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Sample records for multi-visit endodontic treatment

  1. Single Versus Multi-visit Endodontic Treatment of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: An in vivo Study with 1-year Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gill, GS; Bhuyan, AC; Kalita, C; Das, L; Kataki, R; Bhuyan, D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Apical periodontitis (AP) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the teeth. Treatment of AP is based on the removal of the cause, i.e., bacteria from the root canals. Achievement of adequate bacterial eradication in one appointment treatment remains a controversy. Aim: This prospective study was conducted with the objective to compare the periapical healing of teeth with AP treated in (a) single visit versus (b) two visits, either with or without Vitapex as an intracanal medicament. Subjects and Methods: Patients were selected randomly from the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics. Forty-three patients (81 teeth) met the inclusion criteria, i.e., AP (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) visible radiographically size ≥2 mm × 2 mm, not suffering from any immune-compromising disease, age between 16 and 65 years and tooth not accessed previously. Patients were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., single-visit group (Group 1), multi-visit group without any intracanal medicament (Group 2), and multi-visit group with Vitapex as interim intracanal medicament (Group 3). Comparison was done radiographically using periapical index (PAI). The primary outcome measure was the change in periapical radiolucency after 1 year assessed by PAI scores. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate differences between groups at baseline (immediate postoperative) and at the 12-month follow-up evaluation. Change in PAI score for each group from baseline to 12-month follow-up evaluation was tested with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The secondary outcome measures, proportion of teeth in each group that could be considered improved (decreased PAI score) or healed (PAI <2), were assessed with the Chi-square test. Results: No statistically significant difference in periapical healing was found between three groups. Conclusion: After 1-year evaluation, no difference in periapical healing was found between single-visit treatment and multi-visit treatment

  2. Incidence of post obturation pain following single and multi visit root canal treatment in a teaching hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, S; Khurshiduzzaman, M

    2014-04-01

    Post obturation pain is the pain of any degree after endodontic treatment. There are different opinions regarding incidence of post obturation pain related to single and multi visit root canal treatment. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of post obturation pain in single visit and multi visit root canal treatment and to compare the incidence of pain between the two treatment groups. A total of 120 cases of endodontically involved asymptomatic non vital single rooted teeth were selected for this study. The patients were assigned and divided in to two treatment groups, sixty patients each. In single visit group, all teeth were prepared and filled using the standardized preparation and lateral condensation filling technique. In the multi visit treatment group, at the first appointment, the teeth were prepared, and dressed with calcium hydroxide paste for 7 days. At the second appointment, the teeth were prepared and obturated by using lateral condensation technique. The frequency of post obturation pain was recorded as no pain, slight, moderate and severe pain and evaluated at the day 1 and at the day 7 after obturation. The data were analyzed statistically by using SPSS version-12. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. The study showed that the post obturation pain in the single visit treatment group was more than multi visit treatment group, which is significant (p value <0.044). Out of the 120 patients, 86(71.7%) patients had no pain, 19(15.8%) had slight pain and 15(12.5%) patients had moderate pain at the day 1 after obturation. At the day 7 after obturation, 108(90%) patients had no pain, 9(7.5%) had slight pain and 3(2.5%) patients had moderate pain. No patient noticed severe pain during the follow up period. Older patient had significantly more post obturation pain than the younger patient. There was higher incidence of post obturation pain following the single visit root canal treatment. In multi visit root canal treatment with

  3. Endodontic treatment of molars

    PubMed Central

    Habl, Claudia; Bodenwinkler, Andrea; Stürzlinger, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Objective Commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) the Austrian Health Institute (ÖBIG) prepared a HTA report on the long-term effectiveness of endodontic treatment (root canal treatment, RCT) of molars. The focus is to examine factors influencing the outcome of endodontic treatment and showing their impact on long-term results. Additionally, economic aspects of root canal treatment in Germany are discussed. Methodology By performing a systematic literature search in 29 databases (e.g. MEDLINE), the Cochrane Library and by hand searching two peer-reviewed endodontic journals the authors could identify 750 relevant articles, of which finally 18 qualified for assessment. Results The findings show that the most relevant factor influencing the long-term outcome of endodontic treatment is the preoperative status of a tooth. The lowest success rates are reported for molars with a preoperative devital or necrotic pulp and persisting periapical lesions (so called periapical disease). Discussion Even if there is no positive selection of patients and the RCT is performed by a normal dentist rather than an endodontist - a fact which is very common - long-term success rates of more then 90% are possible. The overall success rates for endodontic treatment of molars therefore seem to be similar to those of other tooth-types. Conclusions Especially primary, conventional (i.e. non-surgical) root canal treatment is an effective and efficient therapy for endodontically ill molars, especially if no large periapical lesion persists. Nonetheless, a long term successful endodontic therapy requires a thorough assessment of the pre-operative status of the molar and treatment according to established guidelines. PMID:21289954

  4. Implant treatment planning: endodontic considerations.

    PubMed

    Simonian, Krikor; Frydman, Alon; Verdugo, Fernando; Roges, Rafael; Kar, Kian

    2014-12-01

    Implants are a predictable and effective method for replacing missing teeth. Some clinicians have advocated extraction and replacement of compromised but treatable teeth on the assumption that implants will outperform endodontically and/or periodontally treated teeth. However, evidence shows that conventional therapy is as effective as implant treatment. With data on implants developing complications long term and a lack of predictable treatment for peri-implantitis, retaining and restoring the natural dentition should be the first choice when possible. PMID:25928961

  5. Periostitis ossificans managed with endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Sener, Yagmur; Tosun, Gül; Savas, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    Periostitis ossificans (PO) is a specific type of chronic osteomyelitis. Radiographically, it is characterized by the presence of lamellae of newly formed periosteal bone outside the cortex, giving the characteristic appearance of "onion skin." The most common cause of PO is periapical infection of the mandibular permanent first molar, which occurs primarily in children and young adults. Treatment in these cases is directed toward eliminating the source of the infection, either by extraction of the offending tooth or endodontic therapy. The purpose of this paper is to present a case of PO involving a permanent mandibular first molar managed with endodontic treatment. PMID:25909844

  6. Persistent endodontic infection--re-treatment or surgery?

    PubMed

    Love, Robert M

    2012-04-01

    Management of a tooth with persistent periradicular disease primarily involves management of persistent intraradicular infection. Conventional endodontic re-treatment is the main modality that will manage this condition although endodontic surgery with or without retreatment is a viable option in cases. Case selection involves an appreciation of the disease aetiology and expected outcomes and consideration of patient, tooth and clinician factors. Both conventional endodontic re-treatment and surgery have high long-term success and survival rates and it has been shown that an endodontically treated tooth with persistent periradicular pathology that can be managed by conventional endodontic re-treatment or surgery and restoration has comparable, and potentially more beneficial, outcomes to treatment options involving tooth loss and rehabilitation, such as an implant supported crown. As such endodontic retreatment should be the prime treatment modality unless a tooth has reached a stage where these techniques cannot manage ongoing disease and/or structural integrity. PMID:24783842

  7. Mandibular nerve paresthesia caused by endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Gallas-Torreira, M Mercedes; Reboiras-López, M Dolores; García-García, Abel; Gándara-Rey, José

    2003-01-01

    The paresthesias of the inferior dental nerve consists of a complication that can occur after performing various dental procedures such as cystectomies, extraction of impacted teeth, apicoectomies, endodontic treatments, local anesthetic deposition, preprosthetic or implantologic surgery. The possible mechanisms of nervous lesions are mechanical, chemical and thermal. Mechanical injury includes compression, stretching, partial or total resection and laceration. The lesion can cause a discontinuity to the nerve with Wallerian degeneration of the distal and integrated fibers of the covering (axonotmesis) or can cause the total sectioning of the nerve (neurotmesis). Chemical trauma can be due to certain toxic components of the endodontic filling materials (paraformaldehyde, corticoids or eugenol) and irrigating solutions (sodium hypochlorite) or local anesthetics. Thermal injury is a consequence of bone overheating during the execution of surgical techniques. We present a clinical case of paresthesia of the inferior dental nerve after the introduction of a gutta-percha point in the mandibular canal during the performance of a root canal therapy of the inferior first molar. The etiology and the treatment of this endodontic complication are described. PMID:12937392

  8. Antimicrobial peptide-based treatment for endodontic infections--biotechnological innovation in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Lima, Stella Maris de Freitas; de Pádua, Gabriela Martins; Sousa, Maurício Gonçalves da Costa; Freire, Mirna de Souza; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Rezende, Taia Maria Berto

    2015-01-01

    The presence/persistence of microorganisms in the pulp and periapical area corresponds to the maintenance of an exacerbated immune response that leads to the start of periradicular bone resorption and its perpetuation. In endodontic treatment, the available intracanal medications do not have all the desirable properties in the context of endodontic infection and apical periodontitis; they need to include not only strong antimicrobial performance but also an immunomodulatory and reparative activity, without host damage. In addition, there are various levels of resistance to root canal medications. Thus, antimicrobial agents that effectively eliminate resistant species in root canals could potentially improve endodontic treatment. In the emergence of new therapies, an increasing number of studies on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been seen over the past few years. AMPs are defense biomolecules produced in response to infection, and they have a wide spectrum of action against many oral microorganisms. There are some studies that correlate peptides and oral infections, including oral peptides, neuropeptides, and bacterial, fish, bovine and synthetic peptides. So far, there are around 120 published studies correlating endodontic microbiota with AMPs but, according to our knowledge, there are no registered patents in the American patent database. There are a considerable number of AMPs that exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity against endodontic microbiota at a small inhibitory concentration and modulate an exacerbated immune response, down-regulating bone resorption. All these reasons indicate the antimicrobial peptide-based endodontic treatment as an emerging and promising option. PMID:25447423

  9. Endodontic treatment enhances the regenerative potential of teeth with advanced periodontal disease with secondary endodontic involvement

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eun-Young; Cho, Yunjung; Lee, Ju-Youn; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to identify a role for endodontic intervention in enhancing the regenerative potential of the periodontal ligament when combined with periodontal treatment in seriously involved teeth with a secondary endodontic component. Methods Patients who exhibited radiolucency extending to the periapical region, abnormal electric pulp testing values, and deep probing depth derived from primary periodontal disease with secondary endodontic involvement were included. Intentional root canal treatment was applied to those teeth in which the apical lesions were presumed to communicate with those of the periodontal lesion of the teeth that remained vital. In all three selected cases, regenerative periodontal therapy incorporating either bone graft or guided tissue regeneration was instituted 3 months after the endodontic intervention. Results Remarkable enhancement in radiographic density was noticeable around the affected teeth as evidenced by changes in radiopacity. There was a significant reduction in the probing pocket depth and gain in the clinical attachment level. Chewing discomfort gradually disappeared from the commencement of the combined treatment. Conclusions An intentional endodontic intervention may be a worthwhile approach for the sophisticated management of teeth suffering from serious attachment loss and alveolar bone destruction with concomitant secondary endodontic involvement. PMID:23837128

  10. Irrigants in non-surgical endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Regan, John D; Fleury, Alex A P

    2006-01-01

    This paper highlights that one of the main goals of root canal treatment is the elimination of microorganisms from the contaminated root canal system. Instrumentation alone will not allow for adequate debridement and disinfection of the complex and diverse root canal system. Chemomechanical debridement is required. The importance of the use of irrigants during non-surgical root canal treatment has frequently been neglected both during instruction of dental students and later in the clinical practice of endodontics. The article highlights 'shape, clean and fill' vs. 'clean, shape and fill' to enable chemomechanical debridement. Our protocol advises mechanical debridement and copious irrigation for a minimum of twenty minutes with 2.5% to 6% solutions of sodium hypochlorite, followed by a rinse with a 17% solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and a final rinse with 2% chlorhexidine. The canals are dried with high volume aspirators and sterile paper points. PMID:16989370

  11. A Review of Antibacterial Agents in Endodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Saeed; Janani, Maryam; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Shahi, Shahriar; Aghbali, Amirala; Vahid Pakdel, Mahdi; Salem Milani, Amin; Ghasemi, Negin

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms play a major role in initiation and perpetuation of pulpal and periapical diseases. Therefore, elimination of the microorganisms present in the root canal system is the fundamental objective of endodontic treatment. The use of mechanical debridement, chemical irrigation or other antimicrobial protocols and intra-canal medicaments are critical to attain this goal. The aim of this article was to review the antimicrobial agents and their properties in endodontics. PMID:25031587

  12. Progression of periapical cystic lesion after incomplete endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jong-Ki; Yang, Dong-Kyu; Jeon, Kug-Jin; Shin, Su-Jung

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of large radicular cyst progression related to endodontic origin to emphasize proper intervention and follow-up for endodontic pathosis. A 25 yr old man presented with an endodontically treated molar with radiolucency. He denied any intervention because of a lack of discomfort. Five years later, the patient returned. The previous periapical lesion had drastically enlarged and involved two adjacent teeth. Cystic lesion removal and apicoectomy were performed on the tooth. Histopathological analysis revealed that the lesion was an inflammatory radicular cyst. The patient did not report any discomfort except for moderate swelling 3 days after the surgical procedure. Although the patient had been asymptomatic, close follow-ups are critical to determine if any periapical lesions persist after root canal treatment. PMID:27200282

  13. Progression of periapical cystic lesion after incomplete endodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong-Kyu; Jeon, Kug-Jin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of large radicular cyst progression related to endodontic origin to emphasize proper intervention and follow-up for endodontic pathosis. A 25 yr old man presented with an endodontically treated molar with radiolucency. He denied any intervention because of a lack of discomfort. Five years later, the patient returned. The previous periapical lesion had drastically enlarged and involved two adjacent teeth. Cystic lesion removal and apicoectomy were performed on the tooth. Histopathological analysis revealed that the lesion was an inflammatory radicular cyst. The patient did not report any discomfort except for moderate swelling 3 days after the surgical procedure. Although the patient had been asymptomatic, close follow-ups are critical to determine if any periapical lesions persist after root canal treatment. PMID:27200282

  14. A systematic review of nonsurgical single-visit versus multiple-visit endodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Amy WY; Zhang, Chengfei; Chu, Chun-hung

    2014-01-01

    Conventional endodontic treatment used to require multiple visits, but some clinicians have suggested that single-visit treatment is superior. Single-visit endodontic treatment and multiple-visit endodontic treatment both have their advantages and disadvantages. This paper is a literature review of the research on nonsurgical single-visit versus multiple-visit endodontic treatment. The PubMed database was searched using the keywords (endodontic treatment OR endodontic therapy OR root canal treatment OR root canal therapy) AND (single-visit OR one-visit OR 1-visit). Review papers, case reports, data studies, and irrelevant reports were excluded, and 47 papers on clinical trials were reviewed. The studies generally had small sample sizes, and the endodontic procedures varied among the studies. Meta-analysis on the selected studies was performed, and the results showed that the postoperative complications of the single-visit and multiple-visit endodontic treatment were similar. Furthermore, neither single-visit endodontic treatment nor multiple-visit treatment had superior results over the other in terms of healing or success rate. Results of limited studies on disinfection of the root canals using low-energy laser photodynamic therapy is inconclusive, and further studies are necessary to show whether laser should be used in endodontic treatment. This review also found that that neither single-visit endodontic treatment nor multiple-visit treatment could guarantee the absence of postoperative pain. Since the study design of many studies displayed significant limitation and the materials and equipment used in endodontic treatment have dramatically changed in recent years, prospective randomized clinical trials are needed to further verify the postoperative pain and success rates of single-visit versus multiple-visit endodontic treatment. PMID:24855389

  15. [Treatment of a fractured endodontical instrument in the root canal].

    PubMed

    Schipper, M; Peters, L B

    2015-12-01

    A 53-year-old woman with continuing pain coming from a lower first molar was diagnosed with apical periodontitis, with a retained fractured instrument in the root canal. There are a variety of treatment options for dealing with a corpus alienum in a root canal. In this case it was decided to treat the tooth endodontically, and leave the fractured instrument fragment in situ. The selection of this treatment option was made on the basis of knowledge of the original diagnosis and the success rates of the various treatment options as described in the relevant literature, weighed against the possible risks and their effects on the prognosis. This suggested that the use of a dental operating microscope has a positive impact on the success rates of endodontic treatment The prognosis for endodontic treatment when a fractured instrument fragment is left within the root canal, as in this case, is not significantly reduced. The presence of preoperative periapical pathology, however, is a more clinically significant prognostic indicator. PMID:26665200

  16. [Endodontically treated teeth. Success--failure. Endorestorative treatment plan].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B

    1990-01-01

    More and more often the general dentist is finding the presence of endodontically treated teeth during his treatment planning procedure. He has to ask himself if the endo-treated tooth functions and will continue to function function successfully, when deciding which final endo-restorative procedure to apply. For this reason the dentist or the endodontist with whom he works should clinically evaluate these teeth, establish a diagnostic criteria of their success or failure and a treatment plan according to the prognosis. The purpose of this article is to offer an organized clinical view of the steps to follow when evaluating an endodontically treated tooth and how to establish a final endo-restorative plan. PMID:2168732

  17. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    PubMed

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed. PMID:27018033

  18. Influence of Endodontic Treatment on Systemic Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Marrelli, Massimo; Annibali, Susanna; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Dipalma, Gianna; Inchingolo, Alessio Danilo; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo Michele; Gargari, Marco; Tatullo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: An increased production of oxidizing species related to reactive oral diseases, such as chronic apical periodontitis, could have systemic implications such as an increase in cardiovascular morbidity. Based on this consideration, we conducted a prospective study to assess whether subjects affected by chronic periodontitis presented with higher values of oxidative stress than reference values before endodontic treatment, and whether endodontic treatment can reduce the oxidative imbalance and bring it back to normal in these subjects. Materials and methods: The authors recruited 2 groups of patients from private studies and dental clinics: these patients were recruited randomly. The oxidative balance in both patients with chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) and healthy control patients was determined by measuring the oxidant status, using an identification of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) test, while the antioxidant status in these patients was determined using a biological antioxidant potential (BAP) test. Both these tests were carried on plasma samples taken from enrolled patients. Values were measured both before the endodontic treatment of the patients with chronic apical periodontitis, and 30 and 90 days after treatment, and compared to those obtained from healthy control patients. Results: It was found that, on recruitment, the patients with chronic apical periodontitis exhibited significantly higher levels of oxidative stress than control patients, as determined by the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Furthermore, the d-ROMs test values were shown to decrease and the BAP test values to increase over time in patients with chronic apical periodontitis following endodontic therapy. As the levels of oxidative stress in these patients tended to reduce and return to normal by 90 days following treatment. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated a positive association between chronic apical periodontitis and oxidative stress. Subjects affected by chronic

  19. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases. PMID:27418983

  20. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  1. ANALYSIS OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS IN SAMPLES FROM TURKISH PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY ENDODONTIC INFECTIONS AND FAILED ENDODONTIC TREATMENT BY REAL-TIME PCR SYBR GREEN METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Ozbek, Selcuk M.; Ozbek, Ahmet; Erdogan, Aziz S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Enterococcus faecalis in primary endodontic infections and failed endodontic treatments using real-time PCR and to determine the statistical importance of the presence of E. faecalis in a Turkish population with endodontic infections. Material and Methods: E. faecalis was investigated from 79 microbial samples collected from patients who were treated at the Endodontic Clinic of the Dental School of Atatürk University (Erzurum, Turkey). Microbial samples were taken from 43 patients (Group 1) with failed endodontic treatments and 36 patients (Group 2) with chronic apical periodontitis (primary endodontic infections). DNA was extracted from the samples by using a QIAamp® DNA mini-kit and analyzed with real-time PCR SYBR Green. Results: E. faecalis was detected in 41 out of 79 patients, suggesting that it exists in not less than 61% of all endodontic infections when the proportion test (z= -1.645, endodontic infections in Turkish patients, and is more often associated with failed endodontic treatments than primary endodontic infections. PMID:19936510

  2. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-07-28

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  3. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-01-01

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  4. Endodontic treatment in the primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Sajeev; Love, Robert M

    2004-08-01

    A number of factors are involved in the development of pulp and periapical disease in primary and permanent teeth, with dental caries being the main factor. Although these factors are similar, the clinical management of a primary or permanent tooth with pulp or periapical disease may be quite different. This is based mainly on the differences between the two types of teeth, with primary tooth longevity, coronal structural integrity, root canal morphology, and root anatomy being important features to be taken into account when treatment planning. This paper reviews some aspects of primary teeth and the various treatment options for the management of pulp and periapical disease. PMID:15378974

  5. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  6. Treatment of combined endodontic: periodontic lesion by sealing of palato-radicular groove using biodentine

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Mayuri; de Ataide, Ida de Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Palatoradicular groove is a developmental anomaly which is predominantly found in maxillary lateral incisors. It provides a susceptible alcove for the progression of localised periodontal inflammation which can further cause pulpal involvement. This case report describes the successful treatment of a large periodontic – endodontic lesion usingnon surgical endodontic therapy and biodentine for the sealing of the palatoradicular groove. PMID:25506153

  7. Combined Endodontic-Periodontal Treatment of a Palatogingival Groove.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Ramos-Barbosa, Isabel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín; Dablanca-Blanco, Ana Belén; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Blanco-Carrión, Juan

    2015-11-01

    A palatogingival groove is a developmental anomaly that predisposes the involved tooth to develop a severe periodontal lesion. These grooves often present a clinical challenge because diagnosis and treatment planning require an interdisciplinary approach. This case report describes the successful management of a right maxillary lateral incisor with a deep palatogingival groove in combination with an extensive periodontal pocket and pulp necrosis of the involved tooth. Collaborative management used a combination of endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, odontoplasty, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using protein complex derived from enamel matrix (Emdogain; Straumann, Basel, Switzerland). Despite a predicted poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This report also discusses the rationale behind the treatment modalities. PMID:26395912

  8. 3D root canal modeling for advanced endodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet

    2002-06-01

    More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building 3-D tooth model from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into 3D mathematical model representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.

  9. Treatment Options: Biological Basis of Regenerative Endodontic Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Diogenes, Anibal; Teixeira, Fabricio B.

    2013-01-01

    Dental trauma occurs frequently in children and often can lead to pulpal necrosis. The occurrence of pulpal necrosis in the permanent but immature tooth represents a challenging clinical situation since the thin and often short roots increase the risk of subsequent fracture. Current approaches for treating the traumatized immature tooth with pulpal necrosis do not reliably achieve the desired clinical outcomes, consisting of healing of apical periodontitis, promotion of continued root development and restoration of the functional competence of pulpal tissue. An optimal approach for treating the immature permanent tooth with a necrotic pulp would be to regenerate functional pulpal tissue. This review summarizes the current literature supporting a biological rationale for considering regenerative endodontic treatment procedures in treating the immature permanent tooth with pulp necrosis. PMID:23439043

  10. Endodontic treatment of the pregnant patient: Knowledge, attitude and practices of dental residents

    PubMed Central

    Ibhawoh, Louis; Enabulele, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In order to control serious pulpal pain following odontogenic infections in pregnant women, endodontic treatment may become necessary. The aim of this study was to assess the perception of dentists about rendering endodontic treatment to pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of resident doctors in the different dental specialties in Nigeria preparing for the various levels of the fellowship examinations of the West Africa College of Surgeons and the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria. Data were collected by the means of a 17-itemed questionnaire which sought information on respondents' demography, their considerations while rendering endodontic treatment to the pregnant patients and their perceptions of the safety of endodontic treatment in pregnancy. The data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 21.0. Results: With regards to the safety of endodontic treatment during pregnancy, 91.8% considered it safe, and this was not statistically significant in relation to the specialty or status of the respondent. Majority (77.0%) agreed they would undertake a root canal treatment on a pregnant patient with all respondents in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, periodontics, and pedodontics in the affirmative while all in oral pathology would refuse to do such (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Dental residents are aware of the safety of endodontic treatment in pregnant women. However, gaps exist in their knowledge, bringing to the fore, the need for inclusion of pregnancy-specific training in the dental postgraduate curriculum. PMID:26778880

  11. Endodontic Treatment of Hypertaurodontic Mandibular Molar Using Reciprocating Single-file System: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    C do Nascimento, Adriano; A F Marques, André; C Sponchiado-Júnior, Emílio; F R Garcia, Lucas; M A de Carvalho, Fredson

    2016-01-01

    Taurodontism is a developmental tooth disorder characterized by lack of constriction in the cementoenamel junction and consequent vertical stretch of the pulp chamber, accompanied by apical displacement of the pulpal floor. The endodontic treatment of teeth with this type of morpho-anatomical anomaly is challenging. The purpose of this article is to report the successful endodontic treatment of a hypertaurodontic mandibular molar using a reciprocating single-file system. PMID:27320297

  12. [The diagnostic value of oblique technique for periapical radiography and its usefulness in endodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Teresa; Wilk, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of the intraoral X-rays in the oblique projection during the endodontic treatment is described in this study. The rules concerning the positioning of the X-ray tube, intraoral film and the examined tooth, necessary to obtain images in mesial and distal oblique projections are discussed. The usefulness of the aforementioned projections in visualizing the anatomy, anomalies as well as periapical changes of the dental roots and canals during the endodontic treatment is presented. PMID:19839519

  13. [The place of radiography in endodontic treatment carried out in general practice in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Gaye, F; Mbaye, M; Faye, B; Diallo, B

    2002-03-01

    An investigation conducted over dental surgeons of 52 dental offices in Dakar and it's near suburb (40 from private sector and 12 from public and quasi-public) has shown that the use of retro-alveolar radiography during endodontic treatment was not systematic, due to the price of retro-alveolar film, waste of time and relative facility of the endodontic treatment of monoradicular teeth. The preparatory negative is favored (32.70%) particularly by private dental surgeons, who use two retro-alveolar films for endodontic treatment: pre and post operative radiography (30%). The immediate post operator control is executed only in case of post-operator pains by public and quasi-public dental surgeons (16.67%) with one retro-alveolar film on average for the endodontic treatment; at term any radiographic control is done. Three retro-alveolar films per endodontic treatment were exceptionally used (9.61%) and offset incidences (15%) are not much used as well as support-films (angulators). The retro-alveolar radiography is still a reliable guide for a clinical success in endodontic treatment with a minimum of three retro-alveolar films and offset incidences. PMID:12061249

  14. Orthodontic-endodontic treatment planning of traumatized teeth.

    PubMed

    Steiner, D R; West, J D

    1997-03-01

    Occasionally, an orthodontic patient will accidentally traumatize a maxillary anterior tooth before or during orthodontic treatment. In some situations, the trauma will be substantial and avulse the tooth. In other accidents, the tooth may not avulse, but the pulp becomes nonvital. If the pulp is devitalized, and the root has not fully formed, the apex of the root canal may be wide. In this situation, the endodontist may recommend apexification procedures to help close the apex before conventional obturation of the root canal. If the patient is currently undergoing orthodontic movement of the traumatized incisor, what effect will the tooth movement have on the success of the apexification? If the tooth were avulsed, replanted, and then ankylosed, should it be extracted? If so, when should the ankylosed incisor be removed? What effect will further facial growth have on the ankylosed tooth and the potential to achieve a successful esthetic restoration? The answers to these questions are important during the interdisciplinary treatment planning of the patient with traumatized teeth. This article will elucidate the endodontic-orthodontic considerations for patients with traumatized anterior teeth. PMID:9206471

  15. Effect of cryogenic treatment on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. W.; Griggs, J. A.; Regan, J. D.; Ellis, R. A.; Cai, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effects of cryogenic treatment on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. The null hypothesis was that cryogenic treatment would result in no changes in composition, microhardness or cutting efficiency of nickel-titanium instruments. Methodology Microhardness was measured on 30 nickel-titanium K-files (ISO size 25) using a Vicker’s indenter. Elemental composition was measured on two instruments using X-ray spectroscopy. A nickel-titanium bulk specimen was analysed for crystalline phase composition using X-ray diffraction. Half of the specimens to be used for each analysis were subjected to a cryogenic treatment in liquid nitrogen (−196 °C) for either 3 s (microhardness specimens) or 10 min (other specimens). Cutting efficiency was assessed by recording operator choice using 80 nickel-titanium rotary instruments (ProFile® 20, .06) half of which had been cryogenically treated and had been distributed amongst 14 clinicians. After conditioning by preparing four corresponding canals, each pair of instruments were evaluated for cutting efficiency by a clinician during preparation of one canal system in vitro. A Student’s t-test was used to analyse the microhardness data, and a binomial test was used to analyse the observer choice data. Composition data were analysed qualitatively. Results Cryogenically treated specimens had a significantly higher microhardness than the controls (P < 0.001; β > 0.999). Observers showed a preference for cryogenically treated instruments (61%), but this was not significant (P = 0.21). Both treated and control specimens were composed of 56% Ni, 44% Ti, 0% N (by weight) with a majority in the austenite phase. Conclusions Cryogenic treatment resulted in increased microhardness, but this increase was not detected clinically. There was no measurable change in elemental or crystalline phase composition. PMID:15910471

  16. Comparison of the Success Rate of Endodontic Treatment and Implant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Elemam, Ranya Faraj; Pretty, Iain

    2011-01-01

    Dentists and patients are facing a perplexity between saving a compromised tooth through endodontic treatment and restoration or by extraction and replacement with an implant. The purpose of this paper was to compare the success rates of these two treatments. Success was measured as the longevity of the tooth or implant. Studies which met strict inclusion criteria to ensure best evidence were included. Searches were performed in Ovid Medline, Pubmed, Scopus database, and the Cochrane Library. Evidence-based groups were formed following the assessment of inclusion/exclusion criteria. The overall success rates for primary endodontic, nonsurgical retreatment, and surgical treatment were (86.02%), (78.2%), and (63.4%), respectively, implants was 90.9%. In conclusion, choice between implant and endodontic therapy cannot be exclusively based on outcome as both treatments differ in the biological process, diagnostic modalities, failure patterns, and patients preferences. More research is required with improved study designs before long-term success rates can be compared. PMID:21991484

  17. [Analysis of the key points in the micro-endodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Hou, B X

    2016-08-01

    Micro-endodontic treatment refers to the microscope-assisted endodontic treatment techniques. The microscope offers a stereoscopic, enlarged image under great magnification and illumination at a comfortable working position. It will greatly promote the precision and improve the outcomes of endodontic treatment through enhancing the ability to detect the complexity of the root canal system of teeth that probably cannot be seen by the naked eyes, remove the infectious substances in root canal more efficiently, provide a tight root canal obturation and carry out effective retreatment procedures. The requirements of micro-endodontic treatment are different from the conventional root canal therapy carried out without microscope due to the complicated structure of the microscope. In order to make the use of microscope easier, it is of great importance to learn how to adjust the position of the operator and the patient, preset the angle of objective lens and the eyepiece, select the proper magnification and instruments, practice eye-hand cooperation under the microscope, etc. The purpose of this article was to analyze the key points in the applications of the microscope in endodontic treatment by reviewing the literature together with the author's clinical experience. PMID:27511033

  18. Non-linear indices of heart rate variability during endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Santana, Milana Drumond Ramos; Pita Neto, Ivo Cavalcante; Martiniano, Eli Carlos; Monteiro, Larissa Raylane Lucas; Ramos, José Lucas Souza; Garner, David M; Valenti, Vitor Engácia; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2016-01-01

    Dental treatment promotes psychosomatic change that can influence the procedure and compromise the general well-being of the patient. In this context, it highlights the importance of evaluating the function of the autonomic nervous system in individuals undergoing endodontic treatment. Thus, this manuscript aimed to analyse cardiac autonomic modulation, through non-linear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) during endodontic treatment. Analysis of 50 subjects of either sex aged between 18 and 40 years diagnosed with irreversible pulp necrosis of lower molars undergoing endodontic treatment was undertaken. We carried out fractal and symbolic analysis of HRV, which was recorded in the first session of the endodontic treatment at four intervals: T1: 0-10 min before the onset of the treatment session; T2: 0-10 min after the application of anaesthesia; T3: throughout the period of treatment; and T4: 0-30 min after the end of the treatment session. There was reduction of α1 in T2 compared to T1 and T4 (p < 0.0001). The α2 index also reduced in T2 compared to T3 (p = 0.0035). There was an increase in the α1/α2 ratio in T4 compared to T2 and T3 (p = 0.0003). It was found that 0V% was significantly lower in T2 (p = 0.002), while 2UV% was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) when compared to other points in time. In conclusion, HRV is reduced during endodontic treatment, and after applying local anaesthetic the parasympathetic component of HRV increases. These data indicate that endodontic treatment acutely overcharges the heart, supporting the stress involved in this situation. PMID:26910016

  19. Cervicofacial emphysema and pneumomediastinum after a high-speed air drill endodontic treatment procedure.

    PubMed

    Durukan, Polat; Salt, Omer; Ozkan, Seda; Durukan, Banu; Kavalci, Cemil

    2012-11-01

    Cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema is defined as the abnormal introduction of air in the subcutaneous tissues of the head and neck. It is mainly caused by trauma, head and neck surgery, general anesthesia, and coughing or habitual performance of Valsalva maneuver. The occurrence of subcutaneous emphysema after dental treatment is rare, and diffusion of gas into the mediastinum is much rarer, especially when the procedure is a nonsurgical treatment. The most common dental cause of pneumomediastinum is the introduction of air via the air turbine handpiece during surgical extraction of an impacted tooth. Only 6 cases of pneumomediastinum after endodontic treatment have been reported between 1960 and 2008. Pneumothorax is defined clinically as an “accumulation of air or gas between the parietal and visceral pleurae,” and although it is often not a medical emergency, it can result in respiratory distress, tension pneumothorax, shock, circulatory collapse, and even death. Although there are many possible causes of dyspnea during a dental procedure, 1 rare complication is pneumothorax. Although specific closed turbine systems are available for oral surgical procedures, these drills may be used in exodontia to section teeth and facilitate tooth extraction. We report a case of cervical subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum occurring after an endodontic treatment of right first molar using an air-tribune drill. We present here in a case of massive pneumomediastinum and cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema that occurred after opening the access cavity for endodontic treatment. We describe its etiologies and guidelines for its prevention during nonsurgical endodontic treatment. PMID:22306391

  20. The Application of Microencapsulation Techniques in the Treatment of Endodontic and Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Asteria Luzardo; Espinar, Francisco Otero; Méndez, José Blanco

    2011-01-01

    In the treatment of intracanal and periodontal infections, the local application of antibiotics and other therapeutic agents in the root canal or in periodontal pockets may be a promising approach to achieve sustained drug release, high antimicrobial activity and low systemic side effects. Microparticles made from biodegradable polymers have been reported to be an effective means of delivering antibacterial drugs in endodontic and periodontal therapy. The aim of this review article is to assess recent therapeutic strategies in which biocompatible microparticles are used for effective management of periodontal and endodontic diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies that have investigated the biocompatibility or efficacy of certain microparticle formulations and devices are presented. Future directions in the application of microencapsulation techniques in endodontic and periodontal therapies are discussed. PMID:24310596

  1. Endodontic Treatment of a Double-Rooted Maxillary Second Molar with Four Canals: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Dianat, Omid; Hajrezai, Reihaneh; Paymanpour, Payam; Azadnia, Sina

    2014-01-01

    A healthy female was referred to Endodontic Department. The referral letter from her dentist expressed that an emergency pulpotomy of tooth #27 had been carried out with probable perforation of the chamber floor which was due to the unusual anatomy of the chamber. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) revealed that the tooth had two mesial and two distal canals. Perforation site was repaired and endodontic treatment was completed. At 24-month follow-up, patient was asymptomatic and clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful outcomes. PMID:25386215

  2. Endodontic treatment of a double-rooted maxillary second molar with four canals: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Dianat, Omid; Hajrezai, Reihaneh; Paymanpour, Payam; Azadnia, Sina

    2014-01-01

    A healthy female was referred to Endodontic Department. The referral letter from her dentist expressed that an emergency pulpotomy of tooth #27 had been carried out with probable perforation of the chamber floor which was due to the unusual anatomy of the chamber. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) revealed that the tooth had two mesial and two distal canals. Perforation site was repaired and endodontic treatment was completed. At 24-month follow-up, patient was asymptomatic and clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful outcomes. PMID:25386215

  3. Genetic Variants in Cyclooxygenase- 2 Contribute to Post-treatment Pain among Endodontic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Elizabeth; Nackley, Andrea G.; Bair, Eric; Maixner, William; Khan, Asma A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a well-established analgesic efficacy for inflammatory pain. These drugs exert their effect by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and are commonly used for the management of pain following endodontic treatment. There are two distinct isoforms of COX: COX-1, which is constitutively expressed; and COX-2, which is primarily induced by inflammation. Previous studies have shown that functional human genetic variants of the COX-2 gene may explain individual variations in acute pain. The present study extends this work by examining the potential contribution of the two COX isoforms to pain after endodontic treatment. Methods Ninety-four patients treated by endodontic residents at the University of North Carolina School of Dentistry were enrolled into a prospective cohort study. Data on potential predictors of post-treatment pain was collected and all patients submitted saliva samples for genetic analysis. Non-surgical root canal therapy was performed and participants recorded pain levels for five days following. Results In this study, 63% of patients experienced at least mild pain after root canal therapy and 24% experienced moderate to severe pain. Presence of pretreatment pain was correlated with higher post-treatment pain (p=0.01). Elevated heart rate (p=0.02) and higher diastolic blood pressure (p=0.024) were also correlated with decreased post-treatment pain. Finally, we identified genetic variants in COX-2 (haplotype composed of rs2383515 G, rs5277 G, rs5275 T, and rs2206593 A) associated with post-treatment pain following endodontic treatment (p= 0.025). Conclusion Understanding the genetic basis of pain following endodontic treatment will advance its prevention and management. PMID:26081267

  4. [Comprehensive endodontic treatment with the use of depo- and galvanophoresis with copper hydroxide-calcium].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, V A; Opeshko, V V; Tubaeva, E A; Stapanian, Z V; Chakhkieva, F D; Kop'ev, D A; Ovcharenko, O S

    2007-01-01

    In the blind and randomized study in cases of routine endodontic treatment of 460 teeth in 372 patients high efficacy of additional use of depo- and galvanophoresis with copper hydroxide-calcium according to the technique modified by the authors. PMID:17828063

  5. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment in a Kosovar adult population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite numerous studies on the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment in diverse geographical populations, there are currently no data on the prevalence of these conditions in populations of adults native to Kosovo. Therefore, little is known about how widespread these conditions are, and whether there is any correlation between root canal treatment and AP. The purpose of our research was to address this anomaly by investigating AP and endodontic treatment in an adult Kosovar population based on radiographic examination. Methods The sample used for this study consisted of randomly selected individuals referred to the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo in the years 2006-2007. Orthopantomographs of 193 patients were evaluated. The periapical status of all teeth (with the exception of third molars) was examined according to Ørstavik's Periapical Index. The quality of the root canal filling was rated as 'adequate' or 'inadequate' based on whether all canals were filled, the depth of fill relative to the radiographic apex and the quality of compaction (absence/presence of voids). Data were analyzed statistically using the Chi-square test and calculation of odds ratios. Results Out of 4131 examined teeth, the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment was 12.3% and 2.3%, respectively. Of 95 endodontically-treated teeth, 46.3% were associated with AP. The prevalence of AP increased with age. The prevalence in subjects aged over 60 years old (20.2%) was higher than in other age groups. A statistically significant difference was found for the frequency of endodontically-treated teeth associated with AP in the 40-49 year age group (P < 0.001). Of some concern was the discovery that only 30.5% of the endodontically-treated teeth examined met the criteria of an acceptable root canal filling. Inadequately root-filled teeth were associated with an increased AP risk. Conclusions The prevalence of AP and the

  6. [Endodontic re-treatment or apical surgery, is an evidence-based choice possible?].

    PubMed

    de Lange, J

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of a recurrence after an initial endodontic treatment can consist of endodontic re-treatment or apical surgery. The literature reports comparable success rates for these two options. However, randomised controlled trials that are truly comparable to each other are unavailable as a result of which comparison and an informed choice are not really possible. In addition to the treatment outcome, consideration also has to be given to cost-effectiveness and other patient-related factors, such as pain, swelling and medication. Regarding these considerations, too, little reliable information can be found in the literature. Moreover, factors relating to insurance play an important role in the Netherlands, where only apical surgery is covered by the basic healthcare insurance. In conclusion, all of these factors should be carefully considered before proceeding to an individual treatment strategy. PMID:26878715

  7. Effects of endodontic treatment on apparent Young's modulus of human teeth: in vitro study using speckle interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Peña, Rolando J.; Salvador, Rosario; Cibrián, Rosa M.; Martinez-Celorio, René A.; López, Francisco J.; Sala, Faustino; Paredes, Vanessa

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of new techniques for endodontic procedures requires the analysis of the biomechanical behavior of dental structures. Digital speckle shearing pattern interferometry (DSSPI) is a nondestructive optical measuring technique that allows one to directly quantify deformations in teeth that are subjected to stress. DSSPI technique was applied to measure small deformations caused by flexion in different types of teeth. The test was carried out both before and after endodontic treatment with the ProTaper method in order to evaluate the variation of dental elasticity, taking into the account the type of tooth and the endodontic treatment. The results obtained show that dental elasticity, established by means of the apparent Young's modulus, before and after the endodontic treatment, differs between incisors and premolars. The endodontic process does not affect dental elasticity (p>0.7). Specifically, 57.1% of central incisors and 56.3% of second premolars slightly increase their elasticity after the endodontic process. In turn, 42.9% of central incisors and 43.7% of second premolars slightly decrease elasticity. The endodontic treatment especially affects the ``neutral fibre'' therefore, there is little influence on elasticity by flexion. However, after finishing the process, the channel was restored with material, which can slightly increase tooth elasticity in some cases.

  8. Pregabalin in the treatment of inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia following overfilling of endodontic sealer

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ezpeleta, Oscar; Martín, Pablo J.; López-López, José; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    A case of orofacial pain and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paraesthesia after extrusion of endodontic sealer within the mandibular canal treated with prednisone and pregabalin is described. A 36-year-old woman underwent root canal treatment of the mandibular second right premolar tooth. Post-operative panoramic radiograph revealed the presence of radiopaque canal sealer in the mandibular canal. Damage to IAN consecutive to extrusion of endodontic sealer was diagnosed. Non-surgical management was decided, including: 1 mg/kg/day prednisone 2 times/day, once-daily regimen, and 150 mg/day pregabalin, two doses per day, monitoring the progress with periodic follow-up visits. Six weeks after the incident the signs and symptoms were gone. The complete resolution of paraesthesia and the control of pain achieved suggest that a non-surgical approach, combining prednisone and the GABA analogue pregabalin, is a good option in the management of the IAN damage subsequent to endodontic sealer extrusion. Key words:Endodontics, inferior alveolar nerve, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, paraesthesia, pregabalin. PMID:24790724

  9. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Management and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam; Shokouhinejad, Noushin

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic intervention in necrotic immature permanent teeth is usually a clinical challenge. With appropriate case selection, regenerative treatment can be effective, providing a desirable outcome. However, there is still no consensus on the optimal disinfection protocol or the method to achieve predictable clinical outcome. This article presents two cases of regenerative treatment in necrotic immature teeth, using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and BiodentineTM as coronal barriers and different irrigants, which led to different clinical outcomes. PMID:26884781

  10. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Management and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Pirmoazen, Salma

    2015-06-01

    Endodontic intervention in necrotic immature permanent teeth is usually a clinical challenge. With appropriate case selection, regenerative treatment can be effective, providing a desirable outcome. However, there is still no consensus on the optimal disinfection protocol or the method to achieve predictable clinical outcome. This article presents two cases of regenerative treatment in necrotic immature teeth, using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine(TM) as coronal barriers and different irrigants, which led to different clinical outcomes. PMID:26884781

  11. Patients’ Perceptions of Endodontic Treatment as Part of Public Health Services: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Melgaço-Costa, José Leonardo Barbosa; Martins, Renata Castro; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations by patients constitute an important part of the process of improving health services. This study examined patients’ perceptions of secondary dental care in three cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil based on the endodontic treatment received. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (addressing access, treatment and results) and a field diary (direct observations and report of professionals). The interviews were audiotaped, fully transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Two principal themes were identified: access to service and quality of service. The difficulties in accessing service were associated with the insufficient number of professionals to meet the high demand for endodontic treatment, problems in referring from primary to secondary care and geographic barriers. Service quality was related to the presence/absence of pain and anxiety that patients experienced, the time and number of sessions required to complete treatment, how patients were treated by dentists, and whether those patients would recommend the service to other patients. Access to endodontic treatment was a problem emphasized by users, and satisfaction with the quality of the service was more related to how patients were treated than to the technical competence of the dentist. PMID:27128932

  12. Patients' Perceptions of Endodontic Treatment as Part of Public Health Services: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Melgaço-Costa, José Leonardo Barbosa; Martins, Renata Castro; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations by patients constitute an important part of the process of improving health services. This study examined patients' perceptions of secondary dental care in three cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil based on the endodontic treatment received. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (addressing access, treatment and results) and a field diary (direct observations and report of professionals). The interviews were audiotaped, fully transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Two principal themes were identified: access to service and quality of service. The difficulties in accessing service were associated with the insufficient number of professionals to meet the high demand for endodontic treatment, problems in referring from primary to secondary care and geographic barriers. Service quality was related to the presence/absence of pain and anxiety that patients experienced, the time and number of sessions required to complete treatment, how patients were treated by dentists, and whether those patients would recommend the service to other patients. Access to endodontic treatment was a problem emphasized by users, and satisfaction with the quality of the service was more related to how patients were treated than to the technical competence of the dentist. PMID:27128932

  13. Outcome of Endodontic Treatments Made by Postgraduate Students in the Dental Clinic of Bretonneau Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Touboul, Virginie; Germa, Alice; Lasfargues, Jean-Jacques; Bonte, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this retrospective study is double: (1) to assess the 1–4 years of outcome of endodontic treatment performed by postgraduate students in endodontics in the Dental Clinic of Bretonneau Hospital and (2) to examine outcome predictors. Method. 363 teeth in 296 patients were treated between 2007 and 2011. 183 patients (224 teeth) were lost during the followup. 113 patients were included in the study (recall: 38%), corresponding to 139 teeth of which 8 were extracted. 131 remaining teeth (36%) were examined clinically and radiographically. Apical periodontitis (AP) was absent (PAI = 1) or present (PAI ≥ 2). Outcome was classified as “healed,” “healing,” or “diseased”. Results. The success rate was 92%. No failure was observed among the 23 initial endodontic treatments. Among the 108 retreated teeth, 80% were “healed” and 11% were “healing.” An association was found between success rate and preoperative signs or symptoms (absent 95% versus present 83%), preoperative root filling density (inadequate 93% versus adequate 57%), but not between preoperative AP status and success. Conclusion. Outcomes in this retrospective study were similar to those previously reported. However, a larger sample size is needed to assess outcome predictors more precisely. PMID:24778652

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of teeth with primary endodontic lesions mimicking periodontal disease: three cases with long-term follow ups

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    A tooth with primary endodontic disease that demonstrates a periodontal defect might be extracted because of misdiagnosis as severe periodontal disease or a vertical root fracture. The aim of this case report was to demonstrate the long-term survival of endodontically treated teeth, which had been initially considered unsavable. With meticulous evaluation including the patient's dental history, clinical and radiographic examinations, teeth with primary endodontic lesions could be differentiated and saved after proper root canal treatment. Pain history, vitality test, and radiographic examinations, as well as a general periodontal condition check with periodontal probing on an affected tooth, might be the key methods to differentiate endodontic pathosis from that of periodontal disease. PMID:24516831

  15. Treatment of an endodontic perforation with a restoration and a root coverage gingival graft.

    PubMed

    Harris, R J

    1995-07-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a perforation on the facial surface of the maxillary right central incisor made during endodontic therapy. Treatment of this highly visible area required a creative approach to therapy. The perforation was repaired with an amalgam restoration. A connective tissue with partial thickness double pedicle graft was used to replace missing periodontal structures, cover the exposed root surface, and obscure from view, as much as possible, the amalgam restoration placed in the perforation. This unconventional therapy is offered as a possible treatment option when few or no other acceptable options exist. PMID:7562357

  16. Curricular Guidelines for Endodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Endodontics of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. Endodontics is that branch of dentistry dealing with diagnosis and treatment of oral conditions that arise as a result of pathoses of dental pulp. (MLW)

  17. [Endodontic treatment of primary teeth. Pulp exposure and pulp necrosis].

    PubMed

    Gruythuysen, R J M

    2005-11-01

    With management of the deep caries in primary teeth we have to take account into the coping strategies of the patient and the state of the development of the dentition. That's why in most cases a root canal treatment of primary incisors or even a pulpotomy is not indicated. Often Intellectual Decision Not To Restore is a good alternative for treatment of deep caries in primary incisors. In deep caries lesions of primary canines and molars preferably minimal invasive techniques as indirect pulp capping are performed. In case of a exposure, the dentist can choose between several types of treatment. Improved techniques have lead to clinical satisfying results of the calcium hydroxide pulpotomy. A partial pulpotomy is if possible the treatment of choice. A resin modified glass ionomer cement is used to cover the pulp wound because it has good sealing properties and it is easy to handle. To limit the burden in young children a root canal treatment in primary teeth is seldom indicated. Overfilling with calcium hydroxide in root canal treatment of primary teeth never causes problems. PMID:16320568

  18. The Impact of Apical Patency in the Success of Endodontic Treatment of Necrotic Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Ricardo; Ferrari, Carlos Henrique; Back, Eduardo; Comparin, Daniel; Tomazinho, Luiz Fernando; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of soft tissue or dentinal remnants in the apical region is a common event that can cause blockage of root canals. This event can be avoided if apical patency is performed during the root canal shaping procedures. However, there is no consensus on the role of apical patency in relation to the success of endodontic treatment of necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to conduct a brief review on the role of apical patency in guaranteeing the success of endodontic treatments of necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis considering two other key points; the root canal anatomy and microbiology. PMID:26843880

  19. Dental students' perceptions about the endodontic treatments performed using NiTi rotary instruments and hand stainless steel files.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renata Castro; Seijo, Marília Oliveira Saraiva; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the perceptions of Brazilian undergraduate dental students about the endodontic treatments performed using NiTi rotary instruments and hand stainless steel. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontic disciplines. The students were divided into 3 groups: G1, students who had treated straight canals with SS hand instruments; G2, students who had treated curved canals with SS hand instruments; and G3, students who had treated both straight and curved canals with NiTi rotary instruments. The number of endodontic treatments performed, types of treated teeth, students' learning, time spent, encountered difficulties, quality of endodontic treatment and characteristics of the employed technique were analyzed. There was a 91.3% rate of return for the questionnaires. Mandibular molars were the most frequently treated teeth, followed by maxillary incisors. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no differences in learning (p=0.528) or in the characteristics of the technique employed (p=0.560) among the three groups. G3 students performed a greater number of endodontic treatments (p<0.001) in a smaller time (p<0.001) than did G1 and G2 students. Difficulties were reported primarily by students in G2 and G3 compared with G1 (p=0.048). The quality of endodontic treatments differed only between G1 and G2 (p=0.045). The use of NiTi rotary instruments should be included in undergraduate dental curriculum, contributing to the increase of patients assisted and consequently to improve the clinical experience of the students. PMID:23338269

  20. Can Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) Enhance the Endodontic Treatment?

    PubMed

    Chiniforush, Nasim; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Shahabi, Sima; Kosarieh, Emad; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve a long-lasting effect, one of the main goals in root canal treatment is to eliminate the endodontic bacteria. Conventional chemomechanical debridement is considered as the basic treatment in root canal therapy, but adjunctive techniques such as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) can also be helpful. The aim of this study was to evaluate reports in the scientific literature that used different photosensitizers (PSs) for bacterial reduction. The literature search was conducted using databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with the keywords "photodynamic therapy," "antimicrobial photodynamic therapy," or "photoactivated disinfection" and "endodontic," "Enterococcus faecalis," or "root canal treatment," from 2000 to 2015. By evaluating different studies, it was concluded that aPDT should be applied in combination with conventional mechanical debridement and irrigants. However, it is also important to note that the success rate is critically dependent on the type of the PS, output power of the laser used, irradiation time, pre-irradiation time, and type of tips used. PMID:27330702

  1. Endodontic treatment of mandibular molar with root dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Daniely Amorin; Bastos, Mariana Mena Barreto; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Biomechanical preparation of root canals with accentuated curvature is challenging. New rotatory systems, such as Reciproc, require a shorter period of time to prepare curved canals, and became a viable alternative for endodontic treatment of teeth with root dilaceration. Thus, this study aimed to report a clinical case of endodontic therapy of root with accentuated dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system. Mandibular right second molar was diagnosed as asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Pulp chamber access was performed, and glide path was created with #10 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer) and PathFile #13, #16 and #19 (Dentsply Maillefer) up to the temporary working length. The working length measured corresponded to 20 mm in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual canals, and 22 mm in the distal canal. The R25 file (VDW GmbH) was used in all the canals for instrumentation and final preparation, followed by filling with Reciproc gutta-percha cones (VDW GmbH) and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply Maillefer), using thermal compaction technique. The case has been receiving follow-up for 6 mon and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. Despite the difficulties, the treatment could be performed in a shorter period of time than the conventional methods. PMID:24010084

  2. Cleaning and decompression of inferior alveolar canal to treat dysesthesia and paresthesia following endodontic treatment of a third molar.

    PubMed

    Scala, Rudy; Cucchi, Alessandro; Cappellina, Luca; Ghensi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic overfilling involving the mandibular canal may cause an injury of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). We report a case of disabling dysesthesia and paresthesia of a 70-year-old man after endodontic treatment of his mandibular left third molar that caused leakage of root canal filling material into the mandibular canal. After radiographic evaluation, extraction of the third molar and distal osteotomy, a surgical exploration was performed and followed by removal of the material and decompression of the IAN. The patient reported an improvement in sensation and immediate disappearance of dysesthesia already from the first postoperative day. PMID:25099006

  3. The efficacy of low-level laser treatment in reducing pain and swelling after endodontic surgery: a systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Zakershahrak, Mehrsa

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: LLLT in oral cavity believed to reduce pain after endodontic surgery and wisdom tooth removal, to accelerate wound healing and to have an anti-inflammatory and regenerative effect. The aim of this systematic review therefore was to assess the proof available for the efficacy of low-level laser treatment in reducing pain and swelling after endodontic surgery. Methods: The PubMed service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine was searched with applicable search strategies. No language restriction was applied. The last electronic search was accomplished on August 31, 2015. All randomized clinical trials on the efficiency of low-level laser treatment in reducing pain and swelling after endodontic surgery was considered for the Meta-analysis. Quality consideration of the included randomized clinical trials was appraised according to CONSORT guidelines. Results: Only two randomized clinical trials were attained. These studies clarified that laser treatment could reduce pain and swelling, but the results were not significant. Conclusions: Low-level laser therapy can be advantageous for the reduction of postoperative pain but there is no strong confirmation for its efficiency. Its clinical utility and applicability relating to endodontic surgery, Along with the optimal energy dosage and the number of laser treatments needed after surgery, still, demand further research and experiment.

  4. The Factors Responsible for Endodontic Treatment Failure in the Permanent Dentitions of the Patients Reported to the College of Dentistry, the University of Aljouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The endodontic failure is a common problem in dentistry. The success of endodontic and re-endodontic treatment depends on many factors. These includes periodontal disease, root fractures, residual necrotic pulp tissue, presence of peri-radicular infection, broken instruments, mechanical perforations, root canal underfillings, root canal overfillings, missed canals or unfilled canals. Aim The present research was aimed at evaluating the different factors responsible for endodontic treatment failure in permanent dentitions of the patients. Materials and Methods In the present in vivo cross-sectional study, 90 patients, who reported in endodontic section of Department of Conservative Dentistry, with post endodontic treatment pain, tenderness to percussion, swelling and sinus tract in their permanent dentitions were considered as endodontic failure cases, and were considered for endodontic re-treatment. The teeth with vertical root fracture and badly broken down unrestorable teeth were excluded from the present study. The study subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their age. Informed consent was taken from the study subjects and the approval was taken for this study from the college ethical committee. Results The results were obtained as frequencies and percentages after analysing the collected informations by using SPSS version 10 computer soft ware. The majority of the endodontic failures were noted in the age group III (41.11%) and minimum endodontic failures were found in the age group I (24.44%). According to the tooth type, the majority of the endodontic failures were noted in maxillary molars (44.4%), mandibular molars (20%) and maxillary premolars (15.5%). The endodontic treatment performed by the general dental practitioners (GDPs) showed the most failure rate (78.8%). The factors which were most responsible for endodontic failures were underfilled canals (33.3%), unfilled and missed canals (17.7%). Conclusion This study

  5. Management of progressive apical root resorption 13 years after dental trauma and primary endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ricardo; Tomazinho, Luiz Fernando; Magagnin, Roseani; Leal Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the search for a restorative material with good sealing properties and biocompatibility for treatment of teeth with open apices and necrotic pulps, which can result from periradicular disease and root resorption. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has exhibited promising clinical results in retrograde fillings and pulpotomies as well as for treatment of root perforations, root resorptions, incomplete root formations, and pulpal necrosis. This case report describes the management of a progressive apical root resorption in a previously traumatized tooth that had been endodontically treated. Five years of clinical and radiographic follow-up demonstrated the clinical efficacy of MTA in limiting the inflammatory resorptive process and promoting apexification and regeneration of periradicular tissue. PMID:27367638

  6. Coronal microleakage of 3 temporary filling materials used for endodontic treatment: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Feliz Matos, Leandro; Rodriguez, Indira De Los Santos; Gonzalez, Mally Luz Rodriguez; Pereyra, Dulce; Monzon Velez, Erick R

    2013-01-01

    Most root canal treatments are performed over multiple appointments. The temporary sealing material used between sessions must have sealing properties capable of preventing microleakage. This study assessed the degree of microleakage of temporary sealing materials according to time spent blocking the access cavity. Endodontic treatments with a standardized protocol were performed on 63 healthy, single-rooted, caries-free human teeth. The teeth were divided randomly into 5 groups. Groups 1-3 were each treated with 1 of 3 sealing materials, while Group 4 and 5 served as positive and negative controls, respectively. Data was obtained and analyzed with nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square). Results indicated statistically significant differences between materials and the degree of microleakage (P = 0.000). All 3 sealing materials allowed microleakage within 48 hours, with glass ionomer cement demonstrating the most microleakage. PMID:24064164

  7. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 2. The use of cone-beam computed tomography in endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning].

    PubMed

    Özok, A R; Metska, M E

    2015-09-01

    Systems for cone-beam computed tomography make a high-quality 3D reconstruction of dentomaxillofacial structures possible, without exposing the patient to excessive doses of radiation. Due to its 3D nature cone-beam computed tomography is superior to conventional dental radiographic imaging methods for many aspects of endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. There are multiple indications for the use of cone-beam computed tomography scans in endodontics, including detection of periapical lesions or root fractures and the exploration of the root canal anatomy and its deviations. Depending on conditions, a judicious decision will always have to be made with regard to the radiographic technique to be applied. Primary in that respect must be the means by which the most accurate diagnostic image can be achieved with the lowest possible dose of radiation. Making a cone-beam computed tomography scan is justified only when the required diagnostic information cannot be achieved adequately using lower dose conventional dental radiographic imaging techniques. PMID:26397106

  8. Endodontic applications of short pulsed FR Nd:YAG dental laser: treatment of dystrophic calcification: a clinical trial report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Robert H., II

    1992-06-01

    Formation of dystrophic calcification deposits within the root canal of a tooth, have historically been difficult clinical endodontic complications. Presently, removal of such tissue, mineralized through the deposition of calcareous materials in a root canal (a 'calcified canal'), remains resistant to conventional endodontic techniques. The subsequent treatment primarily involves undesirable surgical procedures and/or loss of the tooth. Described in this clinical trial is a technique using free running (RF) pulsed, Nd:YAG laser energy to ablate hard calcified tissue which obstructed mechanical access of the root canal and root apex--a technique employed after conventional endodontic methods failed. This paper discusses the 'plasma' effect, 'spallation', canal illumination and transillumination using the helium-neon (HeNe) aiming beam. A free running pulsed, FR Nd:YAG dental laser was successfully used at 20 pulses per second and 1.75 watts to photovaporize and photodisrupt enough calcified tissue obstruction, to allow a conventional endodontic file to pass the canal blockage, and access the root apex. This clinical trial achieved the immediate, short term objective of endodontic hard tissue removal via photovaporization and photodisruption. The pulsed FR Nd:YAG dental laser used as described in this clinical report appears to be a very safe and very effective technique; offers a treatment alternative to traditional therapy that suggests high patient acceptance; and is significantly less stressful for the doctor and staff than traditional treatment options. Long-term, controlled scientific and clinical studies are necessary to establish the safety and efficacy of both the helium-neon energy for visualization and the low- watt pulsed FR Nd:YAG energy for photovaporization and photodisruption of hard calcified tissue within the root canal. Research is especially needed to understand the effects of low- watt, pulsed FR, Nd:YAG laser on the activity of osteoclasts and

  9. Diode laser for endodontic treatment: investigations of light distribution and disinfection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Karl; Graser, Rainer; Udart, Martin; Kienle, Alwin; Hibst, Raimund

    2011-03-01

    Diode lasers are used in dentistry mainly for oral surgery and disinfection of root canals in endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate and to improve the laser induced bacteria inactivation in endodontic treatment. An essential prerequisite of the optimization of the irradiation process and device is the knowledge about the determinative factors of bacteria killing: light intensity? light dosis? temperature? In order to find out whether high power NIR laser bacterial killing is caused by a photochemical or a photothermal process we heated bacteria suspensions of E. coli K12 by a water bath and by a diode laser (940 nm) with the same temporal temperature course. Furthermore, bacteria suspensions were irradiated while the temperature was fixed by ice water. Killing of bacteria was measured via fluorescence labeling. In order to optimize the irradiation of the root canal, we designed special fiber tips with radial light emission characteristic by optical ray tracing simulations. Also, we calculated the resulting light distribution in dentin by voxelbased Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, we irradiated root canals of extracted human teeth using different fiber tip geometries and measured the resulting light and heat distribution by CCD-camera and thermography. Comparison of killing rates between laser and water based heating shows no significant differences, and irradiation of ice cooled suspensions has no substantial killing effect. Thus, the most important parameter for bacterial killing is the maximum temperature. Irradiation of root canals using fiber tips with radial light emission results in a more defined irradiated area with minor irradiation of the apex and higher intensity and therefore higher temperature increase on root canal surface. In conclusion, our experiments show that at least for E. coli bacteria inactivation by NIR laser irradiation is solely based on a thermal process and that heat distribution in root canal can be

  10. Accidental injury of the inferior alveolar nerve due to the extrusion of calcium hydroxide in endodontic treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yooseok; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Kim, Yemi; Kim, Taehyeon; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-02-01

    During clinical endodontic treatment, we often find radiopaque filling material beyond the root apex. Accidental extrusion of calcium hydroxide could cause the injury of inferior alveolar nerve, such as paresthesia or continuous inflammatory response. This case report presents the extrusion of calcium hydroxide and treatment procedures including surgical intervention. A 48 yr old female patient experienced Calcipex II extrusion in to the inferior alveolar canal on left mandibular area during endodontic treatment. After completion of endodontic treatment on left mandibular first molar, surgical intervention was planned under general anesthesia. After cortical bone osteotomy and debridement, neuroma resection and neurorrhaphy was performed, and prognosis was observed. But no improvement in sensory nerve was seen following surgical intervention after 20 mon. A clinician should be aware of extrusion of intracanal medicaments and the possibility of damage on inferior alveolar canal. Injectable type of calcium hydroxide should be applied with care for preventing nerve injury. The alternative delivery method such as lentulo spiral was suggested on the posterior mandibular molar. PMID:26877992

  11. Accidental injury of the inferior alveolar nerve due to the extrusion of calcium hydroxide in endodontic treatment: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    During clinical endodontic treatment, we often find radiopaque filling material beyond the root apex. Accidental extrusion of calcium hydroxide could cause the injury of inferior alveolar nerve, such as paresthesia or continuous inflammatory response. This case report presents the extrusion of calcium hydroxide and treatment procedures including surgical intervention. A 48 yr old female patient experienced Calcipex II extrusion in to the inferior alveolar canal on left mandibular area during endodontic treatment. After completion of endodontic treatment on left mandibular first molar, surgical intervention was planned under general anesthesia. After cortical bone osteotomy and debridement, neuroma resection and neurorrhaphy was performed, and prognosis was observed. But no improvement in sensory nerve was seen following surgical intervention after 20 mon. A clinician should be aware of extrusion of intracanal medicaments and the possibility of damage on inferior alveolar canal. Injectable type of calcium hydroxide should be applied with care for preventing nerve injury. The alternative delivery method such as lentulo spiral was suggested on the posterior mandibular molar. PMID:26877992

  12. Are more endodontic consultations needed in dental school clinic settings? A study of treatment decisions at one school.

    PubMed

    Aminoshariae, Anita; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim; Demko, Catherine; Galsterer, Mark; Montagnese, Thomas A; Mickel, Andre

    2015-04-01

    With no previous studies of the occurrence of interdisciplinary consultations for tooth extraction in a dental school clinic setting, the aim of this cross-sectional descriptive investigation was to measure and compare the consultation process that occurred among departments at one U.S. dental school for making treatment decisions on tooth extraction. A comprehensive computerized retrieval (Crystal Reports) was used to identify and gather data from patient records from July 1, 2007, to July 1, 2011. Treatment plans and progress notes were analyzed to determine why each tooth had been extracted and which department had recommended the extraction. Results showed that the clinical departments involved in treatment planning decisions were the DMD dental student clinic, Department of Periodontics, and Department of Endodontics. The narrative records of 227 patients who had 516 teeth extracted were examined. About three-fourths (73.26%) of the extracted teeth were extracted based on the recommendation of only one department. Of these extracted teeth, 22.0% (n=114) were previously endodontically treated, and only four were recommended for endodontic consultation prior to extraction. The study found that most extractions were performed without specialty consultations and that the Department of Endodontics was consulted the least of all departments. To foster interdisciplinary collaboration in dental school clinics and help students develop expertise in such collaborations, more specialty consultations are needed for teeth that are treatment planned for extraction in order to preclude needless extraction of potentially salvageable teeth. Doing so will provide benefits for both patient care and students' education. PMID:25838010

  13. Modern Endodontic Principles. Part 8: The Future of Endodontics.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Darcey, James; Qualtrough, Alison

    2016-06-01

    Although the principles of endodontics have remained unchanged for many decades, root canal treatment has been subject to major changes in the past few years. This paper outlines the cutting-edge advances including the materials and techniques used. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article provides an overview of bioactive materials and insight into regenerative endodontics, vital pulp therapy and intentional replantation. PMID:27529911

  14. Adverse Reaction of Sodium Hypochlorite during Endodontic Treatment of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Panse, Amey Manohar; Gawali, Pritesh Namdeo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most common and effective intracanal medicament used in root canal treatments, because of its low-cost and a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. Sodium hypochlorite is an effective intracanal irrigant and is used in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5.25%. At these concentrations, it is highly hypertonic and strongly alkaline with pH 11 to 13. Despite its safe properties, serious complications can result from inadvertent use due to its cytotoxic features. Most of the complications are the result of accidental extrusion of the solution from the apical foramen or accessory canals or perforations into the periapical area. Although it is an effective solution for disinfection of root canal system, fewer incidence of complications are reported, especially in primary teeth. Present article highlights one of such cases of NaOCl accident and its successful management in a 4-year-old child. How to cite this article: Chaugule VB, Panse AM, Gawali PN. Adverse Reaction of Sodium Hypochlorite during Endo-dontic Treatment of Primary Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):153-156. PMID:26379387

  15. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar with seven root canals confirmed with cone beam computer tomography - case report.

    PubMed

    Martins, Jorge N R

    2014-06-01

    The most common configuration of the maxillary first molar is the presence of three roots and four root canals, although the presence of several other configurations have already been reported. The objective of this work is to present a rare anatomic configuration with seven root canals diagnosed during an endodontic therapy. Endodontic treatment was performed using a dental operating microscope. Exploring the grooves surrounding the main canals with ultrasonic troughing was able expose unexpected root canals. Instrumentation with files of smaller sizes and tapers was performed to prevent root physical weakness. The anatomic configuration was confirmed with a Cone Beam Computer Tomography image analysis which was able to clearly show the presence of seven root canals. An electronic database search was conducted to identify all the published similar cases and the best techniques to approach them are discussed. PMID:25121069

  16. Endodontic Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Seven Root Canals Confirmed with Cone Beam Computer Tomography – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The most common configuration of the maxillary first molar is the presence of three roots and four root canals, although the presence of several other configurations have already been reported. The objective of this work is to present a rare anatomic configuration with seven root canals diagnosed during an endodontic therapy. Endodontic treatment was performed using a dental operating microscope. Exploring the grooves surrounding the main canals with ultrasonic troughing was able expose unexpected root canals. Instrumentation with files of smaller sizes and tapers was performed to prevent root physical weakness. The anatomic configuration was confirmed with a Cone Beam Computer Tomography image analysis which was able to clearly show the presence of seven root canals. An electronic database search was conducted to identify all the published similar cases and the best techniques to approach them are discussed. PMID:25121069

  17. Root dentin strain and temperature rise during endodontic treatment and post rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Amade, Euridsse Sulemane; Novais, Veridiana Resende; Roscoe, Marina Guimarães; Azevedo, Fabiane Maria Ferreira; Bicalho, Aline Aredes; Soares, Carlos José

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endodontic treatment procedures and different post systems rehabilitation steps on the strain and temperature rise on apical and cervical root dentin regions. Twenty-one extracted human canine teeth had two strain gages attached to the distal root surface and two thermocouples attached to the mesial root surface (cervical and apical). The strain and temperature rise were recorded during the following procedures: root canal preparation, final rinse and drying, root canal filling and canal relief. Then the teeth were divided into three groups (n=7), according to the type of post system: CPC, cast post and core; FGP, fiberglass post; and PSP, prefabricated steel post. Data continued to be recorded during the post space preparation, post modeling (only for CPC), post trying and post cementation. Data were subjected to a two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α=0.05). The post-space preparation caused the highest temperature rise (4.0-14.9 °C) and the highest strain in the apical region during irrespective of post type. The resin cement light-activation resulted in significant temperature increases in the cervical region for all of the groups. The canal relief and the post-space preparation produced highest temperature rises. The CPC post modeling resulted in higher root strain level similarly the level of post preparation. The PSP resulted in highest strain during post trying and post cementation. PMID:24474355

  18. Quality-Shaping Factors and Endodontic Treatment amongst General Dental Practitioners with a Focus on Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Demant, Sune; Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap between the endodontic outcome that can be achieved and the outcome observed on the basis of worldwide general dental practitioner data. The quality of root canal treatment (RCT) is shaped by the dentist's knowledge, attitude, and skills, but it may also be influenced by the patient's demands and degree of satisfaction. The topic has only been sparsely investigated. Although dental health has increased over the years in Denmark, the number of performed root fillings has also increased, probably because the number of tooth extractions have declined and more molar teeth have been treated. Caries appears to be the main cause for performing RCT and a preventive approach by employing stepwise excavation may reduce RCT, but this strategy does not remove the gap. Factors influencing RCT quality could be the status on adoption of nickel-titanium rotary technology, more focus on infection control (rubber dam use, knowledge of factors important for prognosis), as dentists often think that they are good at doing RCT, but often perform inadequately, an alteration of clinician's awareness of their performance in the context of dental practices, seems warranted. Finally, the development of new preventive modalities for pulp and apical inflammation are crucial. PMID:22536241

  19. Learning experience in endodontics: Brazilian students' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Seijo, Marilia O S; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio P; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Renata C

    2013-05-01

    Including students' perceptions in the educational process is considered a key component in monitoring the quality of academic programs. This study aimed to evaluate the concept of one's learning experience in endodontic teaching from the perspective of a group of Brazilian students. A total of 126 self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontics courses during the second semester of the 2009 academic year. The questionnaires were administered during final examinations and focused on students' opinions concerning learning during endodontic treatments, time spent during endodontic treatments, difficulties found during endodontic treatments, quality of endodontic treatments performed, characteristics of the technique employed, and suggestions to improve endodontic teaching. Ninety-one percent of the questionnaires were returned for evaluation. The obtained answers were discussed and analyzed, thereby generating quantitative and qualitative data showing students' perceptions of their experiences in endodontics courses. The main points that can affect the teaching of endodontics, according to the undergraduate students, included patients' absences and delays, selection of patients, preclinical and clinical training, difficulties found, type of technique employed, and teachers' orientation during endodontic treatment. The students' perceptions provided valuable information about the development of the course and the teacher-student relationship, together with the added intention of enhancing the teaching of endodontics as well as other courses. PMID:23658412

  20. Preferred Materials and Methods Employed for Endodontic Treatment by Iranian General Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Maryam; Zeini, Negar; Haghani, Jahangir; Sadr, Saeedeh; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to gather information on the materials and methods employed in root canal treatment (RCT) by general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Iran. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire was distributed among 450 dentists who attended the 53th Iranian Dental Association congress. Participants were asked to consider demographic variables and answer the questions regarding the materials and methods commonly used in RCT. Descriptive statistics were given as absolute frequencies and valid percentages. The chi-square test was used to investigate the influence of gender and the years of professional activity for the employed materials and techniques. Results: The response rate was 84.88%. The results showed that 61.5% of the participants did not perform pulp sensitivity tests prior to RCT. Less than half of the general dental practitioners (47.4%) said that they would trace a sinus tract before starting the treatment. Nearly 16% of practitioners preferred the rubber dam isolation method. Over 36% of the practitioners reported using formocresol for pulpotomy. The combined approach of working length (WL) radiographs and electronic apex locators was used by 35.2% of the practitioners. Most of the respondents used K-file hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step-back (43.5%), while 40.1% of respondents used NiTi rotary files, mostly ProTaper and RaCe. The most widely used irrigant was normal saline (61.8%). Calcium hydroxide was the most commonly used inter appointment medicament (84.6%). The most popular obturation technique was cold lateral condensation (81.7%) with 51% using zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers. Conclusions: The majority of Iranian GDPs who participated in the present survey do not comply with quality guidelines of endodontic treatment. PMID:25834595

  1. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  2. Management of Teeth with Persistent Apical Periodontitis after Root Canal Treatment Using Regenerative Endodontic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A; Huang, George T-J; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Lin, Louis M

    2015-10-01

    Regenerative endodontic therapy (RET) is currently used to treat immature teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis. However, recently RET has been used to treat mature teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis and resulted in regression of clinical signs and/or symptoms and resolution of apical periodontitis. The purpose of this case report was to describe the potential of using RET to treat 2 mature teeth with persistent apical periodontitis after root canal therapy using RET. Two male patients, one 26-year old and another 12-year old, presented for retreatment of persistent apical periodontitis after root canal treatment of 2 mature teeth (#9 and #19). The gutta-percha fillings in the canals of teeth #9 and #19 were removed with Carvene gutta-percha solvent (Prevest DenPro, Jammu, India) and ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The canals of both teeth were further chemomechanically debrided with rotary retreatment files and copious amounts of sodium hypochlorite irrigation and dressed with Metapaste (Meta Biomed, Chungbuk, Korea). RET was performed on teeth #9 and #19. Periapical bleeding was provoked into the disinfected root canals. The blood clots were covered with mineral trioxide aggregate plugs, and the access cavities were restored with intermediate restorative material. Teeth #9 and #19 showed regression of clinical signs and/or symptoms and healing of apical periodontitis after 13-month and 14-month follow-ups, respectively. Tooth #9 revealed narrowing of the canal space and apical closure by deposition of hard tissue. RET has the potential to be used to retreat teeth with persistent apical periodontitis after root canal therapy. PMID:26279479

  3. Sensitivity of human dental pulp cells to eighteen chemical agents used for endodontic treatments in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Morio; Tsutsui, Takeo W; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Ohno, Maki; Higo, Yukari; Inaba, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the adverse effects against human dental pulp tissue, the sensitivity of human dental pulp cells (D824 cells) to 18 chemical agents used for endodontic treatments in dentistry was examined. The cytotoxicity, as determined by a decrease in colony-forming ability of cells treated with the chemical agents, increased as the concentration increased. As a quantitative measure of the cytotoxic effect, LC(50), the concentration which induces a 50% lethality, was extrapolated from the concentration-response curves. The rank of the chemical agents according to their cytotoxic effect (LC(50)) was sodium arsenite > formaldehyde > hydrogen peroxide > zinc oxide > thymol ≈ iodoform ≈ eugenol > guaiacol > ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ≈ iodine > procaine > lidocaine ≈ chloramphenicol ≈ m-cresol > calcium hydroxide ≈ sodium hypochlorite ≈ phenol ≈ p-phenolsulfonic acid. To compare the cytotoxicity and the levels of apoptosis and mRNA expression of five genes related to the function of dental pulp tissue, D824 cells treated with the LC(50) concentrations of chemical agents were assayed by the TUNEL method and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. The inducibility of apoptotic cells and the level of mRNA expression of the genes varied with the chemical agents, indicating that both effects occurred independent of the rank of cytotoxic effect of the chemical agents. The results not only provide information concerning cytotoxicity of various chemical agents to human dental pulp cells, but also show an insight into the diversity of the pharmacodynamic action of the chemical agents. PMID:22083529

  4. Evaluation of the Factors and Treatment Options of Separated Endodontic Files Among Dentists and Undergraduate Students in Riyadh Area

    PubMed Central

    Pedir, Samah Samir; Mahran, Abeer Hashem; Beshr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Separation of endodontic files during root canal treatment is a common multifactorial problem facing most of dental practitioners both dentists and students that has high impact on treatment and prognosis outcome. Aim To compare the incidence, factors and treatment options of separated endodontic files among dentists and undergraduate students in Riyadh area. Materials and Methods A survery of 35-questionnaire was formulated and e-mailed to all 149 dentists of different dental specialties who are working in different clinical centers in Riyadh area and are attending the 26th Saudi Dental Society International Dental Conference in addition to 130 undergraduate students in different dental colleges in Riyadh. Overall, 118 participants of dentists completed the survey, with response rate of 79% and the same number of students with response rate of 90.7%. Results Total of 57.6% dentists’ faced separated files problem during root canal preparation, while only 7.6% of students faced this problem. 53% of separated endodontic files (SEF) were hand files, 65% stainless steel files, 81% were small size files most common sizes (#15-20) (p <0.0001). Causes of SEF were root Canal anatomy, in 45%. 66% of SEF occurred in curved canals, 98% were in molars in mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals, (p <0.0001). 44% of SEF were successfully bypassed, 53% were successfully removed from coronal third of root canal, 42% of SEF successfully removed using ultrasonics under visualization of operating microscope. 73% of retained SEF cases showed good prognosis, (p <0.0001). Conclusion SEF is a multifactorial clinical problem that must be either removed, by passed to allow complete cleaning, shaping, disinfection, obturation and effective coronal seal. PMID:27134994

  5. Successful treatment of chronic periapical osteomyelitis in a Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) using comprehensive endodontic therapy with apicoectomy.

    PubMed

    Kilgallon, Conor P; Bicknese, Beth; Fagan, David A

    2010-12-01

    Although necrobacillosis remains a common condition of captive macropods, there have been limited reports of successful treatment modalities by which it can be treated. Comprehensive endodontic therapy with apicoectomy has been used reliably in human and domestic animal dentistry. This report describes a case of periapical osteomyelitis involving a mandibular incisor in a Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) that was successfully treated using these techniques in conjunction with low-level laser therapy at 810 nm, which was used for decontamination of the pulp cavity, anti-inflammatory, and biostimulatory effects. PMID:21370653

  6. Endodontic re-treatment associated with the elimination of amalgam root-end filling through sinus tracts: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Soares, Janir Alves; Nunes, Eduardo; Silveira, Frank Ferreira; Santos, Suelleng Maria Cunha; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca

    2009-08-01

    Two patients presented with complaints of recurrent drainage of purulent exudate from sinus tracts, inflammation and pain after endodontic re-treatment of the maxillary left (Case 1) and right (Case 2) lateral incisors. The periapical lesions persisted after apical curettage, apicectomy and root-end filling with silver amalgam. Radiographic examination exposed the poor quality of the endodontic treatments and the silver amalgam root-end fillings, which were associated with periapical radiolucent areas in both teeth. The sinus tract persisted after root canal cleaning and shaping, followed by a calcium hydroxide root canal dressing. The root-end fillings were periapically dislodged with endodontic K-files, and showed progressive displacement by sinus tracts up to elimination in the oral cavity. Follow ups of 42 and 65 months post procedure revealed clinical disappearance of the symptoms, sinus tracts and exudates, and radiographs revealed that the repair process of the periapical radiolucent areas was quite advanced. PMID:19703076

  7. A new approach to the treatment of true-combined endodontic-periodontic lesions by the guided tissue regeneration technique.

    PubMed

    Tseng, C C; Harn, W M; Chen, Y H; Huang, C C; Yuan, K; Huang, P H

    1996-12-01

    Clinicians often have difficulty in the diagnosis and treatment of the combined endodontal and periodontal (endo-perio) lesion. A case of an endo-perio true-combined lesion on a maxillary premolar was first treated with conventional endodontic therapy. Periodontal surgery was then completed, which included scaling and root planing and apical curettage on the tooth. The facial bony defect was then filled with a decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft mixed with tetracycline powder. A non-resorbable Teflon membrane was then used to cover the bone material and the periodontal flap sutured over this. This combined treatment resulted in minimal probing depth (2 mm), maximal clinical attachment gain (8 mm), as well as radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain. This case report demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the guided tissue regeneration technique combined with osseous grafting, will restore health and function to a tooth with severe attachment loss caused by an endo-perio lesion. PMID:9220758

  8. Iatrogenic Damage to the Periodontium Caused by Endodontic Treatment Procedures: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Aishwarya; Sirajuddin, Syed; Prabhu, Sandeep S; Chungkham, Sachidananda; Bilichodmath, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    The tooth, the pulp tissue within it and its supporting structures should be viewed as one biologic unit. The interrelationship of these structures influences each other during health, function and disease. The interrelationship between periodontal and endodontic diseases has aroused much speculation, confusion and controversy. The endodontium and periodontiumare closely related and disease or damage of one tissue may lead to the involvement of the other. PMID:26312090

  9. Safety Irradiation Parameters of Nd:YAP Laser Beam for Endodontic Treatments: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Namour, A.; Geerts, S.; Zeinoun, T.; De Moor, R.; Nammour, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Nd:YAP laser has several potentialities of clinical applications in endodontics. The aim of our study is to determine the safety range of irradiation parameters during endodontic application of Nd:YAP laser that can be used without damaging and overheating the periodontal tissue. Material and Methods. Twenty-seven caries-free single-rooted extracted human teeth were used. Crowns were sectioned to obtain 11 mm root canal length. Temperature increases at root surfaces were measured by a thermocouple during Nd:YAP laser irradiation of root canals at different energy densities. Canal irradiation was accomplished with a circular and retrograde movement from the apex until the cervical part of the canal during 10 seconds with an axial speed of 1 mm/s. Each irradiation was done in a canal irrigated continuously with 2.25% NaOCl solution. Results. Periodontal temperature increase depends on the value of energy density. Means and standard deviations of temperature increases at root surfaces were below 10°C (safe threshold level) when the average energy densities delivered per second were equal to or below 4981 J/cm2 and 9554 J/cm2, respectively, for irradiations using a fiber diameter of 320 μm and 200 μm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study and under specific irradiation conditions, Nd:YAP laser beam may be considered harmless for periodontal tissues during endodontic applications. PMID:27376084

  10. Safety Irradiation Parameters of Nd:YAP Laser Beam for Endodontic Treatments: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Namour, A; Geerts, S; Zeinoun, T; De Moor, R; Nammour, S

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Nd:YAP laser has several potentialities of clinical applications in endodontics. The aim of our study is to determine the safety range of irradiation parameters during endodontic application of Nd:YAP laser that can be used without damaging and overheating the periodontal tissue. Material and Methods. Twenty-seven caries-free single-rooted extracted human teeth were used. Crowns were sectioned to obtain 11 mm root canal length. Temperature increases at root surfaces were measured by a thermocouple during Nd:YAP laser irradiation of root canals at different energy densities. Canal irradiation was accomplished with a circular and retrograde movement from the apex until the cervical part of the canal during 10 seconds with an axial speed of 1 mm/s. Each irradiation was done in a canal irrigated continuously with 2.25% NaOCl solution. Results. Periodontal temperature increase depends on the value of energy density. Means and standard deviations of temperature increases at root surfaces were below 10°C (safe threshold level) when the average energy densities delivered per second were equal to or below 4981 J/cm(2) and 9554 J/cm(2), respectively, for irradiations using a fiber diameter of 320 μm and 200 μm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study and under specific irradiation conditions, Nd:YAP laser beam may be considered harmless for periodontal tissues during endodontic applications. PMID:27376084

  11. Endodontic classification.

    PubMed

    Morse, D R; Seltzer, S; Sinai, I; Biron, G

    1977-04-01

    Clinical and histopathologic findings are mixed in current endodontic classifications. A new system, based on symptomatology, may be more useful in clincial practice. The classifications are vital asymptomatic, hypersensitive dentin, inflamed-reversible, inflamed/dengenerating without area-irreversible, inflamed/degenerating with area-irreversible, necrotic without area, and necrotic with area. PMID:265327

  12. Lasers in endodontics: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas; Koort, Hans J.

    2002-06-01

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems is increasing. Developing laser technology and a better understanding of laser effects widened the spectrum of possible endodontic indications. Various laser systems including excimer-, argon+-, diode-, Nd:YAG-, Er:YAG- and CO2-lasers are used in pulp diagnosis, treatment of hypersensitivity, pulp capping, sterilization of root canals, root canal shaping and obturation or apicoectomy. With the development of new delivery systems - thin and flexible fibers - for many different wavelengths laser applications in endodontics may increase. Since laser devices are still relatively costly, access to them is limited. Most of the clinical applications are laser assisted procedures such as the removing of pulp remnants and debris or disinfection of infected root canals. The essential question is whether a laser can provide improved treatment over conventional care. To perform laser therapy in endodontics today different laser types with adopted wavelengths and pulse widths are needed, each specific to a particular application. Looking into the future we will need endodontic laser equipment providing optimal laser parameters for different treatment modalities. Nevertheless, the quantity of research reports from the last decade promises a genuine future for lasers in endodontics.

  13. Endodontic Microsurgical Treatment of a Three-rooted Mandibular First Molar with Separate Distolingual Root: Report of One Case.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han Guo; Xu, Ning; Yu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The separate distolingual (DL) roots of three-rooted mandibular first molars are thought to be too difficult for performing apical surgery. This article represents microsurgical treatment of a three-rooted mandibular first molar with a separate DL root. The procedure includes incision and flap retraction, osteotomy, apicoectomy, retropreparation and retrofilling of the root canal, using micro instruments, ultrasonic retrotips and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) under a dental operating microscope. Two mm in length of apical root resection, 2 mm in depth of root canal retropreparation with a personalised ultrasonic retrotip, and 2 mm in length of retrofilling with MTA are the key points for accomplishment of apical surgery on separate DL roots. The case was followed up for 15 months after surgery. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed complete healing of periapical tissue. Separate DL roots of three-rooted mandibular first molars can be treated by endodontic microsurgery with modifications from standard protocol. PMID:27622221

  14. A comparative study of four coronal obturation materials in endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Uranga, A; Blum, J Y; Esber, S; Parahy, E; Prado, C

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare, in vitro, the ability of temporary versus permanent materials to seal the access cavity. Eighty human maxillary single-canal teeth were prepared biomechanically and obturated with gutta-percha and an endodontic cement AH Plus, using the warm vertical compaction technique. All access cavities were sealed with 1 of 4 materials (Cavit, Fermit, Tetric, or Dyract). Microleakage was assessed by methylene blue dye penetration. The teeth were submitted to 100 thermocycles, with temperature varying from 0 degree to 55 degrees C. The greatest degree of leakage was observed with the temporary materials (Cavit and Fermit). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in leakage between all materials except between Dyract and Tetric. This suggests that it may be more prudent to use a permanent restorative material for provisional restorations to prevent inadequate canal sealing and the resulting risk of fluid penetration. PMID:10321182

  15. Endodontics and the ageing patient.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, M; Parashos, P

    2015-03-01

    Patients are living longer and the rate of edentulism is decreasing. Endodontic treatment is an essential part of maintaining the health and well-being of the elderly. Retention of natural teeth improves the quality of life and the overall health and longevity of ageing patients. Also, teeth that might be otherwise extracted may be strategically valuable to retain a prosthesis, and elderly patients are more likely to have medical complications that may prevent dental extractions from being safely performed. The technical goals of endodontic treatment in the elderly are the same as those for younger patients. However, the pulpo-dentinal complex undergoes calcific changes over time, which may pose challenges for the clinician. The purposes of this review are to discuss age changes in the pulp and the challenges posed by diagnosing, treatment planning and treating the elderly endodontic patient. PMID:25762039

  16. Biofilm in endodontics: A review.

    PubMed

    Jhajharia, Kapil; Parolia, Abhishek; Shetty, K Vikram; Mehta, Lata Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So, the fundamental to maintain oral health and prevent dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis is to control the oral biofilms. From these aspects, the formation of biofilms carries particular clinical significance because not only host defense mechanisms but also therapeutic efforts including chemical and mechanical antimicrobial treatment measures have the most difficult task of dealing with organisms that are gathered in a biofilm. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms' formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to

  17. Biofilm in endodontics: A review

    PubMed Central

    Jhajharia, Kapil; Parolia, Abhishek; Shetty, K Vikram; Mehta, Lata Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So, the fundamental to maintain oral health and prevent dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis is to control the oral biofilms. From these aspects, the formation of biofilms carries particular clinical significance because not only host defense mechanisms but also therapeutic efforts including chemical and mechanical antimicrobial treatment measures have the most difficult task of dealing with organisms that are gathered in a biofilm. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms’ formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to

  18. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  19. Endodontic treatment of a C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four root canals and three apical foramina: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Thikamphaa

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a unique C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four canals and three apical foramina and its endodontic management with the aid of cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT). C-shaped root canal morphology with four canals was identified under a dental operating microscope. A CBCT scan was taken to evaluate the aberrant root canal anatomy and devise a better instrumentation strategy based on the anatomy. All canals were instrumented to have a 0.05 taper using 1.0 mm step-back filing with appropriate apical sizes determined from the CBCT scan images and filled using a warm vertical compaction technique. A C-shaped mandibular second premolar with multiple canals is an anatomically rare case for clinicians, yet its endodontic treatment may require a careful instrumentation strategy due to the difficulty in disinfecting the canals in the thin root area without compromising the root structure. PMID:26877993

  20. Diversity of endodontic microbiota revisited.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N

    2009-11-01

    Although fungi, archaea, and viruses contribute to the microbial diversity in endodontic infections, bacteria are the most common micro-organisms occurring in these infections. Datasets from culture and molecular studies, integrated here for the first time, showed that over 460 unique bacterial taxa belonging to 100 genera and 9 phyla have been identified in different types of endodontic infections. The phyla with the highest species richness were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Diversity varies significantly according to the type of infection. Overall, more taxa have been disclosed by molecular studies than by culture. Many cultivable and as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes have emerged as candidate pathogens based on detection in several studies and/or high prevalence. Now that a comprehensive inventory of the endodontic microbial taxa has been established, future research should focus on the association with different disease conditions, functional roles in the community, and susceptibility to antimicrobial treatment procedures. PMID:19828883

  1. [Desmoplastic fibroma. Differential diagnosis of a periapical lesion from endodontic failure].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Gil, J; Zabalegui, I

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of endodontically involved teeth requires accurate diagnosis of the clinical pulpal condition to determine the primary cause of pathosis. The case presented shows the differential diagnosis between a desmoplastic fibroma and a failure of a misdiagnosed endodontic treatment. The initial direction of treatment should had never been the endodontic therapy but local surgical curettage of the lesion. PMID:2638020

  2. Presence of Candida albicans in Root Canals of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis and Evaluation of their Possible Role in Failure of Endodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jay; Sharma, Rohit; Sharma, Madhurima; Prabhavathi, V; Paul, John; Chowdary, Chava Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candidal organisms are commensals of the oral cavity and their opportunistic infection depends on the interplay of local and systemic factors. Endodontic treatment failure has been associated with the persistence of microbial flora following therapy in the root canal system, and this includes fungi like Candida, which are resistant to conventional root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 mandibular molars were included in the study of which 15 were primary randomized controlled trial cases, whereas 5 were retreatment cases. The patient’s saliva, as well as the root canal flora, were examined for the presence of Candida organisms and further confirmed for the presence of Candida albicans. Results: Of the 20 samples comprising the study group, the saliva culture revealed 11 of them to have a colony forming unit (CFU) >400 and 9 of the 20 canals microbiology showed CFU >400. Among the 15 first-time root canal treatment cases, saliva examination these revealed 8 of them to have CFU >400 and the canal microbiology of these showed 6 of them to have CFU >400. Among the retreatment cases, 3 of the 5 cases showed CFU >400 in both the saliva DN canal culture. Conclusion: Candidal contamination of the root canals could be the cause of endodontic treatment failure and thus emphasizes the importance of rubber dam isolation and the use of irrigants with antifungal properties for sufficient duration during treatment. PMID:25859106

  3. Applicability of bacterial cellulose as an alternative to paper points in endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Aya; Tabuchi, Mari; Uo, Motohiro; Tatsumi, Hiroto; Hideshima, Katsumi; Kondo, Seiji; Sekine, Joji

    2013-04-01

    Dental root canal treatment is required when dental caries progress to infection of the dental pulp. A major goal of this treatment is to provide complete decontamination of the dental root canal system. However, the morphology of dental root canal systems is complex, and many human dental roots have inaccessible areas. In addition, dental reinfection is fairly common. In conventional treatment, a cotton pellet and paper point made from plant cellulose is used to dry and sterilize the dental root canal. Such sterilization requires a treatment material with high absorbency to remove any residue, the ability to improve the efficacy of intracanal medication and high biocompatibility. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is produced by certain strains of bacteria. In this study, we developed BC in a pointed form and evaluated its applicability as a novel material for dental canal treatment with regard to solution absorption, expansion, tensile strength, drug release and biocompatibility. We found that BC has excellent material and biological characteristics compared with conventional materials, such as paper points (plant cellulose). BC showed noticeably higher absorption and expansion than paper points, and maintained a high tensile strength even when wet. The cumulative release of a model drug was significantly greater from BC than from paper points, and BC showed greater compatibility than paper points. Taken together, BC has great potential for use in dental root canal treatment. PMID:23268234

  4. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A.; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R.; Nair, Madhu K.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment. PMID:27217630

  5. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R; Nair, Madhu K

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment. PMID:27217630

  6. Rethinking root canal treatment: understanding the difference between preventing and treating endodontic infection.

    PubMed

    El-Ma'aita, A M; Qualtrough, A J E; Darcey, J; Hunter, M J

    2015-07-10

    Root canal treatment is a frequently performed procedure aimed to address pulpal and peri-radicular disease. It comprises a number of clinical steps regardless of the initial diagnosis. The emphasis of each step varies according to whether there is a vital pulp (non-infected) or if the pulp system contains necrotic, infected tissue and there is peri-apical pathology. This article aims to discuss the differences in performing root canal treatments on teeth with vital and non-vital pulps. The reader should understand the differences between performing a root canal treatment in teeth with vital pulps and those with infected root canal spaces and peri-radicular pathology. PMID:26159976

  7. Regenerative endodontics--Creating new horizons.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Harnoor; Kaushik, Mamta; Sharma, Roshni

    2016-05-01

    Trauma to the dental pulp, physical or microbiologic, can lead to inflammation of the pulp followed by necrosis. The current treatment modality for such cases is non-surgical root canal treatment. The damaged tissue is extirpated and the root canal system prepared. It is then obturated with an inert material such a gutta percha. In spite of advances in techniques and materials, 10%-15% of the cases may end in failure of treatment. Regenerative endodontics combines principles of endodontics, cell biology, and tissue engineering to provide an ideal treatment for inflamed and necrotic pulp. It utilizes mesenchymal stem cells, growth factors, and organ tissue culture to provide treatment. Potential treatment modalities include induction of blood clot for pulp revascularization, scaffold aided regeneration, and pulp implantation. Although in its infancy, successful treatment of damaged pulp tissue has been performed using principles of regenerative endodontics. This field is dynamic and exciting with the ability to shape the future of endodontics. This article highlights the fundamental concepts, protocol for treatment, and possible avenues for research in regenerative endodontics. PMID:26699211

  8. Clinical evaluation of 3 Mix and Other Mix in non-instrumental endodontic treatment of necrosed primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Rishi; Koul, Monika; Srivastava, Salil; Upadhyay, Vinod; Dwivedi, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Problem considered The objective was to evaluate and compare the clinical and radiographic efficacy of two different combinations of antibacterial drugs when used in non-instrumental endodontic treatment of necrosed primary teeth. Materials and method Forty teeth were randomly divided into two groups, viz. groups A and B having 20 teeth each. In Group A, 3 Mix (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline) and in Group B, Other Mix (ciprofloxacin, ornidazole, and minocycline) mixed with propylene glycol were used. Medication cavities of Group-A and B were filled with 3 Mix and Other Mix respectively followed by restoration of teeth. Clinical evaluation was done at 3 months whereas, clinical and radiographic evaluation was done at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Results Both the groups showed 100% clinical success whereas, radiographic success rate was 81% with 3 Mix and 92% with Other Mix but, was not statistically significant. Conclusions Both the antibacterial pastes can be used effectively in non instrumental endodontic treatment of necrosed primary teeth and require more clinical trials to prove its efficacy. PMID:25737928

  9. Microleakage in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Muliyar, Sabir; Shameem, K Abdul; Thankachan, Rekha P; Francis, P G; Jayapalan, C S; Hafiz, K A Abdul

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional obturation and complete coronal and apical seal is one the important aims of root canal treatment. Since microorganisms may remain in the root canal system after instrumentation, a tight apical seal is desired to prevent bacteria and their by-products from invading the apex. A perfect apical seal is also desired to prevent apical percolation. One of the major objectives of tooth restoration is the protection of exposed dentine against bacteria and their toxins. The interface between the restoration and dental hard tissue is an area of clinical concern as insufficient sealing can result in marginal discoloration, secondary caries, and pulpitis. For that reason, adequate sealing is essential for the optimal clinical performance Prevention of microleakage in endodontically treated teeth is most important for patients who rely on the combined expertise and quality care of dentist/endodontist colleagues. Microleakage is arguably the single most important risk factor for apical periodontitis. PMID:25628496

  10. Microleakage in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Muliyar, Sabir; Shameem, K Abdul; Thankachan, Rekha P; Francis, P G; Jayapalan, C S; Hafiz, K A Abdul

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional obturation and complete coronal and apical seal is one the important aims of root canal treatment. Since microorganisms may remain in the root canal system after instrumentation, a tight apical seal is desired to prevent bacteria and their by-products from invading the apex. A perfect apical seal is also desired to prevent apical percolation. One of the major objectives of tooth restoration is the protection of exposed dentine against bacteria and their toxins. The interface between the restoration and dental hard tissue is an area of clinical concern as insufficient sealing can result in marginal discoloration, secondary caries, and pulpitis. For that reason, adequate sealing is essential for the optimal clinical performance Prevention of microleakage in endodontically treated teeth is most important for patients who rely on the combined expertise and quality care of dentist/endodontist colleagues. Microleakage is arguably the single most important risk factor for apical periodontitis. PMID:25628496

  11. Postoperative Pain after Endodontic Treatment of Asymptomatic Teeth Using Rotary Instruments: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shahriar; Asghari, Vahideh; Rahimi, Saeed; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Samiei, Mohammad; Yavari, Hamidreza; Shakouie, Sahar; Nezafati, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two different rotary instruments on postoperative pain in teeth with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 mandibular first and second molars were divided into two groups (n=39) and their root canal preparation was carried out with either RaCe or ProTaper rotary instruments. All the subjects underwent one-visit root canal treatment and the severity of postoperative pain was evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS) at 4-, 12-, 24-, 48- and 72-h and 1-week intervals. In addition, the need for taking analgesics was recorded. Data were analyzed with the repeated-measures ANOVA and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for two-by-two comparison. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: Comparison of mean pain severity between the two groups at various postoperative intervals did not reveal any significant differences (P=0.10). The difference in amount of analgesics taken by each groups was not statistically significant (P=0.25). Conclusion: There were no significant differences in the postoperative pain reported between the two groups; which indicates the clinical acceptability of both systems. PMID:26843876

  12. Post endodontic Aspergillosis in an immunocompetent individual

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Aadithya B.; Nunia, Kalpana; Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent individuals subsequent to post endodontic treatment can involve the maxillary antrum. An early and accurate diagnosis will aid in prompt and effective treatment. A 35 year old female patient reported with a painful nasomaxillary swelling. Previous records revealed the failure of the endodontic treatment of maxillary left second premolar which was subsequently extracted. Root piece was accidently left behind which resulted in a painful nasomaxillary swelling. The extraction socket was curetted and tissue was sent for histopathological examination, which revealed abundant septate fungal hyphae with numerous spores characteristic of Aspergillus. The patient showed marked improvement in the symptoms with systemic itraconazole at 3 months follow up and complete resolution occurred within 6 months. Inclusion of aspergilloma infections in the differential diagnosis is advocated when patients present with post-endodontic nasomaxillary swelling. Key words:Aspergillosis, fungal sinusitis, post root canal treatment. PMID:26535103

  13. [Theory and practice of minimally invasive endodontics].

    PubMed

    Jiang, H W

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of modern endodontic therapy is to achieve the long-term retention of a functional tooth by preventing or treating pulpitis or apical periodontitis is. The long-term retention of endodontically treated tooth is correlated with the remaining amount of tooth tissue and the quality of the restoration after root canal filling. In recent years, there has been rapid progress and development in the basic research of endodontic biology, instrument and applied materials, making treatment procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Thus, minimally invasive endodontics(MIE)has received increasing attention at present. MIE aims to preserve the maximum of tooth structure during root canal therapy, and the concept covers the whole process of diagnosis and treatment of teeth. This review article focuses on describing the minimally invasive concepts and operating essentials in endodontics, from diagnosis and treatment planning to the access opening, pulp cavity finishing, root canal cleaning and shaping, 3-dimensional root canal filling and restoration after root canal treatment. PMID:27511034

  14. Endodontic-periodontal microsurgery for combined endodontic-periodontal lesions: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ritu; Hegde, Vivek; Siddharth, M; Hegde, Rashmi; Manchanda, Gunsha; Agarwal, Pratul

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic and periodontal microsurgery has surpassed the success rates for traditional endodontic and periodontal surgical procedures. Excellent healing results are being attributed to both the techniques, when employed, for isolated endodontic or periodontal defects. Combined endodontic-periodontal lesions have been referred to as a true challenge, requiring not only endodontic microsurgical management but also concurrent bone grafting and membrane barriers techniques. The prevention of epithelial downgrowth and regeneration of periodontal cementum, fiber, and bone seals the fate of these cases. Achieving primary closure with submergence of grafts has a positive effect on GTR outcome. New techniques of periodontal microsurgery, such as minimally invasive papilla preserving flaps with passive internal mattress suturing, have managed to obtain 90% primary flap closure over grafted sites. Root surface treatment and conditioning has also shown to be beneficial for GTR. Endodontic microsurgery for the combined lesion has not integrated these advances yet. These advances, along with a recently suggested treatment strategy, are ushering in the level next in management of the combined lesions. This article offers an overview of the combined lesion, the disease, its classification, treatment strategy, regenerative tools, microsurgical recommendations, and outcome studies. PMID:25506135

  15. Undergraduate endodontic education: what are the challenges?

    PubMed

    Qualtrough, A J E

    2014-03-01

    To deliver the knowledge and skills required to equip undergraduate students for practice is a significant responsibility; graduates must be familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of pulpal and periradicular diseases and the preservation and restoration of pulpally compromised teeth. A greater understanding of the microbiological processes involved in endodontics and developments in instruments and materials have transformed our approaches to root canal treatment. Information technology has revolutionised certain aspects of education and has had an effect on endodontic teaching. Dental graduates will be expected to treat an increasingly elderly population and will enter a climate in which remuneration for root canal treatment could have a significant effect on the number of cases treated and the pattern of referral. Teachers of endodontics at the majority of dental schools are taxed by competing demands for time in packed curricula, a lack of availability of natural teeth for classroom exercise and a lack of suitable patients. The debate as to whether endodontics should be a specialist subject in its own right has rumbled on for three decades. Compared with the situation in the 1970s, there are now well defined curricula guidelines to which those involved in teaching can refer and map teaching in their schools against agreed norms. These create the potential for students to graduate with the knowledge and skills at a sound level of competence to carry out endodontic procedures and with a deeply engrained understanding of the need for continuing professional development. PMID:24651348

  16. Endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Nixon, P P; Robinson, P B

    1997-05-01

    The ability to take radiographs of good diagnostic quality is an essential prerequisite for successful root canal therapy. However, the operator also has a responsibility to limit the radiation dose to the patient. This article reviews the radiography required for root canal treatment with these criteria in mind. PMID:9515363

  17. Synchronized delivery of Er:YAG-laser pulses into water studied by a laser beam transmission probe for enhanced endodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorčič, P.; Lukač, N.; Možina, J.; Jezeršek, M.

    2016-04-01

    We examine the effects of the synchronized delivery of multiple Er:YAG-laser pulses during vapor-bubble oscillations into water. For this purpose, we used a laser beam transmission probe that enables monitoring of the bubble's dynamics from a single shot. To overcome the main drawbacks of this technique, we propose and develop an appropriate and robust calibration by simultaneous employment of shadow photography. By using the developed experimental method, we show that the resonance effect is obtained when the second laser pulse is delivered at the end or slightly after the first bubble's collapse. In this case, the resonance effect increases the mechanical energy of the secondary bubble's oscillations and prolongs their duration. The presented laser method for synchronized delivery of Er:YAG-laser pulses during bubble oscillations has great potential for further improvement of laser endodontic treatment, especially upon their safety and efficiency.

  18. Current overview on challenges in regenerative endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Regenerative endodontics provides hope of converting the non-vital tooth into vital once again. It focuses on substituting traumatized and pathological pulp with functional pulp tissue. Current regenerative procedures successfully produce root development but still fail to re-establish real pulp tissue and give unpredictable results. There are several drawbacks that need to be addressed to improve the quality and efficiency of the treatment. Aim: The aim of this review article is to discuss major priorities that ought to be dealt before applications of regenerative endodontics flourish the clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A web-based research on MEDLINE was done using filter terms Review, published in the last 10 years and Dental journals. Keywords used for research were “regenerative endodontics,” “dental stem cells,” “growth factor regeneration,” “scaffolds,” and “challenges in regeneration.” This review article screened about 150 articles and then the relevant information was compiled. Results: Inspite of the impressive growth in regenerative endodontic field, there are certain loopholes in the existing treatment protocols that might sometimes result in undesired and unpredictable outcomes. Conclusion: Considerable research and development efforts are required to improve and update existing regenerative endodontic strategies to make it an effective, safe, and biological mode to save teeth. PMID:25657518

  19. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 3. The role of irrigants during root canal treatment].

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, L W M

    2015-10-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm) and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root canal system and their chemical dissolution or disruption. Each of the endodontic irrigation systems has its own irrigant flow characteristics, which should fulfill these aims. Without flow (convection), the irrigant would have to be distributed through diffusion. This process is slow and depends on temperature and concentration gradients. On the other hand, convection is a faster and more efficient transport mechanism. During irrigant flow, frictional forces will occur, for example between the irrigant and the root canal wall (wall shear stress). These frictional forces have a mechanical cleaning effect on the root canal wall. These frictional forces are the result of the flow characteristics related to the different irrigation systems. PMID:26465016

  20. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser in endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragot-Roy, Brigitte; Severin, Claude; Maquin, Michel

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an operative method in endodontics. The effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on root canal dentin has been examined with a scanning electron microscope. Our first experimentation was to observe the impacts carried out perpendicularly to root canal surface with a 200 micrometers fiber optic in the presence of dye. Secondarily, the optical fiber was used as an endodontic instrument with black dye. The irradiation was performed after root canal preparation (15/100 file or 40/100 file) or directly into the canal. Adverse effects are observed. The results show that laser irradiation on root canal dentin surfaces induces a nonhomogeneous modified dentin layer, melted and resolidified dentin closed partially dentinal tubules. The removal of debris is not efficient enough. The laser treatment seems to be indicated only for endodontic and periapical spaces sterilization after conventional root canal preparation.

  1. Natural Therapeutic Options in Endodontics - A Review.

    PubMed

    Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Anand, Suresh; Abarajithan, Mohan; Sheriff, Sultan O; Jacob, Pulikkotil S; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products that have been used as an irrigants and intracanal medicaments in the field of Endodontics to eradicate the biofilm and remove smear layer. PMID:27386007

  2. Natural Therapeutic Options in Endodontics - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Anand, Suresh; Abarajithan, Mohan; Sheriff, Sultan O.; Jacob, Pulikkotil S.; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products that have been used as an irrigants and intracanal medicaments in the field of Endodontics to eradicate the biofilm and remove smear layer. PMID:27386007

  3. Comparison of Endodontic Treatment Results Yielded from Using Normal Saline with IKI Final Rinse or NaOCl Irrigation: A 30-Month Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Hoseini Yekani, Ameneh; Khayat, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate and compare the endodontic treatment results of teeth with apical periodontitis after thirty-month recall with two different irrigation regimen: normal saline followed by Iodine Potassium Iodide (IKI) or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation alone. Materials and Methods Twenty seven patients (30 teeth) who had been included in the first part of our antimicrobial survey were recalled. In previous stage, root canal treatments were performed using either normal saline with IKI final rinse (n = 15) or NaOCl (n = 15) as irrigating solutions. Bacterial samples were taken before and after instrumentation. In this stage, three patients (6 teeth) were excluded from the follow-up schedule since they did not respond to the recall requests. The remaining 24 subjects (12 teeth in each NaOCl and IKI group) were examined clinically and radiologically. Post-operative and follow-up images were coded, blindly evaluated and given a periapical score according to PAI scoring system. The outcome was assessed in two ways; first, the changes in PAI score from base line to the follow-up evaluation in each group were assessed by wilcoxon signed rank test. In addition, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences between the post-operative and follow-up images of treatment groups. Second, the dichotomous variables as “healed” or “not healed” were compared. Results The Median (Min, Max) PAI scores for NaOCl group and IKI group were both 5 (3, 5) for immediate post-operative radiographs and declined to 1 (1, 2) and 2 (1, 2), respectively. A statistically significant decrease in PAI score from the base line to the follow-up evaluation was seen in both groups (P = 0.002). The decrease in NaOCl group was higher significantly in comparison to IKI group (P = 0.036). One hundred percent of the teeth were healed in both groups (PAI ≤ 2) and no teeth showed any abnormal clinical findings. Conclusion Root canal irrigation

  4. Preclinical endodontic teaching

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaraopeta, Udaya; AlShwaimi, Emad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the general curricula in preclinical endodontic training from 6 established dental schools in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted in January 2014 including only schools that had more than 2 groups of student graduates prior to the study. We included 2 dental schools from the Central region, one from Qassim region, one from the Makkah region (west), one from Abha region (south west), and one from the eastern region. An internet-based questionnaire was sent to the course directors of preclinical endodontics department of the 6 schools. The survey comprised 20 questions that examined various aspects of preclinical endodontics. Results: It was demonstrated that a significant number of faculty members had Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees (n=21), Master’s degrees (n=15), and Saudi board certifications (n=8). We determined that the faculty to student ratio varied from 2:1 to 8: 1 among the colleges. The participating dental schools were found to teach the Step Back, as well as the Step Down techniques for root canal preparation. Five of the 6 schools implemented the use of nickel titanium rotary instruments. All dental schools predominantly used radiographs as the means of the working length determination. Conclusion: The curriculum for preclinical endodontics in Saudi Arabia is comparable to that followed in most European countries. A more comprehensive survey is needed that would involve more schools to formulate generalized guidelines for preclinical endodontic training in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25630011

  5. Endodontic treatment of the mandibular first molar with six roots canals - two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Martins, Jorge N R; Anderson, Craig

    2015-04-01

    The most common configuration of the mandibular first molar is the presence of two roots and three root canals. The objective of this work is to present two rare anatomic configurations with six root canals on two mandibular left first molars diagnosed during endodontic therapy. Root canal therapy was performed using a dental operating microscope. Ultrasonic troughing in the grooves in between the mesial root canals and in between the distal root canals was able to show the middle root canals. Large samples population characterization researches and systematic reviews were unable to detect a single case of six root canals configuration in a mandibular first molar in their investigations. Although it is a rare configuration, a six root canal configuration is possible to be found in the mandibular first molar. Three different pulp chamber configurations are possible to be found. Two or three roots may be present and the root configuration more common in the mesial root is the Type 8 and Type 12 for the distal root. Some concepts about the required technique to approach these cases are also debated. PMID:26023651

  6. Endodontic Treatment of the Mandibular First Molar with Six Roots Canals – Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The most common configuration of the mandibular first molar is the presence of two roots and three root canals. The objective of this work is to present two rare anatomic configurations with six root canals on two mandibular left first molars diagnosed during endodontic therapy. Root canal therapy was performed using a dental operating microscope. Ultrasonic troughing in the grooves in between the mesial root canals and in between the distal root canals was able to show the middle root canals. Large samples population characterization researches and systematic reviews were unable to detect a single case of six root canals configuration in a mandibular first molar in their investigations. Although it is a rare configuration, a six root canal configuration is possible to be found in the mandibular first molar. Three different pulp chamber configurations are possible to be found. Two or three roots may be present and the root configuration more common in the mesial root is the Type 8 and Type 12 for the distal root. Some concepts about the required technique to approach these cases are also debated. PMID:26023651

  7. [The application of laser in endodontics].

    PubMed

    He, W X; Liu, N N; Wang, X L; He, X Y

    2016-08-01

    Since laser was introduced in the field of medicine in 1970's, its application range has continuously expanded. The application of laser in endodontics also increased due to its safety and effectiveness in dental treatments. The majority of the laser application researches in dentistry focused on dentin hypersensitivity, removal of carious tissues, tooth preparations, pulp capping or pulpotomy, and root canal treatment. In this article, we reviewed literature on the effects of laser in the treatments of dental and pulp diseases. PMID:27511037

  8. Management of an Endodontic-Periodontal Lesion in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Palatal Radicular Groove: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sooratgar, Aidin; Tabrizizade, Mehdi; Nourelahi, Maryam; Asadi, Yasin; Sooratgar, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    The radicular groove is a developmental anomaly that predisposes the tooth to periodontal break-down. Sometimes the situation becomes more complicated by pulp necrosis and development of a combined endodontic-periodontal lesion which is a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. This report presents the successful management of an endodontic-periodontal lesion in a maxillary lateral incisor that has a developmental palatal radicular groove using a combination of nonsurgical endodontic therapy and periodontal regenerative techniques. Conclusion: The combination of nonsurgical endodontic and periodontal regenerative treatment is a predictable method in treating combined endodontic-periodontal lesions caused by palato-gingival groove. PMID:27141225

  9. Role of provisional restorations in endodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Jambai Sampathkumar; Suresh Kumar, Beri Narasimiah; Shyamala, Palaniyandi Vadivel

    2013-01-01

    Root-canal treatment can be carried out in single visit in vital, non-infected teeth, eliminating the need for dressing and provisionalization. Many clinical cases with infected canals require dressing with antibacterial medicaments in a multivisit treatment in which effective provisionalization for different periods of time becomes mandatory. Successful root-canal treatment requires effective mechanical and chemical debridement, elimination of bacteria and pulp tissue remnants and proper canal shaping to facilitate effective obturation. Lack of satisfactory temporary restorations during endodontic therapy ranked second amongst the contributing factors in continuing pain after the commencement of treatment. This review aims to provide an overview of the materials used for provisionalization during and immediately after endodontic treatment. PMID:23946564

  10. Ultrasonics in endodontic surgery: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    De Paolis, Gianfranco; Vincenti, Valentina; Prencipe, Matteo; Milana, Valerio; Plotino, Gianluca

    2010-04-01

    Currently, although ultrasonics (US) is used in dentistry for therapeutic and diagnostic applications as well as for cleaning of instruments before sterilization, its main use is for scaling and root planing of teeth and in root canal therapy, both for orthograde and retrograde therapy. Both in conventional and surgical treatments, US in endodontics has enhanced quality of clinical procedures and represents an important adjunct in the treatment of difficult cases. More precisely it has become increasingly more useful in applications such as gaining access to canal openings, cleaning and shaping, obturation of root canals, removal of intracanal materials and obstructions, and endodontic surgery. This review of the literature aims at presenting the numerous advantages of US in surgical endodontics and emphasizes its application in a modern-day endodontic practice. PMID:22238704

  11. Ultrasonics in endodontic surgery: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    De Paolis, Gianfranco; Vincenti, Valentina; Prencipe, Matteo; Milana, Valerio; Plotino, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    Summary Currently, although ultrasonics (US) is used in dentistry for therapeutic and diagnostic applications as well as for cleaning of instruments before sterilization, its main use is for scaling and root planing of teeth and in root canal therapy, both for orthograde and retrograde therapy. Both in conventional and surgical treatments, US in endodontics has enhanced quality of clinical procedures and represents an important adjunct in the treatment of difficult cases. More precisely it has become increasingly more useful in applications such as gaining access to canal openings, cleaning and shaping, obturation of root canals, removal of intracanal materials and obstructions, and endodontic surgery. This review of the literature aims at presenting the numerous advantages of US in surgical endodontics and emphasizes its application in a modern-day endodontic practice. PMID:22238704

  12. Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Scarfe, William C.; Levin, Martin D.; Gane, David; Farman, Allan G.

    2009-01-01

    Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a diagnostic imaging modality that provides high-quality, accurate three-dimensional (3D) representations of the osseous elements of the maxillofacial skeleton. CBCT systems are available that provide small field of view images at low dose with sufficient spatial resolution for applications in endodontic diagnosis, treatment guidance, and posttreatment evaluation. This article provides a literature review and pictorial demonstration of CBCT as an imaging adjunct for endodontics. PMID:20379362

  13. [Overall digitalization: leading innovation of endodontics in big data era].

    PubMed

    Ling, J Q

    2016-04-01

    In big data era, digital technologies bring great challenges and opportunities to modern stomatology. The applications of digital technologies, such as cone-beam CT(CBCT), computer aided design,(CAD)and computer aided manufacture(CAM), 3D printing and digital approaches for education , provide new concepts and patterns to the treatment and study of endodontic diseases. This review provides an overview of the application and prospect of commonly used digital technologies in the development of endodontics. PMID:27117212

  14. Comparison of Long-term Survival of Implants and Endodontically Treated Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Setzer, F.C.; Kim, S.

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes of both dental implants and endodontically treated teeth have been extensively studied. However, there is still a great controversy over when to keep a natural tooth and when to extract it for a dental implant. This article reviews the benefits and disadvantages of both treatment options and discusses success vs. survival outcomes, as well as the impact of technical advances for modern endodontics and endodontic microsurgery on the long-term prognosis of tooth retention. PMID:24065635

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:23323217

  16. Outcomes of endodontic therapy in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Susan D.; Horowitz, Allan J.; Man, Martin; Wu, Hongyu; Foran, Denise; Vena, Donald A.; Collie, Damon; Matthews, Abigail G.; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.; Craig, Ronald G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The authors undertook a study involving members of a dental practice-based research network to determine the outcome and factors associated with success and failure of endodontic therapy. Methods Members in participating practices (practitioner-investigators [P-Is]) invited the enrollment of all patients seeking treatment in the practice who had undergone primary endodontic therapy and restoration in a permanent tooth three to five years previously. If a patient had more than one tooth so treated, the P-I selected as the index tooth the tooth treated earliest during the three- to five-year period. The authors excluded from the study any teeth that served as abutments for removable partial dentures or overdentures, third molars and teeth undergoing active orthodontic endodontic therapy. The primary outcome was retention of the index tooth. Secondary outcomes, in addition to extraction, that defined failure included clinical or radiographic evidence (or both) of periapical pathosis, endodontic retreatment or pain on percussion. Results P-Is in 64 network practices enrolled 1,312 patients with a mean (standard deviation) time to follow-up of 3.9 (0.6) years. During that period, 3.3 percent of the index teeth were extracted, 2.2 percent underwent retreatment, 3.6 percent had pain on percussion and 10.6 percent had periapical radiolucencies for a combined failure rate of 19.1 percent. The presence of preoperative periapical radiolucency with a diagnosis of either irreversible pulpitis or necrotic pulp was associated with failure after multivariate analysis, as were multiple canals, male sex and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Conclusions These results suggest that failure rates for endodontic therapy are higher than previously reported in general practices, according to results of studies based on dental insurance claims data. Clinical Implications The results of this study can help guide the practitioner in deciding the most appropriate course of therapy for

  17. Chlorhexidine in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Brenda P F A; Vianna, Morgana E; Zaia, Alexandre A; Almeida, José Flávio A; Souza-Filho, Francisco J; Ferraz, Caio C R

    2013-01-01

    Chemical auxiliary substances (CAS) are essential for a successful disinfection and cleanness of the root canals, being used during the instrumentation and if necessary, as antimicrobial intracanal medicaments. Different CAS have been proposed and used, among which sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine (CHX), 17% EDTA, citric acid, MTAD and 37% phosphoric acid solution. CHX has been used in Endodontics as an irrigating substance or intracanal medicament, as it possesses a wide range of antimicrobial activity, substantivity (residual antimicrobial activity), lower cytotoxicity than NaOCl whilst demonstrating efficient clinical performance, lubricating properties, rheological action (present in the gel presentation, keeping the debris in suspension); it inhibits metalloproteinase, is chemically stable, does not stain cloths, it is odorless, water soluble, among other properties. CHX has been recommended as an alternative to NaOCl, especially in cases of open apex, root resorption, foramen enlargement and root perforation, due to its biocompatibility, or in cases of allergy related to bleaching solutions. The aim of this paper is to review CHX's general use in the medical field and in dentistry; its chemical structure, presentation form and storage; mechanism of action; antimicrobial activity including substantivity, effects on biofilms and endotoxins, effects on coronal and apical microbial microleakage; tissue dissolution ability; interaction with endodontic irrigants; effects on dentin bonding, metalloproteinases and collagen fibrils; its use as intracanal medicament and diffusion into the dentinal tubules; its use as disinfectant agent of obturation cones; other uses in the endodontic therapy; and possible adverse effects, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. PMID:23780357

  18. Chloroform in the endodontic operatory

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.N.; Vire, D.E. )

    1992-06-01

    This article reviews the role chloroform has played in dentistry and describes an occupational health clinical investigation into the possible hazards of chloroform use in the operatory. Due to a Food and Drug Administration ban on drugs and cosmetics containing chloroform, there has been some confusion as to whether the use of chloroform in the practice of dentistry is considered unsafe or has been prohibited. Utilizing common endodontic treatment methods employing chloroform, this study reports no negative health effects to the dentist or assistant and air vapor levels well below Occupational Health and Safety Administration mandated maximum levels. The report concludes that, with careful and controlled use, chloroform can be a useful adjunct in the practice of dentistry. The Food and Drug Administration has no jurisdiction over a dentist's use of chloroform in clinical practice and has not proven that chloroform is a human carcinogen.

  19. Experimental model: dye penetration of extensive interim restorations used during endodontic treatment while under load in a multiple axis chewing simulator.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Arna-Lee; Abbott, Paul V

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to design an experimental model that allowed extensive endodontic interim restorations to be tested for dye penetration while under simulated masticatory load. Extracted premolar teeth had standardized mesio-occluso-distal cavities prepared, and the root canals were instrumented. A cotton wool pellet was placed in the pulp chamber, and the cavities were restored with Cavit, IRM, Ketac-Fil Plus, Ketac-Silver, or composite resin (Z100). They were subjected to the equivalent of 3 months of clinical load while exposed to methylene blue dye. Results of this study could not support IRM as a suitable interim endodontic restorative material to use in extensive cavities. The dye penetration in the Ketac-Fil Plus and Ketac-Silver specimens was not predictable, and the results suggested Cavit and Z100 composite resin require further investigations as potentially useful materials for this purpose. PMID:17889699

  20. Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Mário Roberto; Salgado, Antônio Alberto; da Silva, Léa Assed; Tanomaru Filho, Mário

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Sealapex, AH Plus or Sealer Plus for sealing. After 180 days, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the obtained histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for optical microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical repair. The groups filled with Sealapex and AH Plus had better histological repair (p < 0.05) than the group filled with Sealer Plus, that had unsatisfactory results. PMID:12908063

  1. CBCT Use in Endodontic Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Beach, David A

    2016-02-01

    Endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning has taken a giant leap forward due to introduction of CBCT in dentistry. While conventional 2-D radiographs remain the most cost-effective and routine method to evaluate a patient’s dentition, their diagnostic potential is limited. The 3-D manipulation of images that CBCT offers provides better insight into diagnostic dilemmas and complicate treatment decisions. Despite the advantages of CBCT imaging, it should be used complimentary to 2-D radiography, not as a replacement. The principle of ALARA (in which patients should be exposed to radiation “as low as reasonably achievable”), still applies to this technology. CBCT should not be used routinely in the absence of clinical signs or symptoms that necessitate a more in-depth view of a tooth and surrounding structures. In other words, if a conventional 2-D radiograph will suffice, then a CBCT pretreatment scan is not necessary. However, if more information is needed to make an accurate diagnosis, a 3-D CBCT image is justified and highly beneficial as shown through several case examples share in this article. PMID:26995838

  2. Root dentine and endodontic instrumentation: cutting edge microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Atmeh, Amre R; Watson, Timothy F

    2016-06-01

    Cutting of the dental hard tissues is an integral part of restorative dentistry. Cutting of the root dentine is also needed in preparation prior to endodontic treatment, with significant commercial investment for the development of flexible cutting instruments based around nickel titanium (NiTi) alloys. This paper describes the evolution of endodontic cutting instruments, both in materials used, e.g. the transition from stainless steel to NiTi, and the design of the actual instruments themselves and their method of activation-by hand or motor driven. We have been examining tooth-cutting interactions microscopically for over 25 years using a variety of microscopic techniques; in particular, video-rate confocal microscopy. This has given a unique insight into how many of the procedures that we take for granted are achieved in clinical practice, by showing microscopic video images of the cutting as it occurs within the tooth. This technology has now been extended to allow imaging of the endodontic instrument and the root canal wall for the first time. We are able to image dentine distortion and crack propagation during endodontic filing of the root canal space. We are also able to visualize the often claimed, but seldom seen action of contemporary endodontic instruments. PMID:27274802

  3. Rapid kill-novel endodontic sealer and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Beyth, Nurit; Kesler Shvero, Dana; Zaltsman, Nathan; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Abramovitz, Itzhak; Davidi, Michael Perez; Weiss, Ervin I

    2013-01-01

    With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means. PMID:24223159

  4. Antimicrobial comparison on effectiveness of endodontic therapy and endodontic therapy combined with photo-disinfection on patients with periapical lesion: a 6 month follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S.; Núñez, Silvia C.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2008-03-01

    This study compares the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined to endodontic treatment with conventional endodontic treatment alone in patients with necrotic pulp and has a 6-month radiographic follow up comparing the healing of periapical lesions. Fifteen patients with periapical lesion and requiring root canal treatment were selected. Microbiological samples were taken after accessing the root canal, conventional manual endodontic therapy (group 1 n=5) and after accessing the canal, endodontic therapy and PDT (group 2 n=10). All the root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide paste for 1 week. Radiographs were taken after obturation and following 6 months. Endodontic therapy alone presented an 87% reduction in microorganisms while the combination with PDT had a 95% reduction. Radiographic follow up showed 32% higher reduction in the lesion area in PDT group. Results suggest that the use of PDT added to conventional endodontic treatment leads to a further major reduction of microbial load. PDT is an efficient alternative to chemical antimicrobial agents. It is a non-cumulative local treatment, which may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of infections in the oral cavity.

  5. Endodontic therapy averting major surgery and avoiding keloid formation.

    PubMed

    Marano, P D; Korkosz, J A; Rogers, E W

    1978-04-01

    Keloids and mandibular unfavorable fractures are reviewed. A case report of a patient with keloid diathesis, who had a mandibular unfavorable fracture, is presented. A grossly carious, abscessed first molar was in the line of fracture. This tooth was the only erupted tooth present in the proximal fragment. Endodontic therapy and restoration of normal contour enabled the surgeons to treat the fractured mandible by means of simple closed reduction. The endodontic treatment pre-empted a major surgical procedure under general anesthesia and also averted a skin incision which would have subsequently formed a disfiguring keloid. PMID:273853

  6. Veterinary endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover veterinary endodontics. PMID:18457705

  7. Glucocorticoids in endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover the use of glucocorticoids in endodontics. PMID:18457695

  8. Postextraction implant in sites with endodontic infection as an alternative to endodontic retreatment: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Stefano; Taschieri, Silvio; Tsesis, Igor; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this literature review is to evaluate the outcomes of implants placed after extraction of teeth with infections of endodontic origin. An electronic search was performed through electronic databases (Medline and Embase) using the terms "immediate implant," "post-extractive implants," "endodontic infection," "infected site," and "extraction socket" combined with the use of Boolean operators ("AND" and "OR"). Only articles on human subjects were considered. At least 12 month of mean follow-up was required for inclusion. No restriction was placed regarding study design. Ten studies were included in this review. Survival rates ranged from 92% to 100%. A total of 497 implants were placed in sites with endodontic infection. In nine studies the use of bone substitutes was associated with immediate implant placement. Because of the low number of included studies and the heterogeneity of study design, more well-designed studies are required to assess the relevance of this treatment alternative. PMID:23834016

  9. Student Endodontic Performance with and without Numerical Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Charles Q.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study compared dental student performance in clinical endodontics under two instructional approaches, one in which number of procedures completed by students (n=79) was measured and one (n=84 students) emphasizing total patient care and stricter accounting of clinical treatment time. Results indicated the latter group treated fewer teeth but…

  10. Sickle cell anemia in Brazil: personal, medical and endodontic patterns.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Shirlene Barbosa Pimentel; Tavares, Warley Luciano Fonseca; Rosa, Marco Aurélio Camargo da; Brito, Luciana Carla Neves de; Vieira, Leda Quércia; Martelli, Hercílio; Ribeiro, Antônio Paulino

    2016-05-20

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is the most prevalent genetic disease worldwide. Recurrent vaso-occlusive infarcts predispose SCA patients to infections, which are the primary causes of morbidly and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between SCA and endodontic diseases. Personal information, medical data (hematological indices, virologic testing, blood transfusions, medications received, splenectomy) and information on the need for endodontic treatment were obtained from SCA patients who were registered and followed up by the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.These data were compared with the need for root canal treatment in SCA patients. One hundred eight patients comprised the studied population, and the rate of the need for endodontic therapy was 10.2%. Among the medical data, a significant difference was observed for eosinophil (p = 0.045) counts and atypical lymphocyte counts (p = 0.036) when the groups (with and without the need for endodontic treatment) were compared. Statistical relevance was observed when comparing the patients with and without the need for root canal therapy concerned eosinophil counts and atypical lymphocyte counts. The differences in statistical medical data, observed between the groups suggest that both parameters are naturally connected to the stimulation of the immune system that can occur in the presence of root canal infections and that can be harmful to SCA individuals. PMID:27223130

  11. Endodontic applications of cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    McClammy, Thomas V

    2014-07-01

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) has made a dramatic contribution and has been quickly adopted in endodontics. It is a game changer in research and clinical applications. Although CBCT and its application in implantology is well known, the surgical placement of implants is now a factor in endodontics. This article illustrates unique applications of CBCT in implantology in a specialty endodontic facility. Endodontics creates the foundation for restorative dentistry for a healthy tooth, a well-treated endodontically treated tooth, or a well-placed dental implant. CBCT helps make this possible and predictable. PMID:24993923

  12. Aesthetic posts and cores for metal-free restoration of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Quintas, A F; Dinato, J C; Bottino, M A

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of contemporary post and core systems has facilitated the aesthetic restoration of endodontically treated teeth. Light transmission and biocompatibility have been enhanced by the introduction of metal-free post systems. The periodontal and endodontic status, root length, and histological structure of the devitalized teeth must be considered in order to achieve successful restoration following endodontic treatment. This article presents various restorative criteria for the aesthetic placement and buildup of post and core materials, as well as the preservation of maximum coronal and root structure. PMID:11405025

  13. Endodontic surgery: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover indications and contraindications, surgical anatomy related to endodontics, flap design, root-end resection, the beveled root surface, root-end preparation techniques, root-end filling materials, endodontic surgical aids, endodontic surgical wound healing, incision and drainage, surgical trephination, intentional replantation, endodontic endosseous implants, submergence of roots, transplantation of teeth, and cystic decompression. PMID:18457709

  14. Argon laser application to endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenau, Richard J.; Ludlow, Marvin; Anderson, David

    1993-07-01

    The application of laser technology to endodontics has been studied for some time. At the present time several major problems are being investigated: (1) removal of infected tissues, (2) sterilization of canals, (3) obturation of canals, and (4) preservation of the vitality of supporting tissues. This list is not intended to imply other problems do not exist or have been solved, but it is a starting point. This paper reviews some of the literature that relates to laser applications to endodontics and concludes with some of the findings from our investigation.

  15. Optical coherence tomography for endodontic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, G.; Shemesh, H.; Wu, M.-K.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2008-02-01

    In root canal therapy, complications frequently arise as a result of root fracture or imperfect cleaning of fins and invaginations. To date, there is no imaging method for nondestructive in vivo evaluation of the condition of the root canal, during or after treatment. There is a clinical need for a technique to detect defects before they give rise to complications. In this study we evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image root canal walls, and its capacity to identify complicating factors in root canal treatment. While the potential of OCT to identify caries has been explored before, endodontic imaging has not been reported. We imaged extracted lower front teeth after endodontic preparation and correlated these images to histological sections. A 3D OCT pullback scan was made with an endoscopic rotating optical fiber probe inside the root canal. All oval canals, uncleaned fins, risk zones, and one perforation that were detected by histology were also imaged by OCT. As an example of an area where OCT has clinical potential, we present a study of vertical root fracture identification with OCT.

  16. Endodontic therapy in a postirradiated child: review of the literature and report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kielbassa, A M; Attin, T; Schaller, H G; Hellwig, E

    1995-06-01

    Exodontia of extremely carious teeth leads to a significant risk of osteoradionecrosis in patients who have undergone radiotherapy. In these patients, endodontic treatment could be an alternative. Successful root canal therapy in a girl who had been irradiated for head and neck neoplasms is reported. The results indicated that use of calcium hydroxide to obturate the root canals is a viable method of postirradiation endodontics in primary teeth. PMID:8602421

  17. The Applications of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kiarudi, Amir Hosein; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Safi, Yaser; Aghdasi, Mohammad Mehdi; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    By producing undistorted three-dimensional images of the area under examination, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems have met many of the limitations of conventional radiography. These systems produce images with small field of view at low radiation doses with adequate spatial resolution that are suitable for many applications in endodontics from diagnosis to treatment and follow-up. This review article comprehensively assembles all the data from literature regarding the potential applications of CBCT in endodontics. PMID:25598804

  18. Evidence-based patient education: knowledge transfer to endodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, John T; McNeil, Daniel W; Gochenour, Lori L; Jackson, C Russell

    2009-11-01

    Evidence-based treatment is emphasized in oral health care, but there has been less focus on empirically demonstrating the effects of patient education. Attempts to educate patients must be empirically demonstrated in order to provide evidence-based guidance to practitioners and educators. We conducted two studies that assessed information acquisition during five-minute audiovisual films on oral hygiene procedures, endodontic procedures, and fear about pain during root canal therapy. A fifteen-item Dental Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ), with three subscales each focusing on the content of one of the films, was developed and psychometrically evaluated. Study 1 included 268 undergraduates; study 2 involved 104 endodontic patients. Participants completed the DKQ, viewed one of the three films, and repeated the questionnaire. The effects of information on knowledge were assessed using 3 (film group) X 3 (subscale of the DKQ) X 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVAs. Scores improved in a content-specific fashion relevant to the film viewed among undergraduates, F(4, 263)=211.33, p<.001, partial eta(2)=.62 and endodontic patients, F(4, 99)=87.22, p<.001, partial eta(2)=.63. The results provide evidence for using brief informational film as an efficacious method to increase patient knowledge, at least in the short term. The DKQ is proposed as a tool to assess patient knowledge in the arenas of oral hygiene and endodontics. PMID:19910479

  19. A 22-year follow-up of an endodontic implant.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jan; Sándor, George K; Forouzanfar, Tim; Schulten, Engelbert A J M; Oikarinen, Kyösti S

    2015-10-01

    Root fractures in the middle and apical thirds of the root are treated by repositioning and for approximately 6 weeks of immobilization while those in the cervical third are immobilized for 3 months. Even though the results are good, some root-fractured teeth are lost and replaced by dental implants or fixed partial dentures. One historic but effective treatment option for those root fractures with unfavorable crown to root ratios is an endodontic implant in middle and apical third root fractures. This method offers immediate stable fixation of a crown and its coronal root segment to the underlying alveolar bone. This report documents the long-term survival of a tooth treated with an endodontic implant. A 25-year-old male patient presented following a bicycle accident with a dislocated unfavorable root fracture in the middle third. The crown with the coronal root segment was secured to the bone using a commercially available endodontic implant. The apical part of the root was removed. Although the clinical and radiological follow-up results of the endodontic implant demonstrated a good clinical function and little bone loss, the implant ultimately had to be removed after 22 years of service due to pain and increasing mobility. PMID:25865147

  20. [Developmental radicular groove as a cause of endodontic failure].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H; Millet Part, J

    1989-01-01

    A clinical case of apical injury on an upper lateral incisor with endodontical and surgical failures in its treatment is presented. Extraction of the incisor and its study at the stereoscopic microscope showed the existence of a developmental groove running from the cingulum to the end of the root, establishing a communication between the crevice and the apical part of the tooth. Bacterial infection through the groove could provide an explanation for treatment failure. PMID:2640035

  1. A Successful Endodontic Outcome with Non-Obturated Canals

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    This case report represents the outcome of endodontic treatment in an infected mandibular molar with periradicular periodontitis and inherent poor prognosis of root canal treatment due to severe root curvature. The tooth was successfully treated by leaving the mesial root non-obturated, the canal orifices were coronally sealed with calcium enriched mixture cement and a definitive coronal amalgam restoration, was placed at the subsequent visit. PMID:26213546

  2. The effectiveness of endodontic solvents to remove endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae I; Chuang, Augustine H; Sidow, Stephanie J; McNally, Kathleen; Goodin, Jeremy L; McPherson, James C

    2015-03-01

    Dental emergencies negatively affect troop readiness, especially during combat. Endodontic retreatment, when required, is especially challenging when the removal of endodontic sealer is required. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of synthetic endodontic solvents to remove endodontic sealers. Fifty capillary tubes (2.7 mm ID×22 mm L), each filled to 15 mm with either Roth 801, AH Plus, MetaSEAL, or gutta-percha, were stored at 75% humidity for 14 days at 37°C. Ten capillary tubes containing each sealer were treated with either chloroform, xylene, EndoSolv R, EndoSolv E, or no solvent, and then penetrated with D3 ProTaper Universal Retreatment file on the same day. The time for the file to penetrate the length of each sealer was recorded, and the data statistically analyzed. Roth 801 failed to set and was not tested. The file took 3.4±0.1, 4.8±0.3, 5.7±0.4, 4.5±0.2, and 10.6±1.0 seconds (mean±SD) to penetrate gutta-percha using chloroform, xylene, EndoSolv R, EndoSolv E, or no solvent, respectively, and was performed by one endodontic resident at one sitting. The time for penetration of gutta-percha with any solvent was significantly faster (p≤0.05) than for AH Plus or MetaSEAL.The time for AH Plus ranged from 23.1±1.0 to 81.5±4.5 seconds. The time for MetaSEAL ranged from 97.2±6.1 to >180 seconds. EndoSolv E was the most effective solvent for AH Plus. It took significantly more time to remove MetaSEAL than AH Plus, regardless of the solvent used. Our study indicated that the use of the proper endodontic solvent makes complete removal of a sealer much more effective during retreatment. PMID:25747639

  3. Modern endodontic practice: instruments and techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Syngcuk

    2004-01-01

    Like many other dental and medical specialties, endodontics has evolved and changed over the years. The changes that have occurred in the past 10 years, however, have been of great magnitude and profundity. The microscope, ultrasonic units with specially configured tips, superbly accurate microchip computerized apex locators, flexible nickel-titanium files in rotary engines, and greater emphasis on microscopic endodontic surgery have totally changed the way endodontics and endodontic surgery are practiced. Comparing these changes with formocreoszol medication, K-file and radiographic determination of working length are truly dramatic. These changes are bringing the specialty of endodontic practice into the twenty-first century with greater precision, fewer procedural errors, less discomfort to the patient, and faster case completions. Seven key advancements in endodontics were made in the last decade. This article discusses these advancements and their applicability to everyday practice. PMID:15066503

  4. Chlorhexidine gluconate, its properties and applications in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2008-01-01

    The major objective in endodontic therapy is to disinfect the entire root canal system. This requires that the pulpal content be eliminated as sources of infection. This goal may be accomplished by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation, in conjunction with medication of the root canal between treatment sessions. Microorganisms and their by-products are considered to be the major cause of pulpal and periradicular pathosis. In order to reduce or eliminate bacteria from the root canal system, various irrigants have been used during treatment. Chlorhexidine is a cationic solution which can be used during treatment. It has a wide range of antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, because of its cationic structure, chlorhexidine has a unique property named substantivity. The purpose of this paper is to review different aspects of chlorhexidine in endodontics. PMID:24265633

  5. Clinical negligence or endodontic mishaps: A surgeons dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Chand, Sharad; Verma, Promila; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Wadhwani, Kulwinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Complications may occur during and after endodontic treatment, which may be due to negligence of the operator. The surgical treatment of a case presenting pain and persistent pus discharge and swelling due to the extrusion of the root canal filling to the base of the nasal floor between left maxillary lateral and canine teeth is presented in this report. First, carelessness was during root canal treatment that was over obturated and second time during extraction in which overextended gutta-percha remained in the bone, caused the complications like pain, persistent pus discharge, and headache. Clinicians should be aware of the fact that endodontic instruments and filling materials (solid or liquid) can be extended in such a degree that can lead to neurological or sinus complications. PMID:23251068

  6. Evaluation of over-etching technique in the endodontically treated tooth restoration

    PubMed Central

    Migliau, Guido; Piccoli, Luca; Besharat, Laith Konstantinos; Di Carlo, Stefano; Pompa, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Summary The main purpose of a post-endodontic restoration with posts is to guarantee the retention of the restorative material. The aim of the study was to examine, through the push-out test, how bond strength between the post and the dentin varied with etching time with 37% orthophosphoric acid, before cementation of a glass fiber post. Moreover, it has been examined if over-etching (application time of the acid: 2 minutes) was an effective technique to improve the adhesion to the endodontic substrate, after highlighting the problems of adhesion concerning its anatomical characteristics and the changes after the endodontic treatment. Highest bond strength values were found by etching the substrate for 30 sec., while over-etching didn’t improve bond strength to the endodontic substrate. PMID:26161247

  7. [Control of generalized chronic periodontitis combined with calcium-antagonist-related gingival overgrowth by a complex periodontal-endodontic-prosthodontic treatment. Case report].

    PubMed

    Szánto, Erika; Gera, István

    2011-12-01

    To day a relatively high percentage of elderly population of the industrialized world suffers with different cardiovascular diseases and are on permanent antihypertensive therapy. One of the most frequently used drugs is the calcium channel blockers prescribed against high blood pressure. The most common oral side effect of these drugs is the gingival enlargement that might develop even on otherwise healthy gingiva. The incidence of chronic periodontitis in this age group is also high and the Ca antagonist medication in those individuals might substantially modify the clinical course of periodontal inflammation leading to gingival enlargement and hypertrophic pocket wall. The case presented here is a 52 years old hypertonic woman with a long history of Ca-antagonist therapy and generalized chronic periodontitis combined with gingival hyperplasia. After the change of medication the 1,5 years comprehensive periodontal endodontic and prosthodontic therapy restored patient's periodontal health and provided complex dental rehabilitation. Nevertheless, only regular periodontal supportive therapy could ensure predictable outcome and guarantee long lasting periodontal health. PMID:22308953

  8. Comparative characteristics of endodontic drills.

    PubMed

    Loska, Sonia; Basiaga, Marcin; Pochrząst, Magdalena; Łukomska-Szymańska, Monika; Walke, Witold; Tyrlik-Held, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    The work concerns the analysis of influence of the wear process of endodontic instruments on the mechanical and physico-chemical properties of the materials from which they are made. A detailed study of the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in the environment simulating work of the tool was conducted. The research was done for the new Mtwo endodontic files and after six times of use. In addition, the observations with a scanning electron microscope in order to reveal possible damage caused by the impact of a corrosive environment were carried out. The results showed that use of the tool by six times revealed damage at the edges of the blades and may cause a lack of continuity of the cutting line resulting in the uneven distribution of the resistive force which acts on the tool during operation. PMID:26688191

  9. Overview on the Current Antibiotic Containing Agents Used in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are systemically and locally used extensively in endodontics. However, local antibiotic application mode is considered more effective than systemic administration. The local mode enables the dentist to target bacteria in every nook and corner of root canal system, which is otherwise beyond reach if targeted by instrumentation or conventional root canal treatment protocols. Therefore, they are an important adjunct to conventional treatment of root canal. The present study reviews the various antibiotic containing dental agents used in endodontics. A web-based research on MedLine was performed with terms Review Articles published in the last 10 year's dental journals in English for literature researching, extracting, and synthesizing data. Relevant articles were shortlisted. Important cross-reference articles were also reviewed. PMID:25210667

  10. Regenerative Endodontics: A Road Less Travelled

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Kaur, Dilpreet

    2014-01-01

    Although traditional approaches like root canal therapy and apexification procedures have been successful in treating diseased or infected root canals, but these modalities fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in treated teeth. Regeneration-based approaches aims to offer high levels of success by replacing diseased or necrotic pulp tissues with healthy pulp tissue to revitalize teeth. The applications of regenerative approaches in dental clinics have potential to dramatically improve patients’ quality of life. This review article offers a detailed overview of present regenerative endodontic approaches aiming to revitalize teeth and also outlines the problems to be dealt before this emerging field contributes to clinical treatment protocols. It conjointly covers the basic trilogy elements of tissue engineering. PMID:25478476

  11. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed. PMID:12956038

  12. Regenerative endodontics: a road less travelled.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Kaur, Dilpreet

    2014-10-01

    Although traditional approaches like root canal therapy and apexification procedures have been successful in treating diseased or infected root canals, but these modalities fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in treated teeth. Regeneration-based approaches aims to offer high levels of success by replacing diseased or necrotic pulp tissues with healthy pulp tissue to revitalize teeth. The applications of regenerative approaches in dental clinics have potential to dramatically improve patients' quality of life. This review article offers a detailed overview of present regenerative endodontic approaches aiming to revitalize teeth and also outlines the problems to be dealt before this emerging field contributes to clinical treatment protocols. It conjointly covers the basic trilogy elements of tissue engineering. PMID:25478476

  13. Can traumatic occlusion cause endodontic problems? A case report.

    PubMed

    Indramohan, Jamuna; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Subba Rao, C V; Vasudevan, C

    2011-01-01

    Radicular cysts are commonly found odontogenic cysts in the jaws. The lesion is diagnosed mainly in young patients during the second decade of life. In the majority of cases, it is asymptomatic. This paper reports a rare case in which traumatic occlusion was identified as the etiology of a radicular cyst. Endodontic treatment was performed and the traumatic occlusion also was corrected. A six-month follow-up appointment found good healing of the periapical region. PMID:21903554

  14. Imaging Techniques in Endodontics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, B. S.; Subash, T. S.; Narmatha, V. J.; Anamika, T.; Snehil, T. K.; Nandini, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the relevance of imaging techniques such as, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, and ultrasound, to endodontic practice. Many limitations of the conventional radiographic techniques have been overcome by the newer methods. Advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques in endodontic practice are also discussed. PMID:22530184

  15. Teacher Training in Graduate Endodontic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, William; Lee, Mickey M.

    1981-01-01

    A national survey of postdoctoral endodontic students on the perceived educational needs of dental faculty indicated that most endodontic students possess very little formal educational training, they perceive a strong need for it, and that they desire more training in evaluation/testing methods. (MLW)

  16. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a) Identification. An endodontic paper point is a device made of paper intended for use during endodontic therapy to...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a) Identification. An endodontic paper point is a device made of paper intended for use during endodontic therapy to...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a) Identification. An endodontic paper point is a device made of paper intended for use during endodontic therapy to...

  4. Er:YAG laser for endodontics: efficiency and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibst, Raimund; Stock, Karl; Gall, Robert; Keller, Ulrich

    1997-12-01

    Recently it has been shown that bacterias can be sterilized by Er:YAG laser irradiation. By optical fiber transmission the bactericidal effect can also be used in endodontics. In order to explore potential laser parameters, we further investigated sterilization of caries and measured temperatures in models simulating endodontic treatment. It was found out that the bactericidal effect is cumulative, with single pulses being active. This offers to choose all laser parameters except pulse energy (radiant exposure) from technical, practical or safety considerations. For clinical studies the following parameter set is proposed for efficient and safe application (teeth with a root wall thickness > 1 mm, and prepared up to ISO 50): pulse energy: 50 mJ, repetition rate: 15 Hz, fiber withdrawal velocity: 2 mm/s. With these settings 4 passes must be performed to accumulate the total dose for sterilization.

  5. Diagnosis demystified: CT as diagnostic tool in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Shruthi, Nagaraja; Sreenivasa Murthy, B V; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis in endodontics is usually based on clinical and radiographical presentations, which are only empirical methods. The role of healing profession is to apply knowledge and skills towards maintaining and restoring the patient's health. Recent advances in imaging technologies have added to correct interpretation and diagnosis. CT is proving to be an effective tool in solving endodontic mysteries through its three-dimensional visualisation. CT imaging offers many diagnostic advantages to produce reconstructed images in selected projection and low-contrast resolution far superior to that of all other X-ray imaging modalities. This case report is an endeavour towards effective treatment planning of cases with root fracture, root resorption using spiral CT as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. PMID:23814212

  6. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth – A review

    PubMed Central

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S.; Issac, Jyoti S.; John, Sheen A.; Harris, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the “gold-standard” over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel–titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed. PMID:26792964

  7. Methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide products stimulate proinflammatory cytokines in patients with necrotic pulp tissue and endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Jacobi-Gresser, E; Schütt, S; Huesker, K; Von Baehr, V

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the residual dentin or infected pulp tissue are responsible for most cases of endodontic treatment failures. Persisting microorganisms in necrotic pulp tissue produce sulphur components such as methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide as well as thioether derivatives. Although there is emerging evidence that these sulphur compounds stimulate immune cells and induce the inflammatory cascade, the immunological mechanisms of local and systemic inflammation have not been described. In this retrospective study we evaluated the ex-vivo immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to sulphur compounds in 53 patients with clinical or radiologic endodontic treatment failure, 20 patients with clinical discomfort or radiological findings without previous endodontic treatment and a control group of 31 patients who had received successful endodontic treatment at least five years previously. Patients with endodontic abnormalities showed significantly higher ex-vivo sulphur compound-stimulated interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels as compared to the control group. The association between ex-vivo-stimulated cytokines and endodontically derived sulphur compounds was further substantiated by the fact that the number of IFN-γ and/or IL-10-positive patients decreased significantly 3-8 months after re-treatment of the root canal or tooth extraction. Furthermore, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were higher in patients than in controls, and at the same time, the TNFA -308 G/A polymorphism was associated with endodontic treatment failure in our study population. We conclude that a cellular immune response to sulphur compounds contributes to the inflammatory process observed in relation to endodontic treatment failures. PMID:25864743

  8. Clinical Approach of High Technology Techniques for Control and Elimination of Endodontic Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Chiniforush, Nasim; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Shahabi, Sima; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    The main goal in endodontic treatment is to eradicate or at least reduce intraradicular microbial population to levels that are more compatible with periapical lesions healing process. Since endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature, intraradicular survival of endodontic microbiota and their pathogenic properties are influenced by a combination of their virulence factors. The purpose of this article is to review the endodontic microbiota and their respective virulence attributes, as well as perform a literature review of the effects of disinfection procedures in the treatment of endodontic infections to gain best practices. Conventional technique for root canal preparation includes mechanical debridement and application of antimicrobial irrigants. Recently, laser irradiation has been used to enhance the results of root canal treatment through its thermal effect. To reduce thermal side effects, laser activated irrigation (LAI) and photon induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) were introduced. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) by photochemical reaction uses light at a specific wavelength to activate a nontoxic photosensitizer (PS) in the presence of oxygen to produce cytotoxic products. Different PSs are used in dentistry including methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue O (TBO), indocyanine green (ICG) and curcumin. Among different options, ICG could be the best choice due to its peak absorption at wavelength of 808 nm, which coincides with the commercial diode laser devices. Also, this wavelength has more penetration depth compared to other wavelengths used in aPDT. PMID:26705458

  9. Current opinions concerning the restoration of endodontically treated teeth: basic principles

    PubMed Central

    VȦrlan, C; VȦrlan, V; Bodnar, D; Suciu, I

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this general article is to present a survey of the current knowledge about the clinical approach of restoring endodontically treated teeth. The best way to restore teeth after root canal treatment has long been and still is a controversial subject of debate to this day. The clinical approach of restoring endodontically treated teeth needs taking into consideration several issues: aims of coronal restoration, criteria for establishing the various modalities of coronal restoration, clinical solutions of restoring teeth after endodontic treatment, guidelines regarding restorative materials and techniques, possibilities and limits of restoration using direct adhesive materials and techniques. The aims of coronal restoration of endodontically treated teeth are generally considered to be the following ones: to prevent recontamination of the root canal system and / or periapical space, to replace missing hard dental tissues and to restore coronal morphology and functions, to provide the necessary strength for the restoration/tooth complex in order to withstand functional stress and prevent crown and/or root fracture. The criteria for establishing the modalities of coronal restoration for endodontically treated teeth are: amount and quality of remaining hard dental tissues, topography and coronal morphology of the tooth, functional occlusal forces that the restoration/tooth complex has to withstand, restoring requirements in order to include the treated tooth in a comprehensive oral rehabilitation treatment plan, esthetic requirements. PMID:20108535

  10. Treponema diversity in root canals with endodontic failure

    PubMed Central

    Nóbrega, Leticia M. M.; Delboni, Maraisa G.; Martinho, Frederico C.; Zaia, Alexandre A; Ferraz, Caio C. R.; Gomes, Brenda P. F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to investigate the prevalence of eight oral Treponemas (Treponema denticola, T. amylovorum, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. pectinovorum, T. socranskii, T. vicentii and T. lecithinolyticum) in teeth with endodontic treatment failure and periapical lesion. Methods: Samples were taken from 40 root canals presenting endodontic failure and periapical lesion. DNA extraction was performed and Nested-PCR technique was used for the detection of Treponema species using specific primers. Results: Treponemas was detected in 56.5% of the samples analyzed (22/39). Individual root canals yielded a maximum of 6 target Treponema species. T. denticola (30.8%) and T. maltophilum (30.8%) were the most frequently detected species followed by T. medium (20.5%), T. socranskii (20.5%), T. pectinovorum (17.9%) and T. vicentii (17.9%). Positive association was verified between T. denticola and T. maltophilum such as T. medium (P<.05). T. lecithinolyticum was positively associated with intraradicular post (P<.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that a wide variety of Treponema species plays a role in persistent/secondary infection turning the root canal microbiota even more complex than previously described by endodontic literature. PMID:23408792

  11. The periodontal – endodontic continuum: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha V, Raja; Emmadi, Pamela; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan; Thyegarajan, Ramakrishnan; Rajaraman, Vijayalakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Periodontal therapy deals with many aspects of the supporting structures, including the prevention and repair of lesions of the gingival sulcus. Endodontics deals primarily with disease of the pulp and periapical tissues. The success of both periodontal and endodontic therapy depends on the elimination of both disease processes, whether they exist separately or as a combined lesion. The relationship between periodontal and endodontic disease has been a subject of speculation for many years. This paper aims at presenting a comprehensive review of several aspects of perio-endo lesions. PMID:20142886

  12. Endodontic retreatment: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover retreatment rationale, corrosion of silver points, retreatment techniques, removal of posts, and possible complications during retreatment. PMID:18457690

  13. Biomimetic endodontics: the final evolution?

    PubMed

    Clark, David J

    2007-07-01

    We are seeing a gradual evolution by a small but growing number of endodontists and general dentists toward delicate biomimetic, microscope-based shaping. This old-fashioned respect for periradicular dentin is paired with microscopes, ultrasonics, and an appreciation for root morphology. Although no 2 roots are the same, general anatomic patterns allow the microscope-equipped clinician to search for major pulpal regions that will yield a high probability of cleaning and shaping the clinically available pulpal zones. There are complex, anatomically improbable, and clinically impossible areas of pulp that are beyond the reach of even the most gifted hands. Regardless, the clinician has the responsibility to begin each procedure seeking perfection and joyfully finishing with excellence. The shapes that were introduced during the Schilder (crown-down) era have served as a transitional technique to allow the first real 3-dimensional compaction of gutta-percha. Nonetheless, endodontics is in the end a restoratively driven procedure. Large, arbitrary, round shapes create beautiful endodontics but can dramatically weaken the tooth. The shaping philosophy advanced in this treatise allows perfectly adequate shapes to achieve the hydraulics needed for modern obturation. It will require different skills and materials to shape, pack, and restore the exotic architecture of nature. (See Tables 1 to 3.). PMID:17708316

  14. Dimensional changes of endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, R B; Safavi, K E; Spångberg, L S

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study was a long-term comparison of the dimensional changes of endodontic sealers of diverse properties. The sealers were injected as thin layers on the internal walls of glass pipettes 1 mm in diameter. The pipettes were filled with deionized water, and the water meniscus levels were recorded periodically up to 180 days. The water was removed from the pipettes, samples were allowed to dry, and the mass and the volume of the sealers were measured. AH26 and Endo-Fill had an initial expansion followed by a volumetric loss. The two zinc oxide eugenol-based sealers studied started to shrink within hours after mixing; the first volumetric loss for AH26 was recorded during the first 30 days and for Endo-Fill after 30 days. The least dimensional change at any time was observed for Endo-Fill. It was concluded that a significant dimensional change and continued volume loss can occur in some endodontic sealers. PMID:8284084

  15. Identification and Endodontic Management of Middle Mesial Canal in Mandibular Second Molar Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bonny; Dube, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic treatments are routinely done with the help of radiographs. However, radiographs represent only a two-dimensional image of an object. Failure to identify aberrant anatomy can lead to endodontic failure. This case report presents the use of three-dimensional imaging with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as an adjunct to digital radiography in identification and management of mandibular second molar with three mesial canals. PMID:26664763

  16. Identification and Endodontic Management of Middle Mesial Canal in Mandibular Second Molar Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Bonny; Dube, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic treatments are routinely done with the help of radiographs. However, radiographs represent only a two-dimensional image of an object. Failure to identify aberrant anatomy can lead to endodontic failure. This case report presents the use of three-dimensional imaging with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as an adjunct to digital radiography in identification and management of mandibular second molar with three mesial canals. PMID:26664763

  17. Iatrogenic Subcutaneous Emphysema of Endodontic Origin – Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Lora; Patnaik, Swarnav; Patro, Sangram; Debnath, Nitai; Mishra, Satyaranjan

    2014-01-01

    Surgical emphysema is well known and many case reports have been published on this. Many authors have reported this as a complication post dentoalveolar treatment. Diffusion of air into facial planes and periorbital area during endodontic procedures has been rarely reported. The use of three way air syringe and forceful irrigation of root canal can lead to surgical emphysema of subcutaneous tissue planes in and around the teeth which are involved. This case report highlights one such complication seen during endodontic treatment, discusses aetiology, complications and conservative management of this dental office emergency. PMID:24596796

  18. Postextraction implant in sites with endodontic infection as an alternative to endodontic retreatment: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Stefano; Taschieri, Silvio; Tsesis, Igor; Massimo, Del Fabbro

    2012-05-22

    Abstract Objective: the aim of this literature review was to evaluate the outcomes of implants placed after extraction of teeth with infections of endodontic origin.Study design: an electronic search was performed through electronic databases (Medline and EMBASE) using the terms "immediate implant", "post-extractive implants", "endodontic infection", "infected site", "extraction socket" combined with the use of Boolean operators ("AND" and "OR"). Only articles on human subjects were considered. At least 12 month of mean follow-up was required for inclusion. No restriction was placed regarding study design.Results: Ten studies were included in this review. Survival rates ranged from 92% to 100%. A total of 497 implants were placed in sites with endodontic infection. In nine studies the use of bone substitutes was associated with immediate implant placement.Conclusion: because of the low number of included study and the heterogeneity in study design, more well-designed studies are required in order to assess relevance of this treatment alternative. PMID:22616711

  19. Management of failed periodontal surgical intervention for a furcal lesion with a nonsurgical endodontic approach

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    As long as the prognosis of teeth remains a matter of concern, the endodontic-periodontal relationship will be considered a challenge for the clinician. Many etiologic factors, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, plus other contributing factors, such as trauma, root resorptions/perforations, and dental malformations, play a role in the co-occurrence of endodontic and periodontal lesions. Whatever the cause, a correct diagnosis on which to base the treatment plan is the key to successful maintenance of the tooth. This article reports the successful endodontic management of a furcation lesion in a mandibular molar that was nonresponsive to a previous periodontal surgical graft. The case had presented a diagnostic challenge for the clinicians, and this article reviews the key points that can lead to a correct diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:24790924

  20. [Ultrasonics in endodontics: mechanism of action].

    PubMed

    Pacheco Plaza, M C; Kessler Nieto, F; Orts Rodríguez, M T; Ruiz de Temiño Malo, P

    1989-01-01

    The present study, first of three dwelling with ultrasonics in endodontic therapy, is a review of the literature about mechanisms involved and appliance of some of the sonic and ultrasonic system. PMID:2700391

  1. Trends in endodontic claims in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Gasparetto, Laura; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2013-02-01

    According to the scant data available in the literature, endodontic claims are common among dental professional liability cases and the second most common type of claim. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of endodontic claims in Italy and the most frequently disputed errors, and the discussion below includes consideration of ethical and medico-legal aspects thereof. We retrospectively analysed 120 technical reports written on cases of professional malpractice in endodontics in the last 5 years. The complainant patients were males in 22.5% of the cases, while females made up the remaining 77.5%. In the dentist sample, male operators were more often involved in litigation cases (80%) than female operators. The most frequently claimed technical errors were: lack of a complete filling of root canal/s (71.7%), the perforation of tooth structure (12.7%), extrusion of sealing materials beyond the apex of the tooth (9.6%) and the fracture of an endodontic instrument (5.9%). In 1.7% of cases it was found that the expert did not make any errors performing the endodontic therapy. In only very few cases (2.7%) no therapy was considered necessary, while the most common therapeutic solution involved in endodontic misconduct was tooth extraction (53.0%). In many cases the dentist preferred to extract the endodontically undertreated tooth and substitute it prosthetically rather than trying to re-treat it. The discrepancy between the total number of cases examined and those that eventually go to court leads us to believe that the majority of endodontic malpractice cases are resolved in out-of-court settlements. PMID:23410021

  2. Endodontic Management of a Haemophilic Patient- A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dudeja, Krishan Kumar; Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ali, Sartaj

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilia and other bleeding disorders remain an enigma to the dentists world over. They not only challenge the skills of dental specialists but also raise the question of how these individuals should be managed emotionally as well as psychologically. The high incidence of dental problems in haemophiliacs is most likely caused by the fear and apprehension not only on the part of the patients but also dentists of inducing bleeding during treatment which can even be life threatening in certain cases. With proper care, diligence and meticulous treatment planning, there is no dental treatment that cannot be performed in such patients. Mild haemophiliacs can be easily managed and can effectively undergo even surgical endodontics without factor replacement therapies. However, severe haemophilia can pose significant health hazard and needs thorough preparation to meet any exigencies arising during the treatment. This case report describes how one such severely haemophilic patient with pain and swelling in the left submandibular region was managed with nonsurgical endodontic treatment in mandibular molar teeth and also discusses the importance of correct methods of diagnosis and various treatment considerations in such patients. PMID:25177652

  3. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery. PMID:25197746

  4. Endodontic management of permanent mandibular molars with 6 root canals: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Amit; Ahlawat, Jyoti; Bansal, Chirag; Tahiliani, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Aberrations in the internal dental anatomy present challenges for clinicians performing endodontic therapy. These challenges have been partly resolved in recent years by a more comprehensive knowledge of root canal anatomy as well as advancements in the endodontic armamentarium. The aim of this case series is to describe successful root canal treatment, under magnification, in 3 cases of mandibular first molars with 6 root canals. Two of these teeth had 2 roots (mesial and distal) with 3 canals in each root; the third tooth had 3 root canals located mesially and 3 present distally as well as a radix entomolaris. A distal root with 3 canals is rare; however, it is important to look for such anatomical variations to ensure successful endodontic therapy. PMID:27599288

  5. [Study of some physical and biological properties of an endodontic sealer composed of calcium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Birman, E G; Sampaio, J M; Magalhães, J; Sato, E

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study of the physical and biological properties of a new endodontic cement known as Sealapex. In its composition the presence of calcium hydroxide is introduced in order to induce calcification of the periapical tissue. Our results using glass round cover slips implanted on the subcutaneous tissue of mice indicated a persistent foreign body reaction (60 days). The physical properties studied compared to N-Rickert ciment indicated, a decreased leakage. Adhesivity tests didn't give us significant values. Laboratorial studies and clinical trials are necessary to a complete acceptance of this new ciment in endodontic treatment. PMID:2135327

  6. Antibacterial effects of N-acetylcysteine against endodontic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Choi, Young-Suk; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Heo, Jung Sun; Chang, Seok Woo; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2016-04-01

    The success of endodontic treatment depends on the eradication of microorganisms from the root canal system and the prevention of reinfection. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant mucolytic agent, as an intracanal medicament against selected endodontic pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of NAC for Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis were determined using the broth microdilution method. NAC showed antibacterial activity, with MIC values of 0.78-1.56 mg/ml. The effect of NAC on biofilm formation of each bacterium and a multispecies culture consisting of the four bacterial species was assessed by crystal violet staining. NAC significantly inhibited biofilm formation by all the monospecies and multispecies bacteria at minimum concentrations of 0.78-3.13 mg/ml. The efficacy of NAC for biofilm disruption was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and ATP-bioluminescence quantification using mature multispecies biofilms. Preformed mature multispecies biofilms on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite disks were disrupted within 10 min by treatment with NAC at concentrations of 25 mg/ml or higher. After 24 h of treatment, the viability of mature biofilms was reduced by > 99% compared with the control. Moreover, the biofilm disrupting activity of NAC was significantly higher than that of saturated calcium hydroxide or 2% chlorhexidine solution. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, we conclude that NAC has excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy against endodontic pathogens and may be used as an alternative intracanal medicament in root canal therapies. PMID:27033208

  7. Relationship between systemic diseases and endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover the relationship between systemic diseases and endodontics. PMID:18457702

  8. Single-visit endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover single visit endodontics. PMID:18457689

  9. Case report: endodontic and surgical treatment of an upper central incisor with external root resorption and radicular cyst following a traumatic tooth avulsion.

    PubMed

    Lux, Hans-Christian; Goetz, Falko; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-11-01

    In the age group between 6 and 12 years, trauma to the upper incisors happens frequently. In the case of avulsion, a replantation is the state-of-the-art treatment; however, it may lead to several complications, particularly if suitable posttraumatic management is not carried out. External cervical resorptions as well as apical granuloma and cysts due to microbial contamination of the root canal are common complications. In the presented trauma case, a conservative approach was chosen to treat a large cystic lesion combined with cervical and apical resorptions. After initial placement of Ledermix and calcium hydroxide into the root canal, a marsupialization with the temporary insertion of an obturator was performed. The gradual reduction led to a fast recovery of the bony defect and a root canal filling was placed. The 2-year follow-up showed an improved condition. All adjacent teeth remained vital during the course of the treatment. PMID:20692191

  10. Six-month healing success rates after endodontic treatment using the novel GentleWave™ System: The pure prospective multi-center clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Le, Khang T.; Woo, Stacey M.; Rassoulian, Shahriar A.; McLachlan, Kimberly; Abbassi, Farah; Garland, Randy W.

    2016-01-01

    Background This prospective multi-center (PURE) clinical study evaluated healing rates for molars after root canal treatment employing the GentleWave® System (Sonendo, Inc., Laguna Hills, CA). Material and Methods Eighty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria and consented for this clinical study after referral for a root canal treatment. All enrolled patients were treated with the GentleWave System. Five endodontists performed the clinical procedures and follow-up evaluations. Pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative data were collected from the consented patients. Each patient was evaluated for clinical signs and symptoms. Two trained, blinded, and independent evaluators scored the subject tooth radiographs for apical periodontitis using the periapical index (PAI). The teeth classified as healing or healed were considered as a success and composed of a cumulative success rate of healing. Statistical analysis was performed by using the Fisher’s exact test, Pearson correlation, and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the pre-operative prognostic factors at 0.05 significance level. Results Seventy-seven patients were evaluated at six months with a follow-up rate of 86.5%. The cumulative success rate of healing was 97.4%. Eleven prognostic factors were identified using bivariate analyses. Using logistic analyses, the two prognostic significant variables that were directly correlated to healing were the pre-operative presence of periapical index (p value=0.016), and single treatment visits (p value=0.024). Conclusions In this six-month PURE clinical study, the cumulative success rate of healing was 97.4% when patients were treated with the GentleWave® System. Key words:Healing rate, root canal treatment, molar, GentleWave™, Sonendo®, Multisonic Ultracleaning™ . PMID:27398180

  11. Nanoparticle-based endodontic antimicrobial photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pagonis, Tom C.; Chen, Judy; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Devalapally, Harikrishna; Ruggiero, Karriann; Song, Xiaoqing; Foschi, Federico; Dunham, Joshua; Skobe, Ziedonis; Yamazaki, Hajime; Kent, Ralph; Tanner, Anne C.R.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Soukos, Nikolaos S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the in vitro effects of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with the photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) and light against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). Materials and Methods The uptake and distribution of nanoparticles in E. faecalis in suspension was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after incubation with PLGA complexed with colloidal gold particles for 2.5, 5 and 10 minutes. E. faecalis species were sensitized in planktonic phase and in experimentally infected root canals of human extracted teeth with MB-loaded nanoparticles for 10 minutes followed by exposure to red light at 665 nm. Results The nanoparticles were found to be concentrated mainly on the cell walls of microorganisms at all three time points. The synergism of light and MB-loaded nanoparticles led to approximately 2 and 1 log10 reduction of colony-forming units in planktonic phase and root canals, respectively. In both cases, mean log10 CFU levels were significantly lower than controls and MB-loaded nanoparticles without light. Conclusion The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with photoactive drugs may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial endodontic treatment. PMID:20113801

  12. 21 CFR 872.3890 - Endodontic stabilizing splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic stabilizing splint. 872.3890 Section 872.3890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3890 Endodontic stabilizing splint. (a) Identification. An endodontic stabilizing...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3890 - Endodontic stabilizing splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic stabilizing splint. 872.3890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3890 Endodontic stabilizing splint. (a) Identification. An endodontic stabilizing splint is a device made of a material, such as titanium, intended to...

  14. Patient Demonstration Videos in Predoctoral Endodontic Education: Aspects Perceived as Beneficial by Students.

    PubMed

    Edrees, Hadeel Y; Ohlin, Johan; Ahlquist, Michael; Tessma, Mesfin K; Zary, Nabil

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the perceived benefits of video-mediated demonstrations in learning endodontics. Participants in the study were 75 third-year students enrolled in the undergraduate dentistry program at Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. After the endodontic preclinical course, the students were introduced to the treatment protocol in the clinic by watching two live patient-demonstrated videos. The first video demonstrated how to communicate with the patient and perform diagnosis and root canal instrumentation. The second video illustrated how to perform bacterial sampling and root canal filling. After the students watched each video, a questionnaire was used to evaluate their opinions about various steps of the endodontic treatment protocol and the benefit of such educational material for their practice. Of the total 75 students, 72 completed the first questionnaire (96% response rate), and 65 completed the second questionnaire (87% response rate). The results showed that the students perceived high value in the video demonstrations related to treatment procedure. A statistically significant difference was observed between the perceived benefits of the first and second sessions in communication and treatment procedure (p<0.001). Further studies are needed to assess improvement in the design and delivery format for video demonstrations to enhance their effectiveness as a teaching modality for endodontics. PMID:26246531

  15. Manual versus mechanical endodontic glidepath.

    PubMed

    West, John

    2011-01-01

    This article, the second in a series of 3 articles on the endodontic Glidepath beginning with the September 2010 issue of Dentistry Today (archived articles can be found at dentistrytoday.com), represents an inquiry into the critical distinctions of the endodontic Glidepath. First, we reviewed the need for a confirmed and reproducible Glidepath as prerequisite to rotary or reciprocal shaping. In order to be safe, before rotary shaping, the dentist must always discover that a Glidepath already exists or that one needs to be created. Second, an emphasis was placed on a "finishing checklist" for Glidepath preparation for safe and successful rotary. The checklist is 2 parts: (1) minimum super loose No. 10 file sized k tunnel is verified; (2) the super loose No. 10 file sized tunnel must run from canal orifice through the canal PT to the RT. In this way, patency is preserved and yet the delicate and often fragile cemental anatomy remains undamaged and unchanged, therefore meeting Schilder's fourth mechanical objective of "keeping the foramen as small as practical." Third, we discussed that the question should not be "manual versus mechanical" but rather "manual, then mechanical." Always measure the existence of a Glidepath with manual before mechanical. The key elements for improving your performance of Glidepath mastery include a clear intention of what needs to be accomplished and yet at the same time, restraint; gentleness; copious irrigation with sodium hypochlorite; curved files; randomness; discovery; expecting the unexpected and surrendering to, honoring, and respecting the delicate anatomical structure called the root canal system. After all, nature has been demonstrating how to make a Glidepath for a long time, but we have not been paying attention. We have been too heavy-handed, we have pushed, we have forced, and we have not always been good stewards of nature's fragile framework. She has been giving us and teaching us the Glidepath answer all along. Listen

  16. Innovations in endodontic filling materials: guttapercha vs Resilon.

    PubMed

    de Souza Filho, Francisco José; Gallina, Giuseppe; Gallottini, Livio; Russo, Riccardo; Cumbo, Enzo Maria

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of endodontic treatment is to achieve a complete, tridimensional, hermetic sealing of the root canal system to prevent the entry of microorganisms or their products through both the coronal and apical pathways. Gutta-percha is the most widely used material for root canal filling and despite its numerous properties, such as biocompatibility and thermoplasticity, it has however an important limit: the lack of adhesion to the canal walls. Attempts to address this problem have been made over the years by using endodontic cements capable of bonding to canal dentine but their tendency to resorption in time can compromise the quality of treatment. The first step towards a real adhesive endodontic filling(4) is rather recent; in fact, it goes back to 2003 when, on the occasion of the American Dental Association (ADA) Annual Session, Resilon Research LLC introduced a new canal filling adhesive system based on a thermoplastic synthetic resin material called Resilon™. The real innovation of this system is its capacity of creating a core made of Resilon™ bonded to the cement which adheres to dentine walls previously conditioned with a self-etching primer(4) so no changes in the techniques of canal preparation are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of two filling materials (gutta-percha and Resilon) to adapt to the canal anatomy, especially on the apical third, using the continuous wave of condensation technique. Our data suggest that in the third apical the gutta-percha best shows rheological properties that are as important as the bond capability. PMID:22632398

  17. Probable biofilm formation in the cheek as a complication of soft tissue filler resulting from improper endodontic treatment of tooth 16.

    PubMed

    Marusza, Wojciech; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Olszanski, Romuald; Netsvyetayeva, Irina; Obrowski, Michael; Iannitti, Tommaso; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2012-01-01

    Injectable filling agents offer the promise of a better appearance without surgery and, among them, hyaluronic acid is the most commonly used. Although complications are rare, it is necessary to know the possible side effects and complications in order to be prepared for their management. That is why many researchers have been focusing on the interactions between hyaluronic acid and pathogens, inflammatory mediators, the immune system, and markers of oxidative stress to achieve efficient drug delivery, given that hyaluronic acid has widening applications in the field of nanomedicine. Here we report the case of a 37-year-old female patient who returned to our clinic with an abscess in her left cheek 3 months after a deep injection of 1 mL of stabilized hyaluronic acid in both cheeks. Steroid and antibiotic therapy was initiated without success, and abscess drainage was performed. Extraction of tooth 16 was performed 11 days after insertion of drains into the abscess. Laboratory blood tests showed acute inflammation of presumed bacterial etiology. Microbiological examination of pus was negative. Bacterial cultures were found in the extracted tooth. After antibiotic therapy, a complete reversal of the pathological process was observed. The present report highlights the need to assess periodontal problems prior to any aesthetic facial treatment. Analyses of further case reports and clinical studies are necessary to understand the potential role of hyaluronic acid in the formation of biofilm, and how to avoid this complication, thereby increasing the safety of hyaluronic acid-based procedures. PMID:22619504

  18. Probable biofilm formation in the cheek as a complication of soft tissue filler resulting from improper endodontic treatment of tooth 16

    PubMed Central

    Marusza, Wojciech; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Olszanski, Romuald; Netsvyetayeva, Irina; Obrowski, Michael; Iannitti, Tommaso; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2012-01-01

    Injectable filling agents offer the promise of a better appearance without surgery and, among them, hyaluronic acid is the most commonly used. Although complications are rare, it is necessary to know the possible side effects and complications in order to be prepared for their management. That is why many researchers have been focusing on the interactions between hyaluronic acid and pathogens, inflammatory mediators, the immune system, and markers of oxidative stress to achieve efficient drug delivery, given that hyaluronic acid has widening applications in the field of nanomedicine. Here we report the case of a 37-year-old female patient who returned to our clinic with an abscess in her left cheek 3 months after a deep injection of 1 mL of stabilized hyaluronic acid in both cheeks. Steroid and antibiotic therapy was initiated without success, and abscess drainage was performed. Extraction of tooth 16 was performed 11 days after insertion of drains into the abscess. Laboratory blood tests showed acute inflammation of presumed bacterial etiology. Microbiological examination of pus was negative. Bacterial cultures were found in the extracted tooth. After antibiotic therapy, a complete reversal of the pathological process was observed. The present report highlights the need to assess periodontal problems prior to any aesthetic facial treatment. Analyses of further case reports and clinical studies are necessary to understand the potential role of hyaluronic acid in the formation of biofilm, and how to avoid this complication, thereby increasing the safety of hyaluronic acid-based procedures. PMID:22619504

  19. On implementation of an endodontic program.

    PubMed

    Koch, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the uptake of research findings by practitioners is unpredictable, yet until they are adopted, advances in technology and clinical research cannot improve health outcomes in patients. Despite extensive research there is limited knowledge of the processes by which changes occur and ways of measuring the effectiveness of change of practice. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate aspects of an educational intervention in clinical endodontic routines and new instrumentation techniques in a Swedish County Public Dental Service. Special reference was made to the establishment of changed behaviour in practice, the process of change, and the clinical effects. Although a high level of competence in root canal treatment procedures is required in general dental practice, a number of Swedish studies have revealed inadequate root-fillings quality and associated periapical inflammation in general populations. It is suggested that the adoption of the nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (NiTiR) technique would improve the cleaning and shaping of root canals and the quality of the root-filling. However, there is limited knowledge of the effectiveness of the technique when applied in general dental practice. In two of four consecutive studies, the subjects were employees of a county Public Dental Service. The aim was to investigate the rate of adoption of clinical routines and the NiTiR technique: the output, and the qualitative meaning of successful change in clinical practice. In the other two studies the aim was to investigate treatment effect and the cost-effectiveness of root canal treatment in a general population: the outcome. Four hundred employees (dentists, dental assistants, administrative assistants and clinical managers) of a Swedish County Public Dental Service were mandatorily enrolled in an educational and training program over two years. Change of practice was investigated in a post-education survey. The NiTiR technique was

  20. A Survey over the Dentists’ and Endodntists’ Approaches towards the Management of Endodontic Emergencies in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Maryam; Gharechahi, Maryam; Soleimani, Tayebeh; Eslami, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pain or swelling caused by various stages of inflammation/infection of the pulp/periradicular area is among endodontic emergencies. Determining the most effective method of emergency treatment is a challenging issue in endodontics. The goal of this study was to determine and compare the level of knowledge in general dentists and endodontists about endodontic emergency treatment plan in Mashhad, Iran in 2012-2013. Methods and Materials: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 152 questionnaires were distributed among 120 general dentists and 32 endodontists of Mashhad. The questionnaire contained two separate parts. The first part included demographic information and in the second part different treatment protocols were suggested for 12 various conditions of pulp/periapical emergencies, and the participants were asked to choose the correct option(s). To determine the relationship between qualitative variables, the chi-square analysis was used. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: There were significant differences between treatment plans presented by general dentists and endodontists about endodontic emergencies, especially in cases of necrotic pulp and subsequent swelling. Conclusion: Level of knowledge of dentists about the indications of incision and drainage, intra-canal medicament, root filing beyond the apical foramen and antibiotic prescription was not enough. These findings highlight the importance of refreshing courses for general dentists to improve their competency in the management of endodontic emergencies. PMID:26523142

  1. Estimated radiation risks associated with endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Danforth, R A; Torabinejad, M

    1990-02-01

    Endodontic patients are sometimes concerned about the risks of tumors or cataracts from radiation exposure during root canal therapy. By using established dose and risk information, we calculated the extent of these risks. The chance of getting leukemia from an endodontic x-ray survey using 90 kVp was found to be 1 in 7.69 million, the same as the risk of dying from cancer from smoking 0.94 cigarettes or from an auto accident when driving 3.7 km. Risk of thyroid gland neoplasia was 1 in 667,000 (smoking 11.6 cigarettes, driving 45 km) and risk of salivary gland neoplasia 1 in 1.35 million (smoking 5.4 cigarettes, driving 21.1 km). Use of 70 kVp radiography reduced these risks only slightly. To receive the threshold dose to eyes to produce cataract changes, a patient would have to undergo 10,900 endodontic surveys. PMID:2390963

  2. Bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aun, Carlos E.; Barberini, Alexandre F.; Camargo, Selma C. C.; Silva Kfouri, Luciana; Lorenzetti Simionato, Maria R.

    1999-05-01

    The success of endodontic therapy is based on the elimination of bacterial colonization from the endodontic system and periapical tissues. Recent studies have been showing the bactericidal effect of laser in root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canals from upper central incisor. For the experiment 12 teeth were selected, respect at the apical third, sterilized, and 10 μm Streptococcus sanguis liquid culture were inoculated in the root canals. The laser test groups were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser at standard setting of 15Hz, 100mj and 1,5 W for 10, 20 and 30 seconds each in slow helicoidal movements from the apex to the top using a 300 micrometers fiber. After the procedure the specimens were placed in Tryptic Soy Agar, the number of colony forming units was evaluated. The experiment showed a significant reduction on viability of Streptococcus sanguis at the respective time of 20 and 30 seconds.

  3. Endodontic management of a fused mandibular second molar and paramolar with the aid of spiral computed tomography: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Suma; Sachdeva, Gurmeet Singh; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2007-10-01

    Fusion and gemination are developmental anomalies of the dental hard tissues that might require endodontic and surgical treatment for functional, orthodontic, or esthetic reasons. In this article, we report a rare case of successful endodontic management of unilateral fused mandibular second molar with a paramolar. The rarity with which this entity appears, along with its complex characteristics, often makes it difficult to diagnose and treat. The use of high-end diagnostic imaging modalities such as spiral computed tomography can help the clinician in making a confirmatory diagnosis and determining the treatment plan before undertaking the actual treatment. This case report highlights the usefulness of spiral computed tomography in accurate diagnosis and endodontic management of these unusual cases. PMID:17889700

  4. A technique to salvage endodontically compromised maxillary anterior tooth.

    PubMed

    Comut, Alper; Foran, Denise; Cunningham, Ralph P

    2014-01-01

    A complication of endodontic treatment is over-preparation of the tooth structure in an attempt to access calcified pulp chambers and root canals. This could result in thin root walls that might compromise the long-term prognosis of the tooth. There are various treatment options when such a complication occurs, among them, extraction of the compromised tooth and its replacement with a dental implant. This clinical report describes a nonsurgical, multidisciplinary treatment alternative where a maxillary anterior tooth with a thinned root wall was successfully saved by repairing the damaged root to its original thickness using a composite resin material and subsequently restoring with a cast post and core and a crown. PMID:24654367

  5. Genotoxicity of Endodontic Materials: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Bhandi, Shilpa; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-08-01

    Genotoxicity is an action on cell's genetic material which may affect its integrity. This includes certain types of radiations and also certain chemical compounds. Genotoxic materials are those with affinity to interact with DNA but render them potentially carcinogenic or mutagenic. This review will address the genotoxicity of endodontic irrigants, medicaments and sealers. PMID:26423507

  6. Regenerative Endodontics in light of the stem cell paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Vinicius; Botero, Tatiana M.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells play a critical role in development and in tissue regeneration. The dental pulp contains a small sub-population of stem cells that are involved in the response of the pulp to caries progression. Specifically, stem cells replace odontoblasts that have undergone cell death as a consequence of the cariogenic challenge. Stem cells also secrete factors that have the potential to enhance pulp vascularization and provide the oxygen and nutrients required for the dentinogenic response that is typically observed in teeth with deep caries. However, the same angiogenic factors that are required for dentin regeneration may ultimately contribute to the demise of the pulp by enhancing vascular permeability and interstitial pressure. Recent studies focused on the biology of dental pulp stem cells revealed that the multipotency and angiogenic capacity of these cells could be exploited therapeutically in dental pulp tissue engineering. Collectively, these findings suggest new treatment paradigms in the field of Endodontics. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells to Regenerative Endodontics. PMID:21726222

  7. The influence of endodontic broken stainless steel instruments on the urinary levels of iron.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Haraji, Afshin; Ramezani, Golam H; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Scarbecz, Mark; Sheibani, Nader

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies on the endodontic broken stainless steel instruments have mainly focused on retrieval of specimens. However, the systemic consequences of the retained separated instruments need an investigation. The current study aimed to evaluate the correlation between broken stainless steel instruments inside the root canal space and the urinary level of iron (Fe) in patients. Sixty near-aged and same-gender patients were selected. Thirty patients in the control group had no endodontic treatment in their history, while the other 30 patients in the endodontic group had broken stainless steel instrument. The urine samples were collected in iron-free containers. All specimens were refrigerated for 1 day and then subjected to Fe level measurement by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t tests at P < 0.05. The correlation coefficients of age and sex were also evaluated in relation with Fe levels in the urine. The level of Fe did not show any significant increase in the experimental group (P > 0.05). There was a positive correlation between age and Fe levels of endodontic and control groups. However, the joint effects of age and sex on Fe levels were different for the two groups. The presence of broken stainless steel instruments inside the root canal space did not elevate the level of Fe in the urine of patients. However, this value was positively correlated with the patient age. PMID:24699830

  8. Clinical decision making in restorative dentistry, endodontics, and antibiotic prescription.

    PubMed

    Zadik, Yehuda; Levin, Liran

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of geographic location of graduation (Israel, Eastern Europe, Latin America) on decision making regarding management of dental caries, periapical lesions, and antibiotic prescribing routines. A questionnaire was given to ninety-eight general practitioners regarding demographic and work habits. Photographs of lesions were shown on a screen. Participants reported recommended treatment and whether they would routinely prescribe antibiotics following regular endodontic treatment, retreatment, and impacted third molar surgical extraction in healthy patients. There was a 94 percent (n=92) response rate, of which eighty-five responses were used in the data analysis. Surgical treatment of asymptomatic enamel caries lesions was not recommended by most of the subjects, and surgery was recommended for DEJ caries lesions in low or moderate caries risk patients, both without significant differences between geographic regions of dental school graduation. Israelis had a lower frequency of retreatment in asymptomatic teeth that demonstrated periapical radiolucency with post restoration (without crown) compared to Latin Americans and East Europeans. Most of the participants would not retreat asymptomatic teeth that demonstrated periapical radiolucency with post and crown. After third molar surgery, 46 percent of participants routinely prescribed antibiotics. Significantly more Latin American graduates prescribed antibiotics following endodontic treatment, retreatment, and third molar extractions (p<0.05). Overmedication (antibiotics) and overtreatment (caries) among young practitioners reflect failure of undergraduate education in proper use of antibiotics and management of the carious lesions according to the patient's clinical presentation and caries risk assessment rather than routinely undertaking surgical caries treatment. PMID:18172239

  9. Effect of Premedication with Indomethacin and Ibuprofen on Postoperative Endodontic Pain: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Yazdi, Kamal; Mahabadi, Amir Mohammad; Modaresi, Seyed Jalil; Hamzeheil, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Post-endodontic pain is one of the main problems for both patients and dentists. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of premedication with indomethacin and ibuprofen for management of postoperative endodontic pain. Methods and Materials: In this clinical trial, mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis were endodontically treated in 66 patients. The medicines were prepared similarly in the form of capsules containing 400 mg ibuprofen (group A), 25 mg indomethacin (group B) and placebo (group C). The patients were given one capsule 1 h before the start of treatment. Patients recorded their pain measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) at medication time, during treatment and 8, 12 and 24 h after treatment. The data were analyzed using the chi-square, repeated measures ANOVA, paired t-test, Tamhane and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Ibuprofen and indomethacin significantly reduced the postoperative pain in comparison with placebo during treatment and 8 h after treatment; however, there were no significant differences between them 12 and 24 h after treatment. Conclusion: Premedication with ibuprofen and indomethacin can effectively control short term post-operative pain; the lower incidence of side effects and greater analgesic power of ibuprofen make it a superior choice. PMID:26843879

  10. Modern Endodontic Planning Part 1: Assessing Complexity and Predicting Success.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Darcey, James; Qualtrough, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Following a diagnosis of irreversible pulpal disease, periapical disease or failed endodontic therapy, the options for the tooth are extraction or root canal treatment. There is increasing evidence that certain factors may allow the clinician to predict the likely outcome of root canal therapy (RCT) and thus better inform the patient of the possible success rates. Should the patient choose root canal treatment, the clinician must also be able to gauge the potential difficulties that may be encountered and consequently determine whether it is within their competency. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Assessing outcomes and complexity of care is an essential part of informed consent. Knowing when to refer is an essential component of best clinical practice. PMID:26630858

  11. Cone beam computed tomography evaluation and endodontic management of permanent mandibular second molar with four roots: A rare case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekhara, Subhashini; Sharath Chandra, SM; Parthasarathy, Late Bharath

    2014-01-01

    The morphological variation in the number of roots and root canals, especially in multi-rooted teeth is a constant challenge for diagnosis and successful endodontic therapy. Knowledge of the most common anatomic characteristics and their possible variations is fundamental. Although, endodontic management of four-rooted mandibular first molars have been observed on a few occasions in the literature, to the best of our knowledge four-rooted mandibular second molars having two mesial and two distal roots have not been reported. This paper highlights endodontic management of mandibular second molar with four roots (two mesial and two distal) with one canal in each root and its cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) evaluation which was primarily done for post treatment assessment for diagnosing post-endodontic complications, at the same time confirmed our radiographic diagnosis of this variation. This also helped us portraying the anatomy of this rare variation. PMID:25125856

  12. Evidenced-based review of clinical studies on endodontic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    The practice of endodontics requires excellence in diagnostic skills. The importance of this topic has been underscored by a recent 2008 AAE-sponsored symposium on endodontic diagnosis, which will be highlighted in a special issue of the Journal of Endodontics. In this minireview, we focus on recent clinical studies that emphasize different aspects related to the diagnosis of disorders of the pulp-dentin complex. PMID:19631854

  13. Canal projection using gutta-percha points: A novel technique for pre-endodontic buildup of grossly destructed tooth

    PubMed Central

    Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2016-01-01

    The use of Projector Endodontic Instrument Guidance System (PEIGS) during endodontic treatment of grossly mutilated tooth facilitates projection of canal orifices from the floor of the pulp chamber to the cavosurface, providing direct visualization and access to the projected canals. Alternatives, such as hypodermic needles as sleeves, were tried successfully with similar outcome. The aim of this case report is to describe a simpler, easily available, economical, yet an effective alternative technique to conventional PEIGS during the pre-endodontic management of grossly destructed tooth. These case reports demonstrate the use of greater tapered gutta-percha points that are easily available and more economical than PEIGS for the successful management of a badly destructed tooth. PMID:27099431

  14. Prevalence of Rubber Dam Usage during Endodontic Procedure: A Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    G, Shashirekha; Maity, Asim Bikash; Panda, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and frequency of rubber dam usage for endodontic procedures among general practitioners, specialized practitioners, undergraduate final year students and Endodontists in the state of Odisha, India. Methodology: A pre-piloted questionnaire was distributed among 737 subjects. Dentists and final year students were surveyed in relation to their prevalence of rubber dam usage. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square/ Fisher Exact tests have been used to find the significance of study parameters on categorical scale between two or more groups. Results: Overall response rate was 71%. While about 94% of the subjects knew the use of rubber dam, 30% have used it for root canal cases and 23% use them for all cases of root canal treatment. Use of rubber dam was 15.4% in paediatric patients and 34.4% in adult patients. 68% of subjects received knowledge about rubber dam usage in undergraduate school. 75% felt that rubber dam should be compulsory before endodontic treatment & 90% were willing to gain knowledge through training and continuing dental education programs. Conclusion: Whilst rubber dam is used frequently for root canal treatment than operative treatment, in the present survey there is a low prevalence of its usage during endodontic therapy. This presents quality issues, as well as medico-legal and safety concerns for the professional and patients alike. Greater emphasis should be placed on the advantages of using rubber dam in clinical dentistry at dental school and through continuing dental education for practitioners to update their knowledge. PMID:25121053

  15. [Accidental injection sodium hypochlorite during endodontic therapy. Better understand to better manage].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, H; Douki, N

    2015-09-01

    The high frequency of iatrogenic incidents during endodontic treatment is a source of stress for the practitioner. These incidents may occur during the different steps of a root canal treatment. During irrigation, extrusion of sodium hypochlorite beyond the apex is a rare but impressive accident. Sodium hypochlorite, is the most common irrigant used in modern endodontics, but when it comes in contact with the periapical tissue, it can cause complications ranging from mild discomfort to serious tissue damage such as the hematoma and hemato-emphysema. The aims of this article are to discuss through the presentation of two clinical cases: Etiological and predisposing factors; Signs guiding to suspicion of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite. In this work, we focused on clinical keys that help the practitioner in better understanding this accident in order to prevent it or to manage it well when it occurs. PMID:26930773

  16. Diversity of Spirochetes in Endodontic Infections ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Siqueira, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.; Benno, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of spirochetes in primary endodontic infections of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscesses was investigated using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The prevalences of three common cultivable oral Treponema species were also determined using species-specific nested PCR. All detected spirochetes belonged to the genus Treponema. Overall, 28 different taxa were identified from the 431 clones sequenced: 9 cultivable and validly named species, 1 cultivable as-yet-uncharacterized strain, and 18 as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes, 17 of which were novel. The large majority of clones (94%) were from cultivable named species. The numbers of Treponema species/phylotypes per selected positive sample ranged from 2 to 12. Species-specific nested PCR detected T. denticola, T. socranskii, and T. maltophilum in 59 (66%), 33 (37%), and 26 (29%) of the 90 cases of primary endodontic infections, respectively. Clone library analysis revealed diverse Treponema species/phylotypes as part of the microbiota associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic (abscess) endodontic infections. Although several as-yet-uncultivated Treponema phylotypes were disclosed, including novel taxa, cultivable named species were more abundant and frequently detected. PMID:19261792

  17. Diversity of spirochetes in endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N; Benno, Yoshimi

    2009-05-01

    The diversity of spirochetes in primary endodontic infections of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscesses was investigated using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The prevalences of three common cultivable oral Treponema species were also determined using species-specific nested PCR. All detected spirochetes belonged to the genus Treponema. Overall, 28 different taxa were identified from the 431 clones sequenced: 9 cultivable and validly named species, 1 cultivable as-yet-uncharacterized strain, and 18 as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes, 17 of which were novel. The large majority of clones (94%) were from cultivable named species. The numbers of Treponema species/phylotypes per selected positive sample ranged from 2 to 12. Species-specific nested PCR detected T. denticola, T. socranskii, and T. maltophilum in 59 (66%), 33 (37%), and 26 (29%) of the 90 cases of primary endodontic infections, respectively. Clone library analysis revealed diverse Treponema species/phylotypes as part of the microbiota associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic (abscess) endodontic infections. Although several as-yet-uncultivated Treponema phylotypes were disclosed, including novel taxa, cultivable named species were more abundant and frequently detected. PMID:19261792

  18. Cleaning of endodontic files, Part I: The effect of bioburden on the sterilization of endodontic files.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M A; Primack, P D; Loushine, R J; Craft, D W

    1997-01-01

    Ninety-two new endodontic files were randomly assigned to five groups with varying parameters of contamination, cleaning method, and sterilization (steam or chemical). Files were instrumented in bovine teeth to accumulate debris and a known contaminant, Bacillus stearothermophilus. Positive controls produced growth on both T-soy agar plates and in T-soy broth. Negative controls and experimental files (some with heavy debris) failed to produce growth. The results showed that there was no significant difference between contaminated files that were not cleaned before sterilization and contaminated files that were cleaned before sterilization. Bioburden present on endodontic files does not appear to affect the sterilization process. PMID:9594742

  19. An In Vitro Study on the Effects of Post-Core Design and Ferrule on the Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, S; Sanjeev, R; Raghavan, Rekha; Abraham, Anna; Rajamani, T; Govind, Girish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endodontically treated teeth have significantly different physical and mechanical properties compared to vital teeth and are more prone to fracture. The study aims to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without post reinforcement, custom cast post-core and prefabricated post with glass ionomer core and to evaluate the ferrule effect on endodontically treated teeth restored with custom cast post-core. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions devoid of any root caries, restorations, previous endodontic treatment or cracks were selected from a collection of stored extracted teeth. An initial silicone index of each tooth was made. They were treated endodontically and divided into four groups of ten specimens each. Their apical seal was maintained with 4 mm of gutta-percha. Root canal preparation was done and then post core fabrication was done. The prepared specimens were subjected to load testing using a computer coordinated UTM. The fracture load results were then statistically analyzed. One-way ANOVA was followed by paired t-test. Results: 1. Reinforcement of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with post and core, improved their fracture resistance to be at par with that of endodontically treated maxillary central incisor, with natural crown. 2. The fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors is significantly increased when restored with custom cast post-core and 2 mm ferrule. Conclusion: With 2 mm ferrule, teeth restored with custom cast post-core had a significantly higher fracture resistance than teeth restored with custom cast post-core or prefabricated post and glass ionomer core without ferrule. PMID:26464537

  20. Biocompatibility of dental materials used in contemporary endodontic therapy: a review. Part 2. Root-canal-filling materials.

    PubMed

    Hauman, C H J; Love, R M

    2003-03-01

    Root-canal-filling materials are either placed directly onto vital periapical tissues or may leach through dentine. The tissue response to these materials therefore becomes important and may influence the outcome of endodontic treatment. This paper is a review of the biocompatibility of contemporary orthograde and retrograde root-canal-filling materials. PMID:12657140

  1. The comparison of the effect of endodontic irrigation on cell adherence to root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Ring, Karla C; Murray, Peter E; Namerow, Kenneth N; Kuttler, Sergio; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 10 different endodontic irrigation and chelating treatments on dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) attachment to root canal surfaces. Thirty-eight extracted human nondiseased single-canal teeth were cleaned and shaped using ProTaper and ProFile rotary instrumentation (Tulsa Dentsply, Tulsa, OK). The irrigation treatments investigated were 6% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, Aquatine Endodontic Cleanser, and Morinda citrifolia juice. The irrigation treatments were used in conjunction with EDTA or MTAD. The instrumented teeth were immediately placed in cell culture with confluent DPSCs for 1 week. The number of attached DPSCs appeared to be correlated with the cytotoxicity of the root canal irrigating solution (analysis of variance, p < 0.0001). The presence or absence of the smear layer had little influence on DPSC activity (chi-square, p > 0.05). The results suggest that biocompatible irrigants are needed to promote DPSC attachment to root canal dentin, which is essential to accomplish some regenerative endodontic therapies. PMID:19026877

  2. Numerical Study on the Influence of Material Characteristics on Ni-Ti Endodontic Instrument Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrini, Lorenza; Necchi, Silvia; Taschieri, Silvio; Migliavacca, Francesco

    2009-08-01

    Ni-Ti rotary endodontic instruments ( files) are used in dentistry during the endodontic treatment to shape the root canal of the tooth while removing the pulp when infected. Up to now, the studies for evaluating their performances and drawbacks were mainly limited to experimental tests on product flexural and torsional resistance. This work exploits computational analyses for investigating the effects of materials with different mechanical properties on the behavior of rotary endodontic instruments. The aim is to understand the appropriate material choice to reduce the criticality of the treatment in particular clinical conditions. In particular, the interaction between an accurately modeled rotating file and differently shaped root canals during the clinical procedure was studied performing finite element analyses. Strains induced by the treatment on a file made of a “standard” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by average properties of the pseudoelastic behavior), a “long” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by wide transformation region), a “super” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by an extended Hookian behavior without transformation region), and stainless steel were compared. The results accurately show the advantages of the use of Ni-Ti alloy with respect to stainless steel and the better performance of the “long” alloy in all the tested case.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3890 - Endodontic stabilizing splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic stabilizing splint. 872.3890 Section 872.3890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3890 Endodontic stabilizing splint....

  4. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dry heat sterilizer shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dry heat sterilizer shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dry heat sterilizer shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat...

  9. Application of lasers in endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertl, Thomas P.; Benthin, Hartmut; Majaron, Boris; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1997-12-01

    Root canal treatment is still a problem in dentistry. Very often the conventional treatment fails and several treatment sessions are necessary to save the tooth from root resection or extraction. Application of lasers may help in this situation. Bacteria reduction has been demonstrated both in vitro and clinically and is either based on laser induced thermal effects or by using an ultraviolet light source. Root canal cleansing is possible by Er:YAG/YSGG-Lasers, using the hydrodynamic motion of a fluid filled in the canals. However root canal shaping using lasers is still a problem. Via falsas and fiber breakage are points of research.

  10. Endodontic management of mandibular first molar with seven canals using cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Banode, Ankur Mahesh; Gade, Vandana; Patil, Sanjay; Gade, Jaykumar

    2016-01-01

    The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. Successful endodontic therapy thus depends on the clinician's ability to anticipate and look for these aberrant variations. A mandibular first molar with seven canals represents a rare anatomical variant, particularly when four canals are found in distal root. Based on in vitro studies, its incidence is reported to be between 0.2% and 3%. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as an adjunctive diagnostic aid, the determination of root canal anatomy in teeth with complex canal configurations has become more precise. The present case report discusses successful nonsurgical management of radix entomolaris along with middle mesial canal and middle distal canal in mandibular first molar with seven canals (four canals in distal and three in mesial) employing CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid to conventional radiography. PMID:27307680