Science.gov

Sample records for multi-user recognition engine

  1. Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition in a Multi-user Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping; Lu, Jian

    Existing work on sensor-based activity recognition focuses mainly on single-user activities. However, in real life, activities are often performed by multiple users involving interactions between them. In this paper, we propose Coupled Hidden Markov Models (CHMMs) to recognize multi-user activities from sensor readings in a smart home environment. We develop a multimodal sensing platform and present a theoretical framework to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities. We conduct our trace collection done in a smart home, and evaluate our framework through experimental studies. Our experimental result shows that we achieve an average accuracy of 85.46% with CHMMs.

  2. Multi-user investigation organizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M. (Inventor); Panontin, Tina L. (Inventor); Carvalho, Robert E. (Inventor); Sturken, Ian (Inventor); Williams, James F. (Inventor); Wolfe, Shawn R. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system that allows a team of geographically dispersed users to collaboratively analyze a mishap event. The system includes a reconfigurable ontology, including instances that are related to and characterize the mishap, a semantic network that receives, indexes and stores, for retrieval, viewing and editing, the instances and links between the instances, a network browser interface for retrieving and viewing screens that present the instances and links to other instances and that allow editing thereof, and a rule-based inference engine, including a collection of rules associated with establishment of links between the instances. A possible conclusion arising from analysis of the mishap event may be characterized as one or more of: not a credible conclusion; an unlikely conclusion; a credible conclusion; conclusion needs analysis; conclusion needs supporting data; conclusion proposed to be closed; and an un-reviewed conclusion.

  3. University multi-user facility survey-2010.

    PubMed

    Riley, Melissa B

    2011-12-01

    Multi-user facilities serve as a resource for many universities. In 2010, a survey was conducted investigating possible changes and successful characteristics of multi-user facilities, as well as identifying problems in facilities. Over 300 surveys were e-mailed to persons identified from university websites as being involved with multi-user facilities. Complete responses were received from 36 facilities with an average of 20 years of operation. Facilities were associated with specific departments (22%), colleges (22%), and university research centers (8.3%) or were not affiliated with any department or college within the university (47%). The five most important factors to succeed as a multi-user facility were: 1) maintaining an experienced, professional staff in an open atmosphere; 2) university-level support providing partial funding; 3) broad client base; 4) instrument training programs; and 5) an effective leader and engaged strategic advisory group. The most significant problems were: 1) inadequate university financial support and commitment; 2) problems recovering full service costs from university subsidies and user fees; 3) availability of funds to repair and upgrade equipment; 4) inability to retain highly qualified staff; and 5) unqualified users dirtying/damaging equipment. Further information related to these issues and to fee structure was solicited. Overall, there appeared to be a decline in university support for facilities and more emphasis on securing income by serving clients outside of the institution and by obtaining grants from entities outside of the university. PMID:22131888

  4. Protein hydrogels with engineered biomolecular recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Lixin

    Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are the hydrated macromolecular gels in which cells migrate and proliferate and organize into tissues in vivo . The development of artificial ECM with the required mechanical, physico-chemical, and biological properties has long been a challenge in the biomaterial research field. In this dissertation, a novel set of bioactive protein hydrogels has been synthesized and characterized at both molecular and materials levels. The self-recognized and self-assembled protein copolymers have the ability to provide engineered biofunctionality through the controlled arrangement of bioactive domains on the nanoscale. Genetic engineering methods have been employed to synthesize these protein copolymers. Plasmid DNA carrying genes to express both di- and tri-block proteins have been constructed using molecular cloning techniques. These genes were expressed in bacterial E. coli to ensure homogeneous protein length and anticipated structure. Three diblock protein sequences having a leucine zipper construct on one end and polyelectrolyte (AGAGAGPEG)10 on the other, have been studied by circular dichroism, size-exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, and static light scattering to characterize their secondary structure, structural stability, and oligomeric state. The results show that ABC diblock mixtures form very stable heterotrimer aggregates via self-recognition and self-assembly of the coiled coil end domains. Tri-block proteins with two leucine zipper motif ends flanking the polyelectrolyte random coil in the middle have been investigated by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, and the hydrogels formed by self-assembly of these tri-blocks have been studied using transmission electronic microscopy and diffusing wave spectroscopy. The reversible gelation behavior is the result of heterotrimeric aggregation of helices to form the physical crosslinks in the gel, with the polyelectrolyte region center block retaining

  5. Recognition vs Reverse Engineering in Boolean Concepts Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafat, Gabriel; Levin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with two types of logical problems--recognition problems and reverse engineering problems, and with the interrelations between these types of problems. The recognition problems are modeled in the form of a visual representation of various objects in a common pattern, with a composition of represented objects in the pattern.…

  6. Supramolecular Polymerization Engineered with Molecular Recognition.

    PubMed

    Haino, Takeharu

    2015-10-01

    Supramolecular polymeric assemblies represent an emerging, promising class of molecular assemblies with enormous versatility compared with their covalent polymeric counterparts. Although a large number of host-guest motifs have been produced over the history of supramolecular chemistry, only a limited number of recognition motifs have been utilized as supramolecular connections in polymeric assemblies. This account describes the molecular recognition of host molecules based on calix[5]arene and bisporphyrin that demonstrate unique guest encapsulations; subsequently, these host-guest motifs are applied to the synthesis of supramolecular polymers that display polymer-like properties in solution and solid states. In addition, new bisresorcinarenes are developed to form supramolecular polymers that are connected via a rim-to-rim hydrogen-bonded dimeric structure, which is composed of two resorcinarene moieties. PMID:26178364

  7. Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus - Flame Extinguishment Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Forman A.; Nayagam, Vedha; Choi, Mun Y.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus Flame Extinguishment Experiment (MDCA-FLEX) will assess the effectiveness of fire suppressants in microgravity and quantify the effect of different possible crew exploration atmospheres on fire suppression. The goal of this research is to provide definition and direction for large scale fire suppression tests and selection of the fire suppressant for next generation crew exploration vehicles.

  8. Scientific Inquiry in Educational Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Brian C.; Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of research into the problems of implementing authentic scientific inquiry curricula in schools and the emerging use of educational Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) to support interactive scientific inquiry practices. Our analysis of existing literature in this growing area of study reveals three recurrent…

  9. Introducing ORACLE: Library Processing in a Multi-User Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Library Board, Brisbane (Australia).

    Currently being developed by the State Library of Queensland, Australia, ORACLE (On-Line Retrieval of Acquisitions, Cataloguing, and Circulation Details for Library Enquiries) is a computerized library system designed to provide rapid processing of library materials in a multi-user environment. It is based on the Australian MARC format and fully…

  10. Multi-User Hardware Solutions to Combustion Science ISS Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Angel M.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the budget environment and to expand on the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), common hardware approach, the NASA Combustion Science Program shifted focus in 1999 from single investigator PI (Principal Investigator)-specific hardware to multi-user 'Minifacilities'. These mini-facilities would take the CIR common hardware philosophy to the next level. The approach that was developed re-arranged all the investigations in the program into sub-fields of research. Then common requirements within these subfields were used to develop a common system that would then be complemented by a few PI-specific components. The sub-fields of research selected were droplet combustion, solids and fire safety, and gaseous fuels. From these research areas three mini-facilities have sprung: the Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) for droplet research, Flow Enclosure for Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) for solids and fire safety, and the Multi-user Gaseous Fuels Apparatus (MGFA) for gaseous fuels. These mini-facilities will develop common Chamber Insert Assemblies (CIA) and diagnostics for the respective investigators complementing the capability provided by CIR. Presently there are four investigators for MDCA, six for FEANICS, and four for MGFA. The goal of these multi-user facilities is to drive the cost per PI down after the initial development investment is made. Each of these mini-facilities will become a fixture of future Combustion Science NASA Research Announcements (NRAs), enabling investigators to propose against an existing capability. Additionally, an investigation is provided the opportunity to enhance the existing capability to bridge the gap between the capability and their specific science requirements. This multi-user development approach will enable the Combustion Science Program to drive cost per investigation down while drastically reducing the time

  11. Multi-User Space Link Extension (SLE) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Toby

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-User Space (MUS) Link Extension system, a software and data system, provides Space Link Extension (SLE) users with three space data transfer services in timely, complete, and offline modes as applicable according to standards defined by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). MUS radically reduces the schedule, cost, and risk of implementing a new SLE user system, minimizes operating costs with a lights-out approach to SLE, and is designed to require no sustaining engineering expense during its lifetime unless changes in the CCSDS SLE standards, combined with new provider implementations, force changes. No software modification to MUS needs to be made to support a new mission. Any systems engineer with Linux experience can begin testing SLE user service instances with MUS starting from a personal computer (PC) within five days. For flight operators, MUS provides a familiar-looking Web page for entering SLE configuration data received from SLE. Operators can also use the Web page to back up a space mission's entire set of up to approximately 500 SLE service instances in less than five seconds, or to restore or transfer from another system the same amount of data from a MUS backup file in about the same amount of time. Missions operate each MUS SLE service instance independently by sending it MUS directives, which are legible, plain ASCII strings. MUS directives are usually (but not necessarily) sent through a TCP-IP (Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol) socket from a MOC (Mission Operations Center) or POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) system, under scripted control, during "lights-out" spacecraft operation. MUS permits the flight operations team to configure independently each of its data interfaces; not only commands and telemetry, but also MUS status messages to the MOC. Interfaces can use single- or multiple-client TCP/IP server sockets, TCP/IP client sockets, temporary disk files, the system log, or standard in

  12. Incremental refinement of a multi-user-detection algorithm (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.; Götze, J.

    2003-05-01

    Multi-user detection is a technique proposed for mobile radio systems based on the CDMA principle, such as the upcoming UMTS. While offering an elegant solution to problems such as intra-cell interference, it demands very significant computational resources. In this paper, we present a high-level approach for reducing the required resources for performing multi-user detection in a 3GPP TDD multi-user system. This approach is based on a displacement representation of the parameters that describe the transmission system, and a generalized Schur algorithm that works on this representation. The Schur algorithm naturally leads to a highly parallel hardware implementation using CORDIC cells. It is shown that this hardware architecture can also be used to compute the initial displacement representation. It is very beneficial to introduce incremental refinement structures into the solution process, both at the algorithmic level and in the individual cells of the hardware architecture. We detail these approximations and present simulation results that confirm their effectiveness.

  13. Speech recognition systems on the Cell Broadband Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y; Jones, H; Vaidya, S; Perrone, M; Tydlitat, B; Nanda, A

    2007-04-20

    In this paper we describe our design, implementation, and first results of a prototype connected-phoneme-based speech recognition system on the Cell Broadband Engine{trademark} (Cell/B.E.). Automatic speech recognition decodes speech samples into plain text (other representations are possible) and must process samples at real-time rates. Fortunately, the computational tasks involved in this pipeline are highly data-parallel and can receive significant hardware acceleration from vector-streaming architectures such as the Cell/B.E. Identifying and exploiting these parallelism opportunities is challenging, but also critical to improving system performance. We observed, from our initial performance timings, that a single Cell/B.E. processor can recognize speech from thousands of simultaneous voice channels in real time--a channel density that is orders-of-magnitude greater than the capacity of existing software speech recognizers based on CPUs (central processing units). This result emphasizes the potential for Cell/B.E.-based speech recognition and will likely lead to the future development of production speech systems using Cell/B.E. clusters.

  14. An Adjustable Scheduling Algorithm for Multi-User MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehong; Lee, Sangjae; Kim, Sehun

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) represents a highly promising technique for 4G communication networks as it uses multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver to improve the reliability of transmissions and to provide a high data rate. This paper introduces an adjustable scheduling algorithm for multi-user MIMO systems that can provide an advantageous trade-off solution between throughput maximization and fair resource allocation among users. Specifically, our algorithm is proposed as a solution to system requirement issues through the flexible control of fairness factors.

  15. Managing a Safe and Successful Multi-User Spaceport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacko, Taylor; Ketterer, Kirk; Meade, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Encouraged by the creation of the Office of Commercial Space Transportation within the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1984 and the Commercial Space Act of 1998, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) now relies on an extensive network of support from commercial companies and organizations. At NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC), this collaboration opens competitive opportunities for launch providers, including repurposing underutilized Shuttle Program resources, constructing new facilities, and utilizing center services and laboratories. The resulting multi-user spaceport fosters diverse activity, though it engenders risk from hazards associated with various spaceflight processing activities. The KSC Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate, in coordination with the center's Spaceport Integration and Center Planning & Development organizations, has developed a novel approach to protect NASA's workforce, critical assets, and the public from hazardous, space-related activity associated with KSC's multi-user spaceport. For NASA KSC S&MA, the transformation to a multi-user spaceport required implementing methods to foster safe and successful commercial activity while resolving challenges involving: Retirement of the Space Shuttle program; Co-location of multiple NASA programs; Relationships between the NASA programs; Complex relationships between NASA programs and commercial partner operations in exclusive-use facilities; Complex relationships between NASA programs and commercial partner operations in shared-use facilities. NASA KSC S&MA challenges were met with long-term planning and solutions involving cooperation with the Spaceport Integration and Services Directorate. This directorate is responsible for managing active commercial partnerships with customer advocacy and services management, providing a dedicated and consistent level of support to a wide array of commercial operations. This paper explores these solutions, their

  16. Design of stereoscopic display monitor for multi-users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yuncui; Liu, Long; Zou, Nianyu; Cao, Guanying; Dong, Xiaomei

    2011-12-01

    A new naked eyes stereoscopic display optical system for multi-users was proposed in this paper, different from the conventional naked eyes stereoscopic display monitors with sophistication technology and bad uniformity of illumination. According to the binocular parallax technology, Fresnel lens and polaroid sheet were chosen to focus the rays on the observers' eyes. Freeform lens were used in this system to enhance illumination uniformity of pictures and efficiency of the system. The results of simulation showed that the users can obtain stereoscopic effect at their each places, uniformity of illumination on LCD was above 0.6. Therefore, this system had a simple and compact structure, and the quality of pictures users obtain was better than system without freeform lenses.

  17. Authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution with single particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Song; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gong-De; Ye, Guo-Hua; Du, Hong-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Fen

    2016-03-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been growing rapidly in recent years and becomes one of the hottest issues in quantum information science. During the implementation of QKD on a network, identity authentication has been one main problem. In this paper, an efficient authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution (MQKD) protocol with single particles is proposed. In this protocol, any two users on a quantum network can perform mutual authentication and share a secure session key with the assistance of a semi-honest center. Meanwhile, the particles, which are used as quantum information carriers, are not required to be stored, therefore the proposed protocol is feasible with current technology. Finally, security analysis shows that this protocol is secure in theory.

  18. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  19. The Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: Microgravity Combustion Science Using A Modular Multi-User Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, T. F.; Myhre, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a multi-rack payload planned for the International Space Station that will enable the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a microgravity environment. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two International Standard Payload Racks of the FCF and is being designed primarily to support combustion science experiments. It is currently in the Flight Unit Build phase. The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) is a multi-user facility designed to accommodate four different droplet combustion science experiments and is the first payload for CIR. MDCA is currently in the Engineering Model build phase. Launch of the CIR and MDCA is planned for 2004. The CIR will function independently until the later launch of the Fluids Integrated Rack component of the FCF. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities and the development status of the CIR and MDCA. The CIR will contain the hardware and software required to support combustion experiments in space. It will contain an optics bench, combustion chamber, fuel oxidizer and management assembly, exhaust vent system, diagnostic cameras, power, environment control system, command and data management system, and a passive rack isolation system. Additional hardware will be installed in the chamber and on the optics bench that is customized for each science investigation. The chamber insert may provide the sample holder, small ignition source, and small diagnostics such as thermocouples and radiometers. The combustion experiments that may be conducted in the FCF include, but are not limited to, the study of laminar flames, reaction kinetics, droplet and spray combustion, flame spread, fire and fire suppressants, condensed phase organic fuel combustion, turbulent combustion, soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and materials synthesis. It is expected that the facility will provide most of the hardware, with a small amount of unique hardware developed for

  20. Center Planning and Development: Multi-User Spaceport Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    The Vehicle Assembly building at NASAs Kennedy Space Center has been used since 1966 to vertically assemble every launch vehicle, since the Apollo Program, launched from Launch Complex 39 (LC-39). After the cancellation of the Constellation Program in 2010 and the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program in 2011, the VAB faced an uncertain future. As the Space Launch System (SLS) gained a foothold as the future of American spaceflight to deep space, NASA was only using a portion of the VABs initial potential. With three high bays connected to the Crawler Way transportation system, the potential exists for up to three rockets to be simultaneously processed for launch. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Master plan, supported by the Center Planning and Development (CPD) Directorate, is guiding Kennedy toward a 21st century multi-user spaceport. This concept will maintain Kennedy as the United States premier gateway to space and provide multi-user operations through partnerships with the commercial aerospace industry. Commercial aerospace companies, now tasked with transporting cargo and, in the future, astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) and Commercial Crew Program (CCP), are a rapidly growing industry with increasing capabilities to make launch operations more economical for both private companies and the government. Commercial operations to Low Earth Orbit allow the government to focus on travel to farther destinations through the SLS Program. With LC-39B designated as a multi-use launch pad, companies seeking to use it will require an integration facility to assemble, integrate, and test their launch vehicle. An Announcement for Proposals (AFP) was released in June, beginning the process of finding a non-NASA user for High Bay 2 (HB2) and the Mobile Launcher Platforms (MLPs). An Industry Day, a business meeting and tour for interested companies and organizations, was also arranged to identify and answer any

  1. [A multi-user documentation system for pain clinics.].

    PubMed

    Bautz, M; Pfingsten, M; Weber, M; Weyland, A; Ensink, B; Hildebrandt, J

    1989-09-01

    In pain clinics, thorough documentation of patient-related data is essential for analysis of patient history, long-term evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and research on the etiology and epidemiology of chronic pain syndromes. With these requirements in mind, we realized a microcomputer documentation system based on a commercial data-base software concept (dBASE). Each patient's data are stored in three different sections: data for identification, basic data (mainly diagnostic findings), and treatment related follow-up data. The program was initially developed to run on a single IBM/XT- or AT-compatible computer (at least 640 kB RAM, 1 hard-disk-drive) with MS-DOS but has now been improved to work on a local area network (LAN) with the NOVELL-Netware operating system. Important features of our new system are: multi-user capability, flexible data management via menu-driven user dialogue, rapid data access, and high compatibility allowing data exchange with other standard software packages. The microcomputer documentation system offers listings for administration as well as effective patient scheduling thanks to a recall system by date of last contact, selected therapeutic procedures and any other item in the medical record. A mail-merge service can be applied, which is particularly useful for follow-up-studies. The documentation system means routine work can be standardized and performed in an economical manner, with the ultimate aim of enhancing the quality of pain therapy. PMID:18415351

  2. Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapateau, J.; Ghalbouni, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.

  3. Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Trapateau, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.; Ghalbouni, J.

    2015-10-14

    We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.

  4. Atmospheric lidar multi-user instrument system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greco, R. V. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    A spaceborne lidar system for atmospheric studies was defined. The primary input was the Science Objectives Experiment Description and Evolutionary Flow Document. The first task of the study was to perform an experiment evolutionary analysis of the SEED. The second task was the system definition effort of the instrument system. The third task was the generation of a program plan for the hardware phase. The fourth task was the supporting studies which included a Shuttle deficiency analysis, a preliminary safety hazard analysis, the identification of long lead items, and development studies required. As a result of the study an evolutionary Lidar Multi-User Instrument System (MUIS) was defined. The MUIS occupies a full Spacelab pallet and has a weight of 1300 kg. The Lidar MUIS laser provides a 2 joule frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser that can also pump a tuneable dye laser wide frequency range and bandwidth. The MUIS includes a 1.25 meter diameter aperture Cassegrain receiver, with a moveable secondary mirror to provide precise alignment with the laser. The receiver can transmit the return signal to three single and multiple photomultiple tube detectors by use of a rotating fold mirror. It is concluded that the Lidar MUIS proceed to program implementation.

  5. The Fluids And Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack And The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: Microgravity Combustion Science Using Modular Multi-User Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Myhre, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a multi-rack payload planned for the International Space Station (ISS) that will enable the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a microgravity environment. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two International Standard Payload Racks of the FCF and is being designed primarily to support combustion science experiments. The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) is a multi-user apparatus designed to accommodate four different droplet combustion science experiments and is the first payload for CIR. The CIR will function independently until the later launch of the Fluids Integrated Rack component of the FCF. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities and the development status of the CIR and MDCA.

  6. A Multi-User Remote Academic Laboratory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Arquimedes; Panche, Stifen; Duque, Mauricio; Grisales, Victor H.; Prieto, Flavio; Villa, Jose L.; Chevrel, Philippe; Canu, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation and preliminary operation assessment of Multiuser Network Architecture to integrate a number of Remote Academic Laboratories for educational purposes on automatic control. Through the Internet, real processes or physical experiments conducted at the control engineering laboratories of four…

  7. Mobile Applications and Multi-User Virtual Reality Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordillo, Orlando Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This is my third internship with NASA and my second one at the Johnson Space Center. I work within the engineering directorate in ER7 (Software Robotics and Simulations Division) at a graphics lab called IGOAL. We are a very well-rounded lab because we have dedicated software developers and dedicated 3D artist, and when you combine the two, what you get is the ability to create many different things such as interactive simulations, 3D models, animations, and mobile applications.

  8. From Multi-User Virtual Environment to 3D Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, Daniel; Kemp, Jeremy; Edgar, Edmund

    2008-01-01

    While digital virtual worlds have been used in education for a number of years, advances in the capabilities and spread of technology have fed a recent boom in interest in massively multi-user 3D virtual worlds for entertainment, and this in turn has led to a surge of interest in their educational applications. In this paper we briefly review the…

  9. Socialisation for Learning at a Distance in a 3-D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisingha, Palitha; Nie, Ming; Pluciennik, Mark; Young, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a pilot study that examined the pedagogical potential of "Second Life" (SL), a popular three-dimensional multi-user virtual environment (3-D MUVE) developed by the Linden Lab. The study is part of a 1-year research and development project titled "Modelling of Secondlife Environments" (http://www.le.ac.uk/moose)…

  10. Civic Participation among Seventh-Grade Social Studies Students in Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieger, Laura; Farber, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances on the Internet now enable students to develop participation skills in virtual worlds. Similar to controlling a character in a video game, multi-user virtual environments, or MUVEs, allow participants to interact with others in synchronous, online settings. The authors of this study created a link between MUVEs and…

  11. A Multi-User Virtual Environment for Building and Assessing Higher Order Inquiry Skills in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass; Nelson, Brian C.; Clarke, Jody; Dede, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated novel pedagogies for helping teachers infuse inquiry into a standards-based science curriculum. Using a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) as a pedagogical vehicle, teams of middle-school students collaboratively solved problems around disease in a virtual town called River City. The students interacted with "avatars" of…

  12. Exploring Embedded Guidance and Self-Efficacy in Educational Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Brian C.; Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an exploratory study into the relationship between student self-efficacy and guidance use in a Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE) science curriculum project. We describe findings from a sample of middle school science students on the combined impact on learning of student self-efficacy in scientific…

  13. Exploring the Use of Individualized, Reflective Guidance in an Educational Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Brian C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the patterns of use and potential impact of individualized, reflective guidance in an educational Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE). A guidance system embedded within a MUVE-based scientific inquiry curriculum was implemented with a sample of middle school students in an exploratory study investigating (a) whether access to…

  14. Implications of Placedness for Learning in Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers some of the unique affordances that Multi-User Virtual Environments--in particular, Second Life--present to the design of learning environments. Drawing upon some preliminary experiences of acquainting teachers in several schools in Singapore with Second Life, specific attention is paid to the inherent spatiality of the…

  15. Design and Implementation of a 3D Multi-User Virtual World for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Maria Blanca; Garcia, Jose Jesus; Galan, Sergio; Maroto, David; Morillo, Diego; Kloos, Carlos Delgado

    2011-01-01

    The best way to learn is by having a good teacher and the best language learning takes place when the learner is immersed in an environment where the language is natively spoken. 3D multi-user virtual worlds have been claimed to be useful for learning, and the field of exploiting them for education is becoming more and more active thanks to the…

  16. Teacher Candidates' Views of a Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) are new to formal educational settings as teaching and learning tools but are growing in popularity. MUVEs simulate real-world problems. They have an ability to reach students in ways that are familiar as they resemble videogames where players assume roles, work in teams, and gather data. MUVEs include…

  17. Teacher Perceptions of Learning Affordances of Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, Vimani; Tretiakov, Alexei; Crump, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While the affordances of multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) for teaching and learning are a subject of numerous experience reports, there is little research on educators' perceptions of various MUVE affordances claimed in the literature. We investigate the educators' perceptions of claimed MUVE affordances for learning by conducting in-depth…

  18. Multi-User Virtual Environments for Education and Training? A Critical Review of "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Zane L., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Second Life" is a popular example of an immersive, three-dimensional, virtual world. Inhabitants of "Second Life" often describe their experiences in-world as having great social presence. Certainly there is a good deal of potential for education and training to occur in multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs), if designed properly, especially…

  19. Multi-User Virtual Environments for Learning: Experience and Technology Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, N.; Bucciero, A.; Mainetti, L.; Paolini, P.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) are often used to support learning in formal and informal educational contexts. A technology-based educational experience consists of several elements: content, syllabus, roles, sequence of activities, assignments, assessment procedures, etc. that must be aligned with the affordances of the technologies to…

  20. Language Learning in Multi-User Virtual Environments: Using the Enter-the-Story Teaching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yin-Mei; Tan, Seng-Chee

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose using the Enter-the-Story teaching method for language learning in Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs). A MUVE's immersive story-world imbued with rich cultural artifacts provides an appealing environment for young learners to learn a language by taking on roles in a story and describing their imaginative experience in the…

  1. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy. PMID:10811469

  2. Stem Cell Hydrogel, Jump-Starting Zika Drug Discovery, and Engineering RNA Recognition.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Milka

    2016-08-18

    Every month the editors of Cell Chemical Biology bring you highlights of the most recent chemical biology literature that impressed them with creativity and potential for follow up work. Our August 2016 selection includes a description of hydrogels with self-tunable stiffness that are used to profile lipid metabolites during stems cell differentiation, a look at whether we can find a drug repurposing solution to Zika virus infection, and an engineered RNA recognition motif (RRM). PMID:27541191

  3. Service description of communication systems supporting multi-media multi-user applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijenk, G. J.; Hou, X.; Niemegeers, I. G.

    The paper presents a service description of communication systems supporting multi-media multi-user applications. In particular, it focuses on service elements related to the call control. The service description specifies the functional behavior of the communication system as a whole. It can be used as a common reference in the next design stages, e.g., in the protocol design and implementation of both Customer Premises Networks and public telecommunication networks. After discussing the requirements of multi-media multi-user applications, a call model is presented. This model creates an abstract view of those aspects of the call relevant for the design and helps us in structuring the service. Only those service elements of a communication system that are related to the call establishment, modification and termination are fully specified by describing service primitives, their parameters and temporal ordering constraints.

  4. OpenGL in Multi-User Web-Based Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostek, K.; Piórkowski, A.

    In this article construction and potential of OpenGL multi-user web-based application are presented. The most common technologies like: .NET ASP, Java and Mono were used with specific OpenGL libraries to visualize tree-dimensional medical data. The most important conclusion of this work is that server side applications can easily take advantage of fast GPU and produce efficient results of advanced computation just like the visualization.

  5. DEEP SPACE: High Resolution VR Platform for Multi-user Interactive Narratives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuka, Daniela; Elias, Oliver; Martins, Ronald; Lindinger, Christopher; Pramböck, Andreas; Jalsovec, Andreas; Maresch, Pascal; Hörtner, Horst; Brandl, Peter

    DEEP SPACE is a large-scale platform for interactive, stereoscopic and high resolution content. The spatial and the system design of DEEP SPACE are facing constraints of CAVETM-like systems in respect to multi-user interactive storytelling. To be used as research platform and as public exhibition space for many people, DEEP SPACE is capable to process interactive, stereoscopic applications on two projection walls with a size of 16 by 9 meters and a resolution of four times 1080p (4K) each. The processed applications are ranging from Virtual Reality (VR)-environments to 3D-movies to computationally intensive 2D-productions. In this paper, we are describing DEEP SPACE as an experimental VR platform for multi-user interactive storytelling. We are focusing on the system design relevant for the platform, including the integration of the Apple iPod Touch technology as VR control, and a special case study that is demonstrating the research efforts in the field of multi-user interactive storytelling. The described case study, entitled "Papyrate's Island", provides a prototypical scenario of how physical drawings may impact on digital narratives. In this special case, DEEP SPACE helps us to explore the hypothesis that drawing, a primordial human creative skill, gives us access to entirely new creative possibilities in the domain of interactive storytelling.

  6. Multi-user multiplexed scheme for decoding modulated-encoded sequential information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosso, Fabian; Tebaldi, Myrian; Barrera, John Fredy; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

    2011-08-01

    Encrypting procedures with multiplexed operations exhibit an inherent noise. We presented options to avoid background noise arising from the non-decoded images. We have a coding mask corresponding to each single input object, thus resulting in a static decrypting mechanism. Besides, if we manage the spatial destination of each decoded output, then we avoid the noise superposition. In those schemes, the displaying output order was irrelevant. However, when we face a sequence of events including multi-users, we need to develop another strategy. We present a multi-user encrypting scheme with a single encoding mask that removes the background noise, also showing the decrypted data in a prescribed sequence. The multiplexing scheme is based on the 4f double random phase encryption architecture and a theta modulation method, which consists in superposing each encrypted information with a determined sinusoidal grating. Afterwards we proceed to the completely encoded data multiplexing. In a multi-user scheme, we employ different encrypting masks in the 4f optical setup for each user, and the same mask is employed for the user sequence. We store the encrypted data in the single medium. After a Fourier transform operation and an appropriate filtering procedure, we reach the sequence of isolated encrypted spots corresponding to the right user. With the aid of the pertaining decoding mask, the user can decrypt the sequence. We avoid the noise by the appropriate choice of the modulating gratings pitch as to elude the overlapping of spots at the Fourier plane, which is the cause of information degradation.

  7. Demonstration of high-speed multi-user multi-carrier CDMA visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Yuanquan; Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Chi, Nan

    2015-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a high-speed multi-user multi-carrier code-division multiple access (MC-CDMA) visible light communication (VLC) system. By employing a commercially available red light emitting diode (LED) and an avalanche photo diode (APD), we achieved a 16-user VLC system enabled by MC-CDMA, pre- and post-equalization, with an overall bit rate of 750 Mb/s over 1.5 m free-space transmission. The measured bit error ratio (BER) of each user is below the 7% pre-forward-error-correction (pre-FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3.

  8. Robots, multi-user virtual environments and healthcare: synergies for future directions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ajung; Grajales, Francisco J; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of technology in healthcare over the last twenty years has steadily increased, particularly as it relates to medical robotics and Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) such as Second Life. Both disciplines have been shown to improve the quality of care and have evolved, for the most part, in isolation from each other. In this paper, we present four synergies between medical robotics and MUVEs that have the potential to decrease resource utilization and improve the quality of healthcare delivery. We conclude with some foreseeable barriers and future research directions for researchers in these fields. PMID:21335746

  9. Advancing MEMS Technology Usage through the MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Processes) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, D. A.; Markus, K. W.; Dhuler, V.; Mahadevan, R.; Cowen, A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to help provide access to advanced micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies and lower the barriers for both industry and academia, the Microelectronic Center of North Carolina (MCNC) and ARPA have developed a program which provides users with access to both MEMS processes and advanced electronic integration techniques. The four distinct aspects of this program, the multi-user MEMS processes (MUMP's), the consolidated micro-mechanical element library, smart MEMS, and the MEMS technology network are described in this paper. MUMP's is an ARPA-supported program created to provide inexpensive access to MEMS technology in a multi-user environment. It is both a proof-of-concept and educational tool that aids in the development of MEMS in the domestic community. MUMP's technologies currently include a 3-layer poly-silicon surface micromachining process and LIGA (lithography, electroforming, and injection molding) processes that provide reasonable design flexibility within set guidelines. The consolidated micromechanical element library (CaMEL) is a library of active and passive MEMS structures that can be downloaded by the MEMS community via the internet. Smart MEMS is the development of advanced electronics integration techniques for MEMS through the application of flip chip technology. The MEMS technology network (TechNet) is a menu of standard substrates and MEMS fabrication processes that can be purchased and combined to create unique process flows. TechNet provides the MEMS community greater flexibility and enhanced technology accessibility.

  10. Interaction Design and Usability of Learning Spaces in 3D Multi-user Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minocha, Shailey; Reeves, Ahmad John

    Three-dimensional virtual worlds are multimedia, simulated environments, often managed over the Web, which users can 'inhabit' and interact via their own graphical, self-representations known as 'avatars'. 3D virtual worlds are being used in many applications: education/training, gaming, social networking, marketing and commerce. Second Life is the most widely used 3D virtual world in education. However, problems associated with usability, navigation and way finding in 3D virtual worlds may impact on student learning and engagement. Based on empirical investigations of learning spaces in Second Life, this paper presents design guidelines to improve the usability and ease of navigation in 3D spaces. Methods of data collection include semi-structured interviews with Second Life students, educators and designers. The findings have revealed that design principles from the fields of urban planning, Human- Computer Interaction, Web usability, geography and psychology can influence the design of spaces in 3D multi-user virtual environments.

  11. Comparison of two underwater acoustic communications techniques for multi-user access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hursky, Paul; Siderius, T. Martin; Kauaiex Group

    2001-05-01

    Frequency hopped frequency shift keying (FHFSK) and code division multiple access (CDMA) are two different modulation techniques for multiple users to communicate with a single receiver simultaneously. In July 2003, these two techniques were tested alongside each other in a shallow water coastal environment off the coast of Kauai. A variety of instruments were used to measure the prevailing oceanography, enabling detailed modeling of the channel. The channel was acoustically probed using LFM waveforms and m-sequences as well. We will present the results of demodulating the FHFSK and CDMA waveforms and discuss modeling the channel for the purpose of predicting multi-user communications performance. a)Michael B. Porter, Paul Hursky, Martin Siderius (SAIC), Mohsen Badiey (UD), Jerald Caruthers (USM), William S. Hodgkiss, Kaustubha Raghukumar (SIO), Dan Rouseff, Warren Fox (APL-UW), Christian de Moustier, Brian Calder, Barbara J. Kraft (UNH), Keyko McDonald (SPAWARSSC), Peter Stein, James K. Lewis, and Subramaniam Rajan (SSI).

  12. A joint swarm intelligence algorithm for multi-user detection in MIMO-OFDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fengye; Du, Dakun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhijun

    2014-11-01

    In the multi-input multi-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system, traditional multi-user detection (MUD) algorithms that usually used to suppress multiple access interference are difficult to balance system detection performance and the complexity of the algorithm. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a joint swarm intelligence algorithm called Ant Colony and Particle Swarm Optimisation (AC-PSO) by integrating particle swarm optimisation (PSO) and ant colony optimisation (ACO) algorithms. According to simulation results, it has been shown that, with low computational complexity, the MUD for the MIMO-OFDM system based on AC-PSO algorithm gains comparable MUD performance with maximum likelihood algorithm. Thus, the proposed AC-PSO algorithm provides a satisfactory trade-off between computational complexity and detection performance.

  13. The theory research of multi-user quantum access network with Measurement Device Independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yi-Ming; Li, Yun-Xia; Shi, Lei; Meng, Wen; Cui, Shu-Min; Xu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Quantum access network can't guarantee the absolute security of multi-user detector and eavesdropper can get access to key information through time-shift attack and other ways. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is immune from all the detection attacks, and accomplishes the safe sharing of quantum key. In this paper, that Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is used in the application of multi-user quantum access to the network is on the research. By adopting time-division multiplexing technology to achieve the sharing of multiuser detector, the system structure is simplified and the security of quantum key sharing is acquired.

  14. A Web-based Multi-user Interactive Visualization System For Large-Scale Computing Using Google Web Toolkit Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R. M.; McLane, J. C.; Yuen, D. A.; Wang, S.

    2009-12-01

    We have created a web-based, interactive system for multi-user collaborative visualization of large data sets (on the order of terabytes) that allows users in geographically disparate locations to simultaneous and collectively visualize large data sets over the Internet. By leveraging asynchronous java and XML (AJAX) web development paradigms via the Google Web Toolkit (http://code.google.com/webtoolkit/), we are able to provide remote, web-based users a web portal to LCSE's (http://www.lcse.umn.edu) large-scale interactive visualization system already in place at the University of Minnesota that provides high resolution visualizations to the order of 15 million pixels by Megan Damon. In the current version of our software, we have implemented a new, highly extensible back-end framework built around HTTP "server push" technology to provide a rich collaborative environment and a smooth end-user experience. Furthermore, the web application is accessible via a variety of devices including netbooks, iPhones, and other web- and javascript-enabled cell phones. New features in the current version include: the ability for (1) users to launch multiple visualizations, (2) a user to invite one or more other users to view their visualization in real-time (multiple observers), (3) users to delegate control aspects of the visualization to others (multiple controllers) , and (4) engage in collaborative chat and instant messaging with other users within the user interface of the web application. We will explain choices made regarding implementation, overall system architecture and method of operation, and the benefits of an extensible, modular design. We will also discuss future goals, features, and our plans for increasing scalability of the system which includes a discussion of the benefits potentially afforded us by a migration of server-side components to the Google Application Engine (http://code.google.com/appengine/).

  15. Engineering Synthetic cis-Regulatory Elements for Simultaneous Recognition of Three Transcriptional Factors in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Amores, Gerardo Ruiz; Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Silva-Rocha, Rafael

    2015-12-18

    Recognition of cis-regulatory elements by transcription factors (TF) at target promoters is crucial to gene regulation in bacteria. In this process, binding of TFs to their cognate sequences depends on a set of physical interactions between these proteins and specific nucleotides in the operator region. Previously, we showed that in silico optimization algorithms are able to generate short sequences that are recognized by two different TFs of Escherichia coli, namely, CRP and IHF, thus generating an AND logic gate. Here, we expanded this approach in order to engineer DNA sequences that can be simultaneously recognized by three unrelated TFs (CRP, IHF, and Fis). Using in silico optimization and experimental validation strategies, we were able to obtain a candidate promoter (Plac-CFI1) regulated by only two TFs with an AND logic, thus demonstrating a limitation in the design. Subsequently, we modified the algorithm to allow the optimization of extended sequences, and were able to design two synthetic promoters (PCFI20-1 and PCFI22-5) that were functional in vivo. Expression assays in E. coli mutant strains for each TF revealed that while CRP positively regulates the promoter activities, IHF and Fis are strong repressors of both the promoter variants. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential of in silico strategies in bacterial synthetic promoter engineering. Furthermore, the study also shows how small modifications in cis-regulatory elements can drastically affect the final logic of the resulting promoter. PMID:26305598

  16. Engineering responsive polymer building blocks with host-guest molecular recognition for functional applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinming; Liu, Shiyong

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: All living organisms and soft matter are intrinsically responsive and adaptive to external stimuli. Inspired by this fact, tremendous effort aiming to emulate subtle responsive features exhibited by nature has spurred the invention of a diverse range of responsive polymeric materials. Conventional stimuli-responsive polymers are constructed via covalent bonds and can undergo reversible or irreversible changes in chemical structures, physicochemical properties, or both in response to a variety of external stimuli. They have been imparted with a variety of emerging applications including drug and gene delivery, optical sensing and imaging, diagnostics and therapies, smart coatings and textiles, and tissue engineering. On the other hand, in comparison with molecular chemistry held by covalent bonds, supramolecular chemistry built on weak and reversible noncovalent interactions has emerged as a powerful and versatile strategy for materials fabrication due to its facile accessibility, extraordinary reversibility and adaptivity, and potent applications in diverse fields. Typically involving more than one type of noncovalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic association, electrostatic interactions, van der Waals forces, and π-π stacking), host-guest recognition refers to the formation of supramolecular inclusion complexes between two or more entities connected together in a highly controlled and cooperative manner. The inherently reversible and adaptive nature of host-guest molecular recognition chemistry, stemming from multiple noncovalent interactions, has opened up a new platform to construct novel types of stimuli-responsive materials. The introduction of host-guest chemistry not only enriches the realm of responsive materials but also confers them with promising new applications. Most intriguingly, the integration of responsive polymer building blocks with host-guest recognition motifs will endow the former with

  17. A cell-based immunobiosensor with engineered molecular recognition--Part I: Design feasibility.

    PubMed

    Pizziconi, V B; Page, D L

    1997-01-01

    A novel bioelectronic sensor is described in which living immune cells are transformed into unique biotransducer couples by engineering their molecular recognition for preselected antigens of clinical interest. This 'hybrid' biosensor, constructed with mast cells interfaced to a microfabricated thermoelectric device with the use of biomolecular linkages, is capable of detecting antigens in real time by transducing minute heat changes arising from antigen-induced mast cell activation processes. The thermoelectric approach was selected based upon preliminary bioenergetic calculations which indicated that metabolic changes arising from mast cell antigen recognition result in a significant increase in exothermic heat relative to basal metabolic conditions. Experimental studies confirmed that mast cell activation and degranulation can be discriminated theramally from basal metabolic activity. Results obtained from microcalorimetry experiments using cultured mast cells (MC/9) mucosal-like mast cell line), and harvested mast cells (rat peritoneal mast cells) indicated that detectable increases in heat output (-3 +/- 0.5 pW/cell, mean peak output) immediately followed cell activation. The construction of a miniature hybrid immunobiosensor device was made possible by bioelectronic coupling achieved with the use of cellular adhesive proteins that immobilized non-adherent (MC/9) cells as well as adherent (RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia) cells to the thermopile. Results from preliminary tests conducted on a hybrid biosensor prototype validated the design feasibility of a miniature, living cell immunodiagnostic biosensor. Such cell-based hybrid biosensor approaches may greatly extend the capability for selective, rapid, on-site, antigen detection for a wide range of clinically relevant antigens and offer new approaches to in vitro diagnostics. PMID:9178514

  18. Applications of the Helping Relationship in Multi-User Virtual Environments: An Exploration of Counseling from Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Karl Jerome

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the perceptions of professional counselors who provide avatar-based services in multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) and their descriptions of those services. Using a virtual micro-ethnographic design, the principal investigator interviewed counselors (N=5) licensed or certified to practice in their geographic location about…

  19. An Architecture For Shared Multi-User Client Rendering Of Massive Geodatasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naser, A.; Brooke, J.; Rasheed, M.; Irving, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a novel data-centric visualization architecture to allow interactive exploration of geophysical data. Our method allows multiple users to collaborate in a lightweight, loosely-coupled and highly scalable environment. We choose 3D seismic data for our case study. Existing visualization solutions for data exploratory tasks are mainly application-centric rather than data-centric. They typically store large datasets on users' local machines for fast access. Additionally, data objects that are the focus of study, e.g. seismic surveys and interpreted geological features, are managed as objects that are independent of the primary data. Thus multi-user collaborations where different users visually share their geological interpretations are handled inefficiently since objects from each interpretation are stored as independent discrete objects. These objects may be stored separately from the primary data, e.g. on local disks, ensuring a coherent multi-user view is difficult. Our visual analytic method places a central data structure built on a Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) relational database at the heart of the visualization architecture. This structure allows us to develop the following efficient methods for data retrieval and display: -global hashing for spatial reference on all datasets -interpretation tagging which accumulate user interpretation into the database -multi-user concurrent access allowing parallel multi-threading queries In our data structure, data elements are indexed on their geolocations by a hashing algorithm. The hashing algorithm determines the location of the required row through hashing functions without a construction or any storage complexity. This is unlike other conventional indexing algorithms such as bitmapping or tree-based methods where construction and storage (of the index table) complexity varies between O(n) and O(n log n) where n is the size of the dataset. Also, we replace the geometric objects formed as a

  20. Inspiring Equal Contribution and Opportunity in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment: Bringing Together Men Gamers and Women Non-Gamers in Second Life[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    A 3D multi-user virtual environment holds promise to support and enhance student online learning communities due to its ability to promote global synchronous interaction and collaboration, rich multisensory experience and expression, and elaborate design capabilities. Second Life[R], a multi-user virtual environment intended for adult users 18 and…

  1. Structural Plasticity of PAM Recognition by Engineered Variants of the RNA-Guided Endonuclease Cas9.

    PubMed

    Anders, Carolin; Bargsten, Katja; Jinek, Martin

    2016-03-17

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) forms the core of a powerful genome editing technology. DNA cleavage by SpCas9 is dependent on the presence of a 5'-NGG-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA, restricting the choice of targetable sequences. To address this limitation, artificial SpCas9 variants with altered PAM specificities have recently been developed. Here we report crystal structures of the VQR, EQR, and VRER SpCas9 variants bound to target DNAs containing their preferred PAM sequences. The structures reveal that the non-canonical PAMs are recognized by an induced fit mechanism. Besides mediating sequence-specific base recognition, the amino acid substitutions introduced in the SpCas9 variants facilitate conformational remodeling of the PAM region of the bound DNA. Guided by the structural data, we engineered a SpCas9 variant that specifically recognizes NAAG PAMs. Taken together, these studies inform further development of Cas9-based genome editing tools. PMID:26990992

  2. FEANICS: A Multi-User Facility For Conducting Solid Fuel Combustion Experiments On ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frate, David T.; Tofil, Todd A.

    2001-01-01

    The Destiny Module on the International Space Station (ISS) will soon be home for the Fluids and Combustion Facility's (FCF) Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), which is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The CIR will be the platform for future microgravity combustion experiments. A multi-user mini-facility called FEANICS (Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids) will also be built at NASA Glenn. This mini-facility will be the primary means for conducting solid fuel combustion experiments in the CIR on ISS. The main focus of many of these solid combustion experiments will be to conduct basic and applied scientific investigations in fire-safety to support NASA's Bioastronautics Initiative. The FEANICS project team will work in conjunction with the CIR project team to develop upgradeable and reusable hardware to meet the science requirements of current and future investigators. Currently, there are six experiments that are candidates to use the FEANICS mini-facility. This paper will describe the capabilities of this mini-facility and the type of solid combustion testing and diagnostics that can be performed.

  3. A multi-user real time inventorying system for radioactive materials: a networking approach.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Bandyopadhyay, D; Hoory, S

    1998-01-01

    A computerized system for radioisotope management and real time inventory coordinated across a large organization is reported. It handles hundreds of individual users and their separate inventory records. Use of highly efficient computer network and database technologies makes it possible to accept, maintain, and furnish all records related to receipt, usage, and disposal of the radioactive materials for the users separately and collectively. The system's central processor is an HP-9000/800 G60 RISC server and users from across the organization use their personal computers to login to this server using the TCP/IP networking protocol, which makes distributed use of the system possible. Radioisotope decay is automatically calculated by the program, so that it can make the up-to-date radioisotope inventory data of an entire institution available immediately. The system is specifically designed to allow use by large numbers of users (about 300) and accommodates high volumes of data input and retrieval without compromising simplicity and accuracy. Overall, it is an example of a true multi-user, on-line, relational database information system that makes the functioning of a radiation safety department efficient. PMID:9415583

  4. Exploring the Use of Individualized, Reflective Guidance In an Educational Multi-User Virtual Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Brian C.

    2007-02-01

    This study examines the patterns of use and potential impact of individualized, reflective guidance in an educational Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE). A guidance system embedded within a MUVE-based scientific inquiry curriculum was implemented with a sample of middle school students in an exploratory study investigating (a) whether access to the guidance system was associated with improved learning, (b) whether students viewing more guidance messages saw greater improvement on content tests than those viewing less, and (c) whether there were any differences in guidance use among boys and girls. Initial experimental findings showed that basic access to individualized guidance used with a MUVE had no measurable impact on learning. However, post-hoc exploratory analyses indicated that increased use of the system among those with access to it was positively associated with content test score gains. In addition, differences were found in overall learning outcomes by gender and in patterns of guidance use by boys and girls, with girls outperforming boys across a spectrum of guidance system use. Based on these exploratory findings, the paper suggests design guidelines for the development of guidance systems embedded in MUVEs and outlines directions for further research.

  5. Multi-Objective Multi-User Scheduling for Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Giuliano, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an architecture called MUSE (Multi-User Scheduling Environment) to enable the integration of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms with existing domain planning and scheduling tools. Our approach is intended to make it possible to re-use existing software, while obtaining the advantages of multi-objective optimization algorithms. This approach enables multiple participants to actively engage in the optimization process, each representing one or more objectives in the optimization problem. As initial applications, we apply our approach to scheduling the James Webb Space Telescope, where three objectives are modeled: minimizing wasted time, minimizing the number of observations that miss their last planning opportunity in a year, and minimizing the (vector) build up of angular momentum that would necessitate the use of mission critical propellant to dump the momentum. As a second application area, we model aspects of the Cassini science planning process, including the trade-off between collecting data (subject to onboard recorder capacity) and transmitting saved data to Earth. A third mission application is that of scheduling the Cluster 4-spacecraft constellation plasma experiment. In this paper we describe our overall architecture and our adaptations for these different application domains. We also describe our plans for applying this approach to other science mission planning and scheduling problems in the future.

  6. Multi-user satellite communications system using an innovative compressive receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    There is a need for an onboard simultaneous multi-channel demodulation system for a satellite communications system. Studies indicate that Convolve Multiply Convolve (CMC) filtering with surface acoustic wave (SAW) dispersive delay lines will eliminate the necessity of onboard satellite channelized filters of complex fourier transform processors. The reason for choosing the CMC technique is its ability to perform Fourier transformations in a shorter time with less space and power consumption than digital Fourier transform processors. Each ground terminal in this multi-users communications system is remotely located and operates independently; hence, a method of synchronizing the transmission of these users is presented which utilizes the existing Global Positioning System (GPS) system. Each ground user is equipped with a low cost ground terminal that has a synchronization subsystem attached to it. The system design of an onboard Multi-channel Receiver and Demodulator utilizes Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) as the modulation technique. This technique provides the best figure of merit, i.e., the lowest transmitter power requirement per communication channel.

  7. Algorithm for signal drop-out recognition in IC engine valve kinematics signal measured by laser Doppler vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosek, P.

    2012-06-01

    We present an algorithm for the recognition of signal drop-out developed particularly for measurements of valvetrain kinematics. This algorithm is needed in order to save data that are not affected by a drop-out phenomenon. Such an algorithm will increase the throughput of the engine test stand and decrease the time needed for the evaluation of the valvetrains of combustion engines. The work shows the most commonly encountered drop-outs and their characteristics and locations. It presents an automatic separation algorithm for the measured signal so that the drop-out recognition tests can be aimed at specific data intervals (valve opening, valve closing, etc.) with specifically set parameters of the algorithm.

  8. Simultaneous injection of stable and radioactive ions into upgraded multi-user atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Amichay

    Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) national user research facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Presently, Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) produced in the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility are charge bred in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) charge breeder prior to post acceleration in ATLAS. A new state of the art Electron Beam Ion Source charge breeder, the CARIBU-EBIS charge breeder, has been developed (not in the scope of the work presented here) at ANL to replace the existing ECR charge breeder for charge breeding RIBs generated in CARIBU. The CARIBU-EBIS charge breeder is now in the final stages of offline at the Accelerator Development Test Facility (ADTF). A significant part of the commissioning effort has been devoted to testing the source by breeding singly-charged cesium ions injected from a surface ionization source. Characterization of the CARIBU-EBIS performance has been accomplished through a comparison between the measured properties of extracted beams and simulation results. Following its offline commissioning, CARIBU-EBIS will be relocated to its permanent location in ATLAS. An electrostatic transport line has been designed to transport RIBs from CARIBU and inject them into CARIBU-EBIS. In addition, modifications to the existing ATLAS Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) were required in order to transport the charge bred RIBs from CARIBU-EBIS to ATLAS. A proposal for upgrading ATLAS to a multi-user facility has been explored as well. In this context, beam dynamics simulations show that further modifications to the ATLAS LEBT will enable the simultaneous injection and acceleration of RIBs and stable beams in ATLAS. Furthermore, a novel technique proposed by Ostroumov et al. will allow for the acceleration of multiple charge states from CARIBU-EBIS, thereby increasing the intensity of available RIBs by up to 60%.

  9. Quantum key distribution in a multi-user network at gigahertz clock rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Veronica; Gordon, Karen J.; Collins, Robert J.; Townsend, Paul D.; Cova, Sergio D.; Rech, Ivan; Buller, Gerald S.

    2005-07-01

    In recent years quantum information research has lead to the discovery of a number of remarkable new paradigms for information processing and communication. These developments include quantum cryptography schemes that offer unconditionally secure information transport guaranteed by quantum-mechanical laws. Such potentially disruptive security technologies could be of high strategic and economic value in the future. Two major issues confronting researchers in this field are the transmission range (typically <100km) and the key exchange rate, which can be as low as a few bits per second at long optical fiber distances. This paper describes further research of an approach to significantly enhance the key exchange rate in an optical fiber system at distances in the range of 1-20km. We will present results on a number of application scenarios, including point-to-point links and multi-user networks. Quantum key distribution systems have been developed, which use standard telecommunications optical fiber, and which are capable of operating at clock rates of up to 2GHz. They implement a polarization-encoded version of the B92 protocol and employ vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with emission wavelengths of 850 nm as weak coherent light sources, as well as silicon single-photon avalanche diodes as the single photon detectors. The point-to-point quantum key distribution system exhibited a quantum bit error rate of 1.4%, and an estimated net bit rate greater than 100,000 bits-1 for a 4.2 km transmission range.

  10. The spatial vision tree: a generic pattern recognition engine: scientific foundations, design principles, and preliminary tree design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2010-04-01

    New foundational ideas are used to define a novel approach to generic visual pattern recognition. These ideas proceed from the starting point of the intrinsic equivalence of noise reduction and pattern recognition when noise reduction is taken to its theoretical limit of explicit matched filtering. This led us to think of the logical extension of sparse coding using basis function transforms for both de-noising and pattern recognition to the full pattern specificity of a lexicon of matched filter pattern templates. A key hypothesis is that such a lexicon can be constructed and is, in fact, a generic visual alphabet of spatial vision. Hence it provides a tractable solution for the design of a generic pattern recognition engine. Here we present the key scientific ideas, the basic design principles which emerge from these ideas, and a preliminary design of the Spatial Vision Tree (SVT). The latter is based upon a cryptographic approach whereby we measure a large aggregate estimate of the frequency of occurrence (FOO) for each pattern. These distributions are employed together with Hamming distance criteria to design a two-tier tree. Then using information theory, these same FOO distributions are used to define a precise method for pattern representation. Finally the experimental performance of the preliminary SVT on computer generated test images and complex natural images is assessed.

  11. The Spatial Vision Tree: A Generic Pattern Recognition Engine- Scientific Foundations, Design Principles, and Preliminary Tree Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    New foundational ideas are used to define a novel approach to generic visual pattern recognition. These ideas proceed from the starting point of the intrinsic equivalence of noise reduction and pattern recognition when noise reduction is taken to its theoretical limit of explicit matched filtering. This led us to think of the logical extension of sparse coding using basis function transforms for both de-noising and pattern recognition to the full pattern specificity of a lexicon of matched filter pattern templates. A key hypothesis is that such a lexicon can be constructed and is, in fact, a generic visual alphabet of spatial vision. Hence it provides a tractable solution for the design of a generic pattern recognition engine. Here we present the key scientific ideas, the basic design principles which emerge from these ideas, and a preliminary design of the Spatial Vision Tree (SVT). The latter is based upon a cryptographic approach whereby we measure a large aggregate estimate of the frequency of occurrence (FOO) for each pattern. These distributions are employed together with Hamming distance criteria to design a two-tier tree. Then using information theory, these same FOO distributions are used to define a precise method for pattern representation. Finally the experimental performance of the preliminary SVT on computer generated test images and complex natural images is assessed.

  12. Trends in the salience of data collected in a multi user virtual environment: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutwiler, M. Shane

    In this study, by exploring patterns in the degree of physical salience of the data the students collected, I investigated the relationship between the level of students' tendency to frame explanations in terms of complex patterns and evidence of how they attend to and select data in support of their developing understandings of causal relationships. I accomplished this by analyzing longitudinal data collected as part of a larger study of 143 7th grade students (clustered within 36 teams, 5 teachers, and 2 schools in the same Northeastern school district) as they navigated and collected data in an ecosystems-based multi-user virtual environment curriculum known as the EcoMUVE Pond module (Metcalf, Kamarainen, Tutwiler, Grotzer, Dede, 2011) . Using individual growth modeling (Singer & Willett, 2003) I found no direct link between student pre-intervention tendency to offer explanations containing complex causal components and patterns of physical salience-driven data collection (average physical salience level, number of low physical salience data points collected, and proportion of low physical salience data points collected), though prior science content knowledge did affect the initial status and rate of change of outcomes in the average physical salience level and proportion of low physical salience data collected over time. The findings of this study suggest two issues for consideration about the use of MUVEs to study student data collection behaviors in complex spaces. Firstly, the structure of the curriculum in which the MUVE is embedded might have a direct effect on what types of data students choose to collect. This undercuts our ability to make inferences about student-driven decisions to collect specific types of data, and suggests that a more open-ended curricular model might be better suited to this type of inquiry. Secondly, differences between teachers' choices in how to facilitate the units likely contribute to the variance in student data collection

  13. The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: the Development and Integration Concept for Droplet Combustion Payloads in the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) is a multi-user facility designed to accommodate four different droplet combustion science experiments. The MDCA will conduct experiments using the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The payload is planned for the International Space Station. The MDCA, in conjunction with the CIR, will allow for cost effective extended access to the microgravity environment, not possible on previous space flights. It is currently in the Engineering Model build phase with a planned flight launch with CIR in 2004. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities and development status of the MDCA. The MDCA contains the hardware and software required to conduct unique droplet combustion experiments in space. It consists of a Chamber Insert Assembly, an Avionics Package, and a multiple array of diagnostics. Its modular approach permits on-orbit changes for accommodating different fuels, fuel flow rates, soot sampling mechanisms, and varying droplet support and translation mechanisms to accommodate multiple investigations. Unique diagnostic measurement capabilities for each investigation are also provided. Additional hardware provided by the CIR facility includes the structural support, a combustion chamber, utilities for the avionics and diagnostic packages, and the fuel mixing capability for PI specific combustion chamber environments. Common diagnostics provided by the CIR will also be utilized by the MDCA. Single combustible fuel droplets of varying sizes, freely deployed or supported by a tether are planned for study using the MDCA. Such research supports how liquid-fuel-droplets ignite, spread, and extinguish under quiescent microgravity conditions. This understanding will help us develop more efficient energy production and propulsion systems on Earth and in space, deal better with combustion generated pollution, and address fire hazards associated with

  14. Real-time acquisition and data analysis of skeletal muscle contraction in a multi-user environment.

    PubMed

    Lieber, R L; Smith, D E; Campbell, R C; Hargens, A R

    1986-06-01

    A data acquisition system is described which acquires data from contracting skeletal muscle. The system is designed to run in a multi-user environment while acquiring contractile data in real-time. Time dedicated solely to laboratory experiments is thus eliminated. A menu-driver is included to allow users to enter experimental commands with or without command arguments. Error monitoring functions prevent operator errors from causing data loss. Data storage in both ASCII and binary formats maximizes file flexibility, readability and accessibility. Finally, an on-line tutorial and help facility is provided for user training. The system developed is applicable to any experimental environment involving data acquisition, storage and analysis. PMID:3637122

  15. Heavy-tailed distribution of the SSH Brute-force attack duration in a multi-user environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Kook; Kim, Sung-Jun; Park, Chan Yeol; Hong, Taeyoung; Chae, Huiseung

    2016-07-01

    Quite a number of cyber-attacks to be place against supercomputers that provide highperformance computing (HPC) services to public researcher. Particularly, although the secure shell protocol (SSH) brute-force attack is one of the traditional attack methods, it is still being used. Because stealth attacks that feign regular access may occur, they are even harder to detect. In this paper, we introduce methods to detect SSH brute-force attacks by analyzing the server's unsuccessful access logs and the firewall's drop events in a multi-user environment. Then, we analyze the durations of the SSH brute-force attacks that are detected by applying these methods. The results of an analysis of about 10 thousands attack source IP addresses show that the behaviors of abnormal users using SSH brute-force attacks are based on human dynamic characteristics of a typical heavy-tailed distribution.

  16. One-Step Facile Surface Engineering of Hydrophobic Nanocrystals with Designer Molecular Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Öçsoy, Ismail; Yuan, Quan; Wang, Ruowen; You, Mingxu; Zhao, Zilong; Song, Erqun; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    High quality nanocrystals have demonstrated substantial potential for biomedical applications. However, being generally hydrophobic, their use has been greatly limited by complicated and inefficient surface engineering that often fails to yield biocompatible nanocrystals with minimal aggregation in biological fluids and active targeting toward specific biomolecules. Using chimeric DNA molecules, we developed a one-step facile surface engineering method for hydrophobic Nanocrystals. The procedure is simple and versatile, generating individual nanocrystals with multiple ligands. In addition, the resulting nanocrystals can actively and specifically target various molecular addresses, varying from nucleic acids to cancer cells. Together, the strategy developed here holds great promise in generating critical technologies needed for biomedical applications of nanocrystals. PMID:22793667

  17. A Historical Chronology of the Plight of African Americans Gaining Recognition in Engineering and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Keith V.; Watson, Elwood D.

    2005-01-01

    The Black scientist in America is historically an anomaly and currently a statistical rarity. In 1984 Blacks accounted for only 2.3%, or 90,500, of the 3,995,000 employed scientists and engineers (Kusmer, 1991) Even now, in the 21st century, Blacks were 11.3% of the labor force, but only 4.2% of natural scientists, 7.6% of math and computer…

  18. Feature engineering for drug name recognition in biomedical texts: feature conjunction and feature selection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengyu; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Drug name recognition (DNR) is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge. PMID:25861377

  19. Andragogical Characteristics and Expectations of University of Hawai'i Adult Learners in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeder, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover which andragogical characteristics and expectations of adult learners manifested themselves in the three-dimensional, multi-user virtual environment known as Second Life. This digital ethnographic study focused specifically on adult students within the University of Hawai'i Second Life group and their…

  20. Engineering self-contained DNA circuit for proximity recognition and localized signal amplification of target biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Yan Shan; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry

    2014-01-01

    Biomolecular interactions have important cellular implications, however, a simple method for the sensing of such proximal events is lacking in the current molecular toolbox. We designed a dynamic DNA circuit capable of recognizing targets in close proximity to initiate a pre-programmed signal transduction process resulting in localized signal amplification. The entire circuit was engineered to be self-contained, i.e. it can self-assemble onto individual target molecules autonomously and form localized signal with minimal cross-talk. α-thrombin was used as a model protein to evaluate the performance of the individual modules and the overall circuit for proximity interaction under physiologically relevant buffer condition. The circuit achieved good selectivity in presence of non-specific protein and interfering serum matrix and successfully detected for physiologically relevant α-thrombin concentration (50 nM–5 μM) in a single mixing step without any further washing. The formation of localized signal at the interaction site can be enhanced kinetically through the control of temperature and probe concentration. This work provides a basic general framework from which other circuit modules can be adapted for the sensing of other biomolecular or cellular interaction of interest. PMID:25056307

  1. A cell-based immunobiosensor with engineered molecular recognition--Part II: Enzyme amplification systems.

    PubMed

    Page, D L; Pizziconi, V B

    1997-01-01

    Immune cells in vivo routinely perform highly selective immunosensing in blood and tissues as part of their normal immune surveillance functions. We have been investigating the potential of exploiting the immunosensing detection abilities of excitable immune cells (i.e. the mast cell) for the development of whole cell immunobiosensors. A key feature is that these immune cells can be selectively engineered to recognize specific antigens in vitro. In the presence of antigen, these cells undergo excitable activation responses which result in increased metabolism and the exocytosis of stored intracellular mediators. We have previously determined that mast cell metabolic responses can be thermally transduced in real time, thus indicating the possibility of whole cell thermoelectric immunobiosensing. In this work we investigated the use of enzyme amplification systems to enhance the direct transduction of immune cell responses to analyte. It was found that with appropriate enzymes, peak outputs occurred within approximately 5 min (4-20 times faster than without enzymes) and peak response magnitudes were up to nine-fold greater than without enzymes. PMID:9253152

  2. Performance improvement of OFDM-FSO multi-user communication system with combined transmit frequency diversity and receive space diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pravindra; Srivastava, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) based free space optical (FSO) communication link gives improved performance because of narrow-band interference, improved robustness against fading and high bandwidth efficiency. It is further improved using transmit frequency diversity and space diversity at the receiver. In this paper, we propose to use OFDM architecture combined with spreading code in electrical domain, referred as code division multiplexed-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CDM-OFDM) which provides frequency diversity at the transmitter and using more than one receiver to get receive diversity. Analytical model of CDM-OFDM-FSO communication system with photo-detector space diversity using maximal ratio combining (MRC) is analyzed in the presence of turbulent atmosphere, multi-user-interference (MUI) and timing jitter. The error performance is computed in terms of receiver sensitivity and bit-error-rate (BER). In the analysis, Gamma-Gamma distribution is considered for atmospheric turbulence. The performance of OFDM-FSO link and CDM-OFDM-FSO link is compared. It is seen that for multiple users, CDM-OFDM-FSO link with transmit and receive diversity gives improved performance as compared to OFDM-FSO link.

  3. The Viking viewer for connectomics: scalable multi-user annotation and summarization of large volume data sets.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R; Mohammed, S; Grimm, B; Jones, B W; Koshevoy, P; Tasdizen, T; Whitaker, R; Marc, R E

    2011-01-01

    Modern microscope automation permits the collection of vast amounts of continuous anatomical imagery in both two and three dimensions. These large data sets present significant challenges for data storage, access, viewing, annotation and analysis. The cost and overhead of collecting and storing the data can be extremely high. Large data sets quickly exceed an individual's capability for timely analysis and present challenges in efficiently applying transforms, if needed. Finally annotated anatomical data sets can represent a significant investment of resources and should be easily accessible to the scientific community. The Viking application was our solution created to view and annotate a 16.5 TB ultrastructural retinal connectome volume and we demonstrate its utility in reconstructing neural networks for a distinctive retinal amacrine cell class. Viking has several key features. (1) It works over the internet using HTTP and supports many concurrent users limited only by hardware. (2) It supports a multi-user, collaborative annotation strategy. (3) It cleanly demarcates viewing and analysis from data collection and hosting. (4) It is capable of applying transformations in real-time. (5) It has an easily extensible user interface, allowing addition of specialized modules without rewriting the viewer. PMID:21118201

  4. International Microgravity Plasma Facility IMPF: A Multi-User Modular Research Facility for Complex Plasma Research on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seurig, R.; Burfeindt, J.; Castegini, R.; Griethe, W.; Hofmann, P.

    2002-01-01

    On March 03, 2001, the PKE-Nefedov plasma experiment was successfully put into operation on board ISS. This complex plasma experiment is the predecessor for the semi-autonomous multi-user facility IMPF (International Microgravity Plasma Facility) to be flown in 2006 with an expected operational lifetime of 10 years. IMPF is envisioned to be an international research facility for investigators in the field of multi-component plasmas containing ions, electrons, and charged microparticles. This research filed is often referred to as "complex plasmas". The actual location of IMPF on ISS is not decided yet; potential infrastructure under consideration are EXPRESS Rack, Standard Interface Rack SIR, European Drawer Rack EDR, or a to be designed custom rack infrastructure on the Russian Segment. The actual development status of the DLR funded Pre-phase B Study for IMPF will be presented. For this phase, IMPF was assumed to be integrated in an EXPRESS Rack requiring four middeck lockers with two 4-PU ISIS drawers for accommodation. Technical and operational challenges, like a 240 Mbytes/sec continuous experimental data stream for 60 minutes, will be addressed. The project was funded by the German Space Agency (DLR) and was performed in close cooperation with scientists from the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestical Physics in Munich, Germany.

  5. Performance of Multi-User Transmitter Pre-Processing Assisted Multi-Cell IDMA System for Downlink Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partibane, B.; Nagarajan, V.; Vishvaksenan, K. S.; Kalidoss, R.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present the performance of multi-user transmitter pre-processing (MUTP) assisted coded-interleave division multiple access (IDMA) system over correlated frequency-selective channels for downlink communication. We realize MUTP using singular value decomposition (SVD) technique, which exploits the channel state information (CSI) of all the active users that is acquired via feedback channels. We consider the MUTP technique to alleviate the effects of co-channel interference (CCI) and multiple access interference (MAI). To be specific, we estimate the CSI using least square error (LSE) algorithm at each of the mobile stations (MSs) and perform vector quantization using Lloyd's algorithm, and feedback the bits that represents the quantized magnitudes and phases to the base station (BS) through the dedicated low rate noisy channel. Finally we recover the quantized bits at the BS to formulate the pre-processing matrix. The performance of MUTP aided IDMA systems are evaluated for five types of delay spread distributions pertaining to long-term evolution (LTE) and Stanford University Interim (SUI) channel models. We also compare the performance of MUTP with minimum mean square error (MMSE) detector for the coded IDMA system. The considered TP scheme alleviates the effects of CCI with less complex signal detection at the MSs when compared to MMSE detector. Further, our simulation results reveal that SVD-based MUTP assisted coded IDMA system outperforms the MMSE detector in terms of achievable bit error rate (BER) with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirement by mitigating the effects of CCI and MAI.

  6. Oracle and the end-user: Practical implementation of applications in a multi-user, multi-platform environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This presentation will describe methods used to develop a standard user-interface to ORACLE applications, to train users, and document these systems in a diverse multi-user, multi-platform environment. Implementation and documentation of applications and training of users can be difficult when the end-users have diverse levels of computer proficiency and work with a multiple array of hardware platforms. We will discuss common problems encountered in such an environment and the approaches used to solve them. The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory has over 300 users, using a variety of hardware: SUN workstations, Machintoshes, PCs running MS-Windows, VAXstations, DECstations, and a variety of terminal types. The perfect scenario would be to allow everyone to access the database using a particular workstation environment, or if using a terminal, access the database using the standard function keys. For example, a Macintosh user could use a true graphics version of SQL*FORMS; likewise a SUN workstation user. We are in the process of evaluating the use of utilities such as bit-mapped versions of SQL*FORMS for SUNs and Macintoshes, and intend to continue work in that direction. However, there are still some issues to be resolved, both technical and financial, before client-server technology becomes a realistic alternative in our mixed environment. This presentation will have two components. Part 1 will address some technical issues concerned with providing a standard user interface. Part 2 will deal with administrative issues; specifically documentation, user training, and communications between users and developers.

  7. Oracle and the end-user: Practical implementation of applications in a multi-user, multi-platform environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will describe methods used to develop a standard user-interface to ORACLE applications, to train users, and document these systems in a diverse multi-user, multi-platform environment. Implementation and documentation of applications and training of users can be difficult when the end-users have diverse levels of computer proficiency and work with a multiple array of hardware platforms. We will discuss common problems encountered in such an environment and the approaches used to solve them. The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory has over 300 users, using a variety of hardware: SUN workstations, Machintoshes, PCs running MS-Windows, VAXstations, DECstations, and a variety of terminal types. The perfect scenario would be to allow everyone to access the database using a particular workstation environment, or if using a terminal, access the database using the standard function keys. For example, a Macintosh user could use a true graphics version of SQL*FORMS; likewise a SUN workstation user. We are in the process of evaluating the use of utilities such as bit-mapped versions of SQL*FORMS for SUNs and Macintoshes, and intend to continue work in that direction. However, there are still some issues to be resolved, both technical and financial, before client-server technology becomes a realistic alternative in our mixed environment. This presentation will have two components. Part 1 will address some technical issues concerned with providing a standard user interface. Part 2 will deal with administrative issues; specifically documentation, user training, and communications between users and developers.

  8. Engineering Duplex RNAs for Challenging Targets: Recognition of GGGGCC/CCCCGG Repeats at the ALS/FTD C9orf72 Locus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiaxin; Liu, Jing; Li, Liande; Gagnon, Keith T; Corey, David R

    2015-11-19

    A GGGGCC expansion within an intronic region of the C9orf72 gene forms RNA foci that are associated with one-third of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and one-quarter of frontotemporal dementia. The C9orf72 locus also expresses an antisense transcript with a CCCCGG expansion that forms foci and may contribute to disease. Synthetic agents that bind these hexanucleotide repeats and block foci would be leads for therapeutic discovery. We have engineered duplex RNAs to enable them to recognize difficult C/G targets. Recognition inhibits foci formed by both GGGGCC and CCCCGG RNA. Our findings show that a single duplex RNA can be used to recognize both disease-related C9orf72 transcripts. More broadly, we extend RNAi to previously inaccessible C/G sequences and provide another example of target recognition in human cells by nuclear RNAi. PMID:26584779

  9. Bidirectional and Multi-User Telerehabilitation System: Clinical Effect on Balance, Functional Activity, and Satisfaction in Patients with Chronic Stroke Living in Long-Term Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Chen, Chin-Hsing; Chen, You-Yin; Huang, Wen-Tzeng; Lai, Jin-Shin; Yu, Shang-Ming; Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Background The application of internet technology for telerehabilitation in patients with stroke has developed rapidly. Objective The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of a bidirectional and multi-user telerehabilitation system on balance and satisfaction in patients with chronic stroke living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Method This pilot study used a multi-site, blocked randomization design. Twenty-four participants from three LTCFs were recruited, and the participants were randomly assigned into the telerehabilitation (Tele) and conventional therapy (Conv) groups within each LTCF. Tele group received telerehabilitation but the Conv group received conventional therapy with two persons in each group for three sessions per week and for four weeks. The outcome measures included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Barthel Index (BI), and the telerehabilitation satisfaction of the participants. Setting A telerehabilitation system included “therapist end” in a laboratory, and the “client end” in LTCFs. The conventional therapy was conducted in LTCFs. Results Training programs conducted for both the Tele and Conv groups showed significant effects within groups on the participant BBS as well as the total and self-care scores of BI. No significant difference between groups could be demonstrated. The satisfaction of participants between the Tele and the Conv groups also did not show significant difference. Conclusions This pilot study indicated that the multi-user telerehabilitation program is feasible for improving the balance and functional activity similar to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke living in LTCFs. PMID:25019632

  10. Rational engineering of the Neurospora VS ribozyme to allow substrate recognition via different kissing-loop interactions.

    PubMed

    Lacroix-Labonté, Julie; Girard, Nicolas; Dagenais, Pierre; Legault, Pascale

    2016-08-19

    The Neurospora VS ribozyme is a catalytic RNA that has the unique ability to specifically recognize and cleave a stem-loop substrate through formation of a highly stable kissing-loop interaction (KLI). In order to explore the engineering potential of the VS ribozyme to cleave alternate substrates, we substituted the wild-type KLI by other known KLIs using an innovative engineering method that combines rational and combinatorial approaches. A bioinformatic search of the protein data bank was initially performed to identify KLIs that are structurally similar to the one found in the VS ribozyme. Next, substrate/ribozyme (S/R) pairs that incorporate these alternative KLIs were kinetically and structurally characterized. Interestingly, several of the resulting S/R pairs allowed substrate cleavage with substantial catalytic efficiency, although with reduced activity compared to the reference S/R pair. Overall, this study describes an innovative approach for RNA engineering and establishes that the KLI of the trans VS ribozyme can be adapted to cleave other folded RNA substrates. PMID:27166370

  11. Effects of diesel engine exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols on novel object recognition ability and maternal behavior in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujitani, Yuji; Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Furuyama, Akiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Tsukahara, Shinji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Hirano, Seishiro

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE) in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs) produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control), DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week) and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, respectively

  12. Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Secondary Organic Aerosols on Novel Object Recognition Ability and Maternal Behavior in BALB/C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujitani, Yuji; Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Furuyama, Akiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Tsukahara, Shinji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Hirano, Seishiro

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE) in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs) produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control), DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week) and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, respectively

  13. The AstroVR Collaboratory, an On-line Multi-User Environment for Research in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Buren, D.; Curtis, P.; Nichols, D. A.; Brundage, M.

    We describe our experiment with an on-line collaborative environment where users share the execution of programs and communicate via audio, video, and typed text. Collaborative environments represent the next step in computer-mediated conferencing, combining powerful compute engines, data persistence, shared applications, and teleconferencing tools. As proof of concept, we have implemented a shared image analysis tool, allowing geographically distinct users to analyze FITS images together. We anticipate that \\htmllink{AstroVR}{http://astrovr.ipac.caltech.edu:8888} and similar systems will become an important part of collaborative work in the next decade, including with applications in remote observing, spacecraft operations, on-line meetings, as well as and day-to-day research activities. The technology is generic and promises to find uses in business, medicine, government, and education.

  14. The Effect of the Use of the 3-D Multi-User Virtual Environment "Second Life" on Student Motivation and Language Proficiency in Courses of Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pares-Toral, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing popularity of virtual worlds, also known as 3-D multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) or simply virtual worlds provides language instructors with a new tool they can exploit in their courses. For now, "Second Life" is one of the most popular MUVEs used for teaching and learning, and although "Second Life"…

  15. Do students with higher self-efficacy exhibit greater and more diverse scientific inquiry skills: An exploratory investigation in "River City", a multi-user virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    In this thesis, I conduct an exploratory study to investigate the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into authentic scientific activity and the scientific inquiry behaviors they employ while engaged in that process, over time. Scientific inquiry has been a major standard in most science education policy doctrines for the past two decades and is exemplified by activities such as making observations, formulating hypotheses, gathering and analyzing data, and forming conclusions from that data. The self-efficacy literature, however, indicates that self-efficacy levels affect perseverance and engagement. This study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. The study is conducted in a novel setting, using an innovative science curriculum delivered through an interactive computer technology that recorded each student's conversations, movements, and activities while behaving as a practicing scientist in a "virtual world" called River City. River City is a Multi-User Virtual Environment designed to engage students in a collaborative scientific inquiry-based learning experience. As a result, I was able to follow students' moment-by-moment choices of behavior while they were behaving as scientists. I collected data on students' total scientific inquiry behaviors over three visits to River City, as well as the number of sources from which they gathered their scientific data. I analyzed my longitudinal data on the 96 seventh-graders using individual growth modeling. I found that self-efficacy played a role in the number of data-gathering behaviors students engaged in initially, with high self-efficacy students engaging in more data gathering than students with low self-efficacy. However, the impact of student self-efficacy on rate of change in data gathering behavior differed by gender; by the end of the study, student self-efficacy did not impact data gathering. In addition, students' level of self-efficacy did not affect how many different

  16. MissMarble, a multi-user interdisciplinary data base of marble for archaeometric, art historian and restoration use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zöldföldi, J.; Székely, B.; Hegedüs, P.

    2009-04-01

    assured via co-ordinated activity of the data producers. The aim of the MissMarble project was to develop an interdisciplinary data base management system for analytical results of marble occurrences (geological samples) and marble artefacts (archaeological and architectural objects). The system is characterised by user friendly interfaces for data entry, storage, continuous dissemination, and exchange. Furthermore the system provides practical hints to understand the techniques applied on various samples and relate them to other literature data. The goal of the developed system is to provide help for data comparison, provenance analyses and to reveal missing analytical results. The various user groups have different access rights. Beside of the Editors, Contributors are a special user group who are allowed to enter their own analytical results. Conceptually we intend to manage the results of analyses of both type of material (archaeological and geological samples) together to handle the data in the same manner. It enhances the overlaps and the gaps in the analytical results defining the further analyses to be done. The data entries are organized in the following scheme: sample identification; methods applied on the sample; colour and fabric; mineralogical composition; textural properties; chemical and isotope geochemical composition; engineering physical properties. Dependencies on the sample type: (in case of geological sample) geological classification (age, facies); (in case of archaeological samples) archaeological description of the objects; probable provenance (if determined); conservational and restoration experience. The system is designed so that further amendments and extensions are possible without data loss. It is updated and tailored according to the experience gathered during its use. To this end a pinboard is used for user feedback. The system functionalities, data structure and data content are regularly revised according to the requirements of the users

  17. Using a multi-user desktop-based virtual reality system to recreate the São Miguel das Missões ruins.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Selan R; Fraga, Letícia S

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a project initiated back in 1999, in which Virtual Reality is applied in order to create a virtual community over the Internet. The desktop-based multi-user virtual reality system recreates a three-dimensional environment based on photogrammetric maps from the São Miguel das Missões church ruins. The ruins correspond to one of the Jesuit Mission (settlement) which was active in the south of Brazil in the 17th and 18th centuries. It has a great importance to the local region in terms of cultural, historic, and tourist aspects. It has also been inscribed in the UNESCO's world heritage list since 1983. This electronic mock-up allows several interactive operations such as community chats, electronic message exchanging, message boards, walking-through, discussion groups, and embedding of other media such as movies, sound, and html pages. The only requirement necessary to access the community is a web browser powered with any Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) plug-in freely available over the Internet. It is expected that such a solution improves the conservation and dissemination of the Brazilian historic patrimony, congregating history, art, and tourist information in one place on the Internet. PMID:12448784

  18. Voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Amit; McLoud, Theresa C

    2003-07-01

    Voice recognition represents one of the new technologies that are changing the practice of radiology. Thirty percent of radiology practices are either currently or plan to have voice recognition (VR) systems. VR software encompasses 4 core processes: spoken recognition of human speech, synthesis of human readable characters into speech, speaker identification and verification, and comprehension. Many software packages are available offering VR. All these packages should contain an interface with the radiology information system. The benefits include decreased turnaround time and cost savings. Its advantages include the transfer of secretarial duties to the radiologist with a result in decreased productivity. PMID:12867815

  19. Speech recognition based on pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiner, Lawrence R.

    1990-05-01

    Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. The use of pattern recognition techniques were applied to the problems of isolated word (or discrete utterance) recognition, connected word recognition, and continuous speech recognition. It is shown that understanding (and consequently the resulting recognizer performance) is best to the simplest recognition tasks and is considerably less well developed for large scale recognition systems.

  20. Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.B.

    1984-02-28

    An internal combustion engine has a piston rack depending from each piston. This rack is connected to a power output shaft through a mechanical rectifier so that the power output shaft rotates in only one direction. A connecting rod is pivotally connected at one end to the rack and at the other end to the crank of a reduced function crankshaft so that the crankshaft rotates at the same angular velocity as the power output shaft and at the same frequency as the pistons. The crankshaft has a size, weight and shape sufficient to return the pistons back into the cylinders in position for the next power stroke.

  1. Chemical Engineering Division Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical Engineering Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lecturer was Theodore Vermeulen of the University of California at Berkeley. Other chemical engineers who received awards or special recognition at a recent ASEE annual conference are mentioned. (BB)

  2. Halogen bonding anion recognition.

    PubMed

    Brown, Asha; Beer, Paul D

    2016-07-01

    A halogen bond is an attractive non-covalent interaction between an electrophilic region in a covalently bonded halogen atom and a Lewis base. While these interactions have long been exploited as a tool in crystal engineering their powerful ability to direct supramolecular self-assembly and molecular recognition processes in solution has, until recently, been overlooked. During the last decade however an ever-increasing number of studies on solution-phase halogen-bond-mediated anion recognition processes has emerged. This Feature Article summarises advancements which have been made thus far in this rapidly developing research area. We survey the use of iodoperfluoroarene, haloimidazolium and halotriazole/triazolium halogen-bond-donor motifs in anion receptor design, before providing an account of our research into the application of mechanically interlocked rotaxane and catenane frameworks as halogen bonding anion host systems. PMID:27273600

  3. Finding a new continent versus mapping all the rivers: Recognition, ownership, and the scientific epistemological development of practicing scientists and engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdan, Andrea Marie

    Maintaining our nation's standing as a leader of innovative and premier science and engineering research requires that those on the trajectory of these careers receive both rigorous and exceptional training. In addition to educating students in the content knowledge of these disciplines, it is also necessary to train them in the professional skills associated with being competent and conscientious scientists and engineers. In the attempts to understand the best strategies to teach these skills, research during the past few decades has shown a steadily increasing interest in improving the scientific literacy of students in science and engineering disciplines. Researchers agree that fostering this literacy---particularly with respect to understanding the nature of science, i.e., scientific epistemology---is an important component in developing students' abilities to become successful practitioners of science and engineering. This research was motivated by the need to further elucidate the formative experiences that contribute to science and engineering faculty members' personal epistemologies of science. To examine the development of these epistemologies, a phenomenographical study was designed to elucidate academic scientists' and engineers' understandings of contributions, collaborations, and credit assignment. The results and inductive, grounded-theory analysis of interviews with faculty members in the College of Engineering and Science at a large, southeastern institution revealed a model of scientific epistemological development and its possible ties to professional identity development. This model can help inform changes in mentorship and training practices to better prepare students to manage the challenges posed by being scientists and engineers in the 21st-century.

  4. Recognition intent and visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man-Ying; Ching, Chi-Le

    2009-03-01

    This study adopted a change detection task to investigate whether and how recognition intent affects the construction of orthographic representation in visual word recognition. Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1) and nonreaders (Experiment 1-2) detected color changes in radical components of Chinese characters. Explicit recognition demand was imposed in Experiment 2 by an additional recognition task. When the recognition was implicit, a bias favoring the radical location informative of character identity was found in Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1), but not nonreaders (Experiment 1-2). With explicit recognition demands, the effect of radical location interacted with radical function and word frequency (Experiment 2). An estimate of identification performance under implicit recognition was derived in Experiment 3. These findings reflect the joint influence of recognition intent and orthographic regularity in shaping readers' orthographic representation. The implication for the role of visual attention in word recognition was also discussed. PMID:19036609

  5. Finding a New Continent versus Mapping All the Rivers: Recognition, Ownership, and the Scientific Epistemological Development of Practicing Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdan, Andrea Marie

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining our nation's standing as a leader of innovative and premier science and engineering research requires that those on the trajectory of these careers receive both rigorous and exceptional training. In addition to educating students in the content knowledge of these disciplines, it is also necessary to train them in the professional…

  6. Recognition Tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Stuart; He, Jin; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel; Zhang, Peiming; Chang, Shuai; Huang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically-functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode (“tethered molecule-pair” configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the “free analyte” configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. PMID:20522930

  7. Evidential significance of automotive paint trace evidence using a pattern recognition based infrared library search engine for the Paint Data Query Forensic Database.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Barry K; White, Collin G; Allen, Matthew D; Fasasi, Ayuba; Weakley, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    A prototype library search engine has been further developed to search the infrared spectral libraries of the paint data query database to identify the line and model of a vehicle from the clear coat, surfacer-primer, and e-coat layers of an intact paint chip. For this study, search prefilters were developed from 1181 automotive paint systems spanning 3 manufacturers: General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford. The best match between each unknown and the spectra in the hit list generated by the search prefilters was identified using a cross-correlation library search algorithm that performed both a forward and backward search. In the forward search, spectra were divided into intervals and further subdivided into windows (which corresponds to the time lag for the comparison) within those intervals. The top five hits identified in each search window were compiled; a histogram was computed that summarized the frequency of occurrence for each library sample, with the IR spectra most similar to the unknown flagged. The backward search computed the frequency and occurrence of each line and model without regard to the identity of the individual spectra. Only those lines and models with a frequency of occurrence greater than or equal to 20% were included in the final hit list. If there was agreement between the forward and backward search results, the specific line and model common to both hit lists was always the correct assignment. Samples assigned to the same line and model by both searches are always well represented in the library and correlate well on an individual basis to specific library samples. For these samples, one can have confidence in the accuracy of the match. This was not the case for the results obtained using commercial library search algorithms, as the hit quality index scores for the top twenty hits were always greater than 99%. PMID:27474314

  8. Speech recognition and understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Vintsyuk, T.K.

    1983-05-01

    This article discusses the automatic processing of speech signals with the aim of finding a sequence of works (speech recognition) or a concept (speech understanding) being transmitted by the speech signal. The goal of the research is to develop an automatic typewriter that will automatically edit and type text under voice control. A dynamic programming method is proposed in which all possible class signals are stored, after which the presented signal is compared to all the stored signals during the recognition phase. Topics considered include element-by-element recognition of words of speech, learning speech recognition, phoneme-by-phoneme speech recognition, the recognition of connected speech, understanding connected speech, and prospects for designing speech recognition and understanding systems. An application of the composition dynamic programming method for the solution of basic problems in the recognition and understanding of speech is presented.

  9. Survey of Gait Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling-Feng; Jia, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Hai

    Gait recognition, the process of identifying an individual by his /her walking style, is a relatively new research area. It has been receiving wide attention in the computer vision community. In this paper, a comprehensive survey of video based gait recognition approaches is presented. And the research challenges and future directions of the gait recognition are also discussed.

  10. Finding the missing code of RNA recognition by PUF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Varani, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Pumilio and FBF homology (PUF) proteins represent highly promising candidates for engineering sequence-specific RNA recognition, but were only known to recognize G, A and U, significantly limiting applications. Two groups (Filipovska et al., 2011; Dong et al., 2011) have now reported the discovery of the cytosine-recognition code for PUF proteins. PMID:21802002

  11. Optical Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  12. Diagnostic odor recognition

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt; Phan; Desandre; Lobon; Hsu

    2000-10-01

    Many diseases, toxic ingestions, and intoxications have characteristic odors. These odors may provide diagnostic clues that affect rapid treatment long before laboratory confirmation or clinical deterioration. Odor recognition skills, similar to auscultation and palpation skills, require teaching and practical exposure. Dr. Goldfrank and colleagues recognized the importance of teaching odor recognition to emergency service providers. They proposed the "sniffing bar" method for odor recognition training. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the recognition rates of medically important odors among emergency care providers. (2) To investigate the effectiveness of teaching odor recognition. Hypothesis: The recognition rates of medically important odors will increase after teaching exposure. METHODS: The study exposed emergency care providers to 11 tubes of odors. Identifications of each substance were recorded. After corrective feedback, subjects were re-tested on their ability to identify the odors. Analysis of odor recognition improvement after teaching was done via chi-square test. RESULTS: Improvement in identification after teaching was seen in all odors. However, the improvement was significant only in the lesscommon substances because their initial recognition was especially low. Significant changes may improve with a larger sample size. Subjects often confuse the odors of alcohol with acetone, and wintergreen with camphor. CONCLUSIONS: The recognition rates are higher for the more-common odors, and lower for the less-common odors. Teaching exposures to the less well-known odors are effective and can significantly improve the recognition rate of these substances. Because odor recognition may affect rapid diagnosis and treatment of certain medical emergencies such as toxic ingestion, future studies should investigate the correlation between odor recognition and the ability to identify corresponding medical emergencies. PMID:11015270

  13. Face Recognition in Humans and Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, Alice; Tistarelli, Massimo

    The study of human face recognition by psychologists and neuroscientists has run parallel to the development of automatic face recognition technologies by computer scientists and engineers. In both cases, there are analogous steps of data acquisition, image processing, and the formation of representations that can support the complex and diverse tasks we accomplish with faces. These processes can be understood and compared in the context of their neural and computational implementations. In this chapter, we present the essential elements of face recognition by humans and machines, taking a perspective that spans psychological, neural, and computational approaches. From the human side, we overview the methods and techniques used in the neurobiology of face recognition, the underlying neural architecture of the system, the role of visual attention, and the nature of the representations that emerges. From the computational side, we discuss face recognition technologies and the strategies they use to overcome challenges to robust operation over viewing parameters. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a look at some recent studies that compare human and machine performances at face recognition.

  14. Moreland Recognition Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland Elementary School District, San Jose, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Recognition for special effort and achievement has been noted as a component of effective schools. Schools in the Moreland School District have effectively improved standards of discipline and achievement by providing forty-six different ways for children to receive positive recognition. Good…

  15. Automatic TLI recognition system, general description

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.

  16. Event identification by acoustic signature recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.; Kercel, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Many events of interest to the security commnnity produce acoustic emissions that are, in principle, identifiable as to cause. Some obvious examples are gunshots, breaking glass, takeoffs and landings of small aircraft, vehicular engine noises, footsteps (high frequencies when on gravel, very low frequencies. when on soil), and voices (whispers to shouts). We are investigating wavelet-based methods to extract unique features of such events for classification and identification. We also discuss methods of classification and pattern recognition specifically tailored for acoustic signatures obtained by wavelet analysis. The paper is divided into three parts: completed work, work in progress, and future applications. The completed phase has led to the successful recognition of aircraft types on landing and takeoff. Both small aircraft (twin-engine turboprop) and large (commercial airliners) were included in the study. The project considered the design of a small, field-deployable, inexpensive device. The techniques developed during the aircraft identification phase were then adapted to a multispectral electromagnetic interference monitoring device now deployed in a nuclear power plant. This is a general-purpose wavelet analysis engine, spanning 14 octaves, and can be adapted for other specific tasks. Work in progress is focused on applying the methods previously developed to speaker identification. Some of the problems to be overcome include recognition of sounds as voice patterns and as distinct from possible background noises (e.g., music), as well as identification of the speaker from a short-duration voice sample. A generalization of the completed work and the work in progress is a device capable of classifying any number of acoustic events-particularly quasi-stationary events such as engine noises and voices and singular events such as gunshots and breaking glass. We will show examples of both kinds of events and discuss their recognition likelihood.

  17. CASE Recognition Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A total of 294 schools, colleges, and universities received prizes in this year's CASE Recognition program. Awards were given in: public relations programs, student recruitment, marketing, program pulications, news writing, fund raising, radio programming, school periodicals, etc. (MLW)

  18. Planfulness and Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogoff, Barbara; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A study of recorded and analyzed inspection times in a picture recognition memory task involving three different delays between inspection and test. Subjects were 108 4-, 6-, and 8-year-old children. (Author/SDH)

  19. Pattern recognition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Technique operates regardless of pattern rotation, translation or magnification and successfully detects out-of-register patterns. It improves accuracy and reduces cost of various optical character recognition devices and page readers and provides data input to computer.

  20. Context based gait recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazazian, Shermin; Gavrilova, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Gait recognition has recently become a popular topic in the field of biometrics. However, the main hurdle is the insufficient recognition rate in the presence of low quality samples. The main focus of this paper is to investigate how the performance of a gait recognition system can be improved using additional information about behavioral patterns of users and the context in which samples have been taken. The obtained results show combining the context information with biometric data improves the performance of the system at a very low cost. The amount of improvement depends on the distinctiveness of the behavioral patterns and the quality of the gait samples. Using the appropriate distinctive behavioral models it is possible to achieve a 100% recognition rate.

  1. Design and Implementation of a Distributed Version of the NASA Engine Performance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cours, Jeffrey T.

    1994-01-01

    Distributed NEPP is a new version of the NASA Engine Performance Program that runs in parallel on a collection of Unix workstations connected through a network. The program is fault-tolerant, efficient, and shows significant speed-up in a multi-user, heterogeneous environment. This report describes the issues involved in designing distributed NEPP, the algorithms the program uses, and the performance distributed NEPP achieves. It develops an analytical model to predict and measure the performance of the simple distribution, multiple distribution, and fault-tolerant distribution algorithms that distributed NEPP incorporates. Finally, the appendices explain how to use distributed NEPP and document the organization of the program's source code.

  2. Cellular Phone Face Recognition System Based on Optical Phase Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ishikawa, Sayuri; Ohta, Maiko; Kodate, Kashiko

    We propose a high security facial recognition system using a cellular phone on the mobile network. This system is composed of a face recognition engine based on optical phase correlation which uses phase information with emphasis on a Fourier domain, a control sever and the cellular phone with a compact camera for taking pictures, as a portable terminal. Compared with various correlation methods, our face recognition engine revealed the most accurate EER of less than 1%. By using the JAVA interface on this system, we implemented the stable system taking pictures, providing functions to prevent spoofing while transferring images. This recognition system was tested on 300 women students and the results proved this system effective.

  3. Cartographic Character Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafal, Howard B.; Ward, Matthew O.

    1989-11-01

    This work details a methodology for recognizing text elements on cartographic documents. Cartographic Character Recognition differs from traditional OCR in that many fonts may occur on the same page, text may have any orientation, text may follow a curved path, and text may be interfered with by graphics. The technique presented reduces the process to three steps: blobbing, stringing, and recognition. Blobbing uses image processing techniques to turn the gray level image into a binary image and then separates the image into probable graphic elements and probable text elements. Stringing relates the text elements into words. This is done by using proximity information of the letters to create string contours. These contours also help to retrieve orientation information of the text element. Recognition takes the strings and associates a letter with each blob. The letters are first approximated using feature descriptions, resulting in a set of possible letters. Orientation information is then used to refine the guesses. Final recognition is performed using elastic matching Feedback is employed at all phases of execution to refine the processing. Stringing and recognition give information that is useful in finding hidden blobs. Recognition helps make decisions about string paths. Results of this work are shown.

  4. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2... REPRESENTATION AND APPEARANCES § 292.2 Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for...

  5. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2... REPRESENTATION AND APPEARANCES § 292.2 Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for...

  6. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2... REPRESENTATION AND APPEARANCES § 292.2 Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for...

  7. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2... REPRESENTATION AND APPEARANCES § 292.2 Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for...

  8. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2... REPRESENTATION AND APPEARANCES § 292.2 Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for...

  9. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  10. Automated galaxy recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, Barry; Anderson, Kurt

    Previous approaches to automated image processing have used both deterministic and nondeterministic techniques. These have not used any form of conceptual learning nor have they employed artificial intelligence techniques. Addition of such techniques to the task of image processing may significantly enhance the efficiencies and accuracies of the recognition and classification processes. In our application, the objects to be recognized and classified are galaxies.

  11. Automatic object recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  12. Pattern recognition in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Dick; de Ridder, Jeroen; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2013-09-01

    Pattern recognition is concerned with the development of systems that learn to solve a given problem using a set of example instances, each represented by a number of features. These problems include clustering, the grouping of similar instances; classification, the task of assigning a discrete label to a given instance; and dimensionality reduction, combining or selecting features to arrive at a more useful representation. The use of statistical pattern recognition algorithms in bioinformatics is pervasive. Classification and clustering are often applied to high-throughput measurement data arising from microarray, mass spectrometry and next-generation sequencing experiments for selecting markers, predicting phenotype and grouping objects or genes. Less explicitly, classification is at the core of a wide range of tools such as predictors of genes, protein function, functional or genetic interactions, etc., and used extensively in systems biology. A course on pattern recognition (or machine learning) should therefore be at the core of any bioinformatics education program. In this review, we discuss the main elements of a pattern recognition course, based on material developed for courses taught at the BSc, MSc and PhD levels to an audience of bioinformaticians, computer scientists and life scientists. We pay attention to common problems and pitfalls encountered in applications and in interpretation of the results obtained. PMID:23559637

  13. 1987 CASE Recognition Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 CASE Recognition Awards are presented for: general excellence in programs; student recruitment marketing improvement; video public service announcements, news, and commercial spots; total publications; magazines of the decade; improvement in periodicals; photocommunications via print; designer of the year and series; and imagination in…

  14. Microprocessor for speech recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, H.; Watari, M.; Sakoe, H.; Chiba, S.; Iwata, T.; Matsuki, T.; Kawakami, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A new single-chip microprocessor for speech recognition has been developed utilizing multi-processor architecture and pipelined structure. By DP-matching algorithm, the processor recognizes up to 340 isolated words or 40 connected words in realtime. 6 references.

  15. Intralist Cueing of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slamecka, Norman J.

    1975-01-01

    Two experiments tested for effects of intralist cues upon recognition probability. Categorized and random lists were each tested, with targets appearing with zero, one or three intralist cues. Experiments showed substantial effects of trials and list type, but not of intralist context. (CHK)

  16. Optical Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  17. View Invariant Gait Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Richard D.; Goffredo, Michela; Carter, John N.; Nixon, Mark S.

    Recognition by gait is of particular interest since it is the biometric that is available at the lowest resolution, or when other biometrics are (intentionally) obscured. Gait as a biometric has now shown increasing recognition capability. There are many approaches and these show that recognition can achieve excellent performance on current large databases. The majority of these approaches are planar 2D, largely since the early large databases featured subjects walking in a plane normal to the camera view. To extend deployment capability, we need viewpoint invariant gait biometrics. We describe approaches where viewpoint invariance is achieved by 3D approaches or in 2D. In the first group, the identification relies on parameters extracted from the 3D body deformation during walking. These methods use several video cameras and the 3D reconstruction is achieved after a camera calibration process. On the other hand, the 2D gait biometric approaches use a single camera, usually positioned perpendicular to the subject’s walking direction. Because in real surveillance scenarios a system that operates in an unconstrained environment is necessary, many of the recent gait analysis approaches are orientated toward view-invariant gait recognition.

  18. Whole-book recognition.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Pingping; Baird, Henry S

    2012-12-01

    Whole-book recognition is a document image analysis strategy that operates on the complete set of a book's page images using automatic adaptation to improve accuracy. We describe an algorithm which expects to be initialized with approximate iconic and linguistic models--derived from (generally errorful) OCR results and (generally imperfect) dictionaries--and then, guided entirely by evidence internal to the test set, corrects the models which, in turn, yields higher recognition accuracy. The iconic model describes image formation and determines the behavior of a character-image classifier, and the linguistic model describes word-occurrence probabilities. Our algorithm detects "disagreements" between these two models by measuring cross entropy between 1) the posterior probability distribution of character classes (the recognition results resulting from image classification alone) and 2) the posterior probability distribution of word classes (the recognition results from image classification combined with linguistic constraints). We show how disagreements can identify candidates for model corrections at both the character and word levels. Some model corrections will reduce the error rate over the whole book, and these can be identified by comparing model disagreements, summed across the whole book, before and after the correction is applied. Experiments on passages up to 180 pages long show that when a candidate model adaptation reduces whole-book disagreement, it is also likely to correct recognition errors. Also, the longer the passage operated on by the algorithm, the more reliable this adaptation policy becomes, and the lower the error rate achieved. The best results occur when both the iconic and linguistic models mutually correct one another. We have observed recognition error rates driven down by nearly an order of magnitude fully automatically without supervision (or indeed without any user intervention or interaction). Improvement is nearly monotonic, and

  19. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  20. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  1. Recognition of information-bearing elements in speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermansky, Hynek

    2003-10-01

    An acoustic speech signal carries many different kinds of information: the basic linguistic message, many characteristics of the speaker of the message, details of the environment in which the message was produced and transmitted, etc. The human auditory/cognitive system is able to detect, decode, and separate all these information sources. Understanding this ability and emulating it on a machine has been an important but elusive scientific and engineering goal for a long time. This talk critically surveys the situation in the speech recognition field. It puts automatic recognition of speech in perspective with other acoustic signal detection and classification tasks, reviews some historical, contemporary, and evolving techniques for machine recognition of speech, critically compares competing techniques, and gives some examples of applications in speech, speaker, and language recognition and identification. The talk is intended for an audience interested but not directly involved in the processing of speech.

  2. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  3. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REPRESENTATION AND APPEARANCES § 1292.2 Organizations qualified for...

  4. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REPRESENTATION AND APPEARANCES § 1292.2 Organizations qualified for...

  5. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REPRESENTATION AND APPEARANCES § 1292.2 Organizations qualified for...

  6. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REPRESENTATION AND APPEARANCES § 1292.2 Organizations qualified for...

  7. Recognition of Teaching Excellence*

    PubMed Central

    Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, alumni, peer, and self-assessment. The task force identifies important considerations that colleges and schools must address when establishing teaching recognition programs including the purpose, criteria, number and mix of awards, frequency, type of award, and method of nominating and determining awardees. The report concludes with recommendations for the academy to consider when establishing and revising teaching award programs. PMID:21301598

  8. Pattern Recognition by Pentraxins

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Alok; Singh, Prem Prakash; Bottazzi, Barbara; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Pentraxins are a family of evolutionarily conserved pattern-recognition proteins that are made up of five identical subunits. Based on the primary structure of the subunit, the pentraxins are divided into two groups: short pentraxins and long pentraxins. C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P-component (SAP) are the two short pentraxins. The prototype protein of the long pentraxin group is pentraxin 3 (PTX3). CRP and SAP are produced primarily in the liver while PTX3 is produced in a variety of tissues during inflammation. The main functions of short pentraxins are to recognize a variety of pathogenic agents and then to either eliminate them or neutralize their harmful effects by utilizing the complement pathways and macrophages in the host. CRP binds to modified low-density lipoproteins, bacterial polysaccharides, apoptotic cells, and nuclear materials. By virtue of these recognition functions, CRP participates in the resolution of cardiovascular, infectious, and autoimmune diseases. SAP recognizes carbohydrates, nuclear substances, and amyloid fibrils and thus participates in the resolution of infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and amyloidosis. PTX3 interacts with several ligands, including growth factors, extracellular matrix component and selected pathogens, playing a role in complement activation and facilitating pathogen recognition by phagocytes. In addition, data in gene-targeted mice show that PTX3 is essential in female fertility, participating in the assembly of the cumulus oophorus extra-cellular matrix. PTX3 is therefore a nonredundant component of the humoral arm of innate immunity as well as a tuner of inflammation. Thus, in conjunction with the other components of innate immunity, the pentraxins use their pattern-recognition property for the benefit of the host. PMID:19799114

  9. Video Scene Recognition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Robert Y.; Sallak, Rashid M.

    1983-03-01

    Microprocessors are used to show a possible implementation of a multiprocessoi system for video scene recognition operations. The system was designed in the multiple input stream and multiple data stream (MIMD) configuration. "Autonomous cooperation" among the working processors is supervised by a global operating system, the heart of which is the scheduler. The design of the scheduler and the overall operations of the system are discussed.

  10. Autonomous underwater barcode recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Karl R.

    2003-11-01

    Wide area symbol recognition is a task that plagues many autonomous vehicles. A process is needed first to recognize if the symbol is present, and if so where it is. Once the symbol's position is detected it must be analyzed and recognized. In this scenario we have a submersible attempting to locate man made objects on the bottom of a large water basin. These man made objects have bar codes on them that need to be read and the position of the code needs to be recorded relative to where it is in the entire pond. A two step process has been developed to allow the position recognition within a frame to be dealt with on a separate DSP associated with one of three total cameras. The object recognition is then dealt with on a high speed computer aboard the vehicle to read the proper code. The reading is done using a statistics based approach that assumes a noisy, but contrasting background. This approach has proven to be effective in environments in which the background has very little ordered noise, such as the bottom of lakes and ponds, but requires very high clarity in order to capture a suitable image.

  11. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia—a perceived distortion of visual space—is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment. PMID:25453116

  12. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  13. The Renaissance Engineer: Educating Engineers in a Post-9/11 World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akay, Adnan

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of engineers and their responsibilities in society, especially after the events of September 11, 2001. Suggests the need for a renaissance in engineering education and recommends cultivating a new generation of renaissance engineers based on the recognition of individual talent and customizing education accordingly. (Author/YDS)

  14. Using GOMS and Bayesian plan recognition to develop recognition models of operator behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaientz, Jack D.; DeKoven, Elyon; Piegdon, Nicholas; Wood, Scott D.; Huber, Marcus J.

    2006-05-01

    Trends in combat technology research point to an increasing role for uninhabited vehicles in modern warfare tactics. To support increased span of control over these vehicles human responsibilities need to be transformed from tedious, error-prone and cognition intensive operations into tasks that are more supervisory and manageable, even under intensely stressful conditions. The goal is to move away from only supporting human command of low-level system functions to intention-level human-system dialogue about the operator's tasks and situation. A critical element of this process is developing the means to identify when human operators need automated assistance and to identify what assistance they need. Toward this goal, we are developing an unmanned vehicle operator task recognition system that combines work in human behavior modeling and Bayesian plan recognition. Traditionally, human behavior models have been considered generative, meaning they describe all possible valid behaviors. Basing behavior recognition on models designed for behavior generation can offers advantages in improved model fidelity and reuse. It is not clear, however, how to reconcile the structural differences between behavior recognition and behavior modeling approaches. Our current work demonstrates that by pairing a cognitive psychology derived human behavior modeling approach, GOMS, with a Bayesian plan recognition engine, ASPRN, we can translate a behavior generation model into a recognition model. We will discuss the implications for using human performance models in this manner as well as suggest how this kind of modeling may be used to support the real-time control of multiple, uninhabited battlefield vehicles and other semi-autonomous systems.

  15. Hydrogels Constructed from Engineered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbin; Kong, Na; Laver, Bryce; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-02-24

    Due to their various potential biomedical applications, hydrogels based on engineered proteins have attracted considerable interest. Benefitting from significant progress in recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering/design techniques, the field of protein hydrogels has made amazing progress. The latest progress of hydrogels constructed from engineered recombinant proteins are presented, mainly focused on biorecognition-driven physical hydrogels as well as chemically crosslinked hydrogels. The various bio-recognition based physical crosslinking strategies are discussed, as well as chemical crosslinking chemistries used to engineer protein hydrogels, and protein hydrogels' various biomedical applications. The future perspectives of this fast evolving field of biomaterials are also discussed. PMID:26707834

  16. Explanation mode for Bayesian automatic object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazlett, Thomas L.; Cofer, Rufus H.; Brown, Harold K.

    1992-09-01

    One of the more useful techniques to emerge from AI is the provision of an explanation modality used by the researcher to understand and subsequently tune the reasoning of an expert system. Such a capability, missing in the arena of statistical object recognition, is not that difficult to provide. Long standing results show that the paradigm of Bayesian object recognition is truly optimal in a minimum probability of error sense. To a large degree, the Bayesian paradigm achieves optimality through adroit fusion of a wide range of lower informational data sources to give a higher quality decision--a very 'expert system' like capability. When various sources of incoming data are represented by C++ classes, it becomes possible to automatically backtrack the Bayesian data fusion process, assigning relative weights to the more significant datums and their combinations. A C++ object oriented engine is then able to synthesize 'English' like textural description of the Bayesian reasoning suitable for generalized presentation. Key concepts and examples are provided based on an actual object recognition problem.

  17. De-coding and re-coding RNA recognition by PUF and PPR repeat proteins.

    PubMed

    Hall, Traci M Tanaka

    2016-02-01

    PUF and PPR proteins are two families of α-helical repeat proteins that recognize single-stranded RNA sequences. Both protein families hold promise as scaffolds for designed RNA-binding domains. A modular protein RNA recognition code was apparent from the first crystal structures of a PUF protein in complex with RNA, and recent studies continue to advance our understanding of natural PUF protein recognition (de-coding) and our ability to engineer specificity (re-coding). Degenerate recognition motifs make de-coding specificity of individual PPR proteins challenging. Nevertheless, re-coding PPR protein specificity using a consensus recognition code has been successful. PMID:26874972

  18. A neural network for visual pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, K.

    1988-03-01

    A modeling approach, which is a synthetic approach using neural network models, continues to gain importance. In the modeling approach, the authors study how to interconnect neurons to synthesize a brain model, which is a network with the same functions and abilities as the brain. The relationship between modeling neutral networks and neurophysiology resembles that between theoretical physics and experimental physics. Modeling takes synthetic approach, while neurophysiology or psychology takes an analytical approach. Modeling neural networks is useful in explaining the brain and also in engineering applications. It brings the results of neurophysiological and psychological research to engineering applications in the most direct way possible. This article discusses a neural network model thus obtained, a model with selective attention in visual pattern recognition.

  19. Automatic speaker recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Alan; Naylor, Joe

    1984-07-01

    The Defense Communications Division of ITT (ITTDCD) has developed an automatic speaker recognition (ASR) system that meets the functional requirements defined in NRL's Statement of Work. This report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 is a short history of the development of the ASR system, both the algorithm and the implementation. Chapter 3 describes the methodology of system testing, and Chapter 4 summarizes test results. In Chapter 5, some additional testing performed using GFM test material is discussed. Conclusions derived from the contract work are given in Chapter 6.

  20. Genetic specificity of face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities. PMID:26417086

  1. A New Experiment on Bengali Character Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Sumana; Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Jeon, Seung-Whan; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Kim, Haeng-Kon

    This paper presents a method to use View based approach in Bangla Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system providing reduced data set to the ANN classification engine rather than the traditional OCR methods. It describes how Bangla characters are processed, trained and then recognized with the use of a Backpropagation Artificial neural network. This is the first published account of using a segmentation-free optical character recognition system for Bangla using a view based approach. The methodology presented here assumes that the OCR pre-processor has presented the input images to the classification engine described here. The size and the font face used to render the characters are also significant in both training and classification. The images are first converted into greyscale and then to binary images; these images are then scaled to a fit a pre-determined area with a fixed but significant number of pixels. The feature vectors are then formed extracting the characteristics points, which in this case is simply a series of 0s and 1s of fixed length. Finally, an artificial neural network is chosen for the training and classification process.

  2. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Suriani, Nor Surayahani; Hussain, Aini; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf

    2013-01-01

    Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1) the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2) frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3) the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4) various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition. PMID:23921828

  3. Sudden event recognition: a survey.

    PubMed

    Suriani, Nor Surayahani; Hussain, Aini; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf

    2013-01-01

    Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1) the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2) frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3) the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4) various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition. PMID:23921828

  4. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  5. Retina vascular network recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tascini, Guido; Passerini, Giorgio; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of morphological and structural modifications of the retina vascular network is an interesting investigation method in the study of diabetes and hypertension. Normally this analysis is carried out by qualitative evaluations, according to standardized criteria, though medical research attaches great importance to quantitative analysis of vessel color, shape and dimensions. The paper describes a system which automatically segments and recognizes the ocular fundus circulation and micro circulation network, and extracts a set of features related to morphometric aspects of vessels. For this class of images the classical segmentation methods seem weak. We propose a computer vision system in which segmentation and recognition phases are strictly connected. The system is hierarchically organized in four modules. Firstly the Image Enhancement Module (IEM) operates a set of custom image enhancements to remove blur and to prepare data for subsequent segmentation and recognition processes. Secondly the Papilla Border Analysis Module (PBAM) automatically recognizes number, position and local diameter of blood vessels departing from optical papilla. Then the Vessel Tracking Module (VTM) analyses vessels comparing the results of body and edge tracking and detects branches and crossings. Finally the Feature Extraction Module evaluates PBAM and VTM output data and extracts some numerical indexes. Used algorithms appear to be robust and have been successfully tested on various ocular fundus images.

  6. Naval ship recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino García, I.; Zölzer, U.

    2012-09-01

    Object recognition is a very interesting task with multiple applications and for that reason it has been dealt with very intensively in the last years. In particular, the application to naval ship pictures may facilitate the work of the coastguards or the navy. However, this type of images entails some difficulties due to their specific environment. Water reflects the light and as a consequence, some areas may presumably show different brightness and color. Waves from wind or moving ships pose a problem due to the additional edges that they produce. The camouflage of ships in the military context is also an issue to take into account. Therefore, it is difficult to propose a simple method that is valid for every image. A discussion about which techniques may solve these problems is presented and finally a combined solution based on contour recognition is suggested. Test images are preprocessed by histogram stretching. Then, the Canny method is applied to the image and to the reference contour in order to obtain not only their edges, but also their respective orientations. The problem of recognizing the reference contour within the detected edges is addressed by making use of the Generalized Hough Transform (GHT).

  7. Integrated text detection and recognition in natural images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roubtsova, Nadejda S.; Wijnhoven, Rob G. J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2012-03-01

    Text detection and recognition in natural images have conventionally been seen in the prior art as autonomous tasks executed in a strictly sequential processing chain with limited information sharing between sub-systems. This approach is flawed because it introduces (1) redundancy in extracting the same text properties multiple times and (2) error by prohibiting verification of hard (often binarized) detection results at later stages. We explore the possibilities for integration of detection and recognition modules by a feedforward multidimensional information stream. Integration involves suitable characterization of the text string at detection and application of the knowledge to ease recognition by a given OCR system. The choice of characterization properties generally depends on the OCR system, although some of them have proven universally applicable. We show that the proposed integration measures enable more robust recognition of text in complex, unconstrained natural environments. Specifically, integration by the proposed measures (1) eliminates textual input irregularities that recognition engines cannot handle and (2) adaptively tunes the recognition stage for each input image. The former function boosts correct detections, while the latter mainly reduces the number of false positives. Our validation experiments on a set of low-quality natural images show that adaptively tuning the OCR stage to the typical text-to-background transitions in the input image (gradient significance profiling) allows to attain an improvement of 29% in the precision-recall performance, mostly through boosting precision.

  8. Molecular recognition in protein modification with rhodium metallopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Zachary T.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical manipulation of natural, unengineered proteins is a daunting challenge which tests the limits of reaction design. By combining transition-metal or other catalysts with molecular recognition ideas, it is possible to achieve site-selective protein reactivity without the need for engineered recognition sequences or reactive sites. Some recent examples in this area have used ruthenium photocatalysis, pyridine organocatalysis, and rhodium(II) metallocarbene catalysis, indicating that the fundamental ideas provide opportunities for using diverse reactivity on complex protein substrates and in complex cell-like environments. PMID:25588960

  9. Professional Issues in System Safety Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, John; Thomas, Martyn; Redmill, Felix

    For many years the profession of system safety engineering has been emerging. This paper argues that the time has now come when it requires recognition, a voice, proper governance and leadership. System safety engineering is an amalgam of many disciplines, in particular, software engineering, safety engineering and management, and systems engineering, and this paper shows that system safety engineering must address the most difficult aspects of all of these. But professional matters extend beyond merely technical considerations, and the paper concludes by showing why there is the need for a new professional body.

  10. Engineering Knowledge for Assistive Living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liming; Nugent, Chris

    This paper introduces a knowledge based approach to assistive living in smart homes. It proposes a system architecture that makes use of knowledge in the lifecycle of assistive living. The paper describes ontology based knowledge engineering practices and discusses mechanisms for exploiting knowledge for activity recognition and assistance. It presents system implementation and experiments, and discusses initial results.

  11. Teaching and the Dialectic of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Rauno; Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the processes of recognition within education are discussed. Frequently, recognition is reduced to polite behaviour or etiquette. Another narrow view of recognition is, behaviouristically speaking, to regard it as mere feedback. We claim that authentic recognition is a different matter. Receiving recognition, as Charles Taylor has…

  12. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  13. IPEJ's Role and Responsibility on Engineering Ethics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Shigeatsu

    IPEJ (The Institution of Professional Engineers, Japan) is the representing engineering association of Japan organized under the Professional Engineer Law. Its role is to render services with respect to training to the professional engineers, guidance and communication of members in order to contribute maintaining their dignity, improving competence and advancing engineering practice. In 2000, the PE Law was amended substantially, then, IPEJ's activities are now enlarging. Those activities are concentrating into assistance to IPD for the Engineers-in-Training in view of engineering ethics, guidance to CPD for the Professional Engineers, and acceleration of capacity building for PE's as global engineers through the framework of international mutual recognition of qualifications.

  14. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply. PMID:26959677

  15. Chemical recognition software

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures. even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  16. Chemical recognition software

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.H. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures, even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  17. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  18. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  19. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  20. Computer image processing and recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic introduction to the concepts and techniques of computer image processing and recognition is presented. Consideration is given to such topics as image formation and perception; computer representation of images; image enhancement and restoration; reconstruction from projections; digital television, encoding, and data compression; scene understanding; scene matching and recognition; and processing techniques for linear systems.

  1. Online handwritten mathematical expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükbayrak, Hakan; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Erçil, Aytül

    2007-01-01

    We describe a system for recognizing online, handwritten mathematical expressions. The system is designed with a user-interface for writing scientific articles, supporting the recognition of basic mathematical expressions as well as integrals, summations, matrices etc. A feed-forward neural network recognizes symbols which are assumed to be single-stroke and a recursive algorithm parses the expression by combining neural network output and the structure of the expression. Preliminary results show that writer-dependent recognition rates are very high (99.8%) while writer-independent symbol recognition rates are lower (75%). The interface associated with the proposed system integrates the built-in recognition capabilities of the Microsoft's Tablet PC API for recognizing textual input and supports conversion of hand-drawn figures into PNG format. This enables the user to enter text, mathematics and draw figures in a single interface. After recognition, all output is combined into one LATEX code and compiled into a PDF file.

  2. A face recognition embedded system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Kwok Ho; Moon, Yiu Sang; Tsang, Chi Chiu; Chow, Chun Tak; Chan, Siu Man

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the implementation of a face recognition system in embedded systems. To investigate the feasibility and practicality of real time face recognition on such systems, a door access control system based on face recognition is built. Due to the limited computation power of embedded device, a semi-automatic scheme for face detection and eye location is proposed to solve these computationally hard problems. It is found that to achieve real time performance, optimization of the core face recognition module is needed. As a result, extensive profiling is done to pinpoint the execution hotspots in the system and optimization are carried out. After careful precision analysis, all slow floating point calculations are replaced with their fixed-point versions. Experimental results show that real time performance can be achieved without significant loss in recognition accuracy.

  3. Speech Recognition: How Do We Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barksdale, Karl

    2002-01-01

    States that growing use of speech recognition software has made voice writing an essential computer skill. Describes how to present the topic, develop basic speech recognition skills, and teach speech recognition outlining, writing, proofreading, and editing. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  4. Accuracy enhanced thermal face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Fu; Lin, Sheng-Fuu

    2013-11-01

    Human face recognition has been generally researched for the last three decades. Face recognition with thermal image has begun to attract significant attention gradually since illumination of environment would not affect the recognition performance. However, the recognition performance of traditional thermal face recognizer is still insufficient in practical application. This study presents a novel thermal face recognizer employing not only thermal features but also critical facial geometric features which would not be influenced by hair style to improve the recognition performance. A three-layer back-propagation feed-forward neural network is applied as the classifier. Traditional thermal face recognizers only use the indirect information of the topography of blood vessels like thermogram as features. To overcome this limitation, the proposed thermal face recognizer can use not only the indirect information but also the direct information of the topography of blood vessels which is unique for every human. Moreover, the recognition performance of the proposed thermal features would not decrease even if the hair of frontal bone varies, the eye blinks or the nose breathes. Experimental results show that the proposed features are significantly more effective than traditional thermal features and the recognition performance of thermal face recognizer is improved.

  5. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  6. Macromolecular recognition: Recognition of polymer side chains by cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashidzume, Akihito; Harada, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of cyclodextrins (CD) with water soluble polymers possessing guest residues has been investigated as model systems in biological molecular recognition. The selectivity of interaction of CD with polymer-carrying guest residues is controlled by polymer chains, i.e., the steric effect of polymer main chain, the conformational effect of polymer main chain, and multi-site interaction. Macroscopic assemblies have been also realized based on molecular recognition using polyacrylamide-based gels possessing CD and guest residues.

  7. Arabic character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, May

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a complete system for learning and recognizing Arabic characters. Arabic OCR faces technical problems not encountered in other languages such as cursiveness, overriding and overlapping of characters, multiple shapes per character and the presence of vowels above and below the characters. The proposed approach relies on the fact that the process of connecting Arabic characters to produce cursive writing tends to form a fictitious baseline. During preprocessing, contour analysis provides both component isolation and baseline location. In the feature extraction phase, the words are processed from right to left to generate a sequence of labels. Each label is one of a predetermined codebook that represents all possible bit distribution with respect to the baseline. At a certain position, which depends on the label context, a segmentation decision is taken. During training, a model is generated for each character. This model describes the probability of the occurrence of the labels at each vertical position. During recognition, the probability of the label observation sequence is computed and accumulated. The system has been tested on different typewritten, typeset fonts and diacriticized versions of both and the evaluation results are presented.

  8. Measure recognition problem.

    PubMed

    Dzamonja, Mirna

    2006-12-15

    This is a paper in mathematics, specifically in set theory. On the example of the measure recognition problem (MRP), the paper highlights the phenomenon of the utility of a multidisciplinary mathematical approach to a single mathematical problem, in particular, the value of a set-theoretic analysis. MRP asks if for a given Boolean algebra, B, and a property, Phi, of measures, one can recognize by purely combinatorial means if B supports a strictly positive measure with property Phi. The most famous instance of this problem is MRP (countable additivity), and in the first part of the paper, we survey the known results on this and some other problems. We show how these results naturally lead to asking about two other specific instances of the problem MRP, namely MRP (non-atomic) and MRP (separable). Then, we show how our recent work gives an easy solution to the former of these problems and some partial information about the latter. The long-term goal of this line of research is to obtain a structure theory of Boolean algebras that support a finitely additive strictly positive measure, along the lines of Maharam theorem, which gives such a structure theorem for measure algebras. PMID:17090453

  9. Human recognition at a distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanu, Bir

    2007-11-01

    Recognizing people at a distance is challenging from various considerations, including sensing, robust processing algorithms, changing environmental conditions and fusing multiple modalities. This paper considers face, side face, gait and ear and their possible fusion for human recognition. It presents an overview of some of the techniques that we have developed for (a) super-resolution-based face recognition in video, (b) gait-based recognition in video, (c) fusion of super-resolved side face and gait in video, (d) ear recognition in color/range images, and (e) fusion performance prediction and validation. It presents various real-world examples to illustrate the ideas and points out the relative merits of the approaches that are discussed.

  10. Very fast recognition of GIRO check forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh Ha, Thien; Bunke, Horst

    1993-04-01

    Check forms are used by many people in daily life for money remittance. Surprisingly, the processing of these forms at banks and post offices is only partly automated. In this paper, we deal with a particular kind of form, viz., the GIRO checks used in Switzerland. We describe a fully automatic system which is able to recognize the following items on a GIRO check: the financial institution, the name and address of the receiver, and the account number. The complete recognition of a GIRO check is divided into two phases. In the first phase, the system performs a layout analysis in order to localize regions corresponding to various items on the check. The input gray-level image is first binarized and segmented using the X-Y-tree decomposition algorithm resulting in a list of atomic entities (e.g., individual characters). Each entity is then interpreted as part of an item (e.g., receiver's name), according to the knowledge about possible layouts of a form. All atomic entities belonging to the same item are grouped together and yield the location of that item. In the second phase, the localized items are separately binarized again and submitted to an OCR engine to obtain streams of characters that correspond to the items. We have tested the system on a large number of checks and the results are promising in terms of both computation time and recognition accuracy.

  11. Reverse control for humanoid robot task recognition.

    PubMed

    Hak, Sovannara; Mansard, Nicolas; Stasse, Olivier; Laumond, Jean Paul

    2012-12-01

    Efficient methods to perform motion recognition have been developed using statistical tools. Those methods rely on primitive learning in a suitable space, for example, the latent space of the joint angle and/or adequate task spaces. Learned primitives are often sequential: A motion is segmented according to the time axis. When working with a humanoid robot, a motion can be decomposed into parallel subtasks. For example, in a waiter scenario, the robot has to keep some plates horizontal with one of its arms while placing a plate on the table with its free hand. Recognition can thus not be limited to one task per consecutive segment of time. The method presented in this paper takes advantage of the knowledge of what tasks the robot is able to do and how the motion is generated from this set of known controllers, to perform a reverse engineering of an observed motion. This analysis is intended to recognize parallel tasks that have been used to generate a motion. The method relies on the task-function formalism and the projection operation into the null space of a task to decouple the controllers. The approach is successfully applied on a real robot to disambiguate motion in different scenarios where two motions look similar but have different purposes. PMID:22552575

  12. The neuroecology of competitor recognition.

    PubMed

    Grether, Gregory F

    2011-11-01

    Territorial animals can be expected to distinguish among the types of competitors and noncompetitors that they encounter on a regular basis, including prospective mates and rivals of their own species, but they may not correctly classify individuals of other species. Closely related species often have similar phenotypes and this can cause confusion when formerly allopatric populations first come into contact. Errors in recognizing competitors can have important ecological and evolutionary effects. I review what is known about the mechanisms of competitor recognition in animals generally, focusing on cases in which the targets of recognition include other species. Case studies include damselflies, ants, skinks, salamanders, reef fishes, and birds. In general, recognition systems consist of a phenotypic cue (e.g., chemical, color, song), a neural template against which cues are compared, a motor response (e.g., aggression), and sensory integration circuits for context dependency of the response (if any). Little is known about how competitor recognition systems work at the neural level, but inferences about specificity of cues and about sensory integration can be drawn from the responses of territory residents to simulated intruders. Competitor recognition often involves multiple cues in the same, or different, sensory modalities. The same cues and templates are often, but not always, used for intraspecific and interspecific recognition. Experiments have shown that imprinting on local cues is common, which may enable templates to track evolved changes in cues automatically. The dependence of aggression and tolerance on context is important even in the simplest systems. Species in which mechanisms of competitor recognition are best known offer untapped opportunities to examine how competitor-recognition systems evolve (e.g., by comparing allopatric and sympatric populations). Cues that are gene products (peptides, proteins) may provide insights into rates of evolution

  13. On Tangut Historical Documents Recognition*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changqing

    As the Tangut studies have made progress, a considerable number of Tangut historical documents' copies have been published. It is of great importance to carry out digitalization and domestication of these copies. The paper firstly makes an initial processing of images by global threshold, then dissect the photocopies by scanning. Finally adopts the recognition approach of principal component analysis. The experiment shows that a better recognition can be achieved by calculation without extra time.

  14. Combinatorial approaches to gene recognition.

    PubMed

    Roytberg, M A; Astakhova, T V; Gelfand, M S

    1997-01-01

    Recognition of genes via exon assembly approaches leads naturally to the use of dynamic programming. We consider the general graph-theoretical formulation of the exon assembly problem and analyze in detail some specific variants: multicriterial optimization in the case of non-linear gene-scoring functions; context-dependent schemes for scoring exons and related procedures for exon filtering; and highly specific recognition of arbitrary gene segments, oligonucleotide probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. PMID:9440930

  15. Recognition of error symptoms in large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Ravishankar K.; Sridhar, V.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology for automatically detecting symptoms of frequently occurring errors in large computer systems is developed. The proposed symptom recognition methodology and its validation are based on probabilistic techniques. The technique is shown to work on real failure data from two CYBER systems at the University of Illinois. The methodology allows for the resolution between independent and dependent causes and, also quantifies a measure of the strength of relationship among errors. Comparison made with failure/repair information obtained from field maintenance engineers shows that in 85% of the cases, the error symptoms recognized by our approach correspond to real system problems. Further, the remaining 15% although not directly supported by field data, were confirmed as valid problems. Some of these were shown to be persistent problems which otherwise would have been considered as minor transients and hence ignored.

  16. Success with voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    You need a compelling reason to implement voice recognition technology. At my institution, the compelling reason was a turnaround time for Radiology results of more than two days. Only 41 percent of our reports were transcribed and signed within 24 hours. In November 1998, a team from Lehigh Valley Hospital went to RSNA and reviewed every voice system on the market. The evaluation was done with the radiologist workflow in mind, and we came back from the meeting with the vendor selection completed. The next steps included developing a business plan, approval of funds, reference calls to more than 15 sites and contract negotiation, all of which took about six months. The department of Radiology at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) is a multi-site center that performs over 360,000 procedures annually. The department handles all modalities of radiology: general diagnosis, neuroradiology, ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI, interventional radiology, arthography, myelography, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, PET imaging, vascular lab and other advanced procedures. The department consists of 200 FTEs and a medical staff of more than 40 radiologists. The budget is in the $10.3 million range. There are three hospital sites and four outpatient imaging center sites where services are provided. At Lehigh Valley Hospital, radiologists are not dedicated to one subspecialty, so implementing a voice system by modality was not an option. Because transcription was so far behind, we needed to eliminate that part of the process. As a result, we decided to deploy the system all at once and with the radiologists as editors. The planning and testing phase took about four months, and the implementation took two weeks. We deployed over 40 workstations and trained close to 50 physicians. The radiologists brought in an extra radiologist from our group for the two weeks of training. That allowed us to train without taking a radiologist out of the department. We trained three to six

  17. Recognition of voice commands using adaptation of foreign language speech recognizer via selection of phonetic transcriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskeliunas, Rytis; Rudzionis, Vytautas

    2011-06-01

    In recent years various commercial speech recognizers have become available. These recognizers provide the possibility to develop applications incorporating various speech recognition techniques easily and quickly. All of these commercial recognizers are typically targeted to widely spoken languages having large market potential; however, it may be possible to adapt available commercial recognizers for use in environments where less widely spoken languages are used. Since most commercial recognition engines are closed systems the single avenue for the adaptation is to try set ways for the selection of proper phonetic transcription methods between the two languages. This paper deals with the methods to find the phonetic transcriptions for Lithuanian voice commands to be recognized using English speech engines. The experimental evaluation showed that it is possible to find phonetic transcriptions that will enable the recognition of Lithuanian voice commands with recognition accuracy of over 90%.

  18. Sampling design for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2006-04-01

    A face recognition system consists of two integrated parts: One is the face recognition algorithm, the other is the selected classifier and derived features by the algorithm from a data set. The face recognition algorithm definitely plays a central role, but this paper does not aim at evaluating the algorithm, but deriving the best features for this algorithm from a specific database through sampling design of the training set, which directs how the sample should be collected and dictates the sample space. Sampling design can help exert the full potential of the face recognition algorithm without overhaul. Conventional statistical analysis usually assume some distribution to draw the inference, but the design-based inference does not assume any distribution of the data and it does not assume the independency between the sample observations. The simulations illustrates that the systematic sampling scheme performs better than the simple random sampling scheme, and the systematic sampling is comparable to using all available training images in recognition performance. Meanwhile the sampling schemes can save the system resources and alleviate the overfitting problem. However, the post stratification by sex is not shown to be significant in improving the recognition performance.

  19. Document Form and Character Recognition using SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Sung; Shin, Young-Geun; Jung, Won-Kyo; Ahn, Dong-Kyu; Jang, Dong-Sik

    2009-08-01

    Because of development of computer and information communication, EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) has been developing. There is OCR (Optical Character Recognition) of Pattern recognition technology for EDI. OCR contributed to changing many manual in the past into automation. But for the more perfect database of document, much manual is needed for excluding unnecessary recognition. To resolve this problem, we propose document form based character recognition method in this study. Proposed method is divided into document form recognition part and character recognition part. Especially, in character recognition, change character into binarization by using SVM algorithm and extract more correct feature value.

  20. Prototyping an in-field collaborative environment for landscape decision support by linking GIS with a game engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Stock, Christian; Bishop, Ian D.; O'Connor, Alice N.

    2006-10-01

    With public environmental awareness increasing, there are growing prospects for access to real-time data anytime and everywhere for decision support involving multiple users not only office-based but also remotely. This paper describes the development of a prototype system implementing an in-field collaborative visualisation environment in order to facilitate decision support in landscape planning and environmental management. Our initial development is based on live linking GIS with a fully immersive collaborative virtual decision environment which uses the commercial low-cost Torque Game Engine (TGE, www.garagegames.com). Game engines provide efficient image rendering, a built-in editor for interactive processing of terrain surface features and, in particular, sophisticated and robust client/server networked functionality for multi-user access. Anticipated research activities include the development of an interfacing Augmented Reality (AR) extension to the system, terrain feature library establishment and the deployment of a pilot project including in field mobile observation.

  1. FaceIt: face recognition from static and live video for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atick, Joseph J.; Griffin, Paul M.; Redlich, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in image and pattern recognition technology- -especially face recognition--are leading to the development of a new generation of information systems of great value to the law enforcement community. With these systems it is now possible to pool and manage vast amounts of biometric intelligence such as face and finger print records and conduct computerized searches on them. We review one of the enabling technologies underlying these systems: the FaceIt face recognition engine; and discuss three applications that illustrate its benefits as a problem-solving technology and an efficient and cost effective investigative tool.

  2. Engineering education in 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Firoz; Sarkar, Rashid; La Brooy, Roger; Chowdhury, Harun

    2016-07-01

    The internationalization of engineering curricula and engineering practices has begun in Europe, Anglosphere (English speaking) nations and Asian emerging economies through the Bologna Process and International Engineering Alliance (Washington Accord). Both the Bologna Process and the Washington Accord have introduced standardized outcome based engineering competencies and frameworks for the attainment of these competencies by restructuring existing and undertaking some new measures for an intelligent adaptation of the engineering curriculum and pedagogy. Thus graduates with such standardized outcome based curriculum can move freely as professional engineers with mutual recognition within member nations. Despite having similar or near similar curriculum, Bangladeshi engineering graduates currently cannot get mutual recognition in nations of Washington Accord and the Bologna Process due to the non-compliance of outcome based curriculum and pedagogy. This paper emphasizes the steps that are required to undertake by the engineering educational institutions and the professional body in Bangladesh to make the engineering competencies, curriculum and pedagogy compliant to the global engineering alliance. Achieving such compliance will usher in a new era for the global mobility and global engagement by Bangladesh trained engineering graduates.

  3. Evidence for Surface Recognition by a Cholesterol-Recognition Peptide.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Masaru; Glover, Kerney Jebrell; Regen, Steven L

    2016-06-21

    Two cholesterol recognition/interaction amino-acid consensus peptides, N-acetyl-LWYIKC-amide, and N-acetyl-CLWYIK-amide, have been coupled to exchangeable mimics of Chol (cholesterol) and Phos (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phospho-(1'rac-glycerol)) via disulfide bond formation. Equilibration between Chol and Phos via thiolate-disulfide interchange reactions has revealed that both peptides favor Chol as a nearest-neighbor in liquid-disordered (ld) bilayers to the same extent. In contrast, no Chol- or Phos-recognition could be detected by these peptides in analogous liquid-ordered (lo) bilayers. Fluorescence measurements of the tryptophan moiety have shown that both peptides favor the membrane-water interface. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that the recognition behavior of the LWYIK motif is, fundamentally, a surface phenomenon but that partial penetration into the bilayer is also necessary. PMID:27283494

  4. Quantum cryptography on multi-user network architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumavor, Patrick D.; Beal, Alan C.; Yelin, Susanne; Donkor, Eric; Wang, Bing C.

    2006-05-01

    Quantum cryptography applies the uncertainty principle and the no-cloning theorem to allow to parties to share a secret key over an ultra-secure link. Present quantum cryptography technologies provide encryption key distribution only between two users. However, practical implementations of encryption key distribution schemes require establishing secure quantum communications amongst multiple users. This paper looks at some of the advantages and drawbacks of some common network topologies that could be used in sending cryptographic keys across a network consisting of multiple users. These topologies are the star, ring, and bus networks. Their performances are compared and analyzed using quantum bit error rate analysis. The paper also presents an experimental demonstration of a six-user quantum key distribution network implemented on a bus topology.

  5. MOOsburg: Multi-User Domain Support for a Community Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Rosson, Mary Beth; Isenhour, Philip L.; Van Metre, Christina; Schafer, Wendy A.; Ganoe, Craig H.

    2001-01-01

    Explains MOOsburg, a community-oriented MOO that models the geography of the town of Blacksburg, Virginia and is designed to be used by local residents. Highlights include the software architecture; client-server communication; spatial database; user interface; interaction; map-based navigation; application development; and future plans. (LRW)

  6. A multi-user, interactive, annotated flow-chart applet

    SciTech Connect

    Attenberger, S.E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes a web-based documentation tool that has been developed for use by a team of collaborators who are developing interacting components within a system. It consists of a Java applet in the form of a flow chart with additional test that can be viewed by clicking on the desired component. The text, positions, and linkages of the components may be edited by the user and saved to the server. The concept could easily be applied to other collaborative work. Using the techniques and code segments described here, a programmer should be able to customize a similar applet for his own use in a few days time.

  7. Multi-User Virtual Environments Fostering Collaboration in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, Nicoletta; Paolini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about how serious games based on MUVEs in formal education can foster collaboration. More specifically, it is about a large case-study with four different programs which took place from 2002 to 2009 and involved more than 9,000 students, aged between 12 and 18, from various nations (18 European countries, Israel and the USA). These…

  8. Optical disk jukebox performance in multi-user applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Roy, Gautam; Thoma, George R.

    1994-10-01

    The Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, a research and development division of the National Library of Medicine, is evaluating an optical disk jukebox as a digital image store to support prototype systems for image distribution over the Internet. This paper summarizes a study undertaken to determine the performance characteristics of the jukebox to support multiple image databases simultaneously accessed by multiple users. A motivation for this investigation is the need to provide users access to digitized images of medical documents and radiographs.

  9. Engineering and Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael

    The phrase ‘software engineering' has many meanings. One central meaning is the reliable development of dependable computer-based systems, especially those for critical applications. This is not a solved problem. Failures in software development have played a large part in many fatalities and in huge economic losses. While some of these failures may be attributable to programming errors in the narrowest sense—a program's failure to satisfy a given formal specification—there is good reason to think that most of them have other roots. These roots are located in the problem of software engineering rather than in the problem of program correctness. The famous 1968 conference was motivated by the belief that software development should be based on “the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering.” Yet after forty years of currency the phrase ‘software engineering' still denotes no more than a vague and largely unfulfilled aspiration. Two major causes of this disappointment are immediately clear. First, too many areas of software development are inadequately specialised, and consequently have not developed the repertoires of normal designs that are the indispensable basis of reliable engineering success. Second, the relationship between structural design and formal analytical techniques for software has rarely been one of fruitful synergy: too often it has defined a boundary between competing dogmas, at which mutual distrust and incomprehension deprive both sides of advantages that should be within their grasp. This paper discusses these causes and their effects. Whether the common practice of software development will eventually satisfy the broad aspiration of 1968 is hard to predict; but an understanding of past failure is surely a prerequisite of future success.

  10. Bidirectional Modulation of Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonathan W.; Poeta, Devon L.; Jacobson, Tara K.; Zolnik, Timothy A.; Neske, Garrett T.; Connors, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects. For example, animals and humans with perirhinal damage are unable to distinguish familiar from novel objects in recognition memory tasks. In the normal brain, perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by increasing or decreasing firing rates. Recent work also implicates oscillatory activity in the low-beta and low-gamma frequency bands in sensory detection, perception, and recognition. Using optogenetic methods in a spontaneous object exploration (SOR) task, we altered recognition memory performance in rats. In the SOR task, normal rats preferentially explore novel images over familiar ones. We modulated exploratory behavior in this task by optically stimulating channelrhodopsin-expressing perirhinal neurons at various frequencies while rats looked at novel or familiar 2D images. Stimulation at 30–40 Hz during looking caused rats to treat a familiar image as if it were novel by increasing time looking at the image. Stimulation at 30–40 Hz was not effective in increasing exploration of novel images. Stimulation at 10–15 Hz caused animals to treat a novel image as familiar by decreasing time looking at the image, but did not affect looking times for images that were already familiar. We conclude that optical stimulation of PER at different frequencies can alter visual recognition memory bidirectionally. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recognition of novelty and familiarity are important for learning, memory, and decision making. Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects, but how novelty and familiarity are encoded and transmitted in the brain is not known. Perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by changing firing rates, but recent work suggests that brain oscillations may also be important for recognition. In this study, we showed that

  11. Optical recognition of biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Chris W.; Linder, Kim Dalton; Trujillo, Josh J.

    2008-04-01

    Differentiation between particulate biological agents and non-biological agents is typically performed via a time-consuming "wet chemistry" process or through the use of fluorescent and spectroscopic analysis. However, while these methods can provide definitive recognition of biological agents, many of them have to be performed in a laboratory environment, or are difficult to implement in the field. Optical recognition techniques offer an additional recognition approach that can provide rapid analysis of a material in-situ to identify those materials that may be biological in nature. One possible application is to use these techniques to "screen" suspicious materials and to identify those that are potentially biological in nature. Suspicious materials identified by this screening process can then be analyzed in greater detail using the other, more definitive (but time consuming) analysis techniques. This presentation will describe the results of a feasibility study to determine whether optical pattern recognition techniques can be used to differentiate biological related materials from non-biological materials. As part of this study, feature extraction algorithms were developed utilizing multiple contrast and texture based features to characterize the macroscopic properties of different materials. In addition, several pattern recognition approaches using these features were tested including cluster analysis and neural networks. Test materials included biological agent simulants, biological agent related materials, and non-biological materials (suspicious white powders). Results of a series of feasibility tests will be presented along with a discussion of the potential field applications for these techniques.

  12. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  13. Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-04-01

    Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

  14. Engineering chemically modified viruses for prostate cancer cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K; Weiss, G A

    2015-12-01

    Specific detection of circulating tumor cells and characterization of their aggressiveness could improve cancer diagnostics and treatment. Metastasis results from such tumor cells, and causes the majority of cancer deaths. Chemically modified viruses could provide an inexpensive and efficient approach to detect tumor cells and quantitate their cell surface biomarkers. However, non-specific adhesion between the cell surface receptors and the virus surface presents a challenge. This report describes wrapping the virus surface with different PEG architectures, including as fusions to oligolysine, linkers, spacers and scaffolded ligands. The reported PEG wrappers can reduce by >75% the non-specific adhesion of phage to cell surfaces. Dynamic light scattering verified the non-covalent attachment by the reported wrappers as increased sizes of the virus particles. Further modifications resulted in specific detection of prostate cancer cells expressing PSMA, a key prostate cancer biomarker. The approach allowed quantification of PSMA levels on the cell surface, and could distinguish more aggressive forms of the disease. PMID:26463253

  15. Sparse representation for vehicle recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnig, Nathan D.; Sakla, Wesam

    2014-06-01

    The Sparse Representation for Classification (SRC) algorithm has been demonstrated to be a state-of-the-art algorithm for facial recognition applications. Wright et al. demonstrate that under certain conditions, the SRC algorithm classification performance is agnostic to choice of linear feature space and highly resilient to image corruption. In this work, we examined the SRC algorithm performance on the vehicle recognition application, using images from the semi-synthetic vehicle database generated by the Air Force Research Laboratory. To represent modern operating conditions, vehicle images were corrupted with noise, blurring, and occlusion, with representation of varying pose and lighting conditions. Experiments suggest that linear feature space selection is important, particularly in the cases involving corrupted images. Overall, the SRC algorithm consistently outperforms a standard k nearest neighbor classifier on the vehicle recognition task.

  16. Mandarin recognition over the telephone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Yuhung

    1996-06-01

    Mandarin Chinese is the official language in China and Taiwan, it is the native language of a quarter of the world population. As the services enabled by speech recognition technology (e.g. telephone voice dialing, information query) become more popular in English, we would like to extend this capability to other languages. Mandarin is one of the major languages under research in our laboratory. This paper describes how we extend our work in English speech recognition into Mandarin. We will described the corpus: Voice Across Taiwan, the training of a complete set of Mandarin syllable models, preliminary performance results and error analysis. A fast prototyping system was built, where a user can write any context free grammar with no restriction of vocabulary, then the grammar can be compiled into recognition models. It enables user to quickly test the performance of a new vocabulary.

  17. Palmprint Recognition across Different Devices

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei; Hu, Rong-Xiang; Gui, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of Palmprint Recognition Across Different Devices (PRADD) is investigated, which has not been well studied so far. Since there is no publicly available PRADD image database, we created a non-contact PRADD image database containing 12,000 grayscale captured from 100 subjects using three devices, i.e., one digital camera and two smart-phones. Due to the non-contact image acquisition used, rotation and scale changes between different images captured from a same palm are inevitable. We propose a robust method to calculate the palm width, which can be effectively used for scale normalization of palmprints. On this PRADD image database, we evaluate the recognition performance of three different methods, i.e., subspace learning method, correlation method, and orientation coding based method, respectively. Experiments results show that orientation coding based methods achieved promising recognition performance for PRADD. PMID:22969380

  18. Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

    2010-11-01

    Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

  19. Effect of retroflex sounds on the recognition of Hindi stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Amita; Agrawal, S. S.; Choudhary, D. Roy

    2001-05-01

    As development of the speech recognition system entirely depends upon the spoken language used for its development and the very fact that speech technology is highly language dependent and reverse engineering is not possible, there is an utmost need to develop such systems for Indian languages. In this paper we present the implementation of a time-delay neural network system (TDNN) in a modular fashion by exploiting the hidden structure of previously phonetic subcategory network for the recognition of Hindi consonants. For the present study we have selected all the Hindi phonemes for the recognition. A vocabulary of 207 Hindi words was designed for the task-specific environment and used as a database. For the recognition of phonemes a three-layered network was constructed and the network was trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm. Experiments were conducted to categorize the Hindi voiced and unvoiced stops, semivowels, vowels, nasals, and fricatives. A close observation of the confusion matrix of Hindi stops revealed maximum confusion of retroflex stops with their nonretroflex counterparts.

  20. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Hooper

    1983-01-01

    The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

  1. Neural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin

    About the Series: Bioelectric Engineering presents state-of-the-art discussions on modern biomedical engineering with respect to applications of electrical engineering and information technology in biomedicine. This focus affirms Springer's commitment to publishing important reviews of the broadest interest to biomedical engineers, bioengineers, and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Recent volumes have covered modeling and imaging of bioelectric activity, neural engineering, biosignal processing, bionanotechnology, among other topics.

  2. Fuzzy models for pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Bezdek, James C.; Pal, Sankar K.

    1994-01-01

    FUZZY sets were introduced in 1965 by Lotfi Zadeh as a new way to represent vagueness in everyday life. They are a generalization of conventional set theory, one of the basic structures underlying computational mathematics and models. Computational pattern recognition has played a central role in the development of fuzzy models because fuzzy interpretations of data structures are a very natural and intuitively plausible way to formulate and solve various problems. Fuzzy control theory has also provided a wide variety of real, fielded system applications of fuzzy technology. We shall have little more to say about the growth of fuzzy models in control, except to the extent that pattern recognition algorithms and methods described in this book impact control systems. Collected here are many of the seminal papers in the field. There will be, of course, omissions that are neither by intent nor ignorance; we cannot reproduce all of the important papers that have helped in the evolution of fuzzy pattern recognition (there may be as many as five hundred) even in this narrow application domain. We will attempt, in each chapter introduction, to comment on some of the important papers that not been included and we ask both readers and authors to understand that a book such as this simply cannot {open_quotes}contain everything.{close_quotes} Our objective in Chapter 1 is to describe the basic structure of fuzzy sets theory as it applies to the major problems encountered in the design of a pattern recognition system.

  3. The Army word recognition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, David R.; Haratz, David

    1977-01-01

    The application of speech recognition technology in the Army command and control area is presented. The problems associated with this program are described as well as as its relevance in terms of the man/machine interactions, voice inflexions, and the amount of training needed to interact with and utilize the automated system.

  4. Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Steenbergen, L; Theunissen, E L; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2015-11-01

    Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2 h after treatment with oral cocaine (300 mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response. PMID:26328908

  5. Ear recognition: a complete system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaza, Ayman; Harrison, Mary Ann F.

    2013-05-01

    Ear Recognition has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current ear recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is still limited. This paper presents an efficient complete ear-based biometric system that can process five frames/sec; Hence it can be used for surveillance applications. The ear detection is achieved using Haar features arranged in a cascaded Adaboost classifier. The feature extraction is based on dividing the ear image into several blocks from which Local Binary Pattern feature distributions are extracted. These feature distributions are then fused at the feature level to represent the original ear texture in the classification stage. The contribution of this paper is three fold: (i) Applying a new technique for ear feature extraction, and studying various optimization parameters for that technique; (ii) Presenting a practical ear recognition system and a detailed analysis about error propagation in that system; (iii) Studying the occlusion effect of several ear parts. Detailed experiments show that the proposed ear recognition system achieved better performance (94:34%) compared to other shape-based systems as Scale-invariant feature transform (67:92%). The proposed approach can also handle efficiently hair occlusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve about (78%) rank-1 identification, even in presence of 60% occlusion.

  6. Face recognition for uncontrolled environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podilchuk, Christine; Hulbert, William; Flachsbart, Ralph; Barinov, Lev

    2010-04-01

    A new face recognition algorithm has been proposed which is robust to variations in pose, expression, illumination and occlusions such as sunglasses. The algorithm is motivated by the Edit Distance used to determine the similarity between strings of one dimensional data such as DNA and text. The key to this approach is how to extend the concept of an Edit Distance on one-dimensional data to two-dimensional image data. The algorithm is based on mapping one image into another and using the characteristics of the mapping to determine a two-dimensional Pictorial-Edit Distance or P-Edit Distance. We show how the properties of the mapping are similar to insertion, deletion and substitution errors defined in an Edit Distance. This algorithm is particularly well suited for face recognition in uncontrolled environments such as stand-off and other surveillance applications. We will describe an entire system designed for face recognition at a distance including face detection, pose estimation, multi-sample fusion of video frames and identification. Here we describe how the algorithm is used for face recognition at a distance, present some initial results and describe future research directions.(

  7. Neural networks for handwriting recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, David A.

    1992-09-01

    The market for a product that can read handwritten forms, such as insurance applications, re- order forms, or checks, is enormous. Companies could save millions of dollars each year if they had an effective and efficient way to read handwritten forms into a computer without human intervention. Urged on by the potential gold mine that an adequate solution would yield, a number of companies and researchers have developed, and are developing, neural network-based solutions to this long-standing problem. This paper briefly outlines the current state-of-the-art in neural network-based handwriting recognition research and products. The first section of the paper examines the potential market for this technology. The next section outlines the steps in the recognition process, followed by a number of the basic issues that need to be dealt with to solve the recognition problem in a real-world setting. Next, an overview of current commercial solutions and research projects shows the different ways that neural networks are applied to the problem. This is followed by a breakdown of the current commercial market and the future outlook for neural network-based handwriting recognition technology.

  8. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  9. Low-resolution gait recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junping; Pu, Jian; Chen, Changyou; Fleischer, Rudolf

    2010-08-01

    Unlike other biometric authentication methods, gait recognition is noninvasive and effective from a distance. However, the performance of gait recognition will suffer in the low-resolution (LR) case. Furthermore, when gait sequences are projected onto a nonoptimal low-dimensional subspace to reduce the data complexity, the performance of gait recognition will also decline. To deal with these two issues, we propose a new algorithm called superresolution with manifold sampling and backprojection (SRMS), which learns the high-resolution (HR) counterparts of LR test images from a collection of HR/LR training gait image patch pairs. Then, we incorporate SRMS into a new algorithm called multilinear tensor-based learning without tuning parameters (MTP) for LR gait recognition. Our contributions include the following: 1) With manifold sampling, the redundancy of gait image patches is remarkably decreased; thus, the superresolution procedure is more efficient and reasonable. 2) Backprojection guarantees that the learned HR gait images and the corresponding LR gait images can be more consistent. 3) The optimal subspace dimension for dimension reduction is automatically determined without introducing extra parameters. 4) Theoretical analysis of the algorithm shows that MTP converges. Experiments on the USF human gait database and the CASIA gait database show the increased efficiency of the proposed algorithm, compared with previous algorithms. PMID:20199936

  10. Picture Details in Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, James A.; Madigan, Stephen

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of symbolic format of test material on short- and long-term recognition. Subjects, 104 undergraduate students, viewed slides of either a black-and-white photograph, a one-sentence verbal description of the photo, a black-and-white drawing based on the verbal description, or a black-and-white line…

  11. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos' responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species. PMID:26911199

  12. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen MG; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos’ responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species. PMID:26911199

  13. Public domain optical character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garris, Michael D.; Blue, James L.; Candela, Gerald T.; Dimmick, Darrin L.; Geist, Jon C.; Grother, Patrick J.; Janet, Stanley A.; Wilson, Charles L.

    1995-03-01

    A public domain document processing system has been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The system is a standard reference form-based handprint recognition system for evaluating optical character recognition (OCR), and it is intended to provide a baseline of performance on an open application. The system's source code, training data, performance assessment tools, and type of forms processed are all publicly available. The system recognizes the handprint entered on handwriting sample forms like the ones distributed with NIST Special Database 1. From these forms, the system reads hand-printed numeric fields, upper and lowercase alphabetic fields, and unconstrained text paragraphs comprised of words from a limited-size dictionary. The modular design of the system makes it useful for component evaluation and comparison, training and testing set validation, and multiple system voting schemes. The system contains a number of significant contributions to OCR technology, including an optimized probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifier that operates a factor of 20 times faster than traditional software implementations of the algorithm. The source code for the recognition system is written in C and is organized into 11 libraries. In all, there are approximately 19,000 lines of code supporting more than 550 subroutines. Source code is provided for form registration, form removal, field isolation, field segmentation, character normalization, feature extraction, character classification, and dictionary-based postprocessing. The recognition system has been successfully compiled and tested on a host of UNIX workstations. This paper gives an overview of the recognition system's software architecture, including descriptions of the various system components along with timing and accuracy statistics.

  14. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour. PMID:26376244

  15. Context Effects and Retrieval in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lawrence M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to test predictions derived from a model of recognition memory that assumes no retrieval processes. It is argued that context effects do not necessarily imply retrieval processes in recognition. (Author/AM)

  16. Speech Recognition: Its Place in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szul, Linda F.; Bouder, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Suggests uses of speech recognition devices in the classroom for students with disabilities. Compares speech recognition software packages and provides guidelines for selection and teaching. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  17. Method and System for Object Recognition Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor); Stubberud, Allen R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for object recognition using shape and color features of the object to be recognized. An adaptive architecture is used to recognize and adapt the shape and color features for moving objects to enable object recognition.

  18. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1292.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REPRESENTATION AND APPEARANCES § 1292.2 Organizations qualified for recognition... Immigration Court). Such organization must establish to the satisfaction of the Board that: (1) It makes...

  19. 77 FR 9590 - Recognition and Accreditation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 8 CFR Part 1292 RIN 1125-AA72 Recognition and Accreditation AGENCY: Executive Office... the recognition of organizations and accreditation of representatives who appear before EOIR. EOIR... discuss these regulations. The first meeting will be limited to a discussion of the recognition...

  20. Natural Language Processing: Word Recognition without Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Khalid; Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of automatic recognition of hand and machine-written cursive text using the Arabic alphabet focuses on an algorithm for word recognition. Describes results of testing words for recognition without segmentation and considers the algorithms' use for words of different fonts and for processing whole sentences. (Author/LRW)

  1. Examining the Relationships among Item Recognition, Source Recognition, and Recall from an Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors of the current study examined the relationships among item-recognition, source-recognition, free recall, and other memory and cognitive ability tasks via an individual differences analysis. Two independent sources of variance contributed to item-recognition and source-recognition performance, and these two constructs related…

  2. An Engineering Mentor's Take on "FIRST" Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a program that he says has "made being smart cool." "FIRST" (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics has made a significant contribution toward progress in advancing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses and STEM careers with young people. "FIRST" Robotics…

  3. Rule-Based Orientation Recognition Of A Moving Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gove, Robert J.

    1989-03-01

    This paper presents a detailed description and a comparative analysis of the algorithms used to determine the position and orientation of an object in real-time. The exemplary object, a freely moving gold-fish in an aquarium, provides "real-world" motion, with definable characteristics of motion (the fish never swims upside-down) and the complexities of a non-rigid body. For simplicity of implementation, and since a restricted and stationary viewing domain exists (fish-tank), we reduced the problem of obtaining 3D correspondence information to trivial alignment calculations by using two cameras orthogonally viewing the object. We applied symbolic processing techniques to recognize the 3-D orientation of a moving object of known identity in real-time. Assuming motion, each new frame (sensed by the two cameras) provides images of the object's profile which has most likely undergone translation, rotation, scaling and/or bending of the non-rigid object since the previous frame. We developed an expert system which uses heuristics of the object's motion behavior in the form of rules and information obtained via low-level image processing (like numerical inertial axis calculations) to dynamically estimate the object's orientation. An inference engine provides these estimates at frame rates of up to 10 per second (which is essentially real-time). The advantages of the rule-based approach to orientation recognition will be compared other pattern recognition techniques. Our results of an investigation of statistical pattern recognition, neural networks, and procedural techniques for orientation recognition will be included. We implemented the algorithms in a rapid-prototyping environment, the TI-Ezplorer, equipped with an Odyssey and custom imaging hardware. A brief overview of the workstation is included to clarify one motivation for our choice of algorithms. These algorithms exploit two facets of the prototype image processing and understanding workstation - both low

  4. Wavelet-based ground vehicle recognition using acoustic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Howard C.; Karlsen, Robert E.; Gerhart, Grant R.; Meitzler, Thomas J.

    1996-03-01

    We present, in this paper, a wavelet-based acoustic signal analysis to remotely recognize military vehicles using their sound intercepted by acoustic sensors. Since expedited signal recognition is imperative in many military and industrial situations, we developed an algorithm that provides an automated, fast signal recognition once implemented in a real-time hardware system. This algorithm consists of wavelet preprocessing, feature extraction and compact signal representation, and a simple but effective statistical pattern matching. The current status of the algorithm does not require any training. The training is replaced by human selection of reference signals (e.g., squeak or engine exhaust sound) distinctive to each individual vehicle based on human perception. This allows a fast archiving of any new vehicle type in the database once the signal is collected. The wavelet preprocessing provides time-frequency multiresolution analysis using discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Within each resolution level, feature vectors are generated from statistical parameters and energy content of the wavelet coefficients. After applying our algorithm on the intercepted acoustic signals, the resultant feature vectors are compared with the reference vehicle feature vectors in the database using statistical pattern matching to determine the type of vehicle from where the signal originated. Certainly, statistical pattern matching can be replaced by an artificial neural network (ANN); however, the ANN would require training data sets and time to train the net. Unfortunately, this is not always possible for many real world situations, especially collecting data sets from unfriendly ground vehicles to train the ANN. Our methodology using wavelet preprocessing and statistical pattern matching provides robust acoustic signal recognition. We also present an example of vehicle recognition using acoustic signals collected from two different military ground vehicles. In this paper, we will

  5. Thinking Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stu; Sharp, Janet; Zachary, Loren

    2004-01-01

    Most people think that engineering and mathematics go hand in hand. To many, being an engineer means manipulating equations and calculating measurements to design and build structures of all kinds. And they are right. Engineering does involve a great deal of mathematics. But, building structures to withstand certain environmental conditions or…

  6. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.

    1980-01-01

    Stirling engines exist in a bewildering array of mechanical arrangements. This book attempts to describe and classify the systems in a rational way, to explain the intricacies of the cycle, and to present a large amount of detailed information related to Stirling engines such as design, heat exchangers, working fluids, operation and performance, control equipment, recently developed engines, and current and proposed uses. (LCL)

  7. Intelligent word-based text recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoenes, Frank; Bleisinger, Rainer; Dengel, Andreas R.

    1991-02-01

    STRACT The need for making information within paper documents available for computers increases steadily. In this paper we present a system which is capable to read and to simply understand address blocks of business letters. It is based on optical word recognition (OWR) techniques uses feature recognition methods based on word shapes and is largly independent from different fonts and sizes. Even uncertainly recognized words can be identified using a dictionary and a specific verification algorithm. Additionally recognition accuracy is improved considering different knowledge layers like address syntax and logical dictionaries. Keywords: Text recognition document layout classification text analysis pattern recognition intelligent interfaces

  8. PHYSICAL MODEL FOR RECOGNITION TUNNELING

    PubMed Central

    Krstić, Predrag; Ashcroft, Brian; Lindsay, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Recognition tunneling (RT) identifies target molecules trapped between tunneling electrodes functionalized with recognition molecules that serve as specific chemical linkages between the metal electrodes and the trapped target molecule. Possible applications include single molecule DNA and protein sequencing. This paper addresses several fundamental aspects of RT by multiscale theory, applying both all-atom and coarse-grained DNA models: (1) We show that the magnitude of the observed currents are consistent with the results of non-equilibrium Green's function calculations carried out on a solvated all-atom model. (2) Brownian fluctuations in hydrogen bond-lengths lead to current spikes that are similar to what is observed experimentally. (3) The frequency characteristics of these fluctuations can be used to identify the trapped molecules with a machine-learning algorithm, giving a theoretical underpinning to this new method of identifying single molecule signals. PMID:25650375

  9. Molecular Recognition and Ligand Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Riccardo; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We review recent developments in our understanding of molecular recognition and ligand association, focusing on two major viewpoints: (a) studies that highlight new physical insight into the molecular recognition process and the driving forces determining thermodynamic signatures of binding and (b) recent methodological advances in applications to protein-ligand binding. In particular, we highlight the challenges posed by compensating enthalpic and entropic terms, competing solute and solvent contributions, and the relevance of complex configurational ensembles comprising multiple protein, ligand, and solvent intermediate states. As more complete physics is taken into account, computational approaches increase their ability to complement experimental measurements, by providing a microscopic, dynamic view of ensemble-averaged experimental observables. Physics-based approaches are increasingly expanding their power in pharmacology applications.

  10. Covert face recognition without prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Ellis, H D; Young, A W; Koenken, G

    1993-01-01

    An experiment is reported where subjects were presented with familiar or unfamiliar faces for supraliminal durations or for durations individually assessed as being below the threshold for recognition. Their electrodermal responses to each stimulus were measured and the results showed higher peak amplitude skin conductance responses for familiar than for unfamiliar faces, regardless of whether they had been displayed supraliminally or subliminally. A parallel is drawn between elevated skin conductance responses to subliminal stimuli and findings of covert recognition of familiar faces in prosopagnosic patients, some of whom show increased electrodermal activity (EDA) to previously familiar faces. The supraliminal presentation data also served to replicate similar work by Tranel et al (1985). The results are considered alongside other data indicating the relation between non-conscious, "automatic" aspects of normal visual information processing and abilities which can be found to be preserved without awareness after brain injury. PMID:24487927