Science.gov

Sample records for multi-pollutant control project

  1. Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel

    2008-10-18

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). There are about 400 units in the United States with capacities of 50-300 MW that currently are not equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. Many of these units, which collectively represent more than 55 GW of installed capacity, are difficult to retrofit for deep emission reductions because of space constraints and unfavorable economies of scale, making them increasingly vulnerable to retirement or fuel switching in the face of progressively more stringent environmental regulations. The Greenidge Project sought to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs by offering a combination of deep emission reductions, low capital costs, small space requirements, applicability to high-sulfur coals, mechanical simplicity, and operational flexibility. The multi-pollutant control system includes a NO{sub x}OUT CASCADE{reg_sign} hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct SCR system for NO{sub x} control and a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubbing system (with a new baghouse) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter control. Mercury removal is provided as a co-benefit of the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse, and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, if required. The multi-pollutant control system was installed and tested on the 107-MW{sub e}, 1953-vintage AES Greenidge Unit 4 by a team including

  2. Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Control Project Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel P

    2009-01-12

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electrical generating units (EGUs). The multi-pollutant control system includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NOx emissions by {ge}60%, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by {ge}95%. Mercury removal of {ge}90% is also targeted via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The technology is particularly well suited, because of its relatively low capital and maintenance costs and small space requirements, to meet the needs of coal-fired units with capacities of 50-300 MWe. There are about 440 such units in the United States that currently are not equipped with SCR, flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. These smaller units are a valuable part of the nation's energy infrastructure, constituting about 60 GW of installed capacity. However, with the onset of the Clean Air Interstate Rule, Clean Air Mercury Rule, and various state environmental actions requiring deep reductions in emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury, the continued operation of these units increasingly depends upon the ability to identify viable air pollution control retrofit options for them. The large capital costs and sizable space requirements associated with conventional technologies such as SCR and wet FGD make these technologies unattractive for many smaller units. The Greenidge Project aims to confirm the

  3. DOE/EA-1493: Environmental Assessment for Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project (August 2004)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-10

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1493, titled ''Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project'', to analyze the potential environmental consequences of providing cost-shared funding support for the design, construction, and demonstration of an integrated multipollutant control system at AES's Greenidge Station in Dresden, New York. The system, expected to control emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HF, HCl, and Hg, would be installed on the existing, coal-fired, 107-MW Unit 4 at Greenidge. The results of the analyses provided in the EA are summarized in this Finding of No Significant Impact. The proposed action is for DOE to provide about $14.5 million for this project, while CONSOL Energy Inc. and its project partners would be responsible for the remaining $21 million. The proposed project will result in technical, environmental, and financial data from the design, operation and construction of the multi-pollutant control system. This 4.5-year, commercial-scale demonstration project would allow utilities, particularly those with units less than 300-MW in capacity, to make decisions regarding the integrated multi-pollutant control system as a viable commercial option. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has concluded that the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project would result in minimal and insignificant consequences to the human environment. Thus, DOE considers that the proposed action, providing cost-shared funding for the project, is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code 4321, et seq. Therefore, in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1021.322, DOE has concluded that preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  4. Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect

    Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

    2010-05-31

    This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

  5. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  6. Addendum to Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project: Additiona NH3, NOx, and CO Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel P; Locke, James E

    2008-03-01

    On March 28-30 and May 1-4, 2007, CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-MW Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The testing in March and May demonstrated that the multi-pollutant control system attained its performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, acid gas (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF) removal efficiency, and mercury removal efficiency. However, the ammonia slip measured between the SCR outlet and air heater inlet was consistently greater than the guarantee of 2 ppmvd {at} 3% O{sub 2}. As a result, additional testing was performed on May 30-June 1 and on June 20-21, 2007, in conjunction with tuning of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system by BPEI, in an effort to achieve the performance target for ammonia slip. This additional testing occurred after the installation of a large particle ash (LPA) screen and removal system just above the SCR reactor and a fresh SCR catalyst layer in mid-May. This report describes the results of the additional tests. During the May 30-June 1 sampling period, CONSOL R&D and Clean Air Engineering (CAE) each measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the air heater inlet, downstream of the in-duct SCR reactor. In addition, CONSOL R&D measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the

  7. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE-BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    James Reynolds

    2003-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane--Based Upflow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members will conduct detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. Test results performed on the existing metallic WESP during November of 2002 showed consistent results with previous test results. Average collection efficiency of 89% on SO{sub 3} mist was achieved. Additionally, removal efficiencies of 62% were achieved at very high velocity, greater than 15 ft./sec.

  8. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE--BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    James Reynolds

    2004-10-29

    This is the Final Report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-flow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members conducted detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. The Membrane WESP was designed to be as similar as the metallic WESP in terms of collection area, air-flow, and electrical characteristics. Both units are two-field units. The membrane unit was installed during the 2nd and 3rd quarters of 2003. Testing of the metallic unit was performed to create a baseline since the Mansfield plant had installed selective catalytic reduction equipment for NOx control and a sodium bisulfate injection system for SO3 control during the spring of 2003. Tests results on the metallic WESP were consistent with previous testing for PM2.5, SO3 mist and mercury. Testing on the membrane WESP demonstrated no adverse impact and equivalent removal efficiencies as that of the metallic WESP. Testing on both units was performed at 8,000 acfm and 15,000 acfm. Summary results are shown.

  9. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2004-07-30

    baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e. mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a novel multi-pollutant control system to reduce emissions of mercury and other air pollutants, while minimizing waste, from a coal-fired power generation system.

  10. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL-ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2004-10-26

    baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e. mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a novel multi-pollutant control system to reduce emissions of mercury while minimizing waste, from a coal-fired power generation system.

  11. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Guoshun; Lin, Yanfen

    2014-01-01

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NOx or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NOx emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20-50%) on NOx, VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3-1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NOx (85%) and SO2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons. PMID:24121267

  12. MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher R. McLaron

    2004-12-01

    Powerspan has conducted pilot scale testing of a multi-pollutant control technology at FirstEnergy's Burger Power Plant under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. The technology, Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO), simultaneously removes sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and mercury (Hg) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Powerspan's ECO{reg_sign} pilot test program focused on optimization of Hg removal in a 1-MWe slipstream pilot while maintaining greater than 90% removal of NO{sub x} and 98% removal of SO{sub 2}. This Final Technical Report discusses pilot operations, installation and maintenance of the Hg SCEMS instrumentation, and performance results including component and overall removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM and Hg from the flue gas and removal of captured Hg from the co-product fertilizer stream.

  13. Characterization of Coal Combustion Residues from Electric Utilities Using Wet Scrubbers for Multi-Pollutant Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates changes that may occur to coal combustion residues (CCRs) in response to changes in air pollution control technology at coal-fired power plants, which will reduce emissions from the flue gas stack by transferring pollutants to fly ash and other air pollution...

  14. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL SIMULATIONS IN AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, we use the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to examine the effect of several control strategies on simultaneous concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and three important HAPs: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene.

  15. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90-MW COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2006-01-25

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particulate control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} system designed to clean the combined flue gases of Units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON{trademark} is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed downstream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  16. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90-MW COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven T. Derenne

    2006-04-28

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particulate control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} system designed to clean the combined flue gases of Units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON{trademark} is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed downstream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  17. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and

  18. Current projects in Fuzzy Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugeno, Michio

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on current projects in fuzzy control are presented. Three projects on helicopter flight control are discussed. The projects are (1) radio control by oral instructions; (2) automatic autorotation entry in engine failure; and (3) unmanned helicopter for sea rescue.

  19. Device Oriented Project Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  20. Fly ash-TiO2 nanocomposite material for multi-pollutants wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Visa, Maria; Andronic, Luminita; Duta, Anca

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the synthesis, characterization and adsorption properties of a novel nano-composite obtained using the hydrothermal method applied to a fly ash-TiO2 slurry and hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide, as surface controlling agent. The new adsorbent was investigated in terms of crystallinity (XRD), surface properties (AFM, SEM, and porosity and BET surface) and surface chemistry (EDX, FTIR). The nanocomposite's properties were sequentially tested in adsorption and photocatalysis processes applied to multi-pollutant synthetic wastewaters loaded with copper cations and two industrial dyes: the acid dye Bemacid Blau and the reactive dye Bemacid Rot; the nano-composite substrate allowed reaching high removal efficiencies, above 90%, both in adsorption and in photodegradation experiments, in optimised conditions. PMID:25531918

  1. Septic tank discharges as multi-pollutant hotspots in catchments.

    PubMed

    Richards, Samia; Paterson, Eric; Withers, Paul J A; Stutter, Marc

    2016-01-15

    Small point sources of pollutants such as septic tanks are recognised as significant contributors to streams' pathogen and nutrient loadings, however there is little data in the UK on which to judge the potential risks that septic tank effluents (STEs) pose to water quality and human health. We present the first comprehensive analysis of STE to help assess multi-pollutant characteristics, management-related risk factors and potential tracers that might be used to identify STE sources. Thirty-two septic tank effluents from residential households located in North East of Scotland were sampled along with adjacent stream waters. Biological, physical, chemical and fluorescence characterisation was coupled with information on system age, design, type of tank, tank management and number of users. Biological characterisation revealed that total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration ranges were: 10(3)-10(8) and 10(3)-10(7)MPN/100 mL, respectively. Physical parameters such as electrical conductivity, turbidity and alkalinity ranged 160-1730 μS/cm, 8-916 NTU and 15-698 mg/L, respectively. Effluent total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive P (SRP), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonium-N (NH4-N) concentrations ranged 1-32, <1-26, 11-146 and 2-144 mg/L, respectively. Positive correlations were obtained between phosphorus, sodium, potassium, barium, copper and aluminium. Domestic STE may pose pollution risks particularly for NH4-N, dissolved P, SRP, copper, dissolved N, and potassium since enrichment factors were >1651, 213, 176, 63, 14 and 8 times that of stream waters, respectively. Fluorescence characterisation revealed the presence of tryptophan peak in the effluent and downstream waters but not detected upstream from the source. Tank condition, management and number of users had influenced effluent quality that can pose a direct risk to stream waters as multiple points of pollutants. PMID:26556750

  2. Multi-pollutant exposures in an asthmatic cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ron; Rappold, Ana G.; Case, Martin; Schmitt, Mike; Stone, Susan; Jones, Paul; Thornburg, Jonathan; Devlin, Robert B.

    2012-12-01

    An investigation of personal fine and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10-2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) exposures was conducted with an adult asthmatic cohort as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Moderate and Severe Asthmatics and their Environment Study (MASAES). The overall goal of the MASAES was to determine the association of particulate matter on the degree of resulting lung inflammation, with those having severe asthma hypothesized to be more highly susceptible to such outcomes. The primary exposure objective was to determine the spatial (personal versus ambient) and temporal relationships associated with the aforementioned air pollutants and establish the precision of a new dual PM2.5, PM10-2.5 monitor (CPEM) for personal exposure monitoring. A total of 16 non-smoking adults of various asthma severities were monitored over the course of a 14 month period during 2008-2009. Participants were monitored for 24 continuous hours each monitoring day with a maximum of five events per participant. Median personal PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 exposures were 16.5 and 10.1 μg m-3, respectively. Daily ambient mass concentrations accounted for less than 1% of the observed variability in personal PM2.5 or PM10-2.5 exposures. Duplicate personal measures yielded R2 values of 0.92 PM2.5 and 0.77 PM10-2.5, respectively. Maximum daily personal exposures of 17.0 ppb NO2 and 21.7 ppb O3 occurred with respective mean exposures of 5.8 and 3.4 ppb. Ambient NO2 and O3 measures were observed to be poorly associated with personal exposures (R2 < 0.08) when viewed independent of the participant. The poor correlation between personal and ambient concentrations of PM as well as the various gaseous copollutants indicates the complexity of the multi-pollutant environment and the impact of non-ambient sources on these pollutants relative to total personal exposures.

  3. Project resources planning and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibbers, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains instructional guidelines for the resources planning and control of research and development (R&D) projects managed by NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC). Although written to serve primarily as a practical guide and reference for those LaRC personnel who perform resources planning, analysis, control, and reporting functions, it should also be meaningful to other NASA personnel who are directly or indirectly involved in or affected by these functions, especially project technical managers whose responsibilities include resources management. Certain sections should help Contractor personnel to better understand what resources information must usually be submitted on LaRC projects and what use is made of such information. The Project Manager of a large R&D project typicaly receives support from an Analyst in the area of resources management. The Analyst provides assistance in four functional areas: Planning, Analysis/Control, Administration, and Reporting. Each of these functions are discussed in detail. Examples of techniques used effectively on LaRC projects have been included where applicable. A considerable amount of information has been included on the use of Performance Measurement (Earned Value) Systems for contract cost control and reporting as little information is currently available on this subject in NASA publications.

  4. Microphonics control for Project X

    SciTech Connect

    Schappert, W.; Barbanotti, S.; Branlard, J.; Cancelo, G.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Champion, M.; Gonin, I.; Klebaner, A.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The proposed multi-MW Project X facility at Fermilab will employ cavities with bandwidths as narrow as 20 Hz. This combination of high RF power with narrow bandwidths combined requires careful attention to detuning control if these cavities are to be operated successfully. Detuning control for Projects X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various machine subsystems. Considerable progress in this area has been made over the past year. Detuning levels in the Project X cavities, specifically the Low and High {beta} 650 MHz elliptical types, can have a significant impact on the overall cost of the project. The narrow bandwidths, and the high RF Power requirements, and the large number of these cavities mean that careful attention to detuning control will be required if these cavities are to operate successfully. Limiting cavity detuning in Project X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various subsystems of the planned machine. Considerable progress towards this goal has been made by each of these groups over the past year.

  5. Modelling multi-pollutant compliance options for power companies

    SciTech Connect

    Teeth, B.; Hopkins, B.

    2007-09-15

    Emission control regulations in the United States require that utilities consider retrofit of reduction technologies for multiple pollutants at all plants in their fleet. Washington Group International has developed a Compliance Strategy Model that evaluates the cost of combinations of flue gas desulfurization, NOx and mercury control processes for multiple units to determine an economical mix of the control processes of the fleet of generating units in each state or designated region. The Model is based on an Excel spreadsheet which uses mixed integer routines and Premium Solver to assess up to 10{sup 40} possible combinations of emissions control processes to determine the combination with an economic present worth of revenue requirement (PWRR). Examples of use of the Model have been for consideration of NOx reduction technologies at 19 coal-fired units in one fleet and of 76 units in one fleet in five regions. 1 tab.

  6. UMTRA Project document control system manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This manual defines the Project Document Control System (PDCS) operated by the US DOE Uranium Mill tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project Office. The purpose of the PDCS is to provide an active and continuing program for acquiring, controlling, retaining, retrieving, retiring and disposing of all UMTRA Project documents. The PDCS also provides guidance and coordination in transferring documents by various UMTRA Projection document control centers to a central location.

  7. Field project control. Back to basics

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, E.E. III )

    1993-10-01

    Computers and critical path method (CPM) software are the tools employed by project planning and scheduling teams to rapidly develop project schedules. It is the analysis of the CPM schedule and the follow-up actions that result in the successful completion of a project. A short duration field construction project is presented in this article which presented an opportunity for a project control engineer to apply a variety of project controls tools and techniques to the total project management effort. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Framing air pollution epidemiology in terms of population interventions, with applications to multi-pollutant modeling

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Reid, Colleen E.; Tager, Ira B.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiology continues moving toward the study of mixtures and multi-pollutant modeling. Simultaneously, there is a movement in epidemiology to estimate policy-relevant health effects that can be understood in reference to specific interventions. Scaling regression coefficients from a regression model by an interquartile range (IQR) is one common approach to presenting multi-pollutant health effect estimates. We are unaware of guidance on how to interpret these effect estimates as an intervention. To illustrate the issues of interpretability of IQR-scaled air pollution health effects, we analyzed how daily concentration changes in two air pollutants (NO2 and PM2.5; nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5μm) related to one another within two seasons (summer and winter), within three cities with distinct air pollution profiles (Burbank, California; Houston, Texas; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). In each city-season, we examined how realistically IQR-scaling in multipollutant lag-1 time-series studies reflects a hypothetical intervention that is possible given the observed data. We proposed 2 causal conditions to explicitly link IQR-scaled effects to a clearly defined hypothetical intervention. Condition 1 specified that the index pollutant had to experience a daily concentration change of greater than one IQR, reflecting the notion that the IQR is an appropriate measure of variability between consecutive days. Condition 2 specified that the co-pollutant had to remain relatively constant. We found that in some city-seasons, there were very few instances in which these conditions were satisfied (e.g., 1 day in Pittsburgh during summer). We discuss the practical implications of IQR scaling and suggest alternative approaches to presenting multi-pollutant effects that are supported by empirical data. PMID:25643106

  9. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  10. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  11. Version Control in Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milentijevic, Ivan; Ciric, Vladimir; Vojinovic, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a generalized model for version control systems application as a support in a range of project-based learning methods. The model is given as UML sequence diagram and described in detail. The proposed model encompasses a wide range of different project-based learning approaches by assigning a supervisory…

  12. Simultaneous removal of multi-pollutants in an intimate integrated flocculation-adsorption fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dandan; Xu, Zhengxue; Wang, Yao; Wang, Jun; Hou, Dianxun; Dong, Shuangshi

    2015-03-01

    A novel intimate integrated flocculation-adsorption fluidized bed (IFAFB) was designed based on the hydraulic classification theory, and the operation, performance, characterization, and mechanisms of the novel process were developed. In this system, 150 mg · L(-1) kaolin clay and 100 mg · L(-1) phenol were used to simulate multi-pollutants in synthetic influent; resin beads and silica beads were the solid phases for the fluidized flocculator, and polymer aluminum chloride (PAC) and granular activated carbon were the flocculant and the adsorbent, respectively. The results showed that the Euler numeral was the most suitable dynamic parameter for flocculation in the fluidized bed when compared with the velocity gradient (G), Reynolds number (Re), and GRe (-1/2) . Additionally, the adsorption capacities of the fluidized regime were 8.77 and 24.70 mg · g(-1) greater than those of the fixed regime at superficial velocities of 6 and 8 mm · s(-1), respectively. In the IFAFB, the removal efficiencies of kaolin clay and phenol in the IFAFB reached 95 and 80 % simultaneously at total initial bed height of 35 mm. Flocs size, fractal dimension, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that the relationship of flocculation and adsorption in the IFAFB was mutually beneficial. Adsorption favored continuous growth of flocs and protected flocs from breakage, while flocculation removed fine particles as the first stage to prevent the adsorption of kaolin clay. PMID:25266059

  13. Multi-pollutant mobile platform measurements of air pollutants adjacent to a major roadway

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Erin A.; Banks, Lyndsey; Fintzi, Jonathan; Gould, Timothy R.; Hartin, Kris; Schaal, LaNae; Davey, Mark; Sheppard, Lianne; Larson, Timothy; Yost, Michael G.; Simpson, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    A mobile monitoring platform developed at the University of Washington Center for Clean Air Research (CCAR) measured 10 pollutant metrics (10 s measurements at an average speed of 22 km/hr) in two neighborhoods bordering a major interstate in Albuquerque, NM, USA from April 18-24 2012. 5 days of data sharing a common downwind orientation with respect to the roadway were analyzed. The aggregate results show a three-fold increase in black carbon (BC) concentrations within 10 meters of the edge of roadway, in addition to elevated nanoparticle concentration and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 1 μm (PN1) concentrations. A 30% reduction in ozone concentration near the roadway was observed, anti-correlated with an increase in the oxides of nitrogen (NOx). In this study, the pollutants measured have been expanded to include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particle size distribution (0.25-32 μm), and ultra-violet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM). The raster sampling scheme combined with spatial and temporal measurement alignment provide a measure of variability in the near roadway concentrations, and allow us to use a principal component analysis to identify multi-pollutant features and analyze their roadway influences. PMID:25364294

  14. Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Mult-Pollutant Control Project

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel P; Locke, James E

    2008-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-megawatt (MW) Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/induct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. Testing was conducted through ports located at the inlet and outlet of the SCR reactor to evaluate the performance of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system, as well as through ports located at the air heater outlet and baghouse outlet or stack to determine pollutant removal efficiencies across the Turbosorp{reg_sign} scrubber and baghouse. Data from the unit's stack continuous emission monitor (CEM) were also used for determining attainment of the performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions and SO{sub 2} removal efficiency.

  15. Multi-pollutant treatment of crystalline cellulosic effluent: Function of dissolved oxygen on process control.

    PubMed

    Shanthi Sravan, J; Naresh Kumar, A; Venkata Mohan, S

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of crystalline cellulose based wastewater was carried out in periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR). Specific influence of dissolved oxygen on treatment of crystalline cellulosic (CC) wastewater was evaluated in three different microenvironments such as aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic. PDBR-aerobic biosystem documented relatively higher substrate degradation [2.63kgCOD/m(3)-day (92%)] in comparison to PDBR-anoxic [2.12kgCOD/m(3)-day (71%)] and PDBR-anaerobic [1.81kgCOD/m(3)-day (63%)], which is in accordance with the observed DO levels. Similarly, multipollutants viz., phosphates and nitrates removal was observed to be higher in aerobic followed by anoxic and anaerobic operations. Higher nitrate removal in aerobic operation might be attributed to the efficient denitrification carried out by the biocatalyst, which utilizes both nitrates and oxygen as oxidizing agents. Multiscan spectral profiles depicted reduction in color intensity in all three microenvironments that correlated with the substrate degradation observed. Despite the high organic load, PDBR functioned well without exhibiting process inhibition. PMID:27005787

  16. Method oil shale pollutant sorption/NO.sub.x reburning multi-pollutant control

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2008-06-10

    A method of decreasing pollutants produced in a combustion process. The method comprises combusting coal in a combustion chamber to produce at least one pollutant selected from the group consisting of a nitrogen-containing pollutant, sulfuric acid, sulfur trioxide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, chlorine, hydroiodic acid, iodine, hydrofluoric acid, fluorine, hydrobromic acid, bromine, phosphoric acid, phosphorous pentaoxide, elemental mercury, and mercuric chloride. Oil shale particles are introduced into the combustion chamber and are combusted to produce sorbent particulates and a reductant. The at least one pollutant is contacted with at least one of the sorbent particulates and the reductant to decrease an amount of the at least one pollutant in the combustion chamber. The reductant may chemically reduce the at least one pollutant to a benign species. The sorbent particulates may adsorb or absorb the at least one pollutant. A combustion chamber that produces decreased pollutants in a combustion process is also disclosed.

  17. ELKINS MINE DRAINAGE POLLUTION CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1964 several federal agencies in cooperation with the State of West Virginia initiated a project to demonstrate methods to control the pollution from abandoned underground and surface mines in the Roaring Creek-Grassy Run Watersheds near Elkins, West Virginia. The Roaring Cree...

  18. The AFIT gross motion control project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Gross Motion Control project is to study alternative control approaches that will provide payload invariant high speed trajectory tracking for nonrepetitive motions in free space. The research has concentrated on modifications to the model-based control structure. Development and evaluation is being actively pursued of both adaptive primary (inner loop) and robust secondary (output loop) controllers. In-house developments are compared and contrasted to the techniques proposed by other researchers. The case study for the evaluation is the first three links of a PUMA-560. Incorporating the principals of multiple model adaptive estimation, artificial neural networks, and Lyapunov theory into the model based paradigm has shown the potential for enhanced tracking. Secondary controllers based on Quantitative Feedback Theory, or augmented with auxiliary inputs, significantly improve the robustness to payload variations and unmodeled drive system dynamics. An overview is presented of the different concepts under investigation and a sample is provided of the latest experimental results.

  19. Controls and Electronics in the LEBIT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus, Elizabeth

    2002-10-01

    The LEBIT project at the NSCL is an experiment under construction that will accept a high-energy beam from the coupled cyclotron and convert it to a low-energy, low-emittance beam. This low-energy beam will be used in a variety of experiments, including precision mass measurements of exotic nuclei. The experiment contains a gas-stopping cell followed by an ion transport and trapping system. One particular section consists of an ion trap that accumulates incoming ions, cools them, and releases them as ion bunches. Following the buncher is an electrostatic deflector that serves to steer the ions as they leave this trap. Although the control for the deflector is at ground, the deflector needs be raised to an average 2kV potential. Relative to this potential, offsets are applied to the horizontal and vertical steering plates, in order to achieve beam steering. This summer, an electronic board was worked on to accomplish this. The main components of the board include DC/DC converter and high-voltage isolation amplifiers. Because of the complexity of the LEBIT project, all instruments will be controlled through computers. One programming interface currently being used is LabView. Programs have been designed to control the Keithley 2000-20 Multimeter and the Keithley 6514 Electrometer. These instruments will serve to measure voltage and small beam currents.

  20. Bioremediation of multi-polluted soil by spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and Pb availability.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Yunta, Felipe; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates the effect of three spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS) application methods on bioremediation of soil multi-polluted with Pb and PAH from close to a shooting range with respect natural attenuation (SM). The remediation treatments involve (i) use of sterilized SAS to biostimulate the inherent soil microbiota (SSAS) and two bioaugmentation possibilities (ii) its use without previous treatment to inoculate A. bisporus and inherent microbiota (SAS) or (iii) SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp). The efficiency of each bioremediation microcosm was evaluated by: fungal activity, heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacterial population, PAH removal, Pb mobility and soil eco-toxicity. Biostimulation of the native soil microbiology (SSAS) achieved similar levels of PAH biodegradation as SM and poor soil detoxification. Bioaugmented microcosms produced higher PAH removal and eco-toxicity reduction via different routes. SAS increased the PAH-degrading bacterial population, but lowered fungal activity. Abisp was a good inoculum carrier for A. bisporus exhibiting high levels of ligninolytic activity, the total and PAH-degrading bacteria population increased with incubation time. The three SAS applications produced slight Pb mobilization (<0.3%). SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp) proved the best application method to remove PAH, mainly BaP, and detoxify the multi-polluted soil. PMID:26188871

  1. Project W-058 monitor and control system logic

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERTS, J.B.

    1999-05-12

    This supporting document contains the printout of the control logic for the Project W-058 Monitor and Control System, as developed by Programmable Control Services, Inc. The logic is arranged in five appendices, one for each programmable logic controller console.

  2. A Statistical Project Control Tool for Engineering Managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of a Statistical Project Control Tool (SPCT) for managing engineering projects. A literature review pointed to a definition of project success, (i.e., A project is successful when the cost, schedule, technical performance, and quality satisfy the customer.) The literature review also pointed to project success factors, and traditional project control tools, and performance measures that are detailed in the report. The essential problem is that with resources becoming more limited, and an increasing number or projects, project failure is increasing, there is a limitation of existing methods and systematic methods are required. The objective of the work is to provide a new statistical project control tool for project managers. Graphs using the SPCT method plotting results of 3 successful projects and 3 failed projects are reviewed, with success and failure being defined by the owner.

  3. Project Design Concept for Monitoring and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    This Project Design Concept represents operational requirements established for use in design the tank farm Monitoring and Control System. These upgrades are included within the scope of Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.

  4. Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project - 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989-1993 are listed. The biomass production chamber to be used by the project is described.

  5. Administrative Leadership as Projection, Social Control, and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.

    Over the past 50 years, theoretical and methodological problems have plagued the study of leadership. This paper, proposing an alternative theory, argues that leadership has three fundamental components: projection and social control, which are linked by action. Projection is the visualization of a project to be completed. Educational…

  6. Self-Correcting HVAC Controls Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Cho, Heejin; Goddard, James K.; Dinh, Liem H.

    2010-01-04

    This document represents the final project report for the Self-Correcting Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Controls Project jointly funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP). The project, initiated in October 2008, focused on exploratory initial development of self-correcting controls for selected HVAC components in air handlers. This report, along with the companion report documenting the algorithms developed, Self-Correcting HVAC Controls: Algorithms for Sensors and Dampers in Air-Handling Units (Fernandez et al. 2009), document the work performed and results of this project.

  7. Environmental Risk Score as a New Tool to Examine Multi-Pollutants in Epidemiologic Research: An Example from the NHANES Study Using Serum Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Tao, Yebin; Meeker, John D.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2014-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and plasticizers play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. Most epidemiologic studies have examined environmental pollutants individually, but in real life, we are exposed to multi-pollutants and pollution mixtures, not single pollutants. Although multi-pollutant approaches have been recognized recently, challenges exist such as how to estimate the risk of adverse health responses from multi-pollutants. We propose an “Environmental Risk Score (ERS)” as a new simple tool to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research. Methods and Results We examined 134 environmental pollutants in relation to serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2006. Using a two-stage approach, stage-1 for discovery (n = 10818) and stage-2 for validation (n = 4615), we identified 13 associated pollutants for total cholesterol, 9 for HDL, 5 for LDL and 27 for triglycerides with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and serum nutrient levels. Using the regression coefficients (weights) from joint analyses of the combined data and exposure concentrations, ERS were computed as a weighted sum of the pollutant levels. We computed ERS for multiple lipid outcomes examined individually (single-phenotype approach) or together (multi-phenotype approach). Although the contributions of ERS to overall risk predictions for lipid outcomes were modest, we found relatively stronger associations between ERS and lipid outcomes than with individual pollutants. The magnitudes of the observed associations for ERS were comparable to or stronger than those for socio-demographic factors or BMI. Conclusions This study suggests ERS is

  8. [Effect of comprehensive control project on schistosomiasis in Nanjian county].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ji-Mao; Wu, Jun-Sheng; Yang, Meng-Xian; Li, Dian; Jiao, Dian; Lian, Fu; Yang, Qing-Quan

    2011-04-01

    The comprehensive control project for schistosomiasis was implemented in Nanjian County from 2004 to 2008. After the implementation of the control project, the infection rates of population and livestock decreased by 94.39% and 83.29% in 2008, respectively, with both infection rates less than 1%, no acute schistosomiasis cases had been found since 2005. Snail areas decreased by 70.01%, no infected snails had been found since 2007. Through the implementation of the comprehensive control project, schistosomiasis had been effectively controlled in Nanjian County. PMID:22164604

  9. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 1: Planning Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the planning documents from the GCS project. Volume 1 contains five appendices: A. Plan for Software Aspects of Certification for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Development Standards for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Software Verification Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; and E. Software Quality Assurance Activities.

  10. R&D Project Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The recurrence of problems in connection with research and development (R and D) activities supported by the Audio-Visual Center of Indiana University led to the development of a proposed control system. This paper lists those problems and examines the assumptions which must be met by the control system--that the Center will support all types of R…

  11. Design of decentralized multivariable excitation controllers in multimachine power systems by projective controls

    SciTech Connect

    Arnautovic, D.; Medanic, J.

    1987-12-01

    A methodology for the design of decentralized multivariable excitation and controllers in multimachine power systems is developed using projective controls. The existing methodology, is extended to permit the coordinated design of AVR and PSS controllers in power systems.

  12. MILA Antenna Control Unit Replacement Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresette, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The Air to Ground Subsystem (AGS) Antenna Control Units at the MILA Ground Network Tracking Station are at end-of-life and are being replaced. AGS consists of two antennas at MILA (Quad-Helix and Teltrac). Software was taken from the existing Subsystem Controller and modified for the Antenna Control Unit (ACU). The software is capable of receiving and sending commands to and from the ACU. Moving the azimuth clockwise, counterclockwise, moving the elevation up or down, turning servo power on and off, and inputting azimuth and elevation angles are commands that the antenna can receive.

  13. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 2: Development Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the development documents from the GCS project. Volume 2 contains three appendices: A. Guidance and Control Software Development Specification; B. Design Description for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; and C. Source Code for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software

  14. Intelligence support to arms control. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, A.E.

    1990-04-09

    This paper argues that intelligence support is critical to the success of arms control. It identifies and describes the roles of intelligence in the arms control process, describes the existing intelligence organizational structure for arms control support, and identifies and analyzes issues. The roles include support to policy formulation, support to treaty negotiation, support to ratification, and finally, during verification, support for the implementation of the treaty through monitoring. The Director of Central Intelligence is responsible for monitoring, while the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency has responsibility for verification. Adjudication of conflicting interpretations occurs within the NSC committee structure. For several reasons, intelligence cannot be expected to do the actual verification of an arms control treaty. Most importantly, determination of an acceptable degree of confidence is always a political issue, although based on military judgement. Assigning intelligence responsibility for monitoring, rather than verification, helps to limit the politicization of intelligence. Issues identified during the research for this paper were analyzed within three subgroups: those inherent in the intelligence discipline; these must be managed successfully to limit adverse impact on intelligence products. Second, issues and challenges inherent in arms control bureaucratic relationships; these are best managed by keeping separate the actual monitoring analysis and verification this gives the West justification for caution, and reinforces the need for continued emphasis on verification.

  15. An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

  16. Projection Operator: A Step Towards Certification of Adaptive Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larchev, Gregory V.; Campbell, Stefan F.; Kaneshige, John T.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major barriers to wider use of adaptive controllers in commercial aviation is the lack of appropriate certification procedures. In order to be certified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), an aircraft controller is expected to meet a set of guidelines on functionality and reliability while not negatively impacting other systems or safety of aircraft operations. Due to their inherent time-variant and non-linear behavior, adaptive controllers cannot be certified via the metrics used for linear conventional controllers, such as gain and phase margin. Projection Operator is a robustness augmentation technique that bounds the output of a non-linear adaptive controller while conforming to the Lyapunov stability rules. It can also be used to limit the control authority of the adaptive component so that the said control authority can be arbitrarily close to that of a linear controller. In this paper we will present the results of applying the Projection Operator to a Model-Reference Adaptive Controller (MRAC), varying the amount of control authority, and comparing controller s performance and stability characteristics with those of a linear controller. We will also show how adjusting Projection Operator parameters can make it easier for the controller to satisfy the certification guidelines by enabling a tradeoff between controller s performance and robustness.

  17. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

  18. Statistical Process Control. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, M.; Clark, I.

    A project was conducted to develop a curriculum and training materials to be used in training industrial operatives in statistical process control (SPC) techniques. During the first phase of the project, questionnaires were sent to 685 companies (215 of which responded) to determine where SPC was being used, what type of SPC firms needed, and how…

  19. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to the fuel provider, while

  20. Multi-pollutant exposure profiles associated with term low birth weight in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Coker, Eric; Liverani, Silvia; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernardo; Li, Arthur; Ritz, Beate; Molitor, John

    2016-05-01

    neighborhood cluster, both contribute to TLBW while controlling for the other. PMID:26891269

  1. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  2. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 3: Verification Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the verification documents from the GCS project. Volume 3 contains four appendices: A. Software Verification Cases and Procedures for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Verification Results for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; C. Review Records for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; and D. Test Results Logs for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software.

  3. Using fuzzy numbers for construction projects monitoring and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorupka, Dariusz; Kuchta, Dorota

    2016-06-01

    Fuzzy numbers will be used to estimate project activities duration times possible increases, both in the planning phase and - for non-completed activities - in consecutive control points during project realisation. The fuzzy estimates will allow to estimate and continuously update the predicted project completion time and the risk of not keeping to the deadline. The fuzzy estimates of non-completed activities will be updated in each control point, on the basis of the information on the actual adequacy of the fuzzy estimates of already completed activities with similar risk factors. A new method for this updating process will be proposed. The method will focus on construction projects and will be applied to a real world construction project.

  4. Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

  5. Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect

    Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

    2008-06-01

    Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

  6. MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew B. Loomis

    2004-05-01

    This technical report describes the results from Task 1 of the Cooperative Agreement. Powerspan has installed, tested, and validated Hg SCEMS systems for measuring oxidized and elemental mercury at the pilot facility at R.E. Burger Generating Station in Shadyside, Ohio. When operating properly, these systems are capable of providing near real-time monitoring of inlet and outlet gas flow streams and are capable of extracting samples from different locations to characterize mercury removal at these different ECO process stages. This report discusses the final configuration of the Hg CEM systems and the operating protocols that increase the reliability of the HG SCEM measurements. Documentation on the testing done to verify the operating protocols is also provided. In addition the report provides details on the protocols developed and used for measurement of mercury in process liquid streams and in captured ash.

  7. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several sub-elements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles' thermal control system. NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids.

  8. ANG coal gasification project management control system report. [Great Plains project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Much time, money and effort has been spent in the forefront of this project for project controls. The work breakdown structure for the systems has been custom designed. The systems, both manual and computerized, have been well scrutinized and chosen by ANG to represent the most cost effective and efficient way of controlling a project the magnitude of $1.5 billion. These systems have been developed in a manner so that information can be gathered as detailed or as summarized as necessary, and in the most timely and expeditious ways.

  9. F-15 837 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) for the F-15. The goals of the project are: (1) Demonstrate Revolutionary Control Approaches that can Efficiently Optimize Aircraft Performance in both Normal and Failure Conditions (2) Advance Neural Network-Based Flight Control Technology for New Aerospace Systems Designs. The motivation for the development are to reduce the chance and skill required for survival.

  10. Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals during Pregnancy and Weight at 7 Years of Age: A Multi-pollutant Approach

    PubMed Central

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Martinez, David; Valvi, Damaskini; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Robinson, Oliver; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -disrupting chemicals during pregnancy and weight at 7 years of age: a multi-pollutant approach. Environ Health Perspect 123:1030–1037; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409049 PMID:25956007

  11. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-05-17

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  12. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  13. Corticothalamic Projections Control Synchronization in Locally Coupled Bistable Thalamic Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Schuster, Heinz Georg; Claussen, Jens Christian; Mölle, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    Thalamic circuits are able to generate state-dependent oscillations of different frequencies and degrees of synchronization. However, little is known about how synchronous oscillations, such as spindle oscillations in the thalamus, are organized in the intact brain. Experimental findings suggest that the simultaneous occurrence of spindle oscillations over widespread territories of the thalamus is due to the corticothalamic projections, as the synchrony is lost in the decorticated thalamus. In this Letter we study the influence of corticothalamic projections on the synchrony in a thalamic network, and uncover the underlying control mechanism, leading to a control method which is applicable for several types of oscillations in the central nervous system.

  14. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) theory principles and applying them to the human element of project management and control is not a new concept. As both the literature on the subject and the real-world applications are neither readily available nor comprehensive with regard to how such principles might be applied, this paper has been written to educate the project manager on the "laws of physics" of his or her project (not to teach a GN&C engineer how to become a project manager) and to provide an intuitive, mathematical explanation as to the control and behavior of projects. This paper will also address how the fundamental principles of modern GN&C were applied to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) space suit project, ensuring the project was managed within cost, schedule, and budget. A project that is akin to a physical system can be modeled and managed using the same over arching principles of GN&C that would be used if that project were a complex vehicle, a complex system(s), or complex software with time-varying processes (at times nonlinear) containing multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. The classic GN&C theory approach could thus be applied to small, well-defined projects; yet when working with larger, multiyear projects necessitating multiple organizational structures, numerous external influences, and a multitude of diverse resources, modern GN&C principles are required to model and manage the project. The fundamental principles of a GN&C system incorporate these basic concepts: State, Behavior, Feedback Control, Navigation, Guidance and Planning Logic systems. The State of a system defines the aspects of the system that can change over time; e.g., position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, and temperature, etc. The Behavior of the system focuses more on what changes are possible within the system; this is denoted in the state

  15. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The now-cancelled Constellation Program included the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, were planned to be manned space vehicles while the third element was much more diverse and included several sub-elements. Among other things, these sub-elements were Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The planned missions involving these systems and vehicles included several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal operating environment, many of these risks and challenges were associated with the vehicles thermal control system. NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) consisted of various technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned thermal risks and design challenges was the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. These risks and design challenges were being addressed through a rigorous technology development process that was planned to culminate with an integrated thermal control system test. Although the technologies being developed were originally aimed towards mitigating specific Constellation risks, the technology development process is being continued within a new program. This continued effort is justified by the fact that many of the technologies are generically applicable to future spacecraft thermal control systems. The current paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing a material compatibility assessment for a promising thermal control system working fluid. The to-date progress and lessons-learned from these development efforts will be discussed throughout the paper.

  16. Advanced Guidance and Control Project for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.

    2000-01-01

    The goals of this project are to significantly reduce the time and cost associated with guidance and control design for reusable launch vehicles, and to increase their safety and reliability. Success will lead to reduced cycle times during vehicle design and to reduced costs associated with flying to new orbits, with new payloads, and with modified vehicles. Success will also lead to more robustness to unforeseen circumstances in flight thereby enhancing safety and reducing risk. There are many guidance and control methods available that hold some promise for improvement in the desired areas. Investigators are developing a representative set of independent guidance and control methods for this project. These methods are being incorporated into a high-fidelity off is being conducted across a broad range of flight requirements. The guidance and control methods that perform the best will have demonstrated the desired qualities.

  17. Integrated Quality Control Measurement Project. Findings and Corrective Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price Waterhouse and Co., New York, NY.

    The Integrated Quality Control Measurement Project (IQCMP) of the U.S. Department of Education measured the quality of awards distributed during the 1988-89 award year under the three major Title IV programs: the Pell Grant program, the Campus-Based programs, and the Stafford Loan program, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of the…

  18. DESCHUTES PROJECT – WICKIUP DAM, CONTROL TOWER COMPLETE TO ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DESCHUTES PROJECT – WICKIUP DAM, CONTROL TOWER COMPLETE TO ELEVATION 4348.5 WITH TEMPORARY ROOF. BURNING OPERATIONS ON RESERVOIR CLEARING IN THE DISTANCE. Photocopy of historic photographs (original photograph on file at National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, CO). Unknown USBR Photographer, August 31, 1943 - Wickiup Dam, Deschutes River, La Pine, Deschutes County, OR

  19. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 1. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-30

    A summary of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project is presented. The design of the greenhouses include transparent double pane glass roof with channels for fluid between the panes, inner pane tinted and double pane extruded acrylic aluminized mylar shade and diffuser. Solar energy technologies provide power for water desalination, for pumping irrigation water, and for cooling and heating the controlled environment space so that crops can grow in arid lands. The project is a joint effort between the United States and Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  20. CE IGCC repowering project: Controls & instrumentation. Topical report, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The IGCC Control System is used to provide operator interface and controls for manual and auto operation of the IGCC Repowering Project Located at Springfield, Illinois. A Distributed Control System (DCS) is provided for analog (process control) loop functions and to provide the operator interface. A Data Acquisition System (DAS) is provided for gathering performance data and optimization. Programmable Logic Controllers will be provided for the following digital control systems: (a) GSSS (Gasifier Supervisory Safety System) including pulverized coal handling and char handling; (b) Coal Pulverization System; (c) HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generation); (d) Hot Gas Cleanup System; (e) Steam Turbine; and (f) Combined Cycle Operation. In general all systems are provided for auto/manual cascade operation; upstream equipment is interlocked to be proven in service operation and/or valve position before downstream equipment may operate.

  1. Intelligent control in mobile robotics: the PANORAMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenway, Phil

    1994-03-01

    The European Community's strategic research initiative in information technology has been in place for seven years. A good example of the pan-European collaborative projects conducted under this initiative is PANORAMA: Perception and Navigation for Autonomous Mobile Robot Applications. This four-and-a-half-year project, completed in October 1993, aimed to prove the feasibility of an autonomous mobile robotic system replacing a human-operated vehicle working outdoors in a partially structured environment. The autonomous control of a mobile rock drilling machine was chosen as a challenging and representative test scenario. This paper presents an overview of intelligent mobile robot control architectures. Goals and objectives of the project are described, together with the makeup of the consortium and the roles of the members within it. The main technical achievements from PANORAMA are then presented, with emphasis given to the problems of realizing intelligent control. In particular, the planning and replanning of a mission, and the corresponding architectural choices and infrastructure required to support the chosen task oriented approach, are discussed. Specific attention is paid to the functional decomposition of the system, and how the requirements for `intelligent control' impact on the organization of the identified system components. Future work and outstanding problems are considered in some concluding remarks.

  2. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The idea of control theory and its application to project management is not new, however literature on the topic and real-world applications is not as readily available and comprehensive in how all the principals of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) apply. This paper will address how the fundamental principals of modern GN&C Theory have been applied to NASA's Constellation Space Suit project and the results in the ability to manage the project within cost, schedule and budget. A s with physical systems, projects can be modeled and managed with the same guiding principles of GN&C as if it were a complex vehicle, system or software with time-varying processes, at times non-linear responses, multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. With such systems the classic approach could be applied to small and well-defined projects; however with larger, multi-year projects involving multiple organizational structures, external influences and a multitude of diverse resources, then modern control theory is required to model and control the project. The fundamental principals of G N&C stated that a system is comprised of these basic core concepts: State, Behavior, Control system, Navigation system, Guidance and Planning Logic, Feedback systems. The state of a system is a definition of the aspects of the dynamics of the system that can change, such as position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, temperature, etc. The behavior of the system is more of what changes are possible rather than what can change, which is captured in the state of the system. The behavior of a system is captured in the system modeling and if properly done, will aid in accurate system performance prediction in the future. The Control system understands the state and behavior of the system and feedback systems to adjust the control inputs into the system. The Navigation system takes the multiple data inputs and based upon a priori knowledge of the input

  3. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  4. NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fishler, B

    2011-03-18

    Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

  5. [Discussion on water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    According to the schistosomiasis endemic situation in the Poyang Lake area, this paper analyzes the relationship between the water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control, and reviews and discusses the effects of the Water Level Control Project of Poyang Lake, the Lake Dike Slope Hardening Project, and the Lifting Delta and Descending Beach Project on Oncomelania snail control. PMID:23687826

  6. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP CONCEPTUAL DESIGN CONTROL DECISION REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO CA

    2010-03-09

    This control decision addresses the Knock-Out Pot (KOP) Disposition KOP Processing System (KPS) conceptual design. The KPS functions to (1) retrieve KOP material from canisters, (2) remove particles less than 600 {micro}m in size and low density materials from the KOP material, (3) load the KOP material into Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) baskets, and (4) stage the MCO baskets for subsequent loading into MCOs. Hazard and accident analyses of the KPS conceptual design have been performed to incorporate safety into the design process. The hazard analysis is documented in PRC-STP-00098, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Project Conceptual Design Hazard Analysis. The accident analysis is documented in PRC-STP-CN-N-00167, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Sub-Project Canister Over Lift Accident Analysis. Based on the results of these analyses, and analyses performed in support of MCO transportation and MCO processing and storage activities at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and Canister Storage Building (CSB), control decision meetings were held to determine the controls required to protect onsite and offsite receptors and facility workers. At the conceptual design stage, these controls are primarily defined by their safety functions. Safety significant structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that could provide the identified safety functions have been selected for the conceptual design. It is anticipated that some safety SSCs identified herein will be reclassified based on hazard and accident analyses performed in support of preliminary and detailed design.

  7. Project B610 process control configuration acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Silvan, G.R.

    1994-09-20

    The purpose of this test is to verify the Westinghouse configuration of the MICON A/S Distributed Control System for project B610. The following will be verified: proper assignment and operation of all field inputs to and outputs from the MICON Termination panels; proper operation of all display data on the operator`s console; proper operation of all required alarms; and proper operation of all required interlocks. The MICON A/S control system is configured to replace all the control, indication, and alarm panels now located in the Power Control Room. Nine systems are covered by this control configuration, 2736-ZB HVAC, 234-5Z HVAC, Process Vacuum, Dry Air, 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling, Building Accelerometer, Evacuation Siren, Stack CAMs, and Fire. The 2736-ZB HVAC system consists of the ventilation controls for 2736-ZB and 2736-Z as well as alarms for the emergency generators and 232-Z. The 234-5Z HVAC system is the ventilation controls for 235-5Z and 236-Z buildings. Process Vacuum covers the controls for the 26 inch vacuum system. Dry Air covers the controls for the steam and electric air dryers. The 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling system consists of the status indications and alarms for the 291-Z compressor and vacuum pump closed loop cooling system. The rest of closed loop cooling was tested earlier. The Building Accelerometer system consists of the status indications for the two seismic system accelerometers. The Evacuation Siren system includes the controls for the evacuation and take cover sirens. Stack CAMs cover the alarms for the various building ventilation stack continuous air monitors. Finally, the Fire system covers the various fire alarms now located in Room 321-A.

  8. Optimum Production Control and Workforce Scheduling of Machining Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Tian-Syung; Lo, Chih-Yao; Hou, Cheng-I.

    Through the proposed model in this study, the production control with the consideration of workforce scheduling for advanced manufacturing systems becomes realistically and concretely solvable. This study not only meditates the concept of balancing machine productivity and human ability into the objective, but also implements Calculus of Variations to optimize the profit for a deterministic production quantity. In addition, the optimum solutions of dynamic productivity control and workforce scheduling are comprehensively provided. Moreover, the decision criteria for selecting the optimum solution and the sensitivity analysis of the critical variables are fully discussed. This study definitely contributes the applicable strategy to control the productivity and workforce in manufacturing and provides the valuable tool to conclusively optimize the profit of a machining project for operations research in today`s manufacturing industry with profound insight.

  9. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope project management control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantor, Jeffrey P.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) program is jointly funded by the NSF, the DOE, and private institutions and donors. From an NSF funding standpoint, the LSST is a Major Research Equipment and Facilities (MREFC) project. The NSF funding process requires proposals and D&D reviews to include activity-based budgets and schedules; documented basis of estimates; risk-based contingency analysis; cost escalation and categorization. "Out-of-the box," the commercial tool Primavera P6 contains approximately 90% of the planning and estimating capability needed to satisfy R&D phase requirements, and it is customizable/configurable for remainder with relatively little effort. We describe the customization/configuration and use of Primavera for the LSST Project Management Control System (PMCS), assess our experience to date, and describe future directions. Examples in this paper are drawn from the LSST Data Management System (DMS), which is one of three main subsystems of the LSST and is funded by the NSF. By astronomy standards the LSST DMS is a large data management project, processing and archiving over 70 petabyes of image data, producing over 20 petabytes of catalogs annually, and generating 2 million transient alerts per night. Over the 6-year construction and commissioning phase, the DM project is estimated to require 600,000 hours of engineering effort. In total, the DMS cost is approximately 60% hardware/system software and 40% labor.

  10. Development of a mediated whole cell-based electrochemical biosensor for joint toxicity assessment of multi-pollutants using a mixed microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanyue; Qian, Jun; Fang, Deyu; Yu, Yuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2016-06-14

    Since most risk assessment for toxicants is based on individual single-species test, the deduction of such results to ecosystem evaluation is afflicted with uncertainties. Herein, we successfully developed a p-benzoquinone mediated whole-cell electrochemical biosensor for multi-pollutants toxicological analysis by co-immobilizing mixed strains of microorganism, including Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria), Bacillus subtilis (gram-positive bacteria) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (fungus). The individual and combined toxicities of heavy metal ions (Cu(2+), Cd(2+)), phenol (3,5-dichlorophenol) and pesticides (Ametryn, Acephate) were examined. The experimental results showed that the order of toxicity for individual toxicant was ranked as Cu(2+) > 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) > Ametryn > Cd(2+) > Acephate. Then the toxic unit (TU) model was applied to determine the nature of toxicological interaction of the toxicants which can be classified as concentration additive (IC50mix = 1TU), synergistic (IC50mix < 1TU) and antagonistic (IC50mix > 1TU) responses. The binary combination of Cu(2+) + Cd(2+), Cu(2+) + DCP, Cu(2+) + Acephate, DCP + Acephate, Acephate + Ametryn were analyzed and the three kind of joint toxicity effects (i.e. additive, synergistic and antagonistic) mentioned above were observed according to the dose-response relationship. The results indicate that the whole-cell electrochemical biosensor based on mixed microbial consortium is more reasonable to reflect the joint biotoxicity of multi-pollutants existing in real wastewater, and combined effects of toxicants is extremely necessary to be taken into account in ecological risk assessment. Thus, present study has provided a promising approach to the quality assessment of wastewater and a reliable way for early risk warning of acute biotoxicity. PMID:27181640

  11. Project B610 process control configuration acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Silvan, G.R.

    1995-06-27

    The purpose of this test is to verify the Westinghouse configuration of the MICON A/S Distributed Control System for project B610. The following will be verified: (1) proper assignment and operation of all field inputs to and outputs from the MICON Termination panels; (2) proper operation of all display data on the operators` console; (3) proper operation of all required alarms; and (4) proper operation of all required interlocks. This test only verifies the proper operation of the Westinghouse control configuration (or program). It will not be responsible for verifying proper operation of the MICON hardware or operating software. Neither does it test any of the B610 instrument. The MICON hardware and software has been tested as part of the equipment procurement. Instrumentation and wiring installed under project B620 will be tested under a separate functional test. In some cases, precise transmitter ranges, alarm setpoints, and controller tuning parameters are not available at this time. Therefore, approximate values are used during the test. This should not affect the proper operation of the configuration or the validity of this test. Final values will be assigned during operability testing.

  12. Simulation of slag control for the Plasma Hearth Project

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M.A.; Carney, K.P.; Peters. G.G.

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the Plasma Hearth Project is to stabilize alpha-emitting radionuclides in a vitreous slag and to reduce the effective storage volume of actinide-containing waste for long-term burial. The actinides have been shown to partition into the vitreous slag phase of the melt. The slag composition may be changed by adding glass-former elements to ensure that this removable slag has the most desired physical and chemical properties for long-term burial. A data acquisition and control system has been designed to regulate the composition of five elements in the slag.

  13. Technical Assistance Project for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.

    2006-12-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request for technical assistance from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in its response to this request through the Technical Assistance Project. Discussion with the MPCA identified the following as the highest-priority questions: What is the effect of (1) size of Renewable Energy Reserve (RER) and (2) duration of allocation award on (a) NOx emissions in Minnesota and (b) retail electricity prices? What data is available on the response of wind energy development to financial incentives? This report addresses those questions.

  14. Application of the PnET-BGC - An integrated biogeochemical model - To assess the surface water ANC recovery in the Adirondack region of New York under three multi-pollutant proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2009-11-01

    SummaryWe applied an integrated biogeochemical model PnET-BGC to predict the response of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in lakes - a measure of the ability of water to neutralize inputs of strong acid - from 2001 to 2050 in the Adirondack region of New York, USA under three multi-pollutant proposal scenarios. Through model predictions, we assessed the impacts of these proposals on ecosystem recovery for research and policy initiatives. Our analysis indicated that the predicted recovery rates of surface water ANC obtained from the PnET-BGC model show low spatial autocorrelation. Predicted recovery rates are also closely related with the percentage of watershed areas of coniferous vegetation and deciduous vegetation, elevation and lake area, which turn out not to be significantly different from each other over the entire period of future scenarios (2001-2050). We applied a Geographic Weighted Regression model (GWR) to study the spatial patterns of predicted lake ANC in the Adirondacks through 2050 due to its high spatial autocorrelation. These results showed that lake depth and square of elevation can explain 40% of variation in the predicted ANC, which is 26% more variation than explained by the non-spatial Ordinary Least-Squares Regression (OLS). Our calculations also suggest that even under the Carper Bill, the most aggressive air pollutant control scenario considered, not all Adirondack lakes will recover (i.e., ANC > 50 μeq/L) from elevated acidic deposition by 2050. The research provides a basis for more informed emission controls and land use/land cover (LULC) policy-making in the north-eastern USA and elsewhere.

  15. 77 FR 3754 - Boise Project Board of Control; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Boise Project Board of Control; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...: Non-Capacity Amendment of a Conduit Exemption. b. Project No.: 5042-001. c. Date Filed: December 15, 2011. d. Applicant: Boise Project Board of Control. e. Name of Project: Fargo Drop No. 1...

  16. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

  17. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    PubMed Central

    Framinan, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times. PMID:24895672

  18. Management of a large distributed control system development project

    SciTech Connect

    Gurd, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    Building an accelerator at six geographically dispersed sites is quite mad, but politically expedient. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), currently under construction in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, combines a pulsed 1 Gev H{sup -} superconducting linac with a compressor ring to deliver 2 MW of beam power to a liquid mercury target for neutron production [1]. Accelerator components, target and experimental (neutron-scattering) instruments are being developed collaboratively by Lawrence Berkeley (Ion Source and Front End), Los Alamos (Linac), Thomas Jefferson (Cryosystems), Brookhaven (Compressor Ring), Oak Ridge (Target and Conventional Facilities) and Argonne (Neutron Scattering Instruments) National Laboratories. Similarly, a team distributed among all of the participating laboratories is developing the EPICS-based control system. this paper discusses the management model and strategies being used to address the unusual issues of organization, communication, standardization, integration and hand-off inherent in this widely-distributed project.

  19. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-03-01

    Annual progress report of the Advanced Petroleum-based fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Project. Contains information on 5 test projects to determine the best combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emissions standards.

  20. Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) - An Engineering–Economic and Multi-Pollutant Modeling Framework for Comprehensive Regulatory Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on the National Academy of Science’s 2004 report, “Air Quality Management in the United States”, the National Research Council (NRC) recommended to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that standard setting, planning, and control strategy development should be based...

  1. Controlled ecological life support system breadboard project, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989 to 1993 are listed. The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) became operational and tests of wheat as a single crop are nearing completion.

  2. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  3. Role of projection in the control of bird flocks

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Daniel J. G.; Miller, Adam M.; Rowlands, George; Turner, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Swarming is a conspicuous behavioral trait observed in bird flocks, fish shoals, insect swarms, and mammal herds. It is thought to improve collective awareness and offer protection from predators. Many current models involve the hypothesis that information coordinating motion is exchanged among neighbors. We argue that such local interactions alone are insufficient to explain the organization of large flocks of birds and that the mechanism for the exchange of long-range information necessary to control their density remains unknown. We show that large flocks self-organize to the maximum density at which a typical individual still can see out of the flock in many directions. Such flocks are marginally opaque—an external observer also still can see a substantial fraction of sky through the flock. Although this seems intuitive, we show it need not be the case; flocks might easily be highly diffuse or entirely opaque. The emergence of marginal opacity strongly constrains how individuals interact with one another within large swarms. It also provides a mechanism for global interactions: an individual can respond to the projection of the flock that it sees. This provides for faster information transfer and hence rapid flock dynamics, another advantage over local models. From a behavioral perspective, it optimizes the information available to each bird while maintaining the protection of a dense, coherent flock. PMID:25002501

  4. Role of projection in the control of bird flocks.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Daniel J G; Miller, Adam M; Rowlands, George; Turner, Matthew S

    2014-07-22

    Swarming is a conspicuous behavioral trait observed in bird flocks, fish shoals, insect swarms, and mammal herds. It is thought to improve collective awareness and offer protection from predators. Many current models involve the hypothesis that information coordinating motion is exchanged among neighbors. We argue that such local interactions alone are insufficient to explain the organization of large flocks of birds and that the mechanism for the exchange of long-range information necessary to control their density remains unknown. We show that large flocks self-organize to the maximum density at which a typical individual still can see out of the flock in many directions. Such flocks are marginally opaque--an external observer also still can see a substantial fraction of sky through the flock. Although this seems intuitive, we show it need not be the case; flocks might easily be highly diffuse or entirely opaque. The emergence of marginal opacity strongly constrains how individuals interact with one another within large swarms. It also provides a mechanism for global interactions: an individual can respond to the projection of the flock that it sees. This provides for faster information transfer and hence rapid flock dynamics, another advantage over local models. From a behavioral perspective, it optimizes the information available to each bird while maintaining the protection of a dense, coherent flock. PMID:25002501

  5. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the...

  6. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the...

  7. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the...

  8. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the...

  9. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: I. Industry and transport sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadavarte, Pankaj; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Emissions estimation, for research and regulatory applications including reporting to international conventions, needs treatment of detailed technology divisions and high-emitting technologies. Here we estimate Indian emissions, for 1996-2015, of aerosol constituents (PM2.5, BC and OC) and precursor gas SO2, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, NMVOC and CH4) and greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O), using a common fuel consumption database and consistent assumptions. Six source categories and 45 technologies/activities in the industry and transport sectors were used for estimating emissions for 2010. Mean emission factors, developed at the source-category level, were used with corresponding fuel consumption data, available for 1996-2011, projected to 2015. New activities were included to account for fugitive emissions of NMVOC from chemical and petrochemical industries. Dynamic emission factors, reflecting changes in technology-mix and emission regulations, were developed for thermal power plants and on-road transport vehicles. Modeled emission factors were used for gaseous pollutants for on-road vehicles. Emissions of 2.4 (0.6-7.5) Tg y-1 PM2.5, 0.23 (0.1-0.7) Tg y-1 BC, 0.15 (0.04-0.5) Tg y-1 OC, 7.3 (6-10) Tg y-1 SO2, 19 (7.5-33) Tg y-1 CO, 1.5 (0.1-9) Tg y-1 CH4, 4.3 (2-9) Tg y-1 NMVOC, 5.6 (1.7-15.9) Tg y-1 NOx, 1750 (1397-2231) Tg y-1 CO2 and 0.13 (0.05-0.3) Tg y-1 N2O were estimated for 2015. Significant emissions of aerosols and their precursors were from coal use in thermal power and industry (PM2.5 and SO2), and on-road diesel vehicles (BC), especially superemitters. Emissions of ozone precursors were largely from thermal power plants (NOx), on-road gasoline vehicles (CO and NMVOC) and fugitive emissions from mining (CH4). Highly uncertain default emission factors were the principal contributors to uncertainties in emission estimates, indicating the need for region specific measurements.

  10. The Economics of Tobacco Control: Evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Tauras, John A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviors, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the ITC Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximize the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  11. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 4: Configuration Management and Quality Assurance Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes configuration management and quality assurance documents from the GCS project. Volume 4 contains six appendices: A. Software Accomplishment Summary for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Configuration Index for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Configuration Management Records for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Quality Assurance Records for the Guidance and Control Software Project; E. Problem Report for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software Project; and F. Support Documentation Change Reports for the Guidance and Control Software Project.

  12. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  13. The ISM Analysis on Influence Factors of Cost Control in the Wind Power Construction Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunna, Wu; Qing, Bian; Ping, Lin

    Cost control in the wind power construction project is essential under the trend of developing wind power in China. In order to carry out cost control effectively, structural interpretation model(ISM) is used to identify and analyze the major factors that affect the implementation of cost control and the hierarchy relationships between each other. In this way, the surface causes, the middle causes and the underlying causes that affect the cost control in the wind power construction project have been found, which provides decision theory for the smooth implementation of cost control in China's current wind power construction projects.

  14. Requirements management: keeping your technology acquisition project under control.

    PubMed

    Carr, J J

    2000-03-01

    Whether you are acquiring clinical or business information systems, patient monitoring systems, or therapeutic and diagnostic systems, the odds are good that the project will be delivered late, will cost far more than predicted, and will not provide all the features promised. The principal reason for project failure is improper management of the requirements of the system. Requirements engineering and management is a skill from the systems engineering profession that can be learned by nearly any professional who is managing a technology acquisition project. The author discusses what requirements engineering and management is and how it is done. PMID:10725942

  15. Computerized adaptive control weld skate with CCTV weld guidance project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes progress of the automatic computerized weld skate development portion of the Computerized Weld Skate with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Arc Guidance Project. The main goal of the project is to develop an automatic welding skate demonstration model equipped with CCTV weld guidance. The three main goals of the overall project are to: (1) develop a demonstration model computerized weld skate system, (2) develop a demonstration model automatic CCTV guidance system, and (3) integrate the two systems into a demonstration model of computerized weld skate with CCTV weld guidance for welding contoured parts.

  16. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required to furnish written assurances of...

  17. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required to furnish written assurances of...

  18. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required to furnish written assurances of...

  19. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required to furnish written assurances of...

  20. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required to furnish written assurances of...

  1. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section 263.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS....26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a) Legislative authority....

  2. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section 263.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS....26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a) Legislative authority....

  3. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section 263.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS....26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a) Legislative authority....

  4. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section 263.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS....26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a) Legislative authority....

  5. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section 263.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS....26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a) Legislative authority....

  6. OPERATION OF THE OLD RIVER CONTROL PROJECT, ATCHAFALAYA BASIN: AN EVALUATION FROM MULTIUSE MANAGEMENT STANDPOINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluated from a multiuse management standpoint the operation of the Old River Control Project. It was found that limiting diversions to the extent presently being considered by the Old River Control Project would effectively remove those wetlands that are presently f...

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project document control and Records Management Program Description

    SciTech Connect

    MARTIN, B.M.

    2000-05-18

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project document control and records management program, as defined within this document, is based on a broad spectrum of regulatory requirements, Department of Energy (DOE) and Project Hanford and SNF Project-specific direction and guidance. The SNF Project Execution Plan, HNF-3552, requires the control of documents and management of records under the auspices of configuration control, conduct of operations, training, quality assurance, work control, records management, data management, engineering and design control, operational readiness review, and project management and turnover. Implementation of the controls, systems, and processes necessary to ensure compliance with applicable requirements is facilitated through plans, directives, and procedures within the Project Hanford Management System (PHMS) and the SNF Project internal technical and administrative procedures systems. The documents cited within this document are those which directly establish or define the SNF Project document control and records management program. There are many peripheral documents that establish requirements and provide direction pertinent to managing specific types of documents that, for the sake of brevity and clarity, are not cited within this document.

  8. Noise prediction and control of Pudong International Airport expansion project.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bin; Yang, Xin; Yang, Jianguo

    2009-04-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process of the third runway building project of Pudong International Airport is briefly introduced in the paper. The basic principle, the features, and the operation steps of newly imported FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) are discussed for evaluating the aircraft noise impacts. The prediction of the aircraft noise and the countermeasures for the noise mitigation are developed, which includes the reasonable runway location, the optimized land use, the selection of low noise aircrafts, the Fly Quit Program, the relocation of sensitive receptors and the noise insulation of sensitive buildings. Finally, the expansion project is justified and its feasibility is confirmed. PMID:18373206

  9. Two Undergraduate Projects for Data Acquisition and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiersche, Kelly; Pena, Tara; Grogan, Tanner; Wright, Matthew

    We are designing two separate instruments for use in our undergraduate laboratory. In the first project, a Raspberry Pi is used to simultaneously monitor a large number of current and voltage readings and store them in a database. In our second project, we are constructing our own microcontrollers to work as a general-purpose interface based off work carried out in Review of Scientific Instruments 84, 103101 (2013). It was designed for low cost and simple construction, making it ideal for undergraduate level work. This circuit has room for two interchangeable daughter boards, giving it the capability to work as a general lab interface, lock-in detector, or waveform generator.

  10. Skills Conversion Project, Chapter 8, Pollution Control. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    The Skills Conversion Project conducted by the National Society of Professional Engineers sought to study the transition mechanisms required to transfer available technical manpower from aerospace and defense industries into other areas of employment in private industry and public service. Fourteen study teams assessed the likelihood of future…

  11. Towards Greater Learner Control: Web Supported Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Project-based learning has been suggested as an appropriate pedagogy to prepare students in information systems for the realities of the business world. Web-based resources have been used to support such pedagogy with mixed results. The paper argues that the design of web-based learning support to cater to different learning styles may give…

  12. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation project includes reduction of the risk associated with the integration of new, beneficial software techniques. Demonstrations of this software to baseline engineering and test personnel will show the benefits of these techniques. The advanced software will be integrated into ground testing and ground support facilities, familiarizing its usage by key personnel.

  13. Critical issues in process control system security : DHS spares project.

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Jacquelynne; McIntyre, Annie; Henrie, Morgan

    2010-10-01

    The goals of this event are: (1) Discuss the next-generation issues and emerging risks in cyber security for control systems; (2) Review and discuss common control system architectures; (3) Discuss the role of policy, standards, and supply chain issues; (4) Interact to determine the most pertinent risks and most critical areas of the architecture; and (5) Merge feedback from Control System Managers, Engineers, IT, and Auditors.

  14. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts: Multi-Pollutant Models Based on Elastic Net Regression

    PubMed Central

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Rylander, Lars; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    , Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts: multi-pollutant models based on elastic net regression. Environ Health Perspect 124:365–372; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408933 PMID:26115335

  15. Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project Full Scale Flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Provide validation of adaptive control law concepts through full scale flight evaluation. Technical Approach: a) Engage failure mode - destabilizing or frozen surface. b) Perform formation flight and air-to-air tracking tasks. Evaluate adaptive algorithm: a) Stability metrics. b) Model following metrics. Full scale flight testing provides an ability to validate different adaptive flight control approaches. Full scale flight testing adds credence to NASA's research efforts. A sustained research effort is required to remove the road blocks and provide adaptive control as a viable design solution for increased aircraft resilience.

  16. [The Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance].

    PubMed

    Irabedra, Pilar; Salvatella, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance: Argentina, Brasil, Chile and Uruguay, is a joint and collaborative tool with the aim of promoting the implementation or the strengthening of programs for disease control. The paper describes the background, the institutional aspects that regulates the structure and functions, as well as the guidelines defined in the technical and operational project. The article emphasize the achievements through Projects of Technical Cooperation among Countries, and the development of integrated and innovative approaches for prevention and control of the disease and training of human resources of the control programs. Some of the challenges are: to achieve the sustainability of the project, implementation of technical groups for analysis and assessment at request of the countries, improvement of the regional information systems, to continue training human resources of the control programs and to expand and strengthen the technical cooperation among countries. PMID:21308202

  17. Microprocessor control of offshore enhanced oil recovery project

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.; Lechler, R.; Long, W.

    1983-01-01

    The proportioning of natural gas liquids among 6 injection wells is described and controlling the corresponding gas necessary to maintain a specified liquid to gas ratio for each individual well is discussed. To accomplish this proportioning, the system selects a master well, controls both liquid and gas header pressure, and calculates corrected flow rates. In addition to these functions the microprocessor also prints on demand both instantaneous flow rates and cumulative volume injected for each well.

  18. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Cryogenics Test Lab Control System Upgrade Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janice Leshay

    2014-01-01

    This project will outfit the Simulated Propellant Loading System (SPLS) at KSC's Cryogenics Test Laboratory with a new programmable logic control system. The control system upgrade enables the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenace Element Integration Team and other users of the SPLS to conduct testing in a controls environment similar to that used at the launch pad.

  19. Toward integrated opisthorchiasis control in northeast Thailand: the Lawa project.

    PubMed

    Sripa, Banchob; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Laha, Thewarach; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Mallory, Frank F; Smith, John F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode is a significant public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. Despite a long history of control programmes in Thailand and a nationwide reduction, O. viverrini infection prevalence remains high in the northeastern provinces. Therefore, a new strategy for controlling the liver fluke infection using the EcoHealth/One Health approach was introduced into the Lawa Lake area in Khon Kaen province where the liver fluke is endemic. A programme has been carried using anthelminthic treatment, novel intensive health education methods both in the communities and in schools, ecosystem monitoring and active community participation. As a result, the infection rate in the more than 10 villages surrounding the lake has declined to approximate one third of the average of 50% as estimated by a baseline survey. Strikingly, the Cyprinoid fish species in the lake, which are the intermediate host, now showed less than 1% prevalence compared to a maximum of 70% at baseline. This liver fluke control programme, named "Lawa model," is now recognised nationally and internationally, and being expanding to other parts of Thailand and neighbouring Mekong countries. Challenges to O. viverrini disease control, and lessons learned in developing an integrative control programme using a community-based, ecosystem approach, and scaling-up regionally based on Lawa as a model are described. PMID:25102053

  20. Organization features of the work control quality improvement project

    SciTech Connect

    Dulin, R.

    1994-12-31

    One consequence of {open_quotes}reengineering{close_quotes} - the systematic review, design, and implementation of process, technology, and organization - is improvement in process efficiency. This improvement also causes change in organization size and function. This paper describes some of the key changes to organizational function brought about by Duke Power Company`s reengineering of the work control process. The fundamental principle observed during the Duke nuclear stations` recent organizational realignment is focus on the process. The process of work control must satisfy the customer needs of the station equipment owners. The changes to the organization serve to fulfill the numerous process requirements.

  1. Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qingxing; Liang, Youyun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    A design project that focuses on the subject of controlled-release drug delivery devices is presented for use in an undergraduate course on mass transfer. The purpose of the project is to introduce students to the various technologies used in the fabrication of drug delivery systems and provide a practical design exercise for understanding the…

  2. Limited-angle holographic tomography with optically controlled projection generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuś, A.; Krauze, W.; Kujawińska, M.

    2015-03-01

    In the paper we demonstrate a holographic tomography system with limited angle of projections, realized by optical- only, diffraction-based beam steering. The system created for this purpose is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer modified to serve as a digital holographic microscope with high Numerical Aperture illumination module and a Spatial Light Modulator. Such solution is fast and robust. Apart from providing an elegant solution to the viewing angle shifting, it also adds new capabilities of the holographic microscope system. SLM, being an active optical element, allows wavefront correction in order to improve measurement accuracy. Integrated phase data captured with different scenarios within a highly limited angular range are processed by a new tomographic reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed sensing technique: total variation minimization, which is applied to non-piecewise constant samples. Finally, the accuracy of full measurement and processing path proposed is tested for a calibrated 3D microobject.

  3. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  4. DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

    2004-03-01

    Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

  5. SOLERAS solar-energy controlled-environment agriculture project

    SciTech Connect

    Luft, W.; Froechtenigt, J.; Falatah, A.

    1982-05-01

    Three commercial-size (5-ha), solar-powered, controlled-environment agriculture systems for hot, dry climates are described. The systems use brackish well water for cooling. The well water is desalinated for irrigation using reverse osmosis. Produce output ranges from 44 to 78 kg/m/sup 2/.yr with an overall water consumption of 8 to 139 L/kg produce and electric energy consumption of 111 to 790 Wh/kg produce. The levelized cost ranges from $1.14 to $8.07 per kg of produce.

  6. Designing a controlled medical vocabulary server: the VOSER project.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R A; Huff, S M; Haug, P J; Warner, H R

    1994-12-01

    The authors describe their experience designing a controlled medical vocabulary server created to support the exchange of patient data and medical decision logic. The first section introduces practical and theoretical premises that guided the design of the vocabulary server. The second section describes a series of structures needed to implement the proposed server, emphasizing their conformance to the design premises. The third section introduces potential applications that provide services to end users and also a group of tools necessary for maintaining the server corpus. In the fourth section, the authors propose an implementation strategy based on a common framework and on the participation of groups from different health-related domains. PMID:7895474

  7. National Ignition Facility Project Completion and Control System Status

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P J; Azevedo, S G; Beeler, R G; Bryant, R M; Carey, R W; Demaret, R D; Fisher, J M; Frazier, T M; Lagin, L J; Ludwigsen, A P; Marshall, C D; Mathisen, D G; Reed, R K

    2009-10-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. Completed in 2009, NIF is a stadium-sized facility containing a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW 192-beam ultraviolet laser and target chamber. A cryogenic tritium target system and suite of optical, X-ray and nuclear diagnostics will support experiments in a strategy to achieve fusion ignition starting in 2010. Automatic control of NIF is performed by the large-scale Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is implemented by 2 MSLOC of Java and Ada running on 1300 front-end processors and servers. The ICCS framework uses CORBA distribution for interoperation between heterogeneous languages and computers. Laser setup is guided by a physics model and shots are coordinated by data-driven distributed workflow engines. The NIF information system includes operational tools and a peta-scale repository for provisioning experimental results. This paper discusses results achieved and the effort now underway to conduct full-scale operations and prepare for ignition.

  8. Combating dephasing decoherence by periodically performing tracking control and projective measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ming; Dai Hongyi; Xi Zairong; Xie Hongwei; Hu Dewen

    2007-10-15

    We propose a scheme to overcome phase damping decoherence by periodically performing open loop tracking control and projective measurement. Although it is impossible to stabilize a qubit subject to Markovian dynamics only by open loop coherent control, one can attain a 'softened' control goal with the help of periodical projective measurement. The 'softened' control objective in our scheme is to keep the state of the controlled qubit to stay near a reference pure state with a high probability for a sufficiently long time. Two suboptimal control problems are given in the sense of trace distance and fidelity, respectively, and they are eventually reduced to the design of a period T. In our scheme, one can choose the period T as long as possible if the 'softened' control goal is attained. This is in contrast to the observation that quantum Zeno effect takes place only if measurements are performed in a very frequent manner, i.e., the period T must be extremely small.

  9. The United States Department of Agriculture northeast area-wide tick control project - history and protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript summarizes the history of development of the ARS-patented ‘4-Poster’ Deer Treatment Bait Station technology for the control of ticks feeding on white-tailed deer and other wild ungulates, provides the rationale for its use in the USDA Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project, and des...

  10. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 54.9 Section 54.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY...

  11. Evaluation of the USDA Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project by Meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project (NEATCP), meta-analyses were performed using pooled data on the extent of tick-vector control achieved through seven concurrent studies, conducted within five states, using USDA ‘4-Poster’ devices to deliver targeted-acaricide to white-tailed d...

  12. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study--Cancer Survivorship Care Planning & SIP 10-030, Evaluating Special Events as...

  13. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research...

  14. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Examination of Environmental Characteristics...

  15. Ongoing Control System Modernization Project at a Steel Plant Improves Operations (Weirton Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    Weirton Steel Corporation is the eighth largest steel producer in the U.S. and its main manufacturing facility is located in Weirton, West Virginia. In 1998 Weirton Steel successfully implemented a project at its Weirton plant in which it modernized the control systems on its utilities and built a control center in a central location from which those utilities could be monitored.

  16. Multi-Canister overpack pressurization monitoring and control methodology for the spent nuclear fuel project

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-19

    A control methodology is developed and monitoring alternatives evaluated for controlling pressurization in a Multi- Canister Overpack for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Monitoring alternative evaluations include concept description, identification of uncertainties, and identification of experimental work required for implementation. A monitoring alternative is recommended and implementation requirements, risks and start up testing associated with the recommendation are discussed.

  17. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes of Screening American Indian/Alaska Native Women of Reproductive Age for Chronic Conditions...

  18. Remote Imaging Applied to Schistosomiasis Control: The Anning River Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seto, Edmund Y. W.; Maszle, Don R.; Spear, Robert C.; Gong, Peng

    1997-01-01

    The use of satellite imaging to remotely detect areas of high risk for transmission of infectious disease is an appealing prospect for large-scale monitoring of these diseases. The detection of large-scale environmental determinants of disease risk, often called landscape epidemiology, has been motivated by several authors (Pavlovsky 1966; Meade et al. 1988). The basic notion is that large-scale factors such as population density, air temperature, hydrological conditions, soil type, and vegetation can determine in a coarse fashion the local conditions contributing to disease vector abundance and human contact with disease agents. These large-scale factors can often be remotely detected by sensors or cameras mounted on satellite or aircraft platforms and can thus be used in a predictive model to mark high risk areas of transmission and to target control or monitoring efforts. A review of satellite technologies for this purpose was recently presented by Washino and Wood (1994) and Hay (1997) and Hay et al. (1997).

  19. DOE/NETL's advanced NOx emissions control technology R & D program

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.W.; Feeley, T.J. III; Miller, C.E.; Carney, B.A.; Murphy, J.T.

    2006-11-15

    Efforts are underway to provide more cost-effective options for coal-fired power plants to meet stringent emissions limits. Several recently completed DOE/NETL R & D projects were successful in achieving the short-term goal of controlling NOx emissions at 0.15 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies. In anticipation of CAIR and possible congressional multi-pollutant legislation, DOE/NETL issued a solicitation in 2004 to continue R & D efforts to meet the 2007 goal and to initiate R & D targeting the 2010 goal of achieving 0.10 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies in lieu of SCR. As a result, four new NOx R & D projects are currently underway and will be completed over the next three years. The article outlines: ALSTOM's Project on developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx burner for tangentially-fired boilers; Babcock and Wilcox's demonstration of an advanced NOx control technology to achieve an emission rate of 0.10 lb/MMBtu while burning bituminous coal for both wall- and cyclone-fired boilers; Reaction Engineering International's (REI) full-scale field testing of advanced layered technology application (ALTA) NOx control for cyclone fired boilers; and pilot-scale testing of ALTA NOx control of coal-fired boilers also by REI. DOE/NETL has begun an R & D effort to optimize performance of SCR controls to achieve the long term goal of 0.01 lb/MMBtu NOx emission rate by 2020. 1 fig.

  20. Inverting the Pendulum Using Fuzzy Control (Center Director's Discretionary Fund (Project 93-02)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissel, R. R.; Sutherland, W. T.

    1997-01-01

    A single pendulum was simulated in software and then built on a rotary base. A fuzzy controller was used to show its advantages as a nonlinear controller since bringing the pendulum inverted is extremely nonlinear. The controller was implemented in a Motorola 6811 microcontroller. A double pendulum was simulated and fuzzy control was used to hold it in a vertical position. The double pendulum was not built into hardware for lack of time. This project was for training and to show advantages of fuzzy control.

  1. A Manual of Mosquito Control Projects and Committee Assignments for 4-H and Scouts Biology Class Projects, Organized Community Service Programs, and Individuals Interested in Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Richard A.

    The mosquito control projects presented in this manual were prepared from an educational viewpoint and are intended for use by students in 4-H and Scouts and as a supplement to high school and college biology course work. The major emphasis of the projects is on integrated pest management, an approach utilizing cost-effective control methods which…

  2. Maintenance of Certification Part IV Quality-Improvement Project for Hypertension Control: A Preliminary Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kolasinski, Vallerie A; Price, David W

    2015-01-01

    Context: A Maintenance of Certification Part IV project was created on the basis of an existing, multifaceted hypertension improvement program. Objective: To evaluate the impact of the Maintenance of Certification project, the effects of the improvement options on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients, and the participants’ perception of the workload related to participation in the project. Design: Nonexperimental retrospective analysis. Setting: Kaiser Permanente hospitals and medical office buildings in Northern California. Intervention: Participants used one or more options from a defined menu of strategies to attempt to increase the percentage of hypertensive patients on their patient panels who had controlled blood pressure. Main Outcome Measure: Proportion of hypertensive patients with blood pressure ≤ 139/89 mm Hg. Results: Fifty-two American Board of Family Medicine and 19 American Board of Internal Medicine certified physicians completed projects. Mean panel blood pressure control improved from 79.49% (standard deviation [SD] = 11.32) to 84.64% (SD = 7.80). The choice of improvement option was not associated with the level of improvement or with the participants’ perception of the workload related to completing the project. Conclusion: Project participants improved the care of their patients without an increased perceived burden to their practice. We found no association between the choice of improvement option and either the level of improvement or the perception of workload. PMID:25785642

  3. Overview of implementing a project control system in the nuclear utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cooprider, D.H. )

    1994-03-01

    During the late 1980s, a metamorphosis began at Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). A strategic step in nuclear engineering's efforts to become more cost effective began in January 1990. A project control department was formed. The initial mission was to provide support for nuclear engineering design activities associated with FPL's two twin-unit nuclear power generation facilities - Turkey Point and St. Lucie. Later, the goal expanded to include the division's materials management, nuclear licensing, and information management departments. The project control group was organized along the lines of the organizations served. Separate dedicated groups were established for each plant. Since most engineering activity was based at the Juno Beach headquarters, the project control staff also was based there.

  4. Projective synchronization of nonidentical fractional-order neural networks based on sliding mode controller.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhixia; Shen, Yi

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates global projective synchronization of nonidentical fractional-order neural networks (FNNs) based on sliding mode control technique. We firstly construct a fractional-order integral sliding surface. Then, according to the sliding mode control theory, we design a sliding mode controller to guarantee the occurrence of the sliding motion. Based on fractional Lyapunov direct methods, system trajectories are driven to the proposed sliding surface and remain on it evermore, and some novel criteria are obtained to realize global projective synchronization of nonidentical FNNs. As the special cases, some sufficient conditions are given to ensure projective synchronization of identical FNNs, complete synchronization of nonidentical FNNs and anti-synchronization of nonidentical FNNs. Finally, one numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results. PMID:26874968

  5. Lessons Learned and Flight Results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the lessons learned and flight results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project is shown. The topics include: 1) F-15 IFCS Project Goals; 2) Motivation; 3) IFCS Approach; 4) NASA F-15 #837 Aircraft Description; 5) Flight Envelope; 6) Limited Authority System; 7) NN Floating Limiter; 8) Flight Experiment; 9) Adaptation Goals; 10) Handling Qualities Performance Metric; 11) Project Phases; 12) Indirect Adaptive Control Architecture; 13) Indirect Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; 14) Gen II Direct Adaptive Control Architecture; 15) Current Status; 16) Effect of Canard Multiplier; 17) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop; 18) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop Freq. Resp.; 19) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop with Adaptation; 20) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop with Adaptation; 21) Gen 2 NN Wts from Simulation; 22) Direct Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; and 23) Conclusions

  6. Joint Power and Multiple Access Control for Wireless Mesh Network with Rose Projection Method

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches. PMID:24883384

  7. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the... of Part 1980—Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control (I) Design Policy. The borrower shall ensure or cause to be ensured that: (A) All project facilities...

  8. Robust Control Design for Vibration Isolation of an Electron Beam Projection Lithography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fu-Cheng; Hong, Min-Feng; Yen, Jia-Yush

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes vibration control for an electron beam projection lithography (EPL) system. Two kinds of disturbances should be considered for an EPL: load disturbances from the machine and ground disturbances from the environment. However, the suspension settings for insulating these two disturbances conflict with each other. Therefore, we propose a double-layer optical table and apply disturbance response decomposing (DRD) techniques to independently control the disturbances. We use a passive control structure to isolate the ground disturbances, and an active control structure to suppress load disturbances. In addition, symmetric transformation is applied to decouple a full optical table into bounce/pitch and roll/warp half-table models, which can be further decoupled into quarter-table models to simplify controller design. Finally, we apply robust control techniques to design active controllers. From both simulation and experimental results, the designed H∞ robust controllers are proven effective in reducing EPL system vibrations.

  9. The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non‐smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre‐specified, theory‐driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first‐ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy‐specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC. PMID:16754944

  10. Spinal sensory projection neuron responses to spinal cord stimulation are mediated by circuits beyond gate control

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianhe C.; Janik, John J.; Peters, Ryan V.; Chen, Gang; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a therapy used to treat intractable pain with a putative mechanism of action based on the Gate Control Theory. We hypothesized that sensory projection neuron responses to SCS would follow a single stereotyped response curve as a function of SCS frequency, as predicted by the Gate Control circuit. We recorded the responses of antidromically identified sensory projection neurons in the lumbar spinal cord during 1- to 150-Hz SCS in both healthy rats and neuropathic rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI). The relationship between SCS frequency and projection neuron activity predicted by the Gate Control circuit accounted for a subset of neuronal responses to SCS but could not account for the full range of observed responses. Heterogeneous responses were classifiable into three additional groups and were reproduced using computational models of spinal microcircuits representing other interactions between nociceptive and nonnociceptive sensory inputs. Intrathecal administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, increased spontaneous and evoked activity in projection neurons, enhanced excitatory responses to SCS, and reduced inhibitory responses to SCS, suggesting that GABAA neurotransmission plays a broad role in regulating projection neuron activity. These in vivo and computational results challenge the Gate Control Theory as the only mechanism underlying SCS and refine our understanding of the effects of SCS on spinal sensory neurons within the framework of contemporary understanding of dorsal horn circuitry. PMID:25972582

  11. The microbiome quality control project: baseline study design and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rashmi; Abnet, Christian C; White, Owen; Knight, Rob; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Microbiome research has grown exponentially over the past several years, but studies have been difficult to reproduce across investigations. Relevant variation in measurements between laboratories, from a variety of sources, has not been systematically assessed. This is coupled with a growing concern in the scientific community about the lack of reproducibility in biomedical research. The Microbiome Quality Control project (MBQC) was initiated to identify sources of variation in microbiome studies, to quantify their magnitudes, and to assess the design and utility of different positive and negative control strategies. Here we report on the first MBQC baseline study project and workshop. PMID:26653756

  12. Control room modernization at Finnish nuclear power plants - Two projects compared

    SciTech Connect

    Laarni, J.; Norros, L.

    2006-07-01

    The modernization of automation systems and human-machine interfaces is a current issue at both of the two nuclear power plants (i.e., Fortum's Loviisa plant and TVO's Olkiluoto plant) in Finland. Since the plants have been launched in the 1970's or 1980's, technology is in part old-fashioned and needs to be renewed. At Olkiluoto upgrades of the turbine operator systems have already been conducted; at Loviisa the first phase of the modernization project has just started. Basically, there is a question of the complete digitalization of the information streams at the two plants, and transition from a conventional hard-wired or hybrid control room to a screen-based one. The new human-machine interfaces will comprise new technology, such as PC workstations, soft control, touch screens and large-screen overall displays. The modernization of human-system interfaces is carried out in a stepwise manner at both plants. At both plants the main driver has not been the need to renew the user interfaces of the control room, but the need to upgrade the automation systems. In part because of this, there is a lack of a systematic top-down approach in which different aspects of human factors (HF) engineering are considered in relationship to higher level goals. Our aim here is to give an overview description of the control room modernization projects at the two plants and provide a preliminary evaluation of their progress to date. The projects are also compared, for example, in terms of duration, scope and phasing, and who is responsible for the realization of the project. In addition, we also compare experiences from the Finnish projects to experiences from similar projects abroad. The main part of the data used in this study is based on designers' and project members' interviews. (authors)

  13. Robust projective lag synchronization in drive-response dynamical networks via adaptive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-mahbashi, G.; Noorani, M. S. Md; Bakar, S. A.; Al-sawalha, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the problem of projective lag synchronization behavior in drive-response dynamical networks (DRDNs) with identical and non-identical nodes. An adaptive control method is designed to achieve projective lag synchronization with fully unknown parameters and unknown bounded disturbances. These parameters were estimated by adaptive laws obtained by Lyapunov stability theory. Furthermore, sufficient conditions for synchronization are derived analytically using the Lyapunov stability theory and adaptive control. In addition, the unknown bounded disturbances are also overcome by the proposed control. Finally, analytical results show that the states of the dynamical network with non-delayed coupling can be asymptotically synchronized onto a desired scaling factor under the designed controller. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. A homotopy algorithm for digital optimal projection control GASD-HADOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen; Davis, Lawrence D.

    1993-01-01

    The linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) compensator was developed to facilitate the design of control laws for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems. The compensator is computed by solving two algebraic equations for which standard closed-loop solutions exist. Unfortunately, the minimal dimension of an LQG compensator is almost always equal to the dimension of the plant and can thus often violate practical implementation constraints on controller order. This deficiency is especially highlighted when considering control-design for high-order systems such as flexible space structures. This deficiency motivated the development of techniques that enable the design of optimal controllers whose dimension is less than that of the design plant. A homotopy approach based on the optimal projection equations that characterize the necessary conditions for optimal reduced-order control. Homotopy algorithms have global convergence properties and hence do not require that the initializing reduced-order controller be close to the optimal reduced-order controller to guarantee convergence. However, the homotopy algorithm previously developed for solving the optimal projection equations has sublinear convergence properties and the convergence slows at higher authority levels and may fail. A new homotopy algorithm for synthesizing optimal reduced-order controllers for discrete-time systems is described. Unlike the previous homotopy approach, the new algorithm is a gradient-based, parameter optimization formulation and was implemented in MATLAB. The results reported may offer the foundation for a reliable approach to optimal, reduced-order controller design.

  15. Feedback control of a solid-state qubit using high-fidelity projective measurement.

    PubMed

    Ristè, D; Bultink, C C; Lehnert, K W; DiCarlo, L

    2012-12-14

    We demonstrate feedback control of a superconducting transmon qubit using discrete, projective measurement and conditional coherent driving. Feedback realizes a fast and deterministic qubit reset to a target state with 2.4% error averaged over input superposition states, and allows concatenating experiments more than 10 times faster than by passive initialization. This closed-loop qubit control is necessary for measurement-based protocols such as quantum error correction and teleportation. PMID:23368293

  16. An interdisciplinary school project using a Nintendo Wii controller for measuring car speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Nils Kristian; Mitchell, James Robert

    2013-03-01

    This work examines the feasibility of employing a Nintendo Wii game controller for measuring car speed in an interdisciplinary school project. It discusses the physical characteristics of the controller and of vehicle headlights. It suggests how an experiment may be linked to topics in mathematics, statistics, physics and computer science. An algorithm for calculating speed from repeated recordings of car headlights is provided. Finally the results of repeated experiments with an approaching car are provided.

  17. Resilient Propulsion Control Research for the NASA Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are designed to provide sufficient safety margins to guarantee robust operation with an exceptionally long life. However, engine performance requirements may be drastically altered during abnormal flight conditions or emergency maneuvers. In some situations, the conservative design of the engine control system may not be in the best interest of overall aircraft safety; it may be advantageous to "sacrifice" the engine to "save" the aircraft. Motivated by this opportunity, the NASA Aviation Safety Program is conducting resilient propulsion research aimed at developing adaptive engine control methodologies to operate the engine beyond the normal domain for emergency operations to maximize the possibility of safely landing the damaged aircraft. Previous research studies and field incident reports show that the propulsion system can be an effective tool to help control and eventually land a damaged aircraft. Building upon the flight-proven Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) experience, this area of research will focus on how engine control systems can improve aircraft safe-landing probabilities under adverse conditions. This paper describes the proposed research topics in Engine System Requirements, Engine Modeling and Simulation, Engine Enhancement Research, Operational Risk Analysis and Modeling, and Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controller Designs that support the overall goal.

  18. Tuberculosis infection control in health facilities in Lithuania: lessons learnt from a capacity support project

    PubMed Central

    Ljungqvist, I.; Davidavičiene, E.; Mikaityte, J.; van der Werf, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) is key in controlling TB transmission in health facilities in Lithuania. This article presents a project that aimed at supporting health care facilities in Lithuania in implementing TB-IC. The project consisted of 1) facility TB-IC assessments, 2) development of facility TB-IC plans, 3) TB-IC training and 4) site visits. We assessed the impact of these activities through a self-assessment questionnaire. The project resulted in limited improvements. Most progress was seen in administrative and managerial activities. Possible reasons for the limited improvements are challenges with funding and the lack of supportive legislation and a national TB-IC plan. PMID:27051607

  19. Tuberculosis infection control in health facilities in Lithuania: lessons learnt from a capacity support project.

    PubMed

    Turusbekova, N; Ljungqvist, I; Davidavičiene, E; Mikaityte, J; van der Werf, M J

    2016-03-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) is key in controlling TB transmission in health facilities in Lithuania. This article presents a project that aimed at supporting health care facilities in Lithuania in implementing TB-IC. The project consisted of 1) facility TB-IC assessments, 2) development of facility TB-IC plans, 3) TB-IC training and 4) site visits. We assessed the impact of these activities through a self-assessment questionnaire. The project resulted in limited improvements. Most progress was seen in administrative and managerial activities. Possible reasons for the limited improvements are challenges with funding and the lack of supportive legislation and a national TB-IC plan. PMID:27051607

  20. ACFA 2020 - An FP7 project on active control of flexible fuel efficient aircraft configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper gives an overview about the project ACFA 2020 which is funded by the European Commission within the 7th framework program. The acronym ACFA 2020 stands for Active Control for Flexible Aircraft 2020. The project is dealing with the design of highly fuel efficient aircraft configurations and, in particular, on innovative active control concepts with the goal to reduce loads and structural weight. Major focus lays on blended wing body (BWB) aircraft. Blended wing body type aircraft configurations are seen as the most promising future concept to fulfill the so-called ACARE (Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe) vision 2020 goals in regards to reduce fuel consumption and external noise. The paper discusses in some detail the overall goals and how they are addressed in the workplan. Furthermore, the major achievements of the project are outlined and a short outlook on the remaining work is given.

  1. Auditory cortex controls sound-driven innate defense behaviour through corticofugal projections to inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xiaorui R.; Liang, Feixue; Zingg, Brian; Ji, Xu-ying; Ibrahim, Leena A.; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.

    2015-01-01

    Defense against environmental threats is essential for animal survival. However, the neural circuits responsible for transforming unconditioned sensory stimuli and generating defensive behaviours remain largely unclear. Here, we show that corticofugal neurons in the auditory cortex (ACx) targeting the inferior colliculus (IC) mediate an innate, sound-induced flight behaviour. Optogenetic activation of these neurons, or their projection terminals in the IC, is sufficient for initiating flight responses, while the inhibition of these projections reduces sound-induced flight responses. Corticocollicular axons monosynaptically innervate neurons in the cortex of the IC (ICx), and optogenetic activation of the projections from the ICx to the dorsal periaqueductal gray is sufficient for provoking flight behaviours. Our results suggest that ACx can both amplify innate acoustic-motor responses and directly drive flight behaviours in the absence of sound input through corticocollicular projections to ICx. Such corticofugal control may be a general feature of innate defense circuits across sensory modalities. PMID:26068082

  2. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider and Public Health Input for Vaccine Policy Decisions SIP..., discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Provider and Public Health Input for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  3. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  4. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 54.9 Section 54.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  5. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS §...

  6. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  7. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  8. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  9. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Paul H.

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 6-hour introductory module on statistical process control (SPC), designed to develop competencies in the following skill areas: (1) identification of the three classes of SPC use; (2) understanding a process and how it works; (3)…

  10. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  11. Movement suppression during anesthesia: neural projections from the mesopontine tegmentum to areas involved in motor control.

    PubMed

    Sukhotinsky, Inna; Hopkins, David A; Lu, Jun; Saper, Clifford B; Devor, Marshall

    2005-09-01

    Microinjection of pentobarbital and GABA(A)-receptor agonists into a brainstem region we have called the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA; Devor and Zalkind [2001] Pain 94:101-112) induces a general anesthesia-like state. As in systemic general anesthesia, rats show loss of the righting reflex, atonia, nonresponsiveness to noxious stimuli, and apparent loss of consciousness. GABA(A) agonist anesthetics acting on the MPTA might suppress movement by engaging endogenous motor regulatory systems previously identified in research on decerebrate rigidity and REM sleep atonia. Anterograde and retrograde tracing revealed that the MPTA has multiple descending projections to pontine and medullary areas known to be associated with motor control and atonia. Prominent among these are the dorsal pontine reticular formation and components of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). The MPTA also has direct projections to the intermediate gray matter and ventral horn of the spinal cord via the lateral and anterior funiculi. These projections show a rostrocaudal topography: neurons in the rostral MPTA project to the RVM, but only minimally to the spinal cord, while those in the caudal MPTA project to both targets. Finally, the MPTA has ascending projections to motor control areas including the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and the caudate-putamen. Projections are bilateral with an ipsilateral predominance. We propose that GABA(A) agonist anesthetics induce immobility at least in part by acting on these endogenous motor control pathways via the MPTA. Analysis of MPTA connectivity has the potential for furthering our understanding of the neural circuitry responsible for the various functional components of general anesthesia. PMID:16025457

  12. Targeting Erosion Control: Adoption of Erosion Control Practices. A Report from a National Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Peter; And Others

    Research analyzed adoption of erosion control practices by farm operators in two counties in each of four states: Alabama, Missouri, Tennessee, and Washington. Analysis was based on farm survey data and technical and financial assistance information from county Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service…

  13. BCAUS Project description and consideration of separation of data and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Joy L.; Weaver, Steven J.

    1989-01-01

    The commonly stated truths that data may be segregated from program control in generic expert system shells and that such tools support straightforward knowledge representation were examined. The ideal of separation of data from program control in expert systems is difficult to realize for a variety of reasons. One approach to achieving this goal is to integrate hybrid collections of specialized shells and tools instead of producing custom systems built with a single all purpose expert system tool. Aspects of these issues are examined in the context of a specific diagnostic expert system application, the Backup Control Mode Analysis and Utility System (BCAUS), being developed for the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft. The project and the knowledge gained in working on the project are described.

  14. Polarization aberration control for hyper-NA lithographic projection optics at design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Yanqiu; Liu, Ke

    2015-08-01

    For hyper numerical aperture (NA) lithographic projection optics, not only scalar aberration but also polarization aberration (PA) should be controlled. Optical interfaces, coatings and intrinsic birefringence of lens materials can induce polarization aberration, so they cannot be ignored at design phase. There are few comprehensive and systematic studies on PA control at design phase for lithographic optics. In this paper, a lithographic projection lens with 1.2 of NA is designed, the root-mean-square of scalar aberration reach 1nm. For PA control of this system, firstly the influence of different subsets of polarization aberration on imaging performance is analyzed. The results indicate that the scalar transmission and diattenuation mainly cause critical dimension error (CDE), and the scalar phase and retardance mainly cause pattern placement error (PE). The results also show the diattenuation is the main controlled object in the process of PA control. Furthermore, a cooperative design strategy for PA control is proposed, which is to cooperate between custom coating design and the optimization of crystal orientation based on optical structure design. Through the cooperative design, the PA can be greatly reduced, especially diattenuation. The simulation results of the final system reveal that the dynamic range of CDE is suppressed from -12.7nm ~ +4.3nm to -0.1nm ~ +0.9nm after PA control, while keeping PE at an acceptable level.

  15. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, retrieval control system software configuration management plan

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-23

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the W-211 Project, Retrieval Control System (RCS) software after initial approval/release but prior to the transfer of custody to the waste tank operations contractor. This plan applies to the W-211 system software developed by the project, consisting of the computer human-machine interface (HMI) and programmable logic controller (PLC) software source and executable code, for production use by the waste tank operations contractor. The plan encompasses that portion of the W-211 RCS software represented on project-specific AUTOCAD drawings that are released as part of the C1 definitive design package (these drawings are identified on the drawing list associated with each C-1 package), and the associated software code. Implementation of the plan is required for formal acceptance testing and production release. The software configuration management plan does not apply to reports and data generated by the software except where specifically identified. Control of information produced by the software once it has been transferred for operation is the responsibility of the receiving organization.

  16. Blood Pressure, Sodium Intake, and Hypertension Control: Lessons From the North Karelia Project.

    PubMed

    Laatikainen, Tiina; Nissinen, Aulikki; Kastarinen, Mika; Jula, Antti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2016-06-01

    From the very beginning of the North Karelia Project, prevention, detection, and control of hypertension were included as key aims in the project. An intensive hypertension prevention and control program was established in North Karelia in 1972 that included community-based activities to reduce blood pressure levels in the entire population, detect people with hypertension, improve their treatment, establish standard diagnostic and therapeutic methods, and to monitor blood pressure levels, control of hypertension, and the performance of the health care. After the first 5 years of the project, most of these activities were also implemented on the national level. In late 1970s, work to reduce the salt intake was started, and substantial reductions have taken place in salt intake in the Finnish population. Remarkable improvements have been seen both in blood pressure levels and in treatment and control of hypertension in North Karelia and in the whole of Finland. Between 1972 and 2012 in North Karelia, the mean systolic blood pressure among 30- to 59-year-old men has decreased from 149 mm Hg to 135 mm Hg and among women from 153 mm Hg to 129 mm Hg. The decreases in mean diastolic blood pressure have been from 92 mm Hg to 84 mm Hg among men and from 92 mm Hg to 79 mm Hg among women. PMID:27242086

  17. NERI PROJECT 99-119. TASK 1. ADVANCED CONTROL TOOLS AND METHODS. FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, J.A.

    2002-09-09

    Nuclear plants of the 21st century will employ higher levels of automation and fault tolerance to increase availability, reduce accident risk, and lower operating costs. Key developments in control algorithms, fault diagnostics, fault tolerance, and communication in a distributed system are needed to implement the fully automated plant. Equally challenging will be integrating developments in separate information and control fields into a cohesive system, which collectively achieves the overall goals of improved performance, safety, reliability, maintainability, and cost-effectiveness. Under the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), the U. S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a project to address some of the technical issues involved in meeting the long-range goal of 21st century reactor control systems. This project, ''A New Paradigm for Automated Development Of Highly Reliable Control Architectures For Future Nuclear Plants,'' involves researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Tennessee, and North Carolina State University. This paper documents a research effort to develop methods for automated generation of control systems that can be traced directly to the design requirements. Our final goal is to allow the designer to specify only high-level requirements and stress factors that the control system must survive (e.g. a list of transients, or a requirement to withstand a single failure.) To this end, the ''control engine'' automatically selects and validates control algorithms and parameters that are optimized to the current state of the plant, and that have been tested under the prescribed stress factors. The control engine then automatically generates the control software from validated algorithms. Examples of stress factors that the control system must ''survive'' are: transient events (e.g., set-point changes, or expected occurrences such a load rejection,) and postulated component failures. These stress factors are specified by the

  18. Radiometric compensation for cooperative distributed multi-projection system through 2-DOF distributed control.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Jun; Iwai, Daisuke; Kashima, Kenji

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel radiometric compensation technique for cooperative projection system based-on distributed optimization. To achieve high scalability and robustness, we assume cooperative projection environments such that 1. each projector does not have information about other projectors as well as target images, 2. the camera does not have information about the projectors either, while having the target images, and 3. only a broadcast communication from the camera to the projectors is allowed to suppress the data transfer bandwidth. To this end, we first investigate a distributed optimization based feedback mechanism that is suitable for the required decentralized information processing environment. Next, we show that this mechanism works well for still image projection, however not necessary for moving images due to the lack of dynamic responsiveness. To overcome this issue, we propose to implement an additional feedforward mechanism. Such a 2 Degree Of Freedom (2-DOF) control structure is well-known in control engineering community as a typical method to enhance not only disturbance rejection but also reference tracking capability, simultaneously. We theoretically guarantee and experimentally demonstrate that this 2-DOF structure yields the moving image projection accuracy that is overwhelming the best achievable performance only by the distributed optimization mechanisms. PMID:26439824

  19. [Progress report on a World Bank loan to China for a tuberculosis control project].

    PubMed

    Zhao, F; Chi, Y; Wang, K

    1995-02-01

    The progress of the World Bank loaned TB control project implemented from the second quarter of 1991 to the fourth quarter of 1993 was described in this paper. In the past three years, 737 counties of the 12 provinces with the population of 360 million has been covered by the project. Among 95176 new smear positive cases discovered, 93909 patients received free treatment of TB. The treatment coverage is 98.7%, of which 95% were treated under full course supervision. The smear conversion rate at two, three months of new smear positive TB patients are 83.4% and 90.6% respectively. The cohort analysis showed that the cure rate is 89.8%, which has reached the advanced level of the modern national tuberculosis control programme in the world. PMID:7600599

  20. Knowledge based and interactive control for the Superfluid Helium On-orbit Transfer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.; Raymond, Eric A.; Shapiro, Jeff C.; Robinson, Frank A.; Rosenthal, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) project is a Shuttle-based experiment designed to acquire data on the properties of superfluid helium in micro-gravity. Aft Flight Deck Computer Software for the SHOOT experiment is comprised of several monitoring programs which give the astronaut crew visibility into SHOOT systems and a rule based system which will provide process control, diagnosis and error recovery for a helium transfer without ground intervention. Given present Shuttle manifests, this software will become the first expert system to be used in space. The SHOOT Command and Monitoring System (CMS) software will provide a near real time highly interactive interface for the SHOOT principal investigator to control the experiment and to analyze and display its telemetry. The CMS software is targeted for all phases of the SHOOT project: hardware development, pre-flight pad servicing, in-flight operations, and post-flight data analysis.

  1. Philip Morris's Project Sunrise: weakening tobacco control by working with it

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, P A; Smith, E A; Malone, R E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the implications of Philip Morris USA's (PM's) overtures toward tobacco control and other public health organisations, 1995–2006. Data sources Internal PM documents made available through multi‐state US attorneys general lawsuits and other cases, and newspaper sources. Methods Documents were retrieved from several industry documents websites and analysed using a case study approach. Results PM's Project Sunrise, initiated in 1995 and proposed to continue through 2006, was a long‐term plan to address tobacco industry delegitimisation and ensure the social acceptability of smoking and of the company itself. Project Sunrise laid out an explicit divide‐and‐conquer strategy against the tobacco control movement, proposing the establishment of relationships with PM‐identified “moderate” tobacco control individuals and organisations and the marginalisation of others. PM planned to use “carefully orchestrated efforts” to exploit existing differences of opinion within tobacco control, weakening its opponents by working with them. PM also planned to thwart tobacco industry delegitimisation by repositioning itself as “responsible”. We present evidence that these plans were implemented. Conclusion Sunrise exposes differences within the tobacco control movement that should be further discussed. The goal should not be consensus, but a better understanding of tensions within the movement. As the successes of the last 25 years embolden advocates to think beyond passage of the next clean indoor air policy or funding of the next cessation programme, movement philosophical differences may become more important. If tobacco control advocates are not ready to address them, Project Sunrise suggests that Philip Morris is ready to exploit them. PMID:16728753

  2. Maximum Entropy/Optimal Projection (MEOP) control design synthesis: Optimal quantification of the major design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, D. C.; Bernstein, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying philosophy and motivation of the optimal projection/maximum entropy (OP/ME) stochastic modeling and reduced control design methodology for high order systems with parameter uncertainties are discussed. The OP/ME design equations for reduced-order dynamic compensation including the effect of parameter uncertainties are reviewed. The application of the methodology to several Large Space Structures (LSS) problems of representative complexity is illustrated.

  3. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

    2006-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

  4. The prevention and control of avian influenza: The avian influenza coordinated agriculture project1

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, C.; Slemons, R.; Perez, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Avian Influenza Coordinated Agriculture Project (AICAP) entitled “Prevention and Control of Avian Influenza in the US” strives to be a significant point of reference for the poultry industry and the general public in matters related to the biology, risks associated with, and the methods used to prevent and control avian influenza. To this end, AICAP has been remarkably successful in generating research data, publications through an extensive network of university- and agency-based researchers, and extending findings to stakeholders. An overview of the highlights of AICAP research is presented. PMID:19276431

  5. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology to an Advanced Subsonic Transport Project, established as one element of the NASA/Boeing Energy Efficient Transport Technology Program. The performance assessment showed that incorporating ACT into an airplane designed to fly approximately 200 passengers approximately 2,000 nmi could yield block fuel savings from 6 to 10 percent at the design range. The principal risks associated with incorporating these active control functions into a commercial airplane are those involved with the ACT system implementation. The Test and Evaluation phase of the IAAC Project focused on the design, fabrication, and test of a system that implemented pitch axis fly-by-wire, pitch axis augmentation, and wing load alleviation. The system was built to be flight worthy, and was planned to be experimentally flown on the 757. The system was installed in the Boeing Digital Avionics Flight Controls Laboratory (DAFCL), where open loop hardware and software tests, and a brief examination of a direct drive valve (DDV) actuation concept were accomplished. The IAAC Project has shown that ACT can be beneficially incorporated into a commercial transport airplane. Based on the results achieved during the testing phase, there appears to be no fundamental reason(s) that would preclude the commercial application of ACT, assuming an appropriate development effort is included.

  6. Forebrain dopamine neurons project down to a brainstem region controlling locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Grätsch, Swantje; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Bergeron, Saskia; Alpert, Michael H.; Cone, Jackson J.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of dopamine (DA) to locomotor control is traditionally attributed to ascending dopaminergic projections from the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area to the basal ganglia, which in turn project down to the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), a brainstem region controlling locomotion in vertebrates. However, a dopaminergic innervation of the pedunculopontine nucleus, considered part of the MLR, was recently identified in the monkey. The origin and role of this dopaminergic input are unknown. We addressed these questions in a basal vertebrate, the lamprey. Here we report a functional descending dopaminergic pathway from the posterior tuberculum (PT; homologous to the substantia nigra pars compacta and/or ventral tegmental area of mammals) to the MLR. By using triple labeling, we found that dopaminergic cells from the PT not only project an ascending pathway to the striatum, but send a descending projection to the MLR. In an isolated brain preparation, PT stimulation elicited excitatory synaptic inputs into patch-clamped MLR cells, accompanied by activity in reticulospinal cells. By using voltammetry coupled with electrophysiological recordings, we demonstrate that PT stimulation evoked DA release in the MLR, together with the activation of reticulospinal cells. In a semi-intact preparation, stimulation of the PT elicited reticulospinal activity together with locomotor movements. Microinjections of a D1 antagonist in the MLR decreased the locomotor output elicited by PT stimulation, whereas injection of DA had an opposite effect. It appears that this descending dopaminergic pathway has a modulatory role on MLR cells that are known to receive glutamatergic projections and promotes locomotor output. PMID:23918379

  7. Advanced emissions control development project. Final report, November 1, 1993--February 29, 1996. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Farthing, G.A.

    1996-02-29

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization. B&W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) and the AECDP equipment combined to form a state-of-the-art facility for integrated evaluation of combustion and post-combustion emissions control options. Phase I activities were primarily directed at providing a reliable, representative test facility for conducting air toxic emission control development work later in the project. This report summarizes the AECDP Phase I activities which consisted of the design, installation, shakedown, verification, and air toxics benchmarking of the AECDP facility. The AECDP facility consists of an ESP, pulse-jet baghouse, and wet scrubber. All verification and air toxic tests were conducted with a high sulfur, bituminous Ohio coal. In order to successfully apply the results of the program to utility systems, the relationship between the performance of the CEDF/AECDP test equipment and commercial units had to be established. The first step in the verification process was to validate that the flue gas treatment devices - boiler/convection pass simulator, ESP, baghouse, and wet SO{sub 2} scrubber - operate in a manner representative of commercial units.

  8. Advanced emissions control development project. Phase I, Final report, November 1, 1993--February 19, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-29

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. B&W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) and the AECDP equipment combined to form a state-of-the-art facility for integrated evaluation of combustion and post-combustion emissions control options. Phase 1 activities were primarily aimed at providing a reliable, representative test facility for conducting air toxic emissions control development work later in the project. This report summarizes the AECDP Phase I activities which consisted of the design, installation, shakedown, verification, and air toxics benchmarking of the AECDP facility. All verification and air toxic tests were conducted with a high sulfur, bituminous Ohio coal.

  9. Controlled Sonar Exposure Experiments on Cetaceans in Norwegian Waters: Overview of the 3S-Project.

    PubMed

    Lam, Frans-Peter A; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Miller, Patrick J O; Tyack, Peter L; Ainslie, Michael A; Curé, Charlotte; Kleivane, Lars; Sivle, Lise Doksæter; van Ijsselmuide, Sander P; Visser, Fleur; von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Dekeling, René P A

    2016-01-01

    In mitigating the risk of sonar operations, the behavioral response of cetaceans is one of the major knowledge gaps that needs to be addressed. The 3S-Project has conducted a number of controlled exposure experiments with a realistic sonar source in Norwegian waters from 2006 to 2013. In total, the following six target species have been studied: killer, long-finned pilot, sperm, humpback, minke, and northern bottlenose whales. A total of 38 controlled sonar exposures have been conducted on these species. Responses from controlled and repeated exposure runs have been recorded using acoustic and visual observations as well as with electronic tags on the target animal. So far, the first dose-response curves as well as an overview of the scored severity of responses have been revealed. In this paper, an overview is presented of the approach for the study, including the results so far as well as the current status of the ongoing analysis. PMID:26611008

  10. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  11. Coordinating robot motion, sensing, and control in plans. LDRD project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, P.G.; Brown, R.G.; Watterberg, P.A.

    1997-08-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a framework for robotic planning and execution that provides a continuum of adaptability with respect to model incompleteness, model error, and sensing error. For example, dividing robot motion into gross-motion planning, fine-motion planning, and sensor-augmented control had yielded productive research and solutions to individual problems. Unfortunately, these techniques could only be combined by hand with ad hoc methods and were restricted to systems where all kinematics are completely modeled in planning. The original intent was to develop methods for understanding and autonomously synthesizing plans that coordinate motion, sensing, and control. The project considered this problem from several perspectives. Results included (1) theoretical methods to combine and extend gross-motion and fine-motion planning; (2) preliminary work in flexible-object manipulation and an implementable algorithm for planning shortest paths through obstacles for the free-end of an anchored cable; (3) development and implementation of a fast swept-body distance algorithm; and (4) integration of Sandia`s C-Space Toolkit geometry engine and SANDROS motion planer and improvements, which yielded a system practical for everyday motion planning, with path-segment planning at interactive speeds. Results (3) and (4) have either led to follow-on work or are being used in current projects, and they believe that (2) will eventually be also.

  12. An estimation method of the direct benefit of a waterlogging control project applicable to the changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengmei, L.; Guanghua, Q.; Zishen, C.

    2015-05-01

    The direct benefit of a waterlogging control project is reflected by the reduction or avoidance of waterlogging loss. Before and after the construction of a waterlogging control project, the disaster-inducing environment in the waterlogging-prone zone is generally different. In addition, the category, quantity and spatial distribution of the disaster-bearing bodies are also changed more or less. Therefore, under the changing environment, the direct benefit of a waterlogging control project should be the reduction of waterlogging losses compared to conditions with no control project. Moreover, the waterlogging losses with or without the project should be the mathematical expectations of the waterlogging losses when rainstorms of all frequencies meet various water levels in the drainage-accepting zone. So an estimation model of the direct benefit of waterlogging control is proposed. Firstly, on the basis of a Copula function, the joint distribution of the rainstorms and the water levels are established, so as to obtain their joint probability density function. Secondly, according to the two-dimensional joint probability density distribution, the dimensional domain of integration is determined, which is then divided into small domains so as to calculate the probability for each of the small domains and the difference between the average waterlogging loss with and without a waterlogging control project, called the regional benefit of waterlogging control project, under the condition that rainstorms in the waterlogging-prone zone meet the water level in the drainage-accepting zone. Finally, it calculates the weighted mean of the project benefit of all small domains, with probability as the weight, and gets the benefit of the waterlogging control project. Taking the estimation of benefit of a waterlogging control project in Yangshan County, Guangdong Province, as an example, the paper briefly explains the procedures in waterlogging control project benefit estimation. The

  13. Corticothalamic Projection Neuron Development beyond Subtype Specification: Fog2 and Intersectional Controls Regulate Intraclass Neuronal Diversity.

    PubMed

    Galazo, Maria J; Emsley, Jason G; Macklis, Jeffrey D

    2016-07-01

    Corticothalamic projection neurons (CThPN) are a diverse set of neurons, critical for function of the neocortex. CThPN development and diversity need to be precisely regulated, but little is known about molecular controls over their differentiation and functional specialization, critically limiting understanding of cortical development and complexity. We report the identification of a set of genes that both define CThPN and likely control their differentiation, diversity, and function. We selected the CThPN-specific transcriptional coregulator Fog2 for functional analysis. We identify that Fog2 controls CThPN molecular differentiation, axonal targeting, and diversity, in part by regulating the expression level of Ctip2 by CThPN, via combinatorial interactions with other molecular controls. Loss of Fog2 specifically disrupts differentiation of subsets of CThPN specialized in motor function, indicating that Fog2 coordinates subtype and functional-area differentiation. These results confirm that we identified key controls over CThPN development and identify Fog2 as a critical control over CThPN diversity. PMID:27321927

  14. Improvement in the control aspect of laser frequency stabilization for SUNLITE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zia, Omar

    1992-01-01

    Flight Electronics Division of Langley Research Center is developing a spaceflight experiment called the Stanford University and NASA Laser In-Space Technology (SUNLITE). The objective of the project is to explore the fundamental limits on frequency stability using an FM laser locking technique on a Nd:YAG non-planar ring (free-running linewidth of 5 KHz) oscillator in the vibration free, microgravity environment of space. Compact and automated actively stabilized terahertz laser oscillators will operate in space with an expected linewidth of less than 3 Hz. To implement and verify this experiment, NASA engineers have designed and built a state of the art, space qualified high speed data acquisition system for measuring the linewidth and stability limits of a laser oscillator. In order to achieve greater stability and better performance, an active frequency control scheme requiring the use of a feedback control loop has been applied. In the summer of 1991, the application of control theory in active frequency control as a frequency stabilization technique was investigated. The results and findings were presented in 1992 at the American Control Conference in Chicago, and have been published in Conference Proceedings. The main focus was to seek further improvement in the overall performance of the system by replacing the analogue controller by a digital algorithm.

  15. Lessons learned in digital upgrade projects digital control system implementation at US nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, S.; Bolian, T. W.

    2006-07-01

    AREVA NP has gained significant experience during the past five years in digital upgrades at operating nuclear power stations in the US. Plants are seeking modernization with digital technology to address obsolescence, spare parts availability, vendor support, increasing age-related failures and diminished reliability. New systems offer improved reliability and functionality, and decreased maintenance requirements. Significant lessons learned have been identified relating to the areas of licensing, equipment qualification, software quality assurance and other topics specific to digital controls. Digital control systems have been installed in non safety-related control applications at many utilities within the last 15 years. There have also been a few replacements of small safety-related systems with digital technology. Digital control systems are proving to be reliable, accurate, and easy to maintain. Digital technology is gaining acceptance and momentum with both utilities and regulatory agencies based upon the successes of these installations. Also, new plants are being designed with integrated digital control systems. To support plant life extension and address obsolescence of critical components, utilities are beginning to install digital technology for primary safety-system replacement. AREVA NP analyzed operating experience and lessons learned from its own digital upgrade projects as well as industry-wide experience to identify key issues that should be considered when implementing digital controls in nuclear power stations.

  16. Distribution automation and control support; Analysis and interpretation of DAC working group results for use in project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klock, P.; Evans, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Executive Summary and Proceedings of the Working Group Meeting was analyzed to identify specific projects appropriate for Distribution Automation and Control DAC RD&D. Specific projects that should be undertaken in the DAC RD&D program were recommended. The projects are presented under broad categories of work selected based on ESC's interpretation of the results of the Working Group Meeting. Some of the projects are noted as utility industry projects. The ESC recommendations regarding program management are presented. Utility versus Government management responsibilities are noted.

  17. Measuring software development characteristics in the local environment. [considering project requirements for spacecraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Zelkowitz, M. V.

    1978-01-01

    In a brief evaluation of software-related considerations, it is found that suitable approaches for software development depend to a large degree on the characteristics of the particular project involved. An analysis is conducted of development problems in an environment in which ground support software is produced for spacecraft control. The amount of work involved is in the range from 6 to 10 man-years. Attention is given to a general project summary, a programmer/analyst survey, a component summary, a component status report, a resource summary, a change report, a computer program run analysis, aspects of data collection on a smaller scale, progress forecasting, problems of overhead, and error analysis.

  18. Inhibitory control of ascending glutamatergic projections to the lamprey respiratory rhythm generator.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Elenia; Mutolo, Donatella; Contini, Massimo; Pantaleo, Tito; Bongianni, Fulvia

    2016-06-21

    Neurons within the vagal motoneuron region of the lamprey have been shown to modulate respiratory activity via ascending excitatory projections to the paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), the proposed respiratory rhythm generator. The present study was performed on in vitro brainstem preparations of the lamprey to provide a characterization of ascending projections within the whole respiratory motoneuron column with regard to the distribution of neurons projecting to the pTRG and related neurochemical markers. Injections of Neurobiotin were performed into the pTRG and the presence of glutamate, GABA and glycine immunoreactivity was investigated by double-labeling experiments. Interestingly, retrogradely labeled neurons were found not only in the vagal region, but also in the facial and glossopharyngeal motoneuron regions. They were also present within the sensory octavolateral area (OLA). The results show for the first time that neurons projecting to the pTRG are immunoreactive for glutamate, surrounded by GABA-immunoreactive structures and associated with the presence of glycinergic cells. Consistently, GABAA or glycine receptor blockade within the investigated regions increased the respiratory frequency. Furthermore, microinjections of agonists and antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors and of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol showed that OLA neurons do not contribute to respiratory rhythm generation. The results provide evidence that glutamatergic ascending pathways to the pTRG are subject to a potent inhibitory control and suggest that disinhibition is one important mechanism subserving their function. The general characteristics of inhibitory control involved in rhythmic activities, such as respiration, appear to be highly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. PMID:27058146

  19. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: II. Residential, agricultural and informal industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Rao, Anand B.; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Dispersed traditional combustion technologies, characterized by inefficient combustion and significant emissions, are widely used in residential cooking and "informal industries" including brick production, food and agricultural product processing operations like drying and cooking operations related to sugarcane juice, milk, food-grain, jute, silk, tea and coffee. In addition, seasonal agricultural residue burning in field is a discontinuous source of significant emissions. Here we estimate fuel consumption in these sectors and agricultural residue burned using detailed technology divisions and survey-based primary data for 2010 and projected between 1996 and 2015. In the residential sector, a decline in the fraction of solid biomass users for cooking from 79% in 1996 to 65% in 2010 was offset by a growing population, leading to a nearly constant population of solid biomass users, with a corresponding increase in the population of LPG users. Emissions from agriculture followed the growth in agricultural production and diesel use by tractors and pumps. Trends in emissions from the informal industries sector followed those in coal combustion in brick kilns. Residential biomass cooking stoves were the largest contributors to emissions of PM2.5, OC, CO, NMVOC and CH4. Highest emitting technologies of BC were residential kerosene wick lamps. Emissions of SO2 were largely from coal combustion in Bull's trench kilns and other brick manufacturing technologies. Diesel use in tractors was the major source of NOx emissions. Uncertainties in emission estimates were principally from highly uncertain emission factors, particularly for technologies in the informal industries.

  20. Communications and control for electric power systems: The AbNET Project 1993 report

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, H.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a progress report on the development of the AbNET communication system, the principles of which have been described in a number of earlier technical reports from the Communication and Control Project. The status of the JPL PC-based version of the network is described, along with early results of tests on that system. The work done in preparation for the system demonstration and test to be performed in Columbus, Ohio, in collaboration with American Electric Power is discussed. The Ohio experiment, and the kind of results expected, are described.

  1. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  2. Overview of a classical biological control project directed against the red palm mite in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Marjorie A

    2012-08-01

    Information is provided on the steps involved in classical biological control programs, with an outline of the steps achieved in the classical biological control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), in Florida. An overview is provided of the results and an accompanying paper by Bowman and Hoy (2012) describes the molecular analyses conducted to characterize phytoseiid predators of the red palm mite collected from Mauritius. The Mauritius phytoseiids were identified as Amblyseius largoensis, using morphological criteria, and compared to four populations of A. largoensis from Florida. The difficulties encountered in the systematics, rearing, and evaluation of the Mauritius phytoseiids are described. A method was tested for obtaining DNA from single mites without destroying the body so that voucher specimens can be maintained. Ultimately, the project was terminated due to constraints expected in obtaining permission to make releases. PMID:22456811

  3. A Web-Based System for Monitoring and Controlling Multidisciplinary Design Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Andrea O.; Rogers, James L.

    1997-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, both industry and government agencies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of multidisciplinary design projects. A number of frameworks have been introduced to assist in this process by facilitating the integration of and communication among diverse disciplinary codes. An examination of current frameworks reveals weaknesses in various areas such as sequencing, displaying, monitoring, and controlling the design process. The objective of this research is to explore how Web technology, in conjunction with an existing framework, can improve these areas of weakness. This paper describes a system that executes a sequence of programs, monitors and controls the design process through a Web-based interface, and visualizes intermediate and final results through the use of Java(Tm) applets. A small sample problem, which includes nine processes with two analysis programs that are coupled to an optimizer, is used to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  4. Human Connectome Project Informatics: quality control, database services, and data visualization

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Daniel S.; Harms, Michael P.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Jenkinson, Mark; Wilson, J Anthony; Glasser, Matthew F.; Barch, Deanna M.; Archie, Kevin A.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Hodge, Michael; Horton, William; Herrick, Rick; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; House, Matthew; Hileman, Michael; Reid, Erin; Harwell, John; Coalson, Timothy; Schindler, Jon; Elam, Jennifer S.; Curtiss, Sandra W.; Van Essen, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The Human Connectome Project (HCP) has developed protocols, standard operating and quality control procedures, and a suite of informatics tools to enable high throughput data collection, data sharing, automated data processing and analysis, and data mining and visualization. Quality control procedures include methods to maintain data collection consistency over time, to measure head motion, and to establish quantitative modality-specific overall quality assessments. Database services developed as customizations of the XNAT imaging informatics platform support both internal daily operations and open access data sharing. The Connectome Workbench visualization environment enables user interaction with HCP data and is increasingly integrated with the HCP's database services. Here we describe the current state of these procedures and tools and their application in the ongoing HCP study. PMID:23707591

  5. Human Connectome Project informatics: quality control, database services, and data visualization.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Daniel S; Harms, Michael P; Snyder, Abraham Z; Jenkinson, Mark; Wilson, J Anthony; Glasser, Matthew F; Barch, Deanna M; Archie, Kevin A; Burgess, Gregory C; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Hodge, Michael; Horton, William; Herrick, Rick; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; House, Matthew; Hileman, Michael; Reid, Erin; Harwell, John; Coalson, Timothy; Schindler, Jon; Elam, Jennifer S; Curtiss, Sandra W; Van Essen, David C

    2013-10-15

    The Human Connectome Project (HCP) has developed protocols, standard operating and quality control procedures, and a suite of informatics tools to enable high throughput data collection, data sharing, automated data processing and analysis, and data mining and visualization. Quality control procedures include methods to maintain data collection consistency over time, to measure head motion, and to establish quantitative modality-specific overall quality assessments. Database services developed as customizations of the XNAT imaging informatics platform support both internal daily operations and open access data sharing. The Connectome Workbench visualization environment enables user interaction with HCP data and is increasingly integrated with the HCP's database services. Here we describe the current state of these procedures and tools and their application in the ongoing HCP study. PMID:23707591

  6. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforceability of design concept and... Transit Laws § 93.125 Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control... determinations for a transportation plan or TIP and are included in the project design concept and scope which...

  7. Project SUCCESS' Effects on Substance Use-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Alternative High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled effectiveness trial, we examined the effects of Project SUCCESS on a range of secondary outcomes, including the program's mediating variables. Project SUCCESS, which is based both on the Theory of Reasoned Action and on Cognitive Behavior Theory, is a school-based substance use prevention program that targets…

  8. BARC 2007 EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT FOR NC-229 NATIONAL PROJECT ON PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (PRRS) CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NC-229 national project “Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): Methods for the integrated control, prevention, and elimination of PRRS in United States swine herds.” This station report summarizes the BARC lab’s recent research progress. Four major projects have been addressed. 1...

  9. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the... (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E... facilities and their relative operation and maintenance costs. (d) The project engineer or...

  10. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the... (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E... facilities and their relative operation and maintenance costs. (d) The project engineer or...

  11. Sfm_georef: Automating image measurement of ground control points for SfM-based projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Mike R.

    2016-04-01

    Deriving accurate DEM and orthomosaic image products from UAV surveys generally involves the use of multiple ground control points (GCPs). Here, we demonstrate the automated collection of GCP image measurements for SfM-MVS processed projects, using sfm_georef software (James & Robson, 2012; http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm). Sfm_georef was originally written to provide geo-referencing procedures for SfM-MVS projects. It has now been upgraded with a 3-D patch-based matching routine suitable for automating GCP image measurement in both aerial and ground-based (oblique) projects, with the aim of reducing the time required for accurate geo-referencing. Sfm_georef is compatible with a range of SfM-MVS software and imports the relevant files that describe the image network, including camera models and tie points. 3-D survey measurements of ground control are then provided, either for natural features or artificial targets distributed over the project area. Automated GCP image measurement is manually initiated through identifying a GCP position in an image by mouse click; the GCP is then represented by a square planar patch in 3-D, textured from the image and oriented parallel to the local topographic surface (as defined by the 3-D positions of nearby tie points). Other images are then automatically examined by projecting the patch into the images (to account for differences in viewing geometry) and carrying out a sub-pixel normalised cross-correlation search in the local area. With two or more observations of a GCP, its 3-D co-ordinates are then derived by ray intersection. With the 3-D positions of three or more GCPs identified, an initial geo-referencing transform can be derived to relate the SfM-MVS co-ordinate system to that of the GCPs. Then, if GCPs are symmetric and identical, image texture from one representative GCP can be used to search automatically for all others throughout the image set. Finally, the GCP observations can be

  12. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  13. Quality of surface water before implementation of a flood-control project in Chaska, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tornes, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    Samples were collected for 1 year from East Creek, Chaska Creek, and Courthouse Lake in Chaska, Minnesota, to determine the water quality before implementation of a flood-control project proposed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The creeks had similar water-quality characteristics. Data indicate that ground water may be the primary source of dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, and chromium in the creeks. The pesticides alachlor, atrazine, simazine, and 2,4-D were found in water samples from both creeks but were well below the lethal concentrations for fish. Courthouse Lake, a 57-foot-deep stream-trout lake, had a mean summer trophic-state index of 35. Phytoplankton populations varied seasonally, and blue-green algae were predominant only in late summer. The algal-pollution index was highest in late summer, but did not provide evidence of high organic pollution. The apparently successful recovery of Courthouse Lake from past inundations by Minnesota River floodwaters having total phosphorus concentrations as high as 0.66 milligram per liter suggests that the lake, in time, will also recover from the added runoff expected as a result of implementing the flood-control project. The runoff could temporarily raise the total phosphorus concentration in the lake from 0.03 to 0.12 milligram per liter and raise the spring trophic-state index from 49 to 69.

  14. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: current and advanced act control system definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability (2) angle of attack limiting (3) lateral/directional augmented stability (4) gust load alleviation (5) maneuver load control and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  15. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  16. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project. Phase 1: Application evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a Freedom Station distributed system with inherent applicability to advanced automation primarily due to the comparatively large reaction times of its subsystem processes. This allows longer contemplation times in which to form a more intelligent control strategy and to detect or prevent faults. The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation Project is to reduce the flight and ground manpower needed to support the initial and evolutionary ECLS system. The approach is to search out and make apparent those processes in the baseline system which are in need of more automatic control and fault detection strategies, to influence the ECLSS design by suggesting software hooks and hardware scars which will allow easy adaptation to advanced algorithms, and to develop complex software prototypes which fit into the ECLSS software architecture and will be shown in an ECLSS hardware testbed to increase the autonomy of the system. Covered here are the preliminary investigation and evaluation process, aimed at searching the ECLSS for candidate functions for automation and providing a software hooks and hardware scars analysis. This analysis shows changes needed in the baselined system for easy accommodation of knowledge-based or other complex implementations which, when integrated in flight or ground sustaining engineering architectures, will produce a more autonomous and fault tolerant Environmental Control and Life Support System.

  17. Precise control and animation creation over the DMD for projection-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudsi, Badia

    2014-03-01

    Digital micromirror devices (DMDs) are used in a variety of display and projection applications to produce high resolution images, both static and animated. A common obstacle to working with DMDs in research and development applications is the steep learning curve required to obtain proficiency in programming the boards that control the behavior of the DMDs. This can discourage developers who wish to use DMDs in new or novel research and development applications which might benefit from their light-control properties. A new software package called Light Animator has been developed that provides a user friendly and more intuitive interface for controlling the DMD. The software allows users to address the micromirror array by the drawing and animation of objects in a style similar to that of commercial drawing programs. Sequences and animation are controlled by dividing the sequence into frames which the user can draw individually or the software can fill in for the user. Examples and descriptions of the software operation are described and operational performance measures are provided. Potential applications include 3D volumetric displays, a 3D scanner when combining the DMD with a CCD camera, and most any 2D application for which DMDs are currently used. The software's capabilities allow scientists to develop applications more easily and effectively.

  18. PMP Estimations at Sparsely Controlled Andinian Basins and Climate Change Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos Zúñiga, M. A.; Vargas, X.

    2012-12-01

    Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimation implies an extensive review of hydrometeorological data and understandig of precipitation formation processes. There exists different methodology processes that apply for their estimations and all of them require a good spatial and temporal representation of storms. The estimation of hydrometeorological PMP on sparsely controlled basins is a difficult task, specially if the studied area has an important orographic effect due to mountains and the mixed precipitation occurrence in the most several storms time period, the main task of this study is to propose and estimate PMP in a sparsely controlled basin, affected by abrupt topography and mixed hidrology basin; also analyzing statystic uncertainties estimations and possible climate changes effects in its estimation. In this study the PMP estimation under statistical and hydrometeorological aproaches (watershed-based and traditional depth area duration analysis) was done in a semi arid zone at Puclaro dam in north Chile. Due to the lack of good spatial meteorological representation at the study zone, we propose a methodology to consider the orographic effects of Los Andes due to orographic effects patterns based in a RCM PRECIS-DGF and annual isoyetal maps. Estimations were validated with precipitation patterns for given winters, considering snow route and rainfall gauges at the preferencial wind direction, finding good results. The estimations are also compared with the highest areal storms in USA, Australia, India and China and with frequency analysis in local rain gauge stations in order to decide about the most adequate approach for the study zone. Climate change projections were evaluated with ECHAM5 GCM model, due to its good quality representation in the seasonality and the magnitude of meteorological variables. Temperature projections, for 2040-2065 period, show that there would be a rise in the catchment contributing area that would lead to an increase of the

  19. Controlled Vocabularies and Ontologies for Oceanographic Data: The R2R Eventlogger Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Raymond, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Research vessels coordinated by the United States University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (US-UNOLS) collect data which is considered an important oceanographic resource. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project aims to improve access to this data and diminish the barriers to use. One aspect of the R2R project has been to develop a shipboard scientific event logging system, Eventlogger, that incorporates best practice guidelines, controlled vocabularies, a cruise metadata schema, and a scientific event log. This will facilitate the eventual ingestion of datasets into oceanographic data repositories for subsequent integration and synthesis by investigators. One important aspect of this system is the careful use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies. Existing ontologies, where available, will be used and others will be developed. The use of internationally-informed, consensus-driven controlled vocabularies will make datasets more interoperable, and discoverable. The R2R Eventlogger project is led by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and the management of the controlled vocabularies and mapping of these vocabularies to authoritative community vocabularies are led by the Data Librarian in the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library. The first target vocabulary is oceanographic instruments. Management of this vocabulary has thus far consisted of reconciling local community terms with the more widely used SeaDataNet Device Vocabulary terms. Rather than adopt existing terms, often the local terms are mapped by data managers in the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to the existing terms as they are given by investigators and often provide important information and meaning. New terms (often custom, or modified instruments) are submitted for review to the SeaDataNet community listserv for discussion and eventual incorporation into the Device

  20. The United States Department of Agriculture's Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project: summary and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Pound, Joe Mathews; Miller, John Allen; George, John E; Fish, Durland; Carroll, John F; Schulze, Terry L; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Stafford, Kirby C; Mather, Thomas N

    2009-08-01

    From 1997 to 2002, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project used acaricide-treated 4-Poster Deer Treatment Bait Stations in five eastern states to control ticks feeding on white-tailed deer. The objectives of this host-targeted technology were to reduce free-living blacklegged (Ixodes scapularis Say) and lone star (Amblyomma americanum [L.]) tick populations and thereby to reduce the risk of tick-borne disease. During 2002 to 2004, treatments were suspended, and tick population recovery rates were assayed. Subsequently, the major factors that influenced variations in efficacy were extrapolated to better understand and improve this technology. Treatments resulted in significant reductions in free-living populations of nymphal blacklegged ticks at six of the seven sites, and lone star ticks were significantly reduced at all three sites where they were present. During the study, maximal significant (p < or = 0.05) efficacies against nymphal blacklegged and lone star ticks at individual sites ranged from 60.0 to 81.7 and 90.9 to 99.5%, respectively. The major environmental factor that reduced efficacy was the occurrence of heavy acorn masts, which provided an alternative food resource for deer. Although the 4-Poster technology requires 1 or more years to show efficacy, this host-targeted intervention was demonstrated to be an efficacious, economical, safe, and environment-friendly alternative to area-wide spraying of acaricide to control free-living populations of these tick species. PMID:19650739

  1. Aeroelastic Sizing for High-Speed Research (HSR) Longitudinal Control Alternatives Project (LCAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Dunn, H. J.; Stroud, W. Jefferson; Barthelemy, J.-F.; Weston, Robert P.; Martin, Carl J.; Bennett, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    The Longitudinal Control Alternatives Project (LCAP) compared three high-speed civil transport configurations to determine potential advantages of the three associated longitudinal control concepts. The three aircraft configurations included a conventional configuration with a layout having a horizontal aft tail, a configuration with a forward canard in addition to a horizontal aft tail, and a configuration with only a forward canard. The three configurations were aeroelastically sized and were compared on the basis of operational empty weight (OEW) and longitudinal control characteristics. The sized structure consisted of composite honeycomb sandwich panels on both the wing and the fuselage. Design variables were the core depth of the sandwich and the thicknesses of the composite material which made up the face sheets of the sandwich. Each configuration was sized for minimum structural weight under linear and nonlinear aeroelastic loads subject to strain, buckling, ply-mixture, and subsonic and supersonic flutter constraints. This report describes the methods that were used and the results that were generated for the aeroelastic sizing of the three configurations.

  2. Ebola infection control in Sierra Leonean health clinics: A large cross-agency cooperative project.

    PubMed

    Levy, Benjamin; Rao, Carol Y; Miller, Laura; Kennedy, Ngozi; Adams, Monica; Davis, Rosemary; Hastings, Laura; Kabano, Augustin; Bennett, Sarah D; Sesay, Momodu

    2015-07-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak occurring in West Africa has resulted in at least 199 cases of Ebola in Sierra Leonean health care workers, many as a result of transmission occurring in health facilities. The Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone recognized that improvements in infection prevention and control (IPC) were necessary at all levels of health care delivery. To this end, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United Nations Children's Fund, and multiple nongovernmental organizations implemented a national IPC training program in 1,200 peripheral health units (PHUs) in Sierra Leone. A tiered training of trainers program was used. Trainers conducted multiday trainings at PHUs and coordinated the delivery of personal protective equipment (gloves, gowns, masks, boots) and infection control supplies (chlorine, buckets, disposable rags, etc) to all PHU staff. Under the ongoing project, 4,264 health workers have already been trained, and 98% of PHUs have received their first shipment of supplies. PMID:25891979

  3. Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control (II&C) Research and Development Facility Buildout and Project Execution of LWRS II&C Pilot Projects 1 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Farris; Johanna Oxstrand; Gregory Weatherby

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on light water reactor sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current reactors. As technologies are introduced that change the operation of the plant, the LWRS pilot projects can help identify their best-advanced uses and help demonstrate the safety of these technologies. In early testing of operator performance given these emerging technologies will ensure the safety and usability of systems prior to large-scale deployment and costly verification and validation at the plant. The aim of these collaborations, demonstrations, and approaches are intended to lessen the inertia that sustains the current status quo of today's II&C systems technology, and to motivate transformational change and a shift in strategy to a long-term approach to II&C modernization that is more sustainable. Research being conducted under Pilot Project 1 regards understanding the conditions and behaviors that can be modified, either through process improvements and/or technology deployment, to improve the overall safety and efficiency of outage control at nuclear facilities. The key component of the research in this pilot project is accessing the delivery of information that will allow researchers to simulate the control room, outage control center (OCC) information, and plant status data. The simulation also allows researchers to identify areas of opportunity where plant operating status and outage activities can be analyzed to increase overall plant efficiency. For Pilot Project 3 the desire is to demonstrate the ability of technology deployment and the subsequent impact on maximizing the 'Collective Situational Awareness' of the various stakeholders in a commercial nuclear power plant. Specifically, the desire is to show positive results in plant

  4. Bibliographic control of audiovisuals: analysis of a cataloging project using OCLC.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J A; Davison, F M

    1985-04-01

    The staff of the Quillen-Dishner College of Medicine Library cataloged 702 audiovisual titles between July 1, 1982, and June 30, 1983, using the OCLC database. This paper discusses the library's audiovisual collection and describes the method and scope of a study conducted during this project, the cataloging standards and conventions adopted, the assignment and use of NLM classification, the provision of summaries for programs, and the amount of staff time expended in cataloging typical items. An analysis of the use of OCLC for this project resulted in the following findings: the rate of successful searches for audiovisual copy was 82.4%; the error rate for records used was 41.9%; modifications were required in every record used; the Library of Congress and seven member institutions provided 62.8% of the records used. It was concluded that the effort to establish bibliographic control of audiovisuals is not widespread and that expanded and improved audiovisual cataloging by the Library of Congress and the National Library of Medicine would substantially contribute to that goal. PMID:2581645

  5. Project Cerberus: Tobacco Industry Strategy to Create an Alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M.; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  6. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report sets forth the system requirements for a Solar Controlled-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.

  7. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  8. Tobacco control among disadvantaged youth living in low-income communities in India: Introducing Project ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Stigler, Melissa; Gupta, Vinay; Bassi, Shalini; Dhavan, Poonam; Mathur, Neha; Tripathy, Vikal; Perry, Cheryl; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of Project ACTIVITY, a group randomized intervention trial designed to test the efficacy of a community-based, comprehensive approach to tobacco control for youth (10-19 years) living in low-income communities in India. In doing so, details regarding baseline characteristics of the study sample are provided. Methods Fourteen slum communities in Delhi, India were matched and randomized to intervention (n=7) and control (n=7) conditions. The intervention included multiple strategies to promote prevention and cessation of tobacco use among youth. A census was conducted in selected blocks in all study communities (n=78,133), as well as a baseline survey of eligible youth (n=6,023). Main outcomes measures on the survey included ever use, past six months use and current use of multiple forms of tobacco. Mixed effects regression models were used to examine differences between study conditions in (a) demographic characteristics and (b) the prevalence of tobacco consumption. Results Census data revealed that 31.9% of sampled population was in the age group of 10-19 years. No differences between study conditions in demographic characteristics (e.g. age, gender, religion, education, and occupation) among either adults or youth were noted (p>0.05). The baseline survey data revealed the prevalence of ever tobacco use among youth was 7.99%, past six months use was 5.70%, and current use was 4.88%. No differences between study conditions in these prevalence rates were observed, either (p>0.05). Conclusion The two study conditions in Project ACTIVITY are comparable. The evaluation should provide a robust test of this intervention's efficacy. PMID:20593929

  9. Preliminary projections of the effects of chloride-control structures on the Quaternary aquifer at Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    About 1,200 tons of chloride per day are added to the salt load of the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River at Great Salt Plains Lake from natural sources. The source of this chloride is brine discharge from the rocks of Permian age in the vicinity of the lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has planned a chloride-control project. The Corps requested that the U.S. Geological Survey use a digital model to project the effects of the chloride-control plan on ground water. Ground-water flow and ground-water transport models were calibrated to represent the Quaternary aquifer that is the near-surface part of the flow system. The models were used to project the effects of planned chloride-control structures. Based on model results, ground-water levels are projected to rise as much as 19 feet. However, these water-level rises will occur only in areas near three reservoirs. Changes in ground-water level caused by the project will be small throughout most of the area. Chloride concentration of ground water is projected to increase by more than 90,000 milligrams per liter at one location. However, significant increases in chloride concentration during the 50-year period simulated are projected to be limited to areas where the ground water already contains excessive chloride concentrations.

  10. Examining the Dynamics of Managing Information Systems Development Projects: A Control Loss Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayanaswamy, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    The failure rate of information systems development (ISD) projects continues to pose a big challenge for organizations. The success rate of ISD projects is less then forty percent. Factors such as disagreements and miscommunications among project manager and team members, poor monitoring and intermediary problems contribute to project failure.…