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Sample records for multichannel cochlear implants

  1. Reading Skills in Children with Multichannel Cochlear-Implant Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Linda; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Gantz, Bruce J.

    1997-01-01

    A study compared reading-achievement level of 40 children with deafness who received the Nucleus multichannel cochlear implants between ages 2 and 13 with that of children with deafness without cochlear implants. Nearly one half of children with cochlear implants were reading at or within 8 months of grade level. (Author/CR)

  2. Multichannel cochlear implants in partially ossified cochleas.

    PubMed

    Balkany, T; Gantz, B; Nadol, J B

    1988-01-01

    Deposition of bone within the fluid spaces of the cochlea is encountered commonly in cochlear implant candidates and previously has been considered a relative contraindication to the use of multichannel intracochlear electrodes. This contraindication has been based on possible mechanical difficulty with electrode insertion as well as uncertainty about the potential benefit of the multichannel device in the patient. Fifteen profoundly deaf patients with partial ossification of the basal turn of the cochlea received implants with long intracochlear electrodes (11, Nucleus; 1, University of California at San Francisco/Storz; and 3, Symbion/Inneraid). In 11 cases, ossification had been predicted preoperatively by computed tomographic scan. Electrodes were completely inserted in 14 patients, and partial insertion was accomplished in one patient. All patients currently are using their devices and nine of 12 postlingually deaf patients have achieved some degree of open-set speech discrimination. This series demonstrates that in experienced hands, insertion of long multichannel electrodes into partially ossified cochleas is possible and that results are similar to those achieved in patients who have nonossified cochleas. PMID:3140705

  3. Phoneme Recognition and Confusions with Multichannel Cochlear Implants: Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valimaa, Taina T.; Maatta, Taisto K.; Lopponen, Heikki J.; Sorri, Martti J.

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated how 19 Finnish adults who were postlingually severely or profoundly hearing impaired would relearn to recognize vowels after receiving multi-channel cochlear implants. Average vowel recognition was 68% 6 months after switch-on, and 80% 24 months after switch-on. Vowels y, e, and o were most difficult. (Contains references.)…

  4. Phoneme Recognition and Confusions with Multichannel Cochlear Implants: Consonants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valimaa, Taina T.; Maatta, Taisto K.; Lopponen, Heikki J.; Sorri, Martti J.

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated how 19 Finnish adults who were postlingually severely or profoundly hearing impaired would relearn to recognize consonants after receiving multi-channel cochlear implants. Two years after the switch-on, the mean recognition for consonants was 71%. Consonants with alveolar, palatal, or velar transitions were better recognized.…

  5. A software tool for analyzing multichannel cochlear implant signals.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wai Kong; Bögli, Hans; Dillier, Norbert

    2003-10-01

    A useful and convenient means to analyze the radio frequency (RF) signals being sent by a speech processor to a cochlear implant would be to actually capture and display them with appropriate software. This is particularly useful for development or diagnostic purposes. sCILab (Swiss Cochlear Implant Laboratory) is such a PC-based software tool intended for the Nucleus family of Multichannel Cochlear Implants. Its graphical user interface provides a convenient and intuitive means for visualizing and analyzing the signals encoding speech information. Both numerical and graphic displays are available for detailed examination of the captured CI signals, as well as an acoustic simulation of these CI signals. sCILab has been used in the design and verification of new speech coding strategies, and has also been applied as an analytical tool in studies of how different parameter settings of existing speech coding strategies affect speech perception. As a diagnostic tool, it is also useful for troubleshooting problems with the external equipment of the cochlear implant systems. PMID:14534409

  6. Speech recognition for 40 patients receiving multichannel cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Dowell, R C; Mecklenburg, D J; Clark, G M

    1986-10-01

    We collected data on 40 patients who received the Nucleus multichannel cochlear implant. Results were reviewed to determine if the coding strategy is effective in transmitting the intended speech features and to assess patient benefit in terms of communication skills. All patients demonstrated significant improvement over preoperative results with a hearing aid for both lipreading enhancement and speech recognition without lipreading. Of the patients, 50% demonstrated ability to understand connected discourse with auditory input only. For the 23 patients who were tested 12 months postoperatively, there was substantial improvement in open-set speech recognition. PMID:3755975

  7. RFcap: a software analysis tool for multichannel cochlear implant signals.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wai Kong; Dillier, Norbert

    2013-03-01

    Being able to display and analyse the output of a speech processor that encodes the parameters of complex stimuli to be presented by a cochlear implant (CI) is useful for software and hardware development as well as for diagnostic purposes. This firstly requires appropriate hardware that is able to receive and decode the radio frequency (RF)-coded signals, and then processing the decoded data using suitable software. The PCI-IF6 clinical hardware for the Nucleus CI system, together with the Nucleus Implant Communicator and Nucleus Matlab Toolbox research software libraries, provide the necessary functionality. RFcap is a standalone Matlab application that encapsulates the relevant functions to capture, display, and analyse the RF-coded signals intended for the Nucleus CI24M/R, CI24RE, and CI500 multichannel CIs. PMID:21762546

  8. Performance over Time of Congenitally Deaf and Postlingually Deafened Children Using a Multichannel Cochlear Implant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryauf-Bertschy, Holly; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The speech perception performance of 10 congenitally deaf and 3 postlingually deafened children who received multichannel cochlear implants were compared at preimplant and 6-month intervals up to 2 years. The congenitally deaf children did not exhibit measurably improved performance until after 12 months or more of implant use, whereas…

  9. Multichannel Cochlear Implantation and the Organization of Early Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Helen A.; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.; von Hapsburg, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    A case study of a child who was stimulated with a cochlear implant at age 25 months is reported. Postimplantation, nasals decreased and other consonant types increased, particularly alveolars. The vowel space expanded, including increased production of diphthongs. Serial organization of speech postimplantation mirrored basic motor propensities in…

  10. Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine; Scott, Larry

    This brochure explains what a cochlear implant is, lists the types of individuals with deafness who may be helped by a cochlear implant, describes the process of evaluating people for cochlear implants, discusses the surgical process for implanting the aid, traces the path of sound through the cochlear implant to the brain, notes the costs of…

  11. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... electrodes are inserted. The electronic device at the base of the electrode array is then placed under ... FDA approval for implants The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates cochlear implant devices for both adults ...

  12. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound. People who are ... of-hearing can get help from them. The implant consists of two parts. One part sits on ...

  13. Aerodynamic assessment of the speech of adults undergoing multichannel cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Leeper, H A; Gagné, J P; Parnes, L S; Vidas, S

    1993-04-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics of the speech of adult multichannel cochlear implant (Nucleus, 21-channel) recipients. Five adults with an acquired profound sensorineural hearing loss were tested before implantation, immediately following implantation, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after implantation. A commercially available computerized pressure-flow instrumentation system was employed to assess the respiratory, laryngeal, velopharyngeal, and oral articulatory subsystems of speech of the implantees. The results of the investigation indicated 1) a slight increase in airflow rate values for sustained vowel /a/phonation after implantation, 2) a slight increase in duration of sustained vowel phonation from the preimplant period to the last postimplant period, 3) an increase in laryngeal airway resistance after implantation that resulted from a larger increase in estimated transglottal pressure than in transglottal airflow, 4) maintenance of normal velopharyngeal closure in oral-nasal contrastive contexts, and 5) slight increases in oral orifice area for fricative syllable utterances following implantation. Individual strategies for coordinated control of the speech mechanism appear to be potent variables to consider when assessing speech production. PMID:8476171

  14. The multi-channel cochlear implant and the relief of severe-to-profound deafness.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graeme

    2012-05-01

    This personal reflection outlines the discoveries at the University of Melbourne leading to the multi-channel cochlear implant, and its development industrially by Cochlear Limited. My earlier experimental electrophysiological research demonstrated temporal coding occurred for only low frequencies, i.e. below 200-500 pulses/second. I was able to confirm these findings perceptually in behaviourally conditioned animals. In addition, these studies showed that temporal discrimination occurred across spatial coding channels. These experimental results correlated with the later conscious experience for electrical stimulation in my implant patients. In addition, the mid-to-high frequencies were coded in part by place of stimulation using bipolar and monopolar stimulation to restrict current spread. Furthermore, place of stimulation had the qualities of sharpness and dullness, and was also experienced as vowels. Owing to the limitation in coding speech with a physiological model due to the overlap of electrical current leading to unpredictable variations in loudness, a speech coding strategy that extracted the most important speech features for transmission through an electro-neural 'bottle-neck' to the brain was explored. Our inaugural strategy, discovered in 1978, extracted the second formant for place of stimulation, voicing for rate of stimulation, and sound pressure for current level. This was the first coding strategy to provide open-set speech understanding, as shown by standard audiological tests, and it became the first clinically successful interface between the world and human consciousness. This strategy was improved with place coding for the third formant or high-frequency spectrum, and then the spectral maxima. In 1989, I operated on our first patient to receive a bilateral implant, and in 1990, the first with a bimodal processor. The psychophysics and speech perception for these showed that the stimuli from each side could be fused into a single image, and

  15. Development of a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis Prototype by Modification of a Commercially Available Cochlear Implant

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Nicolas S.; Hageman, Kristin; Dai, Chenkai; Santina, Charles C. Della; Fridman, Gene Y.

    2014-01-01

    No adequate treatment exists for individuals who remain disabled by bilateral loss of vestibular (inner ear inertial) sensation despite rehabilitation. We have restored vestibular reflexes using lab-built multichannel vestibular prostheses (MVPs) in animals, but translation to clinical practice may be best accomplished by modification of a commercially available cochlear implant (CI). We developed software and circuitry to sense head rotation and drive a CI's implanted stimulator (IS) to deliver up to 1Kpulses/s via 9 electrodes implanted near vestibular nerve branches. Studies in two rhesus monkeys using the modified CI (MCI) revealed in vivo performance similar to our existing dedicated MVPs. Like commercially available CIs, our design uses an external head-worn unit (HWU) that is magnetically coupled across the scalp to the IS. The HWU must remain securely fixed to the skull to faithfully sense head motion with gyroscopes and maintain continuous stimulation. We measured normal and shear force thresholds at which HWU-IS decoupling occurred as a function of scalp thickness and calculated pressure exerted on the scalp. The HWU remained attached across the human scalp thicknesses from 3mm to 7.8mm for forces experienced during routine daily activities, with magnets exerting pressure on the scalp that remains below capillary perfusion pressure. PMID:23649285

  16. The multi-channel cochlear implant: past, present and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Initial research demonstrated that only low frequencies could be mimicked with rate of electrical stimulation, and thus multi-channel rather than single-channel stimulation was required for the place coding of the mid-high speech frequencies. Place coding of mid-high frequencies was best achieved with electrodes inside the cochlea. Furthermore, correct biomechanical properties of a multiple electrode bundle were required for it to pass around the cochlear spiral to the speech frequency region. Biological studies showed too that intra-cochlear electrodes could be used with minimal trauma, safe electrical stimulus parameters, and methods to prevent inner ear infection and meningitis. The crucial discoveries for coding speech with electrical stimulation have been based on the discovery of: 1) the fact the brain processes frequency information along spatial and temporal channels, and 2) that the first patient experienced vowels when stimulating different electrodes that corresponded to the place of excitation for single formant vowels in people with normal hearing. The inaugural and subsequent speech processing strategies extracted frequencies of special importance for speech intelligibility, and transmitted the information along place coding channels. The voicing frequency and/or amplitude, was coded as temporal information across these spatial channels. As a result a great majority of severely-to-profoundly deaf people with previous hearing can not only communicate when electrical stimulation is combined with lipreading, but with electrical stimulation alone. In addition, the benefits of binaural hearing with bilateral cochlear implants or an implant in one ear and hearing aid in the other ear have been realized. Related psychophysical research has discovered the basic perceptual skills that process the complex patterns of brain excitation that underlie speech recognition both in the one ear as well as bilateral implants.In addition the development of the perceptual

  17. Cochlear implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... are sent along the auditory nerve to the brain. A deaf person does not have a functioning inner ear. A cochlear implant tries to replace the function of the inner ear by ... signals to the brain. Sound is picked up by a microphone worn ...

  18. Noise-enhanced information transmission in a model of multichannel cochlear implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allingham, David; Stocks, Nigel G.; Morse, Robert P.; Meyer, Georg F.

    2004-05-01

    Cochlear implants are used to restore functional hearing to people with profound deafness. Success, as measured by speech intelligibility scores, varies greatly amongst patients; a few receive almost no benefit while some are able to use a telephone under favourable listening conditions. Using a novel nerve model and the principles of suprathreshold stochastic resonance, we demonstrate that the rate of information transfer through a cochlear implant system can be globally maximized by the addition of noise. If this additional information could be used by the brain then it would lead to greater speech intelligibility, which is important given that the intelligibility of all cochlear implant recipients is poorer than that of people with normal hearing, particularly in adverse listening conditions.

  19. Use of a multichannel cochlear implant in the congenitally and prelingually deaf population.

    PubMed

    Waltzman, S B; Cohen, N L; Shapiro, W H

    1992-04-01

    Fourteen children and three adults, each congenitally and prelinguistically deaf, received the Nucleus multichannel implant. All underwent extensive evaluations and rehabilitation. The surgery was uneventful, and no patients have been lost to follow-up. Results have shown a significant increase in auditory and speech reception and perception skills in all children. Some children have open-set speech recognition using the prosthesis alone. The adults have shown an increased awareness of sound along with minimal improvement in perceptual skills. This supports the concept that early implantation of congenitally and prelinguistically deaf individuals results in improved performance. PMID:1556888

  20. [Preoperative imaging of the inner ear prior to the implantation of a multichannel cochlear implant using computed and MR technology].

    PubMed

    Czerny, C; Gstoettner, W; Adunka, O; Hamzavi, J; Baumgartner, W D

    2000-06-01

    CT and MRT are now standard examinations prior to insertion of a cochlear implant. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages in terms of discovering potentially pathological structures in the inner ear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pros and cons of using CT and MRT before cochlear implantation. CT is usually performed using axial planigraphic planes. Like MRT, bone-specific CT is helpful in the diagnosis of congenital and acquired changes within the inner ear. Congenital defects in the meatus acusticus internus, the endolymphatic duct and sac, the cochlea and the vestibulum can be diagnosed and also quantified. Infectious morphologic changes can be seen on CT images in their terminal residual state (sclerotic tissue). However, acute inflammation and fibrotic tissue is not visible on CT. T2-specific MRT images are very fluid sensitive and play a major role in preoperative cochlear implant diagnosis. This examination demonstrates fluid within the peri- and enolymphatic cave and permits the diagnostician to determine whether congenital or acquired diseases have destroyed such fluid-filled cavities. In order to demonstrate pathological changes in the temporal bone and neural structures in the inner ear, MRT is the preferred method. Displaying the modiolus and the cochlear nerve is extremely important because, in their absence, a cochlear implantation may be contra-indicated. MRT also demonstrates other neural structures such as the facial nerve. This information may be important for the surgeon, e.g. the state of the pneumatic system in the mastoid cavity (which is best visualised by bone-specific CT). PMID:10890125

  1. Cochlear implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... antenna. This part of the implant receives the sound, converts the sound into an electrical signal, and sends it to ... implants allow deaf people to receive and process sounds and speech. However, these devices do not restore ...

  2. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management. PMID:15247993

  3. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... additional visits are needed for activating, adjusting, and programming the various electrodes that have been implanted. Also, ... to the center for checkups once the final programming is made to the speech processor. Both children ...

  4. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... outside of the body, behind the ear. A second part is surgically placed under the skin. An implant does not restore normal hearing. It can help a person understand speech. Children and adults can benefit from them. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  5. Cochlear implants in children.

    PubMed

    Young, N M

    1994-04-01

    Children with such profound deafness that they are not helped by hearing aids are now candidates for cochlear implantation. This technology permits us to provide these children with a significant degree of useful hearing. The degree of improvement in speech perception and spoken language in pediatric cochlear implant recipients varies. However, the younger the children and the less time they have been completely deprived of auditory stimuli, the more likely they are to make significant progress. The evaluation of the deaf child for implantation is best done by a multidisciplinary team who understands the needs of hearing-impaired children and who can work with the family, the child, and classroom teachers, as well as other school professionals. The decision to proceed with cochlear implantation in a child is one that requires long-term commitment on the part of the family and the cochlear implant team. PMID:8039409

  6. Successful cochlear implantation in a patient with MNGIE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Nan; Han, Dong-Yi; Ji, Fei; Chen, Ai-Ting; Wu, Nan; Xi, Xin; Shen, Wei-Dong; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A 28-year-old woman with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE syndrome) undergoing evaluation for multichannel cochlear implantation is described. The case history, diagnosis of mitochondrial disease, and assessment of the benefits of cochlear implantation are documented. The hearing level with cochlear implant and speech recognition were improved significantly for this patient. MNGIE syndrome is a rare congenital disorder of mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA). It is crucial for the otolaryngologist to have awareness of MNGIE syndrome and other mitochondrial encephalomyopathies when patients present with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Cochlear implantation can be recommended to patients with MNGIE syndrome and satisfactory results can be achieved. PMID:21563873

  7. Cochlear Implantation in Neurobrucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Bajin, Münir Demir; Savaş, Özden; Aslan, Filiz; Sennaroğlu, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neurobrucellosis is a disease consisting of a wide spectrum of complications such as peripheral neuropathy, cranial nerve involvement, ataxia, meningeal irritation, paraplegia, seizures, coma, and even death. The vestibulocochlear nerve seems to be the most commonly affected cranial nerve (10%). We present a patient with neurobrucellosis whose auditory perception and speech intelligibility skill performances improved after cochlear implantation. Case Report: A 35 year-old woman was admitted to another hospital 2 years ago with the symptoms of headache, nausea, and altered consciousness, who was finally diagnosed with neurobrucellosis. She developed bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss during the following 6 months. There was no benefit of using hearing aids. After successful treatment of her illness, she was found to be suitable for cochlear implantation. After the operation, her auditory perception skills improved significantly with a Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) score of 5. According to clinical observations and her family members’ statements, her Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) score was 3. Her speech intelligibility skills are still improving. Conclusion: Our case report represents the second case of hearing rehabilitation with cochlear implantation after neurobrucellosis. Cochlear implantation is a cost-effective and time-proven successful intervention in post-lingual adult patients with sensorineural hearing loss. Early timing of the surgery after appropriate treatment of meningitis helps the patient to achieve better postoperative results. PMID:26966626

  8. Performance of deaf children with cochlear implants and vibrotactile aids.

    PubMed

    Osberger, M J; Miyamoto, R T; Robbins, A M; Renshaw, J J; Berry, S W; Myres, W A; Kessler, K; Pope, M L

    1990-01-01

    A longitudinal study is under way to examine the speech perception and production skills of deaf children who use a single- or multi-channel cochlear implant, or a two-channel tactile aid. The speech perception data showed that the majority of subjects who achieved the highest scores on a range of measures used the multi-channel cochlear implant. The production data showed that all three types of sensory aids were effective in promoting production skills, with the cochlear implant users showing the greatest gains in this area. PMID:2132583

  9. The multi-channel cochlear implant: multi-disciplinary development of electrical stimulation of the cochlea and the resulting clinical benefit.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graeme M

    2015-04-01

    This multi-disciplinary research showed sound could be coded by electrical stimulation of the cochlea and peripheral auditory nervous system. But the temporal coding of frequency as seen in the experimental animal, was inadequate for the important speech frequencies. The data indicated the limitation was due in particular to deterministic firing of neurons and failure to reproduce the normal fine temporo-spatial pattern of neural responses seen with sound. However, the data also showed the need for the place coding of frequency, and this meant multi-electrodes inserted into the cochlea. Nevertheless, before this was evaluated on people we undertook biological safety studies to determine the effects of surgical trauma and electrical stimuli, and how to prevent infection. Then our research demonstrated place of stimulation had timbre and was perceived as vowels. This led to our discovery in 1978 of the formant-extraction speech code that first enabled severely-profoundly deaf people to understand running speech. This result in people who had hearing before becoming severely deaf was an outcome not previously considered possible. In 1985 it was the first multi-channel implant to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It was also the fore runner of our advanced formant and fixed filter strategies When these codes were used from 1985 for those born deaf or deafened early in life we discovered there was a critical period when brain plasticity would allow speech perception and language to be developed near- normally, and this required in particular the acquisition of place coding. In 1990 this led to the first cochlear implant to be approved by the FDA for use in children. Finally, we achieved binaural hearing in 1989 with bilateral cochlear implants, followed by bimodal speech processing in 1990 with a hearing aid in one ear and implant in the other. The above research has been developed industrially, with for example 250,000 people worldwide receiving

  10. Surgical treatment and rehabilitation of prelingually and perilingually deafened children and adults with the nucleus multichannel cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    García, J M; Barón de Otero, C; García, J; Peñaranda, A; Niño, C; Campos, S

    1994-03-01

    We began our program in September 1992, using the Nucleus 22 Channel Cochlear Implant. To date, we have operated on four patients, one child with congenital hearing loss, two prelinguistically deaf adults and one perilingually deaf adult. Our results have shown a significant increase in auditory and speech reception and perception skills in the child. The perilingually deaf adult is able to understand speech in open set speech discrimination testing and, although we do not expect open set speech discrimination in the prelinguistically deaf adults, to date their results have been satisfactory. The two prelingually deaf adults are in an audiological rehabilitation program. Their response in prosodic aspects of speech and lipreading ability with sound have improved significantly. The only surgical complication was an infection of the flap in the child, but it was treated satisfactorily with i.v. penicillin. PMID:8205978

  11. Considering optogenetic stimulation for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marcus; Moser, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Electrical cochlear implants are by far the most successful neuroprostheses and have been implanted in over 300,000 people worldwide. Cochlear implants enable open speech comprehension in most patients but are limited in providing music appreciation and speech understanding in noisy environments. This is generally considered to be due to low frequency resolution as a consequence of wide current spread from stimulation contacts. Accordingly, the number of independently usable stimulation channels is limited to less than a dozen. As light can be conveniently focused, optical stimulation might provide an alternative approach to cochlear implants with increased number of independent stimulation channels. Here, we focus on summarizing recent work on optogenetic stimulation as one way to develop optical cochlear implants. We conclude that proof of principle has been presented for optogenetic stimulation of the cochlea and central auditory neurons in rodents as well as for the technical realization of flexible μLED-based multichannel cochlear implants. Still, much remains to be done in order to advance the technique for auditory research and even more for eventual clinical translation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25601298

  12. Chinese tonal language rehabilitation following cochlear implantation in children.

    PubMed

    Wei, W I; Wong, R; Hui, Y; Au, D K; Wong, B Y; Ho, W K; Tsang, A; Kung, P; Chung, E

    2000-03-01

    Cantonese language rehabilitation in 28 prelingually deaf children who underwent cochlear implantation was evaluated. All patients were implanted with multichannel devices and the operations went smoothly. They all had improved scores on audiological assessments and speech perception tests. The speech evaluation tests included the recognition of sounds, vowels, consonants and tone. Sentence recognition and story comprehension were both improved after training for 2 years. Cochlear implantation is a useful measure for the speech rehabilitation of prelingually profound deaf children when hearing aids are of no benefit. The multichannel implant device is of clinical significance in the rehabilitation of those patients using tonal language. PMID:11603776

  13. [Neurotology and cochlear implants].

    PubMed

    Merchán, Miguel A

    2015-05-01

    In this review we analyse cochlear implantation in terms of the fundamental aspects of the functioning of the auditory system. Concepts concerning neuronal plasticity applied to electrical stimulation in perinatal and adult deep hypoacusis are reviewed, and the latest scientific bases that justify early implantation following screening for congenital deafness are discussed. Finally, this review aims to serve as an example of the importance of fostering the sub-specialty of neurotology in our milieu, with the aim of bridging some of the gaps between specialties and thus improving both the knowledge in the field of research on auditory pathologies and in the screening of patients. The objectives of this review, targeted above all towards specialists in the field of otorhinolaryngology, are to analyse some significant neurological foundations in order to reach a better understanding of the clinical events that condition the indications and the rehabilitation of patients with cochlear implants, as well as to use this means to foster the growth of the sub-specialty of neurotology. PMID:25912703

  14. Biomaterials in cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The cochlear implant (CI) represents, for almost 25 years now, the gold standard in the treatment of children born deaf and for postlingually deafened adults. These devices thus constitute the greatest success story in the field of ‘neurobionic’ prostheses. Their (now routine) fitting in adults, and especially in young children and even babies, places exacting demands on these implants, particularly with regard to the biocompatibility of a CI’s surface components. Furthermore, certain parts of the implant face considerable mechanical challenges, such as the need for the electrode array to be flexible and resistant to breakage, and for the implant casing to be able to withstand external forces. As these implants are in the immediate vicinity of the middle-ear mucosa and of the junction to the perilymph of the cochlea, the risk exists – at least in principle – that bacteria may spread along the electrode array into the cochlea. The wide-ranging requirements made of the CI in terms of biocompatibility and the electrode mechanism mean that there is still further scope – despite the fact that CIs are already technically highly sophisticated – for ongoing improvements to the properties of these implants and their constituent materials, thus enhancing the effectiveness of these devices. This paper will therefore discuss fundamental material aspects of CIs as well as the potential for their future development. PMID:22073103

  15. Imaging for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Phelps, P D; Annis, J A; Robinson, P J

    1990-07-01

    Insertion of a sound amplification device into the round window niche (extracochlear implant) or into the coils of the cochlea (intracochlear implant) can give significant benefits to some carefully selected, severely deaf patients. Imaging has an essential role in selective and pre-operative assessment. Severe otosclerosis and post-meningitic labyrinthitis ossificans are common causes of deafness in these patients and can be demonstrated by computed tomography (CT). The most suitable side for operation can be assessed. We describe our experiences with 165 patients, 69 of whom were found suitable for implants. Thin (1 mm) section CT in axial and coronal planes is the best imaging investigation of the petrous temporal bones but the place of magnetic resonance scanning to confirm that the inner ear is fluid-filled and polytomography to show a multichannel implant in the cochlea is discussed. No implants were used for congenital deformities, but some observations are made of this type of structural deformity of the inner ear. PMID:2390686

  16. Beginning To Talk at 20 Months: Early Vocal Development in a Young Cochlear Implant Recipient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Mellon, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    Early vocal development, consonant production, and spoken vocabulary were examined in a deaf toddler whose multichannel cochlear implant was activated at 20 months. The child understood almost 240 words and spoke approximately 90 words after one year of implant experience. The combination of early cochlear implantation, family support, and regular…

  17. Telephone use by a multi-channel cochlear implant patient. An evaluation using open-set CID sentences.

    PubMed

    Brown, A M; Clark, G M; Dowell, R C; Martin, L F; Seligman, P M

    1985-03-01

    A totally deaf person with a multiple-channel cochlear prosthesis obtained open-set speech discrimination using the telephone. CID Everyday Sentences were presented by telephone to the patient, who repeated an average of 21 per cent of key words correctly on the first presentation, and 47 per cent when a repeat of the sentences was permitted. This result is consistent with the patient's reports of telephone usage. PMID:3838331

  18. Cochlear implant candidates: assessment with CT and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Harnsberger, H R; Dart, D J; Parkin, J L; Smoker, W R; Osborn, A G

    1987-07-01

    Eighty-seven patients with severe to profound hearing loss were evaluated for possible placement of a multichannel cochlear implant hearing device. After initial clinical screening, 42 patients underwent computed tomographic (CT) examination. Five of these patients were also examined with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Twenty-two patients received implants. CT of the middle and inner ear was normal in 24 patients (57.1%) and showed labyrinthine ossification in 12 (28.6%), cochlear or fenestral otosclerosis (or both) in four (9.5%), and congenital cochlear malformation in two (4.8%). The information provided by CT was used to (a) exclude patients in whom multichannel cochlear implantation would most likely be unsuccessful (owing to obliterative labyrinthine ossification, or congenital cochlear malformation, severe cochlear, or fenestral otosclerosis), (b) help select the best ear for implantation, and (c) provide a preoperative picture of normal variants and avoidable surgical pitfalls. MR experience is limited but assessment of the size of the cochlear nerve and the membranous labyrinth is possible with this modality and may provide additional information in the evaluation of these patients. PMID:3108956

  19. Pediatric cochlear implantation: an update.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, Vincenzo; Bacciu, Andrea; Guida, Maurizio; Marra, Francesca; Bertoldi, Barbara; Bacciu, Salvatore; Pasanisi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Deafness in pediatric age can adversely impact language acquisition as well as educational and social-emotional development. Once diagnosed, hearing loss should be rehabilitated early; the goal is to provide the child with maximum access to the acoustic features of speech within a listening range that is safe and comfortable. In presence of severe to profound deafness, benefit from auditory amplification cannot be enough to allow a proper language development. Cochlear implants are partially implantable electronic devices designed to provide profoundly deafened patients with hearing sensitivity within the speech range. Since their introduction more than 30 years ago, cochlear implants have improved their performance to the extent that are now considered to be standard of care in the treatment of children with severe to profound deafness. Over the years patient candidacy has been expanded and the criteria for implantation continue to evolve within the paediatric population. The minimum age for implantation has progressively reduced; it has been recognized that implantation at a very early age (12-18 months) provides children with the best outcomes, taking advantage of sensitive periods of auditory development. Bilateral implantation offers a better sound localization, as well as a superior ability to understand speech in noisy environments than unilateral cochlear implant. Deafened children with special clinical situations, including inner ear malformation, cochlear nerve deficiency, cochlear ossification, and additional disabilities can be successfully treated, even thogh they require an individualized candidacy evaluation and a complex post-implantation rehabilitation. Benefits from cochlear implantation include not only better abilities to hear and to develop speech and language skills, but also improved academic attainment, improved quality of life, and better employment status. Cochlear implants permit deaf people to hear, but they have a long way to go before

  20. Developmental neuroplasticity after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Kral, Andrej; Sharma, Anu

    2012-02-01

    Cortical development is dependent on stimulus-driven learning. The absence of sensory input from birth, as occurs in congenital deafness, affects normal growth and connectivity needed to form a functional sensory system, resulting in deficits in oral language learning. Cochlear implants bypass cochlear damage by directly stimulating the auditory nerve and brain, making it possible to avoid many of the deleterious effects of sensory deprivation. Congenitally deaf animals and children who receive implants provide a platform to examine the characteristics of cortical plasticity in the auditory system. In this review, we discuss the existence of time limits for, and mechanistic constraints on, sensitive periods for cochlear implantation and describe the effects of multimodal and cognitive reorganization that result from long-term auditory deprivation. PMID:22104561

  1. IMPORTANCE OF COCHLEAR HEALTH FOR IMPLANT FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Pfingst, Bryan E.; Zhou, Ning; Colesa, Deborah J.; Watts, Melissa M.; Strahl, Stefan B.; Garadat, Soha N.; Schvartz-Leyzac, Kara C.; Budenz, Cameron L.; Raphael, Yehoash; Zwolan, Teresa A.

    2014-01-01

    Amazing progress has been made in providing useful hearing to hearing-impaired individuals using cochlear implants, but challenges remain. One such challenge is understanding the effects of partial degeneration of the auditory nerve, the target of cochlear implant stimulation. Here we review studies from our human and animal laboratories aimed at characterizing the health of the implanted cochlea and the auditory nerve. We use the data on cochlear and neural health to guide rehabilitation strategies. The data also motivate the development of tissue-engineering procedures to preserve or build a healthy cochlea and improve performance obtained by cochlear implant recipients or eventually replace the need for a cochlear implant. PMID:25261772

  2. Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology

    PubMed Central

    McAlpine, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue contains a collection of 13 papers highlighting the collaborative research and engineering project entitled Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology—ABCIT—as well as research spin-offs from the project. In this introductory editorial, a brief history of the project is provided, alongside an overview of the studies. PMID:26721929

  3. Spatial Channel Interactions in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qing; Benítez, Raul; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-01-01

    The modern multi-channel cochlear implant is widely considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis for its ability to restore partial hearing to post-lingually deafened adults and to allow essentially normal language development in pre-lingually deafened children. However, the implant performance varies greatly in individuals and is still limited in background noise, tonal language understanding, and music perception. One main cause for the individual variability and the limited performance in cochlear implants is spatial channel interaction from the stimulating electrodes to the auditory nerve and brain. Here we systematically examined spatial channel interactions at the physical, physiological, and perceptual levels in the same 5 modern cochlear implant subjects. The physical interaction was examined using an electric field imaging technique, which measured voltage distribution as a function of electrode position in the cochlea in response to stimulation of a single electrode. The physiological interaction was examined by recording electrically evoked compound action potentials as a function of electrode position in response to stimulation of the same single electrode position. The perceptual interactions were characterized by changes in detection threshold as well as loudness summation in response to in-phase or out-of-phase dual-electrode stimulation. To minimize potentially confounding effects of temporal factors on spatial channel interactions, stimulus rates were limited to 100 Hz or lower in all measures. Several quantitative channel interaction indexes were developed to define and compare the width, slope, and symmetry of the spatial excitation patterns derived from these physical, physiological, and perceptual measures. The electric field imaging data revealed a broad but uniformly asymmetrical intracochlear electric field pattern, with the apical side producing wider half-width and shallower slope than the basal side. On the contrary, the evoked

  4. Spatial channel interactions in cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qing; Benítez, Raul; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    The modern multi-channel cochlear implant is widely considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis owing to its ability to restore partial hearing to post-lingually deafened adults and to allow essentially normal language development in pre-lingually deafened children. However, the implant performance varies greatly in individuals and is still limited in background noise, tonal language understanding, and music perception. One main cause for the individual variability and the limited performance in cochlear implants is spatial channel interaction from the stimulating electrodes to the auditory nerve and brain. Here we systematically examined spatial channel interactions at the physical, physiological, and perceptual levels in the same five modern cochlear implant subjects. The physical interaction was examined using an electric field imaging technique, which measured the voltage distribution as a function of the electrode position in the cochlea in response to the stimulation of a single electrode. The physiological interaction was examined by recording electrically evoked compound action potentials as a function of the electrode position in response to the stimulation of the same single electrode position. The perceptual interactions were characterized by changes in detection threshold as well as loudness summation in response to in-phase or out-of-phase dual-electrode stimulation. To minimize potentially confounding effects of temporal factors on spatial channel interactions, stimulus rates were limited to 100 Hz or less in all measurements. Several quantitative channel interaction indexes were developed to define and compare the width, slope and symmetry of the spatial excitation patterns derived from these physical, physiological and perceptual measures. The electric field imaging data revealed a broad but uniformly asymmetrical intracochlear electric field pattern, with the apical side producing a wider half-width and shallower slope than the basal

  5. Spatial channel interactions in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qing; Benítez, Raul; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    The modern multi-channel cochlear implant is widely considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis owing to its ability to restore partial hearing to post-lingually deafened adults and to allow essentially normal language development in pre-lingually deafened children. However, the implant performance varies greatly in individuals and is still limited in background noise, tonal language understanding, and music perception. One main cause for the individual variability and the limited performance in cochlear implants is spatial channel interaction from the stimulating electrodes to the auditory nerve and brain. Here we systematically examined spatial channel interactions at the physical, physiological, and perceptual levels in the same five modern cochlear implant subjects. The physical interaction was examined using an electric field imaging technique, which measured the voltage distribution as a function of the electrode position in the cochlea in response to the stimulation of a single electrode. The physiological interaction was examined by recording electrically evoked compound action potentials as a function of the electrode position in response to the stimulation of the same single electrode position. The perceptual interactions were characterized by changes in detection threshold as well as loudness summation in response to in-phase or out-of-phase dual-electrode stimulation. To minimize potentially confounding effects of temporal factors on spatial channel interactions, stimulus rates were limited to 100 Hz or less in all measurements. Several quantitative channel interaction indexes were developed to define and compare the width, slope and symmetry of the spatial excitation patterns derived from these physical, physiological and perceptual measures. The electric field imaging data revealed a broad but uniformly asymmetrical intracochlear electric field pattern, with the apical side producing a wider half-width and shallower slope than the basal

  6. Emergence of a Vowel System in a Young Cochlear Implant Recipient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.

    2001-01-01

    This article chronicles changes in vowel production by a child with congenital deafness who received a multichannel cochlear implant at 19 months. The child exhibited three vowel types before implantation, however, a total of nine different vowel types were observed during her first year of implant experience. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  7. Cortical Plasticity after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, B.; Gjedde, A.; Wallentin, M.; Vuust, P.

    2013-01-01

    The most dramatic progress in the restoration of hearing takes place in the first months after cochlear implantation. To map the brain activity underlying this process, we used positron emission tomography at three time points: within 14 days, three months, and six months after switch-on. Fifteen recently implanted adult implant recipients listened to running speech or speech-like noise in four sequential PET sessions at each milestone. CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss showed differential activation of left superior temporal gyrus during speech and speech-like stimuli, unlike CI listeners with prelingual hearing loss. Furthermore, Broca's area was activated as an effect of time, but only in CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss. The study demonstrates that adaptation to the cochlear implant is highly related to the history of hearing loss. Speech processing in patients whose hearing loss occurred after the acquisition of language involves brain areas associated with speech comprehension, which is not the case for patients whose hearing loss occurred before the acquisition of language. Finally, the findings confirm the key role of Broca's area in restoration of speech perception, but only in individuals in whom Broca's area has been active prior to the loss of hearing. PMID:24377050

  8. Educational Challenges for Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Patricia M.; Nevins, Mary Ellen

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses educational challenges for children with severe to profound hearing loss who receive cochlear implants. Despite the implants, these children face acoustic challenges, academic challenges, attention challenges, associative challenges, and adjustment challenges. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  9. Cochlear Implants: The Young People's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Alexandra; Archbold, Sue; Gregory, Susan; Skipp, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is a relatively new procedure, which has already had significant impact on the lives of many profoundly deaf children and adults, in providing useful hearing to those unable to benefit significantly from hearing aids. After 16 years of cochlear implantation in the United Kingdom, there is now a body of evidence covering a…

  10. Deafblind People's Experiences of Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soper, Janet

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear implants are electronic devices that create the sensation of hearing in those who cannot obtain any benefit from conventional hearing aids. This article examines the experience of cochlear implantation in a select group of individuals with acquired deafblindness, focusing on three key themes: access to communication, information and…

  11. Cochlear implantation: a biomechanical prosthesis for hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Yawn, Robert; Hunter, Jacob B.; Sweeney, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants are a medical prosthesis used to treat sensorineural deafness, and one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The following article is an overview of cochlear implant technology. The history of cochlear implantation and the development of modern implant technology will be discussed, as well as current surgical techniques. Research regarding expansion of candidacy, hearing preservation cochlear implantation, and implantation for unilateral deafness are described. Lastly, innovative technology is discussed, including the hybrid cochlear implant and the totally implantable cochlear implant. PMID:26097718

  12. Audiological outcomes of cochlear implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos; Samuel, Paola Angélica; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valeria Schimdt; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Brito, Rubens; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The most relevant clinical symptom in Waardenburg syndrome is profound bilateral sensorioneural hearing loss. Aim: To characterize and describe hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome to improve preoperative expectations. Method: This was an observational and retrospective study of a series of cases. Children who were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome and who received a multichannel cochlear implant between March 1999 and July 2012 were included in the study. Intraoperative neural response telemetry, hearing evaluation, speech perception, and speech production data before and after surgery were assessed. Results: During this period, 806 patients received a cochlear implant and 10 of these (1.2%) were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome. Eight of the children received a Nucleus 24® implant and 1 child and 1 adult received a DigiSonic SP implant. The mean age at implantation was 44 months among the children. The average duration of use of a cochlear implant at the time of the study was 43 months. Intraoperative neural responses were present in all cases. Patients who could use the speech processor effectively had a pure tone average of 31 dB in free-field conditions. In addition, the MUSS and MAIS questionnaires revealed improvements in speech perception and production. Four patients did not have a good outcome, which might have been associated with ineffective use of the speech processor. Conclusion: Despite the heterogeneity of the group, patients with Waardenburg syndrome who received cochlear implants were found to have hearing thresholds that allowed access to speech sounds. However, patients who received early intervention and rehabilitation showed better evolution of auditory perception. PMID:25992025

  13. Cochlear Implant Using Neural Prosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shweta; Singh, Shashi kumar; Dubey, Pratik Kumar

    2012-10-01

    This research is based on neural prosthetic device. The oldest and most widely used of these electrical, and often computerized, devices is the cochlear implant, which has provided hearing to thousands of congenitally deaf people in this country. Recently, the use of the cochlear implant is expanding to the elderly, who frequently suffer major hearing loss. More cutting edge are artificial retinas, which are helping dozens of blind people see, and ìsmartî artificial arms and legs that amputees can maneuver by thoughts alone, and that feel more like real limbs.Research, which curiosity led to explore frog legs dancing during thunderstorms, a snail shapedorgan in the inner ear, and how various eye cells react to light, have fostered an understanding of how to ìtalkî to the nervous system. That understanding combined with the miniaturization of electronics and enhanced computer processing has enabled prosthetic devices that often can bridge the gap in nerve signaling that is caused by disease or injury.

  14. Speech Intelligibility of Children with Cochlear Implants, Tactile, or Hearing Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osberger, Mary Joe; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study found that children with early onset of deafness who received single-channel or multichannel cochlear implants before age 10 demonstrated higher speech intelligibility than children receiving their device after age 10. There was no obvious difference in speech intelligibility scores as a function of type of device (implant or tactile…

  15. Changes in Consonants and Vowels Produced in the Speech of a Prelingually Deafened Cochlear Implant User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Alice T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The speech production of a prelingually deafened adult male was examined at 4 intervals: 1 week and again at 9 months postimplant with a single-channel cochlear implant, 14 months later with a nonfunctioning device, and 1 year following implantation with a multichannel device. Consonant accuracy and vowel accuracy changed little across conditions.…

  16. Changes in Speech Production in a Child with a Cochlear Implant: Acoustic and Kinematic Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Lisa; Ertmer, David J.; Erdle, Christa

    2002-01-01

    A method is presented for examining change in motor patterns used to produce linguistic contrasts. In this case study, the method is applied to a child who experienced hearing loss at age 3 and received a multi-channel cochlear implant at 7. Post-implant, acoustic durations showed a maturational change. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  17. Pediatric cochlear implant candidacy issues.

    PubMed

    Osberger, M J; Chute, P M; Pope, M L; Kessler, K S; Carotta, C C; Firszt, J B; Zimmerman-Phillips, S

    1991-01-01

    Children with progressive sensorineural hearing impairment represent a special challenge to the audiologist and the otologist. These are patients with some residual auditory abilities that deteriorate with time as the hearing loss progresses. No doubt, the unnecessary implantation of an ear that significantly benefits from amplification needs to be avoided at all costs. By the same token however, there appears to be no advantage to waiting an inordinate amount of time after the loss of functional auditory abilities before recommending implantation. At times when a complete loss is predictable, implantation may be advantageous before the onset of complete auditory deprivation. Steps the clinicians should take to manage these patients effectively are briefly summarized below: Implementation of rigorous and frequent audiologic monitoring. If, for instance, a significant progressive loss of hearing has occurred over a 6-month period, resulting in a complete absence of open-set speech recognition abilities in the auditory-alone mode with appropriate hearing aids, it is probably counterproductive to wait to the point of a complete absence of aided speech detection. Implantation at a critical point in time will prevent complete auditory deprivation. Parental counseling concerning various management strategies, such as use of vibrotactile devices, changing communication skills, and issues involving cochlear implants need to be undertaken early. Parents need to be involved in every phase of the evaluation process because they are the ones who make the final decision concerning the implantation of their child. Relatively early implantation should be considered in light of what is known concerning the effects of disruption in a child's linguistic, cognitive, and emotional development resulting from complete auditory deprivation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2069195

  18. Pediatric Cochlear Implantation: Why Do Children Receive Implants Late?

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Julia; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Early cochlear implantation has been widely promoted for children who derive inadequate benefit from conventional acoustic amplification. Universal newborn hearing screening has led to earlier identification and intervention, including cochlear implantation in much of the world. The purpose of this study was to examine age and time to cochlear implantation and to understand the factors that affected late cochlear implantation in children who received cochlear implants. Design: In this population-based study, data were examined for all children who underwent cochlear implant surgery in one region of Canada from 2002 to 2013. Clinical characteristics were collected prospectively as part of a larger project examining outcomes from newborn hearing screening. For this study, audiologic details including age and severity of hearing loss at diagnosis, age at cochlear implant candidacy, and age at cochlear implantation were documented. Additional detailed medical chart information was extracted to identify the factors associated with late implantation for children who received cochlear implants more than 12 months after confirmation of hearing loss. Results: The median age of diagnosis of permanent hearing loss for 187 children was 12.6 (interquartile range: 5.5, 21.7) months, and the age of cochlear implantation over the 12-year period was highly variable with a median age of 36.2 (interquartile range: 21.4, 71.3) months. A total of 118 (63.1%) received their first implant more than 12 months after confirmation of hearing loss. Detailed analysis of clinical profiles for these 118 children revealed that late implantation could be accounted for primarily by progressive hearing loss (52.5%), complex medical conditions (16.9%), family indecision (9.3%), geographical location (5.9%), and other miscellaneous known (6.8%) and unknown factors (8.5%). Conclusions: This study confirms that despite the trend toward earlier implantation, a substantial number of children

  19. Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... in aircraft interact in unpredictable ways with other computer systems Will have to be careful of static electricity. Static electricity may temporarily or permanently damage a cochlear implant. It ... computer monitors, or synthetic fabric. For more details regarding ...

  20. Melodic Contour Identification by Cochlear Implant Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie; Nogaki, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Objective While the cochlear implant provides many deaf patients with good speech understanding in quiet, music perception and appreciation with the cochlear implant remains a major challenge for most cochlear implant users. The present study investigated whether a closed-set melodic contour identification (MCI) task could be used to quantify cochlear implant users’ ability to recognize musical melodies and whether MCI performance could be improved with moderate auditory training. The present study also compared MCI performance with familiar melody identification (FMI) performance, with and without MCI training. Methods For the MCI task, test stimuli were melodic contours composed of 5 notes of equal duration whose frequencies corresponded to musical intervals. The interval between successive notes in each contour was varied between 1 and 5 semitones; the “root note” of the contours was also varied (A3, A4, and A5). Nine distinct musical patterns were generated for each interval and root note condition, resulting in a total of 135 musical contours. The identification of these melodic contours was measured in 11 cochlear implant users. FMI was also evaluated in the same subjects; recognition of 12 familiar melodies was tested with and without rhythm cues. MCI was also trained in 6 subjects, using custom software and melodic contours presented in a different frequency range from that used for testing. Results Results showed that MCI recognition performance was highly variable among cochlear implant users, ranging from 14% to 91% correct. For most subjects, MCI performance improved as the number of semitones between successive notes was increased; performance was slightly lower for the A3 root note condition. Mean FMI performance was 58% correct when rhythm cues were preserved and 29% correct when rhythm cues were removed. Statistical analyses revealed no significant correlation between MCI performance and FMI performance (with or without rhythmic cues). However

  1. Understanding music with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Lisa; Mürbe, Dirk; Hahne, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Direct stimulation of the auditory nerve via a Cochlear Implant (CI) enables profoundly hearing-impaired people to perceive sounds. Many CI users find language comprehension satisfactory, but music perception is generally considered difficult. However, music contains different dimensions which might be accessible in different ways. We aimed to highlight three main dimensions of music processing in CI users which rely on different processing mechanisms: (1) musical discrimination abilities, (2) access to meaning in music, and (3) subjective music appreciation. All three dimensions were investigated in two CI user groups (post- and prelingually deafened CI users, all implanted as adults) and a matched normal hearing control group. The meaning of music was studied by using event-related potentials (with the N400 component as marker) during a music-word priming task while music appreciation was gathered by a questionnaire. The results reveal a double dissociation between the three dimensions of music processing. Despite impaired discrimination abilities of both CI user groups compared to the control group, appreciation was reduced only in postlingual CI users. While musical meaning processing was restorable in postlingual CI users, as shown by a N400 effect, data of prelingual CI users lack the N400 effect and indicate previous dysfunctional concept building. PMID:27558546

  2. Understanding music with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Lisa; Mürbe, Dirk; Hahne, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Direct stimulation of the auditory nerve via a Cochlear Implant (CI) enables profoundly hearing-impaired people to perceive sounds. Many CI users find language comprehension satisfactory, but music perception is generally considered difficult. However, music contains different dimensions which might be accessible in different ways. We aimed to highlight three main dimensions of music processing in CI users which rely on different processing mechanisms: (1) musical discrimination abilities, (2) access to meaning in music, and (3) subjective music appreciation. All three dimensions were investigated in two CI user groups (post- and prelingually deafened CI users, all implanted as adults) and a matched normal hearing control group. The meaning of music was studied by using event-related potentials (with the N400 component as marker) during a music-word priming task while music appreciation was gathered by a questionnaire. The results reveal a double dissociation between the three dimensions of music processing. Despite impaired discrimination abilities of both CI user groups compared to the control group, appreciation was reduced only in postlingual CI users. While musical meaning processing was restorable in postlingual CI users, as shown by a N400 effect, data of prelingual CI users lack the N400 effect and indicate previous dysfunctional concept building. PMID:27558546

  3. Parents' narratives on cochlear implantation: reconstructing the experience of having a child with cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, Augusto; Suárez, Roberto M; Niño, Natalia M; Aparicio, Maria Leonor; García, Juan Manuel; Barón, Clemencia

    2011-08-01

    This paper discusses parents' narratives on cochlear implantation in Bogotá, Colombia using a qualitative approach. The main research objective was to identify how parents perceived the processes of diagnosis of their child's hearing loss, making the decision for cochlear implantation and the post-surgery period. All participants were hearing couples (n = 13) with similar socio-cultural backgrounds whose children had undergone cochlear implant surgery. Results show why cochlear implants are a very highly valued technological device with great symbolic power for parents. The study also deals with how perceptions about oral/sign language and disability, as well as social expectations for their children's lifetime opportunities, determine how the parents themselves have experienced their journey through the process of their children's cochlear implantation. PMID:21917202

  4. Cochlear implantations in visually impaired patients.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Kenji; Kanda, Yokihiko; Kumagami, Hidetaka; Yashida, Haruo; Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Miyamoto, Ikue; Takahashi, Haruo

    2007-04-01

    We retrospectively review the cases to evaluate the outcome of cochlear implantation (CI) in patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss and visual impairment (VI). Six adults with severe or profound hearing loss and significant VI underwent multichannel CI. Follow-up period ranged from 17 months to 7 years. Case history, etiology of visual and hearing loss, and benefit from CI were evaluated. To measure the outcomes, we selected the pure-tone thresholds with CI, the speech discrimination scores (SDS) using the Japanese video SDS system, the speech perception rates using the Japanese CD SDS system by monosyllable and word, and the open-set and closed sentence score using live voice. All the patients live happily after CI. There was no significant difference between the present six patients and the patients with profound hearing loss without VI in evaluations of hearing and quality of life. CI can play a significant rehabilitative role in patients with severe hearing loss and VI. PMID:17082944

  5. The early days of the multi channel cochlear implant: efforts and achievement in France.

    PubMed

    Chouard, C H

    2015-04-01

    On September 10th 2013, the clinical medical research Lasker award winners were rewarded for their work on multichannel cochlear implant. It has been my pleasure to see that such a major topic had caught the attention of the Members of the Jury for this prestigious award. That is why I accepted an invitation to participate in a special issue of Hearing Research devoted to the three winners. Here I highlight four scientific contributions made by the French team in late 1970s and early 1980s to modern multichannel cochlear implant development. 1) Chouard and MacLeod plotted an approximate frequency map of the whole length of the human cochlea, including its "hidden face" corresponding to speech frequencies. Moreover MacLeod suggested a sequential display of electrical stimulation as a function of each electrode, a precursor to today's electrodogram and interleaved stimulation. 2) Chouard performed total cochlear implantation in a deaf adult male with 8 electrically independent electrodes that were evenly distributed along the cochlea. 3) Chouard and MacLeod described in a patent detailed sound signal processing for a functional multichannel cochlear implant and reported speech discrimination without help of lip reading in some totally deafened patients. 4) Chouard experimentally demonstrated in the guinea pig the advantage of early cochlear implantation in treating profound neonatal deafness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25499127

  6. Outcome of cochlear implantation in children with cochlear malformations.

    PubMed

    Bille, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Vibeke; Ovesen, Therese

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study was the evaluation of outcomes of cochlear implantation (CI) in children with cochlear malformations. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary referral centre. The patients were children with inner ear malformation judged by high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging treated with uni- or bilateral CI and a follow-up period of at least 3 years. They were matched with a control group of children operated for other reasons. The patients were operated by one of two surgeons using similar techniques including a standard perimodiolar electrode in all cases. The intervention was therapeutic and rehabilitative. The main outcome measures were category of auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating (SIR). Eighteen children were diagnosed with cochlear malformations (12 % of children receiving CI). No statistical differences regarding CAP and SIR scores were found between the two groups. Only one child was diagnosed with a common cavity and performed below average. Children with auditory neuropathy performed beyond average. Children with cochlear malformations performed equally to children without malformation in the long term. Standard perimodiolar electrodes can be used despite cochlear malformations. The most important factors determining the outcome is the age of the child at the time of implantation and duration of hearing loss before CI. Awareness towards an increased risk of complications in case of inner ear malformations is recommended. PMID:24407715

  7. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    PubMed

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding. PMID:11766315

  8. Cochlear Implants Keep Twin Sisters Learning, Discovering Together

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Cochlear Implants Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... right, and Isabelle Jeppsen meet with Mia's cochlear implant surgeon, John Niparko, M.D., of Johns Hopkins ...

  9. Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants Language: English Español ( ... Compartir 2002 Study of the Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants Many people have ...

  10. On the Horizon: Cochlear Implant Technology.

    PubMed

    Roche, Joseph P; Hansen, Marlan R

    2015-12-01

    Cochlear implantation and cochlear implants (CIs) have a long history filled with innovations that have resulted in the high-performing device's currently available. Several promising technologies have been reviewed in this article, which hold the promise to drive performance even higher. Remote CI programming, totally implanted devices, improved neural health and survival through targeted drug therapy and delivery, intraneural electrode placement, electroacoustical stimulation and hybrid CIs, and methods to enhance the neural-prosthesis interface are evolving areas of innovation reviewed in this article. PMID:26443490

  11. Cochlear implantation: current and future device options.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Matthew L; Driscoll, Colin L W; Gifford, René H; McMenomey, Sean O

    2012-02-01

    Today most cochlear implant users achieve above 80% on standard speech recognition in quiet testing, and enjoy excellent device reliability. Despite such success, conventional designs often fail to provide the frequency resolution required for complex listening tasks. Furthermore, performance variability remains a vexing problem, with a select group of patients performing poorly despite using the most recent technologies and processing strategies. This article provides a brief history of the development of cochlear implant technologies, reviews current implant systems from all 3 major manufacturers, examines recently devised strategies aimed at improving device performance, and discusses potential future developments. PMID:22115692

  12. Imaging plasticity in cochlear implant patients.

    PubMed

    Giraud, A L; Truy, E; Frackowiak, R

    2001-01-01

    Auditory re-afferentation by cochlear implants (CI) offers a unique opportunity to study directly from within the auditory modality plastic changes taking place at organisational levels up to the supra- or polymodal level. These plastic changes resulting from deafness and chronic electrical stimulation can be studied using modern neuroimaging techniques. In this paper, we review the available techniques and the experimental approaches to human studies of plasticity, we discuss the different forms of plasticity that are associated with cochlear implantation and we point to the interest of imaging studies for providing a prognosis of functional outcome after implantation. PMID:11847465

  13. Audiological results with the cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Thielemeir, M A; Brimacombe, J A; Eisenberg, L S

    1982-01-01

    Audiological test results from 135 adult, profoundly deaf, single-electrode cochlear implant subjects are presented. Unaided, aided, and cochlear implant warble-tone and speech detection thresholds have been analyzed, as well as word, word stress, and environmental sound discrimination scores. Results indicate that implant thresholds are significantly better than aided thresholds at all frequencies tested and for speech detection. Also, word, word stress, and environmental sound discrimination scores are all significantly better with the implant than with a hearing aid. Although the implant does not provide speech discrimination, subjects report that it does provide valuable speech and sound awareness, which aids in speechreading and voice monitoring. A small group of subjects has shown that an an implant in the poorer ear can also be successfully combined with a hearing aid in the better ear. The audiological test results clearly show that the implant is a viable alternative for the profoundly deaf. PMID:6805394

  14. Educational Progress Profiles of Cochlear Implant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Sarah A.

    This study examined the educational development of 22 children (ages 2 to 10), under the supervision of the Cochlear Implant Team of the Medical College of Virginia, who had received implants as a result of deafness (in most cases prelingual and congenital) from 6 months to 3 years prior to the study. Data included a review of the children's case…

  15. Deaf Education: The Impact of Cochlear Implantation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbold, Sue; Mayer, Connie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the impact that cochlear implantation has had on the practice of deaf education in terms of educational placement, communication choices, and educational attainments. Although there is variation in outcome, more children with implants are going to mainstream schools, and using spoken language as their primary means of…

  16. International Classification of Reliability for Implanted Cochlear Implant Receiver Stimulators

    PubMed Central

    Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Backous, Douglas D.; Balkany, Thomas J.; Briggs, Robert J. S.; Gantz, Bruce J.; van Hasselt, Andrew; Kim, Chong Sun; Kubo, Takeshi; Lenarz, Thomas; Pillsbury, Harold C.; O’Donoghue, Gerard M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To design an international standard to be used when reporting reliability of the implanted components of cochlear implant systems to appropriate governmental authorities, cochlear implant (CI) centers, and for journal editors in evaluating manuscripts involving cochlear implant reliability. Study Design The International Consensus Group for Cochlear Implant Reliability Reporting was assembled to unify ongoing efforts in the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia to create a consistent and comprehensive classification system for the implanted components of CI systems across manufacturers. Setting All members of the consensus group are from tertiary referral cochlear implant centers. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure A clinically relevant classification scheme adapted from principles of ISO standard 5841-2:2000 (1) originally designed for reporting reliability of cardiac pacemakers, pulse generators, or leads. Results Standard definitions for device failure, survival time, clinical benefit, reduced clinical benefit, and specification were generated. Time intervals for reporting back to implant centers for devices tested to be “out of specification,” categorization of explanted devices, the method of cumulative survival reporting, and content of reliability reports to be issued by manufacturers was agreed upon by all members. The methodology for calculating Cumulative survival was adapted from ISO standard 5841-2:2000 (1). Conclusion The International Consensus Group on Cochlear Implant Device Reliability Reporting recommends compliance to this new standard in reporting reliability of implanted CI components by all manufacturers of CIs and the adoption of this standard as a minimal reporting guideline for editors of journals publishing cochlear implant research results. PMID:20864879

  17. Localization model for cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Douglas A.; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2011-09-01

    Normal hearing persons are able to localize the direction of sounds better using both ears than when listening with only one ear. Localization ability is dependent on auditory system perception of interaural differences in time, intensity, and phase. Interaural timing differences (ITDs) provide information for locating direction of low and mid frequency sounds, while interaural level differences (ILDs), which occur because of the horizontal plane shadowing effect of the head, provide information for locating direction of higher frequency sounds. The head related transfer function (HRTF) contains characteristic information important for acoustic localization. Models based on HRTFs take into account head shadow, torso, and pinna effects, and their impact on interaural frequency, level, and timing differences. Cochlear implants (CIs) have proven a successful treatment for persons with bilateral severe to profound hearing loss. A problem is that only some ITD and ILD cues are maintained with CI sound processing, and the microphone position alters the acoustic cues. The relative impact of differences in physical cues received by the auditory system with bilateral CIs versus differences in the ability of the damaged auditory nervous system to process bilateral inputs is not yet clear. The model presented in this paper was constructed as a step toward answering this question, and is intended to serve as a tool for future development of more optimal signal processing algorithms that may provide better localization ability for persons with bilateral CIs.

  18. Cochlear implantation in children and adults in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Brand, Yves; Senn, Pascal; Kompis, Martin; Dillier, Norbert; Allum, John H J

    2014-01-01

    The cochlear implant (CI) is one of the most successful neural prostheses developed to date. It offers artificial hearing to individuals with profound sensorineural hearing loss and with insufficient benefit from conventional hearing aids. The first implants available some 30 years ago provided a limited sensation of sound. The benefit for users of these early systems was mostly a facilitation of lip-reading based communication rather than an understanding of speech. Considerable progress has been made since then. Modern, multichannel implant systems feature complex speech processing strategies, high stimulation rates and multiple sites of stimulation in the cochlea. Equipped with such a state-of-the-art system, the majority of recipients today can communicate orally without visual cues and can even use the telephone. The impact of CIs on deaf individuals and on the deaf community has thus been exceptional. To date, more than 300,000 patients worldwide have received CIs. In Switzerland, the first implantation was performed in 1977 and, as of 2012, over 2,000 systems have been implanted with a current rate of around 150 CIs per year. The primary purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary overview of cochlear implantation, emphasising the situation in Switzerland. PMID:24496729

  19. Vocal Development in Young Children with Cochlear Implants: Profiles and Implications for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Young, Nancy; Grohne, Kristine; Mellon, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Claire; Corbett, Kristin; Saindon, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    This article describes prelinguistic vocal development in two prelingually deaf children who received multi-channel cochlear implants at 10 and 28 months. The older child made rapid progress in vocal development, while the other showed slower progress Use of short periods of prelinguistic input for stimulating vocal development is discussed.…

  20. Music Therapy for Preschool Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Kenworthy, Maura; Van Voorst, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides research and clinical information relevant to music therapy for preschool children who use cochlear implants (CI). It consolidates information from various disciplinary sources regarding (a) cochlear implantation of young prelingually-deaf children (~age 2-5), (b) patterns of auditory and speech-language development, and (c) research regarding music perception of children with CIs. This information serves as a foundation for the final portion of the article, which describes typical music therapy goals and examples of interventions suitable for preschool children. PMID:23904691

  1. [Cochlear implants in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Mlynski, R; Plontke, S

    2013-05-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) have become standard in the treatment of prelingual, postlingual and perilingual deafness and hearing loss in children. Bilateral implants are considered standard for bilaterally affected children. The benefits for speech and language development, as well as speech intelligibility brought by CI-enabled hearing are greatest if these are received as soon after diagnosis as possible. Continued improvements in preoperative diagnostics, electrode design, speech coding strategies and surgical techniques, have broadened the CI applications spectrum. Nowadays--with the exception of cochlear- and cochlear nerve aplasia--almost all malformations are manageable with CIs. New indications concern partial and unilateral deafness. Treatment with CIs requires exceptional team work. In addition to ongoing medical care of the children, the involvement of parents and relatives in the cooperation between surgeons, audiologists, teachers and specialist centers is important for successful rehabilitation. PMID:23649525

  2. "Does God Have a Cochlear Implant?".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses psychological and ethical considerations when providing family therapy for parents considering cochlear implantation for the deaf/hard-of-hearing child. Family dynamics, multilevel criteria of informed consent, therapist bias, and intervention strategies are illustrated by a case study of an 8-year-old boy. (Contains seven…

  3. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  4. Gender Categorization in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massida, Zoe; Marx, Mathieu; Belin, Pascal; James, Christopher; Fraysse, Bernard; Barone, Pascal; Deguine, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the ability of subjects with cochlear implants (CIs) to discriminate voice gender and how this ability evolved as a function of CI experience. Method: The authors presented a continuum of voice samples created by voice morphing, with 9 intermediate acoustic parameter steps between a typical male and a…

  5. Impairment of Caloric Function after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuang, Heide; Haversat, Heather H.; Michaelides, Elias M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to review current literature on caloric function following cochlear implantation while analyzing any correlations of caloric function changes with vestibular symptoms. Method: This article is a systematic review of evidence-based literature. English language articles published between 1980 and 2014 that presented some…

  6. Auditory Learning in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Srikanta K.; Boddupally, Shiva P.; Rayapati, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and characterize the training-induced changes in speech-in-noise perception in children with congenital deafness who have cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Twenty-seven children with congenital deafness who have CIs were studied. Eleven children with CIs were trained on a speech-in-noise task,…

  7. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  8. Word Learning in Children following Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Carter, Allyson K.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Ying, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental procedure was developed to investigate word-learning skills of children who use cochlear implants (CIs). Using interactive play scenarios, 2- to 5-year olds were presented with sets of objects (Beanie Baby stuffed animals) and words for their names that corresponded to salient perceptual attributes (e.g., "horns" for a goat). Their…

  9. Early UCSF contributions to the development of multiple-channel cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Merzenich, Michael M

    2015-04-01

    The early contributions of the UCSF cochlear implant (CI) research team to the development of multiple-channel cochlear implants from about 1971 through the mid-1980s are briefly summarized. Scientists at UCSF conducted fundamental studies related to device safety, the control of patterned electrical stimulation, and the designs of intracochlear electrode arrays, coders, and implanted multiple-channel electrode drivers. They conducted many original studies documenting parameters of hearing with cochlear implants relevant to next-generation CI designs. On these bases, the UCSF team constructed early models of multichannel devices that were progenitors of the Advanced Bionics' Clarion CI. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25560478

  10. Interviews with Deaf Children about Their Experiences Using Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preisler, G.; Tvingstedt, A. -L.

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a longitudinal study of deaf children with cochlear implants, 11 children with implants were interviewed. The objective was to shed light on what it is like for a child to use a cochlear implant, based on these children's own experience with implants, which ranged from 5.0 to 7.5 years. Six of the children were in schools…

  11. Cochlear implant and delayed facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shawn Thadathil; Vishwakarma, Rajesh; Ramani, Mukesh Kumar; Aurora, Rupa

    2009-12-01

    Delayed facial nerve palsy following cochlear implant surgery is less documented though it poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Apart from the functional, aesthetic and emotional concerns, it can raise important medico legal issues. The objectives of this study were: to report a case of delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery in a patient who had positive viral antibody markers pre operatively; and to review the literature on delayed onset facial paralysis following viral reactivation and its relation to cochlear implant surgery. An extensive literature review was done using internet and medical search engines and library facilities. Important articles on the topic were identified and summarised. Data on delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery were collected, constructed in a coherent way and details discussed. Postulated mechanisms of delayed facial palsy include neural oedema, vasospasm and viral reactivation. Of these, reactivation of previous herpes simplex virus infection has special significance, as many of these patients are positive for viral antibody markers. Manipulation of sensory branches of the facial nerve and chorda tympani can be a mechanism in such cases. Correlation of clinical presentation and pre operative positive viral antibody markers with positive polymerase chain reaction can be strongly suggestive of viral reactivation. It is concluded that patients with positive viral antibody markers are more susceptible to facial palsy from viral reactivation. Corticosteroids, antiviral agents and physiotherapy can be useful in producing a quicker and complete recovery. An experienced cochlear implant surgery team and pre operative radiological evaluations are mandatory to decrease the chances of direct facial nerve trauma. Proper irrigation lowers the risk of neural oedema. PMID:19194876

  12. Cochlear otosclerosis: does bone formation affect cochlear implant surgery?

    PubMed

    Fayad, J; Moloy, P; Linthicum, F H

    1990-05-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate that new bone formation in the scala tympani of patients deaf from otosclerosis does not preclude cochlear implant surgery. In seven temporal bones from patients with otosclerosis, we measured the extent of new bone from the round window to the distal part of the new growth. We compared results to surgical data on the extent of drilling and depth and ease of placement of the electrode in 20 patients deaf from otosclerosis. We also examined clinical performance and voltage requirements for long-term implant use in patients with and patients without ossification of the scala tympani. Findings in our limited sample of patients and bones show that obstruction of the basal turn, which occurs in some otosclerotic patients, does not preclude implant surgery. The dynamic range in the studied sample was relatively stable long-term and clinical performance did not differ between groups with and without an ossified scala tympani. PMID:2188511

  13. Meningitis after cochlear implantation in Mondini malformation.

    PubMed

    Page, E L; Eby, T L

    1997-01-01

    Although the potential for CSF leakage and subsequent meningitis after cochlear implantation in the malformed cochlea has been recognized, this complication has not been previously reported. We report a case of CSF otorhinorrhea and meningitis after minor head trauma developing 2 years after cochlear implantation in a child with Mondini malformation. Leakage of CSF was identified from the cochleostomy around the electrode of the implant, and this leak was sealed with a temporalis fascia and muscle plug. Although this complication appears to be rare, care must be taken to seal the cochleostomy in children with inner ear malformations at the initial surgery, and any episode of meningitis after surgery must be thoroughly investigated to rule out CSF leakage from the labyrinth. PMID:9018266

  14. The inferior cochlear vein: surgical aspects in cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, HongLei; Chen, Wei; Zhu, XiaoQuan; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-02-01

    The patency of the inferior cochlear vein (ICV) may be challenged in cochlear implantation (CI) due to its location near the round window (RW). This may be essential to consider during selection of different trajectories for electrode insertion aiming at preserving residual hearing. Venous blood from the human cochlea is drained through the ICV. The vein also drains blood from the modiolus containing the spiral ganglion neurons. Surgical interference with this vein could cause neural damage influencing CI outcome. We analyzed the topographical relationship between the RW and ICV bony channel and cochlear aqueduct (CA) from a surgical standpoint. Archival human temporal bones were further microdissected to visualize the CA and its accessory canals (AC1 and AC2). This was combined with examinations of plastic and silicone molds of the human labyrinth. Metric analyses were made using photo stereomicroscopy documenting the proximal portion of the AC1, the internal aperture of the CA and the RW. The mean distance between the AC1 and the anterior rim of the RW was 0.81 mm in bone specimens and 0.67 mm assessed in corrosion casts. The AC1 runs from the floor of the scala tympani through the otic capsule passing parallel to the CA to the posterior cranial fossa. The mean distance between the CA and AC1 canal was 0.31 and 0.25 mm, respectively. PMID:25700831

  15. Surgical evaluation of candidates for cochlear implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Lilly, D. J.; Fowler, L. P.; Stypulkowski, P. H.

    1987-01-01

    The customary presentation of surgical procedures to patients in the United States consists of discussions on alternative treatment methods, risks of the procedure(s) under consideration, and potential benefits for the patient. Because the contents of the normal speech signal have not been defined in a way that permits a surgeon systematically to provide alternative auditory signals to a deaf patient, the burden is placed on the surgeon to make an arbitrary selection of candidates and available devices for cochlear prosthetic implantation. In an attempt to obtain some information regarding the ability of a deaf patient to use electrical signals to detect and understand speech, the Good Samaritan Hospital and Neurological Sciences Institute cochlear implant team has routinely performed tympanotomies using local anesthesia and has positioned temporary electrodes onto the round windows of implant candidates. The purpose of this paper is to review our experience with this procedure and to provide some observations that may be useful in a comprehensive preoperative evaluation for totally deaf patients who are being considered for cochlear implantation.

  16. Cochlear implantation in pontine tegmental cap dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bacciu, Andrea; Ormitti, Francesca; Pasanisi, Enrico; Vincenti, Vincenzo; Zanetti, Diego; Bacciu, Salvatore

    2010-08-01

    Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia (PTCD) is an exceptionally rare brain stem and cerebellar malformation characterized by ventral pontine hypoplasia, vaulted pontine tegmentum, hypoplasia of the vermis, subtotal absence of middle cerebellar peduncles, lateralized course of the superior cerebellar peduncles, and absence or alteration of the inferior olivary nucleus. The main clinical features are multiple cranial neurophaties and ataxia. Sensorineural hearing loss of varying severity is almost always present. To date, 14 cases of PTCD have been reported in the literature. We present a child with PTCD and profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who underwent cochlear implantation. To the best of our knowledge, cochlear implantation in PTCD has not been previously reported. Functional outcome was assessed using the Speech Perception Categories and the Speech Intelligibility Rating scale. At 22 months' postoperative evaluation, the patient who was placed into speech perception category 0 (no detection of speech) preoperatively progressed to category 3 (beginning word identification). Before implantation, the child had connected speech unintelligible. At the last follow-up, she had connected speech intelligible to a listener who has little experience of a deaf person's speech. Cochlear implantation allowed this child to improve her quality of life, increasing her self-confidence, independence, and social integration. PMID:20627414

  17. Serving Deaf Students Who Have Cochlear Implants. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searls, J. Matt, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are complex electronic devices surgically implanted under the skin behind the ear. These devices utilize electrodes placed in the inner ear (the cochlea) to stimulate the auditory nerve of individuals with significant permanent hearing loss. Cochlear implants may not be suitable for everyone. They are designed to provide…

  18. Evaluation of Evoked Potentials to Dyadic Tones after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Pascale; Eichele, Tom; Buechler, Michael; Debener, Stefan; Jancke, Lutz; Dillier, Norbert; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Meyer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Auditory evoked potentials are tools widely used to assess auditory cortex functions in clinical context. However, in cochlear implant users, electrophysiological measures are challenging due to implant-created artefacts in the EEG. Here, we used independent component analysis to reduce cochlear implant-related artefacts in event-related EEGs of…

  19. Cortical reorganization in children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Gilley, Phillip M; Sharma, Anu; Dorman, Michael F

    2008-11-01

    Congenital deafness leads to atypical organization of the auditory nervous system. However, the extent to which auditory pathways reorganize during deafness is not well understood. We recorded cortical auditory evoked potentials in normal hearing children and in congenitally deaf children fitted with cochlear implants. High-density EEG and source modeling revealed principal activity from auditory cortex in normal hearing and early implanted children. However, children implanted after a critical period of seven years revealed activity from parietotemporal cortex in response to auditory stimulation, demonstrating reorganized cortical pathways. Reorganization of central auditory pathways is limited by the age at which implantation occurs, and may help explain the benefits and limitations of implantation in congenitally deaf children. PMID:18775684

  20. Implants and Ethnocide: Learning from the Cochlear Implant Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the fictional case of the "Babel fish" to explore and illustrate the issues involved in the controversy about the use of cochlear implants in prelinguistically deaf children. Analysis of this controversy suggests that the development of genetic tests for deafness poses a serious threat to the continued flourishing of Deaf culture.…

  1. Hearing preservation in cochlear implant surgery.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Priscila Carvalho; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Lopes, Rafaela Aquino Fernandes; Ramos Venosa, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires

    2014-01-01

    In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a "soft surgery" cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients. PMID:25276136

  2. Hearing Preservation in Cochlear Implant Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Lopes, Rafaela Aquino Fernandes; Ramos Venosa, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires

    2014-01-01

    In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a “soft surgery” cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients. PMID:25276136

  3. Music perception with cochlear implants: a review.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Hugh J

    2004-01-01

    The acceptance of cochlear implantation as an effective and safe treatment for deafness has increased steadily over the past quarter century. The earliest devices were the first implanted prostheses found to be successful in compensating partially for lost sensory function by direct electrical stimulation of nerves. Initially, the main intention was to provide limited auditory sensations to people with profound or total sensorineural hearing impairment in both ears. Although the first cochlear implants aimed to provide patients with little more than awareness of environmental sounds and some cues to assist visual speech-reading, the technology has advanced rapidly. Currently, most people with modern cochlear implant systems can understand speech using the device alone, at least in favorable listening conditions. In recent years, an increasing research effort has been directed towards implant users' perception of nonspeech sounds, especially music. This paper reviews that research, discusses the published experimental results in terms of both psychophysical observations and device function, and concludes with some practical suggestions about how perception of music might be enhanced for implant recipients in the future. The most significant findings of past research are: (1) On average, implant users perceive rhythm about as well as listeners with normal hearing; (2) Even with technically sophisticated multiple-channel sound processors, recognition of melodies, especially without rhythmic or verbal cues, is poor, with performance at little better than chance levels for many implant users; (3) Perception of timbre, which is usually evaluated by experimental procedures that require subjects to identify musical instrument sounds, is generally unsatisfactory; (4) Implant users tend to rate the quality of musical sounds as less pleasant than listeners with normal hearing; (5) Auditory training programs that have been devised specifically to provide implant users with

  4. Music Perception with Cochlear Implants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Hugh J.

    2004-01-01

    The acceptance of cochlear implantation as an effective and safe treatment for deafness has increased steadily over the past quarter century. The earliest devices were the first implanted prostheses found to be successful in compensating partially for lost sensory function by direct electrical stimulation of nerves. Initially, the main intention was to provide limited auditory sensations to people with profound or total sensorineural hearing impairment in both ears. Although the first cochlear implants aimed to provide patients with little more than awareness of environmental sounds and some cues to assist visual speech-reading, the technology has advanced rapidly. Currently, most people with modern cochlear implant systems can understand speech using the device alone, at least in favorable listening conditions. In recent years, an increasing research effort has been directed towards implant users’ perception of nonspeech sounds, especially music. This paper reviews that research, discusses the published experimental results in terms of both psychophysical observations and device function, and concludes with some practical suggestions about how perception of music might be enhanced for implant recipients in the future. The most significant findings of past research are: (1) On average, implant users perceive rhythm about as well as listeners with normal hearing; (2) Even with technically sophisticated multiple-channel sound processors, recognition of melodies, especially without rhythmic or verbal cues, is poor, with performance at little better than chance levels for many implant users; (3) Perception of timbre, which is usually evaluated by experimental procedures that require subjects to identify musical instrument sounds, is generally unsatisfactory; (4) Implant users tend to rate the quality of musical sounds as less pleasant than listeners with normal hearing; (5) Auditory training programs that have been devised specifically to provide implant users with

  5. Cochlear Implants:System Design, Integration and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rebscher, Stephen; Harrison, William V.; Sun, Xiaoan; Feng, Haihong

    2009-01-01

    As the most successful neural prosthesis, cochlear implants have provided partial hearing to more than 120,000 persons worldwide; half of which being pediatric users who are able to develop nearly normal language. Biomedical engineers have played a central role in the design, integration and evaluation of the cochlear implant system, but the overall success is a result of collaborative work with physiologists, psychologists, physicians, educators, and entrepreneurs. This review presents broad yet in-depth academic and industrial perspectives on the underlying research and ongoing development of cochlear implants. The introduction accounts for major events and advances in cochlear implants, including dynamic interplays among engineers, scientists, physicians, and policy makers. The review takes a system approach to address critical issues from design and specifications to integration and evaluation. First, the cochlear implant system design and specifications are laid out. Second, the design goals, principles, and methods of the subsystem components are identified from the external speech processor and radio frequency transmission link to the internal receiver, stimulator and electrode arrays. Third, system integration and functional evaluation are presented with respect to safety, reliability, and challenges facing the present and future cochlear implant designers and users. Finally, issues beyond cochlear implants are discussed to address treatment options for the entire spectrum of hearing impairment as well as to use the cochlear implant as a model to design and evaluate other similar neural prostheses such as vestibular and retinal implants. PMID:19946565

  6. Hearing Preservation after Cochlear Implantation: UNICAMP Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Guilherme Machado; Guimaraes, Alexandre C.; Duarte, Alexandre S. M.; Muranaka, Eder B.; Soki, Marcelo N.; Martins, Renata S. Zanotello; Bianchini, Walter A.; Paschoal, Jorge R.; Castilho, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is an excellent choice for people with residual hearing in low frequencies but not high frequencies and who derive insufficient benefit from hearing aids. For EAS to be effective, subjects' residual hearing must be preserved during cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Methods. We implanted 6 subjects with a CI. We used a special surgical technique and an electrode designed to be atraumatic. Subjects' rates of residual hearing preservation were measured 3 times postoperatively, lastly after at least a year of implant experience. Subjects' aided speech perception was tested pre- and postoperatively with a sentence test in quiet. Subjects' subjective responses assessed after a year of EAS or CI experience. Results. 4 subjects had total or partial residual hearing preservation; 2 subjects had total residual hearing loss. All subjects' hearing and speech perception benefited from cochlear implantation. CI diminished or eliminated tinnitus in all 4 subjects who had it preoperatively. 5 subjects reported great satisfaction with their new device. Conclusions. When we have more experience with our surgical technique we are confident we will be able to report increased rates of residual hearing preservation. Hopefully, our study will raise the profile of EAS in Brazil and Latin/South America. PMID:23573094

  7. Better speech recognition with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Blake S.; Finley, Charles C.; Lawson, Dewey T.; Wolford, Robert D.; Eddington, Donald K.; Rabinowitz, William M.

    1991-07-01

    HIGH levels of speech recognition have been achieved with a new sound processing strategy for multielectrode cochlear implants. A cochlear implant system consists of one or more implanted elec-trodes for direct electrical activation of the auditory nerve, an external speech processor that transforms a microphone input into stimuli for each electrode, and a transcutaneous (rf-link) or per-cutaneous (direct) connection between the processor and the elec-trodes. We report here the comparison of the new strategy and a standard clinical processor. The standard compressed analogue (CA) processor1,2 presented analogue waveforms simultaneously to all electrodes, whereas the new continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) strategy presented brief pulses to each electrode in a nonover-lapping sequence. Seven experienced implant users, selected for their excellent performance with the CA processor, participated as subjects. The new strategy produced large improvements in the scores of speech reception tests for all subjects. These results have important implications for the treatment of deafness and for minimal representations of speech at the auditory periphery.

  8. Better speech recognition with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B S; Finley, C C; Lawson, D T; Wolford, R D; Eddington, D K; Rabinowitz, W M

    1991-07-18

    HIGH levels of speech recognition have been achieved with a new sound processing strategy for multielectrode cochlear implants. A cochlear implant system consists of one or more implanted electrodes for direct electrical activation of the auditory nerve, an external speech processor that transforms a microphone input into stimuli for each electrode, and a transcutaneous (rf-link) or percutaneous (direct) connection between the processor and the electrodes. We report here the comparison of the new strategy and a standard clinical processor. The standard compressed analogue (CA) processor presented analogue waveforms simultaneously to all electrodes, whereas the new continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) strategy presented brief pulses to each electrode in a nonoverlapping sequence. Seven experienced implant users, selected for their excellent performance with the CA processor, participated as subjects. The new strategy produced large improvements in the scores of speech reception tests for all subjects. These results have important implications for the treatment of deafness and for minimal representations of speech at the auditory periphery. PMID:1857418

  9. Influence of cochlear implantation on vestibular function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulan; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Fan; Qin, Zhaobing

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion Vestibular function in patients can be damaged following cochlear implantation. Therefore, assessing the pre-operative vestibular status, carefully choosing the side of implantation, and preserving function by using minimally invasive surgical techniques are important. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cochlear implantation on vestibular function in patients with severe and profound sensorineural hearing loss, and to analyze a possible correlation between the changes in vestibular testing and post-operative vestibular symptoms. Methods Thirty-four patients were evaluated for vestibular function using the cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP and oVEMP, respectively), and 29 patients underwent caloric tests pre-operatively and 4 weeks post-operatively. Results Before surgery, the cVEMPs were recorded bilaterally in 22 patients, unilaterally in eight patients, and absent bilaterally in four patients. The oVEMPs were recorded bilaterally in 19 patients, unilaterally in six patients, and absent bilaterally in nine patients. After implantation, the cVEMPs were absent in 10 patients and the oVEMPs were absent in seven patients on the implanted side. Caloric tests demonstrated canal paresis in 17 patients, and normal responses were recorded in 12 of the 29 patients pre-operatively. There was a significant decrease post-implantation in the ear implanted, with the exception of two patients. Two patients presented with vertigo and another two patients reported slight unsteadiness post-operatively, but all symptoms resolved within 7 days. The impaired vestibular function did not correlate with vestibular symptoms, age, or gender. Function on the contralateral side remained unaffected. PMID:27008103

  10. Spiral CT image deblurring for cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Vannier, M W; Skinner, M W; Cavalcanti, M G; Harding, G W

    1998-04-01

    Cochlear implantation is the standard treatment for profound hearing loss. Preimplantation and postimplantation spiral computed tomography (CT) is essential in several key clinical and research aspects. The maximum image resolution with commercial spiral CT scanners is insufficient to define clearly anatomical features and implant electrode positions in the inner ear. In this paper, we develop an expectation-maximization (EM)-like iterative deblurring algorithm to achieve spiral CT image super-resolution for cochlear implantation, assuming a spatially invariant linear spiral CT system with a three-dimensional (3-D) separable Gaussian point spread function (PSF). We experimentally validate the 3-D Gaussian blurring model via phantom measurement and profile fitting. The imaging process is further expressed as convolution of an isotropic 3-D Gaussian PSF and a blurred underlying volumetric image. Under practical conditions, an oblique reconstructed section is approximated as convolution of an isotropic two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian PSF and the corresponding actual cross section. The spiral CT image deblurring algorithm is formulated with sieve and resolution kernels for suppressing noise and edge artifacts. A typical cochlear cross section is used for evaluation, demonstrating a resolution gain up to 30%40% according to the correlation criterion. Physical phantoms, preimplantation and postimplantation patients are reconstructed into volumes of 0.1-mm cubic voxels. The patient images are digitally unwrapped along the central axis of the cochlea and the implanted electrode array respectively, then oblique sections orthogonal to the central axis formed. After deblurring, representation of structural features is substantially improved in all the cases. PMID:9688157

  11. Evaluating the Feasibility of Using Remote Technology for Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of remote technology to provide cochlear implant services has gained popularity in recent years. This article contains a review of research evaluating the feasibility of remote service delivery for recipients of cochlear implants. To date, published studies have determined that speech-processor programming levels and other objective tests…

  12. Congenitally Deafblind Children and Cochlear Implants: Effects on Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    There has been much research conducted demonstrating the positive benefits of cochlear implantation (CI) in children who are deaf. Research on CI in children who are both deaf and blind, however, is lacking. The purpose of this article is to present a study of five congenitally deafblind children who received cochlear implants between 2.2 and 4.2…

  13. Including Children with Cochlear Implants in General Education Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stith, Joanna L.; Drasgow, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Cochlear implants can provide partial hearing to individuals with substantial hearing loss. Because of improvements in early identification and intervention, more children with cochlear implants will be included in elementary school general education classrooms. Thus, general education teachers should be prepared for teaching children with…

  14. Multidisciplinary Training for Rural Outreach to Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schery, Teris K.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    The number of deaf children with surgically implanted cochlear devices has been increasing since the device was approved in 1989. In rural communities, there may be no one who is knowledgeable about the care of cochlear implants, what to expect of the child's communication abilities, and how to maximize the child's progress. A federally funded…

  15. Emotion Understanding in Deaf Children with a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiefferink, Carin H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; De Raeve, Leo; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is still largely unknown how receiving a cochlear implant affects the emotion understanding in deaf children. We examined indices for emotion understanding and their associations with communication skills in children aged 2.5-5 years, both hearing children (n = 52) and deaf children with a cochlear implant (n = 57). 2 aspects of emotion…

  16. Speech Intelligibility and Prosody Production in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Steven B.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Phan, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between speech intelligibility and prosody production in children who use cochlear implants. Methods: The Beginner's Intelligibility Test (BIT) and Prosodic Utterance Production (PUP) task were administered to 15 children who use cochlear implants and 10 children with normal…

  17. An Introduction to Cochlear Implant Technology, Activation, and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jan A.; Teagle, Holly F. B.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides information about the hardware components and speech-processing strategies of cochlear implant systems. The use of assistive listening devices with cochlear implants is also discussed. A brief description of surgical procedures and the initial activation of the device are also presented, along with programming considerations.…

  18. Parents' Views on Changing Communication after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Linda M.; Hardie, Tim; Archbold, Sue M.; Wheeler, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    We sent questionnaires to families of all 288 children who had received cochlear implants at one center in the United Kingdom at least 5 years previously. Thus, it was a large, unselected group. We received 142 replies and 119 indicated that the child and family had changed their communication approach following cochlear implantation. In 113 cases…

  19. Relationships among Professionals' Knowledge, Experience, and Expectations Regarding Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Itzhak, D.; Most, T.; Weisel, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between teachers' and communication clinicians' self-reported knowledge on cochlear implants and their expectations of CIs. The authors also explored these professionals' views regarding the child's communication mode, educational setting, and social options following cochlear implantation. The…

  20. Realization of Complex Onsets by Pediatric Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined variations in English complex onset realizations by children who use cochlear implants. Data consisted of 227 productions of two-segment onset clusters from 12 children. In general, onset cluster realizations of children with cochlear implants did not differ markedly from those reported for children with normal hearing: null…

  1. The Hearing Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Hajime; Kashio, Akinori; Sakata, Aki; Tsutsumiuchi, Katsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yu; Karino, Shotaro; Kakigi, Akinobu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of cochlear implantation for sensorineural hearing loss in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Method. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent cochlear implantation at the University of Tokyo Hospital. Clinical classification, genetic mutation, clinical course, preoperative hearing threshold, high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and postoperative hearing outcome were assessed. Result. Five children with Waardenburg syndrome underwent cochlear implantation. The average age at implantation was 2 years 11 months (ranging from 1 year 9 months to 6 years 3 months). Four patients had congenital profound hearing loss and one patient had progressive hearing loss. Two patients had an inner ear malformation of cochlear incomplete partition type 2. No surgical complication or difficulty was seen in any patient. All patients showed good hearing outcome postoperatively. Conclusion. Cochlear implantation could be a good treatment option for Waardenburg syndrome. PMID:27376080

  2. The Hearing Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Hajime; Kashio, Akinori; Sakata, Aki; Tsutsumiuchi, Katsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yu; Karino, Shotaro; Kakigi, Akinobu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of cochlear implantation for sensorineural hearing loss in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Method. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent cochlear implantation at the University of Tokyo Hospital. Clinical classification, genetic mutation, clinical course, preoperative hearing threshold, high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and postoperative hearing outcome were assessed. Result. Five children with Waardenburg syndrome underwent cochlear implantation. The average age at implantation was 2 years 11 months (ranging from 1 year 9 months to 6 years 3 months). Four patients had congenital profound hearing loss and one patient had progressive hearing loss. Two patients had an inner ear malformation of cochlear incomplete partition type 2. No surgical complication or difficulty was seen in any patient. All patients showed good hearing outcome postoperatively. Conclusion. Cochlear implantation could be a good treatment option for Waardenburg syndrome. PMID:27376080

  3. Exploring Perspectives on Cochlear Implants and Language Acquisition within the Deaf Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implants generated intense debate almost immediately following their introduction in the 1980s. Today, with a vast number of deaf individuals with cochlear implants, the debate about the cochlear implant device and mode of communication continues. Q-methodology was used in this study to explore cochlear implants and language acquisition…

  4. Evaluation of evoked potentials to dyadic tones after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, Pascale; Eichele, Tom; Buechler, Michael; Debener, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz; Dillier, Norbert; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Meyer, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Auditory evoked potentials are tools widely used to assess auditory cortex functions in clinical context. However, in cochlear implant users, electrophysiological measures are challenging due to implant-created artefacts in the EEG. Here, we used independent component analysis to reduce cochlear implant-related artefacts in event-related EEGs of cochlear implant users (n = 12), which allowed detailed spatio-temporal evaluation of auditory evoked potentials by means of dipole source analysis. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetries of auditory evoked potentials to musical sounds in cochlear implant users to evaluate the effect of this type of implantation on neuronal activity. In particular, implant users were presented with two dyadic tonal intervals in an active oddball design and in a passive listening condition. Principally, the results show that independent component analysis is an efficient approach that enables the study of neurophysiological mechanisms of restored auditory function in cochlear implant users. Moreover, our data indicate altered hemispheric asymmetries for dyadic tone processing in implant users compared with listeners with normal hearing (n = 12). We conclude that the evaluation of auditory evoked potentials are of major relevance to understanding auditory cortex function after cochlear implantation and could be of substantial clinical value by indicating the maturation/reorganization of the auditory system after implantation. PMID:19293240

  5. Access to cochlear implants: Time to reflect.

    PubMed

    Raine, Christopher; Atkinson, Helen; Strachan, David R; Martin, Jane M

    2016-04-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) intervention is expensive and accessed mainly by developed countries. The introduction of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and funding via a public health service give children better access to CIs. However for adults large disparities exist between utilization and estimated prevalence. In the UK CI selection criteria are restrictive compared with many other countries. Improved audiological awareness and screening programmes for adults would improve access to hearing technologies that would improve health and quality of life. Hearing loss itself has significant medical and financial burdens on society and by investing in early intervention and using best technology this would mitigate some of the rising associated medical costs. PMID:27099110

  6. Cochlear re-implantation: lessons learnt and the way ahead.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Uma; Sikka, Kapil; Agarwal, Shivani; Kumar, Rakesh; Thakar, Alok; Sharma, Suresh C

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion A cochlear re-implantation procedure is undesirable; however, the cochlear implant surgeon may have to perform a re-implantation procedure occasionally for various reasons. Following standard techniques, implant performance comparable with primary implantation may be achieved. Objective To study the causes and outcomes of cochlear re-implantation in an Asian Indian population. Study design Retrospective analysis of clinical charts over an 18-year period with prospective follow-up of patients. Methods The charts of 534 patients, who underwent cochlear implant, at an Otorhinolaryngology institutional Centre, from January 1997 to January 2015 were studied. Of these, the charts of 18 patients who underwent cochlear re-implantation were studied. The causes and audiological and speech outcomes were analysed. Results Eighteen patients (3.4%) underwent cochlear re-implantation for various reasons. The commonest indication was device failure in seven patients (39%), followed by electrode extrusion in five (28%), trauma in three (11%), electrode migration in two (11%) and improper electrode placement in one (6%) patient. The audiological performance tests and speech tests either remained the same or improved from those achieved for patients undergoing primary implantation, in 87% patients. PMID:26898701

  7. Effects of Cochlear Implants on Children's Reading and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should…

  8. Hearing Preservation Among Patients Undergoing Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Van Abel, Kathryn M.; Dunn, Camille C.; Sladen, Douglas P.; Oleson, Jacob J.; Beatty, Charles W.; Neff, Brian A.; Hansen, Marlan; Gantz, Bruce J.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite successful preservation of low-frequency hearing in patients undergoing cochlear implantation (CI) with shorter electrode lengths, there is still controversy regarding which electrodes maximize hearing preservation (HP). The thin straight electrode array (TSEA) has been suggested as a full cochlear coverage option for HP. However, very little is known regarding its HP potential. Methods A retrospective review was performed at two tertiary academic medical centers, reviewing the electronic records for 52 patients (mean, 58.2 yr; range, 11–85 yr) implanted with the Cochlear Nucleus CI422 Slim Straight (Centennial, CO, USA) electrode array, referred to herein as the thin straight electrode array or TSEA. All patients had a preoperative low-frequency pure-tone average (LFPTA) of 85 dB HL or less. Hearing thresholds were measured at initial activation (t1) and 6 months after activation (t2). HP was assessed by evaluating functional HP using a cutoff level of 85 dB HL PTA. Results At t1, 54% of the subjects had functional hearing; 33% of these subjects had an LFPTA between 71 and 85 dB HL, and 17% had an LFPTA between 56 and 70 dB HL. At t2, 47% of the patients had functional hearing, with 31% having an LFPTA between 71 and 85 dB HL. Discussion Preliminary research suggests that the TSEA has the potential to preserve functional hearing in 54% of patients at t1. However, 22% (n = 6) of the patients who had functional hearing at t1 (n = 28) lost their hearing between t1 and t2. Further studies are needed to evaluate factors that influence HP with the TSEA electrode and determine the speech perception benefits using electric and acoustic hearing over electric alone. PMID:25575373

  9. Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation on Balance Control and Sensory Organization in Adult Patients with Profound Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Parietti-Winkler, Cécile; Lion, Alexis; Montaut-Verient, Bettina; Grosjean, Rémy; Gauchard, Gérome C

    2015-01-01

    Many studies were interested in the consequence of vestibular dysfunction related to cochlear implantation on balance control. This pilot study aimed to assess the effects of unilateral cochlear implantation on the modalities of balance control and sensorimotor strategies. Posturographic and vestibular evaluations were performed in 10 patients (55 ± 20 years) with profound hearing loss who were candidates to undergo unilateral multichannel cochlear implantation. The evaluation was carried out shortly before and one year after surgery. Posturographic tests were also performed in 10 age-matched healthy participants (63 ± 16 years). Vestibular compensation was observed within one year. In addition, postural performances of the patients increased within one year after cochlear implantation, especially in the more complex situations, in which sensory information is either unavailable or conflicting. Before surgery, postural performances were higher in the control group compared to the patients' group. One year after cochlear implantation, postural control was close to normalize. The improvement of postural performance could be explained by a mechanism of vestibular compensation. In addition, the recovery of auditory information which is the consequence of cochlear implantation could lead to an extended exploration of the environment possibly favoring the development of new balance strategies. PMID:26583121

  10. Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation on Balance Control and Sensory Organization in Adult Patients with Profound Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Parietti-Winkler, Cécile; Lion, Alexis; Montaut-Verient, Bettina; Grosjean, Rémy; Gauchard, Gérome C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies were interested in the consequence of vestibular dysfunction related to cochlear implantation on balance control. This pilot study aimed to assess the effects of unilateral cochlear implantation on the modalities of balance control and sensorimotor strategies. Posturographic and vestibular evaluations were performed in 10 patients (55 ± 20 years) with profound hearing loss who were candidates to undergo unilateral multichannel cochlear implantation. The evaluation was carried out shortly before and one year after surgery. Posturographic tests were also performed in 10 age-matched healthy participants (63 ± 16 years). Vestibular compensation was observed within one year. In addition, postural performances of the patients increased within one year after cochlear implantation, especially in the more complex situations, in which sensory information is either unavailable or conflicting. Before surgery, postural performances were higher in the control group compared to the patients' group. One year after cochlear implantation, postural control was close to normalize. The improvement of postural performance could be explained by a mechanism of vestibular compensation. In addition, the recovery of auditory information which is the consequence of cochlear implantation could lead to an extended exploration of the environment possibly favoring the development of new balance strategies. PMID:26583121

  11. Cochlear implant simulator for surgical technique analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turok, Rebecca L.; Labadie, Robert F.; Wanna, George B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Noble, Jack H.

    2014-03-01

    Cochlear Implant (CI) surgery is a procedure in which an electrode array is inserted into the cochlea. The electrode array is used to stimulate auditory nerve fibers and restore hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss. The primary goals when placing the electrode array are to fully insert the array into the cochlea while minimizing trauma to the cochlea. Studying the relationship between surgical outcome and various surgical techniques has been difficult since trauma and electrode placement are generally unknown without histology. Our group has created a CI placement simulator that combines an interactive 3D visualization environment with a haptic-feedback-enabled controller. Surgical techniques and patient anatomy can be varied between simulations so that outcomes can be studied under varied conditions. With this system, we envision that through numerous trials we will be able to statistically analyze how outcomes relate to surgical techniques. As a first test of this system, in this work, we have designed an experiment in which we compare the spatial distribution of forces imparted to the cochlea in the array insertion procedure when using two different but commonly used surgical techniques for cochlear access, called round window and cochleostomy access. Our results suggest that CIs implanted using round window access may cause less trauma to deeper intracochlear structures than cochleostomy techniques. This result is of interest because it challenges traditional thinking in the otological community but might offer an explanation for recent anecdotal evidence that suggests that round window access techniques lead to better outcomes.

  12. Word Learning in Children Following Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Derek M.; Carter, Allyson K.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Ying, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    An experimental procedure was developed to investigate word-learning skills of children who use cochlear implants (CIs). Using interactive play scenarios, 2- to 5-year olds were presented with sets of objects (Beanie Baby stuffed animals) and words for their names that corresponded to salient perceptual attributes (e.g., “horns” for a goat). Their knowledge of the word-object associations was measured immediately after exposure and then following a 2-hour delay. Children who use cochlear implants performed more poorly than age-matched children with typical hearing both receptively and expressively. Both groups of children showed retention of the word-object associations in the delayed testing conditions for words that were previously known. Our findings suggest that although pediatric CI users may have impaired phonological processing skills, their long-term memory for familiar words may be similar to children with typical hearing. Further, the methods that developed in this study should be useful for investigating other aspects of word learning in children who use CIs. PMID:21528108

  13. Emergent literacy in kindergartners with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell, Amanda; Lowenstein, Joanna H; Tarr, Eric; Holloman, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Problem A key ingredient to academic success is being able to read. Deaf individuals have historically failed to develop literacy skills comparable to those of their normal-hearing peers, but early identification and cochlear implants have improved prospects that these children can learn to read at the levels of their peers. The goal of this study was to examine early, or emergent, literacy in these children. Method 27 deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) who had just completed kindergarten were tested on emergent literacy, as well as on cognitive and linguistic skills that support emergent literacy, specifically ones involving phonological awareness, executive functioning, and oral language. 17 kindergartners with normal hearing (NH) and 8 with hearing loss, but who used hearing aids (HAs) served as controls. Outcomes were compared for these three groups of children, regression analyses were performed to see if predictor variables for emergent literacy differed for children with NH and those with CIs, and factors related to the early treatment of hearing loss and prosthesis configuration were examined for children with CIs. Results Performance of children with CIs was roughly one or more standard deviations below the mean performance of children with NH on all tasks, except for syllable counting, reading fluency, and rapid serial naming. Oral language skills explained more variance in emergent literacy for children with CIs than for children with NH. Age of first implant explained moderate amounts of variance for several measures. Having one or two CIs had no effect, but children who had some amount of bimodal experience outperformed children who had none on several measures. Conclusions Even deaf children who have benefitted from early identification, intervention, and implantation are still at risk for problems with emergent literacy that could affect their academic success. This finding means that intensive language support needs to continue through at

  14. Audio-vocal responses elicited in adult cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Torrey M.; Suneel, Deepa; Aronoff, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory deprivation experienced prior to receiving a cochlear implant could compromise neural connections that allow for modulation of vocalization using auditory feedback. In this report, pitch-shift stimuli were presented to adult cochlear implant users to test whether compensatory motor changes in vocal F0 could be elicited. In five of six participants, rapid adjustments in vocal F0 were detected following the stimuli, which resemble the cortically mediated pitch-shift responses observed in typical hearing individuals. These findings suggest that cochlear implants can convey vocal F0 shifts to the auditory pathway that might benefit audio-vocal monitoring. PMID:26520350

  15. Surgical Management of the Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Seth M.; Haynes, David S.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the surgical management of children receiving cochlear implants. It identifies preoperative considerations to select patients likely to benefit, contraindications, some new surgical techniques, complications, special considerations (otitis media, meningitis, head growth, inner ear malformations, and cochlear obstruction).…

  16. Coding of vowellike signals in cochlear implant listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laback, Bernhard; Deutsch, Werner A.; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter

    2004-08-01

    Neural-population interactions resulting from excitation overlap in multi-channel cochlear implants (CI) may cause blurring of the ``internal'' auditory representation of complex sounds such as vowels. In experiment I, confusion matrices for eight German steady-state vowellike signals were obtained from seven CI listeners. Identification performance ranged between 42% and 74% correct. On the basis of an information transmission analysis across all vowels, pairs of most and least frequently confused vowels were selected for each subject. In experiment II, vowel masking patterns (VMPs) were obtained using the previously selected vowels as maskers. The VMPs were found to resemble the ``electrical'' vowel spectra to a large extent, indicating a relatively weak effect of neural-population interactions. Correlation between vowel identification data and VMP spectral similarity, measured by means of several spectral distance metrics, showed that the CI listeners identified the vowels based on differences in the between-peak spectral information as well as the location of spectral peaks. The effect of nonlinear amplitude mapping of acoustic into ``electrical'' vowels, as performed in the implant processors, was evaluated separately and compared to the effect of neural-population interactions. Amplitude mapping was found to cause more blurring than neural-population interactions. Subjects exhibiting strong blurring effects yielded lower overall vowel identification scores.

  17. The development of the Nucleus Freedom Cochlear implant system.

    PubMed

    Patrick, James F; Busby, Peter A; Gibson, Peter J

    2006-12-01

    Cochlear Limited (Cochlear) released the fourth-generation cochlear implant system, Nucleus Freedom, in 2005. Freedom is based on 25 years of experience in cochlear implant research and development and incorporates advances in medicine, implantable materials, electronic technology, and sound coding. This article presents the development of Cochlear's implant systems, with an overview of the first 3 generations, and details of the Freedom system: the CI24RE receiver-stimulator, the Contour Advance electrode, the modular Freedom processor, the available speech coding strategies, the input processing options of Smart Sound to improve the signal before coding as electrical signals, and the programming software. Preliminary results from multicenter studies with the Freedom system are reported, demonstrating better levels of performance compared with the previous systems. The final section presents the most recent implant reliability data, with the early findings at 18 months showing improved reliability of the Freedom implant compared with the earlier Nucleus 3 System. Also reported are some of the findings of Cochlear's collaborative research programs to improve recipient outcomes. Included are studies showing the benefits from bilateral implants, electroacoustic stimulation using an ipsilateral and/or contralateral hearing aid, advanced speech coding, and streamlined speech processor programming. PMID:17172547

  18. Programming, Care, and Troubleshooting of Cochlear Implants for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley-Williams, Andrea J.; Sladen, Douglas P.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current cochlear implant technology, programming strategies, troubleshooting, and care techniques. It considers: device components, initial stimulation, speech coding strategies, use and care, troubleshooting, and the classroom environment. (Contains references.) (DB)

  19. Automatic segmentation of intra-cochlear anatomy in post-implantation CT of unilateral cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Reda, Fitsum A; McRackan, Theodore R; Labadie, Robert F; Dawant, Benoit M; Noble, Jack H

    2014-04-01

    A cochlear implant (CI) is a neural prosthetic device that restores hearing by directly stimulating the auditory nerve using an electrode array that is implanted in the cochlea. In CI surgery, the surgeon accesses the cochlea and makes an opening where he/she inserts the electrode array blind to internal structures of the cochlea. Because of this, the final position of the electrode array relative to intra-cochlear anatomy is generally unknown. We have recently developed an approach for determining electrode array position relative to intra-cochlear anatomy using a pre- and a post-implantation CT. The approach is to segment the intra-cochlear anatomy in the pre-implantation CT, localize the electrodes in the post-implantation CT, and register the two CTs to determine relative electrode array position information. Currently, we are using this approach to develop a CI programming technique that uses patient-specific spatial information to create patient-customized sound processing strategies. However, this technique cannot be used for many CI users because it requires a pre-implantation CT that is not always acquired prior to implantation. In this study, we propose a method for automatic segmentation of intra-cochlear anatomy in post-implantation CT of unilateral recipients, thus eliminating the need for pre-implantation CTs in this population. The method is to segment the intra-cochlear anatomy in the implanted ear using information extracted from the normal contralateral ear and to exploit the intra-subject symmetry in cochlear anatomy across ears. To validate our method, we performed experiments on 30 ears for which both a pre- and a post-implantation CT are available. The mean and the maximum segmentation errors are 0.224 and 0.734mm, respectively. These results indicate that our automatic segmentation method is accurate enough for developing patient-customized CI sound processing strategies for unilateral CI recipients using a post-implantation CT alone. PMID

  20. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  1. Accurate Guitar Tuning by Cochlear Implant Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  2. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Unsuccessful Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munivrana, Boska; Mildner, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    In some cochlear implant users, success is not achieved in spite of optimal clinical factors (including age at implantation, duration of rehabilitation and post-implant hearing level), which may be attributed to disorders at higher levels of the auditory pathway. We used cortical auditory evoked potentials to investigate the ability to perceive…

  3. Bilateral Cochlear Implantation in Children: Experiences and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Andrea; Spitzlei, Vera; Lippert, Karl L.; Keilmann, Annerose

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2006, the University Clinic for Ear Nose and Throat and Communication Disorders in Mainz, Germany, performed 41 bilateral cochlear implantations in children. This article addresses some of the factors to be considered in a decision to bilaterally implant a child, including the age of the child at the first implant, the length of…

  4. Management of Children Using Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Psarros, Colleen; Incerti, Paula; Hill, Mandy

    2001-01-01

    Four case studies identify six factors affecting successful use of a hearing aid with a cochlear implant: duration of hearing aid use prior to implantation, amount of residual hearing in the non-implanted ear, educational and listening demands, cosmetic issues, hearing aid rejection, and extended period of non-use of hearing aid. (Contains…

  5. Cochlear implantation in a patient with Perisylvian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wendy; Axon, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    Perisylvian syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterised by the partial paralysis of muscles, epilepsy and mild to severe mental retardation. It is associated with hearing loss and delay in language and speech development. This presents additional challenges in the assessment of whether a child is suitable for cochlea implantation. The method to determine whether the hearing loss is of cochlear or central origin and the progress of a child with Perisylvian syndrome who received a cochlear implant is discussed. PMID:17549806

  6. Current research on music perception in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Limb, Charles J; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2012-02-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the state of music perception with cochlear implant (CI) users. They discuss methods of assessment and results of studies of the aspects of music perception, melody, timbre, rhythm, and so forth in individuals with cochlear implants. They discuss neural mechanisms of music perception and the anticipation of broader acceptance of standardized tests for music perception in CI users. PMID:22115686

  7. Speech intelligibility of children with cochlear implants, tactile aids, or hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Osberger, M J; Maso, M; Sam, L K

    1993-02-01

    Speech intelligibility was measured in 31 children who used the 3M/House single-channel implant (n = 12), the Nucleus 22-Channel Cochlear Implant System (n = 15), or the Tactaid II + two-channel vibrotactile aid (n = 4). The subjects were divided into subgroups based on age at onset of deafness (early or late). The speech intelligibility of the experimental subjects was compared to that of children who were profoundly hearing impaired who used conventional hearing aids (n = 12) or no sensory aid (n = 2). The subjects with early onset of deafness who received their single- or multichannel cochlear implant before age 10 demonstrated the highest speech intelligibility, whereas subjects who did not receive their device until after age 10 had the poorest speech intelligibility. There was no obvious difference in the speech intelligibility scores of these subjects as a function of type of device (implant or tactile aid). On the average, the postimplant or tactile aid speech intelligibility of the subjects with early onset of deafness was similar to that of hearing aid users with hearing levels between 100 and 110 dB HL and limited hearing in the high frequencies. The speech intelligibility of subjects with late onset of deafness showed marked deterioration after the onset of deafness with relatively large improvements by most subjects after they received a single- or multichannel implant. The one subject with late onset of deafness who used a tactile aid showed no improvement in speech intelligibility. PMID:8450658

  8. [A modified speech enhancement algorithm for electronic cochlear implant and its digital signal processing realization].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulin; Tian, Xuelong

    2014-08-01

    In order to improve the speech quality and auditory perceptiveness of electronic cochlear implant under strong noise background, a speech enhancement system used for electronic cochlear implant front-end was constructed. Taking digital signal processing (DSP) as the core, the system combines its multi-channel buffered serial port (McBSP) data transmission channel with extended audio interface chip TLV320AIC10, so speech signal acquisition and output with high speed are realized. Meanwhile, due to the traditional speech enhancement method which has the problems as bad adaptability, slow convergence speed and big steady-state error, versiera function and de-correlation principle were used to improve the existing adaptive filtering algorithm, which effectively enhanced the quality of voice communications. Test results verified the stability of the system and the de-noising performance of the algorithm, and it also proved that they could provide clearer speech signals for the deaf or tinnitus patients. PMID:25464779

  9. [A modified speech enhancement algorithm for electronic cochlear implant and its digital signal processing realization].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulin; Tian, Xuelong

    2014-08-01

    In order to improve the speech quality and auditory perceptiveness of electronic cochlear implant under strong noise background, a speech enhancement system used for electronic cochlear implant front-end was constructed. Taking digital signal processing (DSP) as the core, the system combines its multi-channel buffered serial port (McBSP) data transmission channel with extended audio interface chip TLV320AIC10, so speech signal acquisition and output with high speed are realized. Meanwhile, due to the traditional speech enhancement method which has the problems as bad adaptability, slow convergence speed and big steady-state error, versiera function and de-correlation principle were used to improve the existing adaptive filtering algorithm, which effectively enhanced the quality of voice communications. Test results verified the stability of the system and the de-noising performance of the algorithm, and it also proved that they could provide clearer speech signals for the deaf or tinnitus patients. PMID:25508410

  10. Maximizing cochlear implant patients' performance with advanced speech training procedures.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J

    2008-08-01

    Advances in implant technology and speech processing have provided great benefit to many cochlear implant patients. However, some patients receive little benefit from the latest technology, even after many years' experience with the device. Moreover, even the best cochlear implant performers have great difficulty understanding speech in background noise, and music perception and appreciation remain major challenges. Recent studies have shown that targeted auditory training can significantly improve cochlear implant patients' speech recognition performance. Such benefits are not only observed in poorly performing patients, but also in good performers under difficult listening conditions (e.g., speech noise, telephone speech, music, etc.). Targeted auditory training has also been shown to enhance performance gains provided by new implant devices and/or speech processing strategies. These studies suggest that cochlear implantation alone may not fully meet the needs of many patients, and that additional auditory rehabilitation may be needed to maximize the benefits of the implant device. Continuing research will aid in the development of efficient and effective training protocols and materials, thereby minimizing the costs (in terms of time, effort and resources) associated with auditory rehabilitation while maximizing the benefits of cochlear implantation for all recipients. PMID:18295992

  11. Success of children with cochlear implants in mainstream educational settings.

    PubMed

    Nevins, M E; Chute, P M

    1995-09-01

    The availability of cochlear implant technology has made mainstreaming a more reachable social and academic goal for profoundly deaf children. Traditionally, the profoundly deaf child has required more self-contained education. It has been the hard-of-hearing child who reached the mainstream education classroom during the elementary years. Cochlear implant recipients, implanted early and receiving appropriate educational services that maximize learning across all domains, have shown a significant trend toward moving from a more self-contained to a less restrictive educational environment. Children with implants are making these transitions earlier than the larger majority of profoundly deaf children using traditional amplification. PMID:7668592

  12. Electrophysiological channel interactions using focused multipolar stimulation for cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Shefin S.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Wise, Andrew K.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Fallon, James B.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Speech intelligibility with existing multichannel cochlear implants (CIs) is thought to be limited by poor spatial selectivity and interactions between CI channels caused by overlapping activation with monopolar (MP) stimulation. Our previous studies have shown that focused multipolar (FMP) and tripolar (TP) stimulation produce more restricted neural activation in the inferior colliculus (IC), compared to MP stimulation. Approach. This study explored interactions in the IC produced by simultaneous stimulation of two CI channels. We recorded multi-unit neural activity in the IC of anaesthetized cats with normal and severely degenerated spiral ganglion neuron populations in response to FMP, TP and MP stimulation from a 14 channel CI. Stimuli were applied to a ‘fixed’ CI channel, chosen toward the middle of the cochlear electrode array, and the effects of simultaneously stimulating a more apical ‘test’ CI channel were measured as a function of spatial separation between the two stimulation channels and stimulus level of the fixed channel. Channel interactions were quantified by changes in neural responses and IC threshold (i.e., threshold shift) elicited by simultaneous stimulation of two CI channels, compared to stimulation of the test channel alone. Main results. Channel interactions were significantly lower for FMP and TP than for MP stimulation (p < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was observed between FMP and TP stimulation. With MP stimulation, threshold shifts increased with decreased inter-electrode spacing and increased stimulus levels of the fixed channel. For FMP and TP stimulation, channel interactions were found to be similar for different inter-electrode spacing and stimulus levels of the fixed channel. Significance. The present study demonstrates how the degree of channel interactions in a CI can be controlled using stimulation configurations such as FMP and TP; such knowledge is essential in enhancing CI function in complex

  13. [How does a cochlear implant speech processor work?].

    PubMed

    Adunka, O; Kiefer, J

    2005-11-01

    Cochlear implants have become a standard treatment modality for sensorineural hearing loss. In this review article, assembly and function of a cochlear implant are described. Cochlear implants replace the normal inner ear by transforming acoustic sound signals into electric stimuli and deliver these to the auditory nerve. Speech processors translate the acoustic signal of the microphone into one that fits electrostimulation of the auditory system. In multiple steps, the signal has to be analyzed and processed to fit the demands of electrical stimulation. The speech processor then sends commands and the energy for stimulation to the implanted parts via a transcutaneous high frequency radio link. The implant refers the information as electrical stimuli to each electrode contact. PMID:16358193

  14. Abnormal pitch perception produced by cochlear implant stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects' acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1-2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the "mean" shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large "variance" of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance. PMID:24551131

  15. Abnormal Pitch Perception Produced by Cochlear Implant Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects’ acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1–2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the “mean” shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large “variance” of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance. PMID:24551131

  16. Speech perception abilities of children with cochlear implants, tactile aids, or hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Osberger, M J; Robbins, A M; Miyamoto, R T; Berry, S W; Myres, W A; Kessler, K S; Pope, M L

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was first, to compare the performance of three matched groups of experimental subjects who used either a single-channel cochlear implant, a multichannel cochlear implant, or a two-channel vibrotactile aid on a battery of speech perception measures, and second, to compare the performance of subjects with residual hearing who used hearing aids to that of the three groups of experimental subjects. The results revealed that the subjects using hearing aids achieved the highest scores on all measures. The performance of the group of multichannel implant users was significantly higher than that of the single-channel implant users on tests involving discrimination of speech features, categorization of stress patterns, closed-set identification of familiar words, and identification of common phrases with and without visual cues. The performance of the subjects using 3M/House and Tactaid II devices was similar on all tests except those requiring integration of auditory or tactile cues and visual cues, on which the 3M/House device users achieved significantly higher scores than did the Tactaid II device users. PMID:2069171

  17. Noise reduction technologies implemented in head-worn preprocessors for improving cochlear implant performance in reverberant noise fields.

    PubMed

    Chung, King; Nelson, Lance; Teske, Melissa

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a multichannel adaptive directional microphone and a modulation-based noise reduction algorithm could enhance cochlear implant performance in reverberant noise fields. A hearing aid was modified to output electrical signals (ePreprocessor) and a cochlear implant speech processor was modified to receive electrical signals (eProcessor). The ePreprocessor was programmed to flat frequency response and linear amplification. Cochlear implant listeners wore the ePreprocessor-eProcessor system in three reverberant noise fields: 1) one noise source with variable locations; 2) three noise sources with variable locations; and 3) eight evenly spaced noise sources from 0° to 360°. Listeners' speech recognition scores were tested when the ePreprocessor was programmed to omnidirectional microphone (OMNI), omnidirectional microphone plus noise reduction algorithm (OMNI + NR), and adaptive directional microphone plus noise reduction algorithm (ADM + NR). They were also tested with their own cochlear implant speech processor (CI_OMNI) in the three noise fields. Additionally, listeners rated overall sound quality preferences on recordings made in the noise fields. Results indicated that ADM+NR produced the highest speech recognition scores and the most preferable rating in all noise fields. Factors requiring attention in the hearing aid-cochlear implant integration process are discussed. PMID:22750449

  18. Within-Subject Comparison of Word Recognition and Spiral Ganglion Cell Count in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Seyyedi, Mohammad; Viana, Lucas M; Nadol, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although published reports have not demonstrated a positive correlation between the number of residual spiral ganglion cells (SGC) and word recognition scores in patients with unilateral multichannel cochlear implants, this study was designed to retest this hypothesis in patients with bilateral multichannel cochlear implants. Materials and Methods From a pool of 133 temporal bones, all subjects with bilateral multichannel cochlear implants who were deafened bilaterally by the same etiology were studied. A total of 12 temporal bones from 6 subjects were identified and processed after death for histology. The SGCs were counted by standard techniques. The differences between left and right SGC counts as well as the differences in word recognition scores were calculated for each subject. Correlation analysis was performed between the differences of SGC counts and the differences of word recognition scores. Results Differences in SGC counts were highly correlated with the differences in word recognition scores (R=0.934, P-value= 0.006). Conclusion This study suggests higher residual SGCs predicted better performance after implantation in a given patient. The results also support attempts to identify factors which may promote survival of SGCs. PMID:25120196

  19. Depth of electrode insertion and postoperative performance in humans with cochlear implants: a histopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonhan; Nadol, Joseph B; Eddington, Donald K

    2010-01-01

    The depth of electrode insertion of a multichannel cochlear implant has been suggested as a clinical variable that may correlate with word recognition using the implant. The current study evaluates this relationship using the human temporal bone collection at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. Twenty-seven temporal bones of subjects with cochlear implants were studied. Temporal bones were removed at autopsy, fixed and prepared for histological study by standard techniques. Specimens were then serially sectioned, and reconstructed by two-dimensional methods. Three measures of length were made from each subject's reconstruction: (1) depth of insertion (DI) of the cochlear implant electrode array, from the round window to the array's apical tip; (2) inserted length (IL) from the cochleostomy to the apical tip of the array, and (3) cochlear duct length (CDL) from the round window to the helicotrema. The active electrode length (AEL) was defined as the distance between the most apical and most basal electrodes of the array. Stepwise regression was used to identify whether subsets of six metrics associated with insertion depth (DI, DI/AEL, DI/CDL, IL, IL/AEL and IL/CDL), duration of deafness, sound-processing strategy, potential for central impairment and age at implantation accounted for significant across-subject variance in the last recorded NU-6 word score measured during each subject's life. Age at implantation and potential for central impairment account for significant percentages of the across-subject variance in NU-6 word scores for the 27 subjects studied. None of the insertion metrics accounted for significant performance variance, even when the variance associated with the other variables was controlled. These results, together with those of previous studies, are consistent with a relatively weak association between electrode insertion depth and speech reception. PMID:20203481

  20. Single and Multiple Microphone Noise Reduction Strategies in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi; Friedland, David R.

    2012-01-01

    To restore hearing sensation, cochlear implants deliver electrical pulses to the auditory nerve by relying on sophisticated signal processing algorithms that convert acoustic inputs to electrical stimuli. Although individuals fitted with cochlear implants perform well in quiet, in the presence of background noise, the speech intelligibility of cochlear implant listeners is more susceptible to background noise than that of normal hearing listeners. Traditionally, to increase performance in noise, single-microphone noise reduction strategies have been used. More recently, a number of approaches have suggested that speech intelligibility in noise can be improved further by making use of two or more microphones, instead. Processing strategies based on multiple microphones can better exploit the spatial diversity of speech and noise because such strategies rely mostly on spatial information about the relative position of competing sound sources. In this article, we identify and elucidate the most significant theoretical aspects that underpin single- and multi-microphone noise reduction strategies for cochlear implants. More analytically, we focus on strategies of both types that have been shown to be promising for use in current-generation implant devices. We present data from past and more recent studies, and furthermore we outline the direction that future research in the area of noise reduction for cochlear implants could follow. PMID:22923425

  1. Cochlear Implantation, Enhancements, Transhumanism and Posthumanism: Some Human Questions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    Biomedical engineering technologies such as brain-machine interfaces and neuroprosthetics are advancements which assist human beings in varied ways. There are exciting yet speculative visions of how the neurosciences and bioengineering may influence human nature. However, these could be preparing a possible pathway towards an enhanced and even posthuman future. This article seeks to investigate several ethical themes and wider questions of enhancement, transhumanism and posthumanism. Four themes of interest are: autonomy, identity, futures, and community. Three larger questions can be asked: will everyone be enhanced? Will we be "human" if we are not, one day, transhuman? Should we be enhanced or not? The article proceeds by concentrating on a widespread and sometimes controversial application: the cochlear implant, an auditory prosthesis implanted into Deaf patients. Cochlear implantation and its reception in both the deaf and hearing communities have a distinctive moral discourse, which can offer surprising insights. The paper begins with several points about the enhancement of human beings, transhumanism's reach beyond the human, and posthuman aspirations. Next it focuses on cochlear implants on two sides. Firstly, a shorter consideration of what technologies may do to humans in a transhumanist world. Secondly, a deeper analysis of cochlear implantation's unique socio-political movement, its ethical explanations and cultural experiences linked with pediatric cochlear implantation-and how those wary of being thrust towards posthumanism could marshal such ideas by analogy. As transhumanism approaches, the issues and questions merit continuing intense analysis. PMID:25962718

  2. Localization ability with bimodal hearing aids and bilateral cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeber, Bernhard U.; Baumann, Uwe; Fastl, Hugo

    2004-09-01

    After successful cochlear implantation in one ear, some patients continue to use a hearing aid at the contralateral ear. They report an improved reception of speech, especially in noise, as well as a better perception of music when the hearing aid and cochlear implant are used in this bimodal combination. Some individuals in this bimodal patient group also report the impression of an improved localization ability. Similar experiences are reported by the group of bilateral cochlear implantees. In this study, a survey of 11 bimodally and 4 bilaterally equipped cochlear implant users was carried out to assess localization ability. Individuals in the bimodal implant group were all provided with the same type of hearing aid in the opposite ear, and subjects in the bilateral implant group used cochlear implants of the same manufacturer on each ear. Subjects adjusted the spot of a computer-controlled laser-pointer to the perceived direction of sound incidence in the frontal horizontal plane by rotating a trackball. Two subjects of the bimodal group who had substantial residual hearing showed localization ability in the bimodal configuration, whereas using each single device only the subject with better residual hearing was able to discriminate the side of sound origin. Five other subjects with more pronounced hearing loss displayed an ability for side discrimination through the use of bimodal aids, while four of them were already able to discriminate the side with a single device. Of the bilateral cochlear implant group one subject showed localization accuracy close to that of normal hearing subjects. This subject was also able to discriminate the side of sound origin using the first implanted device alone. The other three bilaterally equipped subjects showed limited localization ability using both devices. Among them one subject demonstrated a side-discrimination ability using only the first implanted device.

  3. Comparison of benefit from vibrotactile aid and cochlear implant for postlinguistically deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Skinner, M W; Binzer, S M; Fredrickson, J M; Smith, P G; Holden, T A; Holden, L K; Juelich, M F; Turner, B A

    1988-10-01

    Four postlinguistically deaf adults were evaluated presurgically with a one- or two-channel vibrotactile aid and postsurgically with a multichannel, multielectrode, intracochlear implant. Although the vibrotactile aid provided awareness of sound and enhanced flow of conversation, benefit to lipreading was small on videotaped tests and speech tracking. Scores on recorded, sound-only speech tests were not significantly above chance except in discrimination of noise from voice. With the cochlear implant, benefit to lipreading was significantly greater than with the vibrotactile aid, and scores on sound-only tests were significantly above chance. Communication was markedly better with the implant than with the vibrotactile aid. In counseling those who get no benefit from a hearing aid, the results of this study provide data on the amount of benefit one- or two-channel vibrotactile aids provide postlinguistically deaf adults who are subsequently implanted. PMID:3172956

  4. Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccine=MPSV4 Meningococcal conjugate vaccine=MenACWY Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants ... References FACT SHEET What You Should Know Pneumococcal Vaccine Recommendations Pneumococcal Vaccination for Cochlear Implant Candidates and ...

  5. The cochlear implant. A technology for the profoundly deaf.

    PubMed

    Lea, A R; Hailey, D M

    1995-01-01

    The cochlear implant is a device that enables the profoundly deaf to hear. This article considers the nature of the technology, the need for rehabilitation programs for those who are implanted and the evidence of benefits from this approach. A preliminary economic assessment suggests that costs per QALY for this technology would be of the order of $ 14,000 for children and $ 22,000 for adults. Cochlear implantation appears to be superior to vibrotactile devices, and is an effective technology for appropriately selected persons. PMID:7791692

  6. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Anne E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors sought to determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12 and 38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5 years, better…

  7. Motor Development of Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gheysen, Freja; Loots, Gerrit; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a cochlear implant (CI) on the motor development of deaf children. The study involved 36 mainstreamed deaf children (15 boys, 21 girls; 4- to 12-years old) without any developmental problems. Of these children, 20 had been implanted. Forty-three hearing children constituted a comparison…

  8. Profiles of Vocal Development in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Young, Nancy M.; Nathani, Suneeti

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of cochlear implant experience on prelinguistic vocal development in young deaf children. Procedure: A prospective longitudinal research design was used to document the sequence and time course of vocal development in 7 children who were implanted between 10 and 36 months…

  9. Retrolabyrinthine approach for cochlear nerve preservation in neurofibromatosis type 2 and simultaneous cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Monteiro, Tatiana Alves; Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valeria Schmidt; de Brito, Rubens

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Few cases of cochlear implantation (CI) in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients had been reported in the literature. The approaches described were translabyrinthine, retrosigmoid or middle cranial fossa. Objectives: To describe a case of a NF2- deafened-patient who underwent to vestibular schwannoma resection via RLA with cochlear nerve preservation and CI through the round window, at the same surgical time. Resumed Report: A 36-year-old woman with severe bilateral hearing loss due to NF2 was submitted to vestibular schwannoma resection and simultaneous CI. Functional assessment of cochlear nerve was performed by electrical promontory stimulation. Complete tumor removal was accomplishment via RLA with anatomic and functional cochlear and facial nerve preservation. Cochlear electrode array was partially inserted via round window. Sound field hearing threshold improvement was achieved. Mean tonal threshold was 46.2 dB HL. The patient could only detect environmental sounds and human voice but cannot discriminate vowels, words nor do sentences at 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Cochlear implantation is a feasible auditory restoration option in NF2 when cochlear anatomic and functional nerve preservation is achieved. The RLA is adequate for this purpose and features as an option for hearing preservation in NF2 patients. PMID:25992034

  10. Electrode migration after cochlear implant surgery: more common than expected?

    PubMed

    Dietz, Aarno; Wennström, Minna; Lehtimäki, Antti; Löppönen, Heikki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    The overall complication rate of cochlear implant surgery is low and so-called electrode failures (electrode migration, misplacement, etc.,) account for only a minority of all complications. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of electrode migration as the cause for increased impedance values and non-auditory stimulation in the basal channels. Within the scope of a quality control process, the cochlear implant database of the Kuopio University Hospital (Finland) was reviewed. Patients with gradual elevation of impedance values and/or non-auditory stimulation of the basal electrode channels were re-examined and cone-beam computed tomography was administered. There were 162 cochlear implant recipients and 201 implanted devices registered in the database. A total of 18 patients (18 devices) were identified having significantly increased impedance values or non-auditory stimulation of the basal electrodes. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed extra-cochlear electrodes in 12 of these patients due to the migration of the electrode array. All extruded electrodes were lateral wall electrodes, i.e., straight electrode arrays (Cochlear CI422 and Med-El devices). The most common feature of electrode migration was the gradual increase of the impedance values in the basal electrodes, even though telemetry could also be unsuspicious. Electrode migration after cochlear implant surgery may be more common than previously reported. At surgery, special attention should be paid to the reliable fixation of the electrode array. This study underlines the importance of postoperative imaging after cochlear implant surgery. PMID:26164294

  11. Speech Intelligibility and Prosody Production in Children with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Steven B.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Phan, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between speech intelligibility and prosody production in children who use cochlear implants. Methods The Beginner's Intelligibility Test (BIT) and Prosodic Utterance Production (PUP) task were administered to 15 children who use cochlear implants and 10 children with normal hearing. Adult listeners with normal hearing judged the intelligibility of the words in the BIT sentences, identified the PUP sentences as one of four grammatical or emotional moods (i.e., declarative, interrogative, happy, or sad), and rated the PUP sentences according to how well they thought the child conveyed the designated mood. Results Percent correct scores were higher for intelligibility than for prosody and higher for children with normal hearing than for children with cochlear implants. Declarative sentences were most readily identified and received the highest ratings by adult listeners; interrogative sentences were least readily identified and received the lowest ratings. Correlations between intelligibility and all mood identification and rating scores except declarative were not significant. Discussion The findings suggest that the development of speech intelligibility progresses ahead of prosody in both children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing; however, children with normal hearing still perform better than children with cochlear implants on measures of intelligibility and prosody even after accounting for hearing age. Problems with interrogative intonation may be related to more general restrictions on rising intonation, and the correlation results indicate that intelligibility and sentence intonation may be relatively dissociated at these ages. PMID:22717120

  12. Design for a simplified cochlear implant system.

    PubMed

    An, Soon Kwan; Park, Se-Ik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lee, Choong Jae; Byun, Kyung Min; Sung, Jung Hyun; Wilson, Blake S; Rebscher, Stephen J; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Sung June

    2007-06-01

    A simplified cochlear implant (CI) system would be appropriate for widespread use in developing countries. Here, we describe a CI that we have designed to realize such a concept. The system implements 8 channels of processing and stimulation using the continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) strategy. A generic digital signal processing (DSP) chip is used for the processing, and the filtering functions are performed with a fast Fourier transform (FFT) of a microphone or other input. Data derived from the processing are transmitted through an inductive link using pulse width modulation (PWM) encoding and amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation. The same link is used in the reverse direction for backward telemetry of electrode and system information. A custom receiver-stimulator chip has been developed that demodulates incoming data using pulse counting and produces charge balanced biphasic pulses at 1000 pulses/s/electrode. This chip is encased in a titanium package that is hermetically sealed using a simple but effective method. A low cost metal-silicon hybrid mold has been developed for fabricating an intracochlear electrode array with 16 ball-shaped stimulating contacts. PMID:17554817

  13. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart, followed by 4 environmental sound training sessions conducted on separate days in 1 week, and concluded with 2 posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Each testing session included an environmental sound test, which consisted of 40 familiar everyday sounds, each represented by 4 different tokens, as well as the Consonant Nucleus Consonant (CNC) word test, and Revised Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN-R) sentence test. Results Environmental sounds scores were lower than for either of the speech tests. Following training, there was a significant average improvement of 15.8 points in environmental sound perception, which persisted 1 week later after training was discontinued. No significant improvements were observed for either speech test. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that environmental sound perception, which remains problematic even for experienced CI patients, can be improved with a home-based computer training regimen. Such computer-based training may thus provide an effective low-cost approach to rehabilitation for CI users, and potentially, other hearing impaired populations. PMID:25633579

  14. Temporal feature perception in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Timm, Lydia; Agrawal, Deepashri; C Viola, Filipa; Sandmann, Pascale; Debener, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Wittfoth, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    For the perception of timbre of a musical instrument, the attack time is known to hold crucial information. The first 50 to 150 ms of sound onset reflect the excitation mechanism, which generates the sound. Since auditory processing and music perception in particular are known to be hampered in cochlear implant (CI) users, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study with an oddball paradigm to evaluate the processing of small differences in musical sound onset. The first 60 ms of a cornet sound were manipulated in order to examine whether these differences are detected by CI users and normal-hearing controls (NH controls), as revealed by auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). Our analysis focused on the N1 as an exogenous component known to reflect physical stimuli properties as well as on the P2 and the Mismatch Negativity (MMN). Our results revealed different N1 latencies as well as P2 amplitudes and latencies for the onset manipulations in both groups. An MMN could be elicited only in the NH control group. Together with additional findings that suggest an impact of musical training on CI users' AEPs, our findings support the view that impaired timbre perception in CI users is at partly due to altered sound onset feature detection. PMID:23028971

  15. Temporal Feature Perception in Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Lydia; Agrawal, Deepashri; C. Viola, Filipa; Sandmann, Pascale; Debener, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Wittfoth, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    For the perception of timbre of a musical instrument, the attack time is known to hold crucial information. The first 50 to 150 ms of sound onset reflect the excitation mechanism, which generates the sound. Since auditory processing and music perception in particular are known to be hampered in cochlear implant (CI) users, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study with an oddball paradigm to evaluate the processing of small differences in musical sound onset. The first 60 ms of a cornet sound were manipulated in order to examine whether these differences are detected by CI users and normal-hearing controls (NH controls), as revealed by auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). Our analysis focused on the N1 as an exogenous component known to reflect physical stimuli properties as well as on the P2 and the Mismatch Negativity (MMN). Our results revealed different N1 latencies as well as P2 amplitudes and latencies for the onset manipulations in both groups. An MMN could be elicited only in the NH control group. Together with additional findings that suggest an impact of musical training on CI users’ AEPs, our findings support the view that impaired timbre perception in CI users is at partly due to altered sound onset feature detection. PMID:23028971

  16. Hearing Experience and Receptive Vocabulary Development in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Mary K.; Pisoni, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition"…

  17. Modulation frequency discrimination with single and multiple channels in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Galvin, John J; Oba, Sandy; Başkent, Deniz; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2015-06-01

    Temporal envelope cues convey important speech information for cochlear implant (CI) users. Many studies have explored CI users' single-channel temporal envelope processing. However, in clinical CI speech processors, temporal envelope information is processed by multiple channels. Previous studies have shown that amplitude modulation frequency discrimination (AMFD) thresholds are better when temporal envelopes are delivered to multiple rather than single channels. In clinical fitting, current levels on single channels must often be reduced to accommodate multi-channel loudness summation. As such, it is unclear whether the multi-channel advantage in AMFD observed in previous studies was due to coherent envelope information distributed across the cochlea or to greater loudness associated with multi-channel stimulation. In this study, single- and multi-channel AMFD thresholds were measured in CI users. Multi-channel component electrodes were either widely or narrowly spaced to vary the degree of overlap between neural populations. The reference amplitude modulation (AM) frequency was 100 Hz, and coherent modulation was applied to all channels. In Experiment 1, single- and multi-channel AMFD thresholds were measured at similar loudness. In this case, current levels on component channels were higher for single-than for multi-channel AM stimuli, and the modulation depth was approximately 100% of the perceptual dynamic range (i.e., between threshold and maximum acceptable loudness). Results showed no significant difference in AMFD thresholds between similarly loud single- and multi-channel modulated stimuli. In Experiment 2, single- and multi-channel AMFD thresholds were compared at substantially different loudness. In this case, current levels on component channels were the same for single- and multi-channel stimuli ("summation-adjusted" current levels) and the same range of modulation (in dB) was applied to the component channels for both single- and multi-channel

  18. Modulation frequency discrimination with single and multiple channels in cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, John J.; Oba, Sandy; Başkent, Deniz; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Temporal envelope cues convey important speech information for cochlear implant (CI) users. Many studies have explored CI users’ single-channel temporal envelope processing. However, in clinical CI speech processors, temporal envelope information is processed by multiple channels. Previous studies have shown that amplitude modulation frequency discrimination (AMFD) thresholds are better when temporal envelopes are delivered to multiple rather than single channels. In clinical fitting, current levels on single channels must often be reduced to accommodate multi-channel loudness summation. As such, it is unclear whether the multi-channel advantage in AMFD observed in previous studies was due to coherent envelope information distributed across the cochlea or to greater loudness associated with multi-channel stimulation. In this study, single- and multi-channel AMFD thresholds were measured in CI users. Multi-channel component electrodes were either widely or narrowly spaced to vary the degree of overlap between neural populations. The reference amplitude modulation (AM) frequency was 100 Hz, and coherent modulation was applied to all channels. In Experiment 1, single- and multi-channel AMFD thresholds were measured at similar loudness. In this case, current levels on component channels were higher for single- than for multi-channel AM stimuli, and the modulation depth was approximately 100% of the perceptual dynamic range (i.e., between threshold and maximum acceptable loudness). Results showed no significant difference in AMFD thresholds between similarly loud single- and multi-channel modulated stimuli. In Experiment 2, single- and multi-channel AMFD thresholds were compared at substantially different loudness. In this case, current levels on component channels were the same for single-and multi-channel stimuli (“summation-adjusted” current levels) and the same range of modulation (in dB) was applied to the component channels for both single- and multi-channel

  19. Estimation of risks associated with paediatric cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J Cyne; Smith, Andrée Durieux; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Annette; Angus, Douglas; Benzies, Karen; Schramm, David

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the rates of complications associated with paediatric cochlear implantation use: a) at one Canadian cochlear implant (CI) centre, and b) in the published literature. It comprised a retrospective hospital-based chart review and a concurrent review of complications in the published literature. There were 224 children who had undergone surgery from 1994 to June 2007. Results indicate that the rates of complications at the local Canadian paediatric CI centre are not significantly different from the literature rates for all examined complication types. This hospital-based retrospective chart review and review of the literature provide readers with an estimation of the risks to aid in evidence-based decision-making surrounding paediatric cochlear implantation. PMID:19655302

  20. Cochlear Implantation in a Patient with Kabuki Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vesseur, Annemarie; Cillessen, Eva; Mylanus, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Criteria for cochlear implants are expanding and now include children with disabilities in addition to hearing loss, such as those with Kabuki syndrome (KS). This case report describes language outcomes and changes in the quality of life of a female child with KS after cochlear implantation. The subject had a profound progressive sensorineural hearing loss, cognitive impairments, and other disabilities and communicated using vocalized sounds and the Dutch Sign Language. After cochlear implantation at an age of nine years and three months, the patient displayed no progress in speech production and minimal progress in receptive language development, but she had an increased awareness of the world and an increase in the quality of life. PMID:27341000

  1. [Cochlear implant in children: rational, indications and cost/efficacy].

    PubMed

    Martini, A; Bovo, R; Trevisi, P; Forli, F; Berrettini, S

    2013-06-01

    A cochlear implant (CI) is a partially implanted electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound and support speech to severely to profoundly hearing impaired patients. It is constituted by an external portion, that usually sits behind the ear and an internal portion surgically placed under the skin. The external components include a microphone connected to a speech processor that selects and arranges sounds pucked up by the microphone. This is connected to a transmitter coil, worn on the side of the head, which transmits data to an internal receiver coil placed under the skin. The received data are delivered to an array of electrodes that are surgically implanted within the cochlea. The primary neural targets of the electrodes are the spiral ganglion cells which innervate fibers of the auditory nerve. When the electrodes are activated by the signal, they send a current along the auditory nerve and auditory pathways to the auditory cortex. Children and adults who are profoundly or severely hearing impaired can be fitted with cochlear implants. According to the Food and Drug Administration, approximately 188,000 people worldwide have received implants. In Italy it is extimated that there are about 6-7000 implanted patients, with an average of 700 CI surgeries per year. Cochlear implantation, followed by intensive postimplantation speech therapy, can help young children to acquire speech, language, and social skills. Early implantation provides exposure to sounds that can be helpful during the critical period when children learn speech and language skills. In 2000, the Food and Drug Administration lowered the age of eligibility to 12 months for one type of CI. With regard to the results after cochlear implantation in relation to early implantation, better linguistic results are reported in children implanted before 12 months of life, even if no sufficient data exist regarding the relation between this advantage and the duration of implant use and how long

  2. PET-imaging of brain plasticity after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Strelnikov, K; Marx, M; Lagleyre, S; Fraysse, B; Deguine, O; Barone, P

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we review the PET neuroimaging literature, which indicates peculiarities of brain networks involved in speech restoration after cochlear implantation. We consider data on implanted patients during stimulation as well as during resting state, which indicates basic long-term reorganisation of brain functional architecture. On the basis of our analysis of neuroimaging literature and considering our own studies, we indicate that auditory recovery in deaf patients after cochlear implantation partly relies on visual cues. The brain develops mechanisms of audio-visual integration as a strategy to achieve high levels of speech recognition. It turns out that this neuroimaging evidence is in line with behavioural findings of better audiovisual integration in these patients. Thus, strong visually and audio-visually based rehabilitation during the first months after cochlear implantation would significantly improve and fasten the functional recovery of speech intelligibility and other auditory functions in these patients. We provide perspectives for further neuroimaging studies in cochlear implanted patients, which would help understand brain organisation to restore auditory cognitive processing in the implanted patients and would potentially suggest novel approaches for their rehabilitation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25448166

  3. Automatic Model Generation Framework for Computational Simulation of Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Mangado, Nerea; Ceresa, Mario; Duchateau, Nicolas; Kjer, Hans Martin; Vera, Sergio; Dejea Velardo, Hector; Mistrik, Pavel; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Fagertun, Jens; Noailly, Jérôme; Piella, Gemma; González Ballester, Miguel Ángel

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments in computational modeling of cochlear implantation are promising to study in silico the performance of the implant before surgery. However, creating a complete computational model of the patient's anatomy while including an external device geometry remains challenging. To address such a challenge, we propose an automatic framework for the generation of patient-specific meshes for finite element modeling of the implanted cochlea. First, a statistical shape model is constructed from high-resolution anatomical μCT images. Then, by fitting the statistical model to a patient's CT image, an accurate model of the patient-specific cochlea anatomy is obtained. An algorithm based on the parallel transport frame is employed to perform the virtual insertion of the cochlear implant. Our automatic framework also incorporates the surrounding bone and nerve fibers and assigns constitutive parameters to all components of the finite element model. This model can then be used to study in silico the effects of the electrical stimulation of the cochlear implant. Results are shown on a total of 25 models of patients. In all cases, a final mesh suitable for finite element simulations was obtained, in an average time of 94 s. The framework has proven to be fast and robust, and is promising for a detailed prognosis of the cochlear implantation surgery. PMID:26715210

  4. A case report: the first successful cochlear implant in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byaruhanga, Richard; Roland, J Thomas; Buname, Gustav; Kakande, Emily; Awubwa, Michael; Ndorelire, Chris; Namwagala, Justine

    2015-12-01

    Hearing impairment is a significant disability. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 80% of the world's approximately 120 million people with hearing impairment live in developing countries. Cochlear implant is the only therapeutic intervention for those with severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss. We are reporting an interesting case of the very first cochlear implant operation carried out in Uganda. The patient was a 23 year old male whose presenting complaint was inability to hear in the left ear for three and a half years and in the right ear for one year. He had been treated for TB(Tuberculosis) mastoiditis. After the 8 months of treatment, the otorrhea persisted and he underwent a tympanomastoidectomy on the same ear. He reported no familial history of hearing loss. On examination, ENT examination revealed a small pars flaccida retration pocket of the right tympanic membrane with cholesteatoma. The left ear had an intact tympanic membrane. Pure tone audiometry revealed profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears (see attached PTA results), CT scan of the temporal bone showed normal inner ear anatomy bilaterally and mild sclerotic changes in both mastoid bones. He then had surgery on his right ear which included cochlear implantation. The cochlear implant (CI) was activated on the first postoperative day remotely via internet with the help of the cochlear implant team at New York University Cochlear Implant Center and the patient was immediately able to appreciate some sounds. He received a pneumococcal vaccine on the first postoperative day and was discharged the following day. PMID:26958040

  5. Implications of Minimizing Trauma During Conventional Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Matthew L.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.; Gifford, René H.; Service, Geoffrey J.; Tombers, Nicole M.; Hughes-Borst, Becky J.; Neff, Brian A.; Beatty, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationship between implantation-associated trauma and postoperative speech perception scores among adult and pediatric patients undergoing cochlear implantation using conventional length electrodes and minimally traumatic surgical techniques. Study Design Retrospective chart review (2002–2010). Setting Tertiary academic referral center. Patients All subjects with significant preoperative low-frequency hearing (≤70 dB HL at 250 Hz) who underwent cochlear implantation with a newer generation implant electrode (Nucleus Contour Advance, Advanced Bionics HR90K [1J and Helix], and Med El Sonata standard H array) were reviewed. Intervention(s) Preimplant and postimplant audiometric thresholds and speech recognition scores were recorded using the electronic medical record. Main Outcome Measure(s) Postimplantation pure tone threshold shifts were used as a surrogate measure for extent of intracochlear injury and correlated with postoperative speech perception scores. Results Between 2002 and 2010, 703 cochlear implant (CI) operations were performed. Data from 126 implants were included in the analysis. The mean preoperative low-frequency pure-tone average was 55.4 dB HL. Hearing preservation was observed in 55% of patients. Patients with hearing preservation were found to have significantly higher postoperative speech perception performance in the cochlear implantation-only condition than those who lost all residual hearing. Conclusion Conservation of acoustic hearing after conventional length cochlear implantation is unpredictable but remains a realistic goal. The combination of improved technology and refined surgical technique may allow for conservation of some residual hearing in more than 50% of patients. Germane to the conventional length CI recipient with substantial hearing loss, minimizing trauma allows for improved speech perception in the electric condition. These findings support the use of minimally traumatic techniques in all CI

  6. The use of rare-earth magnet couplers in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Dormer, K J; Richard, G L; Hough, J V; Nordquist, R E

    1981-11-01

    The cochlear implant is an electronic auditory prosthesis gaining widespread acceptance as a means of restoring partial hearing to the totally deaf. A number of engineering and biological hurdles remain toward the improvement of existing implantable systems and development of multichannel systems. One hurdle concerns reliable transcutaneous coupling of the external electric signal to the implanted device. To date this has been accomplished by inductive means through coils which were mechanically held in place. The incorporation of small, permanent, rare-earth (SmCo5) magnets with the coil assemblies has eliminated the unreliable mechanical supporting devices. Magnetic attachment was simulated in dogs to examine for biological compatibility. Electron micrographs indicated normal subcellular structures in tissue exposed for 10 weeks. Five patients were implanted with magnet-modified coil assemblies and tested for the proper alignment and support of the external coil assembly, as well as efficiency of inductive coupling. Electromagnetic coupling was not interfered with and mechanical support was adequate. We conclude that rare-earth magnets provide an effective means for supporting and positioning in place medical devices, such as the cochlear implant. PMID:6895397

  7. Cochlear implantation and management of chronic suppurative otitis media: single stage procedure?

    PubMed

    Basavaraj, S; Shanks, M; Sivaji, N; Allen, Agnes A

    2005-10-01

    In a series of 360 patients who underwent cochlear implantation at our center, four patients (five procedures) had cochlear implantation with obliteration of the mastoid cavity and management of cholesteatoma as a single-staged procedure. Three patients were bilaterally deaf secondary to CSOM and had bilateral mastoid cavities, and in one patient congenital cholesteatoma was identified during cochlear implantation. A mastoidectomy or revision mastoidectomy with obliteration of the mastoid cavity and cochlear implantation was performed as a single stage procedure. Cholesteatoma reoccurred in one patient 9 years after cochlear implantation. Surgical procedures, complications, follow-up and outcomes are discussed. PMID:15756568

  8. Are routine preoperative CT scans necessary in adult cochlear implantation? Implications for the allocation of resources in cochlear implant programs.

    PubMed

    Kenway, Bruno; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Kasbekar, Anand V; Axon, Patrick R; Donnelly, Neil

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to critically assess the influence of preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans on implantation decisions for adult cochlear implant candidates. The working hypothesis was that these routine scans might not provide critical additional information in most adult cochlear implant candidates. The charts of 175 adults with unilateral cochlear implantation were reviewed. Preoperative CT scan reports were audited, and scans with reported pathology were examined by an Otologist/ENT Surgeon. Clinic notes and multidisciplinary team meeting summaries were also analyzed to assess whether the results of the radiology report had influenced the decision to implant or the laterality of implantation. Twenty-five of the 175 scans (14.3%) showed an abnormality. Five of those 25 scans showed evidence of previous surgeries already known to the clinicians. Of the remaining 20 scans, 17 showed abnormalities, including wide vestibular aqueducts, Mondini deformities, and varying degrees of otospongiosis, the identification of which can be considered preoperatively helpful. Of the 175 scans, 3 (1.7%) demonstrated abnormalities that influenced the side of implantation or the decision to implant and, therefore, had an impact on treatment. We conclude that a preoperative CT scan seems to have an impact on treatment in only a small percentage of adult cochlear implantees. Hence, it may only need to be performed in patients with a history or clinical suspicion of meningitis or otosclerosis, if the individual was born deaf or became deaf before the age of 16, or if there are other clinical reasons to scan (e.g., otoscopic appearance). The related resources can be allocated to other facets of cochlear implant programs. PMID:27551842

  9. [Experiences in Kiel with the cochlear implant].

    PubMed

    Müller-Deile, J; Schmidt, B J; Rudert, H

    1994-06-01

    Since 1988 22 deaf patients were provided with a 22-channel cochlear implant at the Kiel University Hospital. No surgical or postoperative complications were seen in any of the patients. Side effects like facial stimulation and pain sensation during electrode activation do not reduce the utility. Tinnitus may initially be severe but usually subsides to preop levels after a few days. A tinnitus masking effect is pronounced during stimulation but hardly lasts long after switch off. Besides an individually arranged hearing training the accurate speech processor fitting to the needs of the patient remains the cornerstone of successful rehabilitation. Objective intraoperative measurements such as the electrically evoked brain stem potentials and the middle ear reflexes yield estimates of the threshold values relevant for initial processor programming. Further information needed for the following extensive fine adjustment is obtained by subjective evaluation of loudness growth during electrical stimulation with variable parameters, by loudness scaling of narrow band noises with different middle frequencies and intensities presented under free field conditions and by speech audiometric procedures. The latter include a monosyllabic rhyme test and a logatom test developed at this institution. More speech testing is applied to document the degree of auditive rehabilitation. The results of speech tracking and the Freiburg tests as well as a new sentence test in silence and noise are discussed. In the multisyllable Freiburg test all but two of the adults understand the complete presented material, in the open set monosyllable test an average of 55% correct is achieved. Speech discrimination-oriented ranking showed 95% of all postlingually deaf patients in the highest performance category. PMID:8060448

  10. Surgical findings and auditory performance after cochlear implant revision surgery.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Huarte, R; Huarte, A; Manrique, M J

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to review cochlear reimplantation outcomes in the tertiary hospital and analyze whether facts such as type of failure, surgical findings, or etiology of deafness have an influence. A retrospective study including 38 patients who underwent cochlear implant revision surgery in a tertiary center is performed. Auditory outcomes (pure tone audiometry, % disyllabic words) along with etiology of deafness, type of complication, issues with insertion, and cochlear findings are included. Complication rate is 2.7 %. Technical failure rate is 57.9 % (50 % hard failure and 50 % soft failure), and medical failure (device infection or extrusion, migration, wound, or flap complication) is seen in 42.1 % of the cases. Management of cochlear implant complications and revision surgery is increasing due to a growing number of implantees. Cases that require explantation and reimplantation of the cochlear implant are safe procedures, where the depth of insertion and speech perception results are equal or higher in most cases. Nevertheless, there must be an increasing effort on using minimally traumatic electrode arrays and surgical techniques to improve currently obtained results. PMID:25814389

  11. Pre-, Intra- and Post-Operative Imaging of Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Tawfik, A; Emam, A; Naguib, N N N; Nour-Eldin, A; Burck, I; Stöver, T

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to present essential imaging aspects in patients who are candidates for a possible cochlear implant as well as in postsurgical follow-up. Imaging plays a major role in providing information on preinterventional topography, variations and possible infections. Preoperative imaging using DVT, CT, MRI or CT and MRI together is essential for candidate selection, planning of surgical approach and exclusion of contraindications like the complete absence of the cochlea or cochlear nerve, or infection. Relative contraindications are variations of the cochlea and vestibulum. Intraoperative imaging can be performed by fluoroscopy, mobile radiography or DVT. Postoperative imaging is regularly performed by conventional X-ray, DVT, or CT. In summary, radiological imaging has its essential role in the pre- and post-interventional period for patients who are candidates for cochlear implants. PMID:26327670

  12. Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumolabyrinth plus pneumocephalus as complications of middle ear implant and cochlear implant surgery.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Brian J; Watts, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a retrospective case review at a tertiary academic medical center for the complications of pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus and subcutaneous emphysema after surgery for middle ear and cochlear implants. Charts of 76 cochlear implant and 2 middle ear implant patients from January 2001 through June 2009 were reviewed. We identified 1 cochlear implant recipient with pneumolabyrinth and pneumocephalus, and 1 middle ear implant recipient with subcutaneous emphysema. Surgical exploration was performed for the pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus; the subcutaneous emphysema was managed conservatively. The patient with the cochlear implant, who had had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placed, experienced pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus 6 years after uneventful surgery. Middle ear exploration revealed no residual fibrous tissue seal at the cochleostomy. The middle ear and cochleostomy were obliterated with muscle, fat, and fibrin glue. The ventriculoperitoneal shunt was deactivated, with clinical and radiographic resolution. On postoperative day 5, the patient who had undergone the middle ear implant reported crepitance over the mastoid and implant device site after repeated Valsalva maneuvers. Computed tomography showed air surrounding the internal processor. A mastoid pressure dressing was applied and the subcutaneous emphysema resolved. These 2 cases support the importance of recognizing the clinical presentation of pneumolabyrinth with associated pneumocephalus, as well as subcutaneous emphysema. Securing the internal processor, adequately sealing the cochleostomy, and providing preoperative counseling regarding Valsalva maneuvers and the potential risk of cochlear implantation in the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt may prevent adverse sequelae. PMID:23904304

  13. Neural tonotopy in cochlear implants: an evaluation in unilateral cochlear implant patients with unilateral deafness and tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, Katrien; Nobbe, Andrea; Schleich, Peter; Nopp, Peter; Voormolen, Maurits H; Van de Heyning, Paul H

    2008-11-01

    In cochlear implants, the signal is filtered into different frequency bands and transmitted to electrodes along the cochlea. In this study the frequency-place function for electric hearing was investigated as a means to possibly improve speech coding by delivering information to the appropriate cochlear place. Fourteen subjects with functional hearing in the contralateral ear have been provided with a MED-EL cochlear implant in the deaf ear in order to reduce intractable tinnitus. Pitch scaling experiments were performed using single-electrode, constant-amplitude, constant-rate stimuli in the implanted ear, and acoustic sinusoids in the contralateral ear. The frequency-place function was calculated using the electrode position in the cochlea as obtained from postoperative skull radiographs. Individual frequency-place functions were compared to Greenwood's function in normal hearing. Electric stimulation elicited a low pitch in the apical region of the cochlea, and shifting the stimulating electrode towards the basal region elicited increasingly higher pitch. The frequency-place function did not show a significant shift relative to Greenwood's function. In cochlear implant patients with functional hearing in the non-implanted ear, electrical stimulation produced a frequency-place function that on average resembles Greenwood's function. These results differ from previously derived data. PMID:18817861

  14. Bimodal Hearing Aid Retention after Unilateral Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Devocht, Elke M J; George, Erwin L J; Janssen, A Miranda L; Stokroos, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate contralateral hearing aid (HA) use after unilateral cochlear implantation and to identify factors of influence on the occurrence of a unilateral cochlear implant (CI) recipient becoming a bimodal user. A retrospective cross-sectional chart review was carried out among 77 adult unilateral CI recipients 1 year after implantation. A bimodal HA retention rate of 64% was observed. Associations with demographics, hearing history, residual hearing and speech recognition ability were investigated. Better pure-tone thresholds and unaided speech scores in the non-implanted ear, as well as a smaller difference in speech recognition scores between both ears, were significantly associated with HA retention. A combined model of HA retention was proposed, and cut-off points were determined to identify those CI recipients who were most likely to become bimodal users. These results can provide input to clinical guidelines concerning bimodal CI candidacy. PMID:26461124

  15. Musical Involvement and Enjoyment of Children Who Use Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfeller, Kate; Witt, Shelley A.; Spencer, Linda J.; Stordahl, Julie; Tomblin, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    A questionnaire on their child's musical involvement and appreciation was completed by parents of 65 children who use cochlear implants. Findings indicated many of these children were involved in some type of formal or informal musical activity and few accommodations were provided in formal music classes. Correlations between speech measures and…

  16. Identification and Multiplicity of Double Vowels in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Bomjun J.; Perry, Trevor T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined cochlear implant (CI) users' perception of vowels presented concurrently (i.e., "double vowels") to further our understanding of auditory grouping in electric hearing. Method: Identification of double vowels and single vowels was measured with 10 CI subjects. Fundamental frequencies (F0s) of…

  17. TeleCITE: Telehealth--A Cochlear Implant Therapy Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stith, Joanna; Stredler-Brown, Arlene; Greenway, Pat; Kahn, Gary

    2012-01-01

    What might bring the efforts of a physician, a speech-language pathologist, a teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing, and a nurse together? The answer is the innovative use of telepractice to deliver high quality, family-centered early intervention to infants and toddlers with hearing loss. TeleCITE: Telehealth--A Cochlear Implant Therapy…

  18. How the Cochlear Implant Helps Deaf Children Learn To Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moog, Jean S.; Gustus, Christine

    This conference presentation discusses how the Nucleus 22 cochlear implant, with its ability to improve speech perception, can be capitalized upon to improve the speech production of very profoundly deaf children. The paper is designed to accompany a video presentation demonstrating the speech ability and theory of two young children (ages 3 and…

  19. Models of Deafness: Cochlear Implants in the Australian Daily Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Des

    2005-01-01

    This article examined a database of Australian daily newspapers on the terms cochlear implant and deaf children to investigate how journalists and columnists report competing models of deafness: as either "medical" (deafness is a condition to be cured) or "sociocultural" (deafness provides a way of life to be lived). The results from the cochlear…

  20. Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e.,…

  1. Use of Acoustic Cues by Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giezen, Marcel R.; Escudero, Paola; Baker, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the use of different acoustic cues in auditory perception of consonant and vowel contrasts by profoundly deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) in comparison to age-matched children and young adults with normal hearing. Method: A speech sound categorization task in an XAB format was administered to 15 children ages…

  2. Word Learning Processes in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether 3 aspects of the word learning process--fast mapping, retention, and extension--are problematic for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: The authors compared responses of 24 children with CIs, 24 age-matched hearing children, and 23 vocabulary-matched hearing children to a novel object noun training episode.…

  3. Effects of Talker Variability on Vowel Recognition in Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-ping; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of talker variability on vowel recognition by cochlear implant (CI) users and by normal-hearing (NH) participants listening to 4-channel acoustic CI simulations. Method: CI users were tested with their clinically assigned speech processors. For NH participants, 3 CI processors were simulated, using different…

  4. Prosody and Voice Characteristics of Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenden, Jessica M.; Flipsen, Peter, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive, longitudinal study involved the analysis of the prosody and voice characteristics of conversational speech produced by six young children with severe to profound hearing impairments who had been fitted with cochlear implants. A total of 40 samples were analyzed using the Prosody-Voice Screening Profile (PVSP; Shriberg, L. D.,…

  5. Strategies for Working with Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraer-Joiner, Lyn; Prause-Weber, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 23,000 individuals in the United States, including 10,000 children, have a cochlear implant. This biomedical electronic device has been a breakthrough in the auditory rehabilitation of individuals diagnosed with severe or profound sensorineural hearing losses who…

  6. Sensitive Periods and Language in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Madrid-Canovas, Sonia; Blanco-Montanez, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that the existence of a short sensitive period for lower-level speech perception/articulation skills, and a long one for higher-level language skills, may partly explain the language outcomes of children with cochlear implants (CIs). The participants were fourteen children fitted with a CI before their second…

  7. Acoustic and Semantic Enhancements for Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiljanic, Rajka; Sladen, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined how signal clarity interacts with the use of sentence context information in determining speech-in-noise recognition for children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing. Method: One hundred and twenty sentences in which the final word varied in predictability (high vs. low semantic…

  8. Using Flanagan's phase vocoder to improve cochlear implant performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-10-01

    The cochlear implant has restored partial hearing to more than 100000 deaf people worldwide, allowing the average user to talk on the telephone in quiet environment. However, significant difficulty still remains for speech recognition in noise, music perception, and tonal language understanding. This difficulty may be related to speech processing strategies in current cochlear implants that emphasized the extraction and encoding of the temporal envelope while ignoring the temporal fine structure in speech sounds. A novel strategy was developed based on Flanagan's phase vocoder [Flanagan and Golden, Bell Syst. Tech. 45, 1493-1509 (1966)], in which frequency modulation was extracted from the temporal fine structure and then added to amplitude modulation in the current cochlear implants. Acoustic simulation results showed that amplitude and frequency modulation contributed complementarily to speech perception with amplitude modulation contributing mainly to intelligibility whereas frequency modulation contributed to speaker identification and auditory grouping. The results also showed that the novel strategy significantly improved cochlear implant performance under realistic listening situations. Overall, the present result demonstrated that Flanagan's classic work on phase vocoder still shed insight on current problems of both theoretical and practical importance. [Work supported by NIH.

  9. Relational Learning in Children with Deafness and Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida-Verdu, Ana Claudia; Huziwara, Edson M.; de Souza, Deisy G.; de Rose, Julio C.; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecilia; Lopes, Jair, Jr.; Alves, Cristiane O.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This four-experiment series sought to evaluate the potential of children with neurosensory deafness and cochlear implants to exhibit auditory-visual and visual-visual stimulus equivalence relations within a matching-to-sample format. Twelve children who became deaf prior to acquiring language (prelingual) and four who became deaf afterwards…

  10. Counselling Challenges and Strategies for Cochlear Implant Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear implant specialists daily observe patients and families grapple with a wide range of emotions. As nonprofessional counsellors, we can help patients address those emotions by providing more opportunities to talk about their thoughts and feelings. This paper will review some familiar counselling challenges, such as the disappointment that…

  11. Cochlear Implants in the Inclusive Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jachova, Zora; Kovacevic, Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a child aged 12 years with a cochlear implant who is attending a mainstream educational setting in Skopje, FYR Macedonia. The study, which uses both qualitative and quantitative data, took place over a period of 12 months. It illustrates the importance of professional development and training of teachers and a…

  12. Speech Perception in Noise by Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Amanda; Nittrouer, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Common wisdom suggests that listening in noise poses disproportionately greater difficulty for listeners with cochlear implants (CIs) than for peers with normal hearing (NH). The purpose of this study was to examine phonological, language, and cognitive skills that might help explain speech-in-noise abilities for children with CIs.…

  13. Spelling of Deaf Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Heather; Kessler, Brett; Treiman, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The spellings of 39 profoundly deaf users of cochlear implants, aged 6 to 12 years, were compared with those of 39 hearing peers. When controlled for age and reading ability, the error rates of the 2 groups were not significantly different. Both groups evinced phonological spelling strategies, performing better on words with more typical…

  14. Growing up with a Cochlear Implant: Education, Vocation, and Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Gantz, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term educational/vocational, affiliation, and quality-of-life outcomes of the first and second cohorts of children with bilateral, profound hearing loss who received cochlear implants under a large National Institutes of Health-funded study was investigated in 41 of 61 eligible participants. Educational and vocational outcomes were…

  15. Reading Comprehension of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Anneke M.; van Bon, Wim; Schreuder, Rob; Knoors, Harry; Snik, Ad

    2007-01-01

    The reading comprehension and visual word recognition in 50 deaf children and adolescents with at least 3 years of cochlear implant (CI) use were evaluated. Their skills were contrasted with reference data of 500 deaf children without CIs. The reading comprehension level in children with CIs was expected to surpass that in deaf children without…

  16. Single Word and Sentence Intelligibility in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khwaileh, Fadwa A.; Flipsen, Peter, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the intelligibility of speech produced by 17 children (aged 4-11 years) with cochlear implants. Stimulus items included sentences from the Beginners' Intelligibility Test (BIT) and words from the Children Speech Intelligibility Measure (CSIM). Naive listeners responded by writing sentences heard or with two types of responses…

  17. Production Accuracy in a Young Cochlear Implant Recipient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D.; Davis, Barbara L.; Morrison, Helen M.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of cochlear implants in younger children has provided the opportunity to evaluate the relative impact of the production system, or the sounds young children can say, and the auditory system, or the sounds children can hear, on early vocal communication. Limited access to the acoustic properties of speech results in differences in…

  18. Linguistic and Pragmatic Skills in Toddlers with Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Pasquale; Baruffaldi, Francesca; Burdo, Sandro; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of deaf children received cochlear implants (CI) in the first years of life, but no study has focused on linguistic and pragmatic skills in children with CI younger than 3 years of age. Aims: To estimate the percentage of children who had received a CI before 2 years of age whose linguistic skills were within the…

  19. Fricatives, Affricates, and Vowels in Croatian Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildner, Vesna; Liker, Marko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the research was to analyse the speech of children with cochlear implants over approximately a 46-month period, and compare it with the speech of hearing controls. It focused on three categories of sounds in Croatian: vowels (F1 and F2 of /i/, /e/, /a/, /o/ and /u/), fricatives /s/ and /[esh]/ (spectral differences expressed in terms of…

  20. Theory of Mind and Language in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmel, Ethan; Peters, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Thirty children with cochlear implants (CI children), age range 3-12 years, and 30 children with normal hearing (NH children), age range 4-6 years, were tested on theory of mind and language measures. The CI children showed little to no delay on either theory of mind, relative to the NH children, or spoken language, relative to hearing norms. The…

  1. Implicit Sequence Learning in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Christopher M.; Pisoni, David B.; Anaya, Esperanza M.; Karpicke, Jennifer; Henning, Shirley C.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) represent an intriguing opportunity to study neurocognitive plasticity and reorganization when sound is introduced following a period of auditory deprivation early in development. Although it is common to consider deafness as affecting hearing alone, it may be the case that auditory deprivation leads to…

  2. Production of Consonants by Prelinguistically Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Marie-Eve Gaul; Le Normand, Marie-Therese; Cohen, Henri

    2007-01-01

    Consonant production following the sensory restoration of audition was investigated in 22 prelinguistically deaf French children who received cochlear implants. Spontaneous speech productions were recorded at 6, 12, and 18 months post-surgery and consonant inventories were derived from both glossable and non-glossable phones using two acquisition…

  3. Outcomes from Cochlear Implantation for Child and Family: Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbold, Sue; Sach, Tracey; O'Neill, Ciaran; Lutman, Mark; Gregory, Susan

    2008-01-01

    While cochlear implantation is an increasingly routine provision for profoundly deaf children in many countries, parents still require information about the procedure and likely outcomes in order to make an informed decision. Other parents can provide them with the insights of those who have undergone the process themselves and observed outcomes…

  4. Deaf Teenagers with Cochlear Implants in Conversation with Hearing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibertsson, Tina; Hansson, Kristina; Maki-Torkko, Elina; Willstedt-Svensson, Ursula; Sahlen, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the use of requests for clarification in conversations between teenagers with a cochlear implant (CI) and hearing peers. So far very few studies have focused on conversational abilities in children with CI. Aims: The aim was to explore co-construction of dialogue in a referential communication task and the…

  5. Perioperative complications of cochlear implant surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Darlong, V; Khanna, Puneet; Baidya, Dalim Kumar; Chandralekha; Pandey, Ravindra; Punj, Jyotsna; Kumar, Rakesh; Sikka, Kapil

    2015-02-01

    Cochlear implant is a commonly performed surgery for hearing loss in pre-school and school children. However, data on anesthesia management and anesthesia-related complications are sparse. We retrospectively reviewed the data of our institute from January, 2007 to December, 2012. Medical records and anesthesia charts of all the patients who had undergone cochlear implant under general anesthesia between this period were reviewed. Information related to the demographic profile, preoperative evaluation, anesthetic techniques, and perioperative complications were collected and analyzed. A total of 190 patients underwent cochlear implant surgery for pre-lingual (175) and post-lingual (15) deafness. General endotracheal anesthesia with inhalational agents was used in all the cases. Difficult intubation was encountered in three patients. Anesthesia-related complications were laryngospasm at extubation (4.73 %), emergence agitation (2.63 %), and postoperative nausea and vomiting (1.05 %). Major surgical complications were CSF leak without meningitis (3.15 %), device migration/failure (1.05 %), and flap infection (1.57 %). Cochlear implant under general anesthesia in small children is safe and anesthesia-related complications were minimal. Surgical complications, although more frequent, were predominantly minor and self-limiting. PMID:24986254

  6. Picture Naming and Verbal Fluency in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler-Kashi, Deena; Schwartz, Richard G.; Cleary, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors examined lexical naming in children with cochlear implants (CIs). The goal was to determine whether children with CIs have deficits in lexical access and organization as revealed through reaction time in picture-naming and verbal fluency (VF) experiments. Method: Children with CIs (n = 20, ages 7-10) were…

  7. Visualization of spiral ganglion neurites within the scala tympani with a cochlear implant in situ

    PubMed Central

    Chikar, Jennifer A.; Batts, Shelley A.; Pfingst, Bryan E.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2009-01-01

    Current cochlear histology methods do not allow in situ processing of cochlear implants. The metal components of the implant preclude standard embedding and mid-modiolar sectioning, and whole mounts do not have the spatial resolution needed to view the implant within the scala tympani. One focus of recent auditory research is the regeneration of structures within the cochlea, particularly the ganglion cells and their processes, and there are multiple potential benefits to cochlear implant users from this work. To facilitate experimental investigations of auditory nerve regeneration performed in conjunction with cochlear implantation, it is critical to visualize the cochlear tissue and the implant together to determine if the nerve has made contact with the implant. This paper presents a novel histological technique that enables simultaneous visualization of the in situ cochlear implant and neurofilament – labeled nerve processes within the scala tympani, and the spatial relationship between them. PMID:19428528

  8. Examining Speech Sound Acquisition for Children with Cochlear Implants Using the GFTA-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flipsen, Peter, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines use of the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-Second Edition (GFTA-2) with children who use cochlear implants to evaluate whether or not it would be appropriate to use this test with this population. Participants included 15 children with cochlear implants who ranged in age of implantation and amount of implant experience.…

  9. Is age a limiting factor for adaptation to cochlear implant?

    PubMed

    Hiel, Anne-Lise; Gerard, Jean-Marc; Decat, Monique; Deggouj, Naïma

    2016-09-01

    The influence of age on adaptation to cochlear implant (CI) is still being contested in the literature. The aim of this study was twofold. First, hearing outcomes in quiet conditions were compared between CI users implanted over and under the age of 70 years. Second, the effect of the duration of auditory deprivation was investigated. The study design is a retrospective review and the setting is in academic tertiary referral center. One hundred and twenty-one postlingually deafened implanted adults participated in this study. Hearing outcomes were compared between 121 postlingually deafened adults implanted under 40, between 40 and 70, and over 70 years of age. Speech audiometry measurements were taken at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 60 months post-cochlear implantation (pCI), in quiet conditions only. Hearing outcomes were significantly better only at 1 year pCI in the youngest group compared to the two older groups. No significant difference was observed between the middle-aged and eldest subjects at any time. The influence of the severe-to-profound hearing loss (SPHL) duration was investigated and found to be equally distributed among the different age groups. Good hearing outcomes in elderly patients are not secondary to a difference in SPHL duration. Age should not be a limiting factor for cochlear implantation decision. PMID:26676874

  10. Auditory rehabilitation of patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 by using cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Roehm, Pamela C.; St. Clair, Jon Mallen; Jethanamest, Daniel; Golfinos, John G.; Shapiro, William; Waltzman, Susan; Roland, J. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Object The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) who have intact ipsilateral cochlear nerves can have open-set speech discrimination following cochlear implantation. Methods Records of 7 patients with documented NF2 were reviewed to determine speech discrimination outcomes following cochlear implantation. Outcomes were measured using consonant-nucleus-consonant words and phonemes; Hearing in Noise Test sentences in quiet; and City University of New York sentences in quiet and in noise. Results Preoperatively, none of the patients had open-set speech discrimination. Five of the 7 patients had previously undergone excision of ipsilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS). One of the patients who received a cochlear implant had received radiation therapy for ipsilateral VS, and another was undergoing observation for a small ipsilateral VS. Following cochlear implantation, 4 of 7 patients with NF2 had open-set speech discrimination following cochlear implantation during extended follow-up (15–120 months). Two of the 3 patients without open-set speech understanding had a prolonged period between ipsilateral VS resection and cochlear implantation (120 and 132 months), and had cochlear ossification at the time of implantation. The other patient without open-set speech understanding had good contralateral hearing at the time of cochlear implantation. Despite these findings, 6 of the 7 patients were daily users of their cochlear implants, and the seventh is an occasional user, indicating that all of the patients subjectively gained some benefit from their implants. Conclusions Cochlear implantation can provide long-term auditory rehabilitation, with open-set speech discrimination for patients with NF2 who have intact ipsilateral cochlear nerves. Factors that can affect implant performance include the following: 1) a prolonged time between VS resection and implantation; and 2) cochlear ossification. PMID:21761973

  11. Cochlear implantation after resection of an intralabyrinthine schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Schutt, Christopher A; Kveton, John F

    2014-01-01

    Intralabyrinthine schwannomas are rare tumors of the distal ends of the cochlear and vestibular nerve. Their presence can be debilitating secondary to symptoms of hearing loss, vertigo, tinnitus, and imbalance. Currently, treatment to restore hearing in those who have become profoundly deaf is not attempted. Additionally, resection in patients with functioning hearing is rare, as the surgery assures deafness. We report the first case demonstrating the feasibility of resection of an intralabyrinthine schwannoma with immediate cochlear implantation. This technique addresses the patients hearing status by taking into account advancing technology, allowing for an improved quality of life. PMID:24321750

  12. Prelingual deafness: Benefits from cochlear implants versus conventional hearing aids

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Torre, Ana Adelina Giantomassi Della; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Brito, Rubens de

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The majority of patients with hearing loss, including those with severe hearing loss, benefits from the use of hearing aids. The cochlear implant is believed to achieve better results in a child with hearing loss in cases where the severity of disability renders hearing aids incapable of providing adequate sound information, as they require sufficient cochlear reserve so that acoustic detention occurs. Objective: To assess if cochlear implants provide more benefit than conventional hearing aids in prelingually deaf patients. Summary of the findings: The study was a systematic review of scientific papers selected by a search of the SciELO, Cochrane, MEDLINE, and LILACS-BIREME databases. Among the 2169 articles found, 12 studies proved relevant to the issue and presented an evidence strength rating of B. No publications rated evidence strength A. Seven of the studies analyzed were prospective cohorts and 5 were cross-sectional studies. Conclusion: Based on several studies, cochlear implants were demonstrated to be the best current alternative for bilateral severe or profound hearing loss, achieving better results in speech perception and development in prelingual children when compared to conventional hearing aids. PMID:25991962

  13. Relationship between multipulse integration and speech recognition with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ning; Pfingst, Bryan E.

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of performance with cochlear implants and postmortem conditions in the cochlea in humans have shown mixed results. The limitations in those studies favor the use of within-subject designs and non-invasive measures to estimate cochlear conditions. One non-invasive correlate of cochlear health is multipulse integration, established in an animal model. The present study used this measure to relate neural health in human cochlear implant users to their speech recognition performance. The multipulse-integration slopes were derived based on psychophysical detection thresholds measured for two pulse rates (80 and 640 pulses per second). A within-subject design was used in eight subjects with bilateral implants where the direction and magnitude of ear differences in the multipulse-integration slopes were compared with those of the speech-recognition results. The speech measures included speech reception threshold for sentences and phoneme recognition in noise. The magnitude of ear difference in the integration slopes was significantly correlated with the magnitude of ear difference in speech reception thresholds, consonant recognition in noise, and transmission of place of articulation of consonants. These results suggest that multipulse integration predicts speech recognition in noise and perception of features that use dynamic spectral cues. PMID:25190399

  14. Cochlear implantation in the world's largest medical device market: Utilization and awareness of cochlear implants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, Donna L.

    2013-01-01

    Provision of cochlear implants (CIs) for those within the criteria for implantation remains lower in the United States than in some other developed nations. When adults and children are grouped together, the rate of utilization/provision remains low at around 6%. For children, the provision rate is about 50% of those who could benefit from an implant, compared with figures of about 90% for the Flanders part of Belgium, the United Kingdom and other European countries. The probable reasons for this underprovision include: low awareness of the benefits of CIs among the population; low awareness among health-care professionals; the lack of specific referral pathways; some political issues relating to the Deaf Community; and financial issues related to health provision. Such financial issues result in situations which either fail to provide for access to implants or provide too low a level of the necessary funding, especially for low-income individuals covered by public health-care programs such as Medicaid. These issues might be mitigated by adoption and publication of standards for best clinical practices for CI provision, availability of current cost-effectiveness data, and the existence of an organization dedicated to cochlear implantation. Such an organization, the American Cochlear Implant Alliance (ACI Alliance), was recently organized and is described in the paper by Niparko et al. in this Supplement. PMID:23453146

  15. The acceptability of cochlear implants and vibrotactile aids.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A R

    1988-05-01

    To obtain data on the likely acceptability of cochlear implants (and of vibrotactile aids), a questionnaire was sent to profoundly/totally hearing-impaired patients. The patients were asked how they felt about their current communication problems and possible benefits to be obtained from such devices. Of the 153 replies obtained, the combined 'yes' or 'maybe' responses indicated that 58% would accept an implant. The corresponding figure for vibrotactile aids was 73%. The statistically significant factors correlating with cochlear implant acceptance were the patient's expectation of the benefit it would give, the time needed for rehabilitation and the degree of communication difficulty that they suffer. The only significant factor in acceptance of a vibrotactile aid was whether the patient had attended the IHR clinic. This implies that the underlying factor is the patient's knowledge about these devices. PMID:2968826

  16. Cochlear implantation in a child with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Migirov, Lela; Henkin, Yael; Hildesheimer, Minka; Kronenberg, Jona

    2003-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary disease of connective tissue and affects bone, dentine, sclera, joint, tendon, blood vessels, heart valves, and skin. Approximately 50% of the adult patients with OI have associated hearing impairment. To date, only three cases of cochlear implantation in adults with OI have been reported, but none in children. We present a case of cochlear implantation in a congenitally deaf 6-year-old boy with OI. The Nucleus 24 Contour device was successfully implanted using the suprameatal approach (SMA). At 6 months post-initial stimulation there was no evidence of non-acoustic nerve excitation (i.e. facial twitching) or discomfort, and significant progress in auditory abilities was manifested by open set word identification. PMID:12745164

  17. A Psychophysics experimental software to evaluate electrical pitch discrimination in Nucleus cochlear implanted patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Zaballos, M. T.; Ramos de Miguel, A.; Killian, M.; Ramos Macías, A.

    2016-02-01

    Multichannel electrode array design in cochlear implants has evolved into two major categories: straight and perimodiolar electrodes. When implanted, the former lies along the outer wall of the scala tympani, while the later are located closer to the modiolus, where the neural ends are. Therefore, a perimodiolar position of the electrode array could be expected to result in reduced stimulus thresholds and stimulating currents, increased dynamic range, and more localized stimulation of the neural elements. However, their advantage for pitch discrimination has not been conclusively stated. Therefore, in order to study electrode independence, a psychophysical software has been developed, making use of Nucleus Implant Communicator tools provided by Cochlear company under a research agreement. The application comprises a graphical interface to facilitate its use, since previous software has always required some type of computer language skills. It allows for customization of electrical pulse parameters, measurement of threshold and comfort levels, loudness balancing and alternative forced choice experiments to determine electrode discrimination in Nucleus© users.

  18. Age-Dependent Cost-Utility of Pediatric Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, Yevgeniy R.; Yeh, Susan T.; Seshamani, Meena; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Tobey, Emily A.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Frick, Kevin D.; Niparko, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cochlear implantation has become the mainstay of treatment for children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Yet, despite mounting evidence on the clinical benefits of early implantation, little data are available on the long-term societal benefits and comparative effectiveness of this procedure across various ages of implantation--a choice parameter for parents and clinicians with high prognostic value for clinical outcome. As such, the aim of the current study is to evaluate a model of the consequences of the timing of this intervention from a societal economic perspective. Average cost-utility of pediatric cochlear implantation by age at intervention will be analyzed. Design Prospective, longitudinal assessment of health-utility and educational placement outcomes in 175 children recruited from 6 US centers between November 2002 and December 2004, who had severe-to-profound SNHL onset within 1 year of age, underwent cochlear implantation before 5 years of age, and had up to 6 years of post-implant follow-up that ended in November 2008 to December 2011. Costs of care were collected retrospectively and stratified by pre-operative, operative, and post-operative expenditures. Incremental costs and benefits of implantation were compared between the three age groups and relative to a non-implantation baseline. Results Children implanted at <18 months of age gained an average of 10.7 QALYs over their projected lifetime as compared to 9.0 and 8.4 QALYs for those implanted between 18 and 36 months and at >36 months of age, respectively. Medical and surgical complication rates were not significantly different between the 3 age groups. Additionally, mean lifetime costs of implantation were similar between the 3 groups, at approximately $2,000/child/year (77.5 year life expectancy), yielding costs of $14,996, $17,849, and $19,173 per QALY for the youngest, middle, and oldest implant age groups, respectively. Full mainstream classroom

  19. MED-EL Cochlear Implants: State of the Art and a Glimpse Into the Future

    PubMed Central

    Hochmair, Ingeborg; Nopp, Peter; Jolly, Claude; Schmidt, Marcus; Schößer, Hansjörg; Garnham, Carolyn; Anderson, Ilona

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is an accepted treatment method for adults and children with severe to profound hearing loss. Confidence in technology has led to changes in individuals who can receive a cochlear implant and changes in expected benefit with a cochlear implant. This article describes the research and development activities at MED-EL, which make possible the implementation of new speech-coding strategies as well as the application of acoustic and electric stimulation via a combined speech processor in MED-EL devices. Research on benefits from bilateral cochlear implantation and electric-acoustic stimulation are also reviewed. Finally, the potential of drug delivery systems is considered as a way to improve cochlear implant outcomes, and results from preliminary evaluations of a hybrid cochlear implant system with drug delivery capabilities are reported. PMID:17172548

  20. Cochlear implantation in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Makizumi, Yoshimi; Kashio, Akinori; Sakamoto, Takashi; Karino, Shotaro; Kakigi, Akinobu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by a deficit in the synthesis of type I collagen. Hearing loss affects 42-58% of OI patients and progresses to deafness in 35-60% of these patients. For OI patients, cochlear implantation (CI) is the only promising treatment option. However, literature on CI in patients with OI is relatively rare. After CI, speech perception is generally good. However, among patients with severe demineralization of the cochlea, most patients are reported to have complications of facial nerve stimulation (FNS), preventing some patients from using the cochlear implant on a daily basis. Here we report a successful CI using a Nucleus CI24 Contour Advance cochlear implant in a patient with OI. Although high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed extensive demineralization of the cochlea, intracochlear electrodes were inserted properly. The use of a modiolus-hugging device and the advance off-stylet technique contributed to the successful implantation, with no complications such as FNS or misplacement of electrodes. Therefore, CI can be used for treating deaf patients with OI. PMID:23219154

  1. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Venail, Frederic; Mura, Thibault; Akkari, Mohamed; Mathiolon, Caroline; Menjot de Champfleur, Sophie; Piron, Jean Pierre; Sicard, Marielle; Sterkers-Artieres, Françoise; Mondain, Michel; Uziel, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement), electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device). The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry) algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = -0.11 ± 0.02, P < 0.01), the scalar placement of the electrodes (β = -8.50 ± 1.97, P < 0.01), and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF). Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas. PMID:26236725

  2. Cochlear implantation outcomes in children with Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Amirsalari, Susan; Ajallouyean, Mohammad; Saburi, Amin; Haddadi Fard, Adel; Abed, Maryam; Ghazavi, Yasaman

    2012-10-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant disease, characterized by dystopia canthorum, hyperplasia of the eyebrows, heterochromia iridis, white forelock, and congenital sensori-neural hearing loss (SNHL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of cochlear implantation in children with WS and compare it with children with pure SNHL. In a prospective study we evaluated 336 cochlear implanted children from 2008 to 2010. The WS was diagnosed by its established criteria and for control group children without any dysmorphic features, anatomical, behavioral, and developmental disorders were also enrolled. We evaluated children of both groups 1 year after cochlear implantation by categories of auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating (SIR) tests. Eighty-one children out of the total 336 who had SNHL were included in study. Out of these 75 (22.3%) were healthy and six (1.78%) had WS. Of the 75 healthy children 40 (53.3%) were girls, while of the six children with WS, three (50%) were girls. There was a significant difference in SIR between WS and cases with pure SNHL (2.67 ± 1.03 vs. 3.79 ± 1.11, p = 021) however, the difference was not significant in CAP (4 ± 1.26 vs. 5.13 ± 1.13, p = 0.082). Prevalence of WS was 1.78% at Baqiyatallah Cochlear Implant Center. One year after implantation there was no significant difference in auditory outcome; however, the difference in speech outcome was significant between WS and cases with pure SNHL. PMID:22159916

  3. Brain voice processing with bilateral cochlear implants: a positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Coez, Arnaud; Zilbovicius, Monica; Ferrary, Evelyne; Bouccara, Didier; Mosnier, Isabelle; Ambert-Dahan, Emmanuèle; Bizaguet, Eric; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Samson, Yves; Sterkers, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Most cochlear implantations are unilateral. To explore the benefits of a binaural cochlear implant, we used water-labelled oxygen-15 positron emission tomography. Relative cerebral blood flow was measured in a binaural implant group (n = 11), while the subjects were passively listening to human voice sounds, environmental sounds non-voice or silence. Binaural auditory stimulation in the cochlear implant group bilaterally activated the temporal voice areas, whereas monaural cochlear implant stimulation only activated the left temporal voice area. Direct comparison of the binaural and the monaural cochlear implant stimulation condition revealed an additional right temporal activation during voice processing in the binaural condition and the activation of a right fronto-parietal cortical network during sound processing that has been implicated in attention. These findings provide evidence that a bilateral cochlear implant stimulation enhanced the spectral cues associated with sound perception and improved brain processing of voice stimuli in the right temporal region when compared to a monaural cochlear implant stimulation. Moreover, the recruitment of sensory attention resources in a right fronto-parietal network allowed patients with bilateral cochlear implant stimulation to enhance their sound discrimination, whereas the same patients with only one cochlear implant stimulation had more auditory perception difficulties. PMID:24272140

  4. Positron Emission Tomography in Cochlear Implant and Auditory Brainstem Implant Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Richard T.; Wong, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography imaging was used to evaluate the brain's response to auditory stimulation, including speech, in deaf adults (five with cochlear implants and one with an auditory brainstem implant). Functional speech processing was associated with activation in areas classically associated with speech processing. (Contains five…

  5. Educational Interpreters: Meeting the Communication Needs of Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Julie; Higbee, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved cochlear implants for deaf and hard of hearing children, the number of children who have cochlear implants has increased in mainstream settings. Recent research suggests that these students, like their deaf and hard of hearing peers without implants who use sign language,…

  6. Examining Multiple Sources of Influence on the Reading Comprehension Skills of Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Zwolan, Teresa A.

    2004-01-01

    Children with profound deafness are at risk for serious reading difficulties. Multiple factors affect their development of reading skills, including use of cochlear implants. Further, multiple factors influence the overall success that children experience with their cochlear implants. These factors include the age at which they receive an implant,…

  7. Pediatric Cochlear Implants: An Overview of the Alternatives in Education and Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Judith M., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 10 papers is intended as a resource book integrating information on pediatric cochlear implants for educators, parents, implant teams, and rehabilitation specialists. The papers focus on the importance of providing an oral educational environment to maximize cochlear implant success. An introduction notes controversies in the…

  8. [Development of improving speech perception of cochlear implants in noisy environment].

    PubMed

    Pan, Haolai; Chen, Zhengnong

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implantation has been a standard therapy for treating severe deafness because patients who receive it have better speech perception. However, the hearing performance of cochlear implantation in noisy environment is far from satisfaction. Efforts have been made to reverse such condition, such as EAS, bimodal stimulation, environment-adaptive speech enhancement and multipolar stimulation, and patients who receive it get more or less better speech perception in noisy environment than traditional cochlear implantation. PMID:27192923

  9. Decoding of neural firing to improve cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moissl, Ulrich; Meyer-Baese, Uwe

    2000-03-01

    In the last decades biologists have gained much knowledge about neural firing in the auditory system. It is a challenging problem to use this knowledge for the improvement of hearing aids and cochlear implants. This study first present the model of a human cochlea, which transforms acoustic signals into auditory nerve impulses. Then a method is proposed, which reconstructs the nerve impulses into acoustic signals. This method will then be used on the impulse-output of a widely used cochlear implant, in order to get an impression of what patients actually perceive with such a device. Suggestions for the improvement of coding strategies will be made, based on the findings of this study.

  10. Music recognition by Japanese children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Takayuki; Trehub, Sandra E; Mitani, Chisato; Kanda, Yukihiko; Shibasaki, Atsuko; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2005-01-01

    Congenitally deaf Japanese children with cochlear implants were tested on their recognition of theme songs from television programs that they watched regularly. The children, who were 4-9 years of age, attempted to identify each song from a closed set of alternatives. Their song identification ability was examined in the context of the original commercial recordings (vocal plus instrumental), the original versions without the words (i.e., karaoke versions), and flute versions of the melody. The children succeeded in identifying the music only from the original versions, and their performance was related to their music listening habits. Children gave favorable appraisals of the music even when they were unable to recognize it. Further research is needed to find means of enhancing cochlear implants users' perception and appreciation of music. PMID:15684539