participation Scale, version 2 (TIPS 2) helps schools assess eight dimensions of the decision-making process, including goals/vision/mission; facilitating procedures and structures; curriculum/instruction; budgeting; staffing; staff development; operations; and standards. This article explains additional applications…

  18. Greater than the Parts: Shared Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Anabel L.

    1986-01-01

    The article describes the goals, rationale, structure of the shared decision-making model in effect at the Nueva Learning Center, a private elementary school for gifted and talented in Hillsborough, California. An example applying the model to class scheduling and 10 steps for facilitating the process are given. (Author/DB)

  19. SERVIR: Environmental Decision Making in the Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William; Irwin, Dan

    2008-01-01

    SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system for Mesoamerica that integrates satellite and other geospatial data for improved scientific knowledge and decision making by managers, researchers, students, and the general public. SERVIR addresses the nine societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). This talk will provide an overview of products and services available through SERVIR.

  20. High School Students' Decision Making about Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined decision making in an urban US high school classroom in which tenth-grade students analyzed scientific evidence about current issues of sustainability, technology and society. A full-year course, called Science and Sustainability, was used in both groups, and a computer program, called "Convince Me", provided scaffolding for…

  1. Conflict Management and Decision Making. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium on conflict management and decision making is comprised of three papers. "Two Approaches to Conflict Management in Teams: A Case Study" (Mychal Coleman, Gary N. McLean) describes a study that provided conflict management training to two employee teams using the traditional lecture method and cooperative learning (CL). (Initially,…

  2. Career Decision-Making and Corporate Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sainty, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the extent of influence of corporate (or organisational) responsibility on university students' career decision-making. It reports on a pilot study conducted at the University of Sydney which aims to: explore students' ethical, professional and social understanding regarding corporate responsibility; determine the…

  3. This Side Up: Making Decisions About Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Maureen H.; Newman, Carol

    This guide was developed as a source of information for young people who are faced with making decisions about drugs. Written in a "catchy" yet informative style, the materials presented address the following areas of concern: (1) definitions and effects of various drugs, including alcohol, tobacco, and narcotics; (2) physical and psychological…

  4. Decision-Making Processes of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=142) participated in study on decision making in which prospective administrators made monetary commitments to long-term goals under varying conditions. Found significant negative correlation between anxiety level and commitments to previously chosen courses of action; no significant effects of job security on commitment; and…

  5. Decision Making in Computer-Simulated Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suits, J. P.; Lagowski, J. J.

    A set of interactive, computer-simulated experiments was designed to respond to the large range of individual differences in aptitude and reasoning ability generally exhibited by students enrolled in first-semester general chemistry. These experiments give students direct experience in the type of decision making needed in an experimental setting.…

  6. Pilot Decision-Making in Irreversible Emergencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a reflexive learning treatment utilizing select case studies could enhance the decision-making of pilots who encounter an irreversible emergency. Participants, who consisted of members of the subject university's professional pilot program, were divided into either a control or experimental group and…

  7. Methods of Data Collection for Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramson, Robert; Parlette, Nicholas

    1978-01-01

    Five data collection methods are described: interviews of individuals, nominal group approaches, administration of questionnaires, inspection of records, and the Delphi decision making technique. A matrix is included and provides a brief description of each method, along with its choice criteria and its advantages and disadvantages. (BM)

  8. Decision Making and Systems Thinking: Educational Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtseven, M. Kudret; Buchanan, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in most universities is taught within the conventional OR/MS (Operations Research/Management Science) paradigm. This paradigm is known to be "hard" since it is consisted of mathematical tools, and normally suitable for solving structured problems. In complex situations the conventional OR/MS paradigm proves to be…

  9. Pupil Decision Making in the Reading Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Being able to make decisions is important for all students. Students need to have opportunities to choose from among alternative situations. Reading, as one curriculum area, provides a plethora of opportunities to choose and to select. The philosopher John Locke believed the following facets of an individual's development were in the ensuing order…

  10. Economics: Scarcity and Citizen Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliard, June V.; Morton, John S.

    1981-01-01

    Maintaining that economics can contribute significantly to the achievement of citizenship education goals within the social studies program, this article offers information on concepts for analyzing economic policies, dealing with policy issues in the classroom, and understanding the relationship of scarcity to decision making. (DB)

  11. New Paradoxes of Risky Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 25 years, prospect theory and its successor, cumulative prospect theory, replaced expected utility as the dominant descriptive theories of risky decision making. Although these models account for the original Allais paradoxes, 11 new paradoxes show where prospect theories lead to self-contradiction or systematic false predictions.…

  12. Respecting Teachers' Diverse Decision-Making Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on teachers' diverse decision-making systems. Matching teachers' beliefs, or frameworks, to the programs they are asked to use is crucial to success and sustainability. Incompatible programs and curricula that are forced on teachers will not succeed. Examples of "teacher-proof" programs illustrate this viewpoint. (CDS)

  13. Speed versus accuracy in collective decision making.

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Nigel R; Dornhaus, Anna; Fitzsimmons, Jon P; Stevens, Martin

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a speed versus accuracy trade-off in collective decision making. House-hunting ant colonies choose a new nest more quickly in harsh conditions than in benign ones and are less discriminating. The errors that occur in a harsh environment are errors of judgement not errors of omission because the colonies have discovered all of the alternative nests before they initiate an emigration. Leptothorax albipennis ants use quorum sensing in their house hunting. They only accept a nest, and begin rapidly recruiting members of their colony, when they find within it a sufficient number of their nest-mates. Here we show that these ants can lower their quorum thresholds between benign and harsh conditions to adjust their speed-accuracy trade-off. Indeed, in harsh conditions these ants rely much more on individual decision making than collective decision making. Our findings show that these ants actively choose to take their time over judgements and employ collective decision making in benign conditions when accuracy is more important than speed. PMID:14667335

  14. Neurally Constrained Modeling of Perceptual Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Braden A.; Heitz, Richard P.; Cohen, Jeremiah Y.; Schall, Jeffrey D.; Logan, Gordon D.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic accumulator models account for response time in perceptual decision-making tasks by assuming that perceptual evidence accumulates to a threshold. The present investigation mapped the firing rate of frontal eye field (FEF) visual neurons onto perceptual evidence and the firing rate of FEF movement neurons onto evidence accumulation to…

  15. Improving Decision-Making Skills in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placek, Rita; Pearson, Kaye

    A program for improving adolescents' decision-making skills to reduce the number of inappropriate behavioral choices related to wellness is described. The targeted population consisted of seventh and tenth grade students in a rural, middle class community. Data from local law enforcement records and school-based program referrals supported…

  16. Toward a Contingency Theory of Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, C. John; Hoy, Wayne K.

    1998-01-01

    There is no single best decision-making approach. This article reviews and compares six contemporary models (classical, administrative, incremental, mixed-scanning, garbage-can, and political) and develops a framework and 10 propositions to match strategies with circumstances. A contingency approach suggests that administrators use satisficing (a…

  17. Consumer Decision Making in a Global Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusby, Linda A.

    This document examines the underlying rationale for the development of a global approach in consumer studies. The concept of consumer ethics is discussed and the consumer decision-making process is placed within an ecosystem perspective of the marketplace. The model developed introduces educators, marketers, and consumers to a more global…

  18. Teaching Decision Making in Business Dynamics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosas, Marilyn V.

    1981-01-01

    Teaching decision making in the classroom provides an excellent opportunity for students to clarify their feelings regarding problems that employers experience with entry-level employees. Some of these may include excessive absences, inappropriate dress, the effect of personal problems on job performance, and ethics in the work situation. (CT)

  19. Nature of Science and Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khishfe, Rola

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship of nature of science (NOS) instruction and students' decision-making (DM) related to a controversial socioscientific issue about genetically modified food. Participants were ninth-grade students in four intact sections (two regulars and two honors) in a public high school in the Midwest. All four groups were…

  20. Quorum responses and consensus decision making

    PubMed Central

    Sumpter, David J.T.; Pratt, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Animal groups are said to make consensus decisions when group members come to agree on the same option. Consensus decisions are taxonomically widespread and potentially offer three key benefits: maintenance of group cohesion, enhancement of decision accuracy compared with lone individuals and improvement in decision speed. In the absence of centralized control, arriving at a consensus depends on local interactions in which each individual's likelihood of choosing an option increases with the number of others already committed to that option. The resulting positive feedback can effectively direct most or all group members to the best available choice. In this paper, we examine the functional form of the individual response to others' behaviour that lies at the heart of this process. We review recent theoretical and empirical work on consensus decisions, and we develop a simple mathematical model to show the central importance to speedy and accurate decisions of quorum responses, in which an animal's probability of exhibiting a behaviour is a sharply nonlinear function of the number of other individuals already performing this behaviour. We argue that systems relying on such quorum rules can achieve cohesive choice of the best option while also permitting adaptive tuning of the trade-off between decision speed and accuracy. PMID:19073480

  1. Entrustment Decision Making in Clinical Training.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Olle; Hart, Danielle; Ankel, Felix; Busari, Jamiu; Englander, Robert; Glasgow, Nicholas; Holmboe, Eric; Iobst, William; Lovell, Elise; Snell, Linda S; Touchie, Claire; Van Melle, Elaine; Wycliffe-Jones, Keith

    2016-02-01

    The decision to trust a medical trainee with the critical responsibility to care for a patient is fundamental to clinical training. When carefully and deliberately made, such decisions can serve as significant stimuli for learning and also shape the assessment of trainees. Holding back entrustment decisions too much may hamper the trainee's development toward unsupervised practice. When carelessly made, however, they jeopardize patient safety. Entrustment decision-making processes, therefore, deserve careful analysis.Members (including the authors) of the International Competency-Based Medical Education Collaborative conducted a content analysis of the entrustment decision-making process in health care training during a two-day summit in September 2013 and subsequently reviewed the pertinent literature to arrive at a description of the critical features of this process, which informs this article.The authors discuss theoretical backgrounds and terminology of trust and entrustment in the clinical workplace. The competency-based movement and the introduction of entrustable professional activities force educators to rethink the grounds for assessment in the workplace. Anticipating a decision to grant autonomy at a designated level of supervision appears to align better with health care practice than do most current assessment practices. The authors distinguish different modes of trust and entrustment decisions and elaborate five categories, each with related factors, that determine when decisions to trust trainees are made: the trainee, supervisor, situation, task, and the relationship between trainee and supervisor. The authors' aim in this article is to lay a theoretical foundation for a new approach to workplace training and assessment. PMID:26630606

  2. Errors in Aviation Decision Making: Bad Decisions or Bad Luck?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Martin, Lynne; Davison, Jeannie; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Despite efforts to design systems and procedures to support 'correct' and safe operations in aviation, errors in human judgment still occur and contribute to accidents. In this paper we examine how an NDM (naturalistic decision making) approach might help us to understand the role of decision processes in negative outcomes. Our strategy was to examine a collection of identified decision errors through the lens of an aviation decision process model and to search for common patterns. The second, and more difficult, task was to determine what might account for those patterns. The corpus we analyzed consisted of tactical decision errors identified by the NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board) from a set of accidents in which crew behavior contributed to the accident. A common pattern emerged: about three quarters of the errors represented plan-continuation errors, that is, a decision to continue with the original plan despite cues that suggested changing the course of action. Features in the context that might contribute to these errors were identified: (a) ambiguous dynamic conditions and (b) organizational and socially-induced goal conflicts. We hypothesize that 'errors' are mediated by underestimation of risk and failure to analyze the potential consequences of continuing with the initial plan. Stressors may further contribute to these effects. Suggestions for improving performance in these error-inducing contexts are discussed.

  3. Toward an Expanded Definition of Adaptive Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.

    1997-01-01

    Uses the lifespan, life-space model to examine the definition of adaptive decision making. Reviews the existing definition of adaptive decision making as "rational" decision making and offers alternate perspectives on decision making with an emphasis on the implications of using the model. Makes suggestions for future theory, research, and…

  4. Design for sustainability of industrial symbiosis based on emergy and multi-objective particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-08-15

    Industrial symbiosis provides novel and practical pathway to the design for the sustainability. Decision support tool for its verification is necessary for practitioners and policy makers, while to date, quantitative research is limited. The objective of this work is to present an innovative approach for supporting decision-making in the design for the sustainability with the implementation of industrial symbiosis in chemical complex. Through incorporating the emergy theory, the model is formulated as a multi-objective approach that can optimize both the economic benefit and sustainable performance of the integrated industrial system. A set of emergy based evaluation index are designed. Multi-objective Particle Swarm Algorithm is proposed to solve the model, and the decision-makers are allowed to choose the suitable solutions form the Pareto solutions. An illustrative case has been studied by the proposed method, a few of compromises between high profitability and high sustainability can be obtained for the decision-makers/stakeholders to make decision. PMID:27110990

  5. Multi-objective optimization of lithium-ion battery model using genetic algorithm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Wang, Lixin; Hinds, Gareth; Lyu, Chao; Zheng, Jun; Li, Junfu

    2014-12-01

    A multi-objective parameter identification method for modeling of Li-ion battery performance is presented. Terminal voltage and surface temperature curves at 15 °C and 30 °C are used as four identification objectives. The Pareto fronts of two types of Li-ion battery are obtained using the modified multi-objective genetic algorithm NSGA-II and the final identification results are selected using the multiple criteria decision making method TOPSIS. The simulated data using the final identification results are in good agreement with experimental data under a range of operating conditions. The validation results demonstrate that the modified NSGA-II and TOPSIS algorithms can be used as robust and reliable tools for identifying parameters of multi-physics models for many types of Li-ion batteries.

  6. Nature of Science and Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishfe, Rola

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship of nature of science (NOS) instruction and students' decision-making (DM) related to a controversial socioscientific issue about genetically modified food. Participants were ninth-grade students in four intact sections (two regulars and two honors) in a public high school in the Midwest. All four groups were taught by their regular science teacher. The treatment comprised a four-week unit about genetic engineering. Two groups (one regular and one honors), referred to as comparison groups, received instruction in genetic engineering and how to formulate arguments and make decisions related to this controversial issue. The other two groups (one regular and one honors), referred to as treatment groups, received instruction in genetic engineering and how to apply NOS aspects as they formulate arguments and make decisions in relation to this controversial issue. Chi-square analyses showed significant differences between the comparison and the treatment groups in relation to the understandings of four NOS aspects. There were no differences in their decisions, but there were differences in their DM factors in the context of the controversial socioscientific issue about genetically modified food. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between students' understandings of NOS and their DM related to controversial socioscientific issues.

  7. Midbrain contributions to sensorimotor decision making.

    PubMed

    Felsen, Gidon; Mainen, Zachary F

    2012-07-01

    Making decisions about future actions is a fundamental function of the nervous system. Classical theories hold that separate sets of brain regions are responsible for selecting and implementing an action. Traditionally, action selection has been considered the domain of high-level regions, such as the prefrontal cortex, whereas action generation is thought to be carried out by dedicated cortical and subcortical motor regions. However, increasing evidence suggests that the activity of individual neurons in cortical motor structures reflects abstract properties of "decision variables" rather than conveying simple motor commands. Less is known, though, about the role of subcortical structures in decision making. In particular, the superior colliculus (SC) is critical for planning and initiating visually guided, gaze-displacing movements and selecting visual targets, but whether and how it contributes more generally to sensorimotor decisions are unclear. Here, we show that the SC is intimately involved in orienting decisions based on odor cues, even though the SC does not explicitly process olfactory stimuli. Neurons were recorded from the intermediate and deep SC layers in rats trained to perform a delayed-response, odor-cued spatial choice task. SC neurons commonly fired well in advance of movement initiation, predicting the chosen direction nearly 1 s before movement. Moreover, under conditions of sensory uncertainty, SC activity varied with task difficulty and reward outcome, reflecting the influence of decision variables on the intercollicular competition thought to underlie orienting movements. These results indicate that the SC plays a more general role in decisions than previously appreciated, extending beyond visuomotor functions. PMID:22496524

  8. Trait Anxiety Has Effect on Decision Making under Ambiguity but Not Decision Making under Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Chen, Xingui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that trait anxiety (TA) affects decision making. However, results remain largely inconsistent across studies. The aim of the current study was to further address the interaction between TA and decision making. 304 subjects without depression from a sample consisting of 642 participants were grouped into high TA (HTA), medium TA (MTA) and low TA (LTA) groups based on their TA scores from State Trait Anxiety Inventory. All subjects were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) that measures decision making under ambiguity and the Game of Dice Task (GDT) that measures decision making under risk. While the HTA and LTA groups performed worse on the IGT compared to the MTA group, performances on the GDT between the three groups did not differ. Furthermore, the LTA and HTA groups showed different individual deck level preferences in the IGT: the former showed a preference for deck B indicating that these subjects focused more on the magnitude of rewards, and the latter showed a preference for deck A indicating significant decision making impairment. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety has effect on decision making under ambiguity but not decision making under risk and different levels of trait anxiety related differently to individual deck level preferences in the IGT. PMID:26000629

  9. Trait Anxiety Has Effect on Decision Making under Ambiguity but Not Decision Making under Risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Chen, Xingui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that trait anxiety (TA) affects decision making. However, results remain largely inconsistent across studies. The aim of the current study was to further address the interaction between TA and decision making. 304 subjects without depression from a sample consisting of 642 participants were grouped into high TA (HTA), medium TA (MTA) and low TA (LTA) groups based on their TA scores from State Trait Anxiety Inventory. All subjects were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) that measures decision making under ambiguity and the Game of Dice Task (GDT) that measures decision making under risk. While the HTA and LTA groups performed worse on the IGT compared to the MTA group, performances on the GDT between the three groups did not differ. Furthermore, the LTA and HTA groups showed different individual deck level preferences in the IGT: the former showed a preference for deck B indicating that these subjects focused more on the magnitude of rewards, and the latter showed a preference for deck A indicating significant decision making impairment. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety has effect on decision making under ambiguity but not decision making under risk and different levels of trait anxiety related differently to individual deck level preferences in the IGT. PMID:26000629

  10. Before you make that big decision...

    PubMed

    Kahneman, Daniel; Lovallo, Dan; Sibony, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    When an executive makes a big bet, he or she typically relies on the judgment of a team that has put together a proposal for a strategic course of action. After all, the team will have delved into the pros and cons much more deeply than the executive has time to do. The problem is, biases invariably creep into any team's reasoning-and often dangerously distort its thinking. A team that has fallen in love with its recommendation, for instance, may subconsciously dismiss evidence that contradicts its theories, give far too much weight to one piece of data, or make faulty comparisons to another business case. That's why, with important decisions, executives need to conduct a careful review not only of the content of recommendations but of the recommendation process. To that end, the authors-Kahneman, who won a Nobel Prize in economics for his work on cognitive biases; Lovallo of the University of Sydney; and Sibony of McKinsey-have put together a 12-question checklist intended to unearth and neutralize defects in teams' thinking. These questions help leaders examine whether a team has explored alternatives appropriately, gathered all the right information, and used well-grounded numbers to support its case. They also highlight considerations such as whether the team might be unduly influenced by self-interest, overconfidence, or attachment to past decisions. By using this practical tool, executives will build decision processes over time that reduce the effects of biases and upgrade the quality of decisions their organizations make. The payoffs can be significant: A recent McKinsey study of more than 1,000 business investments, for instance, showed that when companies worked to reduce the effects of bias, they raised their returns on investment by seven percentage points. Executives need to realize that the judgment of even highly experienced, superbly competent managers can be fallible. A disciplined decision-making process, not individual genius, is the key to good

  11. Decision-making mechanisms in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deco, Gustavo; Rolls, Edmund T.

    2007-02-01

    Behavioral, neurophysiological, and theoretical studies are converging to a common theory of decision-making that assumes an underlying diffusion process which integrates both the accumulation of perceptual and cognitive evidence for making the decision and motor choice in one unifying neural network. In particular, neuronal activity in the ventral premotor cortex (VPC) is related to decision-making while trained monkeys compare two mechanical vibrations applied sequentially to the tip of a finger to report which of the two stimuli have the higher frequency (Romo et al. 2004, Neuron 41: 165). In particular, neurons were found whose response depended only on the difference between the two applied frequencies, the sign of that difference being the determining factor for correct task performance. We describe an integrate-and-fire attractor model with realistic synaptic dynamics including AMPA, NMDA and GABA synapses which can reproduce the decision-making related response selectivity of VPC neurons during the comparison period of the task. Populations of neurons for each decision in the biased competition attractor receive a bias input that depends on the firing rates of neurons in the VPC that code for the two vibrotactile frequencies. It was found that if the connectivity parameters of the network are tuned, using mean-field techniques, so that the network has two possible stable stationary final attractors respectively related to the two possible decisions, then the firing rate of the neurons in whichever attractor wins reflects the sign of the difference in the frequencies being compared but not the absolute frequencies. Thus Weber's law for frequency comparison is not encoded by the firing rate of the neurons in these attractors. An analysis of the nonstationary evolution of the dynamics of the network model shows that Weber's law is implemented in the probability of transition from the initial spontaneous firing state to one of the two possible attractor states

  12. Has Lean improved organizational decision making?

    PubMed

    Simons, Pascale; Benders, Jos; Bergs, Jochen; Marneffe, Wim; Vandijck, Dominique

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Sustainable improvement is likely to be hampered by ambiguous objectives and uncertain cause-effect relations in care processes (the organization's decision-making context). Lean management can improve implementation results because it decreases ambiguity and uncertainties. But does it succeed? Many quality improvement (QI) initiatives are appropriate improvement strategies in organizational contexts characterized by low ambiguity and uncertainty. However, most care settings do not fit this context. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether a Lean-inspired change program changed the organization's decision-making context, making it more amenable for QI initiatives. Design/methodology/approach - In 2014, 12 professionals from a Dutch radiotherapy institute were interviewed regarding their perceptions of a Lean program in their organization and the perceived ambiguous objectives and uncertain cause-effect relations in their clinical processes. A survey (25 questions), addressing the same concepts, was conducted among the interviewees in 2011 and 2014. The structured interviews were analyzed using a deductive approach. Quantitative data were analyzed using appropriate statistics. Findings - Interviewees experienced improved shared visions and the number of uncertain cause-effect relations decreased. Overall, more positive (99) than negative Lean effects (18) were expressed. The surveys revealed enhanced process predictability and standardization, and improved shared visions. Practical implications - Lean implementation has shown to lead to greater transparency and increased shared visions. Originality/value - Lean management decreased ambiguous objectives and reduced uncertainties in clinical process cause-effect relations. Therefore, decision making benefitted from Lean increasing QI's sustainability. PMID:27256776

  13. The Robust Weighted Multi-Objective Game

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies a class of multi-objective n-person non-zero sum games through a robust weighted approach where each player has more than one competing objective. This robust weighted multi-objective game model assumes that each player attaches a set of weights to its objectives instead of accessing accurate weights. Each player wishes to minimize its maximum weighted sum objective where the maximization is pointing to the set of weights. To address this new model, a new equilibrium concept-robust weighted Nash equilibrium is obtained. The existence of this new concept is proven on suitable assumptions about the multi-objective payoffs. PMID:26406986

  14. Incorporating patients' preferences into medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Current models of care emphasize the importance of including patients' values in the decision-making process. This is particularly important for decisions for which there are few data supporting a clear strategy or treatment choice. Constructing preferences for complex decisions requires that patients be able to consider multiple trade-offs between specific risks and benefits. Several marketing research techniques have been recently applied to heath care settings to facilitate this process. Most can be programmed to generate patients' preferences or priorities, which can then be used to improve patient-physician communication. In this article, we will describe some of the currently available approaches that have been successfully used in the health care setting. We provide case examples to illustrate the potential value of adopting each of these approaches in clinical practice. PMID:23132890

  15. Farmer Decision-Making for Climate Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, M.; Niles, M.; Salerno, J.

    2015-12-01

    This talk will provide an overview of several studies of how farmers make decisions about climate change adaptation and mitigation. A particular focus will be the "limiting factors hypothesis", which argues that farmers will respond to the climate variables that usually have the largest impact on their crop productivity. For example, the most limiting factor in California is usually water so how climate change affects water will be the largest drive of climate adaptation decisions. This basic idea is drawn from the broader theory of "psychological distance", which argue that human decisions are more attuned to ideas that are psychologically closer in space, time, or other factors. Empirical examples come from California, New Zealand, and Africa.

  16. Decision Making: from Neuroscience to Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daeyeol

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive behaviors increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction and improve the quality of life. However, it is often difficult to identify optimal behaviors in real life due to the complexity of the decision maker’s environment and social dynamics. As a result, although many different brain areas and circuits are involved in decision making, evolutionary and learning solutions adopted by individual decision makers sometimes produce suboptimal outcomes. Although these problems are exacerbated in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, their underlying neurobiological causes remain incompletely understood. In this review, theoretical frameworks in economics and machine learning and their applications in recent behavioral and neurobiological studies are summarized. Examples of such applications in clinical domains are also discussed for substance abuse, Parkinson’s disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism. Findings from these studies have begun to lay the foundations necessary to improve diagnostics and treatment for various neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:23622061

  17. Group Dynamics and Decision Making: Backcountry Recreationists in Avalanche Terrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Leslie Shay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of decision-making characteristics of recreational backcountry groups when making a decision of where to travel and ride in avalanche terrain from the perspective of individuals. Decision-making characteristics encompassed communication, decision-making processes, leadership,…

  18. Decision Making in a Joint Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieth, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the decision making in developing and starting a partnership between three universities using the decision-making models developed by Graham Allison in 1971 and updated in 1999. University partnerships are complicated and require more than one decision-making model to explain all the significant decisions that are make in…

  19. 43 CFR 10010.48 - Decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision-making procedures. 10010.48... POLICY ACT Relationship to Decision-Making § 10010.48 Decision-making procedures. (a) Procedures by which the Commission makes decisions are specified in 43 CFR part 10000. (b) The Commission will...

  20. 43 CFR 10010.48 - Decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision-making procedures. 10010.48... POLICY ACT Relationship to Decision-Making § 10010.48 Decision-making procedures. (a) Procedures by which the Commission makes decisions are specified in 43 CFR part 10000. (b) The Commission will...

  1. 43 CFR 10010.48 - Decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decision-making procedures. 10010.48... POLICY ACT Relationship to Decision-Making § 10010.48 Decision-making procedures. (a) Procedures by which the Commission makes decisions are specified in 43 CFR part 10000. (b) The Commission will...

  2. Data-Based Decision Making in Education: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildkamp, Kim, Ed.; Lai, Mei Kuin, Ed.; Earl, Lorna, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    In a context where schools are held more and more accountable for the education they provide, data-based decision making has become increasingly important. This book brings together scholars from several countries to examine data-based decision making. Data-based decision making in this book refers to making decisions based on a broad range of…

  3. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  4. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  5. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  6. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  7. 43 CFR 10010.48 - Decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision-making procedures. 10010.48... POLICY ACT Relationship to Decision-Making § 10010.48 Decision-making procedures. (a) Procedures by which the Commission makes decisions are specified in 43 CFR part 10000. (b) The Commission will...

  8. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  9. Conflict and Group Decision-Making: A New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dace, Karen L.

    In the opinion of decision-making scholars, conflict is a natural component of group decision-making. A new direction for conflict and group decision-making theory and research will help dispel the confusion as to the promotive or disruptive nature of disagreement in group decision-making. Conflict literature is replete with descriptions of the…

  10. Your Budget Leadership--Do You Make "Sound" Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Brian O.; DeAngelis, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    One mark of an effective leader is effective decision making. A few analysts have developed "normative" decision-making models--models that describe how administrators should make decisions--while others have developed "descriptive" models--models that describe how administrators actually make decisions. In this article, the authors introduce a…

  11. Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Dene; Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D.; Yammarino, Francis J.; Wilson, David Sloan

    Team decision making dynamics are investigated from a novel perspective by shifting agency from decision makers to representations of potential solutions. We provide a new way to navigate social dynamics of collective decision making by interpreting decision makers as constituents of an evolutionary environment of an ecology of evolving solutions. We demonstrate distinct patterns of evolution with respect to three forms of variation: (1) Results with random variations in utility functions of individuals indicate that groups demonstrating minimal internal variation produce higher true utility values of group solutions and display better convergence; (2) analysis of variations in behavioral patterns within a group shows that a proper balance between selective and creative evolutionary forces is crucial to producing adaptive solutions; and (3) biased variations of the utility functions diminish the range of variation for potential solution utility, leaving only the differential of convergence performance static. We generally find that group cohesion (low random variation within a group) and composition (appropriate variation of behavioral patterns within a group) are necessary for a successful navigation of the solution space, but performance in both cases is susceptible to group level biases.

  12. Involving the motor system in decision making.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Reto; König, Peter; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2004-02-01

    The control of behaviour is usually understood in terms of three distinct components: sensory processing, decision making and movement control. Recently, this view has been questioned on the basis of physiological and behavioural data, blurring the distinction between these three stages. This raises the question to what extent the motor system itself can contribute to the interpretation of behavioural situations. To investigate this question we use a neural model of sensory motor integration applied to a behaving mobile robot performing a navigation task. We show that the population response of the motor system provides a substrate for the categorization of behavioural situations. This categorization allows for the assessment of the complexity of a behavioural situation and regulates whether higher-level decision making is required to resolve behavioural conflicts. Our model lends credence to an emerging reconceptualization of behavioural control where the motor system can be considered as part of a high-level perceptual system. PMID:15101417

  13. Shared decision making after MacIntyre.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon

    2011-04-01

    This paper explores the practical consequences that Enlightenment ideals had on morality as it applies to clinical practice, using Alisdair MacIntyre's conceptualization and critique of the Enlightenment as its reference point. Taking the perspective of a practicing clinician, I critically examine the historical origins of ideas that made shared decision making (SDM) a necessary and ideal model of clinician-patient relationship. I then build on MacIntyre's critique of Enlightenment thought and examine its implications for conceptions of shared decision-making that use an Enlightenment justification, as well as examining contemporary threats to SDM that the Enlightenment made possible. I conclude by offering an alternative framing of SDM that fits with the clinician's duty to act on behalf of and along with patients but that avoids the tenuous Enlightenment assumptions that MacIntyre's work so vocally critiques. PMID:21378085

  14. Distributed decision-making for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Gardner, J. A.; Willoughby, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    A programmatic and technical perspective in the context of future space applications is presented, that includes some of the management challenges that arise as the decision-making process becomes increasingly more decentralized. Three challenges are discussed: (1) the degree to which the planners must communicate with each other and with those who are seeking space operations resources, (2) the collection, management, employment and dissemination of the information needed to make decisions, and (3) the challenges connected with schedule integration. The technical perspective presented leads to recommended adaptations to the normal scheduling algorithms that retain the 'degrees of freedom' in the planning result. It is shown that these adaptations are specific technical responses to the programmatic challenges discussed.

  15. Leadership of risk decision making in a complex, technology organization: The deliberative decision making model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaming, Susan C.

    2007-12-01

    The continuing saga of satellite technology development is as much a story of successful risk management as of innovative engineering. How do program leaders on complex, technology projects manage high stakes risks that threaten business success and satellite performance? This grounded theory study of risk decision making portrays decision leadership practices at one communication satellite company. Integrated product team (IPT) leaders of multi-million dollar programs were interviewed and observed to develop an extensive description of the leadership skills required to navigate organizational influences and drive challenging risk decisions to closure. Based on the study's findings the researcher proposes a new decision making model, Deliberative Decision Making, to describe the program leaders' cognitive and organizational leadership practices. This Deliberative Model extends the insights of prominent decision making models including the rational (or classical) and the naturalistic and qualifies claims made by bounded rationality theory. The Deliberative Model describes how leaders proactively engage resources to play a variety of decision leadership roles. The Model incorporates six distinct types of leadership decision activities, undertaken in varying sequence based on the challenges posed by specific risks. Novel features of the Deliberative Decision Model include: an inventory of leadership methods for managing task challenges, potential stakeholder bias and debates; four types of leadership meta-decisions that guide decision processes, and aligned organizational culture. Both supporting and constraining organizational influences were observed as leaders managed major risks, requiring active leadership on the most difficult decisions. Although the company's engineering culture emphasized the importance of data-based decisions, the uncertainties intrinsic to satellite risks required expert engineering judgment to be exercised throughout. An investigation into

  16. "Decisions, decisions, decisions": transfer and specificity of decision-making skill between sports.

    PubMed

    Causer, Joe; Ford, Paul R

    2014-08-01

    The concept of transfer of learning holds that previous practice or experience in one task or domain will enable successful performance in another related task or domain. In contrast, specificity of learning holds that previous practice or experience in one task or domain does not transfer to other related tasks or domains. The aim of the current study is to examine whether decision-making skill transfers between sports that share similar elements, or whether it is specific to a sport. Participants (n = 205) completed a video-based temporal occlusion decision-making test in which they were required to decide on which action to execute across a series of 4 versus 4 soccer game situations. A sport engagement questionnaire was used to identify 106 soccer players, 43 other invasion sport players and 58 other sport players. Positive transfer of decision-making skill occurred between soccer and other invasion sports, which are related and have similar elements, but not from volleyball, supporting the concept of transfer of learning. PMID:24414520

  17. Implementing Participatory Decision Making in Forest Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananda, Jayanath

    2007-04-01

    Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

  18. Collaborative Platforms Aid Emergency Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Terra. Aqua. Cloudsat. Landsat. NASA runs and partners in many missions dedicated to monitoring the Earth, and the tools used in these missions continuously return data on everything from shifts in temperature to cloud formation to pollution levels over highways. The data are of great scientific value, but they also provide information that can play a critical role in decision making during times of crisis. Real-time developments in weather, wind, ocean currents, and numerous other conditions can have a significant impact on the way disasters, both natural and human-caused, unfold. "NASA has long recognized the need to make its data from real-time sources compatible and accessible for the purposes of decision making," says Michael Goodman, who was Disasters Program manager at NASA Headquarters from 2009-2012. "There are practical applications of NASA Earth science data, and we d like to accelerate the use of those applications." One of the main obstacles standing in the way of eminently practical data is the fact that the data from different missions are collected, formatted, and stored in different ways. Combining data sets in a way that makes them useful for decision makers has proven to be a difficult task. And while the need for a collaborative platform is widely recognized, very few have successfully made it work. Dave Jones, founder and CEO of StormCenter Communications Inc., which consults with decision makers to prepare for emergencies, says that "when I talk to public authorities, they say, If I had a nickel for every time someone told me they had a common operating platform, I d be rich. But one thing we ve seen over the years is that no one has been able to give end users the ability to ingest NASA data sets and merge them with their own."

  19. Making decisions with a continuous mind.

    PubMed

    Scherbaum, S; Dshemuchadse, M; Kalis, A

    2008-12-01

    Neuroeconomics is a rapidly expanding field at the interfaces of the human sciences. The interdisciplinary nature of this field results in several challenges when attempts are made to solve puzzling questions in human decision making, such as why and how people discount future gains. We argue that an empirical approach based on dynamic systems theory (DST) could inspire and advance the neuroeconomic investigation of decision-making processes in three ways: by enriching the mental model, by extending the empirical tool set, and by facilitating interdisciplinary exchange. The present article addresses the challenges neuroeconomics faces by focusing on intertemporal choice. After a brief introduction of DST and related research, a DST-based conceptual model of decision making is developed and linked to underlying neural principles. On this basis, we outline the application of DST-informed empirical strategies to intertemporal choice. Finally, we discuss the general consequences of and possible objections to the proposed approach to research in intertemporal choice and the field of neuroeconomics. PMID:19033241

  20. Impaired strategic decision making in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Daeyeol; Shin, Young-Min; Chey, Jeanyung

    2007-11-14

    Adaptive decision making in dynamic social settings requires frequent re-evaluation of choice outcomes and revision of strategies. This requires an array of multiple cognitive abilities, such as working memory and response inhibition. Thus, the disruption of such abilities in schizophrenia can have significant implications for social dysfunctions in affected patients. In the present study, 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects completed two computerized binary decision-making tasks. In the first task, the participants played a competitive zero-sum game against a computer in which the predictable choice behavior was penalized and the optimal strategy was to choose the two targets stochastically. In the second task, the expected payoffs of the two targets were fixed and unaffected by the subject's choices, so the optimal strategy was to choose the target with the higher expected payoff exclusively. The schizophrenia patients earned significantly less money during the first task, even though their overall choice probabilities were not significantly different from the control subjects. This was mostly because patients were impaired in integrating the outcomes of their previous choices appropriately in order to maintain the optimal strategy. During the second task, the choices of patients and control subjects displayed more similar patterns. This study elucidated the specific components in strategic decision making that are impaired in schizophrenia. The deficit, which can be characterized as strategic stiffness, may have implications for the poor social adjustment in schizophrenia patients. PMID:17905200

  1. Shared Decision-Making in Diabetes Care.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Shrikant; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Hargraves, Ian; Montori, Victor M

    2015-12-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) is a collaborative process by which patients and clinicians work together in a deliberative dialogue. The purpose of this dialogue is to identify reasonable management options that best fit and addresses the unique situation of the patient. SDM supports the patient-centered translation of research into practice. SDM also helps implement a core principle of evidence-based medicine: evidence is necessary but never sufficient to make a clinical decision, as consideration of patient values and context is also required. SDM conversations build on a partnership between the patient and the clinician, draw on the body of evidence with regard to the different treatment options, and consider options in light of the values, preferences, and context of the patient. SDM is appropriate for diabetes care because diabetes care often requires consideration of management options that differ in ways that matter to patients, such as the way in which they place significant demands on patient's life and living. In the last decade, SDM has proven feasible and useful for sharing evidence with patients and for involving patients in making decisions with their clinicians. Health care and clinical policies advocate SDM, but these policies have yet to impact diabetes care. In this paper, we describe what SDM is, its known impact on diabetes care, and needed work to implement this patient-centered approach in the care of the millions of patients with diabetes. PMID:26458383

  2. Dopaminergic Modulation of Risky Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nicholas W.; Montgomery, Karienn S.; Beas, Blanca S.; Mitchell, Marci R.; LaSarge, Candi L.; Mendez, Ian A.; Bañuelos, Cristina; Vokes, Colin M.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Haberman, Rebecca P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Setlow, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by abnormal risky decision-making and dysregulated dopamine receptor expression. The current study was designed to determine how different dopamine receptor subtypes modulate risk-taking in young adult rats, using a “Risky Decision-making Task” that involves choices between small “safe” rewards and large “risky” rewards accompanied by adverse consequences. Rats showed considerable, stable individual differences in risk preference in the task, which were not related to multiple measures of reward motivation, anxiety, or pain sensitivity. Systemic activation of D2-like receptors robustly attenuated risk-taking, whereas drugs acting on D1-like receptors had no effect. Systemic amphetamine also reduced risk-taking, an effect which was attenuated by D2-like (but not D1-like) receptor blockade. Dopamine receptor mRNA expression was evaluated in a separate cohort of drug-naive rats characterized in the task. D1 mRNA expression in both nucleus accumbens shell and insular cortex was positively associated with risk-taking, while D2 mRNA expression in orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex predicted risk preference in opposing nonlinear patterns. Additionally, lower levels of D2 mRNA in dorsal striatum were associated with greater risk-taking. These data strongly implicate dopamine signaling in prefrontal corticalstriatal circuitry in modulating decision-making processes involving integration of reward information with risks of adverse consequences. PMID:22131407

  3. Naturalistic Decision Making for Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2010-02-01

    Motivation – Investigations of large-scale outages in the North American interconnected electric system often attribute the causes to three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. To document and understand the mental processes used by expert operators when making critical decisions, a naturalistic decision making (NDM) model was developed. Transcripts of conversations were analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design – An item analysis indicated that the operators’ Situation Awareness Levels, mental models, and mental simulations can be mapped at different points in the training scenario. This may identify improved training methods or analytical/ visualization tools. Originality/Value – This study applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message – The NDM approach provides a viable framework for systematic training management to accelerate learning in simulator-based training scenarios for power system operators and teams.

  4. Naturalistic Decision Making For Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2009-06-23

    Abstract: Motivation -- As indicated by the Blackout of 2003, the North American interconnected electric system is vulnerable to cascading outages and widespread blackouts. Investigations of large scale outages often attribute the causes to the three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. A systematic approach has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The approach has been developed and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine naturalistic decision making (NDM) processes, transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations are analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design -- The results of the study indicate that we can map the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify clearly what mental models and mental simulations are being performed at different points in the scenario. As a result of this research we expect that we can identify improved training methods and improved analytical and visualization tools for power system operators. Originality/Value -- The research applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message -- The NDM approach provides an ideal framework for systematic training management and mitigation to accelerate learning in team-based training scenarios with high-fidelity power grid simulators.

  5. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

  6. Pleasure in decision-making situations

    PubMed Central

    Cabanac, Michel; Guillaume, Jacqueline; Balasko, Marta; Fleury, Adriana

    2002-01-01

    Background This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. Results In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I) including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II) using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III), including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV) using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect responses corresponding to their

  7. Self-Esteem in Decision Making and Decision-Making Styles of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temel, Veysel; Birol, Sefa Sahan; Nas, Kazim; Akpinar, Selahattin; Tekin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making styles of the teachers in various branches of Çat town of Erzurum Province, Turkey in terms of some variables in 2014-2015 year. A total of 153 teachers (84 females and 69 males) (age (? = 1.6536 ± 0.72837) from different departments participated in the…

  8. Public involvement in science and decision making.

    PubMed

    Till, J E; Meyer, K R

    2001-04-01

    Members of the public are becoming increasingly interested in understanding risks associated with their exposure to radionuclides and chemicals in the environment. They also want to be more involved in decision making about future exposures to risks. This paper reviews one community's involvement in decisions about technical methods to calculate soil cleanup criteria for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Denver, Colorado. The public anticipated that much of the site would be available for their use following cleanup. Final decisions regarding the future use of the site have yet to be made; however, the soil action levels were developed for this eventuality. When the public expressed considerable concern about cleanup standards for the site in 1996, a community group met to focus efforts on reviewing the cleanup standards. Later, the U.S. Department of Energy officially established the community panel to oversee an independent calculation of radionuclide soil action levels that would be used as the basis for cleanup at Rocky Flats. The primary radionuclide of concern was 239+240Pu. The Radionuclide Soil Action Level Oversight Panel (Panel) was substantively involved in all aspects of the work, from selecting the contractor, approving the computer code that formed the basis of the calculation, and assisting in developing the exposure scenarios, to selecting the values for the numerous input parameters. Communicating the uncertainties to the public, which was a major component of the analysis of soil action levels, presented a unique challenge. Over the course of the 18-mo project, the Panel and interested members of the public gained an understanding of the technical elements of the calculation and the sensitivities of the different parameters. This project serves as an excellent model of the effectiveness of public involvement in science and decision making for the future. It also illustrates the public expectations, difficulties, and time

  9. Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Paul

    2013-11-19

    Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making (Final Report) This Department of Energy workshop award (grant #DE-SC0008480) provided primary support for the American Meteorological Society’s study on climate information needs for financial decision making. The goal of this study was to help advance societal decision making by examining the implications of climate variability and change on near-term financial investments. We explored four key topics: 1) the conditions and criteria that influence returns on investment of major financial decisions, 2) the climate sensitivity of financial decisions, 3) climate information needs of financial decision makers, and 4) potential new mechanisms to promote collaboration between scientists and financial decision makers. Better understanding of these four topics will help scientists provide the most useful information and enable financial decision makers to use scientific information most effectively. As a result, this study will enable leaders in business and government to make well-informed choices that help maximize long-term economic success and social wellbeing in the United States The outcomes of the study include a workshop, which brought together leaders from the scientific and financial decision making communities, a publication of the study report, and a public briefing of the results to the policy community. In addition, we will present the results to the scientific community at the AMS Annual Meeting in February, 2014. The study results were covered well by the media including Bloomberg News and E&E News. Upon request, we also briefed the Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) on the outcomes. We presented the results to the policy community through a public briefing in December on Capitol Hill. The full report is publicly available at www.ametsoc.org/cin. Summary of Key Findings The United States invests roughly $1.5 trillion U.S. dollars (USD) in

  10. Ethical case deliberation and decision making.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Diego

    2003-01-01

    During the last thirty years different methods have been proposed in order to manage and resolve ethical quandaries, specially in the clinical setting. Some of these methodologies are based on the principles of Decision-making theory. Others looked to other philosophical traditions, like Principlism, Hermeneutics, Narrativism, Casuistry, Pragmatism, etc. This paper defends the view that deliberation is the cornerstone of any adequate methodology. This is due to the fact that moral decisions must take into account not only principles and ideas, but also emotions, values and beliefs. Deliberation is the process in which everyone concerned by the decision is considered a valid moral agent, obliged to give reasons for their own points of view, and to listen to the reasons of others. The goal of this process is not the reaching of a consensus but the enrichment of one's own point of view with that of the others, increasing in this way the maturity of one's own decision, in order to make it more wise or prudent. In many cases the members of a group of deliberation will differ in the final solution of the case, but the confrontation of their reasons will modify the perception of the problem of everyone. This is the profit of the process. Our moral decisions cannot be completely rational, due to the fact that they are influenced by feelings, values, beliefs, etc., but they must be reasonable, that is, wise and prudent. Deliberation is the main procedure to reach this goal. It obliges us to take others into account, respecting their different beliefs and values and prompting them to give reasons for their own points of view. This method has been traditional in Western clinical medicine all over its history, and it should be also the main procedure for clinical ethics. PMID:14620459

  11. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  12. Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that—in both the foraging and the casino frames—participants’ choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  13. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  14. Decision-making competence and attempted suicide

    PubMed Central

    Szanto, Katalin; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Hallquist, Michael N; Vanyukov, Polina M; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-01-01

    Objective The propensity of people vulnerable to suicide to make poor life decisions is increasingly well documented. Do they display an extreme degree of decision biases? The present study used a behavioral decision approach to examine the susceptibility of low-lethality and high-lethality suicide attempters to common decision biases, which may ultimately obscure alternative solutions and deterrents to suicide in a crisis. Method We assessed older and middle-aged individuals who made high-lethality (medically serious; N=31) and low-lethality suicide attempts (N=29). Comparison groups included suicide ideators (N=30), non-suicidal depressed (N=53), and psychiatrically healthy participants (N=28). Attempters, ideators, and non-suicidal depressed participants had unipolar non-psychotic major depression. Decision biases included sunk cost (inability to abort an action for which costs are irrecoverable), framing (responding to superficial features of how a problem is presented), under/overconfidence (appropriateness of confidence in knowledge), and inconsistent risk perception. Data were collected between June of 2010 and February of 2014. Results Both high- and low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to framing effects, as compared to the other groups included in this study (p≤ 0.05, ηp2 =.06). In contrast, low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to sunk costs than both the comparison groups and high-lethality attempters (p≤ 0.01, ηp2 =.09). These group differences remained after accounting for age, global cognitive performance, and impulsive traits. Premorbid IQ partially explained group differences in framing effects. Conclusion Suicide attempters’ failure to resist framing may reflect their inability to consider a decision from an objective standpoint in a crisis. Low-lethality attempters’ failure to resist sunk-cost may reflect their tendency to confuse past and future costs of their behavior, lowering their threshold for acting on suicidal

  15. Supporting patients in shared decision making in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Claire; Fraser, Aileen

    2015-04-01

    This article defines shared decision making in patient care and describes the background to this philosophy. The shared decision making approach is part of a wider initiative to promote patient-centred care and increase patient involvement in clinical decisions. Shared decision making recognises patients' rights to make decisions about their care and is used to assist them to make informed and individualised decisions about care and treatment. As well as reviewing the principles of shared decision making, the article offers practical guidance on how nurses can implement this initiative, including information on sharing expertise, agenda setting, assessing risks and benefits, setting goals, and support and follow up. PMID:25828022

  16. An Emerging Field of Research: Challenges in Pediatric Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Lipstein, Ellen A.; Brinkman, William B.; Fiks, Alexander G.; Hendrix, Kristin S.; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Miller, Victoria A.; Prosser, Lisa A.; Ungar, Wendy J.; Fox, David

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in pediatric decision science, spurred by policies advocating for children’s involvement in medical decision making. Challenges specific to pediatric decision research include: the dynamic nature of child participation in decisions due to the growth and development of children, the family context of all pediatric decisions, and the measurement of preferences and outcomes that may inform decision making in the pediatric setting. The objectives of this manuscript are to describe each of these challenges, to provide decision researchers with insight into pediatric decision making, and establish a blueprint for future research that will contribute to high quality pediatric medical decision making. Much work has been done toward addressing gaps in pediatric decision science, but substantial work remains. Understanding and addressing the challenges that exist in pediatric decision making may foster medical decision-making science across the age spectrum. PMID:25145576

  17. Money Related Decommissioning and Funding Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Lynne S.

    2008-01-15

    'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional funds.

  18. A Design Pattern for Decentralised Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Gabriele; Fernández-Oto, Cristian; Dorigo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The engineering of large-scale decentralised systems requires sound methodologies to guarantee the attainment of the desired macroscopic system-level behaviour given the microscopic individual-level implementation. While a general-purpose methodology is currently out of reach, specific solutions can be given to broad classes of problems by means of well-conceived design patterns. We propose a design pattern for collective decision making grounded on experimental/theoretical studies of the nest-site selection behaviour observed in honeybee swarms (Apis mellifera). The way in which honeybee swarms arrive at consensus is fairly well-understood at the macroscopic level. We provide formal guidelines for the microscopic implementation of collective decisions to quantitatively match the macroscopic predictions. We discuss implementation strategies based on both homogeneous and heterogeneous multiagent systems, and we provide means to deal with spatial and topological factors that have a bearing on the micro-macro link. Finally, we exploit the design pattern in two case studies that showcase the viability of the approach. Besides engineering, such a design pattern can prove useful for a deeper understanding of decision making in natural systems thanks to the inclusion of individual heterogeneities and spatial factors, which are often disregarded in theoretical modelling. PMID:26496359

  19. [HEALTH ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND FAIR DECISION MAKING].

    PubMed

    Jeantet, Marine; Lopez, Alain

    2015-09-01

    Health technology assessment consists in evaluating the incremental cost-benefit ratio of a medicine, a medical device, a vaccine, a health strategy, in comparison to alternative health technologies. This form of socio-eoonomic evaluation aims at optimizing resource allocation within the health system. By setting the terms of valid alternatives, it is useful to highlight public choices, but it cannot in itself make the decision as regards the public funding of patient's access to the considered technology. The decision to include such technology in the basket of health goods and sercices covered, the levels and conditions of the coverage, also result from budget constraints, from economic situation and from a political vision about health policy, social protection and public expenditure. Accordingly, health economic analysis must be implemented on specific and targeted topics. The decision making process, with its health, economic and ethical stakes, calls for a public procedure and debate, based on shared information and argument. Otherwise, health system regulation, confronted with radical and costly innovations in the coming years, will become harder to handle. This requires the development of health economic research teams able to contribute to this assessment exercise. PMID:26619723

  20. Improving Adolescent Judgment and Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Dansereau, Donald F; Knight, Danica K; Flynn, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Human judgment and decision making (JDM) has substantial room for improvement, especially among adolescents. Increased technological and social complexity "ups the ante" for developing impactful JDM interventions and aids. Current explanatory advances in this field emphasize dual processing models that incorporate both experiential and analytic processing systems. According to these models, judgment and decisions based on the experiential system are rapid and stem from automatic reference to previously stored episodes. Those based on the analytic system are viewed as slower and consciously developed. These models also hypothesize that metacognitive (self-monitoring) activities embedded in the analytic system influence how and when the two systems are used. What is not included in these models is the development of an intersection between the two systems. Because such an intersection is strongly suggested by memory and educational research as the basis of wisdom/expertise, the present paper describes an Integrated Judgment and Decision-Making Model (IJDM) that incorporates this component. Wisdom/expertise is hypothesized to contain a collection of schematic structures that can emerge from the accumulation of similar episodes or repeated analytic practice. As will be argued, in comparisons to dual system models, the addition of this component provides a broader basis for selecting and designing interventions to improve adolescent JDM. Its development also has implications for generally enhancing cognitive interventions by adopting principles from athletic training to create automated, expert behaviors. PMID:24391350

  1. Mentalizing in economic decision-making.

    PubMed

    Polezzi, David; Daum, Irene; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Lotto, Lorella; Civai, Claudia; Sartori, Giuseppe; Rumiati, Rino

    2008-07-19

    In the Ultimatum Game, participants typically reject monetary offers they consider unfair even if the alternative is to gain no money at all. In the present study, ERPs were recorded while subjects processed different offers of a proposer. In addition to clearly fair and unfair offers, mid-value offers which cannot be easily classified as fair or unfair and therefore involve more elaborate decision making were analyzed. A fast initial distinction between fair and other kinds of offers was reflected by amplitude of the feedback related negativity (FRN). Mid-value offers were associated with longer RTs, and a larger N350 amplitude. In addition, source analyses revealed a specific involvement of the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule during processing of mid-value offers compared to offers categorized clearly as fair or unfair, suggesting a contribution of mentalizing about the intention of the proposer to the decision making process. Taken together, the present findings support the idea that economic decisions are significantly affected by non-rational factors, trying to narrow the gap between formal theory and the real decisional behaviour. PMID:18406476

  2. Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Azam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network planning, design, deployment and operation often give rise to multi-objective optimization formulations where multiple desirable objectives compete with each other and the decision maker has to select one of the tradeoff solutions. These multiple objectives may or may not conflict with each other. Keeping in view the nature of the application, the sensing scenario and input/output of the problem, the type of optimization problem changes. To address different nature of optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network design, deployment, operation, planing and placement, there exist a plethora of optimization solution types. We review and analyze different desirable objectives to show whether they conflict with each other, support each other or they are design dependent. We also present a generic multi-objective optimization problem relating to wireless sensor network which consists of input variables, required output, objectives and constraints. A list of constraints is also presented to give an overview of different constraints which are considered while formulating the optimization problems in wireless sensor networks. Keeping in view the multi facet coverage of this article relating to multi-objective optimization, this will open up new avenues of research in the area of multi-objective optimization relating to wireless sensor networks. PMID:26205271

  3. [Economic studies and decision analysis as tools for decision making].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pimentel, Leticia; Silva-Romo, Rodolfo; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Management implies decision-making and economics deals with efficiency which means to obtain the best possible results with the available resources, and to compare such results with those that were foreseen. The economic evaluation comprises a set of techniques aimed at comparing resource allocation on alternate courses of action and its consequences. In health care, these results are the overall well-being of the society. This paper summarizes the techniques that are customarily used in economic evaluation, and intends to serve as an introductory text to increasing the ability of the readers to grasp original articles in the field of health economics. PMID:17692169

  4. Shared decision-making: nurses must respect autonomy over paternalism.

    PubMed

    Grffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2013-06-01

    Shared decision-making lies at the heart of the Government's reforms of the NHS in England. The slogan, 'No decision about me without me', underpins shared decision-making that sees patients as active participants in their treatment decisions. In this article, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah argue that for 'no decision about me, without me' to be a reality, district nurses must guard against paternalistic decision-making that excludes the views and wishes of their patients. PMID:24046930

  5. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  6. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  7. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  8. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  9. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  10. Goal Setting and Decision Making by At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galotti, Kathleen M.; Kozberg, Steven F.; Gustafon, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Typically, adolescence is a time when individuals begin to make consequential, life-framing decisions. However, much of the decision-making literature focuses on high-risk decisions, such as the use of drugs and alcohol, while much less is known about how adolescents make positive decisions, for example, regarding their educational or career…

  11. Aeromedical decision making: from principles to practice.

    PubMed

    Navathe, Pooshan; Drane, Michael; Preitner, Claude

    2014-05-01

    While there is literature which describes aeromedical decision making (ADM), there is not much which describes a process identifying the steps to be taken in arriving at such decisions. A five-step algorithm is proposed to clarify the ADM process. The five steps are: 1) determine the likelihood of a clinically significant event from the health condition; 2) determine the likelihood of an undesirable aviation event from the health condition; 3) determine the acceptability of the combined risks (#1 and #2); 4) determine the risk level after clinical intervention for the health condition; and 5) determine the risk level after operational restrictions for the health condition. There are several factors which can affect the various steps in the algorithm, such as uncertainty, difficulty in generalization, power and "fit" of the studies, etc. Notwithstanding these issues, the algorithm serves a useful purpose in providing a pathway for ADM. PMID:24834574

  12. Linking Assessment to Decision Making in Water Resources Planning - Decision Making Frameworks and Case Study Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Simes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate assessments have become an accepted and commonly used component of long term water management and planning. There is substantial variation in the methods used in these assessments; however, managers and decision-makers have come to value their utility to identify future system limitations, and to evaluate future alternatives to ensure satisfactory system performance. A new set of decision-making frameworks have been proposed, including robust decision making (RDM), and decision scaling, that directly address the deep uncertainties found in both future climate, and non-climatic factors. Promising results have been obtained using these new frameworks, offering a more comprehensive understanding of future conditions leading to failures, and identification of measures to address these failures. Data and resource constraints have limited the use of these frameworks within the Bureau of Reclamation. We present here a modified framework that captures the strengths of previously proposed methods while using a suite of analysis tool that allow for a 'rapid climate assessment' to be performed. A scalable approach has been taken where more complex tools can be used if project resources allow. This 'rapid assessment' is demonstrated through two case studies on the Santa Ana and Colorado Rivers where previous climate assessments have been completed. Planning-level measures are used to compare how decision making is affected when using this new decision making framework.

  13. Consensus versus Devil's Advocacy: The Influence of Decision Process and Task Structure on Strategic Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Audrey J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compares decision processes of consensus and devil's advocacy within an additive task, a disjunctive task, and a conjunctive task structure. Finds that high-conflict decision processes such as devil's advocacy enhances decision making in disjunctive tasks, retards decision making in additive tasks, but has no effect on decision making in…

  14. Multidisciplinary design optimization of vehicle instrument panel based on multi-objective genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Wu, Guangqiang

    2013-03-01

    Typical multidisciplinary design optimization(MDO) has gradually been proposed to balance performances of lightweight, noise, vibration and harshness(NVH) and safety for instrument panel(IP) structure in the automotive development. Nevertheless, plastic constitutive relation of Polypropylene(PP) under different strain rates, has not been taken into consideration in current reliability-based and collaborative IP MDO design. In this paper, based on tensile test under different strain rates, the constitutive relation of Polypropylene material is studied. Impact simulation tests for head and knee bolster are carried out to meet the regulation of FMVSS 201 and FMVSS 208, respectively. NVH analysis is performed to obtain mainly the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes, while the crashworthiness analysis is employed to examine the crash behavior of IP structure. With the consideration of lightweight, NVH, head and knee bolster impact performance, design of experiment(DOE), response surface model(RSM), and collaborative optimization(CO) are applied to realize the determined and reliability-based optimizations, respectively. Furthermore, based on multi-objective genetic algorithm(MOGA), the optimal Pareto sets are completed to solve the multi-objective optimization(MOO) problem. The proposed research ensures the smoothness of Pareto set, enhances the ability of engineers to make a comprehensive decision about multi-objectives and choose the optimal design, and improves the quality and efficiency of MDO.

  15. Information Processing in Decision-Making Systems

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Matthijs; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Decisions result from an interaction between multiple functional systems acting in parallel to process information in very different ways, each with strengths and weaknesses. In this review, the authors address three action-selection components of decision-making: The Pavlovian system releases an action from a limited repertoire of potential actions, such as approaching learned stimuli. Like the Pavlovian system, the habit system is computationally fast but, unlike the Pavlovian system permits arbitrary stimulus-action pairings. These associations are a “forward” mechanism; when a situation is recognized, the action is released. In contrast, the deliberative system is flexible but takes time to process. The deliberative system uses knowledge of the causal structure of the world to search into the future, planning actions to maximize expected rewards. Deliberation depends on the ability to imagine future possibilities, including novel situations, and it allows decisions to be taken without having previously experienced the options. Various anatomical structures have been identified that carry out the information processing of each of these systems: hippocampus constitutes a map of the world that can be used for searching/imagining the future; dorsal striatal neurons represent situation-action associations; and ventral striatum maintains value representations for all three systems. Each system presents vulnerabilities to pathologies that can manifest as psychiatric disorders. Understanding these systems and their relation to neuroanatomy opens up a deeper way to treat the structural problems underlying various disorders. PMID:22492194

  16. Linguistic decision making for robot route learning.

    PubMed

    He, Hongmei; McGinnity, Thomas Martin; Coleman, Sonya; Gardiner, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning enables the creation of a nonlinear mapping that describes robot-environment interaction, whereas computing linguistics make the interaction transparent. In this paper, we develop a novel application of a linguistic decision tree for a robot route learning problem by dynamically deciding the robot's behavior, which is decomposed into atomic actions in the context of a specified task. We examine the real-time performance of training and control of a linguistic decision tree, and explore the possibility of training a machine learning model in an adaptive system without dual CPUs for parallelization of training and control. A quantified evaluation approach is proposed, and a score is defined for the evaluation of a model's robustness regarding the quality of training data. Compared with the nonlinear system identification nonlinear auto-regressive moving average with eXogeneous inputs model structure with offline parameter estimation, the linguistic decision tree model with online linguistic ID3 learning achieves much better performance, robustness, and reliability. PMID:24806654

  17. Collaborative decision making for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsley, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    For many years, economic development has mean industrial recruitment where business-at-any-cost was preached by a small elite, where civic discord replaced civic discussion, where families made more money but had less to spend, where residents learned to lock their doors, where communities changed from the unique to commonplace and a thousand towns looked alike. But now, scores of communities are saying no to old, worn-out approaches to development and embracing a new kind of development that respects the community and the environment. Created collaboratively by people from all walks of community life, this new approach is called sustainable community economic development. Though new, sustainable development is based on traditional values of stewardship and working together. Its principles are powerful in their simplicity. Its lessons enrich community decision making. This paper describes these principles and lessons. It introduces a community decision-making process that applies them and suggests the kinds of results you can expect from such a process in your town.

  18. Possibility expectation and its decision making algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, James M.; Yan, Bolin

    1992-01-01

    The fuzzy integral has been shown to be an effective tool for the aggregation of evidence in decision making. Of primary importance in the development of a fuzzy integral pattern recognition algorithm is the choice (construction) of the measure which embodies the importance of subsets of sources of evidence. Sugeno fuzzy measures have received the most attention due to the recursive nature of the fabrication of the measure on nested sequences of subsets. Possibility measures exhibit an even simpler generation capability, but usually require that one of the sources of information possess complete credibility. In real applications, such normalization may not be possible, or even desirable. In this report, both the theory and a decision making algorithm for a variation of the fuzzy integral are presented. This integral is based on a possibility measure where it is not required that the measure of the universe be unity. A training algorithm for the possibility densities in a pattern recognition application is also presented with the results demonstrated on the shuttle-earth-space training and testing images.

  19. Multistable binary decision making on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Andrew; Lee, Ching Hua

    2013-03-01

    We propose a simple model for a binary decision making process on a graph, motivated by modeling social decision making with cooperative individuals. The model is similar to a random field Ising model or fiber bundle model, but with key differences in behavior on heterogeneous networks. For many types of disorder and interactions between the nodes, we predict with mean field theory discontinuous phase transitions that are largely independent of network structure. We show how these phase transitions can also be understood by studying microscopic avalanches and describe how network structure enhances fluctuations in the distribution of avalanches. We suggest theoretically the existence of a “glassy” spectrum of equilibria associated with a typical phase, even on infinite graphs, so long as the first moment of the degree distribution is finite. This behavior implies that the model is robust against noise below a certain scale and also that phase transitions can switch from discontinuous to continuous on networks with too few edges. Numerical simulations suggest that our theory is accurate.

  20. Flood Impact Modelling to support decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; O'Donnell, Greg

    2015-04-01

    Much of what is known about the impacts of landuse change and Natural Flood Management (NFM) is at the local/plot scale. Evidence of the downstream impacts at the larger catchment scale is limited. However, the strategic and financial decisions of land managers, stakeholders and policy makers are made at the larger scale. There are a number of techniques that have the potential to scale local impacts to the catchment scale. This poster will show findings for the 30km2 Leven catchment, North Yorkshire, England. A NFM approach has been adopted by the Environment Agency to reduce flood risk within the catchment. A dense network of stream level gauges were installed in the catchment at the commencement of this project to gain a detailed understanding of the catchment behaviour during storm events. A novel Flood Impact Modelling (FIM) approach has been adopted which uses the network of gauges to disaggregate the outlet hydrograph in terms of source locations. Using a combination of expert opinion and local evidence, the model can be used to assess the impacts of distributed changes in land use management and NFM on flood events. A number of potential future landuse and NFM scenarios have been modelled to investigate their impact on flood peaks. These modelled outcomes are mapped to a simple Decision Support Matrix (DSM). The DSM encourages end users (e.g. land managers and policy makers) to develop an NFM scheme by studying the degree to which local runoff can be attenuated and how that flow will propagate through the network to the point of impact. The DSM relates the impact on flood peaks in terms of alterations to soil management practices and landscape flow connectivity (e.g. soil underdrainage), which can be easily understood by farmers and land managers. The DSM and the FIM together provide a simple to use and transparent modelling tool, making best use of expert knowledge, to support decision making.

  1. Multi-object tracking of human spermatozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Østergaard, Jakob; Johansen, Peter; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2008-03-01

    We propose a system for tracking of human spermatozoa in phase-contrast microscopy image sequences. One of the main aims of a computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system is to automatically assess sperm quality based on spermatozoa motility variables. In our case, the problem of assessing sperm quality is cast as a multi-object tracking problem, where the objects being tracked are the spermatozoa. The system combines a particle filter and Kalman filters for robust motion estimation of the spermatozoa tracks. Further, the combinatorial aspect of assigning observations to labels in the particle filter is formulated as a linear assignment problem solved using the Hungarian algorithm on a rectangular cost matrix, making the algorithm capable of handling missing or spurious observations. The costs are calculated using hidden Markov models that express the plausibility of an observation being the next position in the track history of the particle labels. Observations are extracted using a scale-space blob detector utilizing the fact that the spermatozoa appear as bright blobs in a phase-contrast microscope. The output of the system is the complete motion track of each of the spermatozoa. Based on these tracks, different CASA motility variables can be computed, for example curvilinear velocity or straight-line velocity. The performance of the system is tested on three different phase-contrast image sequences of varying complexity, both by visual inspection of the estimated spermatozoa tracks and by measuring the mean squared error (MSE) between the estimated spermatozoa tracks and manually annotated tracks, showing good agreement.

  2. IOT Overview: Optical Multi-Object Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtobreick, L.; Bagnulo, S.; Jehin, E.; Marconi, G.; O'Brien, K.; Pompei, E.; Saviane, I.

    We give an introduction to the several instruments that ESO operates and which are able to perform optical multi-object spectroscopy. We point out the standard ways of reducing these spectra, the problems that occur, and the way we deal with them. A short introduction is given on how the quality control is performed.

  3. The physics of bacterial decision making

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Lu, Mingyang; Schultz, Daniel; Onuchic, Jose' N.

    2014-01-01

    The choice that bacteria make between sporulation and competence when subjected to stress provides a prototypical example of collective cell fate determination that is stochastic on the individual cell level, yet predictable (deterministic) on the population level. This collective decision is performed by an elaborated gene network. Considerable effort has been devoted to simplify its complexity by taking physics approaches to untangle the basic functional modules that are integrated to form the complete network: (1) A stochastic switch whose transition probability is controlled by two order parameters—population density and internal/external stress. (2) An adaptable timer whose clock rate is normalized by the same two previous order parameters. (3) Sensing units which measure population density and external stress. (4) A communication module that exchanges information about the cells' internal stress levels. (5) An oscillating gate of the stochastic switch which is regulated by the timer. The unique circuit architecture of the gate allows special dynamics and noise management features. The gate opens a window of opportunity in time for competence transitions, during which the circuit generates oscillations that are translated into a chain of short intervals with high transition probability. In addition, the unique architecture of the gate allows filtering of external noise and robustness against variations in circuit parameters and internal noise. We illustrate that a physics approach can be very valuable in investigating the decision process and in identifying its general principles. We also show that both cell-cell variability and noise have important functional roles in the collectively controlled individual decisions. PMID:25401094

  4. Sensorimotor decision making in the zebrafish tectum.

    PubMed

    Barker, Alison J; Baier, Herwig

    2015-11-01

    An animal's survival depends on its ability to correctly evaluate sensory stimuli and select appropriate behavioral responses. When confronted with ambiguous stimuli, the brain is faced with the task of selecting one action while suppressing others. Although conceptually simple, the site and substrate of this elementary form of decision making is still largely unknown. Zebrafish larvae respond to a moving dot stimulus in either of two ways: a small object (potential prey) evokes approach, whereas a large object (potential predator) is avoided. The classification of object size relies on processing in the optic tectum. We genetically identified a population of cells, largely comprised of glutamatergic tectal interneurons with non-stratified morphologies, that are specifically required for approach toward small objects. When these neurons are ablated, we found that the behavioral response is shifted; small objects now tend to elicit avoidance. Conversely, optogenetic facilitation of neuronal responses with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) enhances approaches to small objects. Calcium imaging in head-fixed larvae shows that a large proportion of these neurons are tuned to small sizes. Their receptive fields are shaped by input from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that are selective for prey identity. We propose a model in which valence-based decisions arise, at a fundamental level, from competition between dedicated sensorimotor pathways in the tectum. PMID:26592341

  5. Chemotactic decision making in swimming microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salek, M. Mehdi; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Swimming cells are often guided by chemical gradients (``chemotaxis'') to search for nutrients, hosts, and mates, and to avoid predators and noxious substances. It remains unclear, however, how variable the chemotactic abilities of cells are among cells of one species, and whether there are better ``decision makers'' within a population. Inspired by studies in macro-organism ecology, we fabricated a microfluidic ``T-maze'' in which marine bacteria are subjected to a chemical attractant gradient at each of a series of consecutive T-junctions. We used video microscopy to capture the motion of thousands of bacteria as they migrate up or down the gradient at each subsequent junction. This approach provides detailed statistics at both the single-cell and population levels, while simultaneously sorting the cells by chemotactic ability. Using a range of bacteria, we demonstrate how the microfluidic T-maze allows us to sort the better decision-making cells in the population, opening the door for improved efficiency of a range of microbial processes in nature and industry.

  6. Collective decision making in cohesive flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, K.; Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-09-01

    Most of us must have been fascinated by the eye-catching displays of collectively moving animals. Schools of fish can move in a rather orderly fashion and then change direction amazingly abruptly. There are a large number of further examples both from the living and the non-living world for phenomena during which the many interacting, permanently moving units seem to arrive at a common behavioural pattern taking place in a short time. As a paradigm of this type of phenomena we consider the problem of how birds arrive at a decision resulting in their synchronized landing. We introduce a simple model to interpret this process. Collective motion prior to landing is modelled using a simple self-propelled particle (SPP) system with a new kind of boundary condition, while the tendency and the sudden propagation of the intention of landing are introduced through rules analogous to the random field Ising model in an external field. We show that our approach is capable of capturing the most relevant features of collective decision making in a system of units with variance of individual intentions and being under an increasing level of pressure to switch states. We find that as a function of the few parameters of our model the collective switching from the flying to the landing state is indeed much sharper than the distribution of individual landing intentions. The transition is accompanied by a number of interesting features discussed in this paper.

  7. Advance directive decision making among medical inpatients.

    PubMed

    Rein, A J; Harshman, D L; Frick, T; Phillips, J M; Lewis, S; Nolan, M T

    1996-01-01

    Per the Patient Self-Determination Act of 1991, hospitals are required to ascertain whether patients have an advance directive (AD). At this point, factors prompting patients to issue ADs have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to describe patients' understanding of ADs as well as the process patients used to arrive at their decisions to implement an AD. A stratified random sample of 26 patients from two intensive care units, one general medical unit, one general cardiac unit, and one acquired immunodeficiency unit were selected for participation. Patients were asked a series of open-ended questions to determine their knowledge and understanding of ADs. The constant comparative method was used to review the transcripts. It was found that only 31 per cent of patients had issued an AD, and 20% had learned of ADs for the first time during their hospitalization. Response analysis showed four phases of AD decision making: evaluation of illness, establishment of priorities, consideration of implications of the directives, and selection or rejection of directives. In conclusion, patients continue to have limited understanding of ADs and their implications. Continued investigation will elucidate the best strategies to educate patients about this topic. PMID:8583031

  8. Shared Decision Making: Through the Patient's Eyes.

    PubMed

    Klassa, Patricia J; Dendrinos, Susan; Penn, Annette; Radke, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Birth is an intimate moment in a woman's life, and healthcare providers play a pivotal role in pregnant women having safe and memorable birth experiences. Utilizing the shared decision-making model during the prenatal period involves listening to the voices of identified high-risk patients and giving them options for care during labor and birth. "Through the Patient's Eyes" is an innovative program that evolved from the care planning process for these identified high-risk obstetric patients who are invited back postpartum to describe to the team birth through "their" eyes. Through this program, the team learned that compassionate care comes from truly listening to pregnant women and their families and that nurses play a pivotal role as educators and advocates. Sharing birth stories with the staff who cared for them not only had a positive effect on the staff but also many women described profound healing afterward. PMID:27465455

  9. Combining disparate data for decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettings, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Combining information of disparate types from multiple data or model sources is a fundamental task in decision making theory. Procedures for combining and utilizing quantitative data with uncertainties are well-developed in several approaches, but methods for including qualitative and semi-quantitative data are much less so. Possibility theory offers an approach to treating all three data types in an objective and repeatable way. In decision making, biases are frequently present in several forms, including those arising from data quality, data spatial and temporal distribution, and the analyst's knowledge and beliefs as to which data or models are most important. The latter bias is particularly evident in the case of qualitative data and there are numerous examples of analysts feeling that a qualitative dataset is more relevant than a quantified one. Possibility theory and fuzzy logic now provide fairly general rules for quantifying qualitative and semi-quantitative data in ways that are repeatable and minimally biased. Once a set of quantified data and/or model layers is obtained, there are several methods of combining them to obtain insight useful in decision making. These include: various combinations of layers using formal fuzzy logic (for example, layer A and (layer B or layer C) but not layer D); connecting the layers with varying influence links in a Fuzzy Cognitive Map; and using the set of layers for the universe of discourse for agent based model simulations. One example of logical combinations that have proven useful is the definition of possible habitat for valley fever fungus (Coccidioides sp.) using variables such as soil type, altitude, aspect, moisture and temperature. A second example is the delineation of the lithology and possible mineralization of several areas beneath basin fill in southern Arizona. A Fuzzy Cognitive Map example is the impacts of development and operation of a hypothetical mine in an area adjacent to a city. In this model

  10. An Instructional System for Consumer Decision-Making: Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchman, J. Richard; DiSario, Martha R.

    An instructional system is presented for building the competencies of adult basic education students in making consumer decisions, and offers a guide to teachers who wish to design their own decision-making problems for students. The first four chapters provide a brief introduction, discuss the rational consumer decision-making process and the…

  11. The Impact of PPBS on Educational Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajcic, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts a brief analysis of the traditional decision-making process for budget preparation and the alternative, program planning, budgeting system (PPBS), in an effort to determine the effect of PPBS on the decision-making process for resource allocation and to answer the question of whether PPBS has improved decision-making processes. (Author/RK)

  12. An Anti-Introspectivist View of Career Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieshok, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews 50 years of empirical literature on career decision making, summarizing 10 things the field knows "for sure." Presents an anti-introspectivist view of career decision making arguing that mental processing for decision making and behavior initiation is not performed at a conscious level and reflection on these processes may be detrimental…

  13. 42 CFR 93.412 - Making decisions on institutional noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unwillingness to implement and follow the requirements of this part and its assurance. In making this decision... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. 93... Institutional Compliance Issues § 93.412 Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. (a) Institutions...

  14. 42 CFR 93.412 - Making decisions on institutional noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unwillingness to implement and follow the requirements of this part and its assurance. In making this decision... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. 93... Institutional Compliance Issues § 93.412 Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. (a) Institutions...

  15. Reflective Decision Making among University Department Heads across Academic Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampmann, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Within the scope of leadership and management, decision making greatly defines the role of university administrator, in particular, the university department head and his/her ability to be a reflective practitioner in the realm of decision making. Decision making is one characteristic of university department head work which warrants close…

  16. 42 CFR 93.412 - Making decisions on institutional noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... unwillingness to implement and follow the requirements of this part and its assurance. In making this decision... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. 93... Institutional Compliance Issues § 93.412 Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. (a) Institutions...

  17. 42 CFR 93.412 - Making decisions on institutional noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unwillingness to implement and follow the requirements of this part and its assurance. In making this decision... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. 93... Institutional Compliance Issues § 93.412 Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. (a) Institutions...

  18. Age Differences in Adaptive Decision Making: The Role of Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yiwei; Wang, Jiaxi; Kirk, Robert M.; Pethtel, Olivia L.; Kiefner, Allison E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purposes of the present study were to examine age differences in adaptive decision making and to evaluate the role of numeracy in mediating the relationship between age and adaptive decision making. Adaptive decision making was assessed by the Cups task (Levin, Weller, Pederson, & Harshman, 2007). Forty-six younger (18 to 24 years…

  19. Decision Making and Schools for the 70's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pharis, William L.; And Others

    The authors of this volume divide their consideration of decision-making into three major areas: 1) a step-by-step analysis for a systematic decision-making process that has widespread application; 2) an explicit description of the legal and extralegal components of the current decision-making structure; and 3) a review of some changing concepts…

  20. Strategic Decision Making in a Time of Information Overload.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powe, Kathleen Begley; Plung, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of decision making for librarians focuses on strategic decisions made to support library operations and growth. Examines five principles used to make good business decisions: basic philosophy of library operations, methodology for making choices, interlibrary cooperation and networking, internal and external influences, and assessment…

  1. School Board Decision Making: An Analysis of the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the characteristics in the school board decision-making process and to discover whether school board members are aware of the characteristics surrounding the school board's decision-making process. Specifically, this study examines the decision-making process of a school board in Virginia, and it provides…

  2. George Williams in Thailand: An Ethical Decision-Making Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Constance R.; Smith, J. Goosby

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a classroom ethical decision-making exercise designed to help students make reasoned ethical decisions while gaining insight into their own and others' ethical decision-making strategies. During the exercise, students individually analyze an original mini-case, then meet in small groups to reach consensus on the advice and…

  3. Anomalies in medical decision making: the preception of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.; Tonn, B.

    1985-03-28

    This paper discusses risk perception in medical decision making. Biases in risk perception by physicians and patients could result in undue loss of life and unwarranted medical expenses. Possible biases include availability of information, framing of choices, and the fundamental attribution error. An example of an anomaly in medical decision making possibly related to biased decision making is elective hysterectomy. 25 refs.

  4. Stress in Decision-Making: Three Causes, Three Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Don

    This paper is a brief description of a conference presentation consisting of a 2.5-hour clinic session on decision-making. A motion picture, "The Making of a Decision," followed by a lively discussion, was used to illustrate the strenghts and weaknesses of administrators in their decision-making process. Presented in the film are three different…

  5. Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Barriers in Career Decision Making among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rosemary R.; Hatcher, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences between career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) and career barriers of students enrolled in applied technology programs compared to those enrolled in college transfer. Participants in the ex post facto cross-sectional survey included 787 students at a community college. The following research questions were…

  6. Government: Political Decision-Making. Decision-Making in Contemporary America, Unit IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Donald P.; And Others

    This unit on economic decision-making is the fourth of five units in a ninth grade social studies course (see SO 010 891). Major objectives are to help students (1) explain how dissent and protest may be used as effective means of change and to consider the consequences of such actions; (2) examine the judicial branch of government in order to…

  7. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  8. Biomolecular decision-making process for self assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2005-01-01

    The brain is often identified with decision-making processes in the biological world. In fact, single cells, single macromolecules (proteins) and populations of molecules also make simple decisions. These decision processes are essential to survival and to the biological self-assembly and self-repair processes that we seek to emulate. How do these tiny systems make effective decisions? How do they make decisions in concert with a cooperative network of other molecules or cells? How can we emulate the decision-making behaviors of small-scale biological systems to program and self-assemble microsystems? This LDRD supported research to answer these questions. Our work included modeling and simulation of protein populations to help us understand, mimic, and categorize molecular decision-making mechanisms that nonequilibrium systems can exhibit. This work is an early step towards mimicking such nanoscale and microscale biomolecular decision-making processes in inorganic systems.

  9. Decision making. A step-by-step process.

    PubMed

    McConnell, E A

    1989-05-01

    Some decisions affect no one but ourselves, and others affect more than one person. Some decisions are quite simple and have minimal, if any, ramifications; other decisions are more complex and can have major ramifications. Some decisions are easy to make because a person has the experience and knowledge, and other decisions require extensive deliberation because of their complexity or because a person may lack knowledge in that area. Making effective decisions is not an inherent gift, but the process can be learned. The decision a person makes today will someday be the base from which to assess a new situation. PMID:2729970

  10. Engaging patients using an interprofessional approach to shared decision making.

    PubMed

    Dawn, Stacey; Légaré, France

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer treatment and screening decisions are difficult given that they rely upon patients' informed preferences. Interprofessional shared decision making is when two or more health care professionals collaborate with a patient to reach an agreed-upon decision. To support patients' engagement in shared decision making, effective interventions include patient decision aids and/or decision coaching. Patient decision aids are typically written or video-based resources, while decision coaching is provided by trained health care professionals who are supportive but non-directive. Both interventions make explicit the decision, provide balanced information on options based on the best available evidence, and help patients consider what matters most. The overall aim is to discuss how oncology nurses can engage in an interprofessional approach to shared decision making. PMID:26897867

  11. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: parent support for early decision making.

    PubMed

    Toebbe, Sarah; Yehle, Karen; Kirkpatrick, Jane; Coddington, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a life threatening congenital cardiac anomaly. After a child has been diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, parents must make life or death decisions within days of birth. Healthcare providers must provide appropriate education so that parents are able to make informed, timely decisions. Information regarding the diagnosis, treatment options, and parental decision making process for initial decision making for hypoplastic left heart syndrome are provided to guide nurses who work with these families. The challenging decision making process that parents must go through after diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome will be described. PMID:23246301

  12. The involvement of the striatum in decision making.

    PubMed

    Goulet-Kennedy, Julie; Labbe, Sara; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    Decision making has been extensively studied in the context of economics and from a group perspective, but still little is known on individual decision making. Here we discuss the different cognitive processes involved in decision making and its associated neural substrates. The putative conductors in decision making appear to be the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Impaired decision-making skills in various clinical populations have been associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the striatum. We highlight the importance of strengthening the degree of integration of both cognitive and neural substrates in order to further our understanding of decision-making skills. In terms of cognitive paradigms, there is a need to improve the ecological value of experimental tasks that assess decision making in various contexts and with rewards; this would help translate laboratory learnings into real-life benefits. In terms of neural substrates, the use of neuroimaging techniques helps characterize the neural networks associated with decision making; more recently, ways to modulate brain activity, such as in the prefrontal cortex and connected regions (eg, striatum), with noninvasive brain stimulation have also shed light on the neural and cognitive substrates of decision making. Together, these cognitive and neural approaches might be useful for patients with impaired decision-making skills. The drive behind this line of work is that decision-making abilities underlie important aspects of wellness, health, security, and financial and social choices in our daily lives. PMID:27069380

  13. The involvement of the striatum in decision making

    PubMed Central

    Goulet-Kennedy, Julie; Labbe, Sara; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Decision making has been extensively studied in the context of economics and from a group perspective, but still little is known on individual decision making. Here we discuss the different cognitive processes involved in decision making and its associated neural substrates. The putative conductors in decision making appear to be the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Impaired decision-making skills in various clinical populations have been associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the striatum. We highlight the importance of strengthening the degree of integration of both cognitive and neural substrates in order to further our understanding of decision-making skills. In terms of cognitive paradigms, there is a need to improve the ecological value of experimental tasks that assess decision making in various contexts and with rewards; this would help translate laboratory learnings into real-life benefits. In terms of neural substrates, the use of neuroimaging techniques helps characterize the neural networks associated with decision making; more recently, ways to modulate brain activity, such as in the prefrontal cortex and connected regions (eg, striatum), with noninvasive brain stimulation have also shed light on the neural and cognitive substrates of decision making. Together, these cognitive and neural approaches might be useful for patients with impaired decision-making skills. The drive behind this line of work is that decision-making abilities underlie important aspects of wellness, health, security, and financial and social choices in our daily lives. PMID:27069380

  14. Learner Decision Making in the Inclusion Style of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byra, Mark; Jenkins, Jayne

    In the inclusion style of teaching, learners must make decisions about level of task difficulty. They must decide at which level to enter the presented task and then, for additional sets of trials, decide whether to perform the task the same way, make it more difficult, or make it less difficult. This study examined learner decision making in a…

  15. Game theory and neural basis of social decision making

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daeyeol

    2008-01-01

    Decision making in a social group displays two unique features. First, humans and other animals routinely alter their behaviors in response to changes in their physical and social environment. As a result, the outcomes of decisions that depend on the behaviors of multiple decision makers are difficult to predict, and this requires highly adaptive decision-making strategies. Second, decision makers may have other-regarding preferences and therefore choose their actions to improve or reduce the well-beings of others. Recently, many neurobiological studies have exploited game theory to probe the neural basis of decision making, and found that these unique features of social decision making might be reflected in the functions of brain areas involved in reward evaluation and reinforcement learning. Molecular genetic studies have also begun to identify genetic mechanisms for personal traits related to reinforcement learning and complex social decision making, further illuminating the biological basis of social behavior. PMID:18368047

  16. Phenotyping, endotyping and clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Fokkens, W J

    2016-06-01

    We have exiting times in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The last year has brought us a number of new ideas and publications to help in decision-making in daily practice. In the first issue of this year, Claire Hopkins and co-authors identified the most important outcomes for patients, public and practitioners that should be evaluated in studies on health interventions for CRS. In this issue of the journal, a group of experts tried to define appropriateness criteria for endoscopic sinus surgery during management of uncomplicated adult chronic rhinosinusitis. Appropriate indications for endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) are currently poorly defined and the lack of clear surgical indications for ESS likely contributes to the large geographic variation in surgical rates. Using the Delphi method a total of 624 clinical scenarios (half CRSsNP and half CRSwNP) were ranked. The study clearly states that this group of experts indicates that ESS can only be indicated after medical treatment has failed with patients still having significant symptoms (SNOT-22 over 20) and at least some abnormalities at CT scan. PMID:27236249

  17. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  18. A system of system lenses for leadership decision-making.

    PubMed

    Cady, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The sheer volume and dynamics among system agents in healthcare makes decision-making a daunting task at all levels. Being clear about what leaders mean by "healthcare system" is critical in aligning system strategy and leadership decision-making. This article presents an emerging set of lenses (ideology and beliefs, rational and irrational information processing, interpersonal social dynamics, process and value creation, and context) to help frame leadership decision-making in healthcare systems. PMID:26656390

  19. Decision-Making in Old Age: Cautiousness and Rigidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Richard E.; Hutchison, Sam L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Elderly participants (N=64) were classified as to high or low rigidity and completed the Choice Dilemmas Questionnaire. Previous findings were supported in that subjects preferred not to make decisions. Subjects were more cautious in making decisions applying to younger individuals and rigidity was related to risky decisions. (RC)

  20. Swift and Smart Decision Making: Heuristics that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the research literature on decision making and identify and develop a set of heuristics that work for school decision makers. Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is a synthesis of the research on decision-making heuristics that work. Findings: A set of nine rules for swift and smart decision…

  1. The Decision-Making Structure and the Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Betty M.; George, Shirley A.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics in the college academic setting and the external environment that affect the decision-making structure and that the dean should consider before reorganization are examined. Concepts and theories about governance, decision-making, organizational structure, and characteristics of effective decision makers are also briefly reviewed. A…

  2. High School Students' Career-Related Decision-Making Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Saka, Noa

    2001-01-01

    Examines the construct of career-related decision-making difficulties among 1,843 Israeli adolescents. Three versions of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) were constructed to match three decision situations. The structures of the revised CDDQ were found similar to that proposed by I. Gati et al. (1996). Boys reported…

  3. Towards Ethical Decision-Making in Counselling Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Maggie; Cook, Peter; Hunt, Kathy; Alred, Geof; Robson, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Explores the process of ethical decision-making in counseling research and examines to what extent decision-making is based on intuitive thinking. Reviews and considers several models of ethical problem solving. Argues that ethical decisions are reached through intuition, informed by ethical principles, codes of practice, and reference to the laws…

  4. Data Collection for Educational Decision-Making: Establishing Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooler, Dennis D.

    A method is presented by which decision makers may establish priorities for the collection of data to be used as input to the decision-making process. It is assumed that the experience, intuition, and previously collected data will influence the decision, as will the constraints of design, and the audience to whom the particular decision is…

  5. Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…

  6. Improving IT Portfolio Management Decision Confidence Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Hypervariate Display Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landmesser, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Information technology (IT) investment decision makers are required to process large volumes of complex data. An existing body of knowledge relevant to IT portfolio management (PfM), decision analysis, visual comprehension of large volumes of information, and IT investment decision making suggest Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and…

  7. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  8. Embodied Choice: How Action Influences Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Lepora, Nathan F.; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Embodied Choice considers action performance as a proper part of the decision making process rather than merely as a means to report the decision. The central statement of embodied choice is the existence of bidirectional influences between action and decisions. This implies that for a decision expressed by an action, the action dynamics and its constraints (e.g. current trajectory and kinematics) influence the decision making process. Here we use a perceptual decision making task to compare three types of model: a serial decision-then-action model, a parallel decision-and-action model, and an embodied choice model where the action feeds back into the decision making. The embodied model incorporates two key mechanisms that together are lacking in the other models: action preparation and commitment. First, action preparation strategies alleviate delays in enacting a choice but also modify decision termination. Second, action dynamics change the prospects and create a commitment effect to the initially preferred choice. Our results show that these two mechanisms make embodied choice models better suited to combine decision and action appropriately to achieve suitably fast and accurate responses, as usually required in ecologically valid situations. Moreover, embodied choice models with these mechanisms give a better account of trajectory tracking experiments during decision making. In conclusion, the embodied choice framework offers a combined theory of decision and action that gives a clear case that embodied phenomena such as the dynamics of actions can have a causal influence on central cognition. PMID:25849349

  9. Brainless but Multi-Headed: Decision Making by the Acellular Slime Mould Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Beekman, Madeleine; Latty, Tanya

    2015-11-20

    Because of its peculiar biology and the ease with which it can be cultured, the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum has long been a model organism in a range of disciplines. Due to its macroscopic, syncytial nature, it is no surprise that it has been a favourite amongst cell biologists. Its inclusion in the experimental tool kit of behavioural ecologists is much more recent. These recent studies have certainly paid off. They have shown that, for an organism that lacks a brain or central nervous system, P. polycephalum shows rather complex behaviour. For example, it is capable of finding the shortest path through a maze, it can construct networks as efficient as those designed by humans, it can solve computationally difficult puzzles, it makes multi-objective foraging decisions, it balances its nutrient intake and it even behaves irrationally. Are the slime mould's achievements simply "cute", worthy of mentioning in passing but nothing to take too seriously? Or do they hint at the fundamental processes underlying all decision making? We will address this question after reviewing the decision-making abilities of the slime mould. PMID:26189159

  10. Physician participation in hospital strategic decision making: the effect of hospital strategy and decision content.

    PubMed Central

    Ashmos, D P; McDaniel, R R

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory study examined variation in the participation of physicians in hospital strategic decision making as a function of (1) strategic decision content or (2) hospital strategy, or both. The findings revealed that who participates is a function of decision content while how physicians participate is a function of decision content and the interaction of decision content and hospital strategy. PMID:1869445

  11. Incorporating affective bias in models of human decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nygren, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    Research on human decision making has traditionally focused on how people actually make decisions, how good their decisions are, and how their decisions can be improved. Recent research suggests that this model is inadequate. Affective as well as cognitive components drive the way information about relevant outcomes and events is perceived, integrated, and used in the decision making process. The affective components include how the individual frames outcomes as good or bad, whether the individual anticipates regret in a decision situation, the affective mood state of the individual, and the psychological stress level anticipated or experienced in the decision situation. A focus of the current work has been to propose empirical studies that will attempt to examine in more detail the relationships between the latter two critical affective influences (mood state and stress) on decision making behavior.

  12. A control-theory model for human decision-making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A model for human decision making is an adaptation of an optimal control model for pilot/vehicle systems. The models for decision and control both contain concepts of time delay, observation noise, optimal prediction, and optimal estimation. The decision making model was intended for situations in which the human bases his decision on his estimate of the state of a linear plant. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (a) single decision tasks, (b) two-decision tasks, and (c) simultaneous manual control and decision making. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance can be predicted to within an accuracy of 10 percent. Agreement is less good for the simultaneous decision and control situation.

  13. Child-parent shared decision making about asthma management.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Victoria; Smith, Joanna; Ormandy, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Aim To explore and describe child-parent shared decision making for the management of childhood asthma. Methods A qualitative, descriptive, interview-based study was undertaken. Eight children and nine parents participated. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Findings A dynamic model of the way children and parents transfer, shift and share asthma management decisions was uncovered. Asthma management decisions between children and parents were non-linear, with responsibility transferring from parent to child under different conditions. Children made a range of decisions about their asthma, often sharing decisions with their parents. However, during acute illness episodes, children often relied on parents to make decisions about their asthma. Conclusion Neither the child nor parent has complete autonomy over asthma management decisions. Decision making is a dynamic, shifting and shared process, dependent on contextual factors and child and parent decision preferences. PMID:27156418

  14. Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel

  15. Decision-making triggers in adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Nie, Martin A; Schultz, Courtney A

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed whether decision-making triggers increase accountability of adaptive-management plans. Triggers are prenegotiated commitments in an adaptive-management plan that specify what actions are to be taken and when on the basis of information obtained from monitoring. Triggers improve certainty that particular actions will be taken by agencies in the future. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative review of the political and legal contexts of adaptive management and its application by U.S. federal agencies. Agencies must satisfy the judiciary that adaptive-management plans meet substantive legal standards and comply with the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act. We examined 3 cases in which triggers were used in adaptive-management plans: salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River, oil and gas development by the Bureau of Land Management, and a habitat conservation plan under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In all the cases, key aspects of adaptive management, including controls and preidentified feedback loops, were not incorporated in the plans. Monitoring and triggered mitigation actions were limited in their enforceability, which was contingent on several factors, including which laws applied in each case and the degree of specificity in how triggers were written into plans. Other controversial aspects of these plans revolved around who designed, conducted, interpreted, and funded monitoring programs. Additional contentious issues were the level of precaution associated with trigger mechanisms and the definition of ecological baselines used as points of comparison. Despite these challenges, triggers can be used to increase accountability, by predefining points at which an adaptive management plan will be revisited and reevaluated, and thus improve the application of adaptive management in its complicated political and legal context. PMID:22891956

  16. Integrated Traffic Flow Management Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon R.; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2009-01-01

    A generalized approach is proposed to support integrated traffic flow management decision making studies at both the U.S. national and regional levels. It can consider tradeoffs between alternative optimization and heuristic based models, strategic versus tactical flight controls, and system versus fleet preferences. Preliminary testing was accomplished by implementing thirteen unique traffic flow management models, which included all of the key components of the system and conducting 85, six-hour fast-time simulation experiments. These experiments considered variations in the strategic planning look-ahead times, the replanning intervals, and the types of traffic flow management control strategies. Initial testing indicates that longer strategic planning look-ahead times and re-planning intervals result in steadily decreasing levels of sector congestion for a fixed delay level. This applies when accurate estimates of the air traffic demand, airport capacities and airspace capacities are available. In general, the distribution of the delays amongst the users was found to be most equitable when scheduling flights using a heuristic scheduling algorithm, such as ration-by-distance. On the other hand, equity was the worst when using scheduling algorithms that took into account the number of seats aboard each flight. Though the scheduling algorithms were effective at alleviating sector congestion, the tactical rerouting algorithm was the primary control for avoiding en route weather hazards. Finally, the modeled levels of sector congestion, the number of weather incursions, and the total system delays, were found to be in fair agreement with the values that were operationally observed on both good and bad weather days.

  17. Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making.

    PubMed

    Otto, Ashley S; Clarkson, Joshua J; Kardes, Frank R

    2016-07-01

    We all too often have to make decisions-from the mundane (e.g., what to eat for breakfast) to the complex (e.g., what to buy a loved one)-and yet there exists a multitude of strategies that allows us to make a decision. This work focuses on a subset of decision strategies that allows individuals to make decisions by bypassing the decision-making process-a phenomenon we term decision sidestepping. Critical to the present manuscript, however, we contend that decision sidestepping stems from the motivation to achieve closure. We link this proposition back to the fundamental nature of closure and how those seeking closure are highly bothered by decision making. As such, we argue that the motivation to achieve closure prompts a reliance on sidestepping strategies (e.g., default bias, choice delegation, status quo bias, inaction inertia, option fixation) to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. In support of this framework, five experiments demonstrate that (a) those seeking closure are more likely to engage in decision sidestepping, (b) the effect of closure on sidestepping stems from the bothersome nature of decision making, and (c) the reliance on sidestepping results in downstream consequences for subsequent choice. Taken together, these findings offer unique insight into the cognitive motivations stimulating a reliance on decision sidestepping and thus a novel framework by which to understand how individuals make decisions while bypassing the decision-making process. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337138

  18. 42 CFR 93.412 - Making decisions on institutional noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. 93... Institutional Compliance Issues § 93.412 Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. (a) Institutions must... unwillingness to implement and follow the requirements of this part and its assurance. In making this...

  19. Small Groups' Ecological Reasoning While Making an Environmental Management Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Explores the ideas and reasoning students use to make a collaborative environmental management decision. Compares students' discussions with scientists' guidelines for making environmental management decisions. Finds that whereas across groups students touched on all of the themes that scientists consider to be important for making environmental…

  20. Practice Makes Perfect: Prospective Teachers Develop Skills in Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Martha Tyler; Norton, Robert

    Preservice teachers must develop decision making skills and feel comfortable with decision making processes. Prospective teachers at MidAmerican Nazarene College (MNU), Kansas, are involved in a research based output system called the Decision-Making Packet (DMP). DMP's are units of study that allow students choice and require their pupils to take…

  1. Formation of Mathematical Objects as Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfler, Willi

    2002-01-01

    Proposes and substantiates that in order for mathematical objects to emerge for the individual, the construction processes have to be supplemented by a deliberate decision to view, treat, use, and investigate a structure or a collection of items as a unified object. Suggests that this decision strongly depends on the mediation by symbols,…

  2. A Canonical Theory of Dynamic Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Fox, John; Cooper, Richard P.; Glasspool, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Decision-making behavior is studied in many very different fields, from medicine and economics to psychology and neuroscience, with major contributions from mathematics and statistics, computer science, AI, and other technical disciplines. However the conceptualization of what decision-making is and methods for studying it vary greatly and this has resulted in fragmentation of the field. A theory that can accommodate various perspectives may facilitate interdisciplinary working. We present such a theory in which decision-making is articulated as a set of canonical functions that are sufficiently general to accommodate diverse viewpoints, yet sufficiently precise that they can be instantiated in different ways for specific theoretical or practical purposes. The canons cover the whole decision cycle, from the framing of a decision based on the goals, beliefs, and background knowledge of the decision-maker to the formulation of decision options, establishing preferences over them, and making commitments. Commitments can lead to the initiation of new decisions and any step in the cycle can incorporate reasoning about previous decisions and the rationales for them, and lead to revising or abandoning existing commitments. The theory situates decision-making with respect to other high-level cognitive capabilities like problem solving, planning, and collaborative decision-making. The canonical approach is assessed in three domains: cognitive and neuropsychology, artificial intelligence, and decision engineering. PMID:23565100

  3. A framework for automated decision making and problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1980-01-01

    Problems can be subdivided into two main categories: well structured problems and ill structured problems. The first require routine repetitive decisions which are generally amenable to programmable decision processes. The second require novel nonprogrammable decision processes. The decision making processes can be subdivided into those representative of those done by humans and those done by machine. Many of such decision processes require a combination of humans d machines. Automated decision making and problem solving technologies are expected to have their greatest potential impact in the space program.

  4. Patient decision making among older individuals with cancer.

    PubMed

    Strohschein, Fay J; Bergman, Howard; Carnevale, Franco A; Loiselle, Carmen G

    2011-07-01

    Patient decision making is an area of increasing inquiry. For older individuals experiencing cancer, variations in health and functional status, physiologic aspects of aging, and tension between quality and quantity of life present unique challenges to treatment-related decision making. We used the pragmatic utility method to analyze the concept of patient decision making in the context of older individuals with cancer. We first evaluated its maturity in existing literature and then posed analytical questions to clarify aspects found to be only partially mature. In this context, we found patient decision making to be an ongoing process, changing with time, reflecting individual and relational components, as well as analytical and emotional ones. Assumptions frequently associated with patient decision making were not consistent with the empirical literature. Careful attention to the multifaceted components of patient decision making among older individuals with cancer provides guidance for research, supportive interventions, and targeted follow-up care. PMID:21343431

  5. Better clinical decision making and reducing diagnostic error.

    PubMed

    Croskerry, P; Nimmo, G R

    2011-06-01

    A major amount of our time working in clinical practice involves thinking and decision making. Perhaps it is because decision making is such a commonplace activity that it is assumed we can all make effective decisions. However, this is not the case and the example of diagnostic error supports this assertion. Until quite recently there has been a general nihilism about the ability to change the way that we think, but it is now becoming accepted that if we can think about, and understand, our thinking processes we can improve our decision making, including diagnosis. In this paper we review the dual process model of decision making and highlight ways in which decision making can be improved through the application of this model to our day-to-day practice and by the adoption of de-biasing strategies and critical thinking. PMID:21677922

  6. Considering Risk and Resilience in Decision-Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the concepts of decision-making, risk analysis, uncertainty and resilience analysis. The relation between risk, vulnerability, and resilience is analyzed. The paper describes how complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity are the most critical factors in the definition of the approach and criteria for decision-making. Uncertainty in its various forms is what limits our ability to offer definitive answers to questions about the outcomes of alternatives in a decision-making process. It is shown that, although resilience-informed decision-making would seem fundamentally different from risk-informed decision-making, this is not the case as resilience-analysis can be easily incorporated within existing analytic-deliberative decision-making frameworks.

  7. Cellular and molecular basis of decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Yapici, Nilay; Zimmer, Manuel; Domingos, Ana I

    2014-01-01

    People think they are in control of their own decisions: what to eat or drink, whom to marry or pick a fight with, where to live, what to buy. Behavioural economists and neurophysiologists have long studied decision-making behaviours. However, these behaviours have only recently been studied through the light of molecular genetics. Here, we review recent research in mice, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, that analyses the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying decision-making. These studies interrogate decision-making about food, sexual behaviour, aggression or foraging strategies, and add molecular and cell biology understanding onto the consilience of brain and decision. PMID:25239948

  8. Decision-making Strategies and Performance among Seniors1

    PubMed Central

    Besedeš, Tibor; Deck, Cary; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael

    2011-01-01

    Using paper and pencil experiments administered in senior centers, we examine decision-making performance in multi-attribute decision problems. We differentiate the effects of declining cognitive performance and changing cognitive process on decision-making performance of seniors as they age. We find a significant decline in performance with age due to reduced reliance on common heuristics and increased decision-making randomness among our oldest subjects. However, we find that increasing the number of options in a decision problem increases the number of heuristics brought to the task. This challenges the choice overload view that people give up when confronted with too much choice. PMID:22408282

  9. Decision-making in healthcare as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare transformation requires a change in how the business of healthcare is done. Traditional decision-making approaches based on stable and predictable systems are inappropriate in healthcare because of the complex nature of healthcare delivery. This article reviews challenges to using traditional decision-making approaches in healthcare and how insight from Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) could support healthcare management. The article also provides a system model to guide decision-making in healthcare as a CAS. PMID:26656389

  10. Mental fatigue impairs soccer-specific decision-making skill.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mitchell R; Zeuwts, Linus; Lenoir, Matthieu; Hens, Nathalie; De Jong, Laura M S; Coutts, Aaron J

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on soccer-specific decision-making. Twelve well-trained male soccer players performed a soccer-specific decision-making task on two occasions, separated by at least 72 h. The decision-making task was preceded in a randomised order by 30 min of the Stroop task (mental fatigue) or 30 min of reading from magazines (control). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue were measured before and after treatment, and mental effort (referring to treatment) and motivation (referring to the decision-making task) were measured after treatment. Performance on the soccer-specific decision-making task was assessed using response accuracy and time. Visual search behaviour was also assessed throughout the decision-making task. Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were almost certainly higher following the Stroop task compared to the magazines. Motivation for the upcoming decision-making task was possibly higher following the Stroop task. Decision-making accuracy was very likely lower and response time likely higher in the mental fatigue condition. Mental fatigue had unclear effects on most visual search behaviour variables. The results suggest that mental fatigue impairs accuracy and speed of soccer-specific decision-making. These impairments are not likely related to changes in visual search behaviour. PMID:26949830

  11. A multi-objective approach to solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Galante, Giacomo; Aiello, Giuseppe; Enea, Mario; Panascia, Enrico

    2010-08-15

    The issue addressed in this paper consists in the localization and dimensioning of transfer stations, which constitute a necessary intermediate level in the logistic chain of the solid waste stream, from municipalities to the incinerator. Contextually, the determination of the number and type of vehicles involved is carried out in an integrated optimization approach. The model considers both initial investment and operative costs related to transportation and transfer stations. Two conflicting objectives are evaluated, the minimization of total cost and the minimization of environmental impact, measured by pollution. The design of the integrated waste management system is hence approached in a multi-objective optimization framework. To determine the best means of compromise, goal programming, weighted sum and fuzzy multi-objective techniques have been employed. The proposed analysis highlights how different attitudes of the decision maker towards the logic and structure of the problem result in the employment of different methodologies and the obtaining of different results. The novel aspect of the paper lies in the proposal of an effective decision support system for operative waste management, rather than a further contribution to the transportation problem. The model was applied to the waste management of optimal territorial ambit (OTA) of Palermo (Italy).

  12. Dissolving decision making? Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large.

    PubMed

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, Stans

    2014-12-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making. Attention is paid to three aspects of the wider context of the models: a) the history of the construction process; b) (changes in) the political and scientific environments; and c) the use in policy processes over longer periods of time. Models are more successfully used when they are constructed in a stable political and scientific environment. Stability and certainty within a scientific field seems to be a key predictor for the usefulness of models for policy making. The economic model is more disputed than the ecology-based model and the model that has its theoretical foundation in physics and chemistry. The roles models play in policy processes are too complex to be considered as straightforward technocratic powers. PMID:25549446

  13. Student Unrest and Crisis Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Edwin M.

    1969-01-01

    How the administrator might anticipate student-initiated reform is examined by observing present school practices, crisis condition influence on the decision process, and implications of alternative administrative action. (LN)

  14. Student Involvement in Governmental Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Proposes that teachers introduce their students to the process by which Federal and State decision-makers propose rules and regulations for implementation within society by exposing them to the "Federal Register" and their state's equivalent publication. (MLH)

  15. Testing theories of financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Christopher P; Echenique, Federico; Saito, Kota

    2016-04-12

    We describe the observable content of some of the most widely used models of decision under uncertainty: models of translation invariant preferences. In particular, we characterize the models of variational, maxmin, constant absolute risk aversion, and constant relative risk aversion utilities. In each case we present a revealed preference axiom that is satisfied by a dataset if and only if the dataset is consistent with the corresponding utility representation. We test our axioms using data from an experiment on financial decisions. PMID:27035947

  16. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

  17. Multi-object Spectroscopy Reduction Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellem, Robert Thomas; Pearson, Kyle; Mireles, Ismael; Swain, Mark R.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present multiple observations of the primary transits of bright exoplanets with visible-wavelength multi-object spectroscopy. Multi-object spectroscopy allows simultaneous observations of both the exoplanet host star and one or more comparison stars. Ideally, the comparison star measures errors, such as airmass variations and telescope jitter. The hypothesis is that these errors can then be divided out from target star to achieve higher SNR and improve estimation of the small transit signal. However we find that the astrophysical signal can change depending on selection of comparison star, typically on the ~0.1% level. For example, small bumps during in-transit portion of the lightcurve indicative of star spots appear when using one check star but not the other. Our analysis suggests that comparison and target stars do not necessarily share same the systematics due to differing pixel properties across the detector. We conclude that one cannot blindly use a comparison star to remove systematics. Using our small sample we explore and compare multiple reduction methods to find the true underlying astrophysical signal.

  18. Multi-object geodesic active contours (MOGAC).

    PubMed

    Lucas, Blake C; Kazhdan, Michael; Taylor, Russell H

    2012-01-01

    An emerging topic is to build image segmentation systems that can segment hundreds to thousands of objects (i.e. cell segmentation\\tracking, full brain parcellation, full body segmentation, etc.). Multi-object Level Set Methods (MLSM) perform this task with the benefit of sub-pixel precision. However, current implementations of MLSM are not as computationally or memory efficient as their region growing and graph cut counterparts which lack sub-pixel precision. To address this performance gap, we present a novel parallel implementation of MLSM that leverages the sparse properties of the algorithm to minimize its memory footprint for multiple objects. The new method, Multi-Object Geodesic Active Contours (MOGAC), can represent N objects with just two functions: a label mask image and unsigned distance field. The time complexity of the algorithm is shown to be O((M (power)d)/P) for M (power)d pixels and P processing units in dimension d = {2,3}, independent of the number of objects. Results are presented for 2D and 3D image segmentation problems. PMID:23286074

  19. How social cognition can inform social decision making.

    PubMed

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures-while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context-and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  20. How social cognition can inform social decision making

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Victoria K.; Harris, Lasana T.

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  1. Gender and Values: What Is the Impact on Decision Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Stephen M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Linkages among gender, decision making, and values related to moral development and equity/equality are studied for 54 graduate and 186 undergraduate business school students (48 percent females) attending a Southern urban university. Results illustrate gender-related differences in value systems, weights of decision issues, and decisions. Future…

  2. 5 CFR 875.407 - Who makes insurability decisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who makes insurability decisions? 875.407 Section 875.407 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... decisions? The Carrier determines the insurability of all applicants. The Carrier's decision may not...

  3. Control, Contingency and Delegation in Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Stephen R.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes a model which emphasizes the delegation of decision-making authority and managerial control of operations. Suggests that risks can be reduced by using (1) a contingency approach to delegation, (2) decision rules for consistency, (3) decision models for specific situations, (4) vital indicator reports, (5) management by objectives, and (6)…

  4. The Risky Shift in Policy Decision Making: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilpert, B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Based on analysis of data on 432 decision-makers from around the world, this study examines the decision-making phenomenon that individuals tend to move toward riskier decisions after group discussion. Findings of the analysis contradicted earlier studies, showing a consistent shift toward greater risk avoidance. Available from Elsevier Scientific…

  5. The problem of consciousness in habitual decision making.

    PubMed

    Bernacer, Javier; Balderas, Gloria; Martinez-Valbuena, Ivan; Pastor, Maria A; Murillo, Jose Ignacio

    2014-02-01

    Newell & Shanks (N&S) carry out an extremely sharp and static distinction between conscious and unconscious decisions, ignoring a process that dynamically transfers decisions and actions between the conscious and unconscious domains of the mind: habitual decision making. We propose a new categorisation and discuss the main characteristics of this process from a philosophical and neuroscientific perspective. PMID:24461349

  6. Subjective Expected Utility: A Model of Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischoff, Baruch; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a model of decision making known to researchers in the field of behavioral decision theory (BDT) as subjective expected utility (SEU). The descriptive and predictive validity of the SEU model, probability and values assessment using SEU, and decision contexts are examined, and a 54-item reference list is provided. (JL)

  7. Making Career Decisions--A Sequential Elimination Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for career decision making based on the sequential elimination of occupational alternatives, an adaptation for career decisions of Tversky's (1972) elimination-by-aspects theory of choice. The expected utility approach is reviewed as a representative compensatory model for career decisions. Advantages, disadvantages, and…

  8. Beginning Teachers: How Do They Make Decisions about Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Martha

    Sixteen first-year elementary school teachers participated in telephone interviews and classroom observations that focused on decision making processes before and during reading instruction. The most difficult aspect for the majority of teachers interviewed was explaining what influenced their decisions. The major decisions made prior to reading…

  9. Family Decision-Making in Early Adolescence: Conversations and Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Janis E.; And Others

    This study investigated the processes and outcomes of family decision-making during children's transition from late childhood to adolescence. Members of 28 one-parent families and 40 two-parent families completed four decision tasks independently, then as a family. Decision tasks concerned selecting a bicycle, a snack, a movie, and a camp for the…

  10. Trait-related decision making impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from decision making under ambiguity but not decision making under risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long; Dong, Yi; Ji, Yifu; Tao, Rui; Chen, Xuequan; Ye, Jianguo; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Fengqiong; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether deficits in decision making were potential endophenotype markers for OCD considering different phases of the disease. Fifty-seven non-medicated OCD patients (nmOCD), 77 medicated OCD patients (mOCD), 48 remitted patients with OCD (rOCD) and 115 healthy controls were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which measured decision making under ambiguity, and the Game of Dice Task (GDT), which measured decision making under risk. While the three patients groups showed impaired performance on the IGT compared with healthy controls, all patients showed intact performance on the GDT. Furthermore, the rOCD patients showed a preference for deck B, indicating that they showed more sensitivity to the frequency of loss than to the magnitude of loss, whereas the mOCD patients showed a preference for deck A, indicating that they had more sensitivity to the magnitude of loss than to the frequency of loss. These data suggested that OCD patients had trait-related impairments in decision making under ambiguity but not under risk, and that dissociation of decision making under ambiguity and under risk is an appropriate potential neurocognitive endophenotype for OCD. The subtle but meaningful differences in decision making performance between the OCD groups require further study. PMID:26601899

  11. Economic aspects of clinical decision making: applications of clinical decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Crane, V S

    1988-03-01

    Clinical decision analysis as a basic tool for decision making is described, and potential applications of decision analysis in six areas of clinical practice are identified. Clinical decision analysis is a systematic method of describing clinical problems in a quantitative fashion, identifying possible courses of action, assessing the probability and value of outcomes, and then making a calculation to select the ultimate course of action. Clinical decision analysis provides a structure for clinical decision problems, helps clarify medical controversies, and encourages decision makers to speak a common language. Applications of clinical decision analysis in the areas of diagnostic testing, patient management, product and program selection, research and education, patient preferences, and health-care-policy evaluation are described. Decision analysis offers health professionals a tool for making quantifiable, cost-effective clinical decisions, especially in terms of clinical outcomes. PMID:3285672

  12. Better environmental decision making - recent progress and future trends.

    PubMed

    Pollard, S J T; Davies, G J; Coley, F; Lemon, M

    2008-08-01

    Recent trends in risk-based decision making are reviewed in relation to novel developments in comparative risk analysis, strategic risk analysis, weight of evidence frameworks, and participative decision making. Delivery of these innovations must take account of organisational capabilities in risk management and the institutional culture that implements decision on risk. We stress the importance of managing risk knowledge within organisations, and emphasise the use of core criteria for effective risk-based decisions by reference to decision process, implementation and the security of strategic added value. PMID:18774589

  13. Bridging the gap between science and decision making

    PubMed Central

    von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2013-01-01

    All decisions, whether they are personal, public, or business-related, are based on the decision maker’s beliefs and values. Science can and should help decision makers by shaping their beliefs. Unfortunately, science is not easily accessible to decision makers, and scientists often do not understand decision makers’ information needs. This article presents a framework for bridging the gap between science and decision making and illustrates it with two examples. The first example is a personal health decision. It shows how a formal representation of the beliefs and values can reflect scientific inputs by a physician to combine with the values held by the decision maker to inform a medical choice. The second example is a public policy decision about managing a potential environmental hazard. It illustrates how controversial beliefs can be reflected as uncertainties and informed by science to make better decisions. Both examples use decision analysis to bridge science and decisions. The conclusions suggest that this can be a helpful process that requires skills in both science and decision making. PMID:23940310

  14. Decision Making in the Arrow of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Édgar; Neri, Izaak; Dörpinghaus, Meik; Meyr, Heinrich; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-12-01

    We show that the steady-state entropy production rate of a stochastic process is inversely proportional to the minimal time needed to decide on the direction of the arrow of time. Here we apply Wald's sequential probability ratio test to optimally decide on the direction of time's arrow in stationary Markov processes. Furthermore, the steady-state entropy production rate can be estimated using mean first-passage times of suitable physical variables. We derive a first-passage time fluctuation theorem which implies that the decision time distributions for correct and wrong decisions are equal. Our results are illustrated by numerical simulations of two simple examples of nonequilibrium processes.

  15. Acute Stress Modulates Risk Taking in Financial Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2016-01-01

    People’s decisions are often susceptible to various demands exerted by the environment, leading to stressful conditions. Although a goal for researchers is to elucidate stress-coping mechanisms to facilitate decision-making processes, it is important to first understand the interaction between the state created by a stressful environment and how decisions are performed in such environments. The objective of this experiment was to probe the impact of exposure to acute stress on financial decision-making and examine the particular influence of stress on decisions with a positive or negative valence. Participants’ choices exhibited a stronger reflection effect when participants were under stress than when they were in the no-stress control phase. This suggests that stress modulates risk taking, potentially exacerbating behavioral bias in subsequent decision making. Consistent with dual-process approaches, decision makers fall back on automatized reactions to risk under the influence of disruptive stress. PMID:19207694

  16. What Is Known about Parents’ Treatment Decisions? A Narrative Review of Pediatric Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Lipstein, Ellen A.; Brinkman, William B.; Britto, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Background With the increasing complexity of decisions in pediatric medicine, there is a growing need to understand the pediatric decision-making process. Objective To conduct a narrative review of the current research on parent decision making about pediatric treatments and identify areas in need of further investigation. Methods Articles presenting original research on parent decision making were identified from MEDLINE (1966–6/2011), using the terms “decision making,” “parent,” and “child.” We included papers focused on treatment decisions but excluded those focused on information disclosure to children, vaccination, and research participation decisions. Results We found 55 papers describing 52 distinct studies, the majority being descriptive, qualitative studies of the decision-making process, with very limited assessment of decision outcomes. Although parents’ preferences for degree of participation in pediatric decision making vary, most are interested in sharing the decision with the provider. In addition to the provider, parents are influenced in their decision making by changes in their child’s health status, other community members, prior knowledge, and personal factors, such as emotions and faith. Parents struggle to balance these influences as well as to know when to include their child in decision making. Conclusions Current research demonstrates a diversity of influences on parent decision making and parent decision preferences; however, little is known about decision outcomes or interventions to improve outcomes. Further investigation, using prospective methods, is needed in order to understand how to support parents through the difficult treatment decisions. PMID:21969136

  17. Collective Decision-Making in Homing Pigeons: Larger Flocks Take Longer to Decide but Do Not Make Better Decisions.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos D; Przybyzin, Sebastian; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2016-01-01

    Social animals routinely are challenged to make consensus decisions about movement directions and routes. However, the underlying mechanisms facilitating such decision-making processes are still poorly known. A prominent question is how group members participate in group decisions. We addressed this question by examining how flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) decide their homing direction. We released newly formed flocks varying in size and determined the time taken to choose a homing direction (decision-making period) and the accuracy of that choice. We found that the decision-making period increases exponentially with flock size, which is consistent with a participatory decision-making process. We additionally found that there is no effect of flock size on the accuracy of the decisions made, which does not match with current theory for democratic choices of flight directions. Our combined results are better explained by a participatory choice of leaders that subsequently undertake the flock directional decisions. However, this decision-making model would only entirely fit with our results if leaders were chosen based on traits other than their navigational experience. Our study provides rare empirical evidence elucidating decision-making processes in freely moving groups of animals. PMID:26863416

  18. Collective Decision-Making in Homing Pigeons: Larger Flocks Take Longer to Decide but Do Not Make Better Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos D.; Przybyzin, Sebastian; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Social animals routinely are challenged to make consensus decisions about movement directions and routes. However, the underlying mechanisms facilitating such decision-making processes are still poorly known. A prominent question is how group members participate in group decisions. We addressed this question by examining how flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) decide their homing direction. We released newly formed flocks varying in size and determined the time taken to choose a homing direction (decision-making period) and the accuracy of that choice. We found that the decision-making period increases exponentially with flock size, which is consistent with a participatory decision-making process. We additionally found that there is no effect of flock size on the accuracy of the decisions made, which does not match with current theory for democratic choices of flight directions. Our combined results are better explained by a participatory choice of leaders that subsequently undertake the flock directional decisions. However, this decision-making model would only entirely fit with our results if leaders were chosen based on traits other than their navigational experience. Our study provides rare empirical evidence elucidating decision-making processes in freely moving groups of animals. PMID:26863416

  19. Effect of Training in Rational Decision Making on the Quality of Simulated Career Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumboltz, John D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined if training in rational decision making improves the quality of simulated career decisions. Training in rational decision making resulted in superior performance for females on one subscore of the knowledge measure. It also resulted in superior simulated career choices by females and younger males. (Author)

  20. Individual Differences in Decision-Making and Confidence: Capturing Decision Tendencies in a Fictitious Medical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is a complex process that is largely studied from an experimental perspective or in specific organizational contexts. As such, no generalizable framework exists with which to study decision-making from an individual differences perspective for predictive/selection purposes. By generalising a context-specific decision model proposed…

  1. Leadership Style, Decision Context, and the Poliheuristic Theory of Decision Making: An Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Jonathan W.; Yang, Yi Edward

    2008-01-01

    The poliheuristic (PH) theory of decision making has made important contributions to our understanding of political decision making but remains silent about certain key aspects of the decision process. Specifically, PH theory contends that leaders screen out politically unacceptable options, but it provides no guidance on (1) the crucial threshold…

  2. Teachers and Decision-Making Processes: An Italian Exploratory Study on Individual and Collaborative Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmigiani, Davide

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at highlighting the decision-making processes of Italian teachers; in particular, we have focused on individual and collaborative decisions developed both during meetings and in the classroom. The study has underlined the features of teachers' decisions when decisions are made in groups and individually. A questionnaire was…

  3. INTERIM REPORT IMPROVED METHODS FOR INCORPORATING RISK IN DECISION MAKING

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, M. J.; Fraley, D. W.; Denning, R. S.

    1980-08-01

    This paper reports observations and preliminary investigations in the first phase of a research program covering methodologies for making safety-related decisions. The objective has been to gain insight into NRC perceptions of the value of formal decision methods, their possible applications, and how risk is, or may be, incorporated in decision making. The perception of formal decision making techniques, held by various decision makers, and what may be done to improve them, were explored through interviews with NRC staff. An initial survey of decision making methods, an assessment of the applicability of formal methods vis-a-vis the available information, and a review of methods of incorporating risk and uncertainty have also been conducted.

  4. Child Protection Decision Making: A Factorial Analysis Using Case Vignettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Glen

    2012-01-01

    This study explored decision making by child protection social workers in the province of British Columbia, Canada. A factorial survey method was used in which case vignettes were constructed by randomly assigning a number of key characteristics associated with decision making in child protection. Child protection social workers (n = 118) assessed…

  5. An Ethical Decision-Making Framework for Community College Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Diane E.; Hioco, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a decision-making framework developed for use by community college administrators and higher education faculty members who teach graduate courses in community college administration or leadership. The rationale for developing a decision-making approach that integrates ethics and critical thinking was…

  6. The Adaptability of Career Decision-Making Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadassi, Reuma; Gati, Itamar; Dayan, Amira

    2012-01-01

    The Career Decision-Making Profiles questionnaire (CDMP; Gati, Landman, Davidovitch, Asulin-Peretz, & Gadassi, 2010) uses a new model for characterizing the way individuals make decisions based on the simultaneous use of 11 dimensions. The present study investigated which pole of each dimension is more adaptive. Using the data of 383 young adults…

  7. Factors Influencing Career Decision Making in Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albion, Majella J.; Fogarty, Gerard J.

    2002-01-01

    In separate studies, 121 high school students and 127 adults completed the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire. Its multidimensional structure was confirmed and the model of career decision making fit both groups. The adults reported fewer difficulties on all subscales. (Contains 60 references.) (SK)

  8. Perfectionism and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganske, Kathryn H.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perfectionism and career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (R. B. Slaney, K. G. Rice, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, & J. S. Ashby, 2001) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy-Short Form (N. E. Betz, K. L. Klein, & K. M. Taylor, 1996). Adaptive…

  9. The Measurement and Correlates of Career Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harren, Vincent A.; Kass, Richard A.

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding career decision making (CDM); introduces an instrument, Assessment of Career Decision Making (ACDM) to measure CDM with college students; and presents correlational data on sex role and cognitive style factors hypothesized to influence CDM. The ACDM, designed to measure the Tiedeman and…

  10. Data-Based Decision Making 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The phrase "data-based decision making" has been used so often in discussions about school improvement efforts that it has become almost a mantra. However, it's "how" data is used that really provides the critical link between practice and school improvement. "Data-Based Decision Making 2.0" is designed to help principals take on the role of…

  11. Priming and Organizational Level Effects on Ethical Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautenschlager, Gary; Morris, Debbie

    The study of ethical decision making has gained considerable interest among organizational scientists due to the widespread occurrence of wrongdoing in business, industry, government and various other institutions. This study examined the effects of priming and organizational level manipulation on an individual's ethical decision-making behavior.…

  12. 20 CFR 404.2109 - Responsibility for making payment decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibility for making payment decisions. 404.2109 Section 404.2109 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Provisions § 404.2109 Responsibility for making payment decisions. The Commissioner will decide— (a)...

  13. 20 CFR 416.2209 - Responsibility for making payment decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibility for making payment decisions. 416.2209 Section 416.2209 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Provisions § 416.2209 Responsibility for making payment decisions. The Commissioner will decide: (a)...

  14. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands... the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order's requirements,...

  15. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands... the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order's requirements,...

  16. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands... the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order's requirements,...

  17. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands... the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order's requirements,...

  18. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands... the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order's requirements,...

  19. Shared Decision Making: Improving Care for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golnik, Allison; Maccabee-Ryaboy, Nadia; Scal, Peter; Wey, Andrew; Gaillard, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report that they are engaged in shared decision making. We measured the association between shared decision making and (a) satisfaction with care, (b) perceived guidance regarding controversial issues in autism spectrum disorder, and (c) perceived assistance…

  20. On the Decision-Making Process in Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    1985-01-01

    Sketches a conceptual framework for the systematic description of decision-making processes in music education. Refers to existing formulations in education, management, marketing, and economics. Lists decision-making phases in music education, each exhibiting the characteristics of a social system. Offers a historical example of each phase. (AYC)

  1. 20 CFR 404.2109 - Responsibility for making payment decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responsibility for making payment decisions. 404.2109 Section 404.2109 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Provisions § 404.2109 Responsibility for making payment decisions. The Commissioner will decide— (a)...

  2. 20 CFR 416.2209 - Responsibility for making payment decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responsibility for making payment decisions. 416.2209 Section 416.2209 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Provisions § 416.2209 Responsibility for making payment decisions. The Commissioner will decide: (a)...

  3. 20 CFR 416.2209 - Responsibility for making payment decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responsibility for making payment decisions. 416.2209 Section 416.2209 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Provisions § 416.2209 Responsibility for making payment decisions. The Commissioner will decide: (a)...

  4. 20 CFR 416.2209 - Responsibility for making payment decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibility for making payment decisions. 416.2209 Section 416.2209 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Provisions § 416.2209 Responsibility for making payment decisions. The Commissioner will decide: (a)...

  5. 20 CFR 404.2109 - Responsibility for making payment decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responsibility for making payment decisions. 404.2109 Section 404.2109 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Provisions § 404.2109 Responsibility for making payment decisions. The Commissioner will decide— (a)...

  6. Time Perspective and Career Decision-Making Difficulties in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision making is not only contingent upon what takes place in the present but also on how one feels about the past and one's hopes for the future. However, when it comes to time perspective and career decision making, vocational psychology has focused exclusively on future time perspective. The present study examines the relations among…

  7. Promoting Metacognitive Decision-Making in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Robin; Bauml, Michelle; Quebec-Fuentes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Effective teachers are characterized by their abilities to make thoughtful, deliberate, and informed adaptations while teaching (Hoffman & Pearson, 2000). These in-the-moment teaching decisions are guided by a complex web of teacher knowledge. Raising teachers' awareness of the decisions they make on a moment-by-moment basis may aid in…

  8. 20 CFR 404.2109 - Responsibility for making payment decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Responsibility for making payment decisions. 404.2109 Section 404.2109 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Provisions § 404.2109 Responsibility for making payment decisions. The Commissioner will decide— (a)...

  9. 20 CFR 404.2109 - Responsibility for making payment decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibility for making payment decisions. 404.2109 Section 404.2109 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Provisions § 404.2109 Responsibility for making payment decisions. The Commissioner will decide— (a)...

  10. Pedagogical Decision Making through the Lens of Teacher Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prachagool, Veena; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Subramaniam, Ganakumaran; Dostal, Jirí

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogical decision making is very important for professional teachers, it concerns belief, self-efficacy, and actions that teachers expose to classroom. This paper employed theoretical lens and education policy in Thailand to examine the preservice teachers' views about pedagogical decision making. Discussion helps school mentors understand…

  11. 20 CFR 416.2209 - Responsibility for making payment decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Responsibility for making payment decisions. 416.2209 Section 416.2209 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Provisions § 416.2209 Responsibility for making payment decisions. The Commissioner will decide: (a)...

  12. The Effectiveness of a Career Decision-Making Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Nadya; Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Kantamneni, Neeta

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a college career course designed to increase career decision-making confidence and facilitate career exploration. Participants were 73 students from a large Midwestern university (65.6% women, 34.4% men, mean age 18.56). Students were given questionnaires assessing career decision-making difficulties,…

  13. When Consensus Decision-Making Fails: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Grant T.

    Habermas's theory of dialogue was used to evaluate the process of decision making that occurred in a labor-management committee's meeting to discuss flextime. The study attempted to determine why, at that meeting, the committee's consensus process of decision making failed. W.R. Bion's theory of unconscious group motives was also used to…

  14. Social Equity Decision Making: Narrative Explorations with Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuxa, Robin Lynn

    2012-01-01

    In this critical postmodern narrative study, I explore with my participants their decision making process/es around social equity issues (race, class, gender, social class, sexual identity, religion, etc.) in their teaching. The purpose of this study is to facilitate a closer examination of this important decision making process--when and how to…

  15. Personal Variables and Bias in Educational Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, E. Scott; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Findings regarding the influence of four potential sources of bias (sex, socioeconimic status, race, physical attractiveness) upon decision-making stages of the assessment process are selectively reviewed. It is concluded that, though further research is needed, convincing evidence of bias in later stages of decision making has yet to be…

  16. Analytical Factors in Decision Making: Thrust toward Theory Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Anthony N.

    The development of theories to explain decision-making requires a model that identifies the factors relevant to decision-making. Seven sets of explanatory factors--called the "seven analytical A's"--should be analyzed. They include (1) axiological factors, or those related to values; (2) ten axiomatic factors comprising socioeconomic, territorial,…

  17. A Training Model for School-Based Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne D.

    The development of a comprehensive training model designed specifically for school-based decision making is discussed in this report, with a focus on teaching relevant skills and when to utilize them. Loosely based on Vroom and Yetton's 1973 model of participative decision making, the model is characterized by a general-to-specific continuum and…

  18. The adaptability of career decision-making profiles.

    PubMed

    Gadassi, Reuma; Gati, Itamar; Dayan, Amira

    2012-10-01

    The Career Decision-Making Profiles questionnaire (CDMP; Gati, Landman, Davidovitch, Asulin-Peretz, & Gadassi, 2010) uses a new model for characterizing the way individuals make decisions based on the simultaneous use of 11 dimensions. The present study investigated which pole of each dimension is more adaptive. Using the data of 383 young adults who were about to make a career choice, we assessed the individuals' decision status and the associations of the dimensions Emotional and Personality-related Career decision-making Difficulties (EPCD; Saka, Gati, & Kelly, 2008) and personality factors (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised; Costa & McCrae, 1992). The results suggest that, as hypothesized, comprehensive Information gathering, analytic Information processing, a more internal Locus of control, more Effort invested, less Procrastination, greater Speed of making the final decision, less Dependence on others, and less Desire to please others were more adaptive in making career decisions. However, contrary to our hypotheses, high Aspiration for an ideal occupation was more adaptive for the decision-making process, Willingness to compromise was not associated with more adaptive decision making, and the results regarding Consulting with others were mixed. Gender differences in the CDMP dimensions and counseling implications are discussed. PMID:22746185

  19. Organizing for Evidence-Based Decision Making and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimer, Christina

    2012-01-01

    In today's accountability climate, regional accrediting bodies are requiring colleges and universities to develop and sustain a culture of evidence-based decision making and improvement. But two-thirds of college presidents in a 2011 "Inside Higher Ed" survey said their institutions are not particularly strong at using data for making decisions.…

  20. Development and Validation of a Decision-Making Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizarraga, Maria Luisa Sanz De Acedo; Baquedano, Maria Teresa Sanz De Acedo; Oliver, Maria Soria; Closas, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The "Decision-Making Questionnaire" (DMQ) was developed and validated in order to examine the factors that affect decision making. The investigation was carried out with two samples, one of 170 participants and the other of 425 of both sexes. Each sample was divided into three age ranges: young students (18-25 years), adults (26-60 years), and…

  1. Exploring Career Decision-Making Styles across Three European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimrose, Jenny; Mulvey, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Career decisions are amongst the most important we make. Unsurprisingly, much published research exists on this particular aspect of career behaviour. However, the overwhelming majority of studies have been carried out on young people making initial career decisions. This paper extends our understanding by examining how mid-career adults in three…

  2. College Students' Perspectives on Their Career Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubany, Shawn T.; Krieshok, Thomas S.; Black, Michael D.; McKay, Robyn A.

    2008-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined how college student participants discussed their approach to making career decisions, with a focus on how their perspective may be consistent with various models of career decision making. Brief telephone interviews were conducted with 20 college students, and the narrative data were analyzed using qualitative…

  3. Passionate Rationalism: The Role of Emotion in Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakomski, Gabriele; Evers, Colin W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that emotion has a central role to play in rational decision making based on recent research in the neuroanatomy of emotion. As a result, traditional rational decision-making theories, including Herbert Simon's modified model of satisficing that sharply demarcates emotions and values from rationality…

  4. The Effect of Sport on Decision Making Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozoglu, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The decisions people make in the face of circumstances they encounter influence their life in favourable or unfavourable ways. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between sporting habits and decision making strategies among university students. The research involved 1298 students (526 women and 772 men) studying during 2011-2012…

  5. The Legal Implications of Administrative Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Louis W.

    Administrative decision-making encompasses three levels on which increasing legal challenges and liability and their implications need to be considered. At the local level, this may involve violations of procedural due process. A second level concerns state laws and regulations. Line administrators, who frequently make decisions on programs,…

  6. Helping People Make Better Long-Term-Care Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Boston, Krista; Chilvers, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative online system to support long-term-care decision making. Design and Methods: The Long-Term Care Choices tool is a web-based system that uses expert opinion and structures decision making. Results: The system has been well accepted, and most users find it easy to use. Implications:…

  7. Enhancing the Decision-Making of Extraverted College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitler, Crystal M.; Dansereau, Donald F.; Barth, Timothy M.; Ito, Sachiyo

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that many college students, specifically those high on extraversion are prone to risky and sometimes unethical decision-making. The present study examined the impact of a decision-making "tool" that incorporated the use of standard ethical perspectives on students' attitudes and intentions. This "fill in the…

  8. A Conceptual Framework for How Evaluators Make Everyday Practice Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kundin, Delia M.

    2010-01-01

    How do evaluators make decisions about how to approach an evaluation in their everyday practice? What are the bases for evaluators' approach choices? In what ways do evaluators think about evaluation models? The evaluation literature remains unclear about what specific information evaluators consider when making decisions in response to everyday…

  9. Careership: A Sociological Theory of Career Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    1997-01-01

    Observes that the current discourse on the school-to-work transition pivots on career decision-making; two views of decision-making exist: one focusing on socially-structured pathways and one focusing on individual freedom to choose. Presents a new model that avoids the pitfalls of social determinism and views young people as completely free…

  10. Problem Solving/Decision Making for Social and Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.

    Based on the premise that systematic instruction in social decision-making and problem-solving skills is a developmental right of all children, this book provides an in-service training program for teaching a set of social decision-making and problem-solving steps that are essential for success in school, in the family, with friends, in the world…

  11. Discretion in Student Discipline: Insight into Elementary Principals' Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Nora M.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists that examines the exercise of discretion by principals in their disciplinary decision making. This study sought to understand the application of values by principals as they engage in student disciplinary decision making within legally fixed parameters of their administrative discretion. This qualitative methodology used…

  12. Assessing Decision Making in Young Adult Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships…

  13. Ethical Decision-Making Models: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottone, R. Rocco; Claus, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a review of literature on ethical decision-making models in counseling, beginning in the fall of 1984 through the summer of 1998. Surveys theoretically or philosophically based, practice-based, and specialty-relevant approaches. Results indicate the literature is rich with decision-making model descriptions, although few have been…

  14. 1978 Decision-Making Casebook for Business and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Paul H., Ed.; And Others

    These teacher developed case studies taken from the business world are presented to help secondary students develop an understanding of economics and of the decision-making process. The studies describe real business situations. All historical and current facts are provided, and students must analyze the data and make business decisions. Teacher…

  15. Decision Making Activities for the Grade 9 English Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Barbara; And Others

    In order to incorporate the elements of personal decision making directly into a ninth grade English curriculum, the decision making lessons presented in this paper were written for literature commonly taught in junior high schools. The paper suggests activities for the following works: "Romeo and Juliet,""Flowers for Algernon,""The Martian…

  16. Decision-Making Involvement of Individuals with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menne, Heather L.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research underscores how autonomy and decision-making involvement may help to enhance the quality of life of older adults; however, individuals with dementia are often excluded from decision making that is related to their daily functioning. In this study we use a modified version of the Stress Process Model to consider the stress process…

  17. Young People's Views about Their Involvement in Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aston, Hermione J.; Lambert, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted over a two-year period in a large Educational Psychology Service (EPS) in England. Researchers were keen to ascertain the views of young people and EPS members about young people being directly involved in educational decision-making and how their "genuine" involvement in such decision-making might be best…

  18. Data-Driven Decision Making 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Glynn D.

    2006-01-01

    Educators base many of their most significant decisions on what they think will happen in the future. This article on education technology begins by outlining six notable advances in education information technology that have already occurred. Ten predictions are made concerning general advances in education information technology for the next…

  19. DECISION-MAKING USING EXISTING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decision-makers need information on cumulative and aggregate stressors as well as clear information on where problems are likely to occur in the future in order to prioritize risk management actions. The most prevasive and difficult to assess changes are the result of regional-s...

  20. Reproductive Information and Reproductive Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of reproductive choice are attempting to limit reproductive decisions based on certain underlying reasons. This commentary explores the rationales for these limitations and the objections to them. It concludes that reasoned-based limitations are unsupportable and unenforceable. PMID:26242944

  1. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  2. Using Discipline Referrals To Make Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Tary; Sugai, George; Colvin, Geoff

    2000-01-01

    Computerized discipline referral data are a valuable resource in identifying at-risk students and staff development needs. Graphing referral data according to grade level, types of problem behavior, gender, or other features can facilitate decisions about applicable types of prevention programs and schoolwide strategies. (Contains 44 references.)…

  3. Adolescent Sexuality: Values, Morality and Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary; Sonnenshein-Schneider, Mary

    1987-01-01

    Analyzed adolescents' (N=500) evaluations of factors which would influence their sexual decisions. Results idetified six factors (family establishment competence, external morality, consequences of childbearing, self-enhancement through sexual intercourse, intimacy considerations regarding sexual intercourse, consequence of marriage) which were…

  4. Instructional decision making of high school science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Jeffrey S.

    The instructional decision-making processes of high school science teachers have not been well established in the literature. Several models for decision-making do exist in other teaching disciplines, business, computer game programming, nursing, and some fields of science. A model that incorporates differences in science teaching that is consistent with constructivist theory as opposed to conventional science teaching is useful in the current climate of standards-based instruction that includes an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. This study focuses on three aspects of the decision-making process. First, it defines what factors, both internal and external, influence high school science teacher decision-making. Second, those factors are analyzed further to determine what instructional decision-making processes are articulated or demonstrated by the participants. Third, by analyzing the types of decisions that are made in the classroom, the classroom learning environments established as a result of those instructional decisions are studied for similarities and differences between conventional and constructivist models. While the decision-making process for each of these teachers was not clearly articulated by the teachers themselves, the patterns that establish the process were clearly exhibited by the teachers. It was also clear that the classroom learning environments that were established were, at least in part, established as a result of the instructional decisions that were made in planning and implementation of instruction. Patterns of instructional decision-making were different for each teacher as a result of primary instructional goals that were different for each teacher. There were similarities between teachers who exhibited more constructivist epistemological tendencies as well as similarities between teachers who exhibited a more conventional epistemology. While the decisions that will result from these two camps may be different, the six step

  5. A multi-objective model for designing a group layout of a dynamic cellular manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kia, Reza; Shirazi, Hossein; Javadian, Nikbakhsh; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming model to design a group layout of a cellular manufacturing system in a dynamic environment, in which the number of cells to be formed is variable. Cell formation (CF) and group layout (GL) are concurrently made in a dynamic environment by the integrated model, which incorporates with an extensive coverage of important manufacturing features used in the design of CMSs. Additionally, there are some features that make the presented model different from the previous studies. These features include the following: (1) the variable number of cells, (2) the integrated CF and GL decisions in a dynamic environment by a multi-objective mathematical model, and (3) two conflicting objectives that minimize the total costs (i.e., costs of intra and inter-cell material handling, machine relocation, purchasing new machines, machine overhead, machine processing, and forming cells) and minimize the imbalance of workload among cells. Furthermore, the presented model considers some limitations, such as machine capability, machine capacity, part demands satisfaction, cell size, material flow conservation, and location assignment. Four numerical examples are solved by the GAMS software to illustrate the promising results obtained by the incorporated features.

  6. Decision making in a human population living sustainably.

    PubMed

    Hicks, John S; Burgman, Mark A; Marewski, Julian N; Fidler, Fiona; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-10-01

    The Tiwi people of northern Australia have managed natural resources continuously for 6000-8000 years. Tiwi management objectives and outcomes may reflect how they gather information about the environment. We qualitatively analyzed Tiwi documents and management techniques to examine the relation between the social and physical environment of decision makers and their decision-making strategies. We hypothesized that principles of bounded rationality, namely, the use of efficient rules to navigate complex decision problems, explain how Tiwi managers use simple decision strategies (i.e., heuristics) to make robust decisions. Tiwi natural resource managers reduced complexity in decision making through a process that gathers incomplete and uncertain information to quickly guide decisions toward effective outcomes. They used management feedback to validate decisions through an information loop that resulted in long-term sustainability of environmental use. We examined the Tiwi decision-making processes relative to management of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) fisheries and contrasted their management with the state government's management of barramundi. Decisions that enhanced the status of individual people and their attainment of aspiration levels resulted in reliable resource availability for Tiwi consumers. Different decision processes adopted by the state for management of barramundi may not secure similarly sustainable outcomes. PMID:22891858

  7. How Useful Are Climate Projections for Adaptation Decision Making?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. B.; Vogel, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Decision making is often portrayed as a linear process that assumes scientific knowledge is a necessary precursor to effective policy and is used directly in policy making. Yet, in practice, the use of scientific information in decision making is more complex than the linear model implies. The use of climate projections in adaptation decision making is a case in point. This paper briefly reviews efforts by some decision makers to understand climate change risks and to apply this knowledge when making decisions on management of climate sensitive resources and infrastructure . In general, and in spite of extensive efforts to study climate change at the regional and local scale to support decision making, few decisions outside of adapting to sea level rise appear to directly apply to climate change projections. A number of U.S. municipalities and states, including Seattle, New York City, Phoenix, and the States of California and Washington, have used climate change projections to assess their vulnerability to various climate change impacts. Some adaptation decisions have been made based on projections of sea level rise, such as change in location of infrastructure. This may be because a future rise is sea level is virtually certain. In contrast, decision making on precipitation has been more limited, even where there is consensus on likely changes in sign of the variable. Nonetheless, decision makers are adopting strategies that can be justified based on current climate and climate variability and that also reduce risks to climate change. A key question for the scientific community is whether improved projections will add value to decision making. For example, it remains unclear how higher-resolution projections can change decision making as long as the sign and magnitude of projections across climate models and downscaling techniques retains a wide range of uncertainty. It is also unclear whether even better information on the sign and magnitude of change would

  8. Causal evidence for frontal cortex organization for perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Rahnev, Dobromir; Nee, Derek Evan; Riddle, Justin; Larson, Alina Sue; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-05-24

    Although recent research has shown that the frontal cortex has a critical role in perceptual decision making, an overarching theory of frontal functional organization for perception has yet to emerge. Perceptual decision making is temporally organized such that it requires the processes of selection, criterion setting, and evaluation. We hypothesized that exploring this temporal structure would reveal a large-scale frontal organization for perception. A causal intervention with transcranial magnetic stimulation revealed clear specialization along the rostrocaudal axis such that the control of successive stages of perceptual decision making was selectively affected by perturbation of successively rostral areas. Simulations with a dynamic model of decision making suggested distinct computational contributions of each region. Finally, the emergent frontal gradient was further corroborated by functional MRI. These causal results provide an organizational principle for the role of frontal cortex in the control of perceptual decision making and suggest specific mechanistic contributions for its different subregions. PMID:27162349

  9. Causal evidence for frontal cortex organization for perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Nee, Derek Evan; Riddle, Justin; Larson, Alina Sue; D’Esposito, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Although recent research has shown that the frontal cortex has a critical role in perceptual decision making, an overarching theory of frontal functional organization for perception has yet to emerge. Perceptual decision making is temporally organized such that it requires the processes of selection, criterion setting, and evaluation. We hypothesized that exploring this temporal structure would reveal a large-scale frontal organization for perception. A causal intervention with transcranial magnetic stimulation revealed clear specialization along the rostrocaudal axis such that the control of successive stages of perceptual decision making was selectively affected by perturbation of successively rostral areas. Simulations with a dynamic model of decision making suggested distinct computational contributions of each region. Finally, the emergent frontal gradient was further corroborated by functional MRI. These causal results provide an organizational principle for the role of frontal cortex in the control of perceptual decision making and suggest specific mechanistic contributions for its different subregions. PMID:27162349

  10. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-01

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schrödinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schrödinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  11. Competence and Quality in Real-Life Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    What distinguishes a competent decision maker and how should the issue of decision quality be approached in a real-life context? These questions were explored in three studies. In Study 1, using a web-based questionnaire and targeting a community sample, we investigated the relationships between objective and subjective indicators of real-life decision-making success. In Study 2 and 3, targeting two different samples of professionals, we explored if the prevalent cognitively oriented definition of decision-making competence could be beneficially expanded by adding aspects of competence in terms of social skills and time-approach. The predictive power for each of these three aspects of decision-making competence was explored for different indicators of real-life decision-making success. Overall, our results suggest that research on decision-making competence would benefit by expanding the definition of competence, by including decision-related abilities in terms of social skills and time-approach. Finally, the results also indicate that individual differences in real-life decision-making success profitably can be approached and measured by different criteria. PMID:26545239

  12. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-18

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schroedinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schroedinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  13. Couple Decision Making and Use of Cultural Scripts in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Mbweza, Ellen; Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the decision-making processes of husband and wife dyads in matrilineal and patrilineal marriage traditions of Malawi in the areas of money, food, pregnancy, contraception, and sexual relations. Methods Qualitative grounded theory using simultaneous interviews of 60 husbands and wives (30 couples). Data were analyzed according to the guidelines of simultaneous data collection and analysis. The analysis resulted in development of core categories and categories of decision-making process. Data matrixes were used to identify similarities and differences within couples and across cases. Findings Most couples reported using a mix of final decision-making approaches: husband-dominated, wife-dominated, and shared. Gender based and nongender based cultural scripts provided rationales for their approaches to decision making. Gender based cultural scripts (husband-dominant and wife-dominant) were used to justify decision-making approaches. Non-gender based cultural scripts (communicating openly, maintaining harmony, and children’s welfare) supported shared decision making. Gender based cultural scripts were used in decision making more often among couples from the district with a patrilineal marriage tradition and where the husband had less than secondary school education and was not formally employed. Conclusions Nongender based cultural scripts to encourage shared decision making can be used in designing culturally tailored reproductive health interventions for couples. Clinical Relevance Nurses who work with women and families should be aware of the variations that occur in actual couple decision-making approaches. Shared decision making can be used to encourage the involvement of men in reproductive health programs. PMID:18302586

  14. Surviving Surrogate Decision-Making: What Helps and Hampers the Experience of Making Medical Decisions for Others

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Helene; Taylor, Janelle S.; Hopley, Elizabeth K.; Fryer-Edwards, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND A majority of end-of-life medical decisions are made by surrogate decision-makers who have varying degrees of preparation and comfort with their role. Having a seriously ill family member is stressful for surrogates. Moreover, most clinicians have had little training in working effectively with surrogates. OBJECTIVES To better understand the challenges of decision-making from the surrogate’s perspective. DESIGN Semistructured telephone interview study of the experience of surrogate decision-making. PARTICIPANTS Fifty designated surrogates with previous decision-making experience. APPROACH We asked surrogates to describe and reflect on their experience of making medical decisions for others. After coding transcripts, we conducted a content analysis to identify and categorize factors that made decision-making more or less difficult for surrogates. RESULTS Surrogates identified four types of factors: (1) surrogate characteristics and life circumstances (such as coping strategies and competing responsibilities), (2) surrogates’ social networks (such as intrafamily discord about the “right” decision), (3) surrogate–patient relationships and communication (such as difficulties with honoring known preferences), and (4) surrogate–clinician communication and relationship (such as interacting with a single physician whom the surrogate recognizes as the clinical spokesperson vs. many clinicians). CONCLUSIONS These data provide insights into the challenges that surrogates encounter when making decisions for loved ones and indicate areas where clinicians could intervene to facilitate the process of surrogate decision-making. Clinicians may want to include surrogates in advance care planning prior to decision-making, identify and address surrogate stressors during decision-making, and designate one person to communicate information about the patient’s condition, prognosis, and treatment options. PMID:17619223

  15. Decision Making in Action: Applying Research to Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  16. After "Eve": whither proxy decision-making?

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, E H

    1987-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems facing physicians is how to approach proxy decisions made on behalf of congenitally incompetent patients. The author considers two recent court cases that attempt to provide guidelines: Re Stephen Dawson, which opts for a substituted-judgement approach, and Eve v. Mrs E.) which injoins best-interests considerations. The author explores the impact of Eve v. Mrs. E. as superseding Re Stephen Dawson, considers its ethical implications and attempts to clarify the best-interests criterion by sketching some guidelines for its interpretation. In so doing, he tries to reconcile the two decisions by laying bare their common underlying ethical rationale. The author concludes by pointing out some ethically questionable implications of Eve v. Mrs. E. in the area of allocation of health care resources. PMID:3651942

  17. MONSS: A multi-objective nonlinear simplex search approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotecas-Martínez, Saúl; Coello Coello, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel methodology for dealing with continuous box-constrained multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). The proposed algorithm adopts a nonlinear simplex search scheme in order to obtain multiple elements of the Pareto optimal set. The search is directed by a well-distributed set of weight vectors, each of which defines a scalarization problem that is solved by deforming a simplex according to the movements described by Nelder and Mead's method. Considering an MOP with n decision variables, the simplex is constructed using n+1 solutions which minimize different scalarization problems defined by n+1 neighbor weight vectors. All solutions found in the search are used to update a set of solutions considered to be the minima for each separate problem. In this way, the proposed algorithm collectively obtains multiple trade-offs among the different conflicting objectives, while maintaining a proper representation of the Pareto optimal front. In this article, it is shown that a well-designed strategy using just mathematical programming techniques can be competitive with respect to the state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms against which it was compared.

  18. Impacts of Geospatial Information for Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, F.; Coote, A.; Friedl, L.; Stewart, M.

    2012-12-01

    Geospatial information contributes to decisions by both societal and individual decision-makers. More effective use of this information is essential as issues are increasingly complex and consequences can be critical for future economic and social development. To address this, a workshop brought together analysts, communicators, officials, and researchers from academia, government, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector. A range of policy issues, management needs, and resource requirements were discussed and a wide array of analyses, geospatial data, methods of analysis, and metrics were presented for assessing and communicating the value of geospatial information. It is clear that there are many opportunities for integrating science and engineering disciplines with the social sciences for addressing societal issues that would benefit from using geospatial information and earth observations. However, these collaborations must have outcomes that can be easily communicated to decision makers. This generally requires either succinct quantitative statements of value based on rigorous models and/or user testimonials of actual applications that save real money. An outcome of the workshop is to pursue the development of a community of practice or society that encompasses a wide range of scientific, social, management, and communication disciplines and fosters collaboration across specialties, helping to build trust across social and science aspects. A resource base is also necessary. This presentation will address approaches for creating a shared knowledge database, containing a glossary of terms, reference materials and examples of case studies and the potential applications for benefit analyses.

  19. A communication model of shared decision making: accounting for cancer treatment decisions.

    PubMed

    Siminoff, Laura A; Step, Mary M

    2005-07-01

    The authors present a communication model of shared decision making (CMSDM) that explicitly identifies the communication process as the vehicle for decision making in cancer treatment. In this view, decision making is necessarily a sociocommunicative process whereby people enter into a relationship, exchange information, establish preferences, and choose a course of action. The model derives from contemporary notions of behavioral decision making and ethical conceptions of the doctor-patient relationship. This article briefly reviews the theoretical approaches to decision making, notes deficiencies, and embeds a more socially based process into the dynamics of the physician-patient relationship, focusing on cancer treatment decisions. In the CMSDM, decisions depend on (a) antecedent factors that have potential to influence communication, (b) jointly constructed communication climate, and (c) treatment preferences established by the physician and the patient. PMID:16045427

  20. Operational hydrological projections to aid decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetler, Thomas; Davis, Richard; Waddingham, John; James, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The Environment Agency of England has wide ranging responsibility for environmental regulation that includes both water resources management and flood management. In order to best fulfil its role decisions need to be taken using the best available evidence in the time available. The manipulation of large amounts of hydrological data in a way that best meets the needs of decision makers is a complex challenge. Not only should any analysis be technically robust but it should also be presented in a way that communicates key messages clearly and quickly. The Environment Agency and its predecessor organisations has a long history of working with hydrological data but in recent years there has been a need to better incorporate risk and uncertainty into hydrological analysis so that subsequent decisions can take this into account. In the face of recent extreme weather events, there has been an increasing demand for forward look projections from water resource and flood risk practitioners, decision makers and contingency planners. These assessments are required to give appropriate lead in time to allow risk mitigation measures to be implemented to minimise impact upon people, the environment and infrastructure. This presentation will outline the methodologies developed by the Environment Agency to produce and publish monthly routine forward look projections using both a scenario and climate ensemble approach. It will cover how information is disseminated, providing a good example of communicating science to decision makers and to the public. Examples of practical applications of these methodologies include: • Risk based planning and forecasting of water availability for inter basin water transfers into water stressed catchments. • Assessment of water resources prospects during droughts for people and the environment • The likelihood and medium term risk of high groundwater levels impacting upon people and infrastructure. There are also a number of future challenges

  1. Large-Scale Multi-Objective Optimization for the Management of Seawater Intrusion, Santa Barbara, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Z. P.; Nishikawa, T.; Paulinski, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Santa Barbara, located in coastal southern California, is concerned that excessive groundwater pumping will lead to chloride (Cl) contamination of its groundwater system from seawater intrusion (SWI). In addition, the city wishes to estimate the effect of continued pumping on the groundwater basin under a variety of initial and climatic conditions. A SEAWAT-based groundwater-flow and solute-transport model of the Santa Barbara groundwater basin was optimized to produce optimal pumping schedules assuming 5 different scenarios. Borg, a multi-objective genetic algorithm, was coupled with the SEAWAT model to identify optimal management strategies. The optimization problems were formulated as multi-objective so that the tradeoffs between maximizing pumping, minimizing SWI, and minimizing drawdowns can be examined by the city. Decisions can then be made on a pumping schedule in light of current preferences and climatic conditions. Borg was used to produce Pareto optimal results for all 5 scenarios, which vary in their initial conditions (high water levels, low water levels, or current basin state), simulated climate (normal or drought conditions), and problem formulation (objective equations and decision-variable aggregation). Results show mostly well-defined Pareto surfaces with a few singularities. Furthermore, the results identify the precise pumping schedule per well that was suitable given the desired restriction on drawdown and Cl concentrations. A system of decision-making is then possible based on various observations of the basin's hydrologic states and climatic trends without having to run any further optimizations. In addition, an assessment of selected Pareto-optimal solutions was analyzed with sensitivity information using the simulation model alone. A wide range of possible groundwater pumping scenarios is available and depends heavily on the future climate scenarios and the Pareto-optimal solution selected while managing the pumping wells.

  2. Improving Multi-Objective Management of Water Quality Tipping Points: Revisiting the Classical Shallow Lake Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. D.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2015-12-01

    Recent multi-objective extensions of the classical shallow lake problem are useful for exploring the conceptual and computational challenges that emerge when managing irreversible water quality tipping points. Building on this work, we explore a four objective version of the lake problem where a hypothetical town derives economic benefits from polluting a nearby lake, but at the risk of irreversibly tipping the lake into a permanently polluted state. The trophic state of the lake exhibits non-linear threshold dynamics; below some critical phosphorus (P) threshold it is healthy and oligotrophic, but above this threshold it is irreversibly eutrophic. The town must decide how much P to discharge each year, a decision complicated by uncertainty in the natural P inflow to the lake. The shallow lake problem provides a conceptually rich set of dynamics, low computational demands, and a high level of mathematical difficulty. These properties maximize its value for benchmarking the relative merits and limitations of emerging decision support frameworks, such as Direct Policy Search (DPS). Here, we explore the use of DPS as a formal means of developing robust environmental pollution control rules that effectively account for deeply uncertain system states and conflicting objectives. The DPS reformulation of the shallow lake problem shows promise in formalizing pollution control triggers and signposts, while dramatically reducing the computational complexity of the multi-objective pollution control problem. More broadly, the insights from the DPS variant of the shallow lake problem formulated in this study bridge emerging work related to socio-ecological systems management, tipping points, robust decision making, and robust control.

  3. Not All Patients Want to Participate in Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Wendy; Kao, Audiey; Kuby, Alma; Thisted, Ronald A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Institute of Medicine calls for physicians to engage patients in making clinical decisions, but not every patient may want the same level of participation. OBJECTIVES 1) To assess public preferences for participation in decision making in a representative sample of the U.S. population. 2) To understand how demographic variables and health status influence people's preferences for participation in decision making. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS A population-based survey of a fully representative sample of English-speaking adults was conducted in concert with the 2002 General Social Survey (N= 2,765). Respondents expressed preferences ranging from patient-directed to physician-directed styles on each of 3 aspects of decision making (seeking information, discussing options, making the final decision). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationships of demographic variables and health status to preferences. MAIN RESULTS Nearly all respondents (96%) preferred to be offered choices and to be asked their opinions. In contrast, half of the respondents (52%) preferred to leave final decisions to their physicians and 44% preferred to rely on physicians for medical knowledge rather than seeking out information themselves. Women, more educated, and healthier people were more likely to prefer an active role in decision making. African-American and Hispanic respondents were more likely to prefer that physicians make the decisions. Preferences for an active role increased with age up to 45 years, but then declined. CONCLUSION This population-based study demonstrates that people vary substantially in their preferences for participation in decision making. Physicians and health care organizations should not assume that patients wish to participate in clinical decision making, but must assess individual patient preferences and tailor care accordingly. PMID:15987329

  4. Teacher decision making: The case of prairie high

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikenhead, Glen S.

    This article explores the decisions that science teachers make when they plan for instruction. It is a case study analysis of five teachers in a high school and probes into the personal reasons, beliefs, and dilemmas underlying their decisions. These decisions, while serving many purposes, had a common structure which involved tradeoffs and compromises. The decision represented the end result of the conflict between a cluster of teacher intentions and a melange of ideas about student characteristics. Teachers appeared to make decisions within a framework that holistically integrated science content and practical classroom knowledge-a knowledge system that includes the basic beliefs of a teacher and the socialization of students. By understanding how and why teachers tend to make their decisions, one gains practical insights into the act of teaching science. These insights are of particular interest to science curriculum specialists who wish to understand how teachers use science curriculum materials for the purpose of socializing students.

  5. Making decisions about decision-making: conscience, regulation, and the law.

    PubMed

    Miola, José

    2015-01-01

    The exercise of conscience can have far reaching effects. Poor behaviour can be fatal, as it has occurred in various medical scandals over the years. This article takes a wide definition of conscience as its starting point, and argues that the decision-making processes open to society--legal regulation and professional regulation--can serve to limit the options available to an individual and thus her ability to exercise her conscience. The article charts the law's changing attitude to legal intervention, which now seeks to limit the use of conscience by individuals, and addresses concerns that this may serve to 'de-moralise' medicine. It also examines the reasons for this legal change of approach. PMID:25910908

  6. Complementary Cognitive Capabilities, Economic Decision-Making, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Baldassi, Martine; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid intelligence decreases with age, yet evidence about age declines in decision-making quality is mixed: Depending on the study, older adults make worse, equally good, or even better decisions than younger adults. We propose a potential explanation for this puzzle, namely that age differences in decision performance result from the interplay between two sets of cognitive capabilities that impact decision making, one in which older adults fare worse (i.e., fluid intelligence) and one in which they fare better (i.e., crystallized intelligence). Specifically, we hypothesized that older adults’ higher levels of crystallized intelligence can provide an alternate pathway to good decisions when the fluid intelligence pathway declines. The performance of older adults relative to younger adults therefore depends on the relative importance of each type of intelligence for the decision at hand. We tested this complementary capabilities hypothesis in a broad sample of younger and older adults, collecting a battery of standard cognitive measures and measures of economically important decision-making “traits”—including temporal discounting, loss aversion, financial literacy, and debt literacy. We found that older participants performed as well as or better than younger participants on these four decision-making measures. Structural equation modeling verified our hypothesis: Older participants’ greater crystallized intelligence offset their lower levels of fluid intelligence for temporal discounting, financial literacy, and debt literacy, but not for loss aversion. These results have important implications for public policy and for the design of effective decision environments for older adults. PMID:24040999

  7. Complementary cognitive capabilities, economic decision making, and aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Baldassi, Martine; Johnson, Eric J; Weber, Elke U

    2013-09-01

    Fluid intelligence decreases with age, yet evidence about age declines in decision-making quality is mixed: Depending on the study, older adults make worse, equally good, or even better decisions than younger adults. We propose a potential explanation for this puzzle, namely that age differences in decision performance result from the interplay between two sets of cognitive capabilities that impact decision making, one in which older adults fare worse (i.e., fluid intelligence) and one in which they fare better (i.e., crystallized intelligence). Specifically, we hypothesized that older adults' higher levels of crystallized intelligence can provide an alternate pathway to good decisions when the fluid intelligence pathway declines. The performance of older adults relative to younger adults therefore depends on the relative importance of each type of intelligence for the decision at hand. We tested this complementary capabilities hypothesis in a broad sample of younger and older adults, collecting a battery of standard cognitive measures and measures of economically important decision-making "traits"--including temporal discounting, loss aversion, financial literacy, and debt literacy. We found that older participants performed as well as or better than younger participants on these four decision-making measures. Structural equation modeling verified our hypothesis: Older participants' greater crystallized intelligence offset their lower levels of fluid intelligence for temporal discounting, financial literacy, and debt literacy, but not for loss aversion. These results have important implications for public policy and for the design of effective decision environments for older adults. PMID:24040999

  8. Decision Making in Action: Applying Research to Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers, aviation, and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment: Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multi-dimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have

  9. A Bayesian Attractor Model for Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Bitzer, Sebastian; Bruineberg, Jelle; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    Even for simple perceptual decisions, the mechanisms that the brain employs are still under debate. Although current consensus states that the brain accumulates evidence extracted from noisy sensory information, open questions remain about how this simple model relates to other perceptual phenomena such as flexibility in decisions, decision-dependent modulation of sensory gain, or confidence about a decision. We propose a novel approach of how perceptual decisions are made by combining two influential formalisms into a new model. Specifically, we embed an attractor model of decision making into a probabilistic framework that models decision making as Bayesian inference. We show that the new model can explain decision making behaviour by fitting it to experimental data. In addition, the new model combines for the first time three important features: First, the model can update decisions in response to switches in the underlying stimulus. Second, the probabilistic formulation accounts for top-down effects that may explain recent experimental findings of decision-related gain modulation of sensory neurons. Finally, the model computes an explicit measure of confidence which we relate to recent experimental evidence for confidence computations in perceptual decision tasks. PMID:26267143

  10. The impact of management science on political decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The possible impact on public policy and organizational decision making of operations research/management science (OR/MS) is discussed. Criticisms based on the assumption that OR/MS will have influence on decision making and criticisms based on the assumption that it will have no influence are described. New directions in the analysis of analysis and in thinking about policy making are also considered.

  11. [The role of information in public health decision-making].

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Public health, prevention, health education and health promotion are inseparable from the concepts of information and communication. Information should respond as much as possible to the needs of professionals, decision-makers, and consumers who are more and more concerned and conscious of its importance in light of "information overload", various dissemination channels and the multiplicity of its sources. There are numerous issues at stake ranging from comprehension, to the validation of health information, health education, health promotion, prevention, decision-making, as well as issues related to knowledge and power. Irrespective of the type of choice to be made, the need for information, knowledge, and know-how is inseparable from that of other tools or regulatory measures required for decision-making. Information is the same as competence, epidemiological and population data, health data, scientific opinion, and expert conferences--all are needed to assist in decision-making. Based on the principle of precaution, information must increasingly take into account the rejection of a society which often reasons on the basis of a presumption of zero-risk, in an idealistic manner, and which also excludes the possibility of new risks. The consumer positions himself as the regulator of decisions, specifically those with regard to the notion of acceptable level of risk. All of the actors involved in the health system are or become at one moment or another public health decision-makers. Their decision might be based either on an analytical approach, or on an intuitive approach. Although the act of decision-making is the least visible part of public health policy, it is certainly the driving force. This process should integrate the perspective of all of the relevant players, including consumers, who are currently situated more and more frequently at the heart of the health system. Public health decision-making is conducted as a function of political, strategic and

  12. Stress and Aeronautical Team Decision Making: Strengthening the Weak Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A model that characterizes pilots'decision making in flight will be presented. Elements of the model that appear most vulnerable to stress will be examined in light of accidents and incidents. The model includes two major components: Situation assessment and choice of a course of action. While based on Klein's Recognition-Primed Decision Making, it is tailored to the aviation environment which includes certain features that may be common to other domains: Primarily, aviation is highly proceduralized and options are generally well known. What appears to make decisions difficult are ambiguity, time pressure, and risk. In addition, decisions must often be made while carrying out the standard procedures of flight, including checklists, review of approach plates, standard briefings, and communication with air traffic controllers or cabin crew. The effects of stressors on decision making by pilots with varying levels of expertise will be explored, along with strategies for strengthening the weak links.

  13. Multi-Objective Community Detection Based on Memetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Community detection has drawn a lot of attention as it can provide invaluable help in understanding the function and visualizing the structure of networks. Since single objective optimization methods have intrinsic drawbacks to identifying multiple significant community structures, some methods formulate the community detection as multi-objective problems and adopt population-based evolutionary algorithms to obtain multiple community structures. Evolutionary algorithms have strong global search ability, but have difficulty in locating local optima efficiently. In this study, in order to identify multiple significant community structures more effectively, a multi-objective memetic algorithm for community detection is proposed by combining multi-objective evolutionary algorithm with a local search procedure. The local search procedure is designed by addressing three issues. Firstly, nondominated solutions generated by evolutionary operations and solutions in dominant population are set as initial individuals for local search procedure. Then, a new direction vector named as pseudonormal vector is proposed to integrate two objective functions together to form a fitness function. Finally, a network specific local search strategy based on label propagation rule is expanded to search the local optimal solutions efficiently. The extensive experiments on both artificial and real-world networks evaluate the proposed method from three aspects. Firstly, experiments on influence of local search procedure demonstrate that the local search procedure can speed up the convergence to better partitions and make the algorithm more stable. Secondly, comparisons with a set of classic community detection methods illustrate the proposed method can find single partitions effectively. Finally, the method is applied to identify hierarchical structures of networks which are beneficial for analyzing networks in multi-resolution levels. PMID:25932646

  14. Parental influences on adolescent decision making and contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Commendador, Kathleen A

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature in the area of parental and maternal influences on contraceptive decision making, thus determining future directions of research and potential interventions. A review of published literature using PubMed, CINAHL, Infotrak, Science and Technology, and Medline spanning 1980-2007 was used to gather information. Results from 35 research studies and 15 scholarly articles were included. The search terms adolescent decision making, maternal influences on adolescent contraceptive decision making, adolescent contraceptive decision making, paternal influences on adolescent decision making, and contraception were used to gather data. The literature reveals there is an association between parental communication, parenting style, and adolescent sexual activity and contraception use. Maternal communication has been shown to delay sexual intercourse and increase contraceptive use. Maternal communication has rich potential as an intervention to impact positive adolescent sexual decision making and contraception use. Gaps in the research identified were the lack of studies on the influences on parenting style and the father/adolescent influences on sexual initiation and contraceptive decision making. PMID:20687307

  15. "Piensa" twice: on the foreign language effect in decision making.

    PubMed

    Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Arnon, Inbal; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we assess to what extent decision making is affected by the language in which a given problem is presented (native vs. foreign). In particular, we aim to ask whether the impact of various heuristic biases in decision making is diminished when the problems are presented in a foreign language. To this end, we report four main studies in which more than 700 participants were tested on different types of individual decision making problems. In the first study, we replicated Keysar et al.'s (2012) recent observation regarding the foreign language effect on framing effects related to loss aversion. In the second section, we assessed whether the foreign language effect is present in other types of framing problems that involve psychological accounting biases rather than gain/loss dichotomies. In the third section, we studied the foreign language effect in several key aspects of the theory of decision making under risk and uncertainty. In the fourth study, we assessed the presence of a foreign language effect in the cognitive reflection test, a test that includes logical problems that do not carry emotional connotations. The absence of such an effect in this test suggests that foreign language leads to a reduction of heuristic biases in decision making across a range of decision making situations and provide also some evidence about the boundaries of the phenomenon. We explore several potential factors that may underlie the foreign language effect in decision making. PMID:24334107

  16. Decision-making in diabetes mellitus type 1.

    PubMed

    Rustad, James K; Musselman, Dominique L; Skyler, Jay S; Matheson, Della; Delamater, Alan; Kenyon, Norma S; Cáceda, Ricardo; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    Decreased treatment adherence in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (type 1 DM) may reflect impairments in decision-making and underlying associated deficits in working memory and executive functioning. Other factors, including comorbid major depression, may also interfere with decision-making. The authors sought to review the clinically relevant characteristics of decision-making in type 1 DM by surveying the literature on decision-making by patients with type 1 DM. Deficiencies in decision-making in patients with type 1 DM or their caregivers contribute to treatment nonadherence and poorer metabolic control. Animal models of type 1 DM reveal deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory tasks, which are reversible with insulin. Neurocognitive studies of patients with type 1 DM reveal lowered performance on ability to apply knowledge to solve problems in a new situation and acquired scholarly knowledge, psychomotor efficiency, cognitive flexibility, visual perception, speed of information-processing, and sustained attention. Other factors that might contribute to poor decision-making in patients with type 1 DM, include "hypoglycemia unawareness" and comorbid major depression (given its increased prevalence in type 1 DM). Future studies utilizing novel treatment strategies to help patients with type 1 DM make better decisions about their disease may improve their glycemic control and quality of life, while minimizing the impact of end-organ disease. PMID:23487192

  17. Decision making in patients with pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Ost, David E; Gould, Michael K

    2012-02-15

    Integrating current evidence with fundamental concepts from decision analysis suggests that management of patients with pulmonary nodules should begin with estimating the pretest probability of cancer from the patient's clinical risk factors and computed tomography characteristics. Then, the consequences of treatment should be considered, by comparing the benefits of surgery if the patient has lung cancer with the potential harm if the patient does not have cancer. This analysis determines the "treatment threshold," which is the point around which the decision centers. This varies widely among patients depending on their cardiopulmonary reserve, comorbidities, and individual preferences. For patients with a very low probability of cancer, careful observation with serial computed tomography is warranted. For those with a high probability of cancer, surgical diagnosis is warranted. For patients in the intermediate range of probabilities, either computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy or positron emission tomography, possibly followed by computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, is best. Patient preferences should be considered because the absolute difference in outcome between strategies may be small. The optimal approach to the management of patients with pulmonary nodules is evolving as technologies develop. Areas of uncertainty include quantifying the hazard of delayed diagnosis; determining the optimal duration of follow-up for ground-glass and semisolid opacities; establishing the roles of volumetric imaging, advanced bronchoscopic technologies, and limited surgical resections; and calculating the cost-effectiveness of different strategies. PMID:21980032

  18. A multi-objective optimization model for hub network design under uncertainty: An inexact rough-interval fuzzy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niakan, F.; Vahdani, B.; Mohammadi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This article proposes a multi-objective mixed-integer model to optimize the location of hubs within a hub network design problem under uncertainty. The considered objectives include minimizing the maximum accumulated travel time, minimizing the total costs including transportation, fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions costs, and finally maximizing the minimum service reliability. In the proposed model, it is assumed that for connecting two nodes, there are several types of arc in which their capacity, transportation mode, travel time, and transportation and construction costs are different. Moreover, in this model, determining the capacity of the hubs is part of the decision-making procedure and balancing requirements are imposed on the network. To solve the model, a hybrid solution approach is utilized based on inexact programming, interval-valued fuzzy programming and rough interval programming. Furthermore, a hybrid multi-objective metaheuristic algorithm, namely multi-objective invasive weed optimization (MOIWO), is developed for the given problem. Finally, various computational experiments are carried out to assess the proposed model and solution approaches.

  19. Decision making in bipolar disorder: a cognitive modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Bodkins, Misty; O'Donnell, Brian F; Hetrick, William P

    2008-11-30

    A formal modeling approach was used to characterize decision-making processes in bipolar disorder. Decision making was examined in 28 bipolar patients (14 acute and 14 remitted) and 25 controls using the Iowa Gambling Task (Bechara et al., 1994), a decision-making task used for assessing cognitive impulsivity. To disentangle motivational and cognitive aspects of decision-making processes, we applied a formal cognitive model to the performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. The model has three parameters: The relative impact of rewards and punishments on evaluations, the impact of recent and past payoffs, and the degree of choice consistency. The results indicated that acute bipolar patients were characterized by low choice consistency, or a tendency to make erratic choices. Low choice consistency improved the prediction of acute bipolar disorder beyond that provided by cognitive functioning and self-report measures of personality and temperament. PMID:18848361

  20. Neural basis of decision making guided by emotional outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Fujimura, Tomomi; Ueno, Kenichi; Asamizuya, Takeshi; Suzuki, Chisato; Cheng, Kang; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Emotional events resulting from a choice influence an individual's subsequent decision making. Although the relationship between emotion and decision making has been widely discussed, previous studies have mainly investigated decision outcomes that can easily be mapped to reward and punishment, including monetary gain/loss, gustatory stimuli, and pain. These studies regard emotion as a modulator of decision making that can be made rationally in the absence of emotions. In our daily lives, however, we often encounter various emotional events that affect decisions by themselves, and mapping the events to a reward or punishment is often not straightforward. In this study, we investigated the neural substrates of how such emotional decision outcomes affect subsequent decision making. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured brain activities of humans during a stochastic decision-making task in which various emotional pictures were presented as decision outcomes. We found that pleasant pictures differentially activated the midbrain, fusiform gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, whereas unpleasant pictures differentially activated the ventral striatum, compared with neutral pictures. We assumed that the emotional decision outcomes affect the subsequent decision by updating the value of the options, a process modeled by reinforcement learning models, and that the brain regions representing the prediction error that drives the reinforcement learning are involved in guiding subsequent decisions. We found that some regions of the striatum and the insula were separately correlated with the prediction error for either pleasant pictures or unpleasant pictures, whereas the precuneus was correlated with prediction errors for both pleasant and unpleasant pictures. PMID:25695644