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1

Oxidation of Phenolate Siderophores by the Multicopper Oxidase Encoded by the Escherichia coli yacK Gene  

PubMed Central

A gene (yacK) encoding a putative multicopper oxidase (MCO) was cloned from Escherichia coli, and the expressed enzyme was demonstrated to exhibit phenoloxidase and ferroxidase activities. The purified protein contained six copper atoms per polypeptide chain and displayed optical and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra consistent with the presence of type 1, type 2, and type 3 copper centers. The strong optical A610 (?610 = 10,890 M?1 cm?1) and copper stoichiometry were taken as evidence that, similar to ceruloplasmin, the enzyme likely contains multiple type 1 copper centers. The addition of copper led to immediate and reversible changes in the optical and EPR spectra of the protein, as well as decreased thermal stability of the enzyme. Copper addition also stimulated both the phenoloxidase and ferroxidase activities of the enzyme, but the other metals tested had no effect. In the presence of added copper, the enzyme displayed significant activity against two of the phenolate siderophores utilized by E. coli for iron uptake, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate and enterobactin, as well as 3-hydroxyanthranilate, an iron siderophore utilized by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Oxidation of enterobactin produced a colored precipitate suggestive of the polymerization reactions that characterize microbial melanization processes. As oxidation should render the phenolate siderophores incapable of binding iron, yacK MCO activity could influence levels of free iron in the periplasm in response to copper concentration. This mechanism may explain, in part, how yacK MCO moderates the sensitivity of E. coli to copper. PMID:11466290

Kim, Chulhwan; Lorenz, W. Walter; Hoopes, J. Todd; Dean, Jeffrey F. D.

2001-01-01

2

Exploring laccase-like multicopper oxidase genes from the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei: a functional, phylogenetic and evolutionary study  

PubMed Central

Background The diversity and function of ligninolytic genes in soil-inhabiting ascomycetes has not yet been elucidated, despite their possible role in plant litter decay processes. Among ascomycetes, Trichoderma reesei is a model organism of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, used for its unique secretion ability especially for cellulase production. T. reesei has only been reported as a cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic organism although genome annotation revealed 6 laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes. The purpose of this work was i) to validate the function of a candidate LMCO gene from T. reesei, and ii) to reconstruct LMCO phylogeny and perform evolutionary analysis testing for positive selection. Results After homologous overproduction of a candidate LMCO gene, extracellular laccase activity was detected when ABTS or SRG were used as substrates, and the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity followed by biochemical characterization. The recombinant protein, called TrLAC1, has a molecular mass of 104 kDa. Optimal temperature and pH were respectively 40-45°C and 4, by using ABTS as substrate. TrLAC1 showed broad pH stability range of 3 to 7. Temperature stability revealed that TrLAC1 is not a thermostable enzyme, which was also confirmed by unfolding studies monitored by circular dichroism. Evolutionary studies were performed to shed light on the LMCO family, and the phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using maximum-likelihood method. LMCO and classical laccases were clearly divided into two distinct groups. Finally, Darwinian selection was tested, and the results showed that positive selection drove the evolution of sequences leading to well-known laccases involved in ligninolysis. Positively-selected sites were observed that could be used as targets for mutagenesis and functional studies between classical laccases and LMCO from T. reesei. Conclusions Homologous production and evolutionary studies of the first LMCO from the biomass-degrading fungus T. reesei gives new insights into the physicochemical parameters and biodiversity in this family. PMID:20735824

2010-01-01

3

Modeling dioxygen reduction at multicopper oxidase cathodes.  

PubMed

We report a general kinetics model for catalytic dioxygen reduction on multicopper oxidase (MCO) cathodes. Our rate equation combines Butler-Volmer (BV) electrode kinetics and the Michaelis-Menten (MM) formalism for enzymatic catalysis, with the BV model accounting for interfacial electron transfer (ET) between the electrode surface and the MCO type 1 copper site. Extending the principles of MM kinetics to this system produced an analytical expression incorporating the effects of subsequent intramolecular ET and dioxygen binding to the trinuclear copper cluster into the cumulative model. We employed experimental electrochemical data on Thermus thermophilus laccase as benchmarks to validate our model, which we suggest will aid in the design of more efficient MCO cathodes. In addition, we demonstrate the model's utility in determining estimates for both the electronic coupling and average distance between the laccase type-1 active site and the cathode substrate. PMID:25188422

Agbo, Peter; Heath, James R; Gray, Harry B

2014-10-01

4

Diversity of laccase-like multicopper oxidase genes in Morchellaceae: identification of genes potentially involved in extracellular activities related to plant litter decay.  

PubMed

Despite the important role played by soil-inhabiting ascomycetes in plant litter decay processes, studies on the diversity and function of their laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes are scarce. In the present work, the LMCO gene diversity in 15 strains representing nine Morchellaceae and one Discinaceae species was evaluated by PCR. One to six different genes were found within the species, representing 26 different sequence types. Cluster analysis revealed LMCO genes belonging to four main gene families encoding different protein classes (Class I-IV). To identify the genes related to extracellular activities and potentially involved in litter decay processes, liquid cultures were induced by different aromatic compounds. Morchella conica and Verpa conica showed the strongest LMCO activity enhancement in the presence of the naturally occurring phenolic compound guaiacol, and their expressed LMCO genes were identified by sequencing. Only genes belonging to the gene families encoding the Class II and III proteins were expressed. Both genes (Class II and III) of the mycorrhizal-like strain M. conica were exclusively expressed in the presence of guaiacol. In contrast to the saprotrophic strain V. conica, the gene encoding the Class III protein was constitutively expressed as it was also found in control cultures without guaiacol. PMID:17466024

Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Buscot, François

2007-07-01

5

Elimination of Manganese(II,III) Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 by a Double Knockout of Two Putative Multicopper Oxidase Genes  

PubMed Central

Bacterial manganese(II) oxidation impacts the redox cycling of Mn, other elements, and compounds in the environment; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of and enzymes responsible for Mn(II) oxidation. In several Mn(II)-oxidizing organisms, the identified Mn(II) oxidase belongs to either the multicopper oxidase (MCO) or the heme peroxidase family of proteins. However, the identity of the oxidase in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 has long remained unknown. To identify the P. putida GB-1 oxidase, we searched its genome and found several homologues of known or suspected Mn(II) oxidase-encoding genes (mnxG, mofA, moxA, and mopA). To narrow this list, we assumed that the Mn(II) oxidase gene would be conserved among Mn(II)-oxidizing pseudomonads but not in nonoxidizers and performed a genome comparison to 11 Pseudomonas species. We further assumed that the oxidase gene would be regulated by MnxR, a transcription factor required for Mn(II) oxidation. Two loci met all these criteria: PputGB1_2447, which encodes an MCO homologous to MnxG, and PputGB1_2665, which encodes an MCO with very low homology to MofA. In-frame deletions of each locus resulted in strains that retained some ability to oxidize Mn(II) or Mn(III); loss of oxidation was attained only upon deletion of both genes. These results suggest that PputGB1_2447 and PputGB1_2665 encode two MCOs that are independently capable of oxidizing both Mn(II) and Mn(III). The purpose of this redundancy is unclear; however, differences in oxidation phenotype for the single mutants suggest specialization in function for the two enzymes. PMID:23124227

McCarthy, James K.; Tebo, Bradley M.

2013-01-01

6

A Multicopper Oxidase-Related Protein Is Essential for Insect Viability, Longevity and Ovary Development  

PubMed Central

Typical multicopper oxidases (MCOs) have ten conserved histidines and one conserved cysteine that coordinate four copper atoms. These copper ions are required for oxidase activity. During our studies of insect MCOs, we discovered a gene that we named multicopper oxidase-related protein (MCORP). MCORPs share sequence similarity with MCOs, but lack many of the copper-coordinating residues. We identified MCORP orthologs in many insect species, but not in other invertebrates or vertebrates. We predicted that MCORPs would lack oxidase activity due to the absence of copper-coordinating residues. To test this prediction, we purified recombinant Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) MCORP and analyzed its enzymatic activity using a variety of substrates. As expected, no oxidase activity was detected. To study MCORP function in vivo, we analyzed expression profiles of TcMCORP and Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito) MCORP, and assessed RNAi-mediated knockdown phenotypes. We found that both MCORPs are constitutively expressed at a low level in all of the tissues we analyzed. Injection of TcMCORP dsRNA into larvae resulted in 100% mortality prior to adult eclosion, with death occurring mainly during the pharate pupal stage or late pharate adult stage. Injection of TcMCORP dsRNA into pharate pupae resulted in the death of approximately 20% of the treated insects during the pupal to adult transition and a greatly shortened life span for the remaining insects. In addition, knockdown of TcMCORP in females prevented oocyte maturation and, thus, greatly decreased the number of eggs laid. These results indicate that TcMCORP is an essential gene and that its function is required for reproduction. An understanding of the role MCORP plays in insect physiology may help to develop new strategies for controlling insect pests. PMID:25330116

Peng, Zeyu; Green, Peter G.; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Kanost, Michael R.; Gorman, Maureen J.

2014-01-01

7

CotA, a Multicopper Oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, Exhibits Manganese-Oxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II) oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II) oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II)-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II)-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II) oxidase activity was obtained at 53°C in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II)-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II) was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II) were 14.85±1.17 mM, 3.01×10?6±0.21 M·min?1 and 0.32±0.02 s?1, respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II) from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II) oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms, but also offers a potential biocatalyst for Mn(II) removal. PMID:23577125

Su, Jianmei; Bao, Peng; Bai, Tenglong; Deng, Lin; Wu, Hui; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

2013-01-01

8

CotA, a multicopper oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, exhibits manganese-oxidase activity.  

PubMed

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II) oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II) oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II)-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II)-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II) oxidase activity was obtained at 53°C in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II)-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II) was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II) were 14.85±1.17 mM, 3.01×10(-6)±0.21 M·min(-1) and 0.32±0.02 s(-1), respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II) from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II) oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms, but also offers a potential biocatalyst for Mn(II) removal. PMID:23577125

Su, Jianmei; Bao, Peng; Bai, Tenglong; Deng, Lin; Wu, Hui; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

2013-01-01

9

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel metagenome-derived multicopper oxidase with alkaline laccase activity and highly soluble expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lac591, a gene encoding a novel multicopper oxidase with laccase activity, was identified through activity-based functional screening\\u000a of a metagenomic library from mangrove soil. Sequence analysis revealed that lac591 encodes a protein of 500 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57.4 kDa. Lac591 was overexpressed heterologously\\u000a as soluble active enzyme in Escherichia coli and purified, giving rise to 380 mg

Mao Ye; Gang Li; Wei Qu Liang; Yu Huan Liu

2010-01-01

10

The multicopper oxidase from the archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum shows nitrous oxide reductase activity.  

PubMed

The multicopper oxidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum (McoP) was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme consists of a single 49.6 kDa subunit, and the combined results of UV-visible, CD, EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopies showed the characteristic features of the multicopper oxidases. Analysis of the McoP sequence allowed its structure to be derived by comparative modeling methods. This model provided a criterion for designing meaningful site-directed mutants of the enzyme. McoP is a hyperthermoactive and thermostable enzyme with an optimum reaction temperature of 85 degrees C, a half-life of inactivation of approximately 6 h at 80 degrees C, and temperature values at the midpoint from 97 to 112 degrees C. McoP is an efficient metallo-oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of cuprous and ferrous ions with turnover rate constants of 356 and 128 min(-1), respectively, at 40 degrees C. It is noteworthy that McoP follows a ping-pong mechanism, with three-fold higher catalytic efficiency when using nitrous oxide as electron acceptor than when using dioxygen, the typical oxidizing substrate of multicopper oxidases. This finding led us to propose that McoP represents a novel archaeal nitrous oxide reductase that is most probably involved in the final step of the denitrification pathway of P. aerophilum. PMID:20597980

Fernandes, André T; Damas, João M; Todorovic, Smilja; Huber, Robert; Baratto, M Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Soares, Cláudio M; Martins, Lígia O

2010-08-01

11

Ericoid mycorrhizal root fungi and their multicopper oxidases from a temperate forest shrub  

PubMed Central

Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ERM) may specialize in capturing nutrients from their host's litter as a strategy for regulating nutrient cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. In spite of their potential significance, we know little about the structure of ERM fungal communities and the genetic basis of their saprotrophic traits (e.g., genes encoding extracellular enzymes). Rhododendron maximum is a model ERM understory shrub that influences the nutrient cycles of montane hardwood forests in the southern Appalachians (North Carolina, USA). We sampled ERM roots of R. maximum from organic and mineral soil horizons and identified root fungi by amplifying and sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) collected from cultures and clones. We observed 71 fungal taxa on ERM roots, including known symbionts Rhizoscyphus ericae and Oidiodendron maius, putative symbionts from the Helotiales, Chaetothyriales, and Sebacinales, ectomycorrhizal symbionts, and saprotrophs. Supporting the idea that ERM fungi are adept saprotrophs, richness of root-fungi was greater in organic than in mineral soil horizons. To study the genetic diversity of oxidative enzymes that contribute to decomposition, we amplified and sequenced a portion of genes encoding multicopper oxidases (MCOs) from ERM ascomycetes. Most fungi possessed multiple copies of MCO sequences with strong similarities to known ferroxidases and laccases. Our findings indicate that R. maximum associates with a taxonomically and ecologically diverse fungal community. The study of MCO gene diversity and expression may be useful for understanding how ERM root fungi regulate the cycling of nutrients between the host plant and the soil environment. PMID:22408727

Wurzburger, Nina; Higgins, Brian P; Hendrick, Ronald L

2012-01-01

12

Atmospheric N deposition increases bacterial laccase-like multicopper oxidases: implications for organic matter decay.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic release of biologically available nitrogen (N) has increased dramatically over the last 150 years, which can alter the processes controlling carbon (C) storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan in the United States, nearly 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. This change occurred concomitantly with compositional changes in Basidiomycete fungi and in Actinobacteria, as well as the downregulation of fungal lignocelluloytic genes. Recently, laccase-like multicopper oxidases (LMCOs) have been discovered among bacteria which can oxidize ?-O-4 linkages in phenolic compounds (e.g., lignin and humic compounds), resulting in the production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Here, we examined how nearly 2 decades of experimental N deposition has affected the abundance and composition of saprotrophic bacteria possessing LMCO genes. In our experiment, LMCO genes were more abundant in the forest floor under experimental N deposition whereas the abundances of bacteria and fungi were unchanged. Experimental N deposition also led to less-diverse, significantly altered bacterial and LMCO gene assemblages, with taxa implicated in organic matter decay (i.e., Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria) accounting for the majority of compositional changes. These results suggest that experimental N deposition favors bacteria in the forest floor that harbor the LMCO gene and represents a plausible mechanism by which anthropogenic N deposition has reduced decomposition, increased soil C storage, and accelerated phenolic DOC production in our field experiment. Our observations suggest that future rates of atmospheric N deposition could fundamentally alter the physiological potential of soil microbial communities. PMID:24837374

Freedman, Zachary; Zak, Donald R

2014-07-01

13

Iodide Oxidation by a Novel Multicopper Oxidase from the Alphaproteobacterium Strain Q-1  

PubMed Central

Alphaproteobacterium strain Q-1 is able to oxidize iodide (I?) to molecular iodine (I2) by an oxidase-like enzyme. One of the two isoforms of the iodide-oxidizing enzyme (IOE-II) produced by this strain was excised from a native polyacrylamide gel, eluted, and purified. IOE-II appeared as a single band (51 kDa) and showed significant in-gel iodide-oxidizing activity in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis without heat treatment. However, at least two bands with much higher molecular masses (150 and 230 kDa) were observed with heat treatment (95°C, 3 min). IOE-II was inhibited by NaN3, KCN, EDTA, and a copper chelator, o-phenanthroline. In addition to iodide, IOE-II showed significant activities toward phenolic compounds such as syringaldazine, 2,6-dimethoxy phenol, and p-phenylenediamine. IOE-II contained copper atoms as prosthetic groups and had UV/VIS absorption peaks at 320 and 590 nm. Comparison of several internal amino acid sequences obtained from trypsin-digested IOE-II with a draft genome sequence of strain Q-1 revealed that the products of two open reading frames (IoxA and IoxC), with predicted molecular masses of 62 and 71 kDa, are involved in iodide oxidation. Furthermore, subsequent tandem mass spectrometric analysis repeatedly detected peptides from IoxA and IoxC with high sequence coverage (32 to 40%). IoxA showed homology with the family of multicopper oxidases and included four copper-binding regions that are highly conserved among various multicopper oxidases. These results suggest that IOE-II is a multicopper oxidase and that it may occur as a multimeric complex in which at least two proteins (IoxA and IoxC) are associated. PMID:22447601

Suzuki, Mio; Eda, Yoshifumi; Ohsawa, Shiaki; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Kan; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshikawa, Jun; Sato, Ikuo; Fujii, Takaaki

2012-01-01

14

A fungal multicopper oxidase restores iron homeostasis in aceruloplasminemia.  

PubMed

Mutations that lead to a loss of the copper-containing plasma enzyme ceruloplasmin disrupt mammalian iron homeostasis. The mechanism by which ceruloplasmin mobilizes iron from cell stores has been controversial. We demonstrate that injection of a soluble copper-containing yeast protein Fet3p can restore iron homeostasis in phlebotomized mice with a deletion of the ceruloplasmin gene. These results show the conservation of function of copper-containing proteins in eukaryotic iron metabolism. PMID:14739215

Harris, Z Leah; Davis-Kaplan, Sandra R; Gitlin, Jonathan D; Kaplan, Jerry

2004-06-15

15

Laccase versus Laccase-Like Multi-Copper Oxidase: A Comparative Study of Similar Enzymes with Diverse Substrate Spectra  

PubMed Central

Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term “laccase-like multi-copper oxidase” (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thony-Meyer, Linda

2013-01-01

16

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel metagenome-derived multicopper oxidase with alkaline laccase activity and highly soluble expression.  

PubMed

Lac591, a gene encoding a novel multicopper oxidase with laccase activity, was identified through activity-based functional screening of a metagenomic library from mangrove soil. Sequence analysis revealed that lac591 encodes a protein of 500 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57.4 kDa. Lac591 was overexpressed heterologously as soluble active enzyme in Escherichia coli and purified, giving rise to 380 mg of purified enzyme from 1 l induced culture, which is the highest expression report for bacterial laccase genes so far. Furthermore, the recombinant enzyme demonstrated activity toward classical laccase substrates syringaldazine (SGZ), guaiacol, and 2, 6-dimethoxyphenol (2, 6-DMP). The purified Lac591 exhibited maximal activity at 55 degrees C and pH 7.5 with guaiacol as substrate and was found to be stable in the pH range of 7.0-10.0. The substrate specificity on different substrates was studied with the purified enzyme, and the optimal substrates were in the order of 2, 6-DMP > catechol > alpha-naphthol > guaiacol > SGZ > 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). The alkaline activity and highly soluble expression of Lac591 make it a good candidate of laccases in industrial applications for which classical laccases are unsuitable, such as biobleaching of paper pulp and dyestuffs processing. PMID:20358193

Ye, Mao; Li, Gang; Liang, Wei Qu; Liu, Yu Huan

2010-07-01

17

Multireference Ab Initio Calculations of g tensors for Trinuclear Copper Clusters in Multicopper Oxidases  

PubMed Central

EPR spectroscopy has proven to be an indispensable tool in elucidating the structure of metal sites in proteins. In recent years, experimental EPR data have been complemented by theoretical calculations, which have become a standard tool of many quantum chemical packages. However, there have only been a few attempts to calculate EPR g tensors for exchange-coupled systems with more than two spins. In this work, we present a quantum chemical study of structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of intermediates in the reaction cycle of multicopper oxidases and of their inorganic models. All these systems contain three copper(II) ions bridged by hydroxide or O2? anions and their ground states are antiferromagnetically coupled doublets. We demonstrate that only multireference methods, such as CASSCF/CASPT2 or MRCI can yield qualitatively correct results (compared to the experimental values) and consider the accuracy of the calculated EPR g tensors as the current benchmark of quantum chemical methods. By decomposing the calculated g tensors into terms arising from interactions of the ground state with the various excited states, the origin of the zero-field splitting is explained. The results of the study demonstrate that a truly quantitative prediction of the g tensors of exchange-coupled systems is a great challenge to contemporary theory. The predictions strongly depend on small energy differences that are difficult to predict with sufficient accuracy by any quantum chemical method that is applicable to systems of the size of our target systems. PMID:20469875

Vancoillie, Steven; Chalupsky, Jakub; Ryde, Ulf; Solomon, Edward I.; Pierloot, Kristine; Neese, Frank; Rulisek, Lubomir

2010-01-01

18

Linkage between catecholate siderophores and the multicopper oxidase CueO in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The multicopper oxidase CueO had previously been demonstrated to exhibit phenoloxidase activity and was implicated in intrinsic copper resistance in Escherichia coli. Catecholates can potentially reduce Cu(II) to the prooxidant Cu(I). In this report we provide evidence that CueO protects E. coli cells by oxidizing enterobactin, the catechol iron siderophore of E. coli, in the presence of copper. In vitro, a mixture of enterobactin and copper was toxic for E. coli cells, but the addition of purified CueO led to their survival. Deletion of fur resulted in copper hypersensitivity that was alleviated by additional deletion of entC, preventing synthesis of enterobactin. In addition, copper added together with 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid or enterobactin was able to induce a Phi(cueO-lacZ) operon fusion more efficiently than copper alone. The reaction product of the 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid oxidation by CueO that can complex Cu(II) ions was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and identified as 2-carboxymuconate. PMID:15317788

Grass, Gregor; Thakali, Keshari; Klebba, Phillip E; Thieme, Daniel; Müller, Axel; Wildner, Günter F; Rensing, Christopher

2004-09-01

19

Mn(II,III) oxidation and MnO2 mineralization by an expressed bacterial multicopper oxidase.  

PubMed

Reactive Mn(IV) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and control the bioavailability and distribution of many toxic and essential elements and organic compounds. Their formation is thought to be dependent on microbial enzymes, because spontaneous Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxidation is slow. Several species of marine Bacillus spores oxidize Mn(II) on their exosporium, the outermost layer of the spore, encrusting them with Mn(IV) oxides. Molecular studies have identified the mnx (Mn oxidation) genes, including mnxG, encoding a putative multicopper oxidase (MCO), as responsible for this two-electron oxidation, a surprising finding because MCOs only catalyze single-electron transfer reactions. Characterization of the enzymatic mechanism has been hindered by the lack of purified protein. By purifying active protein from the mnxDEFG expression construct, we found that the resulting enzyme is a blue (absorption maximum 590 nm) complex containing MnxE, MnxF, and MnxG proteins. Further, by analyzing the Mn(II)- and (III)-oxidizing activity in the presence of a Mn(III) chelator, pyrophosphate, we found that the complex facilitates both electron transfers from Mn(II) to Mn(III) and from Mn(III) to Mn(IV). X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the Mn mineral product confirmed its similarity to Mn(IV) oxides generated by whole spores. Our results demonstrate that Mn oxidation from soluble Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxides is a two-step reaction catalyzed by an MCO-containing complex. With the purification of active Mn oxidase, we will be able to uncover its mechanism, broadening our understanding of Mn mineral formation and the bioinorganic capabilities of MCOs. PMID:23818588

Butterfield, Cristina N; Soldatova, Alexandra V; Lee, Sung-Woo; Spiro, Thomas G; Tebo, Bradley M

2013-07-16

20

Enhanced production of Aspergillus niger laccase-like multicopper oxidases through mRNA optimization of the glucoamylase expression system.  

PubMed

In filamentous fungi, most of the strategies used for the improvement of protein yields have been based on an increase in the transcript levels of a target gene. Strategies focusing at the translational level have been also described, but are far less explored. Here the 5' untranslated sequence of the glaA mRNA, a widely used expression system for the expression of recombinant proteins, was modified by the introduction of different nucleotide elements that have positive role in the translation process. Five Aspergillus niger laccase-like multicopper oxidases (MCOs) coding genes were fused to the native glaA 5'UTR and the three synthetic versions (sUTR1, sUTR2, and sUTR3) as well, and placed under the control of the glucoamylase gene promoter. Afterwards, a total of 20 fungal transformations were done using A. niger N593 as a recipient strain and 50 transformants per transformation were isolated and analyzed. The result of the incorporation of the synthetic 5'UTRs on the overall productivity of the transformants was assessed, on one hand by monitoring the laccase activity of all the isolated transformants, and on the other hand by quantifying and comparing the activity of those secreting the highest level of each MCO. For this purpose, a high-throughput method for the screening and selection of the best producers was developed. Once the best transformants producing the highest yield of McoA, McoB, McoC, McoD, and McoJ laccases were selected, their production level was quantified in supernatants of liquid cultures. The results obtained in this work indicate that modifications in the native glaA 5'UTR can lead to improvements in protein yields. PMID:22949265

Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Barends, Sharief; de Lange, Dennis; de Jel, Annemarie; Verhaert, Raymond; de Graaff, Leo

2013-02-01

21

Engineering Klebsiella sp. 601 multicopper oxidase enhances the catalytic efficiency towards phenolic substrates  

PubMed Central

Background Structural comparison between bacterial CueO and fungal laccases has suggested that a charged residue Glu (E106) in CueO replaces the corresponding residue Phe in fungal laccases at the gate of the tunnel connecting type II copper to the protein surface and an extra ?-helix (L351-G378) near the type I copper site covers the substrate binding pocket and might compromise the electron transfer from substrate to type I copper. To test this hypothesis, several mutants were made in Klebsiella sp. 601 multicopper oxidase, which is highly homologous to E. coli CueO with a similarity of 90% and an identity of 78%. Results The E106F mutant gave smaller Km (2.4-7fold) and kcat (1-4.4 fold) values for all three substrates DMP, ABTS and SGZ as compared with those for the wild-type enzyme. Its slightly larger kcat/Km values for three substrates mainly come from the decreased Km. Deleting ?-helix (L351-G378) resulted in the formation of inactive inclusion body when the mutant ??351-378 was expressed in E. coli. Another mutant ?351-380M was then made via substitution of seven amino acid residues in the ?-helix (L351-G378) region. The ?351-380M mutant was active, and displayed a far-UV CD spectrum markedly different from that for wild-type enzyme. Kinetic studies showed the ?351-380M mutant gave very low Km values for DMP, ABTS and SGZ, 4.5-, 1.9- and 7-fold less than those for the wild type. In addition, kcat/Km values were increased, 9.4-fold for DMP, similar for ABTS and 3-fold for SGZ. Conclusion The Glu residue at position 106 appears not to be the only factor affecting the copper binding, and it may also play a role in maintaining enzyme conformation. The ?-helix (L351-G378) may not only block access to the type I copper site but also play a role in substrate specificities of bacterial MCOs. The ?351-380M mutant catalyzing oxidation of the phenolic substrate DMP effectively would be very useful in green chemistry. PMID:21624144

2011-01-01

22

Biochemical studies of the multicopper oxidase (small laccase) from Streptomyces coelicolor using bioactive phytochemicals and site-directed mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Multicopper oxidases can act on a broad spectrum of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. These enzymes include laccases, which are widely distributed in plants and fungi, and were more recently identified in bacteria. Here, we present the results of biochemical and mutational studies of small laccase (SLAC), a multicopper oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor (SCO6712). In addition to typical laccase substrates, SLAC was tested using phenolic compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity. SLAC showed oxidase activity against 12 of 23 substrates tested, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, morin, kaempferol and myricetin. The kinetic parameters of SLAC were determined for 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, quercetin, morin and myricetin, and maximum reaction rates were observed with myricetin, where kcat and Km values at 60°C were 8.1 (±?0.8) s?1 and 0.9 (±?0.3) mM respectively. SLAC had a broad pH optimum for activity (between pH?4 and 8) and temperature optimum at 60–70°C. It demonstrated remarkable thermostability with a half-life of over 10?h at 80°C and over 7?h at 90°C. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed 17 amino acid residues important for SLAC activity including the 10 His residues involved in copper coordination. Most notably, the Y229A and Y230A mutant proteins showed over 10-fold increase in activity compared with the wild-type SLAC, which was correlated to higher copper incorporation, while kinetic analyses with S929A predicts localization of this residue near the meta-position of aromatic substrates. Funding Information Funding for this research was provided by the Government of Ontario for the project ‘FFABnet: Functionalized Fibre and Biochemicals’ (ORF-RE-05-005), and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. PMID:23815400

Sherif, Mohammed; Waung, Debbie; Korbeci, Bihter; Mavisakalyan, Valentina; Flick, Robert; Brown, Greg; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; Yakunin, Alexander F; Master, Emma R

2013-01-01

23

Multicopper Oxidase Involvement in Both Mn(II) and Mn(III) Oxidation during Bacterial Formation of MnO2  

PubMed Central

Global cycling of environmental manganese requires catalysis by bacteria and fungi for MnO2 formation, since abiotic Mn(II) oxidation is slow under ambient conditions. Genetic evidence from several bacteria implicates multicopper oxidases (MCOs) as being required for MnO2 formation. However, MCOs catalyze one-electron oxidations, whereas conversion of Mn(II) to MnO2 is a two-electron process. Trapping experiments with pyrophosphate (PP), a Mn(III) chelator, have demonstrated that Mn(III) is an intermediate in Mn(II) oxidation when mediated by exosporium from the Mn-oxidizing bacterium Bacillus SG-1. The reaction of Mn(II) depends on O2 and is inhibited by azide, consistent with MCO catalysis. We show that the subsequent conversion of Mn(III) to MnO2 also depends on O2 and is inhibited by azide. Thus, both oxidation steps appear to be MCO-mediated, likely by the same enzyme, indicated by genetic evidence to be the MnxG gene product. We propose a model of how the manganese oxidase active site may be organized to couple successive electron transfers to the formation of polynuclear Mn(IV) complexes as precursors to MnO2 formation. PMID:22892957

Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Butterfield, Cristina; Oyerinde, Oyeyemi F.; Tebo, Bradley M.; Spiro, Thomas G.

2013-01-01

24

Molecular Origin of Rapid vs. Slow Intramolecular Electron Transfer in the Catalytic Cycle of the Multicopper Oxidases  

PubMed Central

Kinetic measurements on single-turnover processes in Laccase establish fast Type 1 (T1) Cu to tri-nuclear Cu cluster (TNC) intramolecular electron transfer (IET) in the reduction of the native intermediate (NI), the fully oxidized form of the enzyme formed immediately after O-O bond cleavage in the mechanism of O2 reduction. Alternatively, slow IET kinetics in the reduction of the resting enzyme is observed, which involves proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) process based on isotope measurements. The > 103 difference in IET rate between the two processes confirms that the native intermediate, not resting enzyme that has been defined by crystallography, is the fully oxidized form of the TNC in catalytic turnover. Computational modeling shows that reduction of NI is fast due to the larger driving force associated with a more favorable proton affinity of its ?3-oxo moiety generated by the reductive cleavage of the O-O bond. This defines a unifying mechanism of coupling the reductive cleavage of the O-O bond to the rapid intramolecular electron transfer in the multicopper oxidases. PMID:23902255

Heppner, David E.; Kjaergaard, Christian H.; Solomon, Edward I.

2013-01-01

25

Thermostable multicopper oxidase from Thermusthermophilus HB27: crystallization and preliminaryX-ray diffraction analysis of apo and holo forms  

SciTech Connect

A thermostable multicopper oxidase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (Tth-MCO) was successfully crystallized using the sitting-drop and hanging-drop vapour-diffusion methods. Crystallization conditions and preliminary X-ray diffraction data to 1.5 {angstrom} resolution obtained using synchrotron radiation at 100 K are reported. The crystals belonged to space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.6, b = 110.3, c = 96.3 {angstrom}. A monomer in the asymmetric unit yielded a Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) of 2.60 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1} and a solvent content of 53%. An inactive enzyme form, apo-Tth-MCO, was also crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. In addition, a second inactive form of the enzyme, Hg-Tth-MCO, was obtained by soaking apo-Tth-MCO crystals with mercury(II) chloride and data were collected to a resolution of 1.7 {angstrom}.

Serrano-Posada H.; Stojanoff V.; Valderrama B.; Rudino-Pinera E.

2011-09-17

26

Crystal Structures of Multicopper Oxidase CueO Bound to Copper(I) and Silver(I)  

PubMed Central

The multicopper oxidase CueO oxidizes toxic Cu(I) and is required for copper homeostasis in Escherichia coli. Like many proteins involved in copper homeostasis, CueO has a methionine-rich segment that is thought to be critical for copper handling. How such segments function is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of CueO at 1.1 Å with the 45-residue methionine-rich segment fully resolved, revealing an N-terminal helical segment with methionine residues juxtaposed for Cu(I) ligation and a C-terminal highly mobile segment rich in methionine and histidine residues. We also report structures of CueO with a C500S mutation, which leads to loss of the T1 copper, and CueO with six methionines changed to serine. Soaking C500S CueO crystals with Cu(I), or wild-type CueO crystals with Ag(I), leads to occupancy of three sites, the previously identified substrate-binding site and two new sites along the methionine-rich helix, involving methionines 358, 362, 368, and 376. Mutation of these residues leads to a ?4-fold reduction in kcat for Cu(I) oxidation. Ag(I), which often appears with copper in nature, strongly inhibits CueO oxidase activities in vitro and compromises copper tolerance in vivo, particularly in the absence of the complementary copper efflux cus system. Together, these studies demonstrate a role for the methionine-rich insert of CueO in the binding and oxidation of Cu(I) and highlight the interplay among cue and cus systems in copper and silver homeostasis. PMID:21903583

Singh, Satish K.; Roberts, Sue A.; McDevitt, Sylvia F.; Weichsel, Andrzej; Wildner, Guenter F.; Grass, Gregor B.; Rensing, Christopher; Montfort, William R.

2011-01-01

27

Catalytic oxidation of manganese(II) by multicopper oxidase CueO and characterization of the biogenic Mn oxide.  

PubMed

Manganese(II) contamination is naturally occurring in many groundwater and surface water sources. Moreover, industrial wastewater is also responsible for much of the Mn(II) contamination. Nowadays, Mn(II) contamination has become a serious environmental problem in some regions of the world. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II) from water, we found a new biocatalyst multicopper oxidase CueO, which was firstly proved to catalyze the oxidation of Mn(II) both in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, we established a CueO-mediated catalysis system to prepare biogenic Mn oxide (BioMnOx), which was confirmed to be ?-Mn3O4 by X-ray diffraction. This newly prepared BioMnOx consisted of 53.6% Mn(II), 18.4% Mn(III) and 28.0% Mn(IV) characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It exhibited distinct polyhedral structure with nanoparticles of 150-350 nm diameters observed by transmission electron microscopy. Importantly, CueO could remove 35.7% of Mn(II) after a seven-day reaction, and on the other hand, the cueO-overexpressing Escherichia coli strain (ECueO) could also oxidize 58.1% dissolved Mn(II), and simultaneously remove 97.7% Mn(II). Based on these results, we suggest that ECueO strain and CueO enzyme have potential applications on Mn(II) decontamination in water treatment. PMID:24699422

Su, Jianmei; Deng, Lin; Huang, Liangbo; Guo, Shujin; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

2014-06-01

28

Crystal structure of a blue laccase from Lentinus tigrinus: evidences for intermediates in the molecular oxygen reductive splitting by multicopper oxidases  

PubMed Central

Background Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in pathogenesis, immunogenesis and morphogenesis of organisms and in the metabolic turnover of complex organic substances. They catalyze the coupling between the four one-electron oxidations of a broad range of substrates with the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. These catalytic processes are made possible by the contemporaneous presence of at least four copper ion sites, classified according to their spectroscopic properties: one type 1 (T1) site where the electrons from the reducing substrates are accepted, one type 2 (T2), and a coupled binuclear type 3 pair (T3) which are assembled in a T2/T3 trinuclear cluster where the electrons are transferred to perform the O2 reduction to H2O. Results The structure of a laccase from the white-rot fungus Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus, a glycoenzyme involved in lignin biodegradation, was solved at 1.5 Å. It reveals a asymmetric unit containing two laccase molecules (A and B). The progressive reduction of the copper ions centers obtained by the long-term exposure of the crystals to the high-intensity X-ray synchrotron beam radiation under aerobic conditions and high pH allowed us to detect two sequential intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction pathway: the "peroxide" and the "native" intermediates, previously hypothesized through spectroscopic, kinetic and molecular mechanics studies. Specifically the electron-density maps revealed the presence of an end-on bridging, ?-?1:?1 peroxide ion between the two T3 coppers in molecule B, result of a two-electrons reduction, whereas in molecule A an oxo ion bridging the three coppers of the T2/T3 cluster (?3-oxo bridge) together with an hydroxide ion externally bridging the two T3 copper ions, products of the four-electrons reduction of molecular oxygen, were best modelled. Conclusion This is the first structure of a multicopper oxidase which allowed the detection of two intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction and splitting. The observed features allow to positively substantiate an accurate mechanism of dioxygen reduction catalyzed by multicopper oxidases providing general insights into the reductive cleavage of the O-O bonds, a leading problem in many areas of biology. PMID:17897461

Ferraroni, Marta; Myasoedova, Nina M; Schmatchenko, Vadim; Leontievsky, Alexey A; Golovleva, Ludmila A; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

2007-01-01

29

The three heavy-chain precursors for the inter-alpha-inhibitor family in mouse: new members of the multicopper oxidase protein group with differential transcription in liver and brain.  

PubMed Central

The inter-alpha-inhibitor (I alpha I) family is comprised of the plasma protease inhibitors I alpha I, inter-alpha-like inhibitor (I alpha LI), pre-alpha-inhibitor (P alpha I) and bikunin. I alpha I, I alpha LI and P alpha I are distinct assemblies of bikunin with one of three heavy (H) chains designated H1, H2 and H3. These H chains and bikunin are respectively encoded by a set of three H genes and an alpha 1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP) gene. All four gene products undergo maturation steps from precursor polypeptides. The full-length cDNAs for the H1-, H2- and H3-chain precursors were cloned from a mouse liver cDNA library and sequenced. Extensive searches of amino acid sequence similarities to other proteins in databanks revealed (i) a highly significant similarity of the C-terminal sequence in the three H-chain precursors to the multicopper-binding domain in the group of multicopper oxidase proteins and (ii) the presence of von Willebrand type-A domains in the mature H chains. Amino acid sequence comparisons between the three mouse H1-, H2- and H3-chain precursors and their human counterparts allowed us to appraise the timing and order of occurrence of the three H-chain genes from a shared ancestor during mammalian evolution. Owing to a multiple alignment of the six mouse and human nucleotide sequences for these H-chain precursors, a reverse transcriptase PCR assay with degenerate oligonucleotides was designed, allowing us to (i) present evidence that no mRNAs for further H genes exist in mouse liver and (ii) demonstrate a previously undescribed transcription of the H2- and H3-chain mRNAs in mouse brain, which contrasts with the expression of all four, H1, H2, H3 and AMBP, mRNAs in liver. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7534067

Chan, P; Risler, J L; Raguenez, G; Salier, J P

1995-01-01

30

Thermostable multicopper oxidase from Thermus thermophilus HB27: crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of apo and holo forms  

PubMed Central

A thermostable multicopper oxidase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (Tth-MCO) was successfully crystallized using the sitting-drop and hanging-drop vapour-diffusion methods. Crystallization conditions and preliminary X-ray diffraction data to 1.5?Å resolution obtained using synchrotron radiation at 100?K are reported. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.6, b = 110.3, c = 96.3?Å. A monomer in the asymmetric unit yielded a Matthews coefficient (V M) of 2.60?Å3?Da?1 and a solvent content of 53%. An inactive enzyme form, apo-Tth-MCO, was also crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.7?Å resolution. In addition, a second inactive form of the enzyme, Hg-Tth-MCO, was obtained by soaking apo-Tth-MCO crystals with mercury(II) chloride and data were collected to a resolution of 1.7?Å. PMID:22139175

Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Valderrama, Brenda; Stojanoff, Vivian; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique

2011-01-01

31

Structural changes caused by radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis: the effect of X-ray absorbed dose in a fungal multicopper oxidase  

PubMed Central

X-ray radiation induces two main effects at metal centres contained in protein crystals: radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis and a resulting decrease in metal occupancy. In blue multicopper oxidases (BMCOs), the geometry of the active centres and the metal-to-ligand distances change depending on the oxidation states of the Cu atoms, suggesting that these alterations are catalytically relevant to the binding, activation and reduction of O2. In this work, the X-ray-determined three-dimensional structure of laccase from the basidiomycete Coriolopsis gallica (Cg L), a high catalytic potential BMCO, is described. By combining spectroscopic techniques (UV–Vis, EPR and XAS) and X-ray crystallography, structural changes at and around the active copper centres were related to pH and absorbed X-­ray dose (energy deposited per unit mass). Depletion of two of the four active Cu atoms as well as low occupancies of the remaining Cu atoms, together with different conformations of the metal centres, were observed at both acidic pH and high absorbed dose, correlating with more reduced states of the active coppers. These observations provide additional evidence to support the role of flexibility of copper sites during O2 reduction. This study supports previous observations indicating that interpretations regarding redox state and metal coordination need to take radiation effects explicitly into account. PMID:22525754

De la Mora, Eugenio; Lovett, Janet E.; Blanford, Christopher F.; Garman, Elspeth F.; Valderrama, Brenda; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique

2012-01-01

32

Direct electron-transfer conduits constructed at the interface between multicopper oxidase and nanocrystalline semiconductive Fe oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, the electron-transfer reactions occurring at the interface between bilirubin oxidase (BOD) and nanocrystalline hematite (?-Fe 2O 3) were characterized. Cyclic voltammograms indicated that BOD has an affinity for hematite surfaces and establishes a direct electron-transfer (DET) conduit between the primary electron acceptor T1 site and the conduction band of ?-Fe 2O 3. DET was also confirmed photo-electrochemically, as cathodic photocurrents were generated when a nanocomposite of BOD and ?-Fe 2O 3 was illuminated under oxygenated conditions. A proline residue displayed a high-binding affinity for hematite surfaces and is therefore likely part of an orientation-controlled motif which serves to locate BOD at the T1 site at a suitable distance for DET to ?-Fe 2O 3.

Nakamura, Ryuhei; Kamiya, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

2010-10-01

33

Four-electron Reduction of Dioxygen by a Multicopper Oxidase, CueO, and Roles of Asp112 and Glu506 Located Adjacent to the Trinuclear Copper Center*S?  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of the four-electron reduction of dioxygen by a multicopper oxidase, CueO, was studied based on reactions of single and double mutants with Cys500, a type I copper ligand, and the noncoordinating Asp112 and Glu506, which form hydrogen bonds with the trinuclear copper center directly and indirectly via a water molecule. The reaction of C500S containing a vacant type I copper center produced intermediate I in an EPR-silent peroxide-bound form. The formation of intermediate I from C500S/D112N was restricted due to a reduction in the affinity of the trinuclear copper center for dioxygen. The state of intermediate I was realized to be the resting form of C500S/E506Q and C500S of the truncated mutant ??5–7CueO, in which the 50 amino acids covering the substrate-binding site were removed. Reactions of the recombinant CueO and E506Q afforded intermediate II, a fully oxidized form different from the resting one, with a very broad EPR signal, g < 2, detectable only at cryogenic temperatures and unsaturated with high power microwaves. The lifetime of intermediate II was prolonged by the mutation at Glu506 involved in the donation of protons. The structure of intermediates I and II and the mechanism of the four-electron reduction of dioxygen driven by Asp112 and Glu506 are discussed. PMID:19297322

Kataoka, Kunishige; Sugiyama, Ryosuke; Hirota, Shun; Inoue, Megumi; Urata, Kanae; Minagawa, Yoichi; Seo, Daisuke; Sakurai, Takeshi

2009-01-01

34

Spectroscopic Studies of Perturbed T1 Cu Sites in the Multicopper Oxidases Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Fet3p And Rhus Vernicifera Laccase: Allosteric Coupling Between the T1 And Trinuclear Cu Sites  

SciTech Connect

The multicopper oxidases catalyze the 4e{sup -} reduction of O{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O coupled to the 1e{sup -} oxidation of 4 equiv of substrate. This activity requires four Cu atoms, including T1, T2, and coupled binuclear T3 sites. The T2 and T3 sites form a trinuclear cluster (TNC) where O{sub 2} is reduced. The T1 is coupled to the TNC through a T1-Cys-His-T3 electron transfer (ET) pathway. In this study the two T3 Cu coordinating His residues which lie in this pathway in Fet3 have been mutated, H483Q, H483C, H485Q, and H485C, to study how perturbation at the TNC impacts the T1 Cu site. Spectroscopic methods, in particular resonance Raman (rR), show that the change from His to Gln to Cys increases the covalency of the T1 Cu?S Cys bond and decreases its redox potential. This study of T1?TNC interactions is then extended to Rhus vernicifera laccase where a number of well-defined species including the catalytically relevant native intermediate (NI) can be trapped for spectroscopic study. The T1 Cu?S covalency and potential do not change in these species relative to resting oxidized enzyme, but interestingly the differences in the structure of the TNC in these species do lead to changes in the T1 Cu rR spectrum. This helps to confirm that vibrations in the cysteine side chain of the T1 Cu site and the protein backbone couple to the Cu?S vibration. These changes in the side chain and backbone provide a possible mechanism for regulating intramolecular T1 to TNC ET in NI and partially reduced enzyme forms for efficient turnover.

Augustine, A.J.; Kragh, M.E.; Sarangi, R.; Fujii, S.; Liboiron, B.D.; Stoj, C.S.; Kosman, D.J.; Hodgson, K.O.; Hedman, B.; Solomon, E.I.; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept. /Copenhagen U. /SLAC, SSRL /SUNY, Buffalo

2009-04-30

35

Terminal Oxidase Diversity and Function in "Metallosphaera yellowstonensis": Gene Expression and Protein Modeling Suggest Mechanisms of Fe(II) Oxidation in the Sulfolobales? †  

PubMed Central

“Metallosphaera yellowstonensis” is a thermoacidophilic archaeon isolated from Yellowstone National Park that is capable of autotrophic growth using Fe(II), elemental S, or pyrite as electron donors. Analysis of the draft genome sequence from M. yellowstonensis strain MK1 revealed seven different copies of heme copper oxidases (subunit I) in a total of five different terminal oxidase complexes, including doxBCEF, foxABCDEFGHIJ, soxABC, and the soxM supercomplex, as well as a novel hypothetical two-protein doxB-like polyferredoxin complex. Other genes found in M. yellowstonensis with possible roles in S and or Fe cycling include a thiosulfate oxidase (tqoAB), a sulfite oxidase (som), a cbsA cytochrome b558/566, several small blue copper proteins, and a novel gene sequence coding for a putative multicopper oxidase (Mco). Results from gene expression studies, including reverse transcriptase (RT) quantitative PCR (qPCR) of cultures grown autotrophically on either Fe(II), pyrite, or elemental S showed that the fox gene cluster and mco are highly expressed under conditions where Fe(II) is an electron donor. Metagenome sequence and gene expression studies of Fe-oxide mats confirmed the importance of fox genes (e.g., foxA and foxC) and mco under Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions. Protein modeling of FoxC suggests a novel lysine-lysine or lysine-arginine heme B binding domain, indicating that it is likely the cytochrome component of a heterodimer complex with foxG as a ferredoxin subunit. Analysis of mco shows that it encodes a novel multicopper blue protein with two plastocyanin type I copper domains that may play a role in the transfer of electrons within the Fox protein complex. An understanding of metabolic pathways involved in aerobic iron and sulfur oxidation in Sulfolobales has broad implications for understanding the evolution and niche diversification of these thermophiles as well as practical applications in fields such as bioleaching of trace metals from pyritic ores. PMID:21239558

Kozubal, M. A.; Dlakic, M.; Macur, R. E.; Inskeep, W. P.

2011-01-01

36

A Permease-Oxidase Complex Involved in High-Affinity Iron Uptake in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron must cross biological membranes to reach essential intracellular enzymes. Two proteins in the plasma membrane of yeast-a multicopper oxidase, encoded by the FET3 gene, and a permease, encoded by the FTR1 gene-were shown to mediate high-affinity iron uptake. FET3 expression was required for FTR1 protein to be transported to the plasma membrane. FTR1 expression was required for apo-FET3 protein

Robert Stearman; Daniel S. Yuan; Yuko Yamaguchi-Iwai; Richard D. Klausner; Andrew Dancis

1996-01-01

37

Differential Expression of Alternative Oxidase Genes in Maize Mitochondrial Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the expression of three alternative oxidase ( aox ) genes in two types of maize mitochondrial mu- tants. Nonchromosomal stripe (NCS) mutants carry mitochondrial DNA deletions that affect subunits of respiratory complexes and show constitutively defective growth. Cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) mutants have mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, but they are impaired for mitochondrial function only during anther development. In

Olga V. Karpova; Evgeny V. Kuzmin; Thomas E. Elthon; Kathleen J. Newton

2002-01-01

38

Lysyl Oxidase ( Lox ) Gene Deficiency Affects Osteoblastic Phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes cross-linking of elastin and collagen, which is essential for the structural integrity and function\\u000a of bone tissue. The present study examined the role of Lox gene deficiency for the osteoblast phenotype in primary calvarial osteoblasts from E18.5 Lox knockout (Lox\\u000a \\u000a ?\\/?\\u000a ) and wild type (wt) (C57BL\\/6) mice. Next to Lox gene depletion, mRNA expression of

N. Pischon; J. M. Mäki; P. Weisshaupt; N. Heng; A. H. Palamakumbura; P. N’Guessan; A. Ding; R. Radlanski; H. Renz; T. A. L. J. J. Bronckers; J. Myllyharju; A. M. Kielbassa; B. M. Kleber; J.-P. Bernimoulin; P. C. Trackman

2009-01-01

39

Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans  

PubMed Central

Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III). To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (?54) of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and a putative -12/-24 ?54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III) in this microorganism. PMID:20167112

2010-01-01

40

A functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new polymorphism upstream of the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), an important enzyme in human physiology\\u000a and behavior. The polymorphism, which is located 1.2 kb upstream of the MAOA coding sequences, consists of a 30-bp repeated\\u000a sequence present in 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 copies. The polymorphism is in linkage disequilibrium with other MAOA and MAOB

Sue Z. Sabol; Stella Hu; Dean Hamer

1998-01-01

41

The SLENDER gene of pea encodes a gibberellin 2-oxidase.  

PubMed

The amount of active gibberellin (GA) in plant tissues is determined in part by its rate of catabolism through oxidation at C-2. In pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds, GA 2-oxidation is controlled by the SLN (SLENDER) gene, a mutation of which produces seedlings characterized by a slender or hyper-elongated phenotype. We cloned a GA 2-oxidase cDNA from immature pea seeds by screening an expression library for enzyme activity. The clone contained a full-length open reading frame encoding a protein of 327 amino acids. Lysate of bacterial cultures expressing the protein converted the C(19)-GAs, GA(1), GA(4), GA(9), and GA(20) to the corresponding 2beta-hydroxy products. GA(9) and GA(20) were also converted to GA(51) and GA(29) catabolites, respectively. The gene appeared to be one member of a small family of GA 2-oxidases in pea. Transcript was found predominantly in roots, flowers, young fruits, and testae of seeds. The corresponding transcript from sln pea contained a point mutation and did not produce active enzyme when expressed heterologously. RFLP analysis of a seedling population segregating for SLN and sln alleles showed the homozygous mutant allele co-segregating with the characteristic slender phenotype. We conclude that SLN encodes GA 2-oxidase. PMID:10557225

Martin, D N; Proebsting, W M; Hedden, P

1999-11-01

42

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY -ORIGINAL ARTICLE Negative emotionality: monoamine oxidase B gene variants  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY - ORIGINAL ARTICLE Negative emotionality: monoamine oxidase B gene variants Abstract Monoamine oxidase A and B (MAOA and MAOB) appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of Major depression. Keywords Negative emotionality Á Inter-individual differences Á Monoamine oxidase B Á Human Á

Gilad, Yoav

43

Molecular evolution of the polyamine oxidase gene family in Metazoa  

PubMed Central

Background Polyamine oxidase enzymes catalyze the oxidation of polyamines and acetylpolyamines. Since polyamines are basic regulators of cell growth and proliferation, their homeostasis is crucial for cell life. Members of the polyamine oxidase gene family have been identified in a wide variety of animals, including vertebrates, arthropodes, nematodes, placozoa, as well as in plants and fungi. Polyamine oxidases (PAOs) from yeast can oxidize spermine, N1-acetylspermine, and N1-acetylspermidine, however, in vertebrates two different enzymes, namely spermine oxidase (SMO) and acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), specifically catalyze the oxidation of spermine, and N1-acetylspermine/N1-acetylspermidine, respectively. Little is known about the molecular evolutionary history of these enzymes. However, since the yeast PAO is able to catalyze the oxidation of both acetylated and non acetylated polyamines, and in vertebrates these functions are addressed by two specialized polyamine oxidase subfamilies (APAO and SMO), it can be hypothesized an ancestral reference for the former enzyme from which the latter would have been derived. Results We analysed 36 SMO, 26 APAO, and 14 PAO homologue protein sequences from 54 taxa including various vertebrates and invertebrates. The analysis of the full-length sequences and the principal domains of vertebrate and invertebrate PAOs yielded consensus primary protein sequences for vertebrate SMOs and APAOs, and invertebrate PAOs. This analysis, coupled to molecular modeling techniques, also unveiled sequence regions that confer specific structural and functional properties, including substrate specificity, by the different PAO subfamilies. Molecular phylogenetic trees revealed a basal position of all the invertebrates PAO enzymes relative to vertebrate SMOs and APAOs. PAOs from insects constitute a monophyletic clade. Two PAO variants sampled in the amphioxus are basal to the dichotomy between two well supported monophyletic clades including, respectively, all the SMOs and APAOs from vertebrates. The two vertebrate monophyletic clades clustered strictly mirroring the organismal phylogeny of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Evidences from comparative genomic analysis, structural evolution and functional divergence in a phylogenetic framework across Metazoa suggested an evolutionary scenario where the ancestor PAO coding sequence, present in invertebrates as an orthologous gene, has been duplicated in the vertebrate branch to originate the paralogous SMO and APAO genes. A further genome evolution event concerns the SMO gene of placental, but not marsupial and monotremate, mammals which increased its functional variation following an alternative splicing (AS) mechanism. Conclusions In this study the explicit integration in a phylogenomic framework of phylogenetic tree construction, structure prediction, and biochemical function data/prediction, allowed inferring the molecular evolutionary history of the PAO gene family and to disambiguate paralogous genes related by duplication event (SMO and APAO) and orthologous genes related by speciation events (PAOs, SMOs/APAOs). Further, while in vertebrates experimental data corroborate SMO and APAO molecular function predictions, in invertebrates the finding of a supported phylogenetic clusters of insect PAOs and the co-occurrence of two PAO variants in the amphioxus urgently claim the need for future structure-function studies. PMID:22716069

2012-01-01

44

Expression of the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in Penicillium nalgiovense.  

PubMed

The glucose oxidase gene (god) from Aspergillus niger was expressed in Penicillium nalgiovense under control of the latter's homologous transcription signals. The GOD protein was synthesized in an active form, leading to increased glucose oxidase activity. The expression vector was introduced into P. nalgiovense along with a selectable plasmid carrying the dominant amdS marker gene of A. nidulans. PMID:24414658

Geisen, R

1995-05-01

45

Activation Tagging of a Dominant Gibberellin Catabolism Gene (GA 2-oxidase) from Poplar That Regulates  

E-print Network

Activation Tagging of a Dominant Gibberellin Catabolism Gene (GA 2-oxidase) from Poplar, greenhouse, and field environments. The cause of the phenotype was a hyperactivated gene encoding GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox), the major gibberellin (GA) catabolic enzyme in plants. The mutation resulted from

46

Functional characterisation of a cytokinin oxidase gene DSCKX1 in Dendrobium orchid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokinin oxidase plays an important role in the cytokinin regulatory processes. We have cloned a novel putative cytokinin oxidase, DSCKX1 (Dendrobium Sonia cytokinin oxidase), by mRNA differential display from shoot apices of Dendrobium Sonia cultured in the presence of BA. The DSCKX1 gene appears to have three alternative splicing forms and its expression of DSCKX1 was induced in a tissue-specific

Shu Hua Yang; Hao Yu; Chong Jin Goh

2003-01-01

47

The LOXL2 Gene Encodes a New Lysyl Oxidase-like Protein and Is Expressed at High Levels in Reproductive Tissues*  

E-print Network

- mine oxidase, monoamine-metabolizing semi-carbazide-sensi- tive amine oxidase, and lysyl oxidase belongThe LOXL2 Gene Encodes a New Lysyl Oxidase-like Protein and Is Expressed at High Levels the complete cDNA sequence, gene structure, and tissue-specific expression of LOXL2, a new amine oxidase

Bryant-Greenwood, Gillian D.

48

Characterization of Three Putative Monoamine Oxidase Genes in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

E-print Network

??Monoamine neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin regulate neuronal function and behavior in animals. In vertebrates, monoamine oxidase (MAO) degrades monoamines. We investigated the function of… (more)

Kaushal, Setu

2008-01-01

49

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of three aldehyde oxidase genes from Pisum sativum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aldehyde oxidase (AO, EC 1.2.3.1) is a molybdenohydroxylase that is considered to catalyze the last step of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis. Three cDNAs encoding aldehyde oxidase proteins in Pisum sativum (cv. Little Marvel) were obtained based on RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) strategy. The cloned genes, designated as PsAO1, PsAO2 and PsAO3, are 4630, 4347, 4600bp

Edyta Zdunek-Zastocka

2008-01-01

50

Common polymorphisms in human lysyl oxidase genes are not associated with the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affects approximately 3% of adolescents, the genetic contributions have proven difficult\\u000a to identify. Work in model organisms, including zebrafish, chickens, and mice, has implicated the lysyl oxidase family of\\u000a enzymes in the development of scoliosis. We hypothesized that common polymorphisms in the five human lysyl oxidase genes (LOX, LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4) may be associated

Tracy L McGregor; Christina A Gurnett; Matthew B Dobbs; Carol A Wise; Jose A Morcuende; Thomas M Morgan; Ramkumar Menon; Louis J Muglia

2011-01-01

51

Evidence for the existence of a pristanoyl-CoA oxidase gene in man.  

PubMed Central

In the rat, 2-methyl branched fatty acids and the bile acid intermediates di- and tri-hydroxycoprostanic acids are desaturated by pristanoyl-CoA oxidase and trihydroxycoprostanoyl-CoA oxidase respectively. In the human, these compounds are oxidized by a single enzyme, branched-chain acyl-CoA oxidase, which according to its amino acid sequence is the human homologue of rat trihydroxycoprostanoyl-CoA oxidase. Pristanoyl-CoA oxidase is apparently absent from human tissues as indicated by immunoblot analysis [Van Veldhoven, Van Rompuy, Fransen, de Béthune and Mannaerts (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 222, 795-801] and Northern-blot analysis [Vanhooren, Fransen, de Béthune, Baumgart, Baes, Torrekens, Van Leuven, Mannaerts and Van Veldhoven (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 239, 302-309] of human tissues. In this paper we present evidence, however, that at least the gene for pristanoyl-CoA oxidase is present in the human. A human liver cDNA encoding a protein of 700 amino acids, showing 75% amino acid identity with rat pristanoyl-CoA oxidase and harbouring a peroxisomal C-terminal-targeting signal (SKL), was isolated. Bacterial expression of the cDNA resulted in a fusion protein that was cross-reactive with antibodies directed against rat pristanoyl-CoA oxidase and the C-terminal SKL sequence. Screening of a genomic library with the isolated cDNA as a probe resulted in a genomic clone in which four introns were localized. By means of fluorescence in situ hybridization the gene for human pristanoyl-CoA oxidase was mapped at chromosome position 4p15.3. We conclude that a gene for pristanoyl-CoA oxidase is present in the human genome. The gene appears to be expressed to such a low extent in liver that its mRNA cannot be detected by routine Northern-blot analysis and that its product remains undetected by standard immunoblotting or by enzyme activity measurements. We speculate that the gene may be expressed under special (e.g. certain developmental stages) conditions or in certain specialized tissues not examined thus far. PMID:9271077

Vanhooren, J C; Marynen, P; Mannaerts, G P; Van Veldhoven, P P

1997-01-01

52

The expression of lysyl-oxidase gene family members in myeloproliferative neoplasms.  

PubMed

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are malignant disorders originating from clonal expansion of a single neoplastic stem cell and characteristically show an increase in bone marrow reticulin fibers. Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are copper-dependent amine oxidases that play a critical role in the biogenesis of connective tissue by crosslinking extracellular matrix proteins, collagen and elastin. Expression of LOX gene family members is increased in disorders associated with increased fibrosis. To evaluate involvement of LOX gene family in various MPNs. In-situ hybridization was used to detect Lysyl-Oxidase family members in bone marrow biopsies from patients with different MPNs. We compared normal bone marrows and those from patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Serum levels of lysyl-oxidase from patients with PMF and healthy controls were also examined. LOX gene family was not detected in normal bone marrows. All members of the LOX gene family were over expressed in PMF. In other MPNs a differential pattern of expression was observed. Differences in gene expression were statistically significant (P < 0.010). The medianserum LOX levels in normal controls was 28.4 ± 2.5 ng\\ml and 44.6 ± 9.44 ng\\ml in PMF (P = 0.02). The varying pattern of expression of LOX genes may reflect differences in the pathophysiology of bone marrow fibrosis in these MPNs. These observations could be used as the basis for future targeted therapy directed against bone marrow fibrosis. PMID:23494965

Tadmor, T; Bejar, J; Attias, D; Mischenko, E; Sabo, E; Neufeld, G; Vadasz, Z

2013-05-01

53

Transcriptional changes of gibberellin oxidase genes in grapevines with or without gibberellin application during inflorescence development.  

PubMed

The concept that gibberellin (GA) application on seeded grapevines induces seedlessness has been known for decades in viticulture. GA was applied to inflorescence clusters of seeded diploid grapevine cultivar 'Tamnara' (Vitis spp.) at 14 days before full bloom (DBF). Morphological and molecular effects of GA application were examined on the induction of parthenocarpic fruit development. With GA application, ovaries were enlarged and pollen tube growth was completely inhibited. Vitis GA oxidase enzymes, key determinants for GA level, were characterized through phylogenetic analysis with Arabidopsis GA oxidase enzymes. Five VvGA 20-oxidase (VvGA20ox), three VvGA 3-oxidase (VvGA3ox), and nine VvGA 2-oxidase (VvGA2ox) family proteins, and one VvGA methyltransferase (VvGAMT) and one Vitis cytochrome P450 714A1 proteins were identified, and their expression patterns were analyzed during inflorescence development from 14 DBF to 5 days after full bloom (DAF). VvGA2ox1, VvGA20ox3, and VvGA3ox2 were the most abundantly expressed genes in each gene family at 7, 5, and 2 DBF, respectively. Following GA application at 14 DBF inducing seedlessness, GA catabolic genes such as VvGAMT2, VvGA2ox3, and VvGA2ox4 were up-regulated at 12 DBF, full bloom, and 5 DAF, respectively. Conversely, most GA biosynthetic genes, VvGA20oxs and VvGA3oxs, were down-regulated at near full bloom, and the timing of their peak expression was changed. These results suggest that GA application at pre-bloom changes the GA biosynthesis into GA catabolic pathway at near full bloom by altering the transcription level and timing of GA oxidase genes during grapevine inflorescence development. PMID:24374939

Jung, Chan Jin; Hur, Youn Young; Jung, Sung-Min; Noh, Jung-Ho; Do, Gyung-Ran; Park, Seo-June; Nam, Jong-Chul; Park, Kyo-Sun; Hwang, Hae-Sung; Choi, Doil; Lee, Hee Jae

2014-03-01

54

No association of G72 and d-amino acid oxidase genes with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes of d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) activator (DAOA or G72; 13q34) and DAAO (12q24) have been suggested as candidate genes and involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor regulation pathway for schizophrenia. In order to evaluate the potential association of these two genes with schizophrenia in a Taiwanese sample, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for DAAO (rs2111902, rs3918346, rs3741775) and eleven

Yu-Li Liu; Cathy Shen-Jang Fann; Chih-Min Liu; Chien Ching Chang; Jer-Yuarn Wu; Shuen-Iu Hung; Shih-Kai Liu; Ming H. Hsieh; Tzung-Jeng Hwang; Hung-Yu Chan; Jiahn-Jyh Chen; Stephen V. Faraone; Ming T. Tsuang; Wei J. Chen; Hai-Gwo Hwu

2006-01-01

55

Pistil-Specific and Ethylene-Regulated Expression of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase Genes in Petunia Flowers.  

PubMed Central

The differential expression of the petunia 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase gene family during flower development and senescence was investigated. ACC oxidase catalyzes the conversion of ACC to ethylene. The increase in ethylene production by petunia corollas during senescence was preceded by increased ACC oxidase mRNA and enzyme activity. Treatment of flowers with ethylene led to an increase in ethylene production, ACC oxidase mRNA, and ACC oxidase activity in corollas. In contrast, leaves did not exhibit increased ethylene production or ACC oxidase expression in response to ethylene. Gene-specific probes revealed that the ACO1 gene was expressed specifically in senescing corollas and in other floral organs following exposure to ethylene. The ACO3 and ACO4 genes were specifically expressed in developing pistil tissue. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that ACC oxidase mRNAs were specifically localized to the secretory cells of the stigma and the connective tissue of the receptacle, including the nectaries. Treatment of flower buds with ethylene led to patterns of ACC oxidase gene expression spatially distinct from the patterns observed during development. The timing and tissue specificity of ACC oxidase expression during pistil development were paralleled by physiological processes associated with reproduction, including nectar secretion, accumulation of stigmatic exudate, and development of the self-incompatible response. PMID:12244270

Tang, X.; Gomes, AMTR.; Bhatia, A.; Woodson, W. R.

1994-01-01

56

Molecular Phylogeny of the Chipmunks Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b and Cytochrome Oxidase II Gene Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently 25 recognized species of the chipmunk genus Tamias. In this study we sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of 23 Tamias species. We analyzed the cyt b sequence and then analyzed a combined data set of cyt b along with a previous data set of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) sequence. Maximum-likelihood was used

Antoinette J. Piaggio; Greg S. Spicer

2001-01-01

57

Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the glycolate oxidase gene in tobacco seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of light and of the putative plastid signal in glycolate oxidase (GLO) gene expression were investigated in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) seedlings during their shift from skotomorphogenic to photomorphogenic development. GLO transcript and enzyme activities were detected in etiolated seedlings. Their respective levels increased three- and six-fold during 96 h of exposure to light. The GLO transcript

Simon Barak; Ali Nejidat; Yair Heimer; Micha Volokita

2001-01-01

58

Molecular evolution of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5 A gene in primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many electron transport chain (ETC) genes show accelerated rates of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in anthropoid primate\\u000a lineages, yet in non-anthropoid lineages the ETC proteins are typically highly conserved. Here, we test the hypothesis that\\u000a COX5A, the ETC gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A, shows a pattern of anthropoid-specific adaptive evolution, and investigate the distribution of this protein\\u000a in

Monica Uddin; Juan C Opazo; Derek E Wildman; Chet C Sherwood; Patrick R Hof; Morris Goodman; Lawrence I Grossman

2008-01-01

59

Production of dwarf lettuce by overexpressing a pumpkin gibberellin 20-oxidase gene.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of overexpressing a pumpkin gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase gene encoding an enzyme that forms predominantly biologically inactive products on GA biosynthesis and plant morphology in transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv Vanguard) plants. Lettuce was transformed with the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase gene downstream of a strong constitutive promoter cassette (El2-35S-Omega). The transgenic plants in which the pumpkin gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction were dwarfed in the T(2) generation, whereas transformants with a normal growth phenotype did not contain the transgene. The result of Southern-blot analysis showed that the transgene was integrated as a single copy; the plants segregated three dwarfs to one normal in the T(2) generation, indicating that the transgene was stable and dominant. The endogenous levels of GA(1) and GA(4) were reduced in the dwarfs, whereas large amounts of GA(17) and GA(25), which are inactive products of the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase, accumulated in these lines. These results indicate that a functional pumpkin GA 20-oxidase is expressed in the transgenic lettuce, resulting in a diversion of the normal pathway of GA biosynthesis to inactive products. Furthermore, this technique may be useful for controlling plant stature in other agricultural and horticultural species. PMID:11457947

Niki, T; Nishijima, T; Nakayama, M; Hisamatsu, T; Oyama-Okubo, N; Yamazaki, H; Hedden, P; Lange, T; Mander, L N; Koshioka, M

2001-07-01

60

Production of Dwarf Lettuce by Overexpressing a Pumpkin Gibberellin 20-Oxidase Gene  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of overexpressing a pumpkin gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase gene encoding an enzyme that forms predominantly biologically inactive products on GA biosynthesis and plant morphology in transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv Vanguard) plants. Lettuce was transformed with the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase gene downstream of a strong constitutive promoter cassette (El2–35S-?). The transgenic plants in which the pumpkin gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction were dwarfed in the T2 generation, whereas transformants with a normal growth phenotype did not contain the transgene. The result of Southern-blot analysis showed that the transgene was integrated as a single copy; the plants segregated three dwarfs to one normal in the T2 generation, indicating that the transgene was stable and dominant. The endogenous levels of GA1 and GA4 were reduced in the dwarfs, whereas large amounts of GA17 and GA25, which are inactive products of the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase, accumulated in these lines. These results indicate that a functional pumpkin GA 20-oxidase is expressed in the transgenic lettuce, resulting in a diversion of the normal pathway of GA biosynthesis to inactive products. Furthermore, this technique may be useful for controlling plant stature in other agricultural and horticultural species. PMID:11457947

Niki, Tomoya; Nishijima, Takaaki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu; Oyama-Okubo, Naomi; Yamazaki, Hiroko; Hedden, Peter; Lange, Theo; Mander, Lewis N.; Koshioka, Masaji

2001-01-01

61

In Silico Sequence Analysis Reveals New Characteristics of Fungal NADPH Oxidase Genes  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidases (Noxes), transmembrane proteins found in most eukaryotic species, generate reactive oxygen species and are thereby involved in essential biological processes. However, the fact that genes encoding ferric reductases and ferric-chelate reductases share high sequence similarities and domains with Nox genes represents a challenge for bioinformatic approaches used to identify Nox-encoding genes. Further, most studies on fungal Nox genes have focused mainly on functionality, rather than sequence properties, and consequently clear differentiation among the various Nox isoforms has not been achieved. We conducted an extensive sequence analysis to identify putative Nox genes among 34 eukaryotes, including 28 fungal genomes and one Oomycota genome. Analyses were performed with respect to phylogeny, transmembrane helices, di-histidine distance and glycosylation. Our analyses indicate that the sequence properties of fungal Nox genes are different from those of human and plant Nox genes, thus providing novel insight that will enable more accurate identification and characterization of fungal Nox genes.

Detry, Nicolas; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Asiegbu, Fred O.

2014-01-01

62

Intracellular gene transfer: Reduced hydrophobicity facilitates gene transfer for subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase  

PubMed Central

Subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase (Cox2) in legumes offers a rare opportunity to investigate factors necessary for successful gene transfer of a hydrophobic protein that is usually mitochondrial-encoded. We found that changes in local hydrophobicity were necessary to allow import of this nuclear-encoded protein into mitochondria. All legume species containing both a mitochondrial and nuclear encoded Cox2 displayed a similar pattern, with a large decrease in hydrophobicity evident in the first transmembrane region of the nuclear encoded protein compared with the organelle-encoded protein. Mitochondrial-encoded Cox2 could not be imported into mitochondria under the direction of the mitochondrial targeting sequence that readily supports the import of nuclear encoded Cox2. Removal of the first transmembrane region promotes import ability of the mitochondrial-encoded Cox2. Changing just two amino acids in the first transmembrane region of mitochondrial-encoded Cox2 to the corresponding amino acids in the nuclear encoded Cox2 also promotes import ability, whereas changing the same two amino acids in the nuclear encoded Cox2 to what they are in the mitochondrial-encoded copy prevents import. Therefore, changes in amino acids in the mature protein were necessary and sufficient for gene transfer to allow import under the direction of an appropriate signal to achieve the functional topology of Cox2. PMID:12142462

Daley, Daniel O.; Clifton, Rachel; Whelan, James

2002-01-01

63

Molecular basis of variegate porphyria: a de novo insertion mutation in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The porphyrias are disorders that result from the inherited or acquired dysregulation of one of the eight enzymes in the\\u000a heme biosynthetic pathway. Variegate porphyria (VP) is characterized by deficiencies in protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) and\\u000a has recently been genetically linked (Z = 6.62) to the PPO gene on chromosome 1q21. In this study, we have identified two sequence variants in

HaMut Lam; Laryssa Dragan; Hui C. Tsou; Hans Merk; Monica Peacocke; Günter Goerz; Shigeru Sassa; Maureen Poh-Fitzpatrick; David R. Bickers; Angela M. Christiano

1996-01-01

64

Cloning and in situ expression studies of the Hydrogenobaculum arsenite oxidase genes.  

PubMed

Novel arsenite [As(III)] oxidase structural genes (aoxAB) were cloned from Hydrogenobaculum bacteria isolated from an acidic geothermal spring. Reverse transcriptase PCR demonstrated expression throughout the outflow channel, and the aoxB cDNA clones exhibited distribution patterns relative to the physicochemical gradients in the spring. Microelectrode analyses provided evidence of quantitative As(III) transformation within the microbial mat. PMID:19304831

Clingenpeel, Scott R; D'Imperio, Seth; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg K; McDermott, Timothy R

2009-05-01

65

Human Monoamine Oxidase A and B Genes Exhibit Identical Exon-Intron Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoamine oxidases A and B ]MAOA and MAOB; amine:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating) (flavin-containing), EC 1.4.3.4rbrack play important roles in the metabolism of neuroactive, vasoactive amines and the Parkinsonismproducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl- 1,2,3,6 -tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Human MAOA and MAOB genes isolated from X chromosome-specific libraries span at least 60 kilobases, consist of 15 exons, and exhibit identical exon-intron organization. Exon 12 codes for

Joseph Grimsby; Kevin Chen; Li-Jia Wang; Nancy C. Lan; Jean C. Shih

1991-01-01

66

PapilioPhylogeny Based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I and II Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butterflies of the genusPapiliohave served as the basis for numerous studies in insect physiology, genetics, and ecology. However, phylogenetic work on relationships among major lineages in the genus has been limited and inconclusive. We have sequenced 2.3 kb of DNA from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II genes (COI and COII) for 23Papiliotaxa and two outgroups,Pachliopta neptunusandEurytides marcellus,in order

Michael S. Caterino; Felix A. H. Sperling

1999-01-01

67

The SLENDER Gene of Pea Encodes a Gibberellin 2-Oxidase1  

PubMed Central

The amount of active gibberellin (GA) in plant tissues is determined in part by its rate of catabolism through oxidation at C-2. In pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds, GA 2-oxidation is controlled by the SLN (SLENDER) gene, a mutation of which produces seedlings characterized by a slender or hyper-elongated phenotype. We cloned a GA 2-oxidase cDNA from immature pea seeds by screening an expression library for enzyme activity. The clone contained a full-length open reading frame encoding a protein of 327 amino acids. Lysate of bacterial cultures expressing the protein converted the C19-GAs, GA1, GA4, GA9, and GA20 to the corresponding 2?-hydroxy products. GA9 and GA20 were also converted to GA51 and GA29 catabolites, respectively. The gene appeared to be one member of a small family of GA 2-oxidases in pea. Transcript was found predominantly in roots, flowers, young fruits, and testae of seeds. The corresponding transcript from sln pea contained a point mutation and did not produce active enzyme when expressed heterologously. RFLP analysis of a seedling population segregating for SLN and sln alleles showed the homozygous mutant allele co-segregating with the characteristic slender phenotype. We conclude that SLN encodes GA 2-oxidase. PMID:10557225

Martin, David N.; Proebsting, William M.; Hedden, Peter

1999-01-01

68

Effects of light on the feedback control of GA-20 oxidase gene homolog in DongJinByeo seedlings.  

PubMed

The effects of gibberellin (GA) on the expression of GA-20 oxidase gene homolog were examined in light-grown seedlings and dark-grown seedlings of DongJinByeo. The growth rates of the stems of etiolated seedlings were faster than those of green seedlings. However, upon addition of GA to these seedlings, the stem growth rates of green seedlings were faster than those of etiolated seedlings. To understand the molecular mechanism of GA gene regulation in DongJinByeo, total RNA from DongJinByeo was hybridized with cDNA of GA-20 oxidase gene homolog. Greater accumulation of transcript of GA-20 oxidase gene homolog was observed in green seedlings than in etiolated seedlings. However, upon addition of GA, higher accumulation of the gene transcript was found in etiolated seedlings than in green seedlings, indicating that expression of the transcript of GA-20 oxidase gene homolog might be inhibited by light. These results suggest that light might regulate feedback control of the transcript of GA-20 oxidase gene homolog in DongJinByeo. PMID:17436525

Kim, JaeHong; Yoon, InSun; Lee, MiYoung

2006-05-01

69

Horizontal gene transfer involved in the convergent evolution of the plasmid-encoded enantioselective 6-hydroxynicotine oxidases.  

PubMed

The D- and L-specific nicotine oxidases are flavoproteins involved in the oxidative degradation of nicotine by the Gram-positive soil bacterium Arthrobacter nicotinovorans. Their structural genes are located on a 160-kbp plasmid together with those of other nicotine-degrading enzymes. They are structurally unrelated at the DNA as well as at the protein level. Each of these oxidases possesses a high degree of substrate specificity; their catalytic stereoselectivity is absolute, although they are able to bind both enantiomeric substrates with a similar affinity. It appears that the existence of these enzymes is the result of convergent evolution. The amino acid sequence of 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase (EC 1.5.3.6) as derived from the respective structural gene shows considerable structural similarity with eukaryotic monoamine oxidases (EC 1.4.3.4) but not with monoamine oxidases from prokaryotic bacteria including those of the genus Arthrobacter. These similarities are not confined to the nucleotide-binding sites. A 100-amino acid stretch at the N-terminal regions of 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase and human monoamine oxidases A possess a 35% homology. Overall, 27.0, 26.9, and 25.8% of the amino acid positions of the monoamine oxidases of Aspergillus niger (N), humans (A), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) are identical to those of 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase (Smith-Waterman algorithm). In addition, the G+C content of the latter enzyme is in the range of that of eukaryotic monoamine oxidases and definitely lower than that of the A. nicotinovorans DNA and even that of the pAO1 DNA. The primary structure of 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase (EC 1.5.3.5) does not reveal its evolutionary history as easily. Significant similarities are found with a mitomycin radical oxidase from Streptomyces lavendulae (23.3%) and a "hypothetical protein" from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (26.0%). It is proposed that the plasmid-encoded gene of 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase evolved after horizontal transfer from an eukaryotic source. PMID:9929386

Schenk, S; Decker, K

1999-02-01

70

Genetic Differentiation of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase c Subunit I Gene in Genus Paramecium (Protista, Ciliophora)  

PubMed Central

Background The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is being used increasingly for evaluating inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of ciliated protists. However, very few studies focus on assessing genetic divergence of the COI gene within individuals and how its presence might affect species identification and population structure analyses. Methodology/Principal findings We evaluated the genetic variation of the COI gene in five Paramecium species for a total of 147 clones derived from 21 individuals and 7 populations. We identified a total of 90 haplotypes with several individuals carrying more than one haplotype. Parsimony network and phylogenetic tree analyses revealed that intra-individual diversity had no effect in species identification and only a minor effect on population structure. Conclusions Our results suggest that the COI gene is a suitable marker for resolving inter- and intra-specific relationships of Paramecium spp. PMID:24204730

Zhao, Yan; Gentekaki, Eleni; Yi, Zhenzhen; Lin, Xiaofeng

2013-01-01

71

Regulation of monoamine oxidase A by the SRY gene on the Y chromosome  

PubMed Central

Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), encoded by the X chromosome, catalyzes the oxidative deamination of monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, and plays a critically important role in brain development and functions. Abnormal MAO A activity has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which show sexual dimorphism. However, the molecular basis for these disease processes is unclear. Recently, we found that MAO A was a putative target gene directly regulated by a transcription factor encoded by the sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene located on the Y chromosome. We demonstrated that SRY activates both MAO A-promoter and catalytic activities in a human male neuroblastoma BE(2)C cell line. A functional SRY-binding site in the MAO A core promoter was identified and validated by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. Coimmunoprecipitation and ChIP assays showed that SRY and Sp1 form a transcriptional complex and synergistically activate MAO A transcription. This is the first study demonstrating that the Y-encoded transcription factor SRY is capable of regulating an X-located gene, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism for sexual dimorphism in neural development, brain functions, and initiation/progression of neural disorders associated with MAO A dysfunction.—Wu, J. B., Chen, K., Li, Y., Lau, Y.-F. C., Shih, J. C. Regulation of monoamine oxidase A by the SRY gene on the Y chromosome. PMID:19661285

Wu, Jason B.; Chen, Kevin; Li, Yunmin; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris; Shih, Jean C.

2009-01-01

72

Analysis of reported SCO2 gene mutations affecting cytochrome c oxidase activity in various diseases  

PubMed Central

A large number of mutations have been reported in SCO2 (synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase) gene in association with COX deficiency reported in different diseases such as cardioencephalomyopathy, cardiomyopathy and Leigh syndrome. However, very few of these mutations have been functionally analyzed.SCO2 gene encodes for an essential assembly factor for the formation of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). It is a nuclear encoded protein that helps in transfer of copper ions to COX. This study is an attempt to understand the possible effect of these mutations on the structure and function of SCO2 protein, by using different in silico tools. As per Human Gene Mutation Database, total 11 non synonymous variations have been reported in SCO2 gene. Among these 11 variations, only E140K and R171W are functionally proven to cause COX deficiency. They have been used as controls in this study. The remaining variations were further analyzed using ClustalW, SIFT, PolyPhen-2, GOR4, MuPro and Panther softwares. As compared to the results of the controls, most of these variations were predicted to affect the structure of SCO2 protein and hence, may cause COX dysfunction. Thus, we hypothesize that these variations have the potential to result in a disease phenotype and should be investigated by subsequent functional analyses. This will help in an appropriate diagnosis and management of the wide spectrum of COX deficiency diseases. PMID:25097374

Chadha, Radhika; Shah, Ritika; Mani, Shalini

2014-01-01

73

Expression of the Talaromyces flavus glucose oxidase gene in cotton and tobacco reduces fungal infection, but is also phytotoxic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose oxidase secreted by the fungus Talaromyces flavus generates, in the presence of glucose, hydrogen peroxide that is\\u000a toxic to phytopathogenic fungi responsible for economically important diseases in many crops. A glucose oxidase gene from\\u000a T. flavus, was modified with a carrot extensin signal peptide and fused to either a constitutive or root-specific plant promoter.\\u000a T1 tobacco plants expressing the enzyme

Fiona Murray; Danny Llewellyn; Helen McFadden; David Last; Elizabeth S. Dennis; W. James Peacock

1999-01-01

74

Enhancing Resistance to Sclerotinia minor in Peanut by Expressing a Barley Oxalate Oxidase Gene1  

PubMed Central

Sclerotinia minor Jagger is the causal agent of Sclerotinia blight, a highly destructive disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Based on evidence that oxalic acid is involved in the pathogenicity of many Sclerotinia species, our objectives were to recover transgenic peanut plants expressing an oxalic acid-degrading oxalate oxidase and to evaluate them for increased resistance to S. minor. Transformed plants were regenerated from embryogenic cultures of three Virginia peanut cultivars (Wilson, Perry, and NC-7). A colorimetric enzyme assay was used to screen for oxalate oxidase activity in leaf tissue. Candidate plants with a range of expression levels were chosen for further analysis. Integration of the transgene was confirmed by Southern-blot analysis, and gene expression was demonstrated in transformants by northern-blot analysis. A sensitive fluorescent enzyme assay was used to quantify expression levels for comparison to the colorimetric protocol. A detached leaflet assay tested whether transgene expression could limit lesion size resulting from direct application of oxalic acid. Lesion size was significantly reduced in transgenic plants compared to nontransformed controls (65%–89% reduction at high oxalic acid concentrations). A second bioassay examined lesion size after inoculation of leaflets with S. minor mycelia. Lesion size was reduced by 75% to 97% in transformed plants, providing evidence that oxalate oxidase can confer enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight in peanut. PMID:15778458

Livingstone, D. Malcolm; Hampton, Jaime L.; Phipps, Patrick M.; Grabau, Elizabeth A.

2005-01-01

75

Monoamine Oxidase A Gene (MAOA) Associated with Attitude Towards Longshot Risks  

PubMed Central

Decision making often entails longshot risks involving a small chance of receiving a substantial outcome. People tend to be risk preferring (averse) when facing longshot risks involving significant gains (losses). This differentiation towards longshot risks underpins the markets for lottery as well as for insurance. Both lottery and insurance have emerged since ancient times and continue to play a useful role in the modern economy. In this study, we observe subjects' incentivized choices in a controlled laboratory setting, and investigate their association with a widely studied, promoter-region repeat functional polymorphism in monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA). We find that subjects with the high activity (4-repeat) allele are characterized by a preference for the longshot lottery and also less insurance purchasing than subjects with the low activity (3-repeat) allele. This is the first result to link attitude towards longshot risks to a specific gene. It complements recent findings on the neurobiological basis of economic risk taking. PMID:20046877

Zhong, Songfa; Israel, Salomon; Xue, Hong; Ebstein, Richard P.; Chew, Soo Hong

2009-01-01

76

Dysbindin and D-Amino-Acid-Oxidase Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Positive and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Schizophrenia is a genetically complex disorder with an unknown pathophysiology. Several genes implicated in glutamate metabolism have been associated with the disorder. Recent studies of polymorphisms in the dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 gene (DTNBP1; dysbindin) and D-amino-acid-oxidase (DAO) gene, both involved in glutamate receptor function, reported associations with negative symptoms and with anxiety and depression, respectively, when measured with the

Katrine V. Wirgenes; Srdjan Djurovic; Ingrid Agartz; Erik G. Jönsson; Thomas Werge; Ingrid Melle; Ole A. Andreassen

2009-01-01

77

Chromosome conformation capture of transcriptional interactions between cytochrome c oxidase genes and genes of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in neurons.  

PubMed

Neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled processes. Recently, we found that nuclear respiratory factor 1 co-regulates all subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (COX, representing oxidative energy metabolism) and glutamatergic neurochemicals, including NR1 (Grin1) and NR2B (Grin2b) of NMDA receptors, GluR2 (Gria2) of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (Nos1). Moreover, all 10 nuclear-encoded COX subunit genes and three transcription factor genes for the three mitochondrial-encoded COX subunits are transcribed in the same transcription factory. The goal of the present study was to test our hypothesis that genomic loci for Grin1, Grin2b, Gria2, and Nos1 interact with those for COX at the transcriptional level. By means of chromosome conformation capture, interactions were found among all of these genes in neurons, but not in C2C12 muscle cells. COX subunit genes also did not interact with neurochemical genes not regulated by nuclear respiratory factor 1, nor with genes for calreticulin, a non-mitochondrial protein. Depolarizing stimulation up-regulated interaction frequencies between COX and neurochemical genes, whereas impulse blockade with tetrodotoxin or inhibition of COX with KCN down-regulated them in neurons. Thus, an efficient mechanism is in place for coordinating the transcriptional coupling of energy metabolism and glutamatergic neurotransmission at the molecular level in neurons. PMID:21064266

Dhar, Shilpa S; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

2010-11-01

78

Exogenously induced expression of ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene perception, phospholipase D, and Rboh-oxidase genes in broccoli seedlings  

PubMed Central

In higher plants, copper ions, hydrogen peroxide, and cycloheximide have been recognized as very effective inducers of the transcriptional activity of genes encoding the enzymes of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. In this report, the transcriptional patterns of genes encoding the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases (ACSs), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidases (ACOs), ETR1, ETR2, and ERS1 ethylene receptors, phospholipase D (PLD)-?1, -?2, -?1, and -?, and respiratory burst oxidase homologue (Rboh)-NADPH oxidase-D and -F in response to these inducers in Brassica oleracea etiolated seedlings are shown. ACS1, ACO1, ETR2, PLD-?1, and RbohD represent genes whose expression was considerably affected by all of the inducers used. The investigations were performed on the seedlings with (i) ethylene insensitivity and (ii) a reduced level of the PLD-derived phosphatidic acid (PA). The general conclusion is that the expression of ACS1, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -11, ACO1, ETR1, ERS1, and ETR2, PLD-? 1, and RbohD and F genes is undoubtedly under the reciprocal cross-talk of the ethylene and PAPLD signalling routes; both signals affect it in concerted or opposite ways depending on the gene or the type of stimuli. The results of these studies on broccoli seedlings are in agreement with the hypothesis that PA may directly affect the ethylene signal transduction pathway via an inhibitory effect on CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) activity. PMID:20581125

Jakubowicz, Malgorzata; Galganska, Hanna; Nowak, Witold; Sadowski, Jan

2010-01-01

79

Bd oxidase homologue of photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum is co-transcribed with a nitrogen fixation related gene.  

PubMed

Purple sulfur bacteria, which are known to be the most ancient among anoxygenic phototrophs, play an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Allochromatium vinosum oxidizes reduced sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur and thiosulfide. At low oxygen concentrations, A. vinosum can grow chemotrophically using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Being also a nitrogen fixer, A. vinosum is faced with the paradox of co-existence of aerobic metabolism and nitrogen fixation. Due to growth difficulties, only a few studies have dealt with the aerobic metabolism of the organism and, until now, there has been no information about the genes involved in the respiratory metabolism of purple sulfur bacteria. In this article we show the first terminal oxidase gene for A. vinosum. The presence of a Bd type of quinol oxidase is necessary to protect nitrogenases against the inhibitory effects of oxygen. In this case, a nitrogen fixation related gene is part of the cyd operon and this gene is co-transcribed with cydAB genes. Bd oxidase of A. vinosum may be the earliest form of oxidase where the function of the enzyme is to scavenge the contaminant oxygen during nitrogen fixation. This may be an important clue about the early evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, perhaps as a protective mechanism for nitrogen fixation. PMID:20577808

Dincturk, H Benan; Demir, Volkan; Aykanat, Tutku

2011-02-01

80

The polyphenol oxidase gene family in land plants: Lineage-specific duplication and expansion  

PubMed Central

Background Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are enzymes that typically use molecular oxygen to oxidize ortho-diphenols to ortho-quinones. These commonly cause browning reactions following tissue damage, and may be important in plant defense. Some PPOs function as hydroxylases or in cross-linking reactions, but in most plants their physiological roles are not known. To better understand the importance of PPOs in the plant kingdom, we surveyed PPO gene families in 25 sequenced genomes from chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants. The PPO genes were then analyzed in silico for gene structure, phylogenetic relationships, and targeting signals. Results Many previously uncharacterized PPO genes were uncovered. The moss, Physcomitrella patens, contained 13 PPO genes and Selaginella moellendorffii (spike moss) and Glycine max (soybean) each had 11 genes. Populus trichocarpa (poplar) contained a highly diversified gene family with 11 PPO genes, but several flowering plants had only a single PPO gene. By contrast, no PPO-like sequences were identified in several chlorophyte (green algae) genomes or Arabidopsis (A. lyrata and A. thaliana). We found that many PPOs contained one or two introns often near the 3’ terminus. Furthermore, N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis using ChloroP and TargetP 1.1 predicted that several putative PPOs are synthesized via the secretory pathway, a unique finding as most PPOs are predicted to be chloroplast proteins. Phylogenetic reconstruction of these sequences revealed that large PPO gene repertoires in some species are mostly a consequence of independent bursts of gene duplication, while the lineage leading to Arabidopsis must have lost all PPO genes. Conclusion Our survey identified PPOs in gene families of varying sizes in all land plants except in the genus Arabidopsis. While we found variation in intron numbers and positions, overall PPO gene structure is congruent with the phylogenetic relationships based on primary sequence data. The dynamic nature of this gene family differentiates PPO from other oxidative enzymes, and is consistent with a protein important for a diversity of functions relating to environmental adaptation. PMID:22897796

2012-01-01

81

Fosinopril and Losartan Regulate Klotho Gene and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase Expression in Kidneys of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Klotho, a newly identified antiaging gene, predominantly detected in the kidney, has pleiotropic protective effects on kidney diseases. Several studies have confirmed the association between Klotho and oxidative stress. The present studies were performed to explore effects of fosinopril (Fos) and losartan (Los) on Klotho and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expression in kidneys of spontaneously hypertensive rats

Rong Tang; Qiao-ling Zhou; Xiang Ao; Wei-sheng Peng; Pouranan Veeraragoo; Tian-feng Tang

2011-01-01

82

Bigenomic transcriptional regulation of all thirteen cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes by specificity protein 1  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is one of only four known bigenomic proteins, with three mitochondria-encoded subunits and 10 nucleus-encoded ones derived from nine different chromosomes. The mechanism of regulating this multi-subunit, bigenomic enzyme is not fully understood. We hypothesize that specificity protein 1 (Sp1) functionally regulates the 10 nucleus-encoded COX subunit genes directly and the three mitochondrial COX subunit genes indirectly by regulating mitochondrial transcription factors A and B (TFAM, TFB1M and TFB2M) in neurons. By means of in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference and over-expression experiments, the present study documents that Sp1 is a critical regulator of all 13 COX subunit genes in neurons. This regulation is intimately associated with neuronal activity. Silencing of Sp1 prevented the upregulation of all COX subunits by KCl, and over-expressing Sp1 rescued all COX subunits from being downregulated by tetrodotoxin. Thus, Sp1 and our previously described nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 are the three key regulators of all 13 COX subunit genes in neurons. The binding sites for Sp1 on all 10 nucleus-encoded COX subunits, TFAM, TFB1M and TFB2M are highly conserved among mice, rats and humans. PMID:23516108

Dhar, Shilpa S.; Johar, Kaid; Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.

2013-01-01

83

Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A  

SciTech Connect

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1993-10-22

84

DNA barcoding of Oryx leucoryx using the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase gene.  

PubMed

The massive destruction and deterioration of the habitat of Oryx leucoryx and illegal hunting have decimated Oryx populations significantly, and now these animals are almost extinct in the wild. Molecular analyses can significantly contribute to captive breeding and reintroduction strategies for the conservation of this endangered animal. A representative 32 identical sequences used for species identification through BOLD and GenBank/NCBI showed maximum homology 96.06% with O. dammah, which is a species of Oryx from Northern Africa, the next closest species 94.33% was O. gazella, the African antelope. DNA barcode sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase (COI) gene were determined for O. leucoryx; identification through BOLD could only recognize the genus correctly, whereas the species could not be identified. This was due to a lack of sequence data for O. leucoryx on BOLD. Similarly, BLAST analysis of the NCBI data base also revealed no COI sequence data for the genus Oryx. PMID:22535389

Elmeer, K; Almalki, A; Mohran, K A; Al-Qahtani, K N; Almarri, M

2012-01-01

85

Isolation and transcript analysis of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes in pea and bean in relation to fruit development.  

PubMed

PCR was used with degenerate primers based on conserved amino acid sequences in gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidases to isolate cDNA clones for these enzymes from young seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and developing embryos of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). One GA 20-oxidase cDNA (Ps27-12) was obtained from pea and three (Pv 15-11, Pv73-1 and Pv85-26) from bean. Their identities were confirmed by demonstrating that fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited GA 20-oxidase activity, converting [14C]GA12 to [14C]GA9. The intermediates in this three-step reaction, GA15 and GA24, were also identified as products. The expression proteins from three of the clones (Ps27-12, Pv15-11 and Pv73-1) were also shown to convert GA53 to GA20, as effectively as they did GA12. On the basis of transcript levels measured by northern blot analysis, the pea GA 20-oxidase gene is most highly expressed in young leaves, fully expanded internodes, very young seeds (until 4 days after anthesis) and expanding pods (from 3 days after anthesis at least until day 6). Expression in pods from 3-day-old unpollinated ovaries is higher than in those from pollinated ovaries. Treatment of unpollinated ovaries with GA3 to induce parthenocarpic fruit-set severely reduced the amount of GA 20-oxidase mRNA, whereas treatment with 2,4-D, although inducing fruit-set, did not reduce the levels of these transcripts. Plant decapitation above an unpollinated ovary resulted in very high levels of GA 20-oxidase mRNA in the pod. The three GA 20-oxidase genes from French bean showed very different patterns of expression: Pv 15-1 was expressed in the roots, young leaves, and developing seeds, but most highly in immature cotyledons, while Pv73-1 has a similar expression pattern to Ps27-12, with transcripts found only in young seeds and young leaves, where it was particularly abundant. Transcripts corresponding to Pv85-26 were detected in developing seeds, and just traces in the young leaves. Southern blot analysis indicated that the bean GA 20-oxidases are each encoded by single-copy genes, whereas one more gene, homologous to Ps27-12, could also exist in pea. PMID:9154988

García-Martínez, J L; López-Diaz, I; Sánchez-Beltrán, M J; Phillips, A L; Ward, D A; Gaskin, P; Hedden, P

1997-04-01

86

A Novel (S)-6-Hydroxynicotine Oxidase Gene from Shinella sp. Strain HZN7.  

PubMed

Nicotine is an important environmental toxicant in tobacco waste. Shinella sp. strain HZN7 can metabolize nicotine into nontoxic compounds via variations of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. However, the catabolic mechanism of this variant pathway at the gene or enzyme level is still unknown. In this study, two 6-hydroxynicotine degradation-deficient mutants, N7-M9 and N7-W3, were generated by transposon mutagenesis. The corresponding mutant genes, designated nctB and tnp2, were cloned and analyzed. The nctB gene encodes a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase that converts (S)-6-hydroxynicotine into 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine and then spontaneously hydrolyzes into 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine. The deletion and complementation of the nctB gene showed that this enzyme is essential for nicotine or (S)-6-hydroxynicotine degradation. Purified NctB could also convert (S)-nicotine into N-methylmyosmine, which spontaneously hydrolyzed into pseudooxynicotine. The kinetic constants of NctB toward (S)-6-hydroxynicotine (Km = 0.019 mM, kcat = 7.3 s(-1)) and nicotine (Km = 2.03 mM, kcat = 0.396 s(-1)) indicated that (S)-6-hydroxynicotine is the preferred substrate in vivo. NctB showed no activities toward the R enantiomer of nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine. Strain HZN7 could degrade (R)-nicotine into (R)-6-hydroxynicotine without any further degradation. The tnp2 gene from mutant N7-W3 encodes a putative transposase, and its deletion did not abolish the nicotine degradation activity. This study advances the understanding of the microbial diversity of nicotine biodegradation. PMID:25002425

Qiu, Jiguo; Wei, Yin; Ma, Yun; Wen, Rongti; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

2014-09-15

87

Induction of genes encoding NADPH oxidase components and activation of IFN regulatory factor-1 by prolactin in fish macrophages.  

PubMed

The role played by prolactin (PRL) in fish immunity is scant. We report here that stimulation of the Atlantic salmon monocytic cell line SHK-1 with native salmon PRL resulted in activation of the respiratory burst and induction of the expression of the genes encoding the phagocyte NADPH oxidase components p47phox, p67phox and gp91phox, and the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1). Interestingly, the pharmacologic inhibition of the Jak/Stat signaling pathway with AG490 blocked reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the induction of genes encoding the NADPH oxidase components and IRF-1 in PRL-activated SHK-1 cells. In addition, PRL promoted the phosphorylation of Stat and induced the DNA binding activity of IRF-1. These results, together with the presence of several consensus target motifs for Stat and IRF-1 in the promoter of the tilapia p47phox gene, suggest that PRL regulates p47phox gene expression in fish through the activation of these two key transcription factors. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PRL induces the expression of the genes encoding the major phagocyte NADPH oxidase components and ROS production in fish macrophages via the JAK2/Stat/IRF-1 signaling pathway. PMID:23548829

Olavarría, Víctor H; Figueroa, Jaime E; Mulero, Victoriano

2013-12-01

88

Molecular cloning, expression profiles, and characterization of a novel polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene in Hevea brasiliensis.  

PubMed

The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. Although the PPOs have been studied by several researchers, the isolation and expression profiles of PPO gene were not reported in rubber tree. In this study, a new PPO gene, HbPPO, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis. The sequence alignment showed that HbPPO indicated high identities to plant PPOs and belonged to dicot branch. The cis-acting regulatory elements related to stress/hormone responses were predicted in the promoter region of HbPPO. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that HbPPO expression varied widely depending on different tissues and developmental stages of leaves. Besides being associated with tapping panel dryness, the HbPPO transcripts were regulated by ethrel, wounding, H2O2, and methyl jasmonate treatments. Moreover, the correlation between latex coagulation rate and PPO activity was further confirmed in this study. Our results lay the foundation for further analyzing the function of HbPPO in rubber tree. PMID:25051980

Li, Dejun; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Changren; Zhao, Manman; Guo, Huina; Xia, Zhihui; Liu, Hui

2014-10-01

89

The Pea Gene NA Encodes ent-Kaurenoic Acid Oxidase1  

PubMed Central

The gibberellin (GA)-deficient dwarf na mutant in pea (Pisum sativum) has severely reduced internode elongation, reduced root growth, and decreased leaflet size. However, the seeds develop normally. Two genes, PsKAO1 and PsKAO2, encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases of the subfamily CYP88A were isolated. Both PsKAO1 and PsKAO2 had ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) activity, catalyzing the three steps of the GA biosynthetic pathway from ent-kaurenoic acid to GA12 when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In addition to the intermediates ent-7?-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA12-aldehyde, some additional products of the pea KAO activity were detected, including ent-6?,7?-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and 7?-hydroxykaurenolide. The NA gene encodes PsKAO1, because in two independent mutant alleles, na-1 and na-2, PsKAO1 had altered sequences and the five-base deletion in PsKAO1 associated with the na-1 allele cosegregated with the dwarf na phenotype. PsKAO1 was expressed in the stem, apical bud, leaf, pod, and root, organs in which GA levels have previously been shown to be reduced in na plants. PsKAO2 was expressed only in seeds and this may explain the normal seed development and normal GA biosynthesis in seeds of na plants. PMID:12529541

Davidson, Sandra E.; Elliott, Robert C.; Helliwell, Chris A.; Poole, Andrew T.; Reid, James B.

2003-01-01

90

Association study of monoamine oxidase A/B genes and schizophrenia in Han Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) catalyze the metabolism of dopaminergic neurotransmitters. Polymorphisms of isoforms MAOA and MAOB have been implicated in the etiology of mental disorders such as schizophrenia. Association studies detected these polymorphisms in several populations, however the data have not been conclusive to date. Here, we investigated the association of MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms with schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population. Methods Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs6323 of MAOA and rs1799836 of MAOB, were selected for association analysis in 537 unrelated schizophrenia patients and 536 healthy controls. Single-locus and Haplotype associations were calculated. Results No differences were found in the allelic distribution of rs6323. The G allele of rs1799836 was identified as a risk factor in the development of schizophrenia (P = 0.00001). The risk haplotype rs6323T-rs1799836G was associated with schizophrenia in female patients (P = 0.0002), but the frequency difference was not significant among male groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that MAOB is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. In contrast, no significant associations were observed for the MAOA functional polymorphism with schizophrenia in Han Chinese. These data support further investigation of the role of MAO genes in schizophrenia. PMID:21978760

2011-01-01

91

Monoamine oxidase A gene DNA hypomethylation - a risk factor for panic disorder?  

PubMed

The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been suggested as a prime candidate in the pathogenesis of panic disorder. In the present study, DNA methylation patterns in the MAOA regulatory and exon 1/intron 1 region were investigated for association with panic disorder with particular attention to possible effects of gender and environmental factors. Sixty-five patients with panic disorder (44 females, 21 males) and 65 healthy controls were analysed for DNA methylation status at 42 MAOA CpG sites via direct sequencing of sodium bisulfate treated DNA extracted from blood cells. The occurrence of recent positive and negative life events was ascertained. Male subjects showed no or only very minor methylation with some evidence for relative hypomethylation at one CpG site in intron 1 in patients compared to controls. Female patients exhibited significantly lower methylation than healthy controls at 10 MAOA CpG sites in the promoter as well as in exon/intron 1, with significance surviving correction for multiple testing at four CpG sites (p?0.001). Furthermore, in female subjects the occurrence of negative life events was associated with relatively decreased methylation, while positive life events were associated with increased methylation. The present pilot data suggest a potential role of MAOA gene hypomethylation in the pathogenesis of panic disorder particularly in female patients, possibly mediating a detrimental influence of negative life events. Future studies are warranted to replicate the present finding in independent samples, preferably in a longitudinal design. PMID:22436428

Domschke, Katharina; Tidow, Nicola; Kuithan, Henriette; Schwarte, Kathrin; Klauke, Benedikt; Ambrée, Oliver; Reif, Andreas; Schmidt, Hartmut; Arolt, Volker; Kersting, Anette; Zwanzger, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen

2012-10-01

92

Molecular evolution of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A gene in primates  

PubMed Central

Background Many electron transport chain (ETC) genes show accelerated rates of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in anthropoid primate lineages, yet in non-anthropoid lineages the ETC proteins are typically highly conserved. Here, we test the hypothesis that COX5A, the ETC gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A, shows a pattern of anthropoid-specific adaptive evolution, and investigate the distribution of this protein in catarrhine brains. Results In a dataset comprising 29 vertebrate taxa, including representatives from all major groups of primates, there is nearly 100% conservation of the COX5A amino acid sequence among extant, non-anthropoid placental mammals. The most recent common ancestor of these species lived about 100 million years (MY) ago. In contrast, anthropoid primates show markedly elevated rates of nonsynonymous evolution. In particular, branch site tests identify five positively selected codons in anthropoids, and ancestral reconstructions infer that substitutions in these codons occurred predominantly on stem lineages (anthropoid, ape and New World monkey) and on the human terminal branch. Examination of catarrhine brain samples by immunohistochemistry characterizes for the first time COX5A protein distribution in the primate neocortex, and suggests that the protein is most abundant in the mitochondria of large-size projection neurons. Real time quantitative PCR supports previous microarray results showing COX5A is expressed in cerebral cortical tissue at a higher level in human than in chimpanzee or gorilla. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that both protein structural and gene regulatory changes contributed to COX5A evolution during humankind's ancestry. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adaptations in ETC genes contributed to the emergence of the energetically expensive anthropoid neocortex. PMID:18197981

2008-01-01

93

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and polymorphisms in Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA): a revisit.  

PubMed

Literature describes multiple possible links between genetic variations in the neuroadrenergic system and the occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome. The X-chromosomal Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is one of the genes with regulatory activity in the noradrenergic and serotonergic neuronal systems and a polymorphism of the promoter which affects the activity of this gene has been proclaimed to contribute significantly to the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in three studies from 2009, 2012 and 2013. However, these studies described different significant correlations regarding gender or age of children. Since several studies, suggesting associations between genetic variations and SIDS, were disproved by follow-up analysis, this study was conducted to take a closer look at the MAOA gene and its polymorphisms. The functional MAOA promoter length polymorphism was investigated in 261 SIDS cases and 93 control subjects. Moreover, the allele distribution of 12 coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MAOA gene was examined in 285 SIDS cases and 93 controls by a minisequencing technique. In contrast to prior studies with fewer individuals, no significant correlations between the occurrence of SIDS and the frequency of allele variants of the promoter polymorphism could be demonstrated, even including the results from the abovementioned previous studies. Regarding the SNPs, three statistically significant associations were observed which had not been described before. This study clearly disproves interactions between MAOA promoter polymorphisms and SIDS, even if variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms of MAOA should be subjected to further analysis to clarify their impact on SIDS. PMID:24173666

Groß, Maximilian; Bajanowski, Thomas; Vennemann, Mechtild; Poetsch, Micaela

2014-01-01

94

Engineering gibberellin metabolism in Solanum nigrum L. by ectopic expression of gibberellin oxidase genes.  

PubMed

Gibberellins (GAs) control many aspects of plant development, including seed germination, shoot growth, flower induction and growth and fruit expansion. Leaf explants of Solanum nigrum (Black Nightshade; Solanaceae) were used for Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of GA-biosynthetic genes to determine the influence of their encoded enzymes on the production of bioactive GAs and plant stature in this species. Constructs were prepared containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene for kanamycin resistance as a selectable marker, and the GA-biosynthetic genes, their expression under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. The GA-biosynthetic genes comprised AtGA20ox1, isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana, the product from which catalyses the formation of C(19)-GAs, and MmGA3ox1 and MmGA3ox2, isolated from Marah macrocarpus, which encode functionally different GA 3-oxidases that convert C(19)-GAs to biologically active forms. Increase in stature was observed in plants transformed with AtGA20ox1, MmGA3ox2 and MmGA3ox1 + MmGA3ox2, their presence and expression being confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR, respectively, accompanied by an increase in GA(1) content. Interestingly, MmGA3ox1 alone did not induce a sustained increase in plant height, probably because of only a marginal increase in bioactive GA(1) content in the transformed plants. The results are discussed in the context of regulating plant stature, since this strategy would decrease the use of chemicals to promote plant growth. PMID:22238061

Bhattacharya, A; Ward, D A; Hedden, P; Phillips, A L; Power, J B; Davey, M R

2012-05-01

95

Cytokinin Oxidase Gene Expression in Maize Is Localized to the Vasculature, and Is Induced by Cytokinins, Abscisic Acid, and Abiotic Stress  

PubMed Central

Cytokinins are hormones that play an essential role in plant growth and development. The irreversible degradation of cytokinins, catalyzed by cytokinin oxidase, is an important mechanism by which plants modulate their cytokinin levels. Cytokinin oxidase has been well characterized biochemically, but its regulation at the molecular level is not well understood. We isolated a cytokinin oxidase open reading frame from maize (Zea mays), called Ckx1, and we used it as a probe in northern and in situ hybridization experiments. We found that the gene is expressed in a developmental manner in the kernel, which correlates with cytokinin levels and cytokinin oxidase activity. In situ hybridization with Ckx1 and transgenic expression of a transcriptional fusion of the Ckx1 promoter to the Escherichia coli ?-glucuronidase reporter gene revealed that the gene is expressed in the vascular bundles of kernels, seedling roots, and coleoptiles. We show that Ckx1 gene expression is inducible in various organs by synthetic and natural cytokinins. Ckx1 is also induced by abscisic acid, which may control cytokinin oxidase expression in the kernel under abiotic stress. We hypothesize that under non-stress conditions, cytokinin oxidase in maize plays a role in controlling growth and development via regulation of cytokinin levels transiting in the xylem. In addition, we suggest that under environmental stress conditions, cytokinin oxidase gene induction by abscisic acid results in aberrant degradation of cytokinins therefore impairing normal development. PMID:12857805

Brugiere, Norbert; Jiao, Shuping; Hantke, Sabine; Zinselmeier, Chris; Roessler, Jeffrey A.; Niu, Xiaomu; Jones, Robert J.; Habben, Jeffrey E.

2003-01-01

96

A monoamine-regulated Klebsiella aerogenes operon containing the monoamine oxidase structural gene (maoA) and the maoC gene.  

PubMed Central

The Klebsiella aerogenes gene maoA, which is involved in the synthesis of monoamine oxidase, was induced by tyramine and the related compounds, subjected to catabolite and ammonium ion repression, and cloned. The nucleotide sequence of the region involved in monoamine oxidase synthesis was determined. Two open reading frames, the maoA gene and a hitherto unknown gene (maoC), were found. These are located between a potential promoter sequence and a transcriptional terminator sequence. A region of the Escherichia coli chromosome that was highly homologous to the Klebsiella maoA gene was found. The potential maoA gene is located at 30.9 min on the E. coli chromosome. Analysis of the amino acid sequences of the first 11 amino acids from the N terminus of the purified monoamine oxidase agrees with those deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the maoA gene. The leader peptide extends over 30 amino acids and has the characteristics of a signal sequence. Primer extension and S1 nuclease mapping of transcripts generated in vivo suggests that the tyramine-induced mRNA starts at a site 62 bases upstream from the ATG initiation codon of the maoC gene. In the putative promoter region, a high degree of similarity to the consensus sequence for the binding site of cyclic AMP receptor protein was found. Thus, the mao region is composed of two cistrons, and the mao operon is regulated by monoamine compounds, glucose, and ammonium ions. Images PMID:1556068

Sugino, H; Sasaki, M; Azakami, H; Yamashita, M; Murooka, Y

1992-01-01

97

Cloning and characterization of the Escherichia coli hemN gene encoding the oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase.  

PubMed

Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, an enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to form protoporphyrinogen IX. Genetic and biochemical studies suggested the presence of two different coproporphyrinogen III oxidases, one for aerobic (HemF) and one for anaerobic (HemN) conditions. Here we report the cloning of the hemN gene encoding the oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase from Escherichia coli by complementation of a Salmonella typhimurium hemF hemN double mutant. An open reading frame of 1,371 bp encoding a protein of 457 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 52.8 kDa was identified. Sequence comparisons revealed 92% amino acid sequence identity to the recently cloned S. typhimurium hemN gene and 35% identity to the Rhodobacter sphaeroides gene. The hemN gene was mapped to 87.3 min of the E. coli chromosome and found identical to open reading frame o459 previously discovered during the genome sequencing project. Complementation of S. typhimurium hemF hemN double mutants with the E. coli hemN gene was detected under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating an aerobic function for HemN. The previously cloned E. coli hemF gene encoding the oxygen-dependent enzyme complemented exclusively under aerobic conditions. Primer extension experiments revealed a strong transcription initiation site 102 bp upstream of the translational start site. DNA sequences with homology to a sigma 70-dependent promoter were detected. Expression of the hemN gene in response to changing environmental conditions was evaluated by using lacZ reporter gene fusions. Under anaerobic conditions, hemN expression was threefold greater than under aerobic growth conditions. Removal of iron from the growth medium resulted in an approximately fourfold decrease of aerobic hemN expression. Subsequent addition of iron restored normal expression. PMID:7768836

Troup, B; Hungerer, C; Jahn, D

1995-06-01

98

Cloning and characterization of the Escherichia coli hemN gene encoding the oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase.  

PubMed Central

Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, an enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to form protoporphyrinogen IX. Genetic and biochemical studies suggested the presence of two different coproporphyrinogen III oxidases, one for aerobic (HemF) and one for anaerobic (HemN) conditions. Here we report the cloning of the hemN gene encoding the oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase from Escherichia coli by complementation of a Salmonella typhimurium hemF hemN double mutant. An open reading frame of 1,371 bp encoding a protein of 457 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 52.8 kDa was identified. Sequence comparisons revealed 92% amino acid sequence identity to the recently cloned S. typhimurium hemN gene and 35% identity to the Rhodobacter sphaeroides gene. The hemN gene was mapped to 87.3 min of the E. coli chromosome and found identical to open reading frame o459 previously discovered during the genome sequencing project. Complementation of S. typhimurium hemF hemN double mutants with the E. coli hemN gene was detected under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating an aerobic function for HemN. The previously cloned E. coli hemF gene encoding the oxygen-dependent enzyme complemented exclusively under aerobic conditions. Primer extension experiments revealed a strong transcription initiation site 102 bp upstream of the translational start site. DNA sequences with homology to a sigma 70-dependent promoter were detected. Expression of the hemN gene in response to changing environmental conditions was evaluated by using lacZ reporter gene fusions. Under anaerobic conditions, hemN expression was threefold greater than under aerobic growth conditions. Removal of iron from the growth medium resulted in an approximately fourfold decrease of aerobic hemN expression. Subsequent addition of iron restored normal expression. PMID:7768836

Troup, B; Hungerer, C; Jahn, D

1995-01-01

99

Evidence for a genetic association between alleles of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence of a genetic association between bipolar disorder and alleles at 3 monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) markers, but not with alleles of a monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) polymorphism. The 3 MAOA markers, including one associated with low MAOA activity, show strong allelic association with each other but surprisingly not with MAOB. Our results are significantly only for females,

Lionel C. C. Lim; P. Sham; D. Castle; Neil Hunt; Robin Murray; Michael Gill

1995-01-01

100

Decreased shoot stature and grain  -amylase activity following ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene in transgenic wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene (PcGA2ox1) decreased the content of bioactive gibber- ellins (GAs) in transgenic wheat, producing a range of dwarf plants with different degrees of severity. In at least one case, a single transformation event gave rise to T1 plants with different degrees of dwarfism, the pheno- types being stably inherited over at least four genera-

Nigel E. J. Appleford; Mark D. Wilkinson; Qian Ma; Daniel J. Evans; Marlon C. Stone; Stephen P. Pearce; Stephen J. Powers; Stephen G. Thomas; Huw D. Jones; Andrew L. Phillips; Peter Hedden; John R. Lenton

2007-01-01

101

Gene expression of D-amino acid oxidase in cultured rat astrocytes: regional and cell type specific expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuromodulative free D-serine is present in mammalian brain, and localized to type-2 astrocytes in culture. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes D-amino acids. We examined the DAO gene expression in cultured rat astrocytes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We established a method to prepare highly purified culture of type-1 and type-2 astrocytes from any brain region. This

Yoshiteru Urai; Osamu Jinnouchi; Kyung Tak Kwak; Atsuhiko Suzue; Shinji Nagahiro; Kiyoshi Fukui

2002-01-01

102

Identification of three mutations and associated haplotypes in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene in South African families with variegate porphyria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutation analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from 17 unrelated South African patients with variegate porphyria (VP) revealed three novel missense mutations in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene. A common C to T transition at nucleotide position 452 (R59W) was identified in 15 of the patients analysed, while base changes at positions 336 (H20P) and 779 (R168C) were identified in

Louise Warnich; Maritha J. Kotze; Ilse M. Groenewald; Johannes Z. Groenewald; Maléne G. van Brakel; Carel J. van Heerden; J. Nico; P. de Villiers; Eric F. P. M. Schoenmakers; Shigeru Taketani; Andries E. Retief

1996-01-01

103

Current issues in species identification for forensic science and the validity of using the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species identification techniques commonly utilized in Australian Forensic Science laboratories are gel immunodifussion antigen\\u000a antibody reactions and hair comparison analysis. Both of these techniques have significant limitations and should be considered\\u000a indicative opinion based tests. The Barcode of Life Initiative aims to sequence a section of DNA (~648 base pairs) for the\\u000a Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial gene (COI) in all

Linzi Wilson-Wilde; Janette Norman; James Robertson; Stephen Sarre; Arthur Georges

2010-01-01

104

An Association between a Functional Polymorphism in the Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Promoter, Impulsive Traits and Early Abuse Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) activity is altered in mood disorders and lower activity associated with aggressive behavior. The gene has a functional polymorphism with a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the upstream regulatory region (MAOA-uVNTR). In this study, we examined possible associations between the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and mood disorders, suicidal behavior, aggression\\/impulsivity, and effects of reported childhood abuse. In

Yung-yu Huang; Sarah P Cate; Cristina Battistuzzi; Maria A Oquendo; David Brent; J John Mann

2004-01-01

105

Association of a regulatory polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene with antisocial alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed a novel functional 30-bp repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the X-chromosomal monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) to test whether length variation of the repeat polymorphism contributes to variation in the individual vulnerability to antisocial behavior and liability to alcohol dependence. The repeat number (3–5) of the MAOA polymorphism was assessed in 488 male subjects of German

Jerzy Samochowiec; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Matthias Rottmann; Michael Smolka; Yana V Syagailo; Olga Okladnova; Hans Rommelspacher; Georg Winterer; Lutz G Schmidt; Thomas Sander

1999-01-01

106

Association analyses of the DAOA\\/G30 and d -amino-acid oxidase genes in schizophrenia: Further evidence for a role in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of linkage studies have previously implicated the region of chromosome 13q34 in schizophrenia. Chumakov and colleagues\\u000a (2002) identified a gene complex called G72 (now termed d-amino acid oxidase activator: DAOA)\\/G30 in this region and performed association analyses of the DAOA\\/G30 as well as the d-amino-acid oxidase (DAAO) gene with schizophrenia. DAAO oxidizes d-serine, a potent activator of the

Takahiro Shinkai; Vincenzo De Luca; Rudi Hwang; Daniel J. Muller; Matthew Lanktree; Gwyneth Zai; Sajid Shaikh; Gregory Wong; Tricia Sicard; Natalia Potapova; Joseph Trakalo; Nicole King; Chima Matsumoto; Hiroko Hori; Albert H. C. Wong; Osamu Ohmori; Fabio Macciardi; Jun Nakamura; James L. Kennedy

2007-01-01

107

Wound and ethylene induction of the ACC oxidase melon gene CM-ACO1 occurs via two direct and independent transduction pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme ACC oxidase catalyses the last step of ethylene biosynthesis in plants. Expression of the melon ACC oxidase gene, CM-ACO1, is rapidly induced (within 10 min) by ethylene treatment or upon wounding in leaves. The inhibitor of ethylene action, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), inhibited the accumulation of ethylene-induced CM-ACO1 mRNA transcripts, while wound-induced expression of the gene was not affected. The

Thomas Bouquin; Eric Lasserre; Jérôme Pradier; Jean-Claude Pech; Claudine Balagué

1997-01-01

108

Probable presence of an ubiquitous cryptic mitochondrial gene on the antisense strand of the cytochrome oxidase I gene  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondria mediate most of the energy production that occurs in the majority of eukaryotic organisms. These subcellular organelles contain a genome that differs from the nuclear genome and is referred to as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite a disparity in gene content, all mtDNAs encode at least two components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, including cytochrome c oxidase I (Cox1). Presentation of the hypothesis A positionally conserved ORF has been found on the complementary strand of the cox1 genes of both eukaryotic mitochondria (protist, plant, fungal and animal) and alpha-proteobacteria. This putative gene has been named gau for gene antisense ubiquitous in mtDNAs. The length of the deduced protein is approximately 100 amino acids. In vertebrates, several stop codons have been found in the mt gau region, and potentially functional gau regions have been found in nuclear genomes. However, a recent bioinformatics study showed that several hypothetical overlapping mt genes could be predicted, including gau; this involves the possible import of the cytosolic AGR tRNA into the mitochondria and/or the expression of mt antisense tRNAs with anticodons recognizing AGR codons according to an alternative genetic code that is induced by the presence of suppressor tRNAs. Despite an evolutionary distance of at least 1.5 to 2.0 billion years, the deduced Gau proteins share some conserved amino acid signatures and structure, which suggests a possible conserved function. Moreover, BLAST analysis identified rare, sense-oriented ESTs with poly(A) tails that include the entire gau region. Immunohistochemical analyses using an anti-Gau monoclonal antibody revealed strict co-localization of Gau proteins and a mitochondrial marker. Testing the hypothesis This hypothesis could be tested by purifying the gau gene product and determining its sequence. Cell biological experiments are needed to determine the physiological role of this protein. Implications of the hypothesis Studies of the gau ORF will shed light on the origin of novel genes and their functions in organelles and could also have medical implications for human diseases that are caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, this strengthens evidence for mitochondrial genes coded according to an overlapping genetic code. PMID:22024028

2011-01-01

109

Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review  

SciTech Connect

'Blue' copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

Zhukhlistova, N. E., E-mail: amm@ns.crys.ras.ru; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Zaitsev, V. N. [University of St. Andrews, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences (United Kingdom); Mikhailov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2008-01-15

110

Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Blue” copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Za?tsev, V. N.; Mikha?lov, A. M.

2008-01-01

111

The Multicopper Ferroxidase Hephaestin Enhances Intestinal Iron Absorption in Mice  

PubMed Central

Hephaestin is a vertebrate multicopper ferroxidase important for the transfer of dietary iron from intestinal cells to the blood. Hephaestin is mutated in the sex-linked anemia mouse, resulting in iron deficiency. However, sex-linked anemia mice still retain some hephaestin ferroxidase activity. They survive, breed, and their anemia improves with age. To gain a better understanding of the role of hephaestin in iron homeostasis, we used the Cre-lox system to generate knockout mouse models with whole body or intestine-specific (Villin promoter) ablation of hephaestin. Both types of mice were viable, indicating that hephaestin is not essential and that other mechanisms, multicopper ferroxidase-dependent or not, must compensate for hephaestin deficiency. The knockout strains, however, both developed a microcytic, hypochromic anemia, suggesting severe iron deficiency and confirming that hephaestin plays an important role in body iron acquisition. Consistent with this, the knockout mice accumulated iron in duodenal enterocytes and had reduced intestinal iron absorption. In addition, the similarities of the phenotypes of the whole body and intestine-specific hephaestin knockout mice clarify the important role of hephaestin specifically in intestinal enterocytes in maintaining whole body iron homeostasis. These mouse models will serve as valuable tools to study the role of hephaestin and associated proteins in iron transport in the small intestine and other tissues. PMID:24896847

Fuqua, Brie K.; Lu, Yan; Darshan, Deepak; Frazer, David M.; Wilkins, Sarah J.; Wolkow, Natalie; Bell, Austin G.; Hsu, JoAnn; Yu, Catherine C.; Chen, Huijun; Dunaief, Joshua L.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Vulpe, Chris D.

2014-01-01

112

Structure and expression of three genes encoding ACC oxidase homologs from melon ( Cucumis melo L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme ACC oxidase catalyses the last step of ethylene biosynthesis in plants, converting 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene. We have previously described the isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone (pMEL1) encoding an ACC oxidase homolog from melon (Cucumis melo L.). Here we report the isolation and characterization of three genomic clones, corresponding to three putative members of the

E. Lasserre; T. Bouquin; J. A. Hernandez; J.-C. Pech; C. Balagué; J. Bull

1996-01-01

113

Phylogenomic analyses of rice oxalate oxidases, analyses of rice oxalate oxidases, candidate genes for quantitative resistance to rice blast candidate genes for quantitative resistance to rice blast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression evidence from wheat, barley, sunflower, and peanut as well as genetic mapping studies suggest an important role for oxalate oxidases (OXO) in conferring resistance to fungal pathogens. OXOs are members of the cupin superfamily of proteins containing the two conserved motifs ((G(X)5HXH- (X)3,4E(X)6G) and G(X)5PXG(X)2H(X)3N). Plant cupins are involved in developmental and defense response pathways. There are two subclasses

114

Coordination of cytochrome c oxidase gene expression in the remodelling of skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Many fish species respond to low temperature by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, reflected in an increase in activity of the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (COX). COX is composed of 13 subunits, three encoded by mitochondrial (mt)DNA and 10 encoded by nuclear genes. We used real-time PCR to measure mRNA levels for the 10 nuclear-encoded genes that are highly expressed in muscle. We measured mRNA levels in white muscle of three minnow species, each at two temperatures: zebrafish (Danio rerio) acclimated to 11 and 30°C, goldfish (Carassius auratus) acclimated to 4 and 35°C, and northern redbelly dace (Chrosomus eos) collected in winter and summer. We hypothesized that temperature-induced changes in COX activity would be paralleled by COX nuclear-encoded subunit transcript abundance. However, we found mRNA for COX subunits showed pronounced differences in thermal responses. Though zebrafish COX activity did not change in the cold, the transcript levels of four subunits decreased significantly (COX5A1, 60% decrease; COX6A2, 70% decrease; COX6C, 50% decrease; COX7B, 55% decrease). Treatments induced changes in COX activity in both dace (2.9 times in winter fish) and goldfish (2.5 times in cold fish), but the response in transcript levels was highly variable. Some subunits failed to increase in one (goldfish COX7A2, dace COX6A2) or both (COX7B, COX6B2) species. Other transcripts increased 1.7-100 times. The most cold-responsive subunits were COX4-1 (7 and 21.3 times higher in dace and goldfish, respectively), COX5A1 (13.9 and 5 times higher), COX6B1 (6 and 10 times higher), COX6C (11 and 4 times higher) and COX7C (13.3 and 100 times higher). The subunits that most closely paralleled COX increases in the cold were COX5B2 (dace 2.5 times, goldfish 1.7 times) and COX6A2 (dace 4.1 times, goldfish 1.7 times). Collectively, these studies suggest that COX gene expression is not tightly coordinated during cold-induced mitochondrial remodelling in fish muscle. Further, they caution against arguments about the importance of transcriptional regulation based on measurement of mRNA levels of select subunits of multimeric proteins. PMID:21562175

Duggan, Ana T; Kocha, Katrinka M; Monk, Christopher T; Bremer, Katharina; Moyes, Christopher D

2011-06-01

115

Modification of gibberellin production and plant development in Arabidopsis by sense and antisense expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes.  

PubMed

Gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase catalyses consecutive steps late in GA biosynthesis in plants. In Arabidopsis, the enzyme is encoded by a gene family of at least three members (AtGA20ox1, AtGA20ox2 and AtGA20ox3) with differential patterns of expression. The genes are regulated by feedback from bioactive GAs, suggesting that the enzymes may be involved in regulating GA biosynthesis. To investigate this, we produced transgenic Arabidopsis expressing sense or antisense copies of each of the GA 20-oxidase cDNAs. Over-expression of any of the cDNAs gave rise to seedlings with elongated hypocotyls; the plants flowered earlier than controls in both long and short days and were 25% taller at maturity. GA analysis of the vegetative rosettes showed a two- to threefold increase in the level of GA4, indicating that GA 20-oxidase normally limits bioactive GA levels. Plants expressing antisense copies of AtGA20ox1 had short hypocotyls and reduced rates of stem elongation. This was reflected in reduced levels of GA4 in both rosettes and shoot tips. In short days, flowering was delayed and the reduction in the rate of stem elongation was greater. Antisense expression of AtGA20ox2 had no apparent effects in long days, but stem growth in one transgenic line grown in short days was reduced by 20%. Expression of antisense copies of AtGA20ox3 had no visible effect, except for one transgenic line that had short hypocotyls. These results demonstrate that GA levels and, hence, plant growth and development can be modified by manipulation of GA 20-oxidase expression in transgenic plants. PMID:10205907

Coles, J P; Phillips, A L; Croker, S J; García-Lepe, R; Lewis, M J; Hedden, P

1999-03-01

116

Monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphisms and enzyme activity associated with risk of gout in Taiwan aborigines.  

PubMed

Taiwanese aborigines have a high prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout. Uric acid levels and urate excretion have correlated with dopamine-induced glomerular filtration response. MAOs represent one of the major renal dopamine metabolic pathways. We aimed to identify the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA, Xp11.3) gene variants and MAO-A enzyme activity associated with gout risk. This study was to investigate the association between gout and the MAOA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs5953210, rs2283725, and rs1137070 as well as between gout and the COMT SNPs rs4680 Val158Met for 374 gout cases and 604 controls. MAO-A activity was also measured. All three MAOA SNPs were significantly associated with gout. A synonymous MAOA SNP, rs1137070 Asp470Asp, located in exon 14, was associated with the risk of having gout (P = 4.0 x 10(-5), adjusted odds ratio 1.46, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.11-1.91). We also showed that, when compared to individuals with the MAOA GAT haplotype, carriers of the AGC haplotype had a 1.67-fold (95% CI: 1.28-2.17) higher risk of gout. Moreover, we found that MAOA enzyme activity correlated positively with hyperuricemia and gout (P for trend = 2.00 x 10(-3) vs. normal control). We also found that MAOA enzyme activity by rs1137070 allele was associated with hyperuricemia and gout (P for trend = 1.53 x 10(-6) vs. wild-type allele). Thus, our results show that some MAOA alleles, which have a higher enzyme activity, predispose to the development of gout. PMID:19915868

Tu, Hung-Pin; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Wang, Shu-Jung; Lee, Chien-Hung; Lea, Rod A; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Chiang, Hung-Che; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Ou, Tsan-Teng; Lin, Gau-Tyan; Ko, Ying-Chin

2010-02-01

117

Association analysis of a polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase B gene with Parkinson`s disease in a Japanese population  

SciTech Connect

The polymorphic allele of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) gene detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was associated with Parkinson`s disease (PD) in Caucasians. We characterized this polymorphic allele, allele 1, of the MAO-B gene using direct sequencing of PCR products. A single DNA substitution (G-A), resulting gain of Mae III restriction site was detected in intron 13 of the MAO-B gene. The allele associated with PD in Caucasians was twice as frequent as in healthy Japanese, but the association of the allele of the MAO-B gene was not observed in Japanese patients with PD. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Morimoto, Yuji; Murayama, Nobuhiro; Kuwano, Akira; Kondo, Ikuko [Ehime Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-18

118

Expression of thiamin biosynthetic genes (thiCOGE) and production of symbiotic terminal oxidase cbb3 in Rhizobium etli.  

PubMed Central

In this paper we report the cloning and sequence analysis of four genes, located on plasmid pb, which are involved in the synthesis of thiamin in Rhizobium etli (thiC, thiO, thiG, and thiE). Two precursors, 4-methyl-5-(beta-hydroxyethyl)thiazole monophosphate and 4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine pyrophosphate, are coupled to form thiamin monophosphate, which is then phosphorylated to make thiamin pyrophosphate. The first open reading frame (ORF) product, of 610 residues, has significant homology (69% identity) with the product of thiC from Escherichia coli, which is involved in the synthesis of hydroxymethylpyrimidine. The second ORF product, of 327 residues, is the product of a novel gene denoted thiO. A protein motif involved in flavin adenine dinucleotide binding was found in the amino-terminal part of ThiO; also, residues involved in the catalytic site of D-amino acid oxidases are conserved in ThiO, suggesting that it catalyzes the oxidative deamination of some intermediate of thiamin biosynthesis. The third ORF product, of 323 residues, has significant homology (38% identity) with ThiG from E. coli, which is involved in the synthesis of the thiazole. The fourth ORF product, of 204 residues, has significant homology (47% identity) with the product of thiE from E. coli, which is involved in the condensation of hydroxymethylpyrimidine and thiazole. Strain CFN037 is an R. etli mutant induced by a single Tn5mob insertion in the promoter region of the thiCOGE gene cluster. The Tn5mob insertion in CFN037 occurred within a 39-bp region which is highly conserved in all of the thiC promoters analyzed and promotes constitutive expression of thiC. Primer extension analysis showed that thiC transcription in strain CFN037 originates within the Tn5 element. Analysis of c-type protein content and expression of the fixNOQP operon, which codes for the symbiotic terminal oxidase cbb3, revealed that CFN037 produces the cbb3 terminal oxidase. These data show a direct relationship between expression of thiC and production of the cbb3 terminal oxidase. This is consistent with the proposition that a purine-related metabolite, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, is a negative effector of the production of the symbiotic terminal oxidase cbb3 in R. etli. PMID:9371431

Miranda-Ríos, J; Morera, C; Taboada, H; Dávalos, A; Encarnación, S; Mora, J; Soberón, M

1997-01-01

119

Water stress enhances expression of genes encoding plastid terminal oxidase and key components of chlororespiration and alternative respiration in soybean seedlings.  

PubMed

Plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) is a plastid-localized plastoquinone (PQ) oxidase in plants. It functions as the terminal oxidase of chlororespiration, and has the potential ability to regulate the redox state of the PQ pool. Expression of the PTOX gene was up-regulated in soybean seedlings after exposure to water deficit stress for 6 h. Concomitantly expression of the NDH-H gene, encoding a component of the NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH) complex which is a key component of both chlororespiration and NDH-dependent cyclic electron transfer (CET), was also up-regulated. Transcript levels of the proton gradient regulation (PGR5) gene, which encodes an essential component of the PGR5-dependent CET, were not affected by water stress, while the expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX1) gene, which encodes a terminal oxidase of alternative respiration in mitochondria, was also up-regulated under water stress. Therefore, our results indicate that water stress induced the up-regulation of genes encoding key components of chlororespiration and alternative respiration. Transcript levels of the AOX1 gene began to increase in response to water stress before those of PTOX suggesting that alternative respiration may react faster to water stress than chlororespiration. PMID:25265850

Sun, Xin; Yang, Cui-Qin; Wen, Tao; Zeng, Fu-Chun; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Wen-Yu; Lin, Hong-Hui

2014-01-01

120

Systematic screening of lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) family genes demonstrates that LOXL2 is a susceptibility gene to intracranial aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four lysyl oxidase family genes (LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4), which catalyze cross-linking of collagen and elastin, were considered to be functional candidates for intracranial aneurysms\\u000a (IA) and were extensively screened for genetic susceptibility in Japanese IA patients. Total RNA was isolated from four paired\\u000a ruptured IA and superficial temporal artery (STA) tissue and examined by real-time RT-PCR. The expression

Hiroyuki Akagawa; Akira Narita; Haruhiko Yamada; Atsushi Tajima; Boris Krischek; Hidetoshi Kasuya; Tomokatsu Hori; Motoo Kubota; Naokatsu Saeki; Akira Hata; Tohru Mizutani; Ituro Inoue

2007-01-01

121

The LOXL2 Gene Encodes a New Lysyl Oxidase-like Protein and Is Expressed at High Levels in Reproductive Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reported in this paper the complete cDNA sequence, gene structure, and tissue-specific expression of LOXL2, a new amine oxidase and a member of an emerging family of human lysyl oxidases. The predicted amino acid sequence, from several overlapping cDNA clones isolated from placenta and spleen cDNA libraries, shared extensive sequence homology with the con- served copper-binding and catalytic

Claude Jourdan-Le Saux; Heike Tronecker; Ljubica Bogic; Gillian D. Bryant-Greenwood; Charles D. Boyd; Katalin Csiszar

1999-01-01

122

Molecular evolution at the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 gene among divergent populations of the intertidal copepod, Tigriopus californicus.  

PubMed

The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 gene (COII) encodes a highly conserved protein that is directly responsible for the initial transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to cytochrome c oxidase (COX) crucial to the production of ATP during cellular respiration. Despite its integral role in electron transport, we have observed extensive intraspecific nucleotide and amino acid variation among 26 full-length COII sequences sampled from seven populations of the marine copepod, Tigriopus californicus. Although intrapopulation divergence was virtually nonexistent, interpopulation divergence at the COII locus was nearly 20% at the nucleotide level, including 38 nonsynonymous substitutions. Given the high degree of interaction between the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 protein (COX2) and the nuclear-encoded subunits of COX and cytochrome c (CYC), we hypothesized that some codons in the COII gene are likely to be under positive selection in order to compensate for amino acid substitutions in other subunits. Estimates of the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution (omega), obtained using a series of maximum likelihood models of codon substitution, indicated that the majority of codons in T. californicus COII are under strong purifying selection (omega < 1), while approximately 4% of the sites in this gene appear to evolve under relaxed selective constraint (omega = 1). A branch-site maximum likelihood model identified three sites that may have experienced positive selection within the central California sequence clade in our COII phylogeny; these results are consistent with previous studies showing functional and fitness consequences among interpopulation hybrids between central and northern California populations. PMID:16752213

Rawson, Paul D; Burton, Ronald S

2006-06-01

123

Gene Cluster of Rhodothermus marinus High-Potential Iron-Sulfur Protein:Oxygen Oxidoreductase, a caa3-Type Oxidase Belonging to the Superfamily of Heme-Copper Oxidases  

PubMed Central

The respiratory chain of the thermohalophilic bacterium Rhodothermus marinus contains an oxygen reductase, which uses HiPIP (high potential iron-sulfur protein) as an electron donor. The structural genes encoding the four subunits of this HiPIP:oxygen oxidoreductase were cloned and sequenced. The genes for subunits II, I, III, and IV (named rcoxA to rcoxD) are found in this order and seemed to be organized in an operon of at least five genes with a terminator structure a few nucleotides downstream of rcoxD. Examination of the amino acid sequence of the Rcox subunits shows that the subunits of the R. marinus enzyme have homology to the corresponding subunits of oxidases belonging to the superfamily of heme-copper oxidases. RcoxB has the conserved histidines involved in binding the binuclear center and the low-spin heme. All of the residues proposed to be involved in proton transfer channels are conserved, with the exception of the key glutamate residue of the D-channel (E278, Paracoccus denitrificans numbering). Analysis of the homology-derived structural model of subunit I shows that the phenol group of a tyrosine (Y) residue and the hydroxyl group of the following serine (S) may functionally substitute the glutamate carboxyl in proton transfer. RcoxA has an additional sequence for heme C binding, after the CuA domain, that is characteristic of caa3 oxidases belonging to the superfamily. Homology modeling of the structure of this cytochrome domain of subunit II shows no marked electrostatic character, especially around the heme edge region, suggesting that the interaction with a redox partner is not of an electrostatic nature. This observation is analyzed in relation to the electron donor for this caa3 oxidase, the HiPIP. In conclusion, it is shown that an oxidase, which uses an iron-sulfur protein as an electron donor, is structurally related to the caa3 class of heme-copper cytochrome c oxidases. The data are discussed in the framework of the evolution of oxidases within the superfamily of heme-copper oxidases. PMID:11133964

Santana, Margarida; Pereira, Manuela M.; Elias, Nuno P.; Soares, Claudio M.; Teixeira, Miguel

2001-01-01

124

The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review  

PubMed Central

Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. PMID:25114607

Buades-Rotger, Macià; Gallardo-Pujol, David

2014-01-01

125

Transcriptome Analysis of PPAR? Target Genes Reveals the Involvement of Lysyl Oxidase in Human Placental Cytotrophoblast Invasion  

PubMed Central

Human placental development is characterized by invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVCTs) into the uterine wall during the first trimester of pregnancy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays a major role in placental development, and activation of PPAR? by its agonists results in inhibition of EVCT invasion in vitro. To identify PPAR? target genes, microarray analysis was performed using GeneChip technology on EVCT primary cultures obtained from first-trimester human placentas. Gene expression was compared in EVCTs treated with the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone versus control. A total of 139 differentially regulated genes were identified, and changes in the expression of the following 8 genes were confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction: a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain12 (ADAM12), connexin 43 (CX43), deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and PPAR?. Among the upregulated genes, lysyl oxidase (LOX) was further analyzed. In the LOX family, only LOX, LOXL1 and LOXL2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in rosiglitazone-treated EVCTs. RNA and protein expression of the subfamily members LOX, LOXL1 and LOXL2 were analyzed by absolute RT-qPCR and western blotting, and localized by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence-confocal microscopy. LOX protein was immunodetected in the EVCT cytoplasm, while LOXL1 was found in the nucleus and nucleolus. No signal was detected for LOXL2 protein. Specific inhibition of LOX activity by ?-aminopropionitrile in cell invasion assays led to an increase in EVCT invasiveness. These results suggest that LOX, LOXL1 and LOXL2 are downstream PPAR? targets and that LOX activity is a negative regulator of trophoblastic cell invasion. PMID:24265769

Segond, Nadine; Degrelle, Severine A.; Berndt, Sarah; Clouqueur, Elodie; Rouault, Christine; Saubamea, Bruno; Dessen, Philippe; Fong, Keith S. K.; Csiszar, Katalin; Badet, Josette; Evain-Brion, Daniele; Fournier, Thierry

2013-01-01

126

Transcriptome analysis of PPAR? target genes reveals the involvement of lysyl oxidase in human placental cytotrophoblast invasion.  

PubMed

Human placental development is characterized by invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVCTs) into the uterine wall during the first trimester of pregnancy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays a major role in placental development, and activation of PPAR? by its agonists results in inhibition of EVCT invasion in vitro. To identify PPAR? target genes, microarray analysis was performed using GeneChip technology on EVCT primary cultures obtained from first-trimester human placentas. Gene expression was compared in EVCTs treated with the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone versus control. A total of 139 differentially regulated genes were identified, and changes in the expression of the following 8 genes were confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction: a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain12 (ADAM12), connexin 43 (CX43), deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and PPAR?. Among the upregulated genes, lysyl oxidase (LOX) was further analyzed. In the LOX family, only LOX, LOXL1 and LOXL2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in rosiglitazone-treated EVCTs. RNA and protein expression of the subfamily members LOX, LOXL1 and LOXL2 were analyzed by absolute RT-qPCR and western blotting, and localized by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence-confocal microscopy. LOX protein was immunodetected in the EVCT cytoplasm, while LOXL1 was found in the nucleus and nucleolus. No signal was detected for LOXL2 protein. Specific inhibition of LOX activity by ?-aminopropionitrile in cell invasion assays led to an increase in EVCT invasiveness. These results suggest that LOX, LOXL1 and LOXL2 are downstream PPAR? targets and that LOX activity is a negative regulator of trophoblastic cell invasion. PMID:24265769

Segond, Nadine; Degrelle, Séverine A; Berndt, Sarah; Clouqueur, Elodie; Rouault, Christine; Saubamea, Bruno; Dessen, Philippe; Fong, Keith S K; Csiszar, Katalin; Badet, Josette; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Fournier, Thierry

2013-01-01

127

maoB, a gene that encodes a positive regulator of the monoamine oxidase gene (maoA) in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The structural gene for copper- and topa quinone-containing monoamine oxidase (maoA) and an unknown amine oxidase gene have been located at 30.9 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome. Deletion analysis showed that the unknown gene was located within a 1.1-kb cloned fragment adjacent to the maoA gene. The nucleotide sequence of this fragment was determined, and a single open reading frame (maoB) consisting of 903 bp was found. The gene encoded a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 34,619 Da which was correlated with the migration on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel. The predicted amino acid sequence of the MaoB protein was identical to the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence derived by Edman degradation of the protein synthesized under the self-promoter. No homology of the nucleotide sequence of maoB to the sequences of any reported genes was found. However, the amino acid sequence of MaoB showed a high level of homology with respect to the helix-turn-helix motif of the AraC family in its C terminus. The homology search and disruption of maoA on the chromosome led to the conclusion that MaoB is a transcriptional activator of maoA but not an amine oxidase. The consensus sequence of the cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein complex binding domain was adjacent to the putative promoter for the maoB gene. By use of lac gene fusions with the maoA and maoB genes, we showed that the maoA gene is regulated by tyramine and MaoB and that the expression of the maoB gene is subject to catabolite repression. Thus, it seems likely that tyramine and the MaoB protein activate the transcription of maoA by binding to the regulatory region of the maoA gene. PMID:8631685

Yamashita, M; Azakami, H; Yokoro, N; Roh, J H; Suzuki, H; Kumagai, H; Murooka, Y

1996-01-01

128

An operon containing the genes for cholesterol oxidase and a cytochrome P-450-like protein from a Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequence of the promoter region of the gene for cholesterol oxidase (choA) from Streptomyces sp. strain SA-COO was determined. We found an open reading frame (choP) that is located between a potential promoter sequence and the structural gene for the ChoA protein. Deletion analysis showed that the promoter region for choP is essential for expression of the choA gene. Mappings of S1 nuclease and primer extension of transcripts generated in vivo suggested that the synthesis of mRNA starts at a site 41 bases upstream from the ATG initiation codon of the choP gene. By Northern (RNA) blot analysis of the transcripts, we found a 2.9-kilobase transcript that is identical in size to the total sequence of the choP and choA genes. These results suggest that the two genes, choP and choA, are transcribed polycistronically under the control of the promoter that is upstream from the structural gene for choP. The choP gene encodes a protein of 381 amino acids with a calculated Mr of 41,668. The nucleotide sequence of the choP gene has a high degree of similarity to the sequence of the genes for cytochrome P-450s from humans and Pseudomonas species. A region of homology with the cytochrome P-450s from various organisms was identified in the choP protein and may represent a region associated with a binding site for heme iron. Analysis of the CO difference spectrum of an extract of Streptomyces lividans cells that carry a plasmid which includes the choP gene revealed a unique peak, characteristic of cytochrome P-450, which is identical to that obtained with the parent strain. Images PMID:2361941

Horii, M; Ishizaki, T; Paik, S Y; Manome, T; Murooka, Y

1990-01-01

129

A novel phylogeny and morphological reconstruction of the PIN genes and first phylogeny of the ACC-oxidases (ACOs)  

PubMed Central

The PIN and ACO gene families present interesting questions about the evolution of plant physiology, including testing hypotheses about the ecological drivers of their diversification and whether unrelated genes have been recruited for similar functions. The PIN-formed proteins contribute to the polar transport of auxin, a hormone which regulates plant growth and development. PIN loci are categorized into groups according to their protein length and structure, as well as subcellular localization. An interesting question with PIN genes is the nature of the ancestral form and location. ACOs are members of a superfamily of oxygenases and oxidases that catalyze the last step of ethylene synthesis, which regulates many aspects of the plant life cycle. We used publicly available PIN and ACO sequences to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Third codon positions of these genes in monocots have a high GC content, which could be historical but is more likely due to a mutational bias. Thus, we developed methods to extract phylogenetic information from nucleotide sequences while avoiding this convergent feature. One method consisted in using only A-T transformations, and another used only the first and second codon positions for serine, which can only take A or T and G or C, respectively. We also conducted tree-searches for both gene families using unaligned amino acid sequences and dynamic homology. PIN genes appear to have diversified earlier than ACOs, with monocot and dicot copies more mixed in the phylogeny. However, gymnosperm PINs appear to be derived and not closely related to those from primitive plants. We find strong support for a long PIN gene ancestor with short forms subsequently evolving one or more times. ACO genes appear to have diversified mostly since the dicot-monocot split, as most genes cluster into a small number of monocot and dicot clades when the tree is rooted by genes from mosses. Gymnosperm ACOs were recovered as closely related and derived. PMID:25018760

Clouse, Ronald M.; Carraro, Nicola

2014-01-01

130

Intragenic deletion in the gene encoding L-gulonolactone oxidase causes vitamin C deficiency in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA, or AA) synthesis in scurvy-prone organisms, including humans, other primates, guinea pigs, and flying mammals, was traced to the lack of L-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO) activity. GULO is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the terminal step in the biosynthesis of L-AA. Clinical cases of scurvy were described in a family of Danish pigs. This trait

Lara Hasan; Peter Vögeli; Peter Stoll; Špela Špilar Gerald KramerStranzinger; Stefan Neuenschwander

2004-01-01

131

Differential expression of two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes in broccoli after harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea 1.) floral tissues rapidly differen- tiate and grow before harvest and then senesce rapidly after harvest. Associated with this postharvest deterioration is an in- crease in ethylene production by florets. Two cDNA clones having high nucleotide identity to sequences encoding 1 -amino- cyclopropane-1 -carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase were isolated from senescing florets. The cDNAs, ACC 0x7 and

Barry J. Pogson; Christopher C. Downs; Kevin M. Davies

1995-01-01

132

Cloning and expression analysis of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene MFABC1 and the alternative oxidase gene MfAOX1 from Monilinia fructicola.  

PubMed

Brown rot, caused by Moniliniafructicola (G Wint) Honey, is a serious disease of peach in all commercial peach production areas in the USA, including South Carolina where it has been primarily controlled by pre-harvest application of 14-alpha demethylation (DMI) fungicides for more than 15 years. Recently, the Qo fungicide azoxystrobin was registered for brown rot control and is currently being investigated for its potential as a DMI fungicide rotation partner because of its different mode of action. In an effort to investigate molecular mechanisms of DMI and Qo fungicide resistance in M fructicola, the ABC transporter gene MfABC1 and the alternative oxidase gene MfAOX1 were cloned to study their potential role in conferring fungicide resistance. The MfABC1 gene was 4380 bp in length and contained one intron of 71 bp. The gene revealed high amino acid homologies with atrB from Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Winter, an ABC transporter conferring resistance to many fungicides, including DMI fungicides. MfABC1 gene expression was induced after myclobutanil and propiconazole treatment in isolates with low sensitivity to the same fungicides, and in an isolate with high sensitivity to propiconazole. The results suggest that the MfABC1 gene may be a DMI fungicide resistance determinant in M fructicola. The alternative oxidase gene MfAOX1 from M fructicola was cloned and gene expression was analyzed. The MfAOX1 gene was 1077 bp in length and contained two introns of 54 and 67 bp. The amino acid sequence was 63.8, 63.8 and 57.7% identical to alternative oxidases from Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter, Aspergillus niger van Teighem and A nidulans, respectively. MfAOX1 expression in some but not all M fructicola isolates was induced in mycelia treated with azoxystrobin. Azoxystrobin at 2 microg ml(-1) significantly induced MfAOX1 expression in isolates with low MfAOX1 constitutive expression levels. PMID:14561072

Schnabel, Guido; Dait, Qun; Paradkar, Manjiri R

2003-10-01

133

Cloning and expression of three formate oxidase genes from Debaryomyces vanrijiae MH201.  

PubMed

Debaryomyces vanrijiae MH201 produces formate oxidase (FOD) at estimated pI values by native isoelectric focusing of 5.1, 5.4, and 5.9. We cloned and expressed three formate oxidase cDNAs, FOD1, FOD2, and FDO3, of the yeast using Escherichia coli. The open reading frames of FOD1, FOD2, and FDO3 were 1,731 bp long, and encoded 576-amino acid polypeptides with molecular masses of 64,142, 63,794, and 63,836 Da respectively. Expression of FOD1, FOD2, and FOD3 resulted in the production of three isozymes, with pI values of 5.1, 5.9, and 5.9 respectively. Co-expression of FOD1 and FOD2 and of FOD1 and FOD3 resulted in the production of additional isozymes with pI values, of 5.4. The three amino acid sequences of FOD1, FOD2, and FOD3 contained a consensus motif of a flavin adenine dinucleotide binding site in their N-terminal parts and a glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase signature pattern, suggesting that formate oxidase ought to be classified in the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family. PMID:18685206

Maeda, Yoshifumi; Oki, Masaya; Fujii, Yutaka; Hatanaka, Akira; Hojo, Masayuki; Hirano, Kouzou; Uchida, Hiroyuki

2008-08-01

134

Missense Mutations in Cytochrome c Maturation Genes Provide New Insights into Rhodobacter capsulatus cbb3-Type Cytochrome c Oxidase Biogenesis  

PubMed Central

The Rhodobacter capsulatus cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase (cbb3-Cox) belongs to the heme-copper oxidase superfamily, and its subunits are encoded by the ccoNOQP operon. Biosynthesis of this enzyme is complex and needs dedicated biogenesis genes (ccoGHIS). It also relies on the c-type cytochrome maturation (Ccm) process, which requires the ccmABCDEFGHI genes, because two of the cbb3-Cox subunits (CcoO and CcoP) are c-type cytochromes. Recently, we reported that mutants lacking CcoA, a major facilitator superfamily type transporter, produce very small amounts of cbb3-Cox unless the growth medium is supplemented with copper. In this work, we isolated “Cu-unresponsive” derivatives of a ccoA deletion strain that exhibited no cbb3-Cox activity even upon Cu supplementation. Molecular characterization of these mutants revealed missense mutations in the ccmA or ccmF gene, required for the Ccm process. As expected, Cu-unresponsive mutants lacked the CcoO and CcoP subunits due to Ccm defects, but remarkably, they contained the CcoN subunit of cbb3-Cox. Subsequent construction and examination of single ccm knockout mutants demonstrated that membrane insertion and stability of CcoN occurred in the absence of the Ccm process. Moreover, while the ccm knockout mutants were completely incompetent for photosynthesis, the Cu-unresponsive mutants grew photosynthetically at lower rates and produced smaller amounts of cytochromes c1 and c2 than did a wild-type strain due to their restricted Ccm capabilities. These findings demonstrate that different levels of Ccm efficiency are required for the production of various c-type cytochromes and reveal for the first time that maturation of the heme-Cu-containing subunit CcoN of R. capsulatus cbb3-Cox proceeds independently of that of the c-type cytochromes during the biogenesis of this enzyme. PMID:23123911

Ekici, Seda; Jiang, Xinpei; Koch, Hans-Georg

2013-01-01

135

D-amino acid oxidase activator gene (DAOA) variation affects cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy Caucasians.  

PubMed

The D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) protein regulates the function of D-amino oxidase (DAO), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (D-DOPA) and D-serine. D-DOPA is converted to L-3,4-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine, whereas D-serine participates in glutamatergic transmission. We hypothesized that DAOA polymorphisms are associated with dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline turnover in the human brain. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms, previously reported to be associated with schizophrenia, were genotyped. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were drawn by lumbar puncture, and the concentrations of the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and the major noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were measured. Two of the investigated polymorphisms, rs3918342 and rs1421292, were significantly associated with CSF HVA concentrations. Rs3918342 was found to be nominally associated with CSF 5-HIAA concentrations. None of the polymorphisms were significantly associated with MHPG concentrations. Our results indicate that DAOA gene variation affects dopamine turnover in healthy individuals, suggesting that disturbed dopamine turnover is a possible mechanism behind the observed associations between genetic variation in DAOA and behavioral phenotypes in humans. PMID:22454242

Andreou, Dimitrios; Saetre, Peter; Werge, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A; Agartz, Ingrid; Sedvall, Göran C; Hall, Håkan; Terenius, Lars; Jönsson, Erik G

2012-10-01

136

Evolutionary Dynamics of the Human NADPH Oxidase Genes CYBB, CYBA, NCF2, and NCF4: Functional Implications  

PubMed Central

The phagocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the reduction of O2 to reactive oxygen species with microbicidal activity. It is composed of two membrane-spanning subunits, gp91-phox and p22-phox (encoded by CYBB and CYBA, respectively), and three cytoplasmic subunits, p40-phox, p47-phox, and p67-phox (encoded by NCF4, NCF1, and NCF2, respectively). Mutations in any of these genes can result in chronic granulomatous disease, a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections. Using evolutionary mapping, we determined that episodes of adaptive natural selection have shaped the extracellular portion of gp91-phox during the evolution of mammals, which suggests that this region may have a function in host-pathogen interactions. On the basis of a resequencing analysis of approximately 35 kb of CYBB, CYBA, NCF2, and NCF4 in 102 ethnically diverse individuals (24 of African ancestry, 31 of European ancestry, 24 of Asian/Oceanians, and 23 US Hispanics), we show that the pattern of CYBA diversity is compatible with balancing natural selection, perhaps mediated by catalase-positive pathogens. NCF2 in Asian populations shows a pattern of diversity characterized by a differentiated haplotype structure. Our study provides insight into the role of pathogen-driven natural selection in an innate immune pathway and sheds light on the role of CYBA in endothelial, nonphagocytic NADPH oxidases, which are relevant in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and other complex diseases. PMID:23821607

Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Magalhaes, Wagner C.S.; Chen, Renee; Lyon, Fernanda; Burdett, Laurie; Crenshaw, Andrew; Fabbri, Cristina; Pereira, Latife; Pinto, Laelia; Redondo, Rodrigo A.F.; Sestanovich, Ben; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

137

A restriction fragment length polymorphism results in a nonconservative amino acid substitution encoded within the first exon of the human lysyl oxidase gene  

SciTech Connect

A cDNA covering most of the coding sequence for human lysyl oxidase was used to screen, by Southern blot analysis, genomic DNA from circulating lymphocytes obtained from unrelated, apparently normal individuals. A heritable restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) within a PstI restriction site was detected in 36% of individuals screened (a total of 72 chromosomes were analyzed). The major allele was represented as a 1.7-kb PstI restriction fragment. The minor allele was detected as 1.4 and 0.3kb restriction fragments. Lambda phage-DNA recombinants were isolated from a human lung fibroblast genomic DNA library using the human lysyl oxidase cDNA clone. DNA sequence analysis of several selected phage recombinants revealed that 83% of the coding sequence of lysyl oxidase was localized in four separate exons. Analysis of the coding sequence within exon 1, the most 5{prime} exon within the lysyl oxidase gene, revealed that the PstI RFLP was due to a G {r_arrow} A transition resulting in a nonconservative arginine to glutamine substitution proximal to a propeptide cleavage domain encoded by exon 1 of the lysyl oxidase gene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Csiszar, K.; Mariani, T.J.; Gosin, J.S.; Deak, S.B.; Boyd, C.D. [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)] [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

1993-05-01

138

NADPH oxidase complex and IBD candidate gene studies: identification of a rare variant in NCF2 that results in reduced binding to RAC2  

PubMed Central

Objective The NOX2 NADPH oxidase complex produces reactive oxygen species and plays a critical role in the killing of microbes by phagocytes. Genetic mutations in genes encoding components of the complex result in both X-linked and autosomal recessive forms of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Patients with CGD often develop intestinal inflammation that is histologically similar to Crohn's colitis, suggesting a common aetiology for both diseases. The aim of this study is to determine if polymorphisms in NOX2 NADPH oxidase complex genes that do not cause CGD are associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods Direct sequencing and candidate gene approaches were used to identify susceptibility loci in NADPH oxidase complex genes. Functional studies were carried out on identified variants. Novel findings were replicated in independent cohorts. Results Sequence analysis identified a novel missense variant in the neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2) gene that is associated with very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD) and subsequently found in 4% of patients with VEO-IBD compared with 0.2% of controls (p=1.3×10?5, OR 23.8 (95% CI 3.9 to 142.5); Fisher exact test). This variant reduced binding of the NCF2 gene product p67phox to RAC2. This study found a novel genetic association of RAC2 with Crohn's disease (CD) and replicated the previously reported association of NCF4 with ileal CD. Conclusion These studies suggest that the rare novel p67phox variant results in partial inhibition of oxidase function and are associated with CD in a subgroup of patients with VEO-IBD; and suggest that components of the NADPH oxidase complex are associated with CD. PMID:21900546

Muise, Aleixo M; Xu, Wei; Guo, Cong-Hui; Walters, Thomas D; Wolters, Victorien M; Fattouh, Ramzi; Lam, Grace Y; Hu, Pingzhao; Murchie, Ryan; Sherlock, Mary; Gana, Juan Cristobal; Russell, Richard K; Glogauer, Michael; Duerr, Richard H; Cho, Judy H; Lees, Charlie W; Satsangi, Jack; Wilson, David C; Paterson, Andrew D; Griffiths, Anne M; Silverberg, Mark S; Brumell, John H

2013-01-01

139

Reduced polyphenol oxidase gene expression and enzymatic browning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with artificial microRNAs  

PubMed Central

Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), often encoded by a multi-gene family, causes oxidative browning, a significant problem in many food products. Low-browning potatoes were produced previously through suppression of PPO gene expression, but the contribution of individual PPO gene isoform to the oxidative browning process was unknown. Here we investigated the contributions of different PPO genes to total PPO protein activity, and the correlations between PPO protein level, PPO activity and tuber tissue browning potential by suppression of all previously characterized potato PPO genes, both individually and in combination using artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) technology. Results Survey of the potato genome database revealed 9 PPO-like gene models, named StuPPO1 to StuPPO9 in this report. StuPPO1, StuPPO2, StuPPO3 and StuPPO4 are allelic to the characterized POTP1/P2, POT32, POT33 and POT72, respectively. Fewer ESTs were found to support the transcriptions of StuPPO5 to StuPPO8. StuPPO9 related ESTs were expressed at significant higher levels in pathogen-infected potato tissues. A series of browning phenotypes were obtained by suppressing StuPPO1 to StuPPO4 genes alone and in combination. Down-regulation of one or several of the PPO genes did not usually cause up-regulation of the other PPO genes in the transgenic potato tubers, but resulted in reduced PPO protein levels. The different PPO genes did not contribute equally to the total PPO protein content in the tuber tissues, with StuPPO2 accounting for ~ 55% as the major contributor, followed by StuPPO1, ~ 25-30% and StuPPO3 and StuPPO4 together with less than 15%. Strongly positive correlations between PPO protein level, PPO activity and browning potential were demonstrated in our analysis. Low PPO activity and low-browning potatoes were produced by simultaneous down-regulation of StuPPO2 to StuPPO4, but the greatest reduction occurred when StuPPO1 to StuPPO4 were all suppressed. Conclusion StuPPO1 to StuPPO4 genes contributed to browning reactions in tuber tissues but their effect was not equal. Different PPO genes may be regulated independently reflecting their diversified functions. Our results show that amiRNAs can be used to suppress closely related members of highly conserved multi-gene family. This approach also suggests a new strategy for breeding low-browning crops using small DNA inserts. PMID:24618103

2014-01-01

140

Molecular Characterization of Fire Ants, Solenopsis spp., from Brazil Based on Analysis of mtDNA Gene Cytochrome Oxidase I  

PubMed Central

Species from the Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species group are native to South America and have a cosmopolitan distribution because they have been accidentally introduced in many countries around the world. In Brazil, they have a wide distribution, including urban areas. The present study was conducted to investigate the characterization of Solenopsis genus populations associated with urban/human interference sites in Brazil by analyzing the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I and estimating the degree of relatedness of these populations to make inferences about their phylogeny and also observe the patterns of mitochondrial haplotype (mitotype) distribution across their range. The results revealed complete geographical coherence and polyphyly for the Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis saevissima species groups, which confirms the diversity of the genera. It also suggests the possibility that reproductively-isolated populations occur, resulting in the evolutionary process of speciation. No predominant haplotype was found in the populations analyzed, but some were more prevalent.

Martins, Cintia; de Souza, Rodrigo Fernando; Bueno, Odair Correa

2014-01-01

141

Over-expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene from Phaseolus coccineus L. enhances gibberellin inactivation and induces dwarfism in Solanum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play a predominant role in regulating plant stature by increasing cell division\\u000a and elongation in stem internodes. The product of the GA 2-oxidase gene from Phaseolus coccineus (PcGA2ox1) inactivates C19-GAs, including the bioactive GAs GA1 and GA4, by 2?-hydroxylation, reducing the availability of these GAs in plants. The PcGA2ox1 gene was introduced into Solanum

C. Dijkstra; E. Adams; A. Bhattacharya; A. F. Page; P. Anthony; S. Kourmpetli; J. B. Power; K. C. Lowe; S. G. Thomas; P. Hedden; A. L. Phillips; M. R. Davey

2008-01-01

142

A regulatory polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase-A gene may be associated with variability in aggression, impulsivity, and central nervous system serotonergic responsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents preliminary evidence of an association between polymorphic variation in the gene for monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) and interindividual variability in aggressiveness, impulsivity and central nervous system (CNS) serotonergic responsivity. An apparently functional 30-bp VNTR in the promoter region of the X-chromosomal MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR), as well as a dinucleotide repeat in intron 2 (MAOA-CAn), was genotyped in a

Stephen B Manuck; Janine D Flory; Robert E Ferrell; J. John Mann; Matthew F Muldoon

2000-01-01

143

Monoamine oxidase-A polymorphisms might modify the association between the dopamine D2receptor gene and alcohol dependence  

PubMed Central

Objective Low monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and the neurotransmitter dopamine are 2 important factors in the development of alcohol dependence. MAO is an important enzyme associated with the metabolism of biogenic amines. Therefore, the present study investigates whether the association between the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and alcoholism is affected by different polymorphisms of the MAO type A (MAOA) gene. Methods A total of 427 Han Chinese men in Taiwan (201 control subjects and 226 with alcoholism) were recruited for the study. Of the subjects with alcoholism, 108 had pure alcohol dependence (ALC) and 118 had both alcohol dependence and anxiety, depression or both (ANX/DEP ALC). All subjects were assessed with the Chinese Version of the Modified Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime. Alcohol dependence, anxiety and major depressive disorders were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria. Conclusion The genetic variant of the DRD2 gene was only associated with the ANX/DEP ALC phenotype, and the genetic variant of the MAOA gene was associated with pure ALC. Subjects carrying the MAOA 3-repeat allele and genotype A1/A1 of the DRD2 were 3.48 times (95% confidence interval = 1.47–8.25) more likely to be ANX/DEP ALC than the subjects carrying the MAOA 3-repeat allele and DRD2 A2/A2 genotype. The MAOA gene may modify the association between the DRD2 gene and ANX/DEP ALC phenotype. PMID:17476365

Huang, San-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Wen; Wan, Fang-Jung; Chang, Ai-Ju; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wang, Tso-Jen; Wu, Pei-Lin; Lu, Ru-Band

2007-01-01

144

Phylogenetic relationships among Sarcocystis species in cervids, cattle and sheep inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.  

PubMed

Coccidian parasites in the genus Sarcocystis have a two-host life cycle, and have traditionally been identified on the basis of morphological features of the sarcocyst stage in their intermediate hosts. Additional molecular species identification, delimitation and phylogeny of Sarcocystis spp. have been based mainly on the nuclear ssrRNA gene. This gene is well suited for discrimination between more distant species but less so for closely related species. The objective of this study was therefore to establish the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) as a novel genetic marker for Sarcocystis spp. and assess its utility for species identification and delimitation. New primers were developed and 1,020-1,095 bp long cox1 sequences were obtained from 155 isolates of 22 Sarcocystis spp. from cattle, sheep, red deer, reindeer, roe deer and moose, and used for phylogenetic reconstructions. For 18 species, the intraspecific and interspecific sequence identities were 98.5-100% and 58-92%, respectively. The four other species had previously been regarded as two species (Sarcocystis rangiferi, Sarcocystis tarandi), each infecting both reindeer and red deer. From cox1 data, each of those appeared to be two separate species, with S. rangiferi and S. tarandi being restricted to reindeer. Thus, cox1 sequences seem to perform better than ssrRNA gene sequences for delimitation of closely related species. The 22 species were distributed in three major clades according to their definitive hosts as in phylogenetic trees obtained from the ssrRNA gene. There were only minor differences in the branching order of different taxa between the trees obtained from either gene. This study has successfully established cox1 as a novel genetic marker for future research on Sarcocystis spp. It has also provided the first published molecular identification of Sarcocystis gigantea and Sarcocystis tenella in Norwegian sheep, and of Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis sinensis in Argentinean cattle. PMID:23542092

Gjerde, Bjørn

2013-06-01

145

A Laterally Acquired Galactose Oxidase-Like Gene Is Required for Aerial Development during Osmotic Stress in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that most Actinobacterial orthologs of S. coelicolor SCO2837, encoding a metal-dependent galactose oxidase-like protein, are found within Streptomyces and were probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Disruption of SCO2837 (glxA) caused a conditional bld phenotype that could not be reversed by extracellular complementation. Studies aimed at characterising the regulation of expression of glxA showed that it is not a target for other bld genes. We provide evidence that glxA is required for osmotic adaptation, although independently from the known osmotic stress response element SigB. glxA has been predicted to be part of an operon with the transcription unit comprising the upstream cslA gene and glxA. However, both phenotypic and expression studies indicate that it is also expressed from an independent promoter region internal to cslA. GlxA displays an in situ localisation pattern similar to that one observed for CslA at hyphal tips, but localisation of the former is independent of the latter. The functional role of GlxA in relation to CslA is discussed. PMID:23326581

Liman, Recep; Facey, Paul D.; van Keulen, Geertje; Dyson, Paul J.; Del Sol, Ricardo

2013-01-01

146

Gremlin utilizes canonical and non-canonical TGF? signaling to induce lysyl oxidase (LOX) genes in human trabecular meshwork cells?  

PubMed Central

The TGF?/BMP signaling pathways are involved in glaucomatous damage to the trabecular meshwork (TM) leading to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which is a major risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. The BMP antagonist gremlin is elevated in glaucomatous TM cells and tissues and can directly elevate IOP. Gremlin utilizes the TGF?2/SMAD pathway to induce TM extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The purpose of this study is to determine whether expression of the ECM cross-linking lysyl oxidase (LOX) genes is regulated by gremlin in cultured human TM cells. Human TM cells were treated with recombinant gremlin, and expression of the LOX genes was examined by quantitative RT-PCR and western immunoblotting. TM cells were pretreated with TGFBR inhibitors (LY364947 or SB431542), an inhibitor of the SMAD signaling pathway (SIS3), or with JNK (SP600125) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) inhibitors to identify the signaling pathway(s) involved in gremlin induction of LOX protein expression. All five LOX genes (LOX and LOXL1–4) were induced by gremlin. Gremlin induction of LOX genes and protein expression was blocked by TGFBR inhibitors as well as by inhibitors of the SMAD3, JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. We conclude that gremlin employs both canonical TGF?/SMAD and the non-canonical JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways to induce LOX genes and proteins in cultured human TM cells. Increased LOX levels may be at least partially responsible for gremlin-mediated IOP elevation and increased aqueous humor outflow resistance leading to glaucoma. PMID:23748100

Sethi, Anirudh; Wordinger, Robert J.; Clark, Abbot F.

2013-01-01

147

Cloning, DNA sequence, and complementation analysis of the Salmonella typhimurium hemN gene encoding a putative oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase.  

PubMed Central

Coproporphyrinogen oxidation is a last step in heme biosynthesis. The biochemically characterized eukaryotic coproporphyrinogen III oxidases have an obligate requirement for molecular oxygen, and a similar enzyme is encoded by the hemF gene in Salmonella typhimurium. Anaerobic heme synthesis requires an oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen oxidase, which is probably encoded by the hemN gene in S. typhimurium. The hemN gene has been cloned from an insertion mutant. The nucleotide sequence was obtained and used for PCR amplification of the wild-type gene. A single open reading frame was identified as the hemN gene on the basis of its interruption by the insertion mutation and plasmid complementation studies of hemF hemN double mutants. The predicted HemN protein has 38% amino acid sequence identity to a putative anaerobic Rhodobacter sphaeroides coproporphyrinogen oxidase. The hemN RNA 5' end and the inferred transcription initiation site were mapped by primer extension. The 52.8-kDa HemN protein is expressed from the second ATG codon of the hemN open reading frame. An open reading frame with an unknown function directly upstream of hemN has a striking amino acid sequence, including 11 acidic residues in a row. Images PMID:8195073

Xu, K; Elliott, T

1994-01-01

148

Structural, phylogenetic and docking studies of D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA), a candidate schizophrenia gene  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative disorder that occurs worldwide and can be difficult to diagnose. It is the foremost neurological disorder leading to suicide among patients in both developed and underdeveloped countries. D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA), also known as G72, is directly implicated in the glutamateric hypothesis of schizophrenia. It activates D-amino acid oxidase, which oxidizes D-serine, leading to modulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Methods MODELLER (9v10) was utilized to generate three dimensional structures of the DAOA candidate gene. The HOPE server was used for mutational analysis. The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA5) tool was utilized to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the candidate gene DAOA. AutoDock was used for protein-ligand docking and Gramm-X and PatchDock for protein-protein docking. Results A suitable template (1ZCA) was selected by employing BLASTp on the basis of 33% query coverage, 27% identity and E-value 4.9. The Rampage evaluation tool showed 91.1% favored region, 4.9% allowed region and 4.1% outlier region in DAOA. ERRAT demonstrated that the predicted model had a 50.909% quality factor. Mutational analysis of DAOA revealed significant effects on hydrogen bonding and correct folding of the DAOA protein, which in turn affect protein conformation. Ciona was inferred as the outgroup. Tetrapods were in their appropriate clusters with bifurcations. Human amino acid sequences are conserved, with chimpanzee and gorilla showing more than 80% homology and bootstrap value based on 1000 replications. Molecular docking analysis was employed to elucidate the binding mode of the reported ligand complex for DAOA. The docking experiment demonstrated that DAOA is involved in major amino acid interactions: the residues that interact most strongly with the ligand C28H28N3O5PS2 are polar but uncharged (Gln36, Asn38, Thr 122) and non-polar hydrophobic (Ile119, Ser171, Ser21, Ala31). Protein-protein docking simulation demonstrated two ionic bonds and one hydrogen bond involving DAOA. Lys-7 of the receptor protein interacted with Lys-163 and Asp-2037. Tyr-03 interacted with Arg-286 of the ligand protein and formed a hydrogen bond. Conclusion The predicted interactions might serve to inhibit the disease-related allele. It is assumed that current bioinformatics methods will contribute significantly to identifying, analyzing and curing schizophrenia. There is an urgent need to develop effective drugs for schizophrenia, and tools for examining candidate genes more accurately and efficiently are required. PMID:23286827

2013-01-01

149

Cloning and Characterization of theEscherichia coli hemN Gene Encoding the Oxygen-Independent Coproporphyrinogen III Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, an enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidative decar- boxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to form protoporphyrinogen IX. Genetic and biochemical studies sug- gested the presence of two different coproporphyrinogen III oxidases, one for aerobic (HemF) and one for anaerobic (HemN) conditions. Here we report the cloning of thehemNgene encoding the oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase from Escherichia

BARBARA TROUP; CHRISTOPH HUNGERER; ANDDIETER JAHN

1995-01-01

150

The P450-4 gene of Gibberella fujikuroi encodes ent-kaurene oxidase in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway.  

PubMed

At least five genes of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway are clustered on chromosome 4 of Gibberella fujikuroi; these genes encode the bifunctional ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase/ent-kaurene synthase, a GA-specific geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, and three cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. We now describe a fourth cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene (P450-4). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of extracts of mycelia and culture fluid of a P450-4 knockout mutant identified ent-kaurene as the only intermediate of the GA pathway. Incubations with radiolabeled precursors showed that the metabolism of ent-kaurene, ent-kaurenol, and ent-kaurenal was blocked in the transformants, whereas ent-kaurenoic acid was metabolized efficiently to GA(4). The GA-deficient mutant strain SG139, which lacks the 30-kb GA biosynthesis gene cluster, converted ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid after transformation with P450-4. The B1-41a mutant, described as blocked between ent-kaurenal and ent-kaurenoic acid, was fully complemented by P450-4. There is a single nucleotide difference between the sequence of the B1-41a and wild-type P450-4 alleles at the 3' consensus sequence of intron 2 in the mutant, resulting in reduced levels of active protein due to a splicing defect in the mutant. These data suggest that P450-4 encodes a multifunctional ent-kaurene oxidase catalyzing all three oxidation steps between ent-kaurene and ent-kaurenoic acid. PMID:11472927

Tudzynski, B; Hedden, P; Carrera, E; Gaskin, P

2001-08-01

151

The P450-4 Gene of Gibberella fujikuroi Encodes ent-Kaurene Oxidase in the Gibberellin Biosynthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

At least five genes of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway are clustered on chromosome 4 of Gibberella fujikuroi; these genes encode the bifunctional ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase/ent-kaurene synthase, a GA-specific geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, and three cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. We now describe a fourth cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene (P450-4). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of extracts of mycelia and culture fluid of a P450-4 knockout mutant identified ent-kaurene as the only intermediate of the GA pathway. Incubations with radiolabeled precursors showed that the metabolism of ent-kaurene, ent-kaurenol, and ent-kaurenal was blocked in the transformants, whereas ent-kaurenoic acid was metabolized efficiently to GA4. The GA-deficient mutant strain SG139, which lacks the 30-kb GA biosynthesis gene cluster, converted ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid after transformation with P450-4. The B1-41a mutant, described as blocked between ent-kaurenal and ent-kaurenoic acid, was fully complemented by P450-4. There is a single nucleotide difference between the sequence of the B1-41a and wild-type P450-4 alleles at the 3? consensus sequence of intron 2 in the mutant, resulting in reduced levels of active protein due to a splicing defect in the mutant. These data suggest that P450-4 encodes a multifunctional ent-kaurene oxidase catalyzing all three oxidation steps between ent-kaurene and ent-kaurenoic acid. PMID:11472927

Tudzynski, Bettina; Hedden, Peter; Carrera, Esther; Gaskin, Paul

2001-01-01

152

Negative emotionality: monoamine oxidase B gene variants modulate personality traits in healthy humans  

PubMed Central

Monoamine oxidase A and B (MAOA and MAOB) appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of Major Depression, and vulnerability of Major Depression is associated with personality traits relating to positive and negative affect. This study aimed to investigate associations between MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms and personality traits of positive and negative emotionality in healthy volunteers, to elucidate mechanisms underlying personality and the risk for depression. Healthy Caucasian volunteers (N = 150) completed the Multiphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), which includes independent superfactors of Positive Emotionality and Negative Emotionality. Participants were genotyped for 8 MAOA and 12 MAOB single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association analyses for both SNPs and haplotypes were performed using the permutation approach implemented in PLINK. Negative Emotionality was significantly associated with the two highly linked MAOB polymorphisms rs10521432 and rs6651806 (p < 0.002). Findings were extended in haplotype analyses. For MAOB the 4-SNP haplotype GACG formed from rs1799836, rs10521432, rs6651806 and rs590551 was significantly related to lower Negative Emotionality scores (p < 0.002). MAOA was not related to personality in this study. Our finding provides the first evidence that MAOB polymorphisms influence levels of negative emotionality in healthy human volunteers. If confirmed, these results could lead to a better understanding of personality traits and inter-individual susceptibility developing psychiatric disorders such as major depression. PMID:19657584

Dlugos, Andrea M.; Palmer, Abraham A.

2013-01-01

153

Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg Cells in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Show Alterations of Genes Encoding the NADPH Oxidase Complex and Impaired Reactive Oxygen Species Synthesis Capacity  

PubMed Central

The membrane bound NADPH oxidase involved in the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a multi-protein enzyme encoded by CYBA, CYBB, NCF1, NCF2 and NCF4 genes. Growing evidence suggests a role of ROS in the modulation of signaling pathways of non-phagocytic cells, including differentiation and proliferation of B-cell progenitors. Transcriptional downregulation of the CYBB gene has been previously reported in cell lines of the B-cell derived classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Thus, we explored functional consequences of CYBB downregulation on the NADPH complex. Using flow cytometry to detect and quantify superoxide anion synthesis in cHL cell lines we identified recurrent loss of superoxide anion production in all stimulated cHL cell lines in contrast to stimulated non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. As CYBB loss proved to exert a deleterious effect on the NADPH oxidase complex in cHL cell lines, we analyzed the CYBB locus in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of primary cHL biopsies by in situ hybridisation and identified recurrent deletions of the gene in 8/18 cases. Immunohistochemical analysis to 14 of these cases revealed a complete lack of detectable CYBB protein expression in all HRS cells in all cases studied. Moreover, by microarray profiling of cHL cell lines we identified additional alterations of NADPH oxidase genes including CYBA copy number loss in 3/7 cell lines and a significant downregulation of the NCF1 transcription (p=0.006) compared to normal B-cell subsets. Besides, NCF1 protein was significantly downregulated (p<0.005) in cHL compared to other lymphoma cell lines. Together this findings show recurrent alterations of the NADPH oxidase encoding genes that result in functional inactivation of the enzyme and reduced production of superoxide anion in cHL. PMID:24376854

Sosna, Justyna; Döring, Claudia; Klapper, Wolfram; Küppers, Ralf; Böttcher, Sebastian; Adam, Dieter; Siebert, Reiner; Schütze, Stefan

2013-01-01

154

Characterization of the Regulatory and Expression Context of an Alternative Oxidase Gene Provides Insights into Cyanide-Insensitive Respiration during Growth and Development1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Alternative oxidase (AOX) is encoded in small multigene families in plants. Functional analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) alternative oxidase 1c (AtAOX1c) promoter, an AOX gene not induced by oxidative stress, indicated that regulation of expression was complex, with the upstream promoter region containing positive and negative response regions. Comparison to the promoter region of soybean (Glycine max) alternative oxidase 2b (GmAOX2b), another AOX gene not induced by oxidative stress, revealed that they contained seven sequence elements in common. All elements were active in the promoter region of AtAOX1c in suspension cells and in leaf tissue from Columbia and mutant plants, where a mitochondrial protein import receptor was inactivated. Analysis of coexpressed and putatively coregulated genes, the latter defined as containing five or more sequence elements functional in AtAOX1c, indicated that AtAOX1c was coregulated with components involved with cell division and growth. Consistent with this analysis, we demonstrated that site II elements, previously shown to regulate the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, are present in the upstream promoter region of AtAOX1c and were strong negative regulators of AtAOX1c expression. It was demonstrated that NDB4, a gene encoding an external NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, displayed strong coexpression with AtAOX1c. Overall, these results indicate that AtAOX1c is regulated by growth and developmental signals. PMID:17322330

Ho, Lois H.M.; Giraud, Estelle; Lister, Ryan; Thirkettle-Watts, David; Low, Jasmine; Clifton, Rachel; Howell, Katharine A.; Carrie, Chris; Donald, Tamzin; Whelan, James

2007-01-01

155

Heterologous expression of a gene encoding cholesterol oxidase in probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii under the control of native promoters.  

PubMed

To develop systems for the expression of heterologous genes in probiotic strains of Lactobacillus and Propionibacterium, we used Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii and a modified gene encoding cholesterol oxidase (choA) from Streptomyces sp. to generate working models. The acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (acc) promoter derived from the acc operon of L. plantarum L137 and a previously constructed shuttle vector, pRN14, were used to construct vectors for the expression of heterologous genes in lactic acid bacteria. The concentration of cholesterol oxidase in recombinant L. plantarum carrying choA fused to the NH2-terminal region of the first open reading frame of the acc operon was 3.6 mU/mg of protein. Using the promoters from Propionibacterium, namely, P4, P8, and P138, which enabled high-level expression of choA in Escherichia coli, and a previously constructed shuttle vector pPK705, we constructed expression vectors for Propionibacterium. In recombinant P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii IFO12426, the activities of cholesterol oxidase generated under the control of promoters P4, P8, and P138 were 1.6, 4.3, and 7.2 U/mg of protein, respectively. The expression of heterologous genes may facilitate the production of useful proteins in these economically important bacteria. PMID:16233128

Kiatpapan, P; Yamashita, M; Kawaraichi, N; Yasuda, T; Murooka, Y

2001-01-01

156

Enhanced drought and heat stress tolerance of tobacco plants with ectopically enhanced cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene expression  

PubMed Central

Responses to drought, heat, and combined stress were compared in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants ectopically expressing the cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase CKX1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana L. under the control of either the predominantly root-expressed WRKY6 promoter or the constitutive 35S promoter, and in the wild type. WRKY6:CKX1 plants exhibited high CKX activity in the roots under control conditions. Under stress, the activity of the WRKY6 promoter was down-regulated and the concomitantly reduced cytokinin degradation coincided with raised bioactive cytokinin levels during the early phase of the stress response, which might contribute to enhanced stress tolerance of this genotype. Constitutive expression of CKX1 resulted in an enlarged root system, a stunted, dwarf shoot phenotype, and a low basal level of expression of the dehydration marker gene ERD10B. The high drought tolerance of this genotype was associated with a relatively moderate drop in leaf water potential and a significant decrease in leaf osmotic potential. Basal expression of the proline biosynthetic gene P5CSA was raised. Both wild-type and WRKY6:CKX1 plants responded to heat stress by transient elevation of stomatal conductance, which correlated with an enhanced abscisic acid catabolism. 35S:CKX1 transgenic plants exhibited a small and delayed stomatal response. Nevertheless, they maintained a lower leaf temperature than the other genotypes. Heat shock applied to drought-stressed plants exaggerated the negative stress effects, probably due to the additional water loss caused by a transient stimulation of transpiration. The results indicate that modulation of cytokinin levels may positively affect plant responses to abiotic stress through a variety of physiological mechanisms. PMID:23669573

Vankova, Radomira

2013-01-01

157

Elevated Transcription of the Gene QSOX1 Encoding Quiescin Q6 Sulfhydryl Oxidase 1 in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

The q arm of chromosome 1 is frequently amplified at the gene level in breast cancer. Since the significance of this is unclear we investigated whether 1q genes are overexpressed in this disease. The cDNA levels of 1q-located genes were analysed in a search for overexpressed genes. 26 genes mapping to the 1q arm show highly significant (P?0.01) overexpression of transcripts in breast cancer compared to normal breast tissue. Amongst those showing the highest levels of overexpression in both expressed sequence tag (EST) and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) databases was enzyme quiescin Q6 sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1). We investigated QSOX1 cDNA derived from T47D breast carcinoma cells by RT-PCR and 3?-RACE PCR and identified a novel extended form of QSOX1 transcript, containing a long 3?UTR, nearly double the size of the previously reported QSOX1 cDNA, and confirmed its 3? end nucleotide sequence using RACE-PCR. We also used quantitative real-time PCR to analyse a panel of cDNAs derived from 50 clinically-graded normal and malignant breast tissue samples for the expression of QSOX1 mRNAs. QSOX1 transcription was elevated in an increasing proportion in the grade 2 and grade 3 tumours (graded according to the Nottingham prognostic index), with 10 of the 15 grade 3 tumours (67%) examined exceeding the normal range. There was a significant correlation between relative transcript level and clinical grade (P?0.01) for all qPCR primer sets tested. QSOX1 mRNA levels, based on SAGE expression data, did not correlate with either Estrogen Receptor (ER) or Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (ErbB-2 or HER2/neu) expression. Our data indicate that QSOX1 is a potential new prognostic marker which may prove of use in the staging of breast tumours and the stratification of breast cancer patients. PMID:23460839

Soloviev, Mikhail; Esteves, Michelle P.; Amiri, Fakhria; Crompton, Mark R.; Rider, Christopher C.

2013-01-01

158

The C242T-polymorphism of the NADPH\\/NADH oxidase gene p22phox subunit is not associated with pre-eclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-related multisystem disorder characterised by elevation of blood pressure and proteinuria, in which oxidative stress may play an important role. Blood pressure is partly controlled by O?2 production by NADPH\\/NADH oxidase and recently it was shown that a C242T substitution in the p22phox gene was associated with coronary artery disease, in which elevated blood pressure and oxidative

M T M Raijmakers; E M Roes; E A P Steegers; W H M Peters; WHM Peters

2002-01-01

159

Second-site, intragenic alterations in the gene encoding subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase from yeast can suppress two different missense mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome c oxidase, a multi-subunit enzyme complex, accepts electrons from cytochrome c and transfers them to molecular oxygen to form water. Subunit II (Cox2p) of the enzyme complex provides the initial entry site for the electrons from cytochrome c. We report here the characterization of a yeast strain bearing a mutation in the gene encoding Cox2p which abolishes the activity

Quentin Machingo; Michael Mazourek; Vicki Cameron

2001-01-01

160

A Phylogenetic Analysis of Cuckoo Bumblebees ( Psithyrus, Lepeletier) and Bumblebees ( Bombus, Latreille) Inferred from Sequences of the Mitochondrial Gene Cytochrome Oxidase I  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR amplification and direct sequencing of a 532-bp region of the mtCO-1(cytochrome oxidase I) gene from five true bumblebee species and six cuckoo bumblebee species were performed. The sequences were then aligned to the corresponding sequence in the honey bee. Phylogenetic analyses based on parsimony and maximum likelihood indicate that the cuckoo bumblebees form a monophyletic group within the true

Bo Vest Pedersen

1996-01-01

161

Constitutive expression of a fungal glucose oxidase gene in transgenic tobacco confers chilling tolerance through the activation of antioxidative defence system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific evidences in the literature have shown that plants treated exogenously with micromole concentration of hydrogen\\u000a peroxide (H2O2) acquire abiotic stress tolerance potential, without substantial disturbances in the endogenous H2O2 pool. In this study, we enhanced the endogenous H2O2 content of tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L. cv. SR1) plants by the constitutive expression of a glucose oxidase (GO; EC 1.1.3.4) gene

Subbiyan Maruthasalam; Yi Lun Liu; Ching Mei Sun; Pei Ying Chen; Chih Wen Yu; Pei Fang Lee; Chin Ho Lin

2010-01-01

162

A novel human lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL4) on chromosome 10q24 has an altered scavenger receptor cysteine rich domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a novel 14-exon human lysyl oxidase-like gene, LOXL4, on chromosome 10q24. The cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of LOXL4 demonstrates a conserved C-terminal region including the characteristic copper-binding site, lysyl and tyrosyl residues and a cytokine receptor-like domain. One of the four N-terminal SRCR domains contains a 13 amino acid insertion encoded by a short exon

L. Asuncion; B. Fogelgren; K. S. K. Fong; S. F. T. Fong; Y. Kim; K. Csiszar

2001-01-01

163

The mouse lysyl oxidase-like 2 gene ( mLOXL2) maps to chromosome 14 and is highly expressed in skin, lung and thymus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predicted amino acid sequence derived from a mouse expressed sequence tag (EST) contig contained two domains that are highly conserved among members of the lysyl oxidase gene family: a copper binding-site with four histidines and a catalytic domain that includes a tryptophan residue. This new cDNA sequence showed the highest level of sequence homology with the human loxl2 cDNA

Claude Jourdan-Le Saux; Olivier Le Saux; Claudine Gleyzal; Pascal Sommer; Katalin Csiszar

2000-01-01

164

Features and applications of bilirubin oxidases.  

PubMed

Discovered in 1981 by Tanaka and Murao (Agric Biol Chem 45:2383-2384, 1981), bilirubin oxidase (BOD) is a sub-group of multicopper oxidases (MCOs) also utilizing four Cu(+/2+) ions. It catalyzes the oxidation of bilirubin to biliverdin, hence the classification of bilirubin oxidase, and has been primarily used in the determination of bilirubin in serum and thereby in the diagnostic of jaundice. Unlike laccases, the most studied MCOs, BODs display a high activity and stability at neutral pH, a high tolerance towards chloride anions and other chelators, and for some species, a high thermal tolerance. Therefore, BODs could potentially be an alternative to laccase which are so far mainly restricted to applications in acid media. Because of growing interest in BODs for numerous applications under mild pH conditions, based on the number of patents and publications published in the last 5 years, here I will summarize the available data on the biochemical properties of BODs, their occurrence, and their possible biotechnological use in (1) the field of Healthcare for the elaboration of biofuel cells or bilirubin sensors or (2) the field of environmentally desirable applications such as depollution, decolorization of dyes, and pulp bleaching. PMID:22878843

Mano, Nicolas

2012-10-01

165

[Effect of four mutations (Cr,S,S(H),h) in genes for mink coat color on brain monoamine oxidase].  

PubMed

Activity of A and B types of monoamine oxidase (MAO) has been investigated in the brain stem and brain hemispheres of mink males of five genotypes for coat-color mutations: standard dark-brown (+/+); heterozygous for the semidominant mutation Black crystal (Cr/+); homozygous for the semidominant mutation Black cross, or "95% White" (S/S); heterozygous for the semidominant mutation Shadow (SH/+); and homozygous for the semirecessive mutation hedlum white (h/h). The main changes in the activity of the A and B MAO types occur in the brain hemispheres. A reduced activity of MAO A has been recorded in the hemispheres of Black crystal minks (Cr/+) and an elevated activity, in the hemispheres of Shadow (SH/+) and 95% White (S/S). The activity of MAO B is reduced in the hemispheres of Black crystal and elevated in the hemispheres of hedlum white (h/h). An increased MAO A activity has also been recorded in the brain stem of Shadow minks (SH/+). It is suggested that genes controlling coat color have a pleiotropic effect on sexual behavior in males and the endocrine function of testicles mediated by a putative change in the metabolism of brain neurotransmitters, substrates of MAOs A and B. PMID:11436555

Vo?tenko, N N; Trapezov, O V

2001-05-01

166

D-amino acid oxidase gene therapy sensitizes glioma cells to the antiglycolytic effect of 3-bromopyruvate.  

PubMed

Glioma tumors are refractory to conventional treatment. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive type of primary brain tumors in humans. In this study, we introduce oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy as a new suggested treatment for glioblastoma. OSED utilizes D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), which is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress and apoptosis through generating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). OSED combines DAO with 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a hexokinase II (HK II) inhibitor that interferes with Warburg effect, a metabolic alteration of most tumor cells that is characterized by enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Our data revealed that 3BP induced depletion of energetic capabilities of glioma cells. 3BP induced H2O2 production as a novel mechanism of its action. C6 glioma transfected with DAO and treated with D-serine together with 3BP-sensitized glioma cells to 3BP and decreased markedly proliferation, clonogenic power and viability in a three-dimensional tumor model with lesser effect on normal astrocytes. DAO gene therapy using atelocollagen as an in vivo transfection agent proved effective in a glioma tumor model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, especially after combination with 3BP. OSED treatment was safe and tolerable in SD rats. OSED therapy may be a promising therapeutic modality for glioma. PMID:21921941

El Sayed, S M; Abou El-Magd, R M; Shishido, Y; Chung, S P; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

2012-01-01

167

Finding New Enzymes from Bacterial Physiology: A Successful Approach Illustrated by the Detection of Novel Oxidases in Marinomonas mediterranea  

PubMed Central

The identification and study of marine microorganisms with unique physiological traits can be a very powerful tool discovering novel enzymes of possible biotechnological interest. This approach can complement the enormous amount of data concerning gene diversity in marine environments offered by metagenomic analysis, and can help to place the activities associated with those sequences in the context of microbial cellular metabolism and physiology. Accordingly, the detection and isolation of microorganisms that may be a good source of enzymes is of great importance. Marinomonas mediterranea, for example, has proven to be one such useful microorganism. This Gram-negative marine bacterium was first selected because of the unusually high amounts of melanins synthesized in media containing the amino acid l-tyrosine. The study of its molecular biology has allowed the cloning of several genes encoding oxidases of biotechnological interest, particularly in white and red biotechnology. Characterization of the operon encoding the tyrosinase responsible for melanin synthesis revealed that a second gene in that operon encodes a protein, PpoB2, which is involved in copper transfer to tyrosinase. This finding made PpoB2 the first protein in the COG5486 group to which a physiological role has been assigned. Another enzyme of interest described in M. mediterranea is a multicopper oxidase encoding a membrane-associated enzyme that shows oxidative activity on a wide range of substrates typical of both laccases and tyrosinases. Finally, an enzyme very specific for l-lysine, which oxidises this amino acid in epsilon position and that has received a new EC number (1.4.3.20), has also been described for M. mediterranea. Overall, the studies carried out on this bacterium illustrate the power of exploring the physiology of selected microorganisms to discover novel enzymes of biotechnological relevance. PMID:20411113

Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Solano, Francisco; Lucas-Elio, Patricia

2010-01-01

168

Reconstructing Mammalian Phylogenies: A Detailed Comparison of the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I Mitochondrial Genes  

PubMed Central

The phylogeny and taxonomy of mammalian species were originally based upon shared or derived morphological characteristics. However, genetic analyses have more recently played an increasingly important role in confirming existing or establishing often radically different mammalian groupings and phylogenies. The two most commonly used genetic loci in species identification are the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) and the cytochrome b gene (cyt b). For the first time this study provides a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of these two loci in reconstructing the phylogeny of mammals at different levels of the taxonomic hierarchy in order to provide a basis for standardizing methodologies in the future. Interspecific and intraspecific variation is assessed and for the first time, to our knowledge, statistical confidence is applied to sequence comparisons. Comparison of the DNA sequences of 217 mammalian species reveals that cyt b more accurately reconstructs their phylogeny and known relationships between species based on other molecular and morphological analyses at Super Order, Order, Family and generic levels. Cyt b correctly assigned 95.85% of mammal species to Super Order, 94.31% to Order and 98.16% to Family compared to 78.34%, 93.36% and 96.93% respectively for COI. Cyt b also gives better resolution when separating species based on sequence data. Using a Kimura 2-parameter p-distance (x100) threshold of 1.5–2.5, cyt b gives a better resolution for separating species with a lower false positive rate and higher positive predictive value than those of COI. PMID:21152400

Tobe, Shanan S.; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Linacre, Adrian M. T.

2010-01-01

169

No evidence for allelic association between bipolar disorder and monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested the hypothesis that DNA markers in the MAOA gene show allelic association with bipolar affective disorder. Eighty-four unrelated Caucasian patients with DSM III-R bipolar disorder and 84 Caucasian controls were typed for three markers in MAOA: a dinucleotide repeat in intron 2, a VNTR in intron 1, and an Fnu4HI RFLP in exon 8. No evidence for

Nick Craddock; Johanna Daniels; Enriqueta Roberts; Mark Rees; Peter McGuffin; Michael J. Owen

1995-01-01

170

A case-control study of rheumatoid arthritis identifies an associated single nucleotide polymorphism in the NCF4 gene, supporting a role for the NADPH-oxidase complex in autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a heritability of 60%. Genetic contributions to RA are made by multiple genes, but only a few gene associations have yet been confirmed. By studying animal models, reduced capacity of the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) complex, caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in one of its components (the NCF1 gene), has been

Lina M Olsson; Anna-Karin Lindqvist; Henrik Källberg; Leonid Padyukov; Harald Burkhardt; Lars Alfredsson; Lars Klareskog; Rikard Holmdahl

2007-01-01

171

Isolation and transcript analysis of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes in pea and bean in relation to fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR was used with degenerate primers based on conserved amino acid sequences in gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidases to isolate cDNA clones for these enzymes from young seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and developing embryos of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). One GA 20-oxidase cDNA (Ps27-12) was obtained from pea and three (Pv15-11, Pv73-1 and Pv85-26) from bean. Their identities were confirmed by

Isabel López-Diaz; María J. Sánchez-Beltrán; Andrew L. Phillips; Dennis A. Ward; Paul Gaskin; Peter Hedden

1997-01-01

172

Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato  

SciTech Connect

Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-05-01

173

Gibberellin 3-oxidase gene expression patterns influence gibberellin biosynthesis, growth, and development in pea.  

PubMed

Gibberellins (GAs) are key modulators of plant growth and development. PsGA3ox1 (LE) encodes a GA 3?-hydroxylase that catalyzes the conversion of GA20 to biologically active GA1. To further clarify the role of GA3ox expression during pea (Pisum sativum) plant growth and development, we generated transgenic pea lines (in a lele background) with cauliflower mosaic virus-35S-driven expression of PsGA3ox1 (LE). PsGA3ox1 transgene expression led to higher GA1 concentrations in a tissue-specific and development-specific manner, altering GA biosynthesis and catabolism gene expression and plant phenotype. PsGA3ox1 transgenic plants had longer internodes, tendrils, and fruits, larger stipules, and displayed delayed flowering, increased apical meristem life, and altered vascular development relative to the null controls. Transgenic PsGA3ox1 overexpression lines were then compared with lines where endogenous PsGA3ox1 (LE) was introduced, by a series of backcrosses, into the same genetic background (BC LEle). Most notably, the BC LEle plants had substantially longer internodes containing much greater GA1 levels than the transgenic PsGA3ox1 plants. Induction of expression of the GA deactivation gene PsGA2ox1 appears to make an important contribution to limiting the increase of internode GA1 to modest levels for the transgenic lines. In contrast, PsGA3ox1 (LE) expression driven by its endogenous promoter was coordinated within the internode tissue to avoid feed-forward regulation of PsGA2ox1, resulting in much greater GA1 accumulation. These studies further our fundamental understanding of the regulation of GA biosynthesis and catabolism at the tissue and organ level and demonstrate that the timing/localization of GA3ox expression within an organ affects both GA homeostasis and GA1 levels, and thereby growth. PMID:23979969

Reinecke, Dennis M; Wickramarathna, Aruna D; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Kurepin, Leonid V; Jin, Alena L; Good, Allen G; Pharis, Richard P

2013-10-01

174

Cloning and expression analysis of the Ccrboh gene encoding respiratory burst oxidase in Citrullus colocynthis and grafting onto Citrullus lanatus (watermelon).  

PubMed

A full-length drought-responsive gene Ccrboh, encoding the respiratory burst oxidase homologue (rboh), was cloned in Citrullus colocynthis, a very drought-tolerant cucurbit species. The robh protein, also named NADPH oxidase, is conserved in plants and animals, and functions in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The Ccrboh gene accumulated in a tissue-specific pattern when C. colocynthis was treated with PEG, abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), or NaCl, while the homologous rboh gene did not show any change in C. lanatus var. lanatus, cultivated watermelon, during drought. Grafting experiments were conducted using C. colocynthis or C. lanatus as the rootstock or scion. Results showed that the rootstock significantly affects gene expression in the scion, and some signals might be transported from the root to the shoot. Ccrboh in C. colocynthis was found to function early during plant development, reaching high mRNA transcript levels 3 d after germination. The subcellular location of Ccrboh was investigated by transient expression of the 35S::Ccrboh::GFP fusion construct in protoplasts. The result confirmed that Ccrboh is a transmembrane protein. Our data suggest that Ccrboh might be functionally important during the acclimation of plants to stress and also in plant development. It holds great promise for improving drought tolerance of other cucurbit species. PMID:20181664

Si, Ying; Dane, Fenny; Rashotte, Aaron; Kang, Kwonkyoo; Singh, Narendra K

2010-06-01

175

Isolation and Purification of Pyranose 2-Oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Characterization of Gene Structure and Regulation  

PubMed Central

Pyranose 2-oxidase (POX) was recovered from Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 solid substrate culture using mild extraction conditions and was purified. 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed production of d-arabino-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone) from d-glucose with the oxidase. Peptide fingerprints generated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic digests and analysis of the corresponding cDNA revealed a structurally unusual sequence for the P. chrysosporium POX. Relatively high levels of pox transcript were detected under carbon-starved culture conditions but not under nutrient sufficiency. This regulation pattern is similar to that observed for lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases, and glyoxal oxidase of P. chrysosporium, supporting evidence that POX has a role in lignocellulose degradation. PMID:15466516

de Koker, Theodorus H.; Mozuch, Michael D.; Cullen, Daniel; Gaskell, Jill; Kersten, Philip J.

2004-01-01

176

The sense and antisense expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase gene ( rga5 ) in rice and its effects on GA 1 level and agronomic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gibberellin 20-oxidase generga5 was isolated by PCR from genomic DNA of rice (Oryza sativa ssp indica) cultivars ‘Aizizhan’ and ‘Nante’. Compared with the reported OsGA20ox, therga5 was partial-frame-shifted with 11 different amino acids. Then therga5 with CaMV 35S promotor and NOS terminator was inserted into the polylinker site of pCambia1301 to construct sense and antisense\\u000a gene expressing vectors pSrga5

Yuanxin Yan; Chengcai An; Li Li; Jiayu Gu; Lijiang Wang; Shuangli Mi; Zhangliang Chen

2003-01-01

177

The Menkes/Wilson disease gene homologue in yeast provides copper to a ceruloplasmin-like oxidase required for iron uptake.  

PubMed Central

The CCC2 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is homologous to the human genes defective in Wilson disease and Menkes disease. A biochemical hallmark of these diseases is a deficiency of copper in ceruloplasmin and other copper proteins found in extracytosolic compartments. Here we demonstrate that disruption of the yeast CCC2 gene results in defects in respiration and iron uptake. These defects could be reversed by supplementing cells with copper, suggesting that CCC2 mutant cells were copper deficient. However, cytosolic copper levels and copper uptake were normal. Instead, CCC2 mutant cells lacked a copper-dependent oxidase activity associated with the extracytosolic domain of the FET3-encoded protein, a ceruloplasmin homologue previously shown to be necessary for high-affinity iron uptake in yeast. Copper restored oxidase activity both in vitro and in vivo, paralleling the ability of copper to restore respiration and iron uptake. These results suggest that the CCC2-encoded protein is required for the export of copper from the cytosol into an extracytosolic compartment, supporting the proposal that intracellular copper transport is impaired in Wilson disease and Menkes disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7708696

Yuan, D S; Stearman, R; Dancis, A; Dunn, T; Beeler, T; Klausner, R D

1995-01-01

178

Tumor necrosis factor alpha activates transcription of the NADPH oxidase organizer 1 (NOXO1) gene and upregulates superoxide production in colon epithelial cells.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) is a multicomponent enzyme consisting of p22(phox), Nox organizer 1 (NOXO1), Nox1 activator 1, and Rac1. Interleukin-1beta, flagellin, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) similarly induced Nox1 in a colon cancer cell line (T84), whereas only TNF-alpha fully induced NOXO1 and upregulated superoxide-producing activity by ninefold. This upregulation was canceled by knockdown of NOXO1 with small interfering RNAs. TNF-alpha rapidly phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, followed by phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos and appearance of an AP-1 binding activity within 30 min. We cloned the 5' flank of the human NOXO1 gene (-3888 to +263 bp), and found that the region between -585 and -452 bp, which contains consensus elements of YY-1, AP-1, and Ets, and the GC-rich region encoding three putative binding sites for SP-1, was crucial for TNF-alpha-dependent promoter activity. Serial mutation analysis of the elements identified an AP-1 binding site (from -561 to -551 bp, agtAAGtcatg) as a crucial element for TNF-alpha-stimulated transcription of the human NOXO1 gene, which was also confirmed by the AP-1 decoy experiments. Thus, TNF-alpha acts as a potent activator of Nox1-based oxidase in colon epithelial cells, suggesting a potential role of this oxidase in inflammation of the colon. PMID:18929641

Kuwano, Yuki; Tominaga, Kumiko; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Sasaki, Hidekazu; Takeo, Keiko; Nishida, Kensei; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Tomoko; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Rokutan, Kazuhito

2008-12-15

179

A plant homolog of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase gp91phox subunit gene encodes a plasma membrane protein with Ca2+ binding motifs.  

PubMed Central

Rapid generation of O2- and H2O2, which is reminiscent of the oxidative burst in neutrophils, is a central component of the resistance response of plants to pathogen challenge. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis rbohA (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog A) gene encodes a putative 108-kD protein, with a C-terminal region that shows pronounced similarity to the 69-kD apoprotein of the gp91phox subunit of the neutrophil respiratory burst NADPH oxidase. The RbohA protein has a large hydrophilic N-terminal domain that is not present in gp91phox. This domain contains two Ca2+ binding EF hand motifs and has extended similarity to the human RanGTPase-activating protein 1. rbohA, which is a member of a divergent gene family, generates transcripts of 3.6 and 4.0 kb that differ only in their polyadenylation sites. rbohA transcripts are most abundant in roots, with weaker expression in aerial organs and seedlings. Antibodies raised against a peptide near the RbohA C terminus detected a 105-kD protein that, unlike gp91phox, does not appear to be highly glycosylated. Cell fractionation, two-phase partitioning, and detergent extraction indicate that RbohA is an intrinsic plasma membrane protein. We propose that plants have a plasma membrane enzyme similar to the neutrophil NADPH oxidase but with novel potential regulatory mechanisms for Ca2+ and G protein stimulation of O2- and H2O2 production at the cell surface. PMID:9490748

Keller, T; Damude, H G; Werner, D; Doerner, P; Dixon, R A; Lamb, C

1998-01-01

180

Oxygen Reactivity of Both Respiratory Oxidases in Campylobacter jejuni: the cydAB Genes Encode a Cyanide-Resistant, Low-Affinity Oxidase That Is Not of the Cytochrome bd Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microaerophilic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is a significant food-borne pathogen and is predicted to possess two terminal respiratory oxidases with unknown properties. Inspection of the genome reveals an operon (cydAB) apparently encoding a cytochrome bd-like oxidase homologous to oxidases in Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. However, C. jejuni cells lacked all spectral signals characteristic of the high-spin hemes b and

Rachel J. Jackson; Karen T. Elvers; Lucy J. Lee; Mark D. Gidley; Laura M. Wainwright; James Lightfoot; Simon F. Park; Robert K. Poole

2007-01-01

181

Dominant Role of the cbb3 Oxidase in Regulation of Photosynthesis Gene Expression through the PrrBA System in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 26 March 2007\\/Accepted 24 May 2007 In this study, the H303A mutant form of the cbb3 oxidase (H303A oxidase), which has the H303A mutation in its catalytic subunit (CcoN), was purified from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The H303A oxidase showed the same catalytic activity as did the wild-type form of the oxidase (WT oxidase). The heme contents of the mutant and

Yong-Jin Kim; In-Jeong Ko; Jin-Mok Lee; Ho-Young Kang; Young Min Kim; Samuel Kaplan; Jeong-Il Oh

2007-01-01

182

Evidence for Lateral Transfer of Genes Encoding Ferredoxins, Nitroreductases, NADH Oxidase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 from Anaerobic Prokaryotes to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are amitochondriate, microaerophilic protists which use fermentation enzymes like those of bacteria to survive anaerobic conditions within the intestinal lumen. Genes encoding fermentation enzymes and related electron transport peptides (e.g., ferredoxins) in giardia organisms and amebae are hypothesized to be derived from either an ancient anaerobic eukaryote (amitochondriate fossil hypothesis), a mitochondrial endosymbiont (hydrogen hypothesis), or anaerobic bacteria (lateral transfer hypothesis). The goals here were to complete the molecular characterization of giardial and amebic fermentation enzymes and to determine the origins of the genes encoding them, when possible. A putative giardia [2Fe-2S]ferredoxin which had a hypothetical organelle-targeting sequence at its N terminus showed similarity to mitochondrial ferredoxins and the hydrogenosomal ferredoxin of Trichomonas vaginalis (another luminal protist). However, phylogenetic trees were star shaped, with weak bootstrap support, so we were unable to confirm or rule out the endosymbiotic origin of the giardia [2Fe-2S]ferredoxin gene. Putative giardial and amebic 6-kDa ferredoxins, ferredoxin-nitroreductase fusion proteins, and oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases each tentatively supported the lateral transfer hypothesis. Although there were not enough sequences to perform meaningful phylogenetic analyses, the unique common occurrence of these peptides and enzymes in giardia organisms, amebae, and the few anaerobic prokaryotes suggests the possibility of lateral transfer. In contrast, there was more robust phylogenetic evidence for the lateral transfer of G. lamblia genes encoding an NADH oxidase from a gram-positive coccus and a microbial group 3 alcohol dehydrogenase from thermoanaerobic prokaryotes. In further support of lateral transfer, the G. lamblia NADH oxidase and adh3 genes appeared to have an evolutionary history distinct from those of E. histolytica. PMID:12455953

Nixon, Julie E. J.; Wang, Amy; Field, Jessica; Morrison, Hilary G.; McArthur, Andrew G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Loftus, Brendan J.; Samuelson, John

2002-01-01

183

Novel Point Mutations and A8027G Polymorphism in Mitochondrial-DNA-Encoded Cytochrome c Oxidase II Gene in Mexican Patients with Probable Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been thought to contribute to Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis through the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations and net production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase plays a key role in the regulation of aerobic production of energy and is composed of 13 subunits. The 3 largest subunits (I, II, and III) forming the catalytic core are encoded by mitochondrial DNA. The aim of this work was to look for mutations in mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase gene II (MTCO II) in blood samples from probable AD Mexican patients. MTCO II gene was sequenced in 33 patients with diagnosis of probable AD. Four patients (12%) harbored the A8027G polymorphism and three of them were early onset (EO) AD cases with familial history of the disease. In addition, other four patients with EOAD had only one of the following point mutations: A8003C, T8082C, C8201T, or G7603A. Neither of the point mutations found in this work has been described previously for AD patients, and the A8027G polymorphism has been described previously; however, it hasn't been related to AD. We will need further investigation to demonstrate the role of the point mutations of mitochondrial DNA in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24701363

Loera-Castaneda, Veronica; Sandoval-Ramirez, Lucila; Pacheco Moises, Fermin Paul; Macias-Islas, Miguel Angel; Alatorre Jimenez, Moises Alejandro; Gonzalez-Renovato, Erika Daniela; Cortes-Enriquez, Fernando; Celis de la Rosa, Alfredo; Velazquez-Brizuela, Irma E.

2014-01-01

184

Family-based association study between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene promoter VNTR polymorphism and Tourette's syndrome in Chinese Han population.  

PubMed

To clarify the association of monoamine oxidase A- variable number of tandem repeat (MAOA-pVNTR) with susceptibility to Tourette's syndrome (TS) in Chinese Han population we discuss the genetic contribution of MAOA-VNTR in 141 TS patients including all their parents in Chinese Han population using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) design. Our results revealed that no significant association was found in the MAOA gene promoter VNTR polymorphism and TS in Chinese Han population (TDT = 1.515, df = 1, p > 0.05). The negative result may be mainly due to the small sample size, but we don't deny the role of gene coding serotonergic or monoaminergic structures in the etiology of TS. PMID:24422758

Liu, Shiguo; Wang, Xueqin; Xu, Longqiang; Zheng, Lanlan; Ge, Yinlin; Ma, Xu

2015-02-01

185

The polyphenol oxidase gene family in poplar: phylogeny, differential expression and identification of a novel, vacuolar isoform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are oxidative enzymes that convert monophenols and o-diphenols to o-quinones using molecular oxygen. The quinone products are highly reactive following tissue damage and can interact with cellular\\u000a constituents and cause oxidative browning and cross-linking. The induction of PPO in some plants as a result of wounding,\\u000a herbivore attack, or pathogen infection has implicated them in defense. However,

Lan T. Tran; C. Peter Constabel

186

D-amino acid oxidase gene therapy sensitizes glioma cells to the antiglycolytic effect of 3-bromopyruvate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glioma tumors are refractory to conventional treatment. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive type of primary brain tumors in humans. In this study, we introduce oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy as a new suggested treatment for glioblastoma. OSED utilizes D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), which is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress and apoptosis through generating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

S M El Sayed; R M Abou El-Magd; Y Shishido; S P Chung; T Sakai; H Watanabe; S Kagami; K Fukui

2012-01-01

187

Oxygen reactivity of both respiratory oxidases in Campylobacter jejuni: the cydAB genes encode a cyanide-resistant, low-affinity oxidase that is not of the cytochrome bd type.  

PubMed

The microaerophilic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is a significant food-borne pathogen and is predicted to possess two terminal respiratory oxidases with unknown properties. Inspection of the genome reveals an operon (cydAB) apparently encoding a cytochrome bd-like oxidase homologous to oxidases in Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. However, C. jejuni cells lacked all spectral signals characteristic of the high-spin hemes b and d of these oxidases. Mutation of the cydAB operon of C. jejuni did not have a significant effect on growth, but the mutation reduced formate respiration and the viability of cells cultured in 5% oxygen. Since cyanide resistance of respiration was diminished in the mutant, we propose that C. jejuni CydAB be renamed CioAB (cyanide-insensitive oxidase), as in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We measured the oxygen affinity of each oxidase, using a highly sensitive assay that exploits globin deoxygenation during respiration-catalyzed oxygen uptake. The CioAB-type oxidase exhibited a relatively low affinity for oxygen (K(m) = 0.8 microM) and a V(max) of >20 nmol/mg/s. Expression of cioAB was elevated fivefold in cells grown at higher rates of oxygen provision. The alternative, ccoNOQP-encoded cyanide-sensitive oxidase, expected to encode a cytochrome cb'-type enzyme, plays a major role in the microaerobic respiration of C. jejuni, since it appeared to be essential for viability and exhibited a much higher oxygen affinity, with a K(m) value of 40 nM and a V(max) of 6 to 9 nmol/mg/s. Low-temperature photodissociation spectrophotometry revealed that neither oxidase has ligand-binding activity typical of the heme-copper oxidase family. These data are consistent with cytochrome oxidation during photolysis at low temperatures. PMID:17172349

Jackson, Rachel J; Elvers, Karen T; Lee, Lucy J; Gidley, Mark D; Wainwright, Laura M; Lightfoot, James; Park, Simon F; Poole, Robert K

2007-03-01

188

Oxygen Reactivity of Both Respiratory Oxidases in Campylobacter jejuni: the cydAB Genes Encode a Cyanide-Resistant, Low-Affinity Oxidase That Is Not of the Cytochrome bd Type?  

PubMed Central

The microaerophilic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is a significant food-borne pathogen and is predicted to possess two terminal respiratory oxidases with unknown properties. Inspection of the genome reveals an operon (cydAB) apparently encoding a cytochrome bd-like oxidase homologous to oxidases in Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. However, C. jejuni cells lacked all spectral signals characteristic of the high-spin hemes b and d of these oxidases. Mutation of the cydAB operon of C. jejuni did not have a significant effect on growth, but the mutation reduced formate respiration and the viability of cells cultured in 5% oxygen. Since cyanide resistance of respiration was diminished in the mutant, we propose that C. jejuni CydAB be renamed CioAB (cyanide-insensitive oxidase), as in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We measured the oxygen affinity of each oxidase, using a highly sensitive assay that exploits globin deoxygenation during respiration-catalyzed oxygen uptake. The CioAB-type oxidase exhibited a relatively low affinity for oxygen (Km = 0.8 ?M) and a Vmax of >20 nmol/mg/s. Expression of cioAB was elevated fivefold in cells grown at higher rates of oxygen provision. The alternative, ccoNOQP-encoded cyanide-sensitive oxidase, expected to encode a cytochrome cb?-type enzyme, plays a major role in the microaerobic respiration of C. jejuni, since it appeared to be essential for viability and exhibited a much higher oxygen affinity, with a Km value of 40 nM and a Vmax of 6 to 9 nmol/mg/s. Low-temperature photodissociation spectrophotometry revealed that neither oxidase has ligand-binding activity typical of the heme-copper oxidase family. These data are consistent with cytochrome oxidation during photolysis at low temperatures. PMID:17172349

Jackson, Rachel J.; Elvers, Karen T.; Lee, Lucy J.; Gidley, Mark D.; Wainwright, Laura M.; Lightfoot, James; Park, Simon F.; Poole, Robert K.

2007-01-01

189

Structure, Organization, and Transcriptional Regulation of a Family of Copper Radical Oxidase Genes in the Lignin-Degrading Basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

PubMed Central

The white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces an array of nonspecific extracellular enzymes thought to be involved in lignin degradation, including lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases, and the H2O2-generating copper radical oxidase, glyoxal oxidase (GLX). Preliminary analysis of the P. chrysosporium draft genome had identified six sequences with significant similarity to GLX and designated cro1 through cro6. The predicted mature protein sequences diverge substantially from one another, but the residues coordinating copper and constituting the radical redox site are conserved. Transcript profiles, microscopic examination, and lignin analysis of inoculated thin wood sections are consistent with differential regulation as decay advances. The cro2-encoded protein was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in defined medium. The cro2 cDNA was successfully expressed in Aspergillus nidulans under the control of the A. niger glucoamylase promoter and secretion signal. The recombinant CRO2 protein had a substantially different substrate preference than GLX. The role of structurally and functionally diverse cro genes in lignocellulose degradation remains to be established. PMID:16820482

Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Sabat, Grzegorz; Mozuch, Michael; Kersten, Philip J.; Cullen, Dan; Blanchette, Robert A.

2006-01-01

190

Cloning, sequencing, expression, and regulation of the structural gene for the copper/topa quinone-containing methylamine oxidase from Arthrobacter strain P1, a gram-positive facultative methylotroph.  

PubMed Central

Deoxyoligonucleotides corresponding to amino acid sequences of methylamine oxidase and polyclonal anti-methylamine oxidase antibodies were used to probe Arthrobacter strain P1 plasmid and chromosomal DNA libraries. Two open reading frames, maoxI and maoxII, which are greater than 99% homologous, were cloned from the chromosomal library. The deduced amino acid sequences of the coding regions are identical except for two residues near the C termini. On the other hand, the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of maoxI and maoxII are quite different. While either gene could code for methylamine oxidase, the dissimilarity in the 5'-flanking regions indicates that the genes are differently regulated. It was determined that maoxII alone encodes methylamine oxidase. The tyrosyl residue which is converted to topa quinone in the mature enzyme was located by comparison with amino acid sequences at the cofactor sites in other copper/topa quinone-containing amine oxidase. Transcriptional start sites and possible regulatory elements were identified in the 5' region of maoxI and maoxII, and stem-loop structures were found in the 3'-flanking regions. High levels of methylamine oxidase are produced when Arthrobacter strain P1 is grown on methylamine alone or on glucose plus methylamine, but growth on LB medium plus methylamine resulted in very low production of the enzyme. Expression of maoxII from its own promoter in Escherichia coli grown on glucose or LB medium with or without methylamine gave the same level of production of methylamine oxidase. Images PMID:8366046

Zhang, X; Fuller, J H; McIntire, W S

1993-01-01

191

Decreased shoot stature and grain alpha-amylase activity following ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene in transgenic wheat.  

PubMed

Ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene (PcGA2ox1) decreased the content of bioactive gibberellins (GAs) in transgenic wheat, producing a range of dwarf plants with different degrees of severity. In at least one case, a single transformation event gave rise to T(1) plants with different degrees of dwarfism, the phenotypes being stably inherited over at least four generations. The dwarf phenotype, which included dark-green leaves, increased tillering and, in severe cases, a prostrate growth habit, was replicated by the application of a GA biosynthesis inhibitor to the wild type. Ear rachis length, grain set, and grain size were also decreased in the wheat transformants, compared with an azygous (null) line. The extent of post-germination alpha-amylase production in grains reflected the severity of the shoot phenotype of the transformants and both developmental processes were restored to normal by the application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)). Expression of two GA biosynthesis genes (TaGA20ox1 and TaGA3ox2) was up-regulated, and that of two alpha-amylase gene families (alpha-Amy1 and alpha-Amy2) down regulated, in scutella of semi-dwarf lines, compared with controls. The marked decline in transcript abundance of both alpha-amylase gene families in aleurone was associated with a decreased content of bioactive GAs in grains of the semi-dwarf lines. PMID:17916639

Appleford, Nigel E J; Wilkinson, Mark D; Ma, Qian; Evans, Daniel J; Stone, Marlon C; Pearce, Stephen P; Powers, Stephen J; Thomas, Stephen G; Jones, Huw D; Phillips, Andrew L; Hedden, Peter; Lenton, John R

2007-01-01

192

Co-occurrence of the Multicopper Oxidases Tyrosinase and Laccase in Lichens in Sub-order Peltigerineae  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Following previous findings of high extracellular redox activity in lichens and the presence of laccases in lichen cell walls, the work presented here additionally demonstrates the presence of tyrosinases. Tests were made for the presence of tyrosinases in 40 species of lichens, and from selected species their cellular location and molecular weights were determined. The effects of stress and inhibitors on enzyme activity were also studied. • Methods Tyrosinase and laccase activities were assayed spectrophotometrically using a variety of substrates. The molecular mass of the enzymes was estimated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. • Key Results Extracellular tyrosinase and laccase activity was measured in 40 species of lichens from different taxonomic groupings and contrasting habitats. Out of 20 species tested from the sub-order Peltigerineae, all displayed significant tyrosinase and laccase activity, while activity was low or absent in other species tested. Representatives from both groups of lichens displayed low peroxidase activities. Identification of the enzymes as tyrosinases was confirmed by the ability of lichen thalli or leachates derived by shaking lichens in distilled water to metabolize substrates such as l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), tyrosine and epinephrine readily in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, the sensitivity of the enzymes to the inhibitors cyanide, azide and hexylresorcinol, activation by SDS and having typical tyrosinase molecular masses of approx. 60?kDa. Comparing different species within the Peltigerineae showed that the activities of tyrosinases and laccase were correlated to each other. Desiccation and wounding stimulated laccase activity, while only wounding stimulated tyrosinase activity. • Conclusions Cell walls of lichens in sub-order Peltigerineae have much higher activities and a greater diversity of cell wall redox enzymes compared with other lichens. Possible roles of tyrosinases include melanization, removal of toxic phenols or quinones, and production of herbivore deterrents. PMID:16950829

LAUFER, ZSANETT; BECKETT, RICHARD P.; MINIBAYEVA, FARIDA V.

2006-01-01

193

Population structure of the Monocelis lineata (Proseriata, Monocelididae) species complex assessed by phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene  

PubMed Central

Monocelis lineata consists of a complex of sibling species, widespread in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean. Previous genetic analysis placed in evidence at least four sibling species. Nevertheless, this research was not conclusive enough to fully resolve the complex or to infer the phylogeny/phylogeography of the group. We designed specific primers aiming at obtaining partial sequences of the mtDNA gene Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) of M. lineata, and have identified 25 different haplotypes in 32 analyzed individuals. The dendrogram generated by Neighbor-Joining analysis confirmed the differentiation between Atlantic and Mediterranean siblings, as well as the occurrence of at least two Mediterranean sibling species. Thus validated, the method here presented appears as a valuable tool in population genetics and biodiversity surveys on the Monocelis lineata complex. PMID:21637466

2009-01-01

194

[Genetic variation and differentiation of wood mice from the genus Sylvaemus inferred from sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene fragment].  

PubMed

To ascertain intra- and interspecific differentiation patterns of some Sylvaemus wood mice species (S. uralensis, S. sylvaticus, S. ponticus, S. flavicollis, and S. fulvipectus), sequence variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) fragment (654 bp) was analyzed and the data obtained using several molecular genetic markers were compared. Distinct isolation of all Sylvaemus species (including closely related allopatric S. flavicollis and S. ponticus), as well as of the European and Asian races of pygmy wood mouse S. uralensis at the COI gene was demonstrated. However, genetic differences of the Sylvaemus species were 1.5 times and more higher than the distance (D) between the races of S. uralenciis. This finding provides no ample grounds to treat the latter as the independent species. The only specimen of Pamir-Alay subspecies S. uralensis pallipes examined showed closest relatedness to to the Asian race, although was rather distant from it (D = 0.038). No reliable isolation of the eastern European and southern European chromosomal forms, representing the European race of S. uralensis, as well as of their presumptive hybrids from the outskirts of the city of Sal'sk, Rostov region, at the COI gene was revealed. A hybrid origin of the populations of pygmy wood mouse from the outskirts of the Talapker railway station, Novovarshavsky district, Omsk region, was confirmed. In preliminary studies, based on karyotypic characters, these populations were diagnosed as distant hybrids of the eastern European chromosomal form and the Asian race. In yellow-necked wood mouse S. flavicollis from the territory of Russia and Ukraine, weak differentiation into northern and southern lineages (with mean genetic distance between them of 0.020) was observed. Considerably different relative genetic distances between the races of S. uralensis and the S. flavicollis--S. ponticus species pair, inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and cytochrome b gene data, indicated that the rates of evolution of different mitochondrial genome regions could be very different. It is suggested that transformations of the cytochrome b gene, or at least its part, were irregular in time and/or in different phyletic lineages (i.e., accelerated upon the formation of pygmy wood mouse races, and delayed upon the establishment of S. flavicollis and S. ponticus). PMID:22568000

Bogdanov, A S; Stakheev, V V; Zykov, A E; Iakimenko, V V; Mal'kova, M G

2012-02-01

195

The origin of the Tibetan Mastiff and species identification of Canis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and COI barcoding.  

PubMed

DNA barcoding is an effective technique to identify species and analyze phylogenesis and evolution. However, research on and application of DNA barcoding in Canis have not been carried out. In this study, we analyzed two species of Canis, Canis lupus (n = 115) and Canis latrans (n = 4), using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (1545 bp) and COI barcoding (648 bp DNA sequence of the COI gene). The results showed that the COI gene, as the moderate variant sequence, applied to the analysis of the phylogenesis of Canis members, and COI barcoding applied to species identification of Canis members. Phylogenetic trees and networks showed that domestic dogs had four maternal origins (A to D) and that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from Clade A; this result supports the theory of an East Asian origin of domestic dogs. Clustering analysis and networking revealed the presence of a closer relative between the Tibetan Mastiff and the Old English sheepdog, Newfoundland, Rottweiler and Saint Bernard, which confirms that many well-known large breed dogs in the world, such as the Old English sheepdog, may have the same blood lineage as that of the Tibetan Mastiff. PMID:22440462

Li, Y; Zhao, X; Pan, Z; Xie, Z; Liu, H; Xu, Y; Li, Q

2011-12-01

196

Group I introns in the liverwort mitochondrial genome: the gene coding for subunit 1 of cytochrome oxidase shares five intron positions with its fungal counterparts.  

PubMed Central

The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, contains thirty-two introns. Twenty-five of these introns possess the characteristic secondary structures and consensus sequences of group II introns. The remaining seven are group I introns, six of which happen to interrupt the gene coding for subunit 1 of cytochrome oxidase (cox1). Interestingly, the insertion sites of one group II and four group I introns in the cox1 gene coincide with those of the respective fungal mitochondrial interns. Moreover, comparison of the four group I introns with their fungal counterparts shows that group I introns inserted at identical genomic sites in different organisms are indeed related to one another, in terms of the peptide sequences generated from the complete or fragmental ORFs encoded by these introns. At the same time, the liverwort introns turned out to be more divergent from their fungal cognates than the latter are from one another. We therefore conclude that vertical transmission from a common ancestor organism is the simplest explanation for the presence of cognate introns in liverwort and fungal mitochondrial genomes. PMID:7681945

Ohta, E; Oda, K; Yamato, K; Nakamura, Y; Takemura, M; Nozato, N; Akashi, K; Ohyama, K; Michel, F

1993-01-01

197

Over-expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene from Phaseolus coccineus L. enhances gibberellin inactivation and induces dwarfism in Solanum species.  

PubMed

Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play a predominant role in regulating plant stature by increasing cell division and elongation in stem internodes. The product of the GA 2-oxidase gene from Phaseolus coccineus (PcGA2ox1) inactivates C(19)-GAs, including the bioactive GAs GA(1 )and GA(4), by 2beta-hydroxylation, reducing the availability of these GAs in plants. The PcGA2ox1 gene was introduced into Solanum melanocerasum and S. nigrum (Solanaceae) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the aim of decreasing the amounts of bioactive GA in these plants and thereby reducing their stature. The transgenic plants exhibited a range of dwarf phenotypes associated with a severe reduction in the concentrations of the biologically active GA(1) and GA(4). Flowering and fruit development were unaffected. The transgenic plants contained greater concentrations of chlorophyll b (by 88%) and total chlorophyll (11%), although chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents were reduced by 8 and 50%, respectively. This approach may provide an alternative to the application of chemical growth retardants for reducing the stature of plants, particularly ornamentals, in view of concerns over the potential environmental and health hazards of such compounds. PMID:17999064

Dijkstra, C; Adams, E; Bhattacharya, A; Page, A F; Anthony, P; Kourmpetli, S; Power, J B; Lowe, K C; Thomas, S G; Hedden, P; Phillips, A L; Davey, M R

2008-03-01

198

Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene sequence analysis in six flatfish species (Teleostei, Pleuronectidae) of Far East Russia with inferences in phylogeny and taxonomy.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA at the cytochrome oxidase 1 (Co-1) gene region was sequenced for six flatfish species (in total, 11 sequences of at least 539 base pairs) from the Far East of Russia and compared with other sequences of Pleuronectiformes, comprising altogether 26 flatfish sequences and two outgroup sequences (Perciformes). An analysis of the protein-coding Co-1 gene revealed a statistically substantiated bias in (T + C):(A + G) content, supporting earlier findings. Average scores of the p-distances for different scales of the evolutionary history at the Co-1 gene revealed a clear pattern of increased nucleotide diversity at four different levels: (1) intraspecies, (2) intragenus, (3) intrafamily, and (4) intra-order. Scores of average p-distances of the four categories of comparison in flatfishes were (1) 0.17 +/- 0.09%, (2) 10.60 +/- 1.57%, (3) 12.40 +/- 0.27%, and (4) 19.93 +/- 0.05%, respectively (mean +/- standard error). These data jointly with current knowledge support the concept that speciation in the order Pleuronectiformes mostly follows a geographic mode through accumulation of numerous small genetic changes over a long period of time. A phylogenetic tree for 26 sequences of flatfishes and two other fishes belonging to ray-finned fishes (Actinopterigii) was developed using the Co-1 gene and four different analytical approaches: neighbour-joining, Bayesian (BA), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood. The analysis revealed a monophyletic origin for the representatives of Pleuronectidae, which is the principal flatfish family investigated (73-100% support level in our MP and BA analyses). According to the current and literary data, the monophyletic origin for the six compared flatfish families was well supported. Species identification on a per-individual basis (barcoding tagging) was high. PMID:19489134

Kartavtsev, Yuri Ph; Sharina, Svetlana N; Goto, Tadasuke; Chichvarkhin, Anton Y; Balanov, Andrey A; Vinnikov, Kirill A; Ivankov, Vyacheslav N; Hanzawa, Naoto

2008-12-01

199

[Comparative analysis of variability of three mitochondrial genes of cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in wild and domestic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  

PubMed

For the first time, we studied the polymorphism of three mitochondrial genes of the cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in natural populations of wild carp living in the Volga, Amur, and Don River Basins, as well as in European Hungarian carp and two pedigree lines of Ropsha carp of domestic breeding. The highest level of nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the studied samples was detected for the cox1 gene (pi = 0.61, h = 100%). Two lines of the Ropsha carp (pi = 0.61, h = 100%) and the Far East population of Amur wild carp from Shershikh strait (Am: pi = 0.20, h = 70%) were the most polymorphic for three genes. The second sample of Amur wild carp from the Amur River (Ac), as well as the samples of Volga and Don wild carp and Hungarian carp had lower values of variability. The presence of two main genealogical lines of the wild carp and carp was demonstrated based on the total sequence of three genes, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequences in the studied area. One of these lines (line I) is typical of the sample of Amur wild carp (Am) and three members of the Ropsha carp. Line II is developed by sequences of Volga, Don, and Amur wild carp (Ac), as well as European Hungarian carp and seven other members of the Ropsha carp. Three to four sublines, which differ in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, were found within the lines. Possible reasons for the origin of genomic variability in wild carp, as well as in European and Russian breeds of carp, are discussed. PMID:23516901

Torgunakova, O A; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K

2012-12-01

200

Potentially novel copper resistance genes in copper-enriched activated sludge revealed by metagenomic analysis.  

PubMed

In this study, we utilized the Illumina high-throughput metagenomic approach to investigate diversity and abundance of both microbial community and copper resistance genes (CuRGs) in activated sludge (AS) which was enriched under copper selective stress up to 800 mg/L. The raw datasets (~3.5 Gb for each sample, i.e., the copper-enriched AS and the control AS) were merged and normalized for the BLAST analyses against the SILVA SSU rRNA gene database and self-constructed copper resistance protein database (CuRD). Also, the raw metagenomic sequences were assembled into contigs and analyzed based on Open Reading Frames (ORFs) to identify potentially novel copper resistance genes. Among the different resistance systems for copper detoxification under the high copper stress condition, the Cus system was the most enriched system. The results also indicated that genes encoding multi-copper oxidase played a more important role than those encoding efflux proteins. More significantly, several potentially novel copper resistance ORFs were identified by Pfam search and phylogenic analysis. This study demonstrated a new understanding of microbial-mediated copper resistance under high copper stress using high-throughput shotgun sequencing technique. PMID:25081552

Li, Li-Guan; Cai, Lin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Zhang, Tong

2014-12-01

201

Identification and genetic characterization of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene that controls tree stature and reproductive growth in plum  

PubMed Central

Several dwarf plum genotypes (Prunus salicina L.), due to deficiency of unknown gibberellin (GA) signalling, were identified. A cDNA encoding GA 2-oxidase (PslGA2ox), the major gibberellin catabolic enzyme in plants, was cloned and used to screen the GA-deficient hybrids. This resulted in the identification of a dwarf plum hybrid, designated as DGO24, that exhibits a markedly elevated PslGA2ox signal. Grafting ‘Early Golden’ (EG), a commercial plum cultivar, on DGO24 (EG/D) enhanced PslGA2ox accumulation in the scion part and generated trees of compact stature. Assessment of active GAs in such trees revealed that DGO24 and EG/D accumulated relatively much lower quantities of main bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA4) than control trees (EG/M). Moreover, the physiological function of PslGA2ox was studied by determining the molecular and developmental consequences due to ectopic expression in Arabidopsis. Among several lines, two groups of homozygous transgenics that exhibited contrasting phenotypes were identified. Group-1 displayed a dwarf growth pattern typical of mutants with a GA deficiency including smaller leaves, shorter stems, and delay in the development of reproductive events. In contrast, Group-2 exhibited a ‘GA overdose’ phenotype as all the plants showed elongated growth, a typical response to GA application, even under limited GA conditions, potentially due to co-suppression of closely related Arabidopsis homologous. The studies reveal the possibility of utilizing PslGA2ox as a marker for developing size-controlling rootstocks in Prunus. PMID:22080981

El-Sharkawy, I.; El Kayal, W.; Prasath, D.; Fernandez, H.; Bouzayen, M.; Svircev, A. M.; Jayasankar, S.

2012-01-01

202

Microbial Oxidation of Arsenite in a Subarctic Environment: Diversity of Arsenite Oxidase Genes and Identification of a Psychrotolerant Arsenite Oxidiser  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is toxic to most living cells. The two soluble inorganic forms of arsenic are arsenite (+3) and arsenate (+5), with arsenite the more toxic. Prokaryotic metabolism of arsenic has been reported in both thermal and moderate environments and has been shown to be involved in the redox cycling of arsenic. No arsenic metabolism (either dissimilatory arsenate reduction or arsenite oxidation) has ever been reported in cold environments (i.e. < 10 C). Our study site is located 512 kilometres south of the Arctic Circle in the Northwest Territories, Canada in an inactive gold mine which contains mine waste water in excess of 50 mM arsenic. Several thousand tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust are stored in underground chambers and microbial biofilms grow on the chamber walls below seepage points rich in arsenite-containing solutions. We compared the arsenite oxidisers in two subsamples (which differed in arsenite concentration) collected from one biofilm. 'Species' (sequence) richness did not differ between subsamples, but the relative importance of the three identifiable clades did. An arsenite-oxidizing bacterium (designated GM1) was isolated, and was shown to oxidise arsenite in the early exponential growth phase and to grow at a broad range of temperatures (4-25 C). Its arsenite oxidase was constitutively expressed and functioned over a broad temperature range. The diversity of arsenite oxidisers does not significantly differ from two subsamples of a microbial biofilm that vary in arsenite concentrations. GM1 is the first psychrotolerant arsenite oxidiser to be isolated with the ability to grow below 10 C. This ability to grow at low temperatures could be harnessed for arsenic bioremediation in moderate to cold climates.

Osborne, T.; Jamieson, H; Hudson-Edwards, K; Nordstrom, D; Walker, S; Ward, S; Santini, J

2010-01-01

203

Microbial oxidation of arsenite in a subarctic environment: diversity of arsenite oxidase genes and identification of a psychrotolerant arsenite oxidiser  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic is toxic to most living cells. The two soluble inorganic forms of arsenic are arsenite (+3) and arsenate (+5), with arsenite the more toxic. Prokaryotic metabolism of arsenic has been reported in both thermal and moderate environments and has been shown to be involved in the redox cycling of arsenic. No arsenic metabolism (either dissimilatory arsenate reduction or arsenite oxidation) has ever been reported in cold environments (i.e. < 10°C). Results Our study site is located 512 kilometres south of the Arctic Circle in the Northwest Territories, Canada in an inactive gold mine which contains mine waste water in excess of 50 mM arsenic. Several thousand tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust are stored in underground chambers and microbial biofilms grow on the chamber walls below seepage points rich in arsenite-containing solutions. We compared the arsenite oxidisers in two subsamples (which differed in arsenite concentration) collected from one biofilm. 'Species' (sequence) richness did not differ between subsamples, but the relative importance of the three identifiable clades did. An arsenite-oxidising bacterium (designated GM1) was isolated, and was shown to oxidise arsenite in the early exponential growth phase and to grow at a broad range of temperatures (4-25°C). Its arsenite oxidase was constitutively expressed and functioned over a broad temperature range. Conclusions The diversity of arsenite oxidisers does not significantly differ from two subsamples of a microbial biofilm that vary in arsenite concentrations. GM1 is the first psychrotolerant arsenite oxidiser to be isolated with the ability to grow below 10°C. This ability to grow at low temperatures could be harnessed for arsenic bioremediation in moderate to cold climates. PMID:20673331

2010-01-01

204

Investigation of association of serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase-A genes with Alzheimer's disease and depression in the VITA study cohort: a 90-month longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression (DE) are common psychiatric disorders strongly intertwined with one another. Nevertheless, etiology and early diagnosis of the disorders are still elusive. Several genetic variations have been suggested to associate with AD and DE, particularly in genes involved in the serotonergic system such as the serotonin transporter (SERT/SLC6A4), responsible for the removal from the synaptic cleft, and the monoamine-oxidase-A (MAOA), responsible for the presynaptic degradation of serotonin. Here, we attempt to characterize this pleiotropic effect for the triallelic SERT gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and for the MAOA-uVNTR, in participants in the Vienna-Transdanube-Aging (VITA)-study. The VITA-study is a community-based longitudinal study following a birth cohort (75 years old at baseline examination, n = 606) from Vienna for a period of 90 months with a regular follow-up interval of 30 months. Our main finding, confirming previous reports, is that the 5HTTLPR S-allele is a risk allele for DE (OR = 1.55 CI 95% 1.03-2.32) and its carriers had a steeper increase in SGDS sum score. No association to AD was found. MAOA-uVNTR did not associate with either AD or DE. However, in AD MAOA-uVNTR S-allele carriers a steeper increase of HAMD and STAI1 sum scores (P < 0.05) was observed. Although the VITA-study cohort is rather small with low power to detect gene alterations, the uniqueness of this very thoroughly investigated and homogenous cohort strengthens the results through exceptional data collection. Still, reinvestigation in a larger cohort similar to this, as well as a meta-analysis, is important to confirm these results. PMID:24443391

Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Jungwirth, Susanne; Danielczyk, Walter; Weber, Heike; Wichart, Ildiko; Tragl, Karl Heinz; Fischer, Peter; Riederer, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen; Grünblatt, Edna

2014-03-01

205

The copper-dependent ACE1 transcription factor activates the transcription of the mco1 gene from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

We have previously identified and functionally characterized the transcription factor ACE1 (Pc-ACE1) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ACE1 activates the copper-dependent transcription of target genes through a DNA sequence element named ACE. However, the possible target gene(s) of Pc-ACE1 were unknown. An in silico search led to the identification of putative ACE elements in the promoter region of mco1, one of the four clustered genes encoding multicopper oxidases (MCOs) in P. chrysosporium. Since copper exerts an effect at the transcriptional level in MCOs from several organisms, in this work we analysed the effect of copper on transcript levels of the clustered MCO genes from P. chrysosporium, with the exception of the transcriptionally inactive mco3. Copper supplementation of cultures produced an increment in transcripts from genes mco1 and mco2, but not from mco4. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays revealed that Pc-ACE1 binds specifically to a probe containing one of the putative ACE elements found in the promoter of mco1. In addition, using a cell-free transcription system, we showed that in the presence of cuprous ion, Pc-ACE1 induces activation of the promoter of mco1, but not that of mco2. PMID:18227253

Canessa, Paulo; Alvarez, José Miguel; Polanco, Rubén; Bull, Paulina; Vicuña, Rafael

2008-02-01

206

A multi-year assessment of the environmental impact of transgenic Eucalyptus trees harboring a bacterial choline oxidase gene on biomass, precinct vegetation and the microbial community.  

PubMed

A 4-year field trial for the salt tolerant Eucalyptus globulus Labill. harboring the choline oxidase (codA) gene derived from the halobacterium Arthrobacter globiformis was conducted to assess the impact of transgenic versus non-transgenic trees on biomass production, the adjacent soil microbial communities and vegetation by monitoring growth parameters, seasonal changes in soil microbes and the allelopathic activity of leaves. Three independently-derived lines of transgenic E. globulus were compared with three independent non-transgenic lines including two elite clones. No significant differences in biomass production were detected between transgenic lines and non-transgenic controls derived from same seed bulk, while differences were seen compared to two elite clones. Significant differences in the number of soil microbes present were also detected at different sampling times but not between transgenic and non-transgenic lines. The allelopathic activity of leaves from both transgenic and non-transgenic lines also varied significantly with sampling time, but the allelopathic activity of leaves from transgenic lines did not differ significantly from those from non-transgenic lines. These results indicate that, for the observed variables, the impact on the environment of codA-transgenic E. globulus did not differ significantly from that of the non-transformed controls on this field trial. PMID:24927812

Oguchi, Taichi; Kashimura, Yuko; Mimura, Makiko; Yu, Xiang; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Nanto, Kazuya; Shimada, Teruhisa; Kikuchi, Akira; Watanabe, Kazuo N

2014-10-01

207

Genetic variation of Gongylonema pulchrum from wild animals and cattle in Japan based on ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes.  

PubMed

The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide, including monkeys and humans. Due to its wide host range, it has been suggested that the worm may be transmitted locally to any mammalian host by chance. To investigate this notion, the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), mainly regions of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2, and a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of mitochondrial DNA of G. pulchrum were characterized using parasites from the following hosts located in Japan: cattle, sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, a feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The rDNA nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum were generally well conserved regardless of their host origin. However, a few insertions/deletions of nucleotides along with a few base substitutions in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions were observed in G. pulchrum from sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques, and those differed from G. pulchrum in cattle, the feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The COI sequences of G. pulchrum were further divided into multiple haplotypes and two groups of haplotypes, i.e. those from a majority of sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques and those from cattle and zoo animals, were clearly differentiated. Our findings indicate that domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles of the gullet worm are currently present, at least in Japan. PMID:22967753

Makouloutou, P; Setsuda, A; Yokoyama, M; Tsuji, T; Saita, E; Torii, H; Kaneshiro, Y; Sasaki, M; Maeda, K; Une, Y; Hasegawa, H; Sato, H

2013-09-01

208

Oxygen-dependent expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4-2 gene expression is mediated by transcription factors RBPJ, CXXC5 and CHCHD2  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the electron transport chain, made up of 13 subunits encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Subunit 4 (COX4), a key regulatory subunit, exists as two isoforms, the ubiquitous isoform 1 and the tissue-specific (predominantly lung) isoform 2 (COX4I2). COX4I2 renders lung COX about 2-fold more active compared with liver COX, which lacks COX4I2. We previously identified a highly conserved 13-bp sequence in the proximal promoter of COX4I2 that functions as an oxygen responsive element (ORE), maximally active at a 4% oxygen concentration. Here, we have identified three transcription factors that bind this conserved ORE, namely recombination signal sequence–binding protein J? (RBPJ), coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain 2 (CHCHD2) and CXXC finger protein 5 (CXXC5). We demonstrate that RBPJ and CHCHD2 function towards activating the ORE at 4% oxygen, whereas CXXC5 functions as an inhibitor. To validate results derived from cultured cells, we show using RNA interference a similar effect of these transcription factors in the gene regulation of COX4I2 in primary pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Depending on the oxygen tension, a concerted action of the three transcription factors regulates the expression of COX4I2 that, as we discuss, could augment both COX activity and its ability to cope with altered cellular energy requirements. PMID:23303788

Aras, Siddhesh; Pak, Oleg; Sommer, Natascha; Finley, Russell; Huttemann, Maik; Weissmann, Norbert; Grossman, Lawrence I.

2013-01-01

209

Genetic structure of the snakehead murrel, Channa striata (channidae) based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene: Influence of historical and geomorphological factors  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide sequences of a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were used to assess the manner in which historical processes and geomorphological effects may have influenced genetic structuring and phylogeographic patterns in Channa striata. Assaying was based on individuals from twelve populations in four river systems, which were separated into two regions, the eastern and western, of the biodiversely rich state of Perak in central Peninsular Malaysia. In 238 specimens, a total of 368-bp sequences with ten polymorphic sites and eleven unique haplotypes were detected. Data on all the twelve populations revealed incomplete divergence due to past historical coalescence and the short period of separation. Nevertheless, SAMOVA and FST revealed geographical structuring existed to a certain extent in both regions. For the eastern region, the data also showed that the upstream populations were genetically significantly different compared to the mid- and downstream ones. It is inferred that physical barriers and historical processes played a dominant role in structuring the genetic dispersal of the species. A further inference is that the Grik, Tanjung Rambutan and Sungkai are potential candidates for conservation and aquaculture programmes since they contained most of the total diversity in this area. PMID:21637559

Jamaluddin, Jamsari Amirul Firdaus; Pau, Tan Min; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor

2011-01-01

210

Amine oxidase copper-containing 1 (AOC1) is a downstream target gene of the Wilms tumor protein, WT1, during kidney development.  

PubMed

Amine oxidase copper-containing 1 (AOC1; formerly known as amiloride-binding protein 1) is a secreted glycoprotein that catalyzes the degradation of putrescine and histamine. Polyamines and their diamine precursor putrescine are ubiquitous to all organisms and fulfill pivotal functions in cell growth and proliferation. Despite the importance of AOC1 in regulating polyamine breakdown, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control its expression. We report here that the Wilms tumor protein, WT1, which is necessary for normal kidney development, activates transcription of the AOC1 gene. Expression of a firefly luciferase reporter under control of the proximal AOC1 promoter was significantly enhanced by co-transfection of a WT1 expression construct. Binding of WT1 protein to a cis-regulatory element in the AOC1 promoter was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Antisense inhibition of WT1 protein translation strongly reduced Aoc1 transcripts in cultured murine embryonic kidneys and gonads. Aoc1 mRNA levels correlated with WT1 protein in several cell lines. Double immunofluorescent staining revealed a co-expression of WT1 and AOC1 proteins in the developing genitourinary system of mice and rats. Strikingly, induced changes in polyamine homeostasis affected branching morphogenesis of cultured murine embryonic kidneys in a developmental stage-specific manner. These findings suggest that WT1-dependent control of polyamine breakdown, which is mediated by changes in AOC1 expression, has a role in kidney organogenesis. PMID:25037221

Kirschner, Karin M; Braun, Julian F W; Jacobi, Charlotte L; Rudigier, Lucas J; Persson, Anja Bondke; Scholz, Holger

2014-08-29

211

Identification, characterization and nutritional regulation of two isoforms of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 gene in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

PubMed

In peroxisome, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) is the first rate-limiting enzyme of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway, which catalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. Two isoforms of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 were firstly identified in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in this study. ACOX1 isoform1 (ACOX1i1) and ACOX1 isoform2 (ACOX1i2) were encoded by the single gene with 661 amino acids in length. The coding region of both isoforms consisted of 14 exons. The residues from 89 to 193 in ACOX1i1 were encoded by exon 3b, while in ACOX1i2 they were encoded by exon 3a. Homologous alignment analysis indicated that the varied region (the residues from 89 to 193) of ACOX1i1 was more conserved than ACOX1i2 in vertebrates (Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia and Pisces). The mRNA expression level of ACOX1i1 and ACOX1i2 was detected separately in eleven tissues and the results indicated that ACOXi1 expression was the highest in liver followed by kidney and brain, while the expression of ACOXi2 was the highest in kidney followed by liver. The normalized levels of both transcript variants were comparable in most tissues, however the level of ACOX1i2 was significantly higher than that of ACOX1i1 in white muscle and kidney (5.1 fold and 3.1 fold), and ACOX1i1 was significantly higher than ACOX1i2 in gill and brain (4.8 fold and 1.9 fold). In different nutritional states, the expression levels of both isoforms in liver were comparable between fasting and most of post-feeding time points, except that the expression at 3h post-feeding was significantly lower than others. The expression of ACOX1i1 in the kidney also showed the similar pattern, indicating the lowest expression at 8h post-feeding, however, no significant change was seen in ACOX2i2 among all nutritional states. These results suggested that ACOX1i1 and i2 may play different roles in tissues, and their expression levels were differently modulated by nutritional stage. PMID:24802117

He, An-Yuan; Liu, Cai-Zhi; Chen, Li-Qiao; Ning, Li-Jun; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Li, Er-Chao; Du, Zhen-Yu

2014-07-15

212

Comparative studies on the Arabidopsis aldehyde oxidase (AAO) gene family revealed a major role of AAO3 in ABA biosynthesis in seeds.  

PubMed

The Arabidopsis aldehyde oxidase 3 (AAO3) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the final step of ABA biosynthesis. AAO3 has been shown to be the major AAO involved in ABA biosynthesis in leaves under stress conditions. On the other hand, less severe phenotypes of the aao3 seeds suggested that other AAO(s) might also be involved in ABA biosynthesis in seeds. Among four AAOs (AAO1-AAO4), AAO1 and AAO4 were the AAO expressed most abundantly in dry seeds and developing siliques, respectively. Unlike aao3, single loss-of-function mutants for AAO1 and AAO4 (aao1 and aao4), failed to show significant changes in endogenous ABA levels in seeds when compared with wild type. While aao3 seed germination was resistant to the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, uniconazole, aao1 and aao4 showed no resistance and were similar to wild type. These results indicate that AAO3, but not AAO1 or AAO4, plays an important role in ABA biosynthesis in seeds. Mutations of AAO1 or AAO4 in the aao3 mutant background enhanced ABA deficiency in seeds, demonstrating that both gene products contribute partially to ABA biosynthesis in the aao3 mutant background. However, considering the enzymatic characters of AAO1 and AAO4, their involvement in ABA biosynthesis in wild-type seeds may be negligible. We have concluded that AAO3 is the AAO that plays a major role in ABA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis seeds as well as in leaves. PMID:15574845

Seo, Mitsunori; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Koiwai, Hanae; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji; Koshiba, Tomokazu

2004-11-01

213

The role of monoamine oxidase A, MAOA, in the aetiology of antisocial behaviour: the importance of gene-environment interactions.  

PubMed

Reports from both human studies and animal models suggest that MAOA may have a key role in aggression. Differences in the copy number of a repeat motif in the promoter of MAOA appear to regulate its activity. We review the evidence that suggests activity levels of this enzyme may play a key role in modulating antisocial/aggressive behavioural outcomes. Two common alleles in the human population have been identified which confer either high or low transcriptional functionality. The gene is X-linked and males can, therefore, be typed as 'low' or 'high' types. A key feature that has emerged from both our own studies and replicated recently by others, is that high activity variants of the gene appear to confer a protective influence against maltreatment, such that maltreated males with a high-MAOA activity genotype were less likely to develop antisocial problems, an observation that may explain part of the variability in developmental outcomes associated with maltreatment. PMID:16206884

Craig, Ian W

2005-01-01

214

A Role for NADPH Oxidase in Antigen Presentation  

PubMed Central

The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expressed in phagocytes is a multi-subunit enzyme complex that generates superoxide (O2.?). This radical is an important precursor of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species needed for microbicidal activity during innate immune responses. Inherited defects in NADPH oxidase give rise to chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections and granulomatous inflammation. Interestingly, CGD, CGD carrier status, and oxidase gene polymorphisms have all been associated with autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, suggesting a potential role for NADPH oxidase in regulating adaptive immune responses. Here, NADPH oxidase function in antigen processing and presentation is reviewed. NADPH oxidase influences dendritic cell (DC) crosspresentation by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules through regulation of the phagosomal microenvironment, while in B lymphocytes, NADPH oxidase alters epitope selection by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. PMID:24069023

Gardiner, Gail J.; Deffit, Sarah N.; McLetchie, Shawna; Perez, Liliana; Walline, Crystal C.; Blum, Janice S.

2013-01-01

215

Bilirubin Oxidase from Bacillus pumilus: A promising enzyme for the elaboration of efficient cathodes in Biofuel cells  

PubMed Central

A CotA Multicopper Oxidase (MCO) from Bacillus pumilus, previously identified as a laccase, has been studied and characterized as a new bacterial Bilirubin Oxidase (BOD). The 59kDa protein containing four coppers, was successfully over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity in one step. This 509 amino-acid enzyme, having 67% and 26% sequence identity with CotA from Bacillus subtilis and BOD from Myrothecium verrucaria, respectively, shows higher turnover activity towards bilirubin compared to other bacterial MCOs. The current density for O2 reduction, when immobilized in a redox hydrogel, is only 12% smaller than the current obtained with Trachyderma tsunodae BOD. Under continuous electrocatalysis, an electrode modified with the new BOD is more stable, and has a higher tolerance towards NaCl, than a T. tsunodae BOD modified electrode. This makes BOD from B. pumilus an attractive new candidate for application in biofuel cells and biosensors. PMID:22410485

Durand, Fabien; Kjaergaard, Christian Hauge; Suraniti, Emmanuel; Gounel, Sebastien; Hadt, Ryan G.; Solomon, Edward I; Mano, Nicolas

2013-01-01

216

Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies SPL7-Regulated Copper Acquisition Genes FRO4/FRO5 and the Copper Dependence of Iron Homeostasis in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

The transition metal copper (Cu) is essential for all living organisms but is toxic when present in excess. To identify Cu deficiency responses comprehensively, we conducted genome-wide sequencing-based transcript profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type plants and of a mutant defective in the gene encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE7 (SPL7), which acts as a transcriptional regulator of Cu deficiency responses. In response to Cu deficiency, FERRIC REDUCTASE OXIDASE5 (FRO5) and FRO4 transcript levels increased strongly, in an SPL7-dependent manner. Biochemical assays and confocal imaging of a Cu-specific fluorophore showed that high-affinity root Cu uptake requires prior FRO5/FRO4-dependent Cu(II)-specific reduction to Cu(I) and SPL7 function. Plant iron (Fe) deficiency markers were activated in Cu-deficient media, in which reduced growth of the spl7 mutant was partially rescued by Fe supplementation. Cultivation in Cu-deficient media caused a defect in root-to-shoot Fe translocation, which was exacerbated in spl7 and associated with a lack of ferroxidase activity. This is consistent with a possible role for a multicopper oxidase in Arabidopsis Fe homeostasis, as previously described in yeast, humans, and green algae. These insights into root Cu uptake and the interaction between Cu and Fe homeostasis will advance plant nutrition, crop breeding, and biogeochemical research. PMID:22374396

Bernal, Maria; Casero, David; Singh, Vasantika; Wilson, Grandon T.; Grande, Arne; Yang, Huijun; Dodani, Sheel C.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Huijser, Peter; Connolly, Erin L.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Kramer, Ute

2012-01-01

217

Phylogenetic position of Linguatula arctica and Linguatula serrata (Pentastomida) as inferred from the nuclear 18S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.  

PubMed

Genomic DNA was isolated from a Linguatula serrata female expelled from a dog imported to Norway from Romania and from four Linguatula arctica females collected from semi-domesticated reindeer from northern Norway and subjected to PCR amplification of the complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene and a 1,045-bp portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). The two species differed at two of 1,830 nucleotide positions (99.9% identity) of the complete 18S rRNA gene sequences and at 102 of 1,045 nucleotide positions (90.2% identity) of the partial cox1 sequences. The four isolates of L. arctica showed no genetic variation in either gene. The new cox1 primers may facilitate the diagnosis of various developmental stages of L. arctica and L. serrata in their hosts. In separate phylogenetic analyses using the maximum likelihood method on sequence data from either gene, L. arctica and L. serrata clustered with members of the order Cephalobaenida rather than with members of the order Porocephalida, in which the genus Linguatula is currently placed based on morphological characters. The phylogenetic relationship of L. arctica, L. serrata and other pentastomids to other metazoan groups could not be clearly resolved, but the pentastomids did not seem to have a sister relationship to crustaceans of the subclass Branchiura as found in other studies. A more extensive taxon sampling, including molecular characterisation of more pentastomid taxa across different genera, seems to be necessary in order to estimate the true relationship of the Pentastomida to other metazoan groups. PMID:23873617

Gjerde, Bjørn

2013-10-01

218

Lysyl Oxidases: Expression in the Fetal Membranes and Placenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-linking of the connective tissues in the fetal membranes and placenta is important for their tensile strength and elasticity. We have studied the expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) because it is the classical enzyme responsible for the cross-linking of collagen and elastin. We have also studied the two recently described, genetically distinct lysyl oxidase-like genes and proteins, lysyl oxidase-like

S. Hein; S. Y. Yamamoto; K. Okazaki; C. Jourdan-Lesaux; K. Csiszar; G. D. Bryant-Greenwood

2001-01-01

219

Promoter analyses and transcriptional profiling of eggplant polyphenol oxidase 1 gene (SmePPO1) reveal differential response to exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

The transcriptional regulation of multigenic eggplant (Solanum melongena) polyphenol oxidase genes (SmePPO) is orchestrated by their corresponding promoters which mediate developmentally regulated expression in response to myriad biotic and abiotic factors. However, information on structural features of SmePPO promoters and modulation of their expression by plant defense signals are lacking. In the present study, SmePPOPROMOTERs were cloned by genome walking, and their transcription start sites (TSS) were determined by RLM-RACE. Extensive sequence analyses revealed the presence of evolutionarily conserved and over-represented putative cis-acting elements involved in light-regulated transcription, biosynthetic pathways (phenylpropanoid/flavonoid), hormone signaling (abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, jasmonate and salicylate), elicitor and stress responses (cold/dehydration responses), sugar metabolism and plant defense signaling (W-BOX/WRKY) that are common to SmePPOPROMOTER1 and 2. The TSS for SmePPO genes are located 9-15bp upstream of ATG with variable lengths of 5' untranslated regions. Transcriptional profiling of SmePPOs in eggplant seedlings has indicated differential response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or salicylic acid (SA) treatment. In planta, while MeJA elicited expression of all the six SmePPOs, SA was only able to induce the expression of SmePPO4-6. Interestingly, in dual treatment, SA considerably repressed the MeJA-induced expression of SmePPOs. Functional dissection of SmePPOPROMOTER1 by deletion analyses using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in tobacco leaves has shown that MeJA enhances the SmePPOPROMOTER1-?-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in vivo, while SA does not. Histochemical and quantitative GUS assays have also indicated the negative effect of SA on MeJA-induced expression of SmePPOPROMOTER1. By combining in silico analyses, transcriptional profiling and expression of SmePPOPROMOTER1-GUS fusions, the role of SA on the modulation of MeJA-induced SmePPO1 expression has been elucidated. It is concluded that similar to the coding regions of multigenic SmePPOs, the regulatory elements are also evolutionarily conserved and fall into two distinct sub-classes based on their responses to MeJA and SA. PMID:22377322

Shetty, Santoshkumar M; Chandrashekar, Arun; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

2012-05-01

220

Molecular relationships and classification of several tufted capuchin lineages (Cebus apella, Cebus xanthosternos and Cebus nigritus, Cebidae), by means of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.  

PubMed

The morphological systematics of the tufted capuchins is confusing. In an attempt to clarify the complex systematics and phylogeography of this taxon, we provide a first molecular analysis. We obtained mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (mtCOII) gene sequences from 49 tufted capuchins that had exact geographic origins from diverse lineages in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, French Guyana, Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay and that belonged to clearly recognized morphological taxa. This project had 4 main findings: (1) we determined 2 established and related taxa in the northern Amazon River area, which we named C. a. apella and C. a. fatuellus. C. a. apella is distributed from French Guyana until, at least, the Negro River in the northern Brazilian Amazon, whereas C. a. fatuellus is distributed throughout the Colombian Eastern Llanos and the northern Colombian Amazon. We also determined 2 other southern C. apella taxa, which we named C. a. macrodon and C. a. cay. C. a. macrodon has a western and southern Amazon distribution, while C. a. cay has a more southern distribution outside the Amazon basin. (2) In the upper Amazon basin, there is a unique lineage (C. a. macrocephalus) with 1 widely distributed haplotype. The 4 morphological subspecies (C. a. maranonis, C. a. macrocephalus, C. a. peruanus, C. a. pallidus), and maybe a fifth unknown subspecies, described in this area were molecularly undifferentiated at least for the mitochondrial gene analyzed. (3) Our molecular analysis determined that 1 individual of C. robustus fell into the lineage of C. a. macrocephalus. Therefore, this form does not receive any specific name. (4) The animals classified a priori as C. nigritus and C. xanthosternos (because of their morphological phenotypes and by their geographical origins) were clearly differentiated from the other specimens analyzed with the molecular marker employed. Therefore, we consider that these 2 lineages could be assigned the status of full species following the biological species definition. (5) In 2001, Groves described 4 tufted capuchin species (C. apella, C. libidinosus, C. nigritus and C. xanthosternos), while Silva Jr. determined 7 species (C. apella, C. macrocephalus, C. libidinosus, C. cay, C. nigritus, C. robustus and C. xanthosternos). The tests of Swofford-Olsen-Waddell-Hillis, of Shimodaira and Hasegawa and of Templeton did not fit with either of these two classificatory schemes, although Groves' scheme was better with regard to our data than that of Silva Jr. (6) All the temporal splits among the tufted capuchin taxa studied were estimated to have occurred during the last phase of the Pleistocene by using the ? statistic applied to the median joining haplotype network. PMID:23128150

Ruiz-García, Manuel; Castillo, Maria Ignacia; Lichilín-Ortiz, Nicolás; Pinedo-Castro, Myreya

2012-01-01

221

PPAR? and Proline Oxidase in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Proline is metabolized by its own specialized enzymes with their own tissue and subcellular localizations and mechanisms of regulation. The central enzyme in this metabolic system is proline oxidase, a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing enzyme which is tightly bound to mitochondrial inner membranes. The electrons from proline can be used to generate ATP or can directly reduce oxygen to form superoxide. Although proline may be derived from the diet and biosynthesized endogenously, an important source in the microenvironment is from degradation of extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases. Previous studies showed that proline oxidase is a p53-induced gene and its overexpression can initiate proline-dependent apoptosis by both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Another important factor regulating proline oxidase is peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). Importantly, in several cancer cells, proline oxidase may be an important mediator of the PPAR?-stimulated generation of ROS and induction of apoptosis. Knockdown of proline oxidase expression by antisense RNA markedly decreased these PPAR?-stimulated effects. These findings suggest an important role in the proposed antitumor effects of PPAR?. Moreover, it is possible that proline oxidase may contribute to the other metabolic effects of PPAR?. PMID:18670615

Phang, James M.; Pandhare, Jui; Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Yongmin

2008-01-01

222

Systematic gene deletions evidences that laccases are involved in several stages of wood degradation in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.  

PubMed

Transformation of plant biomass into biofuels may supply environmentally friendly alternative biological sources of energy. Laccases are supposed to be involved in the lysis of lignin, a prerequisite step for efficient breakdown of cellulose into fermentable sugars. The role in development and plant biomass degradation of the nine canonical laccases belonging to three different subfamilies and one related multicopper oxidase of the Ascomycota fungus Podospora anserina was investigated by targeted gene deletion. The 10 genes were inactivated singly, and multiple mutants were constructed by genetic crosses. lac6(?), lac8(?) and mco(?) mutants were significantly reduced in their ability to grow on lignin-containing materials, but also on cellulose and plastic. Furthermore, lac8(?), lac7(?), mco(?) and lac6(?) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and multiple mutants were generally more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among laccases. Our study provides the first genetic evidences that laccases are major actors of wood utilization in a fungus and that they have multiple roles during this process apart from participation in lignin lysis. PMID:24102726

Xie, Ning; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Silar, Philippe; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël

2014-01-01

223

Regulation and physiological role of cyanide-resistant oxidases in fungi and plants.  

PubMed

Data on the induction and regulation of cyanide-resistant oxidases in eucaryotic microorganisms and higher plants are reviewed. Expression of an alternative oxidase gene can be caused by a decrease in energy charge in cells. Some evidence exists suggesting that cAMP and Ca2+ act as intracellular signals inducing the expression of the alternative oxidase genes. Under certain conditions cells produce alternative oxidases which remain in an inactive state. Activation of the alternative pathway of cell respiration is usually observed when electron transport via cytochromes is inhibited. The physiological role of the alternative oxidase is discussed. PMID:10611527

Medentsev, A G; Arinbasarova, A Y; Akimenko, V K

1999-11-01

224

Coniferyl alcohol oxidase — a catechol oxidase?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical properties of coniferyl alcohol oxidase (CAO), a copper containing glycoprotein spatiotemporally associated with lignification in conifers, is reported here. By electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, only type 3 copper was indicated in CAO. CAO oxidizes several laccase substrates; however, it is not a blue-copper protein and monoclonal antibodies against both native and deglycosylated CAO did not recognize any of

Preethi V. Udagama-Randeniya; Rodney A. Savidge

1995-01-01

225

Cholesterol oxidase: physiological functions  

PubMed Central

An important aspect of catalysis by cholesterol oxidase (3?-hydroxysteroid oxidase) is the nature of its association with the lipid bilayer that contains the sterol substrate. Efficient catalytic turnover is affected by the association of the protein with the membrane as well as the solubility of the substrate in the lipid bilayer. In this review, the binding of cholesterol oxidase to the lipid bilayer, its turnover of substrates presented in different physical environments, and how these conditions affect substrate specificity are discussed. The physiological functions of the enzyme in bacterial metabolism, pathogenesis, and macrolide biosynthesis are reviewed in this context. PMID:19843168

Kreit, Joseph; Sampson, Nicole S.

2009-01-01

226

Gene isolation and characterization of two acyl CoA oxidases from soybean with broad substrate specificities and enhanced expression in the growing seedling axis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first committed step in the ß-oxidation of fatty acids is catalyzed by the enzyme acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX), which oxidizes a fatty acyl-CoA to a 2-trans-enoyl-CoA. To understand the role of ß-oxidation during seedling growth in soybean, two ACOX cDNAs were isolated by screening a seedling library with a DNA fragment obtained by RT-PCR by using degenerate oligonucleotides. The two

Ameeta K. Agarwal; Youlin Qi; Deepti G. Bhat; B. Mark Woerner; Sherri M. Brown

2001-01-01

227

Evolution of cytochrome oxidase, an enzyme older than atmospheric oxygen.  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome oxidase is a key enzyme in aerobic metabolism. All the recorded eubacterial (domain Bacteria) and archaebacterial (Archaea) sequences of subunits 1 and 2 of this protein complex have been used for a comprehensive evolutionary analysis. The phylogenetic trees reveal several processes of gene duplication. Some of these are ancient, having occurred in the common ancestor of Bacteria and Archaea, whereas others have occurred in specific lines of Bacteria. We show that eubacterial quinol oxidase was derived from cytochrome c oxidase in Gram-positive bacteria and that archaebacterial quinol oxidase has an independent origin. A considerable amount of evidence suggests that Proteobacteria (Purple bacteria) acquired quinol oxidase through a lateral gene transfer from Gram-positive bacteria. The prevalent hypothesis that aerobic metabolism arose several times in evolution after oxygenic photosynthesis, is not sustained by two aspects of the molecular data. First, cytochrome oxidase was present in the common ancestor of Archaea and Bacteria whereas oxygenic photosynthesis appeared in Bacteria. Second, an extant cytochrome oxidase in nitrogen-fixing bacteria shows that aerobic metabolism is possible in an environment with a very low level of oxygen, such as the root nodules of leguminous plants. Therefore, we propose that aerobic metabolism in organisms with cytochrome oxidase has a monophyletic and ancient origin, prior to the appearance of eubacterial oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Images PMID:8013452

Castresana, J; Lubben, M; Saraste, M; Higgins, D G

1994-01-01

228

The alternative oxidase (AOX) gene in Vibrio fischeri is controlled by NsrR and upregulated in response to nitric oxide  

PubMed Central

Summary Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a respiratory oxidase found in certain eukaryotes and bacteria; however, its role in bacterial physiology is unclear. Exploiting the genetic tractability of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, we explore the regulation of aox expression and AOX function. Using quantitative PCR and reporter assays, we demonstrate that aox expression is induced in the presence of nitric oxide (NO), and that the NO-responsive regulatory protein NsrR mediates the response. We have identified key amino acid residues important for NsrR function and experimentally confirmed a bioinformatically predicted NsrR binding site upstream of aox. Microrespirometry demonstrated that oxygen consumption by V. fischeri CydAB quinol oxidase is inhibited by NO treatment, whereas oxygen consumption by AOX is less sensitive to NO. NADH oxidation assays using inverted membrane vesicles confirmed that NO directly inhibits CydAB, and that AOX is resistant to NO inhibition. These results indicate a role for V. fischeri AOX in aerobic respiration during NO stress. PMID:20487270

Dunn, Anne K.; Karr, Elizabeth A.; Wang, Yanling; Batton, Aaron R.; Ruby, Edward G.; Stabb, Eric V.

2013-01-01

229

Tyrosinase and Catechol Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE nature of tyrosinase has been under discussion for a very long time. Raper and his school1, Graubard and Nelson2, and Keilin and Mann3 believe it to be a distinct enzyme, different from catechol oxidase. Onslow and Robinson4, McCance5, and Richter6 believe it to be a catechol oxidase plus o-chinone plus dehydrogenase. Kubowitz7, whose work appeared in a recent issue

L. Califano; D. Kertesz

1938-01-01

230

Loss of Hin dIII cleavage sites in thed-amino acid oxidase gene in some inbred strains of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

d-Amino acid oxidase cDNA was amplified by a polymerase chain reaction using RNA extracted from the mouse kidney. When digested withHindIII, the cDNAs of the BALB\\/c and ddY\\/DAO- mice were cleaved into two fragments whereas the cDNA of the ddY\\/DAO+ mice was not. Sequencing revealed that nucleotide-471 of the cDNAs was G in the BALB\\/c and ddY\\/DAO- mice whereas it

R. Konno; M. Sasaki; J. Enami; A. Niwa

1995-01-01

231

The Multi-Copper-Ion Oxidase CueO of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Is Required for Systemic Virulence?  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium possesses a multi-copper-ion oxidase (multicopper oxidase), CueO (also known as CuiD), a periplasmic enzyme known to be required for resistance to copper ions. CueO from S. Typhimurium was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, and the purified protein exhibited a high cuprous oxidase activity. We have characterized an S. Typhimurium cueO mutant and confirmed that it is more sensitive to copper ions. Using a murine model of infection, it was observed that the cueO mutant was significantly attenuated, as indicated by reduced recovery of bacteria from liver and spleen, although there was no significant difference in recovery from Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. However, the intracellular survival of the cueO mutant in unprimed or gamma-interferon-primed murine macrophages was not statistically different from that of wild-type Salmonella, suggesting that additional host factors are involved in clearance of the cueO mutant. Unlike a cueO mutant from E. coli, the S. Typhimurium cueO mutant did not show greater sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and its sensitivity to copper ions was not affected by siderophores. Similarly, the S. Typhimurium cueO mutant was not rescued from copper ion toxicity by addition of the branched-chain amino acids and leucine. PMID:20231415

Achard, Maud E. S.; Tree, Jai J.; Holden, James A.; Simpfendorfer, Kim R.; Wijburg, Odilia L. C.; Strugnell, Richard A.; Schembri, Mark A.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Jennings, Michael P.; McEwan, Alastair G.

2010-01-01

232

Electrochemical identification of artificial oligonucleotides related to bovine species. Potential for identification of species based on mismatches in the mitochondrial cytochrome C1 oxidase gene.  

PubMed

Our studies show that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) of films of ds-DNA on gold allow us to distinguish between mitochondrial DNA fragments of the cytochrome c(1) oxidase (mt-Cox1) of three related species of the subfamily 'Bovinae' (Bos taurus, Bison bison, and Bison bonasus). In EIS, a perfectly matched DNA gives rise to a considerably larger charge transfer resistance R(ct) compared to mismatched pairings. Differences in charge transfer resistance, ?R(ct), before and after the addition of Zn(2+) ions provide an additional tool for identification. In addition, all ds-DNA films were studied by SECM and their kinetic parameters were determined. Perfectly matched ds-DNAs are readily distinguished from mismatched duplexes by their lower rate constants. Our system can be used multiple times by dehybridization and rehybridization of capture strands up to the 250 pmole level. PMID:21847503

Shamsi, Mohtashim Hassan; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

2011-11-21

233

Combined analysis of association between personality traits and three functional polymorphisms in the tyrosine hydroxylase, monoamine oxidase A, and catechol- O-methyltransferase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several molecular genetic studies have been conducted with regard to the association between catecholamine-related genes and personality traits. However, the results of replication studies did not always coincide. One of the possible reasons may be that the effect exerted by the individual gene is small. In the present study, we investigated the association between personality traits and systematic combination of

Mamoru Tochigi; Takeshi Otowa; Hiroyuki Hibino; Chieko Kato; Toshiyuki Otani; Tadashi Umekage; Takeshi Utsumi; Nobumasa Kato; Tsukasa Sasaki

2006-01-01

234

TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor gene: The role of NAD(P)H oxidase 4  

SciTech Connect

Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), oxidative stress, and elevated inflammatory cytokines are some of the components that contribute to plaque formation in the vasculature. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) is released during vascular injury, and contributes to lesion formation also by affecting VSMC proliferation. Recently, an A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor (A{sub 2B}AR) knockout mouse illustrated that this receptor is a tissue protector, in that it inhibits VSMC proliferation and attenuates the inflammatory response following injury, including the release of TNF-{alpha}. Here, we show a regulatory loop by which TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR in VSMC in vitro and in vivo. The effect of this cytokine is mimicked by its known downstream target, NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (Nox4). Nox4 upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR, and Nox inhibitors dampen the effect of TNF-{alpha}. Hence, our study is the first to show that signaling associated with Nox4 is also able to upregulate the tissue protecting A{sub 2B}AR.

St Hilaire, Cynthia; Koupenova, Milka; Carroll, Shannon H.; Smith, Barbara D. [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Ravid, Katya [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)], E-mail: ravid@biochem.bumc.bu.edu

2008-10-24

235

Import of alcohol oxidase into peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to grow on methanol because it lacks the enzymes required for its metabolism. To study the possibility of whether or not the methanol oxidation pathway of Hansenula polymorpha can be transferred to S. cerevisiae, the gene coding for alcohol oxidase, a peroxisomal homo-octameric flavoprotein, was introduced into S. cerevisiae. Transformed cells contain varying amounts of alcohol oxidase depending on the plasmid used. Immunocytochemical experiments indicate that the protein is imported into peroxisomes, whether organelle proliferation is induced or not. Cells lack alcohol oxidase activity however, and only the monomeric, non-functional, form of the protein is found. These findings indicate that the H. polymorpha peroxisomal targeting signal of alcohol oxidase is recognized in S. cerevisiae and protein monomers are imported. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2826130

Distel, B; Veenhuis, M; Tabak, H F

1987-01-01

236

Natural Compounds as Modulators of NADPH Oxidases  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals generated ubiquitously by all mammalian cells, but their relative unbalance triggers also diseases through intracellular damage to DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are the only known enzyme family with the sole function to produce ROS. The NOX physiological functions concern host defence, cellular signaling, regulation of gene expression, and cell differentiation. On the other hand, increased NOX activity contributes to a wide range of pathological processes, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, organ failure, and cancer. Therefore targeting these enzymatic ROS sources by natural compounds, without affecting the physiological redox state, may be an important tool. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role of NOX enzymes in physiology and pathology and provides an overview of the currently available NADPH oxidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts such as polyphenols. PMID:24381714

2013-01-01

237

Long term liver specific glucokinase gene defect induced diabetic cardiomyopathy by up regulating NADPH oxidase and down regulating insulin receptor and p-AMPK  

PubMed Central

Background The liver-specific glucokinase knockout (gckw/–) mouse experiences long-term hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. This study was designed to evaluate the functional and structural changes in the myocardium of 60 week-old gckw/– mice, and to investigate the effect of rosiglitazone on the myocardium in this model. Methods 60 week-old gckw/– mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: gckw/–, gckw/– mice treated with insulin (1 U/kg) and gckw/– mice treated with rosiglitazone (18 mg/kg). Insulin or rosiglitazone treatment was for 4 weeks. Gckw/w litermates were used as controls. Echocardiography, electrocardiogram, biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural, real time PCR and Western blot studies were performed to examine for structural and functional changes. Results Long-term liver-specific gck knockout in mice elicits hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. Compared to age matched gckw/w mice, 60 week-old gckw/– mice showed decreased LV internal dimension, increased posterior wall thickness, lengthened PR and QRS intervals, up-regulated MLC2 protein expression, decreased SOD activity, increased MDA levels and up-regulated Cyba mRNA. Morphological studies revealed that there was an increase in the amount of PAS and Masson positively stained material, as did the number and proportion of the cell occupied by mitochondria in the gckw/– mice. Western blot analysis revealed that the levels of the insulin receptor, Akt, phosphorylated AMPK beta and phosphorylated ACC were reduced in gckw/– mice. These effects were partly attenuated or ablated by treatment with rosiglitazone. Conclusions Our results indicate that changes in the myocardium occur in the liver-specific glucokinase knockout mouse and suggest that reduced glucokinase expression in the liver may induce diabetic cardiomyopathy by up regulating NADPH oxidase and down regulating insulin receptor and p-AMPK protein levels. Rosiglitazone treatment may protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy by altering the levels of a set of proteins involved in cardiac damage. PMID:24447392

2014-01-01

238

Typing of Candida glabrata in Clinical Isolates by Comparative Sequence Analysis of the Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 2 Gene Distinguishes Two Clusters of Strains Associated with Geographical Sequence Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

We tested whether comparative sequence analysis of the mitochondrion-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 gene (COX2) could be used to distinguish intraspecific variants of Candida glabrata. Mitochondrial genes are suitable for investigation of close phylogenetic relationships because they evolve much faster than nuclear genes, which in general exhibit very limited intraspecific variation. For this survey we used 11 clinical isolates of C. glabrata from three different geographical locations in Brazil, 10 isolates from one location in the United States, 1 American Type Culture Collection strain as an internal control, and the published sequence of strain CBS 138. The complete coding region of COX2 was amplified from total cellular DNA, and both strands were sequenced twice for each strain. These sequences were aligned with published sequences from other fungi, and the numbers of substitutions and phylogenetic relationships were determined. Typing of these strains was done by using 17 substitutions, with 8 being nonsynonymous and 9 being synonymous. Also, cDNAs made from purified mitochondrial polyadenylated RNA were sequenced to confirm that our sequences correspond to the expressed copies and not nuclear pseudogenes and that a frameshift mutation exists in the 3? end of the coding region (position 673) relative to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequence and the previously published C. glabrata sequence. We estimated the average evolutionary rate of COX2 to be 11.4% sequence divergence/108 years and that phylogenetic relationships of yeasts based on these sequences are consistent with rRNA sequence data. Our analysis of COX2 sequences enables typing of C. glabrata strains based on 13 haplotypes and suggests that positions 51 and 519 indicate a geographical polymorphism that discriminates strains isolated in the United States and strains isolated in Brazil. This provides for the first time a means of typing of Candida strains that cause infections by use of direct sequence comparisons and the associated divergence estimates. PMID:10618092

Sanson, Gerdine F. O.; Briones, Marcelo R. S.

2000-01-01

239

Characterization of the cydAB-Encoded Cytochrome bd Oxidase from Mycobacterium smegmatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cydAB genes from Mycobacterium smegmatis have been cloned and characterized. The cydA and cydB genes encode the two subunits of a cytochrome bd oxidase belonging to the widely distributed family of quinol oxidases found in prokaryotes. The cydD and cydC genes located immediately downstream of cydB encode a putative ATP-binding cassette-type transporter. At room temperature, reduced minus oxidized difference

BAVESH D. KANA; EDWARD A. WEINSTEIN; DAVID AVARBOCK; STEPHANIE S. DAWES; HARVEY RUBIN; VALERIE MIZRAHI

2001-01-01

240

Genetic Evidence for a Regulatory Pathway Controlling Alternative Oxidase Production in Neurospora crassa  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the cytochrome-mediated mitochondrial electron transport chain of Neurospora crassa is disrupted, an alternative oxidase encoded by the nuclear aod-1 gene is induced. The alternative oxidase donates electrons directly to oxygen from the ubiquininol pool and is insensitive to chemicals such as antimycin A and KCN that affect the standard electron transport chain. To facilitate isolation of mutants affecting regulation

Andrea T. Descheneau; Ian A. Cleary; Frank E. Nargang

2004-01-01

241

Cloning and characterization of a fifth human lysyl oxidase isoenzyme: the third member of the lysyl oxidase-related subfamily with four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the complete cDNA sequence of the human lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) gene, a new member of the lysyl oxidase (LO) gene family. The predicted polypeptide is 756 amino acids long, including a 24-residue signal peptide. The C-terminal region contains a LO domain similar to those of LOX, LOXL, LOXL2 and LOXL3. The N-terminal region has four subregions similar

Joni M. Mäki; Hilkka Tikkanen; Kari I. Kivirikko

2001-01-01

242

Role of amine oxidase expression to maintain putrescine homeostasis in Rhodococcus opacus.  

PubMed

While applications of amine oxidases are increasing, few have been characterised and our understanding of their biological role and strategies for bacteria exploitation are limited. By altering the nitrogen source (NH4Cl, putrescine and cadaverine (diamines) and butylamine (monoamine)) and concentration, we have identified a constitutive flavin dependent oxidase (EC 1.4.3.10) within Rhodococcus opacus. The activity of this oxidase can be increased by over two orders of magnitude in the presence of aliphatic diamines. In addition, the expression of a copper dependent diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.22) was observed at diamine concentrations>1mM or when cells were grown with butylamine, which acts to inhibit the flavin oxidase. A Michaelis-Menten kinetic treatment of the flavin oxidase delivered a Michaelis constant (KM)=190?M and maximum rate (kcat)=21.8s(-1) for the oxidative deamination of putrescine with a lower KM (=60?M) and comparable kcat (=18.2s(-1)) for the copper oxidase. MALDI-TOF and genomic analyses have indicated a metabolic clustering of functionally related genes. From a consideration of amine oxidase specificity and sequence homology, we propose a putrescine degradation pathway within Rhodococcus that utilises oxidases in tandem with subsequent dehydrogenase and transaminase enzymes. The implications of PUT homeostasis through the action of the two oxidases are discussed with respect to stressors, evolution and application in microbe-assisted phytoremediation or bio-augmentation. PMID:23540932

Foster, Alexander; Barnes, Nicole; Speight, Robert; Morris, Peter C; Keane, Mark A

2013-04-10

243

Lysyl oxidase like 4, a novel target gene of TGF-{beta}1 signaling, can negatively regulate TGF-{beta}1-induced cell motility in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) is a multi-functional cytokine involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix formation. In search for novel genes mediating the TGF-{beta}1 function at downstream signaling, we performed a cDNA microarray analysis and identified 60 genes whose expression is regulated by TGF-{beta}1 in the liver cancer cell line PLC/PRF/5. Among them, we report here lysyl oxidase like 4 (LOXL4) as a novel target of TGF-{beta}1 signaling, and provide experimental evidence for its expression regulation and function. LOXL4 was found to be the only member of LOX family whose expression is induced by TGF-{beta}1 in hepatoma cells. Deletion mapping of the LOXL4 promoter indicated that the TGF-{beta}1 regulation of LOXL4 expression is mediated through the binding of AP1 transcription factor to a conserved region of the promoter. This was confirmed by the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay that captured c-Fos-bound chromatin from TGF-{beta}1-treated cells. Forced expression of LOXL4 in PLC/PRF/5 cells resulted in inhibition of cell motility through Matrigel in the presence of TGF-{beta}1 treatment. In parallel, LOXL4 suppressed the expression of laminins and {alpha}3 integrin and the activity of MMP2. These results suggest that LOXL4 may function as a negative feedback regulator of TGF-{beta}1 in cell invasion by inhibiting the metabolism of extracellular matrix (ECM) components.

Kim, Dong Joon [Medical Genomics Research Center, KRIBB, P.O. Box 115, Yusong, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Chul; Yang, Suk-Jin; Lee, Jung Ju; Bae, Eun Mi; Kim, Dong Min; Min, Sang Hyun; Kim, Soo Jung [Medical Genomics Research Center, KRIBB, P.O. Box 115, Yusong, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong Chul [Ilsong Institute of Life Science, Hallym University, Anyang 431-060 (Korea, Republic of); Sang, Byung Chan [College of Agricultural Life and Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Myung, Pyung Keun [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung Chan [Medical Genomics Research Center, KRIBB, P.O. Box 115, Yusong, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kpark@kribb.re.kr; Yeom, Young Il [Medical Genomics Research Center, KRIBB, P.O. Box 115, Yusong, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yeomyi@kribb.re.kr

2008-09-05

244

Catechol oxidase — structure and activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently determined structures of copper-containing plant catechol oxidase in three different catalytic states have provided new insights into the mechanism of this enzyme and its relationship to other copper type-3 proteins. Moreover, the active site of catechol oxidase has been found to be structurally conserved with the oxygen-binding site of a molluscan hemocyanin.

Christoph Eicken; Bernt Krebs; James C Sacchettini

1999-01-01

245

The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: Genetic moderation by Tryptophan Hydroxylase, Serotonin Transporter, and Monoamine Oxidase-A-Genes  

PubMed Central

Gene-environment interaction effects in predicting antisocial behavior in late childhood were investigated among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 627, M age = 11.27). Variants in three genes, TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA uVNTR, were examined. In addition to child maltreatment status, we also considered the impact of maltreatment subtypes, developmental timing of maltreatment, and chronicity. Indicators of antisocial behavior were obtained from self-, peer-, and adult counselor-reports. In a series of ANCOVAs, child maltreatment and its parameters demonstrated strong main effects on early antisocial behavior as assessed by all forms of report. Genetic effects operated primarily in the context of gene-environment interactions, moderating the impact of child maltreatment on outcomes. Across the three genes, among nonmaltreated children no differences in antisocial behavior were found based on genetic variation. In contrast, among maltreated children specific polymorphisms of TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA were each related to heightened self-report of antisocial behavior; the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and developmental timing of maltreatment also indicated more severe antisocial outcomes for children with early onset and recurrent maltreatment based on genotype. TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR interacted with maltreatment subtype to predict peer-report of antisocial behavior; genetic variation contributed to larger differences in antisocial behavior among abused children. TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms also moderated the effects of maltreatment subtype on adult report of antisocial behavior; again genetic effects were strongest for children who were abused. Additionally, TPH1 moderated the effect of developmental timing of maltreatment and chronicity on adult report of antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate how genetic variation contributes to identifying which maltreated children are most vulnerable to antisocial development. PMID:22781862

Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Thibodeau, Eric

2013-01-01

246

[Identification of Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi occidentalis (Ixodidae) by the analysis of the gene fragment COXI (cytochrome oxidase subunit I)].  

PubMed

Ticks of the genus Ixodes were collected in 2010 in the lowland part of Toguchinsk district of Novosibirsk Province (Russia) and in the forest-park area of Novosibirsk Scientific Centre and its outskirts (Sovetskiy district of Novosibirsk), and identified as Ixodes persulcatus (Schulze, 1930) (18 females and 13 males) and Ixodes pavlovskyi (13 females and 10 males). Ten specimens of each sex from each collecting site were examined. The following nine characters were used: the length and width of the scutum (conscutum) and of the gnathosoma in ventral view; the length of palpal segments II-III; the width of the hypostome; the length of idiosoma with scapula, of leg I, of the medial spur on fore coxa (Taiga..., 1985; Filippova, Musatov, 1996; Filippova, Panova, 1998). According to morphometric characters, specimens of Ixodes pavlovskyi collected in the forest-park area of the Novosibirsk Scientific Centre were identified as the subspecies I. p. occidentalis Filippova et Panova, 1998. Nucleotide sequences of the COI mitochondrial gene fragment were determined for 56 ticks. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene fragment in representatives of the persulcatus-ricinus species-group dwelling in Asia demonstrated high degree of conservatism. Molecular-genetic methods allow reliable identification of morphologically similar species I. pavlovskyi and I. persulcatus, pathogenic for humans. PMID:23458013

Livanova, N N; Tikunova, N V; Livanov, S G; Fomenko, N V

2012-01-01

247

Novel genetic diversity within Anopheles punctimacula s.l.: phylogenetic discrepancy between the Barcode cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2).  

PubMed

Anopheles punctimacula s.l. is a regional malaria vector in parts of Central America, but its role in transmission is controversial due to its unresolved taxonomic status. Two cryptic species, An. malefactor and An. calderoni, have been previously confused with this taxon, and evidence for further genetic differentiation has been proposed. In the present study we collected and morphologically identified adult female mosquitoes of An. punctimacula s.l. from 10 localities across Panama and one in Costa Rica. DNA sequences from three molecular regions, the three prime end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (3' COI), the Barcode region in the five prime end of the COI (5' COI), and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) were used to test the hypothesis of new molecular lineages within An. punctimacula s.l. Phylogenetic analyses using the 3' COI depicted six highly supported molecular lineages (A-F), none of which was An. malefactor. In contrast, phylogenetic inference with the 5' COI demonstrated paraphyly. Tree topologies based on the combined COI regions and ITS2 sequence data supported the same six lineages as the 3' COI alone. As a whole this evidence suggests that An. punctimacula s.l. comprises two geographically isolated lineages, but it is not clear whether these are true species. The phylogenetic structure of the An. punctimacula cluster as well as that of other unknown lineages (C type I vs C type II; D vs E) appears to be driven by geographic partition, because members of these assemblages did not overlap spatially. We report An. malefactor for the first time in Costa Rica, but our data do not support the presence of An. calderoni in Panama. PMID:23806568

Loaiza, Jose R; Scott, Marilyn E; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I; Rovira, Jose R; Dutari, Larissa C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bickersmith, Sara; Conn, Jan E

2013-10-01

248

Novel genetic diversity within Anopheles punctimacula s.l.: Phylogenetic discrepancy between the Barcode cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2)  

PubMed Central

Anopheles punctimacula s.l. is a regional malaria vector in parts of Central America, but its role in transmission is controversial due to its unresolved taxonomic status. Two cryptic species, An. malefactor and An. calderoni, have been previously confused with this taxon, and evidence for further genetic differentiation has been proposed. In the present study we collected and morphologically identified adult female mosquitoes of An. punctimacula s.l. from 10 localities across Panama and one in Costa Rica. DNA sequences from three molecular regions, the three prime end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (3´ COI), the Barcode region in the five prime end of the COI (5´ COI), and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) were used to test the hypothesis of new molecular lineages within An. punctimacula s.l. Phylogenetic analyses using the 3´ COI depicted six highly supported molecular lineages (A–F), none of which was An. malefactor. In contrast, phylogenetic inference with the 5´ COI demonstrated paraphyly. Tree topologies based on the combined COI regions and ITS2 sequence data supported the same six lineages as the 3´ COI alone. As a whole this evidence suggests that An. punctimacula s.l. comprises two geographically isolated lineages, but it is not clear whether these are true species. The phylogenetic structure of the An. punctimacula cluster as well as that of other unknown lineages (C type I vs C type II; D vs E) appears to be driven by geographic partition, because members of these assemblages did not overlap spatially. We report An. malefactor for the first time in Costa Rica, but our data do not support the presence of An. calderoni in Panama. PMID:23806568

Loaiza, Jose R.; Scott, Marilyn E.; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I.; Rovira, Jose R.; Dutari, Larissa C.; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bickersmith, Sara; Conn, Jan E.

2013-01-01

249

The Escherichia coli CydX Protein Is a Member of the CydAB Cytochrome bd Oxidase Complex and Is Required for Cytochrome bd Oxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome bd oxidase operons from more than 50 species of bacteria contain a short gene encoding a small protein that ranges from ?30 to 50 amino acids and is predicted to localize to the cell membrane. Although cytochrome bd oxidases have been studied for more than 70 years, little is known about the role of this small protein, denoted CydX, in oxidase activity. Here we report that Escherichia coli mutants lacking CydX exhibit phenotypes associated with reduced oxidase activity. In addition, cell membrane extracts from ?cydX mutant strains have reduced oxidase activity in vitro. Consistent with data showing that CydX is required for cytochrome bd oxidase activity, copurification experiments indicate that CydX interacts with the CydAB cytochrome bd oxidase complex. Together, these data support the hypothesis that CydX is a subunit of the CydAB cytochrome bd oxidase complex that is required for complex activity. The results of mutation analysis of CydX suggest that few individual amino acids in the small protein are essential for function, at least in the context of protein overexpression. In addition, the results of analysis of the paralogous small transmembrane protein AppX show that the two proteins could have some overlapping functionality in the cell and that both have the potential to interact with the CydAB complex. PMID:23749980

VanOrsdel, Caitlin E.; Bhatt, Shantanu; Allen, Rondine J.; Brenner, Evan P.; Hobson, Jessica J.; Jamil, Aqsa; Haynes, Brittany M.; Genson, Allyson M.

2013-01-01

250

Purification of active recombinant trypanosome alternative oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO) is the terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain in long slender bloodstream forms of African trypanosomes. TAO is a cytochrome-independent, cyanide-insensitive quinol oxidase. These characteristics are distinct from those of the bacterial quinol oxidases, proteins that belong to the heme-copper terminal oxidase superfamily. The inability to purify stable TAO has severely hampered biochemical studies of the

Coichi Nihei; Yoshihisa Fukai; Keisuke Kawai; Arihiro Osanai; Yoshisada Yabu; Takashi Suzuki; Nobuo Ohta; Nobuko Minagawa; Kazuo Nagai; Kiyoshi Kita

2003-01-01

251

Mutant rat strain lacking d -amino-acid oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

d-Amino-acid oxidase (DAO) is known to be associated with schizophrenia. Since the expression of DAO gene had been reported\\u000a to be very low in LEA rats, we examined LEA\\/SENDAI rats in detail. These rats did not have DAO activity, enzyme protein or\\u000a mRNA encoding this enzyme. Sequencing of the 5?-upstream region of the DAO gene revealed the deletion of one

Ryuichi Konno; Tadashi Okamura; Noriyuki Kasai; Karl H. Summer; Akira Niwa

2009-01-01

252

Lysyl Oxidase-Like and Lysyl Oxidase Are Present in the Dermis and Epidermis of a Skin Equivalent and in Human Skin and Are Associated to Elastic Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elastic fiber formation involves the secretion of tropoelastin which is converted to insoluble elastin by cross-linking, initiated by the oxidative deamination of lysine residues by lysyl oxidase. Five lysyl oxidase genes have been discovered. This study deals with the expression of two isoforms, LOX and LOX-like (LOXL), in human foreskin and in a human skin-equivalent (SE) model that allows the

Emmanuelle Noblesse; Valérie Cenizo; Charbel Bouez; Agnès Borel; Claudine Gleyzal; Simone Peyrol; Marie-Paule Jacob; Pascal Sommer; Odile Damour

2004-01-01

253

Draft Genome Sequence of Strain Q-1, an Iodide-Oxidizing Alphaproteobacterium Isolated from Natural Gas Brine Water  

PubMed Central

Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain Q-1, an iodide (I?)-oxidizing heterotrophic bacterium in the class Alphaproteobacteria isolated from natural gas brine water. The genome sequence contained a multicopper oxidase gene probably responsible for iodide oxidation. A photosynthetic gene cluster was found but genes for carbon-fixation were absent. PMID:24994802

Ehara, Ayaka; Suzuki, Haruo; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

2014-01-01

254

Mutant identification and characterization of the laccase gene family in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laccases, EC 1.10.3.2 or p-diphenol:dioxygen oxido- reductases, are multi-copper containing glycoproteins. Despite many years of research, genetic evidence for the roles of laccases in plants is mostly lacking. In this study, a reverse genetics approach was taken to identify T-DNA insertional mutants (the SALK collec- tion) available for genes in the Arabidopsis laccase family. Twenty true null mutants were confirmed

Xiaoning Cai; Elizabeth J. Davis; Jenny Ballif; Mingxiang Liang; Emily Bushman; Victor Haroldsen; Javad Torabinejad; Yajun Wu

2006-01-01

255

Expression and Chloroplast Targeting of Cholesterol Oxidase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants  

PubMed Central

Cholesterol oxidase represents a novel type of insecticidal protein with potent activity against the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with the cholesterol oxidase choM gene and expressed cytosolic and chloroplast-targeted versions of the ChoM protein. Transgenic leaf tissues expressing cholesterol oxidase exerted insecticidal activity against boll weevil larvae. Our results indicate that cholesterol oxidase can metabolize phytosterols in vivo when produced cytosolically or when targeted to chloroplasts. The transgenic plants exhibiting cytosolic expression accumulated low levels of saturated sterols known as stanols, and displayed severe developmental aberrations. In contrast, the transgenic plants expressing chloroplast-targeted cholesterol oxidase maintained a greater accumulation of stanols, and appeared phenotypically and developmentally normal. These results are discussed within the context of plant sterol distribution and metabolism. PMID:11457962

Corbin, David R.; Grebenok, Robert J.; Ohnmeiss, Thomas E.; Greenplate, John T.; Purcell, John P.

2001-01-01

256

Plastid terminal oxidase 2 (PTOX2) is the major oxidase involved in chlororespiration in Chlamydomonas  

PubMed Central

By homology with the unique plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) found in plants, two genes encoding oxidases have been found in the Chlamydomonas genome, PTOX1 and PTOX2. Here we report the identification of a knockout mutant of PTOX2. Its molecular and functional characterization demonstrates that it encodes the oxidase most predominantly involved in chlororespiration in this algal species. In this mutant, the plastoquinone pool is constitutively reduced under dark-aerobic conditions, resulting in the mobile light-harvesting complexes being mainly, but reversibly, associated with photosystem I. Accordingly, the ptox2 mutant shows lower fitness than wild type when grown under phototrophic conditions. Single and double mutants devoid of the cytochrome b6f complex and PTOX2 were used to measure the oxidation rates of plastoquinols via PTOX1 and PTOX2. Those lacking both the cytochrome b6f complex and PTOX2 were more sensitive to light than the single mutants lacking either the cytochrome b6f complex or PTOX2, which discloses the role of PTOX2 under extreme conditions where the plastoquinone pool is overreduced. A model for chlororespiration is proposed to relate the electron flow rate through these alternative pathways and the redox state of plastoquinones in the dark. This model suggests that, in green algae and plants, the redox poise results from the balanced accumulation of PTOX and NADPH dehydrogenase. PMID:22143777

Houille-Vernes, Laura; Rappaport, Fabrice; Wollman, Francis-Andre; Alric, Jean; Johnson, Xenie

2011-01-01

257

An archaebacterial terminal oxidase combines core structures of two mitochondrial respiratory complexes.  

PubMed

The operon coding for a respiratory quinol oxidase was cloned from thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. It contains three genes, soxA, soxB and soxC. The first two genes code for proteins related to the cytochrome c oxidase subunits II and I, respectively. soxC encodes a protein homologous to cytochrome b, which is a subunit of the mitochondrial and bacterial cytochrome c reductases and the chloroplast cytochrome b6f complex. soxA is preceded by a promoter and the genes are cotranscribed into a 4 kb mRNA. Their protein products form a complex which has been partially purified and has quinol oxidase activity. The reduced minus oxidized absorption spectrum of the complex has two maxima at 586 and 606 nm. The latter is typical of cytochrome c oxidase. The complex contains four haems A. Two haems belong to the 'cytochrome oxidase' part of the complex and two are probably bound to be apocytochrome b (SoxC) and responsible for the 586 nm absorption peak. The homology between the sox gene products and their mitochondrial counterparts suggests that energy conservation coupled to the quinol oxidation catalysed either by the Sulfolobus oxidase or two mitochondrial respiratory enzymes may have a similar mechanism. PMID:1372250

Lübben, M; Kolmerer, B; Saraste, M

1992-03-01

258

Cytochrome c Oxidase Dysfunction in Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO) is the terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This bigenomic enzyme in mammals contains 13 subunits, of which, three catalytic subunits are encoded by the mitochondrial genes. The remaining ten subunits with suspected roles in the regulation, and/or, assembly are coded by the nuclear genome. The enzyme contains two heme groups (heme a and a3) and two Cu2+ centers (Cu2+ A and Cu2+ B) as catalytic centers and handles more than 90% of molecular O2 respired by the mammalian cells and tissues. CcO is a highly regulated enzyme which is believed to be the pace setter for mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and ATP synthesis. The structure and function of the enzyme is affected in a wide variety of diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, bone and skeletal diseases and diabetes. Despite handling a high O2 load the role of CcO in the production of reactive oxygen species still remains a subject of debate. However, a volume of evidence suggests that CcO dysfunction is invariably associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and cellular toxicity. In this article we review literature on mechanisms of multimodal regulation of CcO activity by a wide spectrum of physiological and pathological factors. We also review an array of literature on the direct or indirect roles of CcO in reactive oxygen species production. PMID:22841758

Srinivasan, Satish; Avadhani, Narayan G.

2012-01-01

259

Origins, evolutionary history, and taxonomic distribution of alternative oxidase and plastoquinol terminal oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative oxidase (AOX) and plastoquinol terminal oxidase (PTOX) are related quinol oxidases associated with respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains, respectively. Contrary to previous belief, AOX is present in numerous animal phyla, as well as heterotrophic and marine phototrophic proteobacteria. PTOX appears limited to organisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis, including cyanobacteria, algae and plants. We propose that both oxidases originated

Allison E. McDonald; Greg C. Vanlerberghe

2006-01-01

260

NADPH oxidase: a universal oxygen sensor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH oxidase is classically regarded as a key enzyme of neutrophils, where it is involved in the pathogenic production of reactive oxygen species. However, NADPH oxidase-like enzymes have recently been identified in non-neutrophil cells, supporting a separate role for NADPH-oxidase derived oxygen species in oxygen sensitive processes. This article reviews the current literature surrounding the potential role of NADPH oxidase

Richard D Jones; John T Hancock; Alyn H Morice

2000-01-01

261

Enzymological properties of sterol-C4-methyl-oxidase of yeast sterol biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite genes of the sterol methyl-oxidase component (SMO) of the sterol-C4-demethylation multienzymatic complex have been identified in a variety of organisms and the key role played by SMO in yeast sterol biosynthesis, the enzymological properties of yeast SMO have not been investigated. An enzymatic assay for measuring specifically sterol 4?-methyl-oxidase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been developed for the first

Sylvain Darnet; Alain Rahier

2003-01-01

262

Overproduction and characterization of a recombinant D -amino acid oxidase from Arthrobacter protophormiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening of soil samples for d-amino acid oxidase (d-AAO) activity led to the isolation and identification of the gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter protophormiae. After purification of the wild-type d-AAO, the gene sequence was determined and designated dao. An alignment of the deduced primary structure with eukaryotic d-AAOs and d-aspartate oxidases showed that the d-AAO from A. protophormiae contains five of

Birgit Geueke; Andrea Weckbecker; Werner Hummel

2007-01-01

263

Lysyl Oxidase-related Protein1 Promotes Tumor Fibrosis and Tumor Progression in Vivo1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lysyl oxidase gene family members function as extracellular matrix modulating enzymes. We have found that another member of this family, lysyl oxidase related protein-1 (LOR-1), is highly expressed in metastatic breast cancer-derived cell lines but not in the nonmetastatic estrogen- dependent MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, LOR-1 expression in periductal tumor cells of breast carcinomas is significantly correlated with increased tumor

Gal Akiri; Edmond Sabo; Hagit Dafni; Zehava Vadasz; Yelena Kartvelishvily; Noga Gan; Ofra Kessler; Tzafra Cohen; Murray Resnick; Michal Neeman; Gera Neufeld

2003-01-01

264

Characterization of a cytochrome a1 that functions as a ubiquinol oxidase in Acetobacter aceti.  

PubMed Central

The terminal oxidase for ethanol oxidation in Acetobacter aceti was purified as a complex consisting of four subunits (subunits I, II, III, and IV) with molecular masses of 72, 34, 21, and 13 kDa, respectively. Spectrophotometric analysis and catalytic properties determined with the purified enzyme showed that it belonged to a family of cytochrome a1 (ba)-type ubiquinol oxidases. A polymerase chain reaction with two oligonucleotides designed for amino acid sequences that are conserved in subunit I of the aa3-type cytochrome c oxidases from various origins and of an Escherichia coli o (bo)-type ubiquinol oxidase was used for cloning the cytochrome a1 gene. A 0.5-kb fragment thus amplified was used as the probe to clone a 4.5-kb KpnI fragment that contained a putative open reading frame for the whole subunit I gene. The molecular weight and amino acid composition of the product of this open reading frame (cyaA) were the same as those of the purified protein from A. aceti. The amino acid sequence of CyaA was homologous to that of subunit I of the E. coli o-type ubiquinol oxidase. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the region neighboring the cyaA gene revealed that the genes (cyaB, cyaC, and cyaD) encoding the other three subunits (subunits II, III, and IV) were clustered upstream and downstream of the cyaA gene in the order cyaB, cyaA, cyaC, and cyaD and with the same transcription polarity, forming an operon. As expected from the enzymatic properties, CyaB, CyaC, and CyaD showed great similarity in amino acid sequence to the corresponding sununits of the E. coli o-type ubiquinol oxidase and as(3)-type cytochrome c oxidases. Images PMID:8392509

Fukaya, M; Tayama, K; Tamaki, T; Ebisuya, H; Okumura, H; Kawamura, Y; Horinouchi, S; Beppu, T

1993-01-01

265

Direct electrochemistry and intramolecular electron transfer of ascorbate oxidase confined on L-cysteine self-assembled gold electrode.  

PubMed

A direct electrochemistry and intramolecular electron transfer of multicopper oxidases are of a great importance for the fabrication of these enzyme-based bioelectrochemical-devices. Ascorbate oxidase from Acremonium sp. (ASOM) has been successfully immobilized via a chemisorptive interaction on the l-cysteine self-assembled monolayer modified gold electrode (cys-SAM/AuE). Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of ASOM on the cys-SAM/AuE were studied using cyclic voltammetry. A well-defined redox wave centered at 166±3mV (vs. Ag?AgCl?KCl(sat.)) was observed in 5.0mM phosphate buffer solution (pH7.0) at the fabricated ASOM electrode, abbreviated as ASOM/cys-SAM/AuE, confirming a direct electrochemistry, i.e., a direct electron transfer (DET) between ASOM and cys-SAM/AuE. The direct electrochemistry of ASOM was further confirmed by taking into account the chemical oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by O2 via an intramolecular electron transfer in the ASOM as well as the electrocatalytic oxidation of AA at the ASOM/cys-SAM/AuE. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the adsorption of ASOM on the cys-SAM/AuE have been elaborated along with its direct electron transfer at the modified electrodes on the basis of its intramolecular electron transfer and electrocatalytic activity towards ascorbic acid oxidation and O2 reduction. ASOM saturated surface area was obtained as 2.41×10(-11)molcm(-2) with the apparent adsorption coefficient of 1.63×10(6)Lmol(-1). The ASOM confined on the cys-SAM/AuE possesses its essential enzymatic function. PMID:24189123

Patil, Bhushan; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Fujikawa, Shigenori; Okajima, Takeyoshi; Mao, Lanqun; Ohsaka, Takeo

2014-02-01

266

Gibberellin oxidase activities in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids.  

PubMed

Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids isolated from root nodules of soybean (Glycine max.) plants converted the gibberellin (GA) precursor [(14)C1]GA12 into several products identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as [(14)C1]GA24, [(14)C1]GA9, [(14)C1]GA15, GA9 17-nor-16-one and unidentified products. The oxidation of GA12, catalyzed by the GA 20-oxidase, was present in symbiotic bacteroids from plants around flowering, but not in bacteroids from plants at either an early vegetative stage or at late growth stages. Expression of cps and ks genes, involved in ent-kaurene biosynthesis, was also demonstrated in bacteroids from soybean plants around flowering. Earlier precursors of the GA pathway, ent-[(14)C1]kaurenoic acid or [(14)C4]GA12-aldehyde, were efficiently utilized by B. japonicum bacteroids to give labelled GA9 plus intermediates partially oxidized at C-20, as well as GA9 17-nor-16-one and an unidentified product. No 3? or 13-hydroxylated [(14)C]GAs were detected in any of the incubations. Moreover the C19-GAs [(14)C1]GA4 or [(14)C1]GA20 were recovered unconverted upon incubation with the bacteroids which supports the absence of GA 3?-hydroxylase activity in B. japonicum. The bacterial 20-oxidase utilized the 13-hydroxylated substrates [(14)C1]GA53, [(14)C1]GA44 or [(14)C1]GA19, although with less efficiency than [(14)C1]GA12 to give [(14)C1]GA20 as final product, while the 3?-hydroxylated substrate [(14)C1]GA14 was converted to [(14)C1]GA4 to a very small extent. Endogenous GA9 and GA24 were identified by GC-MS in methanolic nodule extracts. These results suggest that B. japonicum bacteroids would synthesize GA9 under the symbiotic conditions present in soybean root nodules. PMID:24378220

Méndez, Constanza; Baginsky, Cecilia; Hedden, Peter; Gong, Fan; Carú, Margarita; Rojas, María Cecilia

2014-02-01

267

Monoamine oxidase in adult Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda).  

PubMed

A membrane-bound monoamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.4) was demonstrated in homogenates of Hymenolepis diminuta. The enzyme oxidized a variety of biologically active amines (in decreasing order: dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, tryptamine, tyramine, octopamine), there was, however, no activity with 5-hydroxytryptamine or benzylamine. No diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6.) could be detected in H. diminuta (using histamine, cadaverine or putrescine as substrates). The monoamine oxidase from H. diminuta was not inhibited by azide, hydroxylamine or semicarbazide, but was inhibited by cupferron, alpha-alpha dipyridyl and iodoacetamide, and by the specific monoamine oxidase inhibitors pargyline, nialamide and iproniazid. Several anthelmintics were also found to be inhibitors of monoamine oxidase. The possible roles of monoamine oxidase in H. diminuta are discussed. PMID:419001

Moreno, M S; Barrett, J

1979-02-01

268

New clusters of arsenite oxidase and unusual bacterial groups in enrichments from arsenic-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

In the present study cultivation-dependent and molecular methods were applied in combination to investigate the arsenite-oxidizing communities in enrichment cultures from arsenic and lead smelter-impacted soils with respect to both 16S rRNA and arsenite oxidase gene diversity. Enrichments with arsenite as the only electron donor resulted in completely different communities than enrichments with yeast extract and the simultaneous presence of arsenite. The lithoautotrophic community appeared to be dominated by Ferrimicrobium-related Actinobacteria, unusual Acidobacteria, Myxobacteria, and ?-Proteobacteria but the heterotrophic community comprised many Dokdonella-related ?-Proteobacteria. Gene sequences of clones encoding arsenite oxidase from the enrichment for lithoautotrophs belonged to three major clusters with sequences from non-cultivated microorganisms. So, primers used to detect arsenite oxidase genes could amplify the genes from many ?-, ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, but not from various strains of the other phyla present in the enrichment for lithotrophs. This was also observed for the isolates where arsenite oxidase genes from new proteobacterial isolates of the genera Burkholderia, Bosea, Alcaligenes, Bradyrhizobium and Methylobacterium could be amplified but the genes of the new Rhodococcus isolate S43 could not. The results indicate that the ability to oxidize arsenite is widespread in various unusual taxa, and molecular methods for their detection require further improvement. PMID:22350109

Sultana, Munawar; Vogler, Susann; Zargar, Kamrun; Schmidt, Anne-Christine; Saltikov, Chad; Seifert, Jana; Schlömann, Michael

2012-07-01

269

Residual NADPH Oxidase Activity and Isolated Lung Involvement in X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by inherited immune defects resulting from mutations in the NADPH oxidase complex genes. The X-linked type of CGD is caused by defects in the CYBB gene that encodes gp91-phox, a fundamental component of the NADPH oxidase complex. This mutation originates the most common and severe form of CGD, which typically has absence of NADPH oxidase function and aggressive multisystemic infections. We present the case of a 9-year-old child with a rare CYBB mutation that preserves some NADPH oxidase activity, resulting in an atypical mild form of X-linked CGD with isolated lung involvement. Although the clinical picture and partially preserved oxidase function suggested an autosomal recessive form of CGD, genetic testing demonstrated a mutation in the exon 3 of CYBB gene (c.252 G>A, p.Ala84Ala), an uncommon X-linked CGD variant that affects splicing. Atypical presentation and diagnostic difficulties are discussed. This case highlights that the diagnosis of mild forms of X-linked CGD caused by rare CYBB mutations and partially preserved NADPH function should be considered early in the evaluation of atypical and recurrent lung infections. PMID:23193493

Gutierrez, Maria J.; McSherry, George D.; Ishmael, Faoud T.; Horwitz, Alexandra A.; Nino, Gustavo

2012-01-01

270

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: Clinical Review  

PubMed Central

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are effective antidepressant agents. They are increasingly and effectively used in a number of other psychiatric and non-psychiatric medical syndromes. Their potential for serious toxicity (i.e., hypertensive reaction) is far less than original reports suggest, and newer reversible substrate-specific MAOIs may offer even less toxicity. The author reviews the pharmacology, mechanism of action, clinical indications, and dosing strategies of MAOIs. The common MAOI side-effects (hypotension, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, insomnia, daytime sedation, myoclonus, and hypertensive episodes) are described and management techniques suggested. Recent clinical developments involving MAOIs are outlined. PMID:21233984

Remick, Ronald A.; Froese, Colleen

1990-01-01

271

Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of the cholesterol oxidase CgChoA from Chryseobacterium gleum  

PubMed Central

Background Cholesterol oxidases are important enzymes for applications such as the analysis of cholesterol in clinical samples, the synthesis of steroid derived drugs, and are considered as potential antibacterial drug targets. Results The gene choA encoding a cholesterol oxidase from Chryseobacterium gleum DSM 16776 was cloned into the pQE-30 expression vector and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 co-transformed with pRARE2. The N-terminally His-tagged cholesterol oxidase (CgChoA) was assigned to be a monomer in solution by size exclusion chromatography, showed a temperature optimum of 35°C, and a pH optimum at 6.75 using 0.011 M MOPS buffer under the tested conditions. The purified protein showed a maximum activity of 15.5 U/mg. CgChoA showed a Michaelis-Menten like kinetic behavior only when the substrate was dissolved in water and taurocholate (apparent Km?=?0.5 mM). In addition, the conversion of cholesterol by CgChoA was studied via biocatalytic batches at analytical scale, and cholest-4-en-3-one was confirmed as product by HPLC-MS. Conclusion CgChoA is a true cholesterol oxidase which activity ranges among the high performing described cholesterol oxidases from other organisms. Thus, the enzyme broadens the available toolbox of cholesterol oxidases for e.g. synthetic and biosensing applications. PMID:24885249

2014-01-01

272

Ectopic Expression of Pumpkin Gibberellin Oxidases Alters Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Development of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants1  

PubMed Central

Immature pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds contain gibberellin (GA) oxidases with unique catalytic properties resulting in GAs of unknown function for plant growth and development. Overexpression of pumpkin GA 7-oxidase (CmGA7ox) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in seedlings with elongated roots, taller plants that flower earlier with only a little increase in bioactive GA4 levels compared to control plants. In the same way, overexpression of the pumpkin GA 3-oxidase1 (CmGA3ox1) resulted in a GA overdose phenotype with increased levels of endogenous GA4. This indicates that, in Arabidopsis, 7-oxidation and 3-oxidation are rate-limiting steps in GA plant hormone biosynthesis that control plant development. With an opposite effect, overexpression of pumpkin seed-specific GA 20-oxidase1 (CmGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis resulted in dwarfed plants that flower late with reduced levels of GA4 and increased levels of physiological inactive GA17 and GA25 and unexpected GA34 levels. Severe dwarfed plants were obtained by overexpression of the pumpkin GA 2-oxidase1 (CmGA2ox1) in Arabidopsis. This dramatic change in phenotype was accompanied by a considerable decrease in the levels of bioactive GA4 and an increase in the corresponding inactivation product GA34 in comparison to control plants. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of four pumpkin GA oxidase-encoding genes to modulate the GA plant hormone pool and alter plant stature and development. PMID:16384902

Radi, Abeer; Lange, Theo; Niki, Tomoya; Koshioka, Masaji; Lange, Maria Joao Pimenta

2006-01-01

273

Oxidative innate immune defenses by Nox/Duox family NADPH oxidases.  

PubMed

The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in innate immunity was first recognized in professional phagocytes undergoing a 'respiratory burst'upon activation. This robust oxygen consumption is related to a superoxide-generating enzyme, the phagocytic NADPH oxidase (Nox2-based or phox). The oxidase is essential for microbial killing, since patients lacking a functional oxidase suffer from enhanced susceptibility to microbial infections. ROS derived from superoxide attack bacteria in the isolated niche of the neutrophil phagosome. The oxidase is electrogenic, alters ion currents across membranes, induces apoptosis, regulates cytokine production, influences gene expression, and promotes formation of extracellular traps. Recently, new homologues of Nox2 were discovered establishing the Nox family of NADPH oxidases that encompasses seven members. Nox1 is highly expressed in the colon epithelium, and can be induced by LPS or IFN- gamma. Nox4 was implicated in innate immunity since LPS induces Nox4-dependent ROS generation. Duox1 and Duox2 localize to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in major airways, salivary glands, and the gastrointestinal tract, and provide extracellular hydrogen peroxide to lactoperoxidase to produce antimicrobial hypothiocyanite ions. Th1 and Th2 cytokines regulate expression of dual oxidases in human airways and may thereby act in host defense or in proinflammatory responses. PMID:18511861

Rada, Balázs; Leto, Thomas L

2008-01-01

274

The therapeutic potential of monoamine oxidase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors were among the first antidepressants to be discovered and have long been used as such. It now seems that many of these agents might have therapeutic value in several common neurodegenerative conditions, independently of their inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity. However, many claims and some counter-claims have been made about the physiological importance of these enzymes and

Dale Edmondson; Keith F. Tipton; Moussa B. H. Youdim

2006-01-01

275

The catalytic cycle of catechol oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid density functional theory with the B3LYP functional has been used to investigate the catalytic mechanism of catechol oxidase. Catechol oxidase belongs to a class of enzymes that has a copper dimer with histidine ligands at the active site. Another member of this class is tyrosinase, which has been studied by similar methods previously. An important advantage for the present

Per E. M. Siegbahn

2004-01-01

276

Original article Variation for polyphenol oxidase activity  

E-print Network

Original article Variation for polyphenol oxidase activity in stems of Medicago species Michele) Abstract - Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was detected in stems of both glandular-haired and glabrous from 120 to 180 kDa and the lighter one from 65 to 75 kDa. The substrate affinity for 4-methyl catechol

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Regulation of innate immunity by NADPH oxidase  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase is a critical regulator of both antimicrobial host defense and inflammation. Activated in nature by microbes and microbial-derived products, the phagocyte NADPH oxidase is rapidly assembled, and generates reactive oxidant intermediates (ROIs) in response to infectious threat. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the NADPH oxidase characterized by recurrent and severe bacterial and fungal infections, and pathology related to excessive inflammation. Studies in CGD patients and CGD mouse models indicate that NADPH oxidase plays a key role in modulating inflammation and injury that is distinct from its antimicrobial function. The mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase mediates killing of pathogens and regulation of inflammation has broad relevance to our understanding of normal physiological immune responses and pathological states, such as acute lung injury and bacterial or fungal infections. PMID:22583699

Segal, Brahm H.; Grimm, Melissa J.; Khan, A. Nazmul H.; Han, Wei; Blackwell, Timothy S.

2012-01-01

278

L-Pipecolic acid oxidase, a human enzyme essential for the degradation of L-pipecolic acid, is most similar to the monomeric sarcosine oxidases.  

PubMed Central

L-Pipecolic acid oxidase activity is deficient in patients with peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs). Because its role, if any, in these disorders is unknown, we cloned the associated human gene and expressed its protein product. The cDNA was cloned with the use of a reverse genetics approach based on the amino acid sequence obtained from purified L-pipecolic acid oxidase from monkey. The complete cDNA, obtained by conventional library screening and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, encompassed an open reading frame of 1170 bases, translating to a 390-residue protein. The translated protein terminated with the sequence AHL, a peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Indirect immunofluorescence studies showed that the protein product was expressed in human fibroblasts in a punctate pattern that co-localized with the peroxisomal enzyme catalase. A BLAST search with the amino acid sequence showed 31% identity and 53% similarity with Bacillus sp. NS-129 monomeric sarcosine oxidase, as well as similarity to all sarcosine oxidases and dehydrogenases. No similarity was found to the peroxisomal D-amino acid oxidases. The recombinant enzyme oxidized both L-pipecolic acid and sarcosine. However, PBD patients who lack the enzyme activity accumulate only L-pipecolic acid, suggesting that in humans in vivo, this enzyme is involved mainly in the degradation of L-pipecolic acid. PMID:10642506

Dodt, G; Kim, D G; Reimann, S A; Reuber, B E; McCabe, K; Gould, S J; Mihalik, S J

2000-01-01

279

NADPH Oxidases Regulate CD44 and Hyaluronic Acid Expression in Thrombin-treated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and in Atherosclerosis*  

PubMed Central

The intracellular signaling events by which NADPH oxidase-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function and atherogenesis are yet to be entirely elucidated. We previously demonstrated that NADPH oxidase deficiency decreased atherosclerosis in apoE?/? mice and identified adhesion protein CD44 as an important ROS-sensitive gene expressed in VSMC and atherosclerotic lesions. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase-generated ROS regulate the expression of CD44 and its principal ligand, hyaluronan (HA), and how CD44-HA interaction affects VSMC proliferation and migration and inflammatory gene expression in apoE?/? mice aortas. Thrombin-induced CD44 expression is mediated by transcription factor AP-1 in a NADPH oxidase-dependent manner. NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS generation enhanced thrombin-induced HA synthesis, and hyaluronan synthase 2 expression in VSMC. Hyaluronidase, which generates low molecular weight HA (LMW-HA), is induced in VSMC in a NADPH oxidase-dependent manner and LMW-HA stimulated ROS generation and cell proliferation in wild-type but not p47phox?/? VSMC, effects that were enhanced by thrombin pretreatment. Haptotactic VSMC migration toward HA was increased by thrombin in a CD44-dependent manner. HA expression in atherosclerotic lesions and plasma-soluble CD44 and HA levels were higher in apoE?/? compared with apoE?/?/p47phox?/? mice. HA-regulated pro-inflammatory gene expression was higher in apoE?/? than apoE?/?/p47phox?/? mouse aortas. GKT136901, a specific inhibitor of Nox1- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidase activity, attenuated ROS generation and atherosclerosis and decreased CD44 and HA expression in atherosclerotic lesions. Together, these data suggest that increased CD44 and HA expression and CD44-HA-dependent gene regulation may play a role in atherosclerosis stimulated by NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:20558727

Vendrov, Aleksandr E.; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Niu, Xi-Lin; Molnar, Kimberly C.; Runge, Mason; Szyndralewiez, Cedric; Page, Patrick; Runge, Marschall S.

2010-01-01

280

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase Activity Limits Ethylene Biosynthesis in Rumex palustris during Submergence  

PubMed Central

Submergence strongly stimulates petiole elongation in Rumex palustris, and ethylene accumulation initiates and maintains this response in submerged tissues. cDNAs from R. palustris corresponding to a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase gene (RP-ACO1) were isolated from elongating petioles and used to study the expression of the corresponding gene. An increase in RP-ACO1 messenger was observed in the petioles and lamina of elongating leaves 2 h after the start of submergence. ACC oxidase enzyme activity was measured in homogenates of R. palustris shoots, and a relevant increase was observed within 12 h under water with a maximum after 24 h. We have shown previously that the ethylene production rate of submerged shoots does not increase significantly during the first 24 h of submergence (L.A.C.J. Voesenek, M. Banga, R.H. Thier, C.M. Mudde, F.M. Harren, G.W.M. Barendse, C.W.P.M. Blom [1993] Plant Physiol 103: 783–791), suggesting that under these conditions ACC oxidase activity is inhibited in vivo. We found evidence that this inhibition is caused by a reduction of oxygen levels. We hypothesize that an increased ACC oxidase enzyme concentration counterbalances the reduced enzyme activity caused by low oxygen concentration during submergence, thus sustaining ethylene production under these conditions. Therefore, ethylene biosynthesis seems to be limited at the level of ACC oxidase activity rather than by ACC synthase in R. palustris during submergence. PMID:10482674

Vriezen, Wim H.; Hulzink, Raymond; Mariani, Celestina; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.

1999-01-01

281

Alternative oxidase in animals: unique characteristics and taxonomic distribution.  

PubMed

Alternative oxidase (AOX), a ubiquinol oxidase, introduces a branch point into the respiratory electron transport chain, bypassing complexes III and IV and resulting in cyanide-resistant respiration. Previously, AOX was thought to be limited to plants and some fungi and protists but recent work has demonstrated the presence of AOX in most kingdoms of life, including animals. In the present study we identified AOX in 28 animal species representing nine phyla. This expands the known taxonomic distribution of AOX in animals by 10 species and two phyla. Using bioinformatics we found AOX gene sequences in members of the animal phyla Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Chordata. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with degenerate primers designed to recognize conserved regions of animal AOX, we demonstrated that AOX genes are transcribed in several animals from different phyla. An analysis of full-length AOX sequences revealed an amino acid motif in the C-terminal region of the protein that is unique to animal AOXs. Animal AOX also lacks an N-terminal cysteine residue that is known to be important for AOX enzyme regulation in plants. We conclude that the presence of AOX is the ancestral state in animals and hypothesize that its absence in some lineages, including vertebrates, is due to gene loss events. PMID:19648408

McDonald, Allison E; Vanlerberghe, Greg C; Staples, James F

2009-08-01

282

THE GENETIC CONTROL AND BIOCHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF CATECHOL OXIDASE IN MAIZE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three isozyme variants of catechol oxidase have been shown to be deter- mined by alleles of a gene, Cz, which has been located on chromosome 10 less than 0.1 recombination units from the endosperm marker &,.-The ex- tractable form of the enzyme is modified by an endogeneous \\

TONY PRYOR

283

Mouse Mutant Deficient in d-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

d-Amino acid oxidase activity in the kidney homogenates of mice of seven strains was measured to search for a mutant for this enzyme. There was a consistent sex difference in the enzyme activity in these strains: male mice showed higher levels of the enzyme activity than females. In contrast to other strains, some mice of the ddY strain did not possess enzyme activity. This trait was inheritable, and a mouse stock without enzyme activity (DAO -) was established. The allele (Dao-1c) carried by the DAO- mice was recessive and behaved as a single autosomal gene in inheritance. Heterozygous mice for this gene (Dao-1 +/Dao-1c) showed nearly half the enzyme activity of the wild-type homozygotes (Dao-1+/Dao-1 +), suggesting that Dao-1c is a null allele and that there is a gene dosage effect on the enzyme activity. PMID:6131852

Konno, Ryuichi; Yasumura, Yosihiro

1983-01-01

284

Function of the pyruvate oxidase-lactate oxidase cascade in interspecies competition between Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed

Complex interspecies interactions occur constantly between oral commensals and the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque. Previously, we showed that oral commensal Streptococcus oligofermentans possesses multiple enzymes for H(2)O(2) production, especially lactate oxidase (Lox), allowing it to out-compete S. mutans. In this study, through extensive biochemical and genetic studies, we identified a pyruvate oxidase (pox) gene in S. oligofermentans. A pox deletion mutant completely lost Pox activity, while ectopically expressed pox restored activity. Pox was determined to produce most of the H(2)O(2) in the earlier growth phase and log phase, while Lox mainly contributed to H(2)O(2) production in stationary phase. Both pox and lox were expressed throughout the growth phase, while expression of the lox gene increased by about 2.5-fold when cells entered stationary phase. Since lactate accumulation occurred to a large degree in stationary phase, the differential Pox- and Lox-generated H(2)O(2) can be attributed to differential gene expression and substrate availability. Interestingly, inactivation of pox causes a dramatic reduction in H(2)O(2) production from lactate, suggesting a synergistic action of the two oxidases in converting lactate into H(2)O(2). In an in vitro two-species biofilm experiment, the pox mutant of S. oligofermentans failed to inhibit S. mutans even though lox was active. In summary, S. oligofermentans develops a Pox-Lox synergy strategy to maximize its H(2)O(2) formation so as to win the interspecies competition. PMID:22287002

Liu, Lei; Tong, Huichun; Dong, Xiuzhu

2012-04-01

285

1 The MAOA gene predicts happiness in women 2 HenianQ1 Chen a,b,  

E-print Network

and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) 29genotype. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a population, (2011) found a link between self-esteem and oxytocin receptor 63gene (OXTR). Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA

Meyers, Steven D.

286

Molecular cloning, DNA sequencing, and enzymatic analyses of two Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase mutants defective in activation by lipids.  

PubMed Central

Two Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase (EC 1.2.2.2) mutant genes, poxB3 and poxB4, were cloned on plasmid pBR322. The poxB3 mutant oxidase which was described previously (Y. Y. Chang and J. E. Cronan, Jr., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:4348-4352, 1984) was deficient in lipid activation but retained full catalytic activity. The poxB3 mutation was located in the C-terminal half of the gene, and the nucleotide alteration has been determined by DNA sequencing of this part of the gene and by comparing the sequence with that of the wild-type strain (C. Grabau and J. E. Cronan, Jr., submitted for publication). The poxB3 oxidase mutation is the substitution of a serine residue for Pro-536. poxB4, another pyruvate oxidase mutant gene, was also deficient in lipid activation. The major difference between the poxB3 and poxB4 oxidase was in the binding of Triton detergents. The poxB4 mutation was also located in the C-terminal half of the gene, and sequence analysis has shown that only one nucleotide base was altered, which resulted in Ala-467 being converted to a threonine residue. The results of the amino acid substitutions in the mutant proteins, leading to the functional alteration of the enzyme, are discussed. Images PMID:3522547

Chang, Y Y; Cronan, J E

1986-01-01

287

Phylogeny of the Genus Chironomus (Diptera) Inferred from DNA Sequences of Mitochondrial Cytochrome b and Cytochrome oxidase I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two mitochondrial genes, Cytochrome b (Cytb) and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), have been used as phylogenetic markers in Chironomids. The nucleotide sequences of 685 bp from Cytb and 596 bp from COI have been determined for 36 Chironomus species from the Palearctic, or Holarctic, and Australasia. The concatenated sequence of 1281 bp from both genes was used to

Victor Guryev; Irina Makarevitch; Alexander Blinov; Jon Martin

2001-01-01

288

Patterns of evolution of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and II DNA and implications for DNA barcoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA barcoding has focused increasing attention on the use of specific regions of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and II genes (COI–COII) to diagnose and delimit species. However, our understanding of patterns of molecular evolution within these genes is limited. Here we examine patterns of nucleotide divergence in COI–COII within species and between species pairs of Lepidoptera and Diptera using

Amanda D. Roe; Felix A. H. Sperling

2007-01-01

289

Phylogenomic Relationships of Rice Oxalate Oxidases to the Cupin Superfamily and Their Association with Disease Resistance QTL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice oxalate oxidase genes (OXO) may play a role in resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae. Genome analyses showed four tandemly duplicated OXO genes, OsOXO1–OsOXO4, which mapped to a blast resistance QTL in chromosome 3. These genes have >90% nucleotide and amino acid identity, but they\\u000a have unique gene structures, conserved motifs, and phylogeny compared to the 70 other members of the

Maria Gay C. Carrillo; Paul H. Goodwin; Jan E. Leach; Hei Leung; Casiana M. Vera Cruz

2009-01-01

290

uORF, a regulatory mechanism of the Arabidopsis polyamine oxidase 2.  

PubMed

The translational efficiency of an mRNA can be modulated by elements located in the 5'-untranslated region. The flavin-containing polyamine oxidases catabolize oxidative deamination of spermidine and spermine, thus contributing to polyamine homeostasis as well as diverse biological processes through their reaction products. In this study, we characterized the uORF of AtPAO2 gene using the GUS reporter gene. Transgenic lines harboring the native AtPAO2 promoter or the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter show that the uORF negatively affects GUS expression. Exogenous applications of PAs positively modulate GUS expression, thus alleviating the negative effect of AtPAO2 uORF, while treatments with MGBG inhibitor show an opposite effect. Our data suggest that AtPAO2 uORF regulatory mechanism is modulated by polyamines. In addition, we present a comparative in silico study of the uORFs identified in several plant transcripts encoding polyamine oxidases in both mono- and dicotyledonous plants as well as in the Bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. The polyamine oxidase uORF-encoded peptides are conserved among families and share conserved features such as their position, length, and amino acid sequence. Our findings provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism of polyamine oxidase genes and encourage further exploration to assess the biological significance of uORFs in the polyamine catabolic pathway. PMID:24435979

Guerrero-González, Maria L; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F

2014-04-01

291

D-Amino acid oxidase: new findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most recent research on D-amino acid oxidases and D-amino acid metabolism has revealed new, intriguing properties of flavoenzymes and enlighted novel biotechnological uses of this catalyst. Concerning the in vivo function of the enzyme, new findings on the physiological role of D-amino acid oxidase point to a detoxifying function of the enzyme in metabolizing exogenous D-amino acids in animals.

M. S. Pilone; J. H. Dunant

2000-01-01

292

Deletion of glucose oxidase changes the pattern of organic acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus carbonarius has potential as a cell factory for the production of different organic acids. At pH 5.5, A.carbonarius accumulates high amounts of gluconic acid when it grows on glucose based medium whereas at low pH, it produces citric acid. The conversion of glucose to gluconic acid is carried out by secretion of the enzyme, glucose oxidase. In this work, the gene encoding glucose oxidase was identified and deleted from A. carbonarius with the aim of changing the carbon flux towards other organic acids. The effect of genetic engineering was examined by testing glucose oxidase deficient (?gox) mutants for the production of different organic acids in a defined production medium. The results obtained showed that the gluconic acid accumulation was completely inhibited and increased amounts of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid were observed in the ?gox mutants.

2014-01-01

293

Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases.  

PubMed

Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts. PMID:24006417

Giacomelli, Lisa; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Masuero, Domenico; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Moretto, Marco; Caputi, Lorenzo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Moser, Claudio

2013-11-01

294

Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases  

PubMed Central

Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts. PMID:24006417

Giacomelli, Lisa

2013-01-01

295

Assays of D-amino acid oxidases.  

PubMed

D-Amino acid oxidase and D-aspartate oxidase are two well-known FAD-containing flavooxidases that catalyze the same reaction (the oxidative deamination) on different D-amino acids. D-aspartate oxidase is specific for acidic D-amino acids (i.e., D-aspartate and D-glutamate) and D-amino acid oxidase is active on neutral and polar D-amino acids (a low activity is also detected on basic D-amino acids). The assay of these flavoenzymes is of utmost importance in different fields because D-amino acids are common constituents of bacterial cell walls, are present in foods and because free D-serine and D-aspartic acid were identified in brain and peripheral tissues of mammals. In this chapter, we report on the most used methods employed to assay the activity of D-amino acid oxidase and D-aspartate oxidase. Interestingly, their activity can be followed using different assays, namely D-amino acid or oxygen consumption, ?-keto acid or ammonia production, or using artificial dyes as final indicator of the flavin redox reaction. PMID:21956578

Tedeschi, Gabriella; Pollegioni, Loredano; Negri, Armando

2012-01-01

296

NADPH Oxidase as a Therapeutic Target for Oxalate Induced Injury in Kidneys  

PubMed Central

A major role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family of enzymes is to catalyze the production of superoxides and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS, in turn, play a key role as messengers in cell signal transduction and cell cycling, but when they are produced in excess they can lead to oxidative stress (OS). Oxidative stress in the kidneys is now considered a major cause of renal injury and inflammation, giving rise to a variety of pathological disorders. In this review, we discuss the putative role of oxalate in producing oxidative stress via the production of reactive oxygen species by isoforms of NADPH oxidases expressed in different cellular locations of the kidneys. Most renal cells produce ROS, and recent data indicate a direct correlation between upregulated gene expressions of NADPH oxidase, ROS, and inflammation. Renal tissue expression of multiple NADPH oxidase isoforms most likely will impact the future use of different antioxidants and NADPH oxidase inhibitors to minimize OS and renal tissue injury in hyperoxaluria-induced kidney stone disease. PMID:23840917

Peck, Ammon B.; Khan, Saeed R.

2013-01-01

297

Heme/copper terminal oxidases  

SciTech Connect

Spatially well-organized electron-transfer reactions in a series of membrane-bound redox proteins form the basis for energy conservation in both photosynthesis and respiration. The membrane-bound nature of the electron-transfer processes is critical, as the free energy made available in exergonic redox chemistry is used to generate transmembrane proton concentration and electrostatic potential gradients. These gradients are subsequently used to drive ATP formation, which provides the immediate energy source for constructive cellular processes. The terminal heme/copper oxidases in respiratory electron-transfer chains illustrate a number of the thermodynamic and structural principles that have driven the development of respiration. This class of enzyme reduces dioxygen to water, thus clearing the respiratory system of low-energy electrons so that sustained electron transfer and free-energy transduction can occur. By using dioxygen as the oxidizing substrate, free-energy production per electron through the chain is substantial, owing to the high reduction potential of O{sub 2} (0.815 V at pH 7). 122 refs.

Ferguson-Miller, S.; Babcock, G.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1996-11-01

298

Targeting NADPH oxidases in vascular pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is a molecular dysregulation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is characterized by a loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Large clinical trials such as HOPE and HPS have not shown a clinical benefit of antioxidant vitamin C or vitamin E treatment, putting into question the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease. A change in the understanding of the molecular nature of oxidative stress has been driven by the results of these trials. Oxidative stress is no longer perceived as a simple imbalance between the production and scavenging of ROS, but as a dysfunction of enzymes involved in ROS production. NADPH oxidases are at the center of these events, underlying the dysfunction of other oxidases including eNOS uncoupling, xanthine oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus NADPH oxidases are important therapeutic targets. Indeed, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) as well as drugs interfering with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibit NADPH oxidase activation and expression. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, AT1 receptor antagonists (sartans) and aliskiren, as well as spironolactone or eplerenone, have been discussed. Molecular aspects of NADPH oxidase regulation must be considered, while thinking about novel pharmacological targeting of this family of enzymes consisting of several homologs Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4 and Nox5 in humans. In order to properly design trials of antioxidant therapies, we must develop reliable techniques for the assessment of local and systemic oxidative stress. Classical antioxidants could be combined with novel oxidase inhibitors. In this review, we discuss NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as VAS2870, VAS3947, GK-136901, S17834 or plumbagin. Therefore, our efforts must focus on generating small molecular weight inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, allowing the selective inhibition of dysfunctional NADPH oxidase homologs. This appears to be the most reasonable approach, potentially much more efficient than non-selective scavenging of all ROS by the administration of antioxidants. PMID:22405985

Schramm, Agata; Matusik, Pawel; Osmenda, Grzegorz; Guzik, Tomasz J

2012-01-01

299

Genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

Excellence, Access

2005-03-12

300

Molecular and structural modeling of the Phanerochaete flavido - alba extracellular laccase reveals its ferroxidase structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba is highly efficient in the oxidation of olive oil wastewater-derived polyphenols. This capability is largely due to the action\\u000a of a multicopper-oxidase (MCO), encoded by the pfaL gene. We describe the sequence and organization of pfaL gene and the biochemical characterization and predicted 3D structural model of the encoded protein. pfaL gene organization and peptide sequence

Francisco Rodríguez-Rincón; Antonio Suarez; Mathias Lucas; Luis Fernando Larrondo; Teresa de la Rubia; Julio Polaina; José Martínez

2010-01-01

301

Proline dehydrogenase (oxidase) in cancer.  

PubMed

Proline dehydrogenase (oxidase, PRODH/POX), the first enzyme in the proline degradative pathway, plays a special role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Proline metabolism catalyzed by PRODH/POX is closely linked with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and urea cycle. The proline cycle formed by the interconversion of proline and ?(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) between mitochondria and cytosol interlocks with pentose phosphate pathway. Importantly, by catalyzing proline to P5C, PRODH/POX donates electrons into the electron transport chain to generate ROS or ATP. In earlier studies, we found that PRODH/POX functions as a tumor suppressor to initiate apoptosis, inhibit tumor growth, and block the cell cycle, all by ROS signaling. It also suppresses hypoxia inducible factor signaling by increasing ?-ketoglutarate. During tumor progression, PRODH/POX is under the control of various tumor-associated factors, such as tumor suppressor p53, inflammatory factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), onco-miRNA miR-23b*, and oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC. Recent studies revealed the two-sided features of PRODH/POX-mediated regulation. Under metabolic stress such as oxygen and glucose deprivation, PRODH/POX can be induced to serve as a tumor survival factor through ATP production or ROS-induced autophagy. The paradoxical roles of PRODH/POX can be understood considering the temporal and spatial context of the tumor. Further studies will provide additional insights into this protein and on its metabolic effects in tumors, which may lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:22886911

Liu, Wei; Phang, James M

2012-01-01

302

Hyperuricemia and xanthine oxidase in preeclampsia, revisited.  

PubMed

Hyperuricemia is associated with the severity of preeclampsia and with fetal outcome. Traditionally the high uric acid concentration in preeclampsia has been attributed soley to renal dysfunction. Preeclampsia is also characterized by increased free radical formation and elevated oxidative stress. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase produces uric acid. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase is present as two isoforms in vivo. Uric acid production is coupled with formation of reactive oxygen species when the enzyme is in the oxidase form. Several factors can increase the holoenzyme activity and the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase to its oxidase form. These factors include hypoxia-reperfusion, cytokines, and increased substrate availability (xanthine and hypoxanthine). Preeclampsia is characterized by hyperuricemia and signs of increased formation of reactive oxygen species and decreased levels of antioxidants. Preeclampsia is also characterized by shallow implantation, producing a relatively hypoxic maternal-fetal interface, and increased turnover of trophoblast tissue, which can result in higher xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations and higher levels of circulating cytokines. These mechanisms can lead to increased production of uric acid and free radicals and contribute to the hyperuricemia and increased oxidative stress present in preeclampsia. PMID:8572024

Many, A; Hubel, C A; Roberts, J M

1996-01-01

303

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Insights into the role of differential gene  

E-print Network

of the transcripts identified was Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI). In addition, 6 possible reference genes were: Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI), a mitochondrial gene involved in energy metabolism. Quantitative PCR, COI is involved in the oxidative phosphorylation, suggesting an enhanced mitochondrial gene expression

Bernatchez, Louis

304

Complete genome sequence of the melanogenic marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea type strain (MMB-1T)  

SciTech Connect

Marinomonas mediterranea MMB-1 T Solano & Sanchez-Amat 1999 belongs to the family Oceanospirillaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria. This species is of interest because it is the only species described in the genus Marinomonas to date that can synthesize melanin pigments, which is mediated by the activity of a tyrosinase. M. mediterranea expresses other oxidases of biotechnological interest, such as a multicopper oxidase with laccase activity and a novel L-lysine-epsilon-oxidase. The 4,684,316 bp long genome harbors 4,228 proteincoding genes and 98 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Lucas-Elio, Patricia [University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Johnston, Andrew W. B. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio [University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain

2012-01-01

305

Molecular cloning and functional expression of gibberellin 2- oxidases, multifunctional enzymes involved in gibberellin deactivation.  

PubMed

A major catabolic pathway for the gibberellins (GAs) is initiated by 2beta-hydroxylation, a reaction catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. To isolate a GA 2beta-hydroxylase cDNA clone we used functional screening of a cDNA library from developing cotyledons of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) with a highly sensitive tritium-release assay for enzyme activity. The encoded protein, obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, converted GA9 to GA51 (2beta-hydroxyGA9) and GA51-catabolite, the latter produced from GA51 by further oxidation at C-2. The enzyme thus is multifunctional and is best described as a GA 2-oxidase. The recombinant enzyme also 2beta-hydroxylated other C19-GAs, although only GA9 and GA4 were converted to the corresponding catabolites. Three related cDNAs, corresponding to gene sequences present in Arabidopsis thaliana databases, also encoded functional GA 2-oxidases. Transcripts for two of the Arabidopsis genes were abundant in upper stems, flowers, and siliques, but the third transcript was not detected by Northern analysis. Transcript abundance for the two most highly expressed genes was lower in apices of the GA-deficient ga1-2 mutant of Arabidopsis than in wild-type plants and increased after treatment of the mutant with GA3. This up-regulation of GA 2-oxidase gene expression by GA contrasts GA-induced down-regulation of genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes GA 20-oxidase and GA 3beta-hydroxylase. These mechanisms would serve to maintain the concentrations of biologically active GAs in plant tissues. PMID:10200325

Thomas, S G; Phillips, A L; Hedden, P

1999-04-13

306

Molecular cloning and functional expression of gibberellin 2- oxidases, multifunctional enzymes involved in gibberellin deactivation  

PubMed Central

A major catabolic pathway for the gibberellins (GAs) is initiated by 2?-hydroxylation, a reaction catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. To isolate a GA 2?-hydroxylase cDNA clone we used functional screening of a cDNA library from developing cotyledons of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) with a highly sensitive tritium-release assay for enzyme activity. The encoded protein, obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, converted GA9 to GA51 (2?-hydroxyGA9) and GA51-catabolite, the latter produced from GA51 by further oxidation at C-2. The enzyme thus is multifunctional and is best described as a GA 2-oxidase. The recombinant enzyme also 2?-hydroxylated other C19-GAs, although only GA9 and GA4 were converted to the corresponding catabolites. Three related cDNAs, corresponding to gene sequences present in Arabidopsis thaliana databases, also encoded functional GA 2-oxidases. Transcripts for two of the Arabidopsis genes were abundant in upper stems, flowers, and siliques, but the third transcript was not detected by Northern analysis. Transcript abundance for the two most highly expressed genes was lower in apices of the GA-deficient ga1–2 mutant of Arabidopsis than in wild-type plants and increased after treatment of the mutant with GA3. This up-regulation of GA 2-oxidase gene expression by GA contrasts GA-induced down-regulation of genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes GA 20-oxidase and GA 3?-hydroxylase. These mechanisms would serve to maintain the concentrations of biologically active GAs in plant tissues. PMID:10200325

Thomas, Stephen G.; Phillips, Andrew L.; Hedden, Peter

1999-01-01

307

The Elusive Third Subunit IIa of the Bacterial B-Type Oxidases: The Enzyme from the Hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus  

PubMed Central

The reduction of molecular oxygen to water is catalyzed by complicated membrane-bound metallo-enzymes containing variable numbers of subunits, called cytochrome c oxidases or quinol oxidases. We previously described the cytochrome c oxidase II from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus as a ba3-type two-subunit (subunits I and II) enzyme and showed that it is included in a supercomplex involved in the sulfide-oxygen respiration pathway. It belongs to the B-family of the heme-copper oxidases, enzymes that are far less studied than the ones from family A. Here, we describe the presence in this enzyme of an additional transmembrane helix “subunit IIa”, which is composed of 41 amino acid residues with a measured molecular mass of 5105 Da. Moreover, we show that subunit II, as expected, is in fact longer than the originally annotated protein (from the genome) and contains a transmembrane domain. Using Aquifex aeolicus genomic sequence analyses, N-terminal sequencing, peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometry analysis on entire subunits, we conclude that the B-type enzyme from this bacterium is a three-subunit complex. It is composed of subunit I (encoded by coxA2) of 59000 Da, subunit II (encoded by coxB2) of 16700 Da and subunit IIa which contain 12, 1 and 1 transmembrane helices respectively. A structural model indicates that the structural organization of the complex strongly resembles that of the ba3 cytochrome c oxidase from the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the IIa helical subunit being structurally the lacking N-terminal transmembrane helix of subunit II present in the A-type oxidases. Analysis of the genomic context of genes encoding oxidases indicates that this third subunit is present in many of the bacterial oxidases from B-family, enzymes that have been described as two-subunit complexes. PMID:21738733

Prunetti, Laurence; Brugna, Myriam; Lebrun, Regine; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Therese; Guiral, Marianne

2011-01-01

308

A New Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying the Neurotoxicity of Spermine Oxidase Dosage in the Response to Excitotoxic Injury  

PubMed Central

Spermine oxidase is a FAD-containing enzyme involved in polyamines catabolism, selectively oxidizing spermine to produce H2O2, spermidine, and 3-aminopropanal. Spermine oxidase is highly expressed in the mouse brain and plays a key role in regulating the levels of spermine, which is involved in protein synthesis, cell division and cell growth. Spermine is normally released by neurons at synaptic sites where it exerts a neuromodulatory function, by specifically interacting with different types of ion channels, and with ionotropic glutamate receptors. In order to get an insight into the neurobiological roles of spermine oxidase and spermine, we have deregulated spermine oxidase gene expression producing and characterizing the transgenic mouse model JoSMOrec, conditionally overexpressing the enzyme in the neocortex. We have investigated the effects of spermine oxidase overexpression in the mouse neocortex by transcript accumulation, immunohistochemical analysis, enzymatic assays and polyamine content in young and aged animals. Transgenic JoSMOrec mice showed in the neocortex a higher H2O2 production in respect to Wild-Type controls, indicating an increase of oxidative stress due to SMO overexpression. Moreover, the response of transgenic mice to excitotoxic brain injury, induced by kainic acid injection, was evaluated by analysing the behavioural phenotype, the immunodistribution of neural cell populations, and the ultrastructural features of neocortical neurons. Spermine oxidase overexpression and the consequently altered polyamine levels in the neocortex affects the cytoarchitecture in the adult and aging brain, as well as after neurotoxic insult. It resulted that the transgenic JoSMOrec mouse line is more sensitive to KA than Wild-Type mice, indicating an important role of spermine oxidase during excitotoxicity. These results provide novel evidences of the complex and critical functions carried out by spermine oxidase and spermine in the mammalian brain. PMID:23840306

Cervelli, Manuela; Bellavia, Gabriella; D'Amelio, Marcello; Cavallucci, Virve; Moreno, Sandra; Berger, Joachim; Nardacci, Roberta; Marcoli, Manuela; Maura, Guido; Piacentini, Mauro; Amendola, Roberto; Cecconi, Francesco; Mariottini, Paolo

2013-01-01

309

Sulfite oxidase activity in Thiobacillus novellus.  

PubMed

Thiobacillus novellus shows a maximum induction of sulfite oxidase activity and a maximum growth rate as a result of supplementing the autotrophic growth medium with 4.0 microM ammonium molybdate. Cells grown in the presence of molybdate showed approximately 10-fold increases in the amount of enzyme-associated molybdenum and in the sulfite-to-cytochrome c and sulfite-to-ferricyanide reductase activities. The effect of exogenous molybdate was not discernible with cells grown in the absence of thiosulfate. Tungsten inhibited the growth of T. novellus and the expression of sulfite oxidase activity. PMID:6630156

Southerland, W M; Toghrol, F

1983-11-01

310

Lysyl oxidases in the trabecular meshwork.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play an important role in maintaining cellular function and overall tissue homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests that biomechanical modifications of the ECM may be initiators and/or drivers of disease, exemplified by increased tissue stiffness. Specific ECM cross-linking enzymes (tissue transglutaminase, lysyl oxidase, and lysyl oxidase-like 1) are expressed in the trabecular meshwork and are regulated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) isoforms. As TGF-? isoforms are elevated in the aqueous humor of glaucoma patients, trabecular meshwork stiffness mediated by ECM cross-linking may be responsible for increased aqueous humor outflow resistance and elevated intraocular pressure. PMID:25275908

Wordinger, Robert J; Clark, Abbot F

2014-01-01

311

Expression der mRNA von Lysyl Oxidase und Lysyl Oxidase Like 2 in Plattenepithelkarzinomen des oberen Aerodigestivtraktes.  

E-print Network

??Die Menge an Lysyl Oxidase (LOX)- und Lysyl Oxidase Like 2 (LOXL2)-mRNA in Zelllinien und Gewebebiopsien aus Plattenepithelkarzinomen des oberen Aerodigestivtraktes (HNSCC) wurde mittels Reverse… (more)

Wege-Rost, Tobias

2009-01-01

312

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Gene Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal  

E-print Network

- ume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the genotype of the monoamine oxidase A gene, MAOA neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regu

Homes, Christopher C.

313

Kinetics and specificity of guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase and bovine milk xanthine oxidase towards substituted benzaldehydes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molybdenum-containing enzymes, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase, are im- portant in the oxidation of N-heterocyclic xenobiotics. However, the role of these en- zymes in the oxidation of drug-derived aldehydes has not been established. The present investigation describes the interaction of eleven structurally related benzaldehydes with guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase and bovine milk xanthine oxidase, since they have similar substrate

Georgios I. Panoutsopoulos; Christine Beedham

2004-01-01

314

NADPH OXIDASES IN LUNG BIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY. HOST DEFENSE ENZYMES, AND MORE  

PubMed Central

The deliberate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by phagocyte NADPH oxidase is widely appreciated as a critical component of antimicrobial host defense. Recently, additional homologs of NADPH oxidase (NOX) have been discovered throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, which appear to possess diverse functions in addition to host defense, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and regulation of gene expression. Several of these NOX homologs are also expressed within the respiratory tract, where they participate in innate host defense as well as in epithelial and inflammatory cell signaling and gene expression, and fibroblast and smooth muscle cell proliferation, in response to bacterial or viral infection and environmental stress. Inappropriate expression or activation of NOX/DUOX during various lung pathologies suggests their specific involvement in respiratory disease. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the general functional properties of mammalian NOX enzymes, and their specific importance in respiratory tract physiology and pathology. PMID:18164271

van der Vliet, Albert

2008-01-01

315

Transcriptional regulation of the albumin gene depends on the removal of histone methylation marks by the FAD-dependent monoamine oxidase lysine-specific demethylase 1 in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Lysine-specific demethylase (LSD) 1 is an FAD-dependent demethylase that catalyzes the removal of methyl groups from lysine-4 in histone H3, thereby mediating gene repression. Here we tested the hypothesis that riboflavin deficiency causes a loss of LSD1 activity in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells, leading to an accumulation of lysine-4-dimethylated histone H3 (H3K4me2) marks in the albumin promoter and aberrant upregulation of albumin expression. Cells were cultured in riboflavin-defined media providing riboflavin at concentrations representing moderately deficient (3.1 nmol/L), sufficient (12.6 nmol/L), and supplemented (301 nmol/L) cells in humans for 7 d. The efficacy of treatment was confirmed by assessing glutathione reductase activity and concentrations of reduced glutathione as markers of riboflavin status. LSD activity was 21% greater in riboflavin-supplemented cells compared with riboflavin-deficient and -sufficient cells. The loss of LSD activity was associated with a gain in the abundance of H3K4me2 marks in the albumin promoter; the abundance of H3K4me2 marks was ?170% higher in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with sufficient and supplemented cells. The abundance of the repression mark, K9-trimethylated histone H3, was 38% lower in the albumin promoter of riboflavin-deficient cells compared with the other treatment groups. The expression of albumin mRNA was aberrantly increased by 200% in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with sufficient and supplemented cells. In conclusion, riboflavin deficiency impairs gene regulation by epigenetic mechanisms, mediated by a loss of LSD1 activity. PMID:24744315

Liu, Dandan; Zempleni, Janos

2014-07-01

316

Development of a biofuel cell using glucose-oxidase- and bilirubin-oxidase-based electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuel cells have a tremendous opportunity to provide much higher energy densities and smaller footprints than batteries\\u000a for powering implantable medical devices, leading to less intrusive implantable devices with longer lifetimes. This paper\\u000a introduces biofuel cell anode and cathode designs based on mediated glucose oxidation by glucose oxidase and oxygen reduction\\u000a by bilirubin oxidase, respectively. We report here the progress

Jinseong Kim; Jeffrey Parkey; Christopher Rhodes; Anuncia Gonzalez-Martin

2009-01-01

317

Cytochrome Oxidase and Its Derivatives. II. The Action of Strong Alkali on Cytochrome Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the action of strong alkali (0\\\\cdot 1 to 0\\\\cdot 3 N) cytochrome oxidase is converted to a Schiff's base (aldimine) with practically the same absorption spectrum as that of the Schiff's bases formed at high pH from other haemoproteins a (Lemberg & Newton 1962). Cytochrome oxidase, however, differs from the other haemoproteins a in that a higher pH (more

R. Lemberg

1964-01-01

318

Molecular characterization of wheat polyphenol oxidase (PPO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-established that the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is involved in undesirable browning of noodles, chapattis, middle east flat breads and steamed breads. Methods for measuring PPO activity have been developed, and the variation of PPO activity among wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars has been well documented. However, there is no report on the identification and characterization of a

T. Demeke; C. Morris

2002-01-01

319

Link Between Monoamine Oxidase and Nitric Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the last few decades, there has been extensive research and supporting evidence for the role of monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and its’ possible manipulation in the pathopysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Although, the role of dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems in central nervous system (CNS) and neurodegenerative diseases have been mostly demonstrated, the intrinsic mechanisms in these systems with relation

Ferhan Girgin Sagin; Eser Y Sozmen; Biltan Ersoz; Gulriz Mentes

2004-01-01

320

A new bacterial l-amino acid oxidase with a broad substrate specificity: purification and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus opacus DSM 43250 produces an l-amino acid oxidase (l-AAO) with a very broad substrate specificity. This enzyme has been purified to homogeneity and a detailed biochemical characterization was carried out. The complete nucleotide sequence of the l-AAO gene was determined and the primary structure of l-AAO was deduced. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was

Birgit Geueke; Werner Hummel

2002-01-01

321

Copper starvation-inducible protein for cytochrome oxidase biogenesis in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.  

PubMed

Microarray analysis of Bradyrhizobium japonicum grown under copper limitation uncovered five genes named pcuABCDE, which are co-transcribed and co-regulated as an operon. The predicted gene products are periplasmic proteins (PcuA, PcuC, and PcuD), a TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor (PcuB), and a cytoplasmic membrane-integral protein (PcuE). Homologs of PcuC and PcuE had been discovered in other bacteria, namely PCu(A)C and YcnJ, where they play a role in cytochrome oxidase biogenesis and copper transport, respectively. Deletion of the pcuABCDE operon led to a pleiotropic phenotype, including defects in the aa(3)-type cytochrome oxidase, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and anoxic nitrate respiration. Complementation analyses revealed that, under our assay conditions, the tested functions depended only on the pcuC gene and not on pcuA, pcuB, pcuD, or pcuE. The B. japonicum genome harbors a second pcuC-like gene (blr7088), which, however, did not functionally replace the mutated pcuC. The PcuC protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and shown to bind Cu(I) with high affinity in a 1:1 stoichiometry. The replacement of His(79), Met(90), His(113), and Met(115) by alanine perturbed copper binding. This corroborates the previously purported role of this protein as a periplasmic copper chaperone for the formation of the Cu(A) center on the aa(3)-type cytochrome oxidase. In addition, we provide evidence that PcuC and the copper chaperone ScoI are important for the symbiotically essential, Cu(A)-free cbb(3)-type cytochrome oxidase specifically in endosymbiotic bacteroids of soybean root nodules, which could explain the symbiosis-defective phenotype of the pcuC and scoI mutants. PMID:23012364

Serventi, Fabio; Youard, Zeb Andrew; Murset, Valérie; Huwiler, Simona; Bühler, Doris; Richter, Miriam; Luchsinger, Ronny; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Brogioli, Robert; Niederer, Martina; Hennecke, Hauke

2012-11-01

322

Copper Starvation-inducible Protein for Cytochrome Oxidase Biogenesis in Bradyrhizobium japonicum*  

PubMed Central

Microarray analysis of Bradyrhizobium japonicum grown under copper limitation uncovered five genes named pcuABCDE, which are co-transcribed and co-regulated as an operon. The predicted gene products are periplasmic proteins (PcuA, PcuC, and PcuD), a TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor (PcuB), and a cytoplasmic membrane-integral protein (PcuE). Homologs of PcuC and PcuE had been discovered in other bacteria, namely PCuAC and YcnJ, where they play a role in cytochrome oxidase biogenesis and copper transport, respectively. Deletion of the pcuABCDE operon led to a pleiotropic phenotype, including defects in the aa3-type cytochrome oxidase, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and anoxic nitrate respiration. Complementation analyses revealed that, under our assay conditions, the tested functions depended only on the pcuC gene and not on pcuA, pcuB, pcuD, or pcuE. The B. japonicum genome harbors a second pcuC-like gene (blr7088), which, however, did not functionally replace the mutated pcuC. The PcuC protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and shown to bind Cu(I) with high affinity in a 1:1 stoichiometry. The replacement of His79, Met90, His113, and Met115 by alanine perturbed copper binding. This corroborates the previously purported role of this protein as a periplasmic copper chaperone for the formation of the CuA center on the aa3-type cytochrome oxidase. In addition, we provide evidence that PcuC and the copper chaperone ScoI are important for the symbiotically essential, CuA-free cbb3-type cytochrome oxidase specifically in endosymbiotic bacteroids of soybean root nodules, which could explain the symbiosis-defective phenotype of the pcuC and scoI mutants. PMID:23012364

Serventi, Fabio; Youard, Zeb Andrew; Murset, Valerie; Huwiler, Simona; Buhler, Doris; Richter, Miriam; Luchsinger, Ronny; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Brogioli, Robert; Niederer, Martina; Hennecke, Hauke

2012-01-01

323

Essential Role of Cytochrome bd-Related Oxidase in Cyanide Resistance of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 grows in minimal medium containing cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. Under these conditions, an O2-dependent respiration highly resistant to cyanide was detected in cell extracts. The structural genes for the cyanide-resistant terminal oxidase, cioA and cioB, are clustered and encode the integral membrane proteins that correspond to subunits I and II of classical cytochrome bd, although

Alberto Quesada; M. Isabel Guijo; Faustino Merchan; Blas Blazquez; M. Isabel Igeno; Rafael Blasco

2007-01-01

324

Enhanced production of recombinant galactose oxidase from Fusarium graminearum in E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene gaoA encoding the copper-dependent enzyme galactose oxidase (GAO) from Fusarium graminearum PH-1 was cloned and successfully overexpressed in E. coli. Culture conditions for cultivations in shaken flasks were optimized, and optimal conditions were found to be double-strength\\u000a LB medium, 0.5% lactose as inducer, and induction at the reduced temperature of 25°C. When using these cultivation conditions ~24 mg\\u000a of active

Withu Choosri; Regina Paukner; Petra Wührer; Dietmar Haltrich; Christian Leitner

2011-01-01

325

Lysyl Oxidase-Like 2 as a New Poor Prognosis Marker of Squamous Cell Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (Loxl2) interacts with and stabilizes Snai1 transcription factor, promoting epithelial-mesenchymal tran- sition.Either Loxl2 or Snai1 knock-down blocks tumor growth and induces differentiation, but the specific role of each factor in tumor progression is still unknown.Comparison of the gene expression profiles of the squamous cell carcinoma cell line HaCa4 after knocking-down Loxl2 or Snai1 revealed that a subset

Hector Peinado; David Hardisson; Vanesa Santos; Marta Mendiola; Juan Ignacio de Diego; Manuel Nistal; Miguel Quintanilla; Francisco Portillo; Amparo Cano

2008-01-01

326

Phylogeny of Greya (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae), Based on Nucleotide Sequence Variation in Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I and II: Congruence with  

E-print Network

in the cytochrome oxidase I and II genes of the mitochondrial genome. Most parsimonious relationships of 25 congruence with the species relationships indicated by morphological variation. Differences between at third codon positions. Introduction Mutualistic interactions between plants and their pollinating seed

Thompson, John N.

327

Role of the NADPH Oxidases DUOX and NOX4 in Thyroid Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Somatic mutations are present at high levels in the rat thyroid gland, indicating that the thyrocyte is under oxidative stress, a state in which cellular oxidant levels are high. The most important class of free radicals, or reactive metabolites, is reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The main source of ROS in every cell type seems to be mitochondrial respiration; however, recent data support the idea that NADPH:O(2) oxidoreductase flavoproteins or simply NADPH oxidases (NOX) are enzymes specialized in controlled ROS generation at the subcellular level. Several decades ago, high concentrations of H2O2 were detected at the apical surface of thyrocytes, where thyroid hormone biosynthesis takes place. Only in the last decade has the enzymatic source of H2O2 involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis been well characterized. The cloning of two thyroid genes encoding NADPH oxidases dual oxidases 1 and 2 (DUOX1 and DUOX2) revealed that DUOX2 mutations lead to hereditary hypothyroidism in humans. Recent reports have also described the presence of NOX4 in the thyroid gland and have suggested a pathophysiological role of this member of the NOX family. In the present review, we describe the participation of NADPH oxidases not only in thyroid physiology but also in gland pathophysiology, particularly the involvement of these enzymes in the regulation of thyroid oxidative stress. PMID:24847449

Carvalho, Denise P.; Dupuy, Corinne

2013-01-01

328

Human retina-specific amine oxidase (RAO): cDNA cloning, tissue expression, and chromosomal mapping  

SciTech Connect

In search of candidate genes for hereditary retinal disease, we have employed a subtractive and differential cDNA cloning strategy and isolated a novel retina-specific cDNA. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 2187 bp, which encodes a 729-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 80,644 Da. The putative protein contained a conserved domain of copper amine oxidase, which is found in various species from bacteria to mammals. It showed the highest homology to bovine serum amine oxidase, which is believed to control the level of serum biogenic amines. Northern blot analysis of human adult and fetal tissues revealed that the protein is expressed abundantly and specifically in retina as a 2.7-kb transcript. Thus, we considered this protein a human retina-specific amine oxidase (RAO). The RAO gene (AOC2) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to human chromosome 17q21. We propose that AOC2 may be a candidate gene for hereditary ocular diseases. 38 refs., 4 figs.

Imamura, Yutaka; Kubota, Ryo; Wang, Yimin [Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others] [Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); and others

1997-03-01

329

Behavioral outcomes of monoamine oxidase deficiency: preclinical and clinical evidence.  

PubMed

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) isoenzymes A and B are mitochondrial-bound proteins, catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamine neurotransmitters as well as xenobiotic amines. Although they derive from a common ancestral progenitor gene, are located at X-chromosome and display 70% structural identity, their substrate preference, regional distribution, and physiological role are divergent. In fact, while MAO-A has high affinity for serotonin and norepinephrine, MAO-B primarily serves the catabolism of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA) and contributes to the degradation of other trace amines and dopamine. Convergent lines of preclinical and clinical evidence indicate that variations in MAO enzymatic activity--due to either genetic or environmental factors--can exert a profound influence on behavioral regulation and play a role in the pathophysiology of a large spectrum of mental and neurodegenerative disorders, ranging from antisocial personality disorder to Parkinson's disease. Over the past few years, numerous advances have been made in our understanding of the phenotypical variations associated with genetic polymorphisms and mutations of the genes encoding for both isoenzymes. In particular, novel findings on the phenotypes of MAO-deficient mice are highlighting novel potential implications of both isoenzymes in a broad spectrum of mental disorders, ranging from autism and anxiety to impulse-control disorders and ADHD. These studies will lay the foundation for future research on the neurobiological and neurochemical bases of these pathological conditions, as well as the role of gene × environment interactions in the vulnerability to several mental disorders. PMID:21971001

Bortolato, Marco; Shih, Jean C

2011-01-01

330

BEHAVIORAL OUTCOMES OF MONOAMINE OXIDASE DEFICIENCY: PRECLINICAL AND CLINICAL EVIDENCE  

PubMed Central

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) isoenzymes A and B are mitochondrial-bound proteins, catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamine neurotransmitters as well as xenobiotic amines. Although they derive from a common ancestral progenitor gene, are located at X-chromosome and display 70% structural identity, their substrate preference, regional distribution, and physiological role are divergent. In fact, while MAO-A has high affinity for serotonin and norepinephrine, MAO-B primarily serves the catabolism of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA) and contributes to the degradation of other trace amines and dopamine. Convergent lines of preclinical and clinical evidence indicate that variations in MAO enzymatic activity—due to either genetic or environmental factors—can exert a profound influence on behavioral regulation and play a role in the pathophysiology of a large spectrum of mental and neurodegenerative disorders, ranging from antisocial personality disorder to Parkinson’s disease. Over the past few years, numerous advances have been made in our understanding of the phenotypical variations associated with genetic polymorphisms and mutations of the genes encoding for both isoenzymes. In particular, novel findings on the phenotypes of MAO-deficient mice are highlighting novel potential implications of both isoenzymes in a broad spectrum of mental disorders, ranging from autism and anxiety to impulse-control disorders and ADHD. These studies will lay the foundation for future research on the neurobiological and neurochemical bases of these pathological conditions, as well as the role of gene × environment interactions in the vulnerability to several mental disorders. PMID:21971001

Bortolato, Marco; Shih, Jean C.

2012-01-01

331

Increased d -amino acid oxidase expression in the bilateral hippocampal CA4 of schizophrenic patients: a post-mortem study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important risk gene in schizophrenia is d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO). To establish if expression of DAAO is altered in cortical, hippocampal or thalamic regions of schizophrenia\\u000a patients, we measured gene expression of DAAO in a post-mortem study of elderly patients with schizophrenia and non-affected\\u000a controls in both hemispheres differentiating between gray and white matter. We compared cerebral post-mortem samples

Gregor Habl; Mathias Zink; Georg Petroianu; Manfred Bauer; Thomas Schneider-Axmann; Martina von Wilmsdorff; Peter Falkai; Fritz A. Henn; Andrea Schmitt

2009-01-01

332

The gibberellin 20-oxidase of Gibberella fujikuroi is a multifunctional monooxygenase.  

PubMed

The genes for gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis are clustered in the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. In addition to genes encoding a GA-specific geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase and a bifunctional ent-copalyl diphosphate/ent-kaurene synthase, the cluster contains four cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes (P450-1, -2, -3, -4). Recently it was shown that P450-4 and P450-1 encode multifunctional enzymes catalyzing the three oxidation steps from ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid and the four oxidation steps from ent-kaurenoic acid to GA14, respectively. Here we describe the functional analysis of the P450-2 gene by gene disruption and by expressing the gene in a mutant that lacks the entire GA biosynthesis gene cluster. Mutants in which P450-2 is inactivated by the insertion of a large piece of DNA accumulated GA14 and lacked biosynthetically more advanced metabolites, indicating that the gene encodes a 20-oxidase. This was confirmed by incubating lines containing P450-2 in the absence of the other GA biosynthesis genes with isotopically labeled substrates. The P450-2 gene product oxidized the 3beta-hydroxylated intermediate, GA14, and its non-hydroxylated analogue GA12 to GA4 and GA9, respectively. Expression of P450-2 is repressed by high amounts of nitrogen in the culture medium but is not affected by the presence of biosynthetically advanced GAs, i.e. there is no evidence for feedback regulation. The fact that the GA 20-oxidase is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in G. fujikuroi and not a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase as in plants, together with the significant differences in regulation of gene expression, are further evidence for independent evolution of the GA biosynthetic pathways in plants and fungi. PMID:11943776

Tudzynski, Bettina; Rojas, María Cecilia; Gaskin, Paul; Hedden, Peter

2002-06-14

333

Increased xanthine oxidase in the skin of preeclamptic women.  

PubMed

Xanthine oxioreductase is the holoenzyme responsible for terminal purine catabolism. Under conditions of metabolic stress or heightened proinflammatory cytokine production, this enzyme is preferentially in its oxidized form, xanthine oxidase, with catalytic action that generates uric acid and the free radical superoxide. As preeclampsia is characterized by heightened inflammation, oxidative stress, and hyperuricemia, it has been proposed that xanthine oxidase plays a pivotal role in this hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. We sought to determine whether xanthine oxidase protein content was higher in maternal tissue of preeclamptic mothers, compared to healthy pregnant controls, using immunohistochemical analysis of skin biopsies. We further compared xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity in skin biopsies from preeclamptic women and patients with several inflammatory conditions. In preeclamptic women, intense xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity was present within the epidermis. By contrast, only very faint xanthine oxidase staining was observed in skin biopsies from healthy pregnant controls. Further, a role for inflammation in the increase of xanthine oxidase was suggested by similar findings of heightened xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity in the skin biopsies from nonpregnant individuals diagnosed with conditions of systemic inflammation. The finding of increased xanthine oxidase in maternal tissue, most likely as the result of heightened maternal inflammation, suggests maternal xanthine oxidase as a source of free radical and uric acid generation in preeclampsia. PMID:19196876

Bainbridge, Shannon A; Deng, Jau-Shyong; Roberts, James M

2009-05-01

334

INCREASED XANTHINE OXIDASE IN THE SKIN OF PREECLAMPTIC WOMEN  

PubMed Central

Xanthine oxioreductase is the holoenzyme responsible for terminal purine catabolism. Under conditions of metabolic stress or heightened pro-inflammatory cytokine production this enzyme is preferentially in it’s oxidized form, xanthine oxidase, with catalytic action that generates uric acid and the free radical superoxide. As preeclampsia is characterized by heightened inflammation, oxidative stress and hyperuricemia it has been proposed that xanthine oxidase plays a pivotal role in this hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. We sought to determine whether xanthine oxidase protein content was higher in maternal tissue of preeclamptic mothers, compared to healthy pregnant controls, using immunohistochemical analysis of skin biopsies. We further compared xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity in skin biopsies from preeclamptic women and patients with several inflammatory conditions. In preeclamptic women, intense xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity was present within the epidermis. By contrast, only very faint xanthine oxidase staining was observed in skin biopsies from healthy pregnant controls. Further, a role for inflammation in the increase of xanthine oxidase was suggested by similar findings of heightened xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity in the skin biopsies from non-pregnant individuals diagnosed with conditions of systemic inflammation. The finding of increased xanthine oxidase in maternal tissue, most likely as the result of heightened maternal inflammation, suggest maternal xanthine oxidase as a source of free radical and uric acid generation in preeclampsia. PMID:19196876

Bainbridge, Shannon A.; Deng, Jau-Shyong; Roberts, James M.

2010-01-01

335

Lysyl oxidase expression and inhibition in uveal melanoma.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase is a marker of poor prognosis in several malignancies and is hypothesized to promote a migratory phenotype in hypoxic breast carcinomas. This study aims to characterize the expression of the lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like proteins in human uveal melanoma cell lines and archival choroidal melanomas using immunohistochemistry. The transcriptional control of lysyl oxidase will also be investigated under simulated hypoxic conditions using cobalt chloride. Lastly, changes in cellular proliferation and invasion will be assessed after the treatment of cell lines with beta-aminopropionitrile, a lysyl oxidase catalytic inhibitor. Retrospective analysis of lysyl oxidase expression in primary human uveal melanoma showed 82% (27 of 33) of tumors being stained positive. High lysyl oxidase expression correlated with the aggressive epithelioid cell type and was associated with shorter metastasis-free survival. Simulated hypoxia resulted in a significant increase in lysyl oxidase mRNA expression. Inhibiting lysyl oxidase's catalytic activity significantly reduced cellular invasion but had no effect on cell proliferation. Our study is the first to show lysyl oxidase expression in primary choroidal melanomas. This protein may represent a potential therapeutic target that warrants further study in this malignancy. PMID:20179655

Abourbih, Daniel A; Di Cesare, Sebastian; Orellana, Maria E; Antecka, Emilia; Martins, Claudia; Petruccelli, Luca A; Burnier, Miguel N

2010-04-01

336

The NADH oxidase of Streptococcus pneumoniae: its involvement in competence and virulence.  

PubMed

A soluble flavoprotein that reoxidizes NADH and reduces molecular oxygen to water was purified from the facultative anaerobic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. The nucleotide sequence of nox, the gene which encodes it, has been determined and was characterized at the functional and physiological level. Several nox mutants were obtained by insertion, nonsense or missense mutation. In extracts from these strains, no NADH oxidase activity could be measured, suggesting that a single enzyme encoded by nox, having a C44 in its active site, was utilizing O2 to oxidize NADH in S. pneumoniae. The growth rate and yield of the NADH oxidase-deficient strains were not changed under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, but the efficiency of development of competence for genetic transformation during growth was markedly altered. Conditions that triggered competence induction did not affect the amount of Nox, as measured using Western blotting, indicating that nox does not belong to the competence-regulated genetic network. The decrease in competence efficiency due to the nox mutations was similar to that due to the absence of oxygen in the nox+ strain, suggesting that input of oxygen into the metabolism via NADH oxidase was important for controlling competence development throughout growth. This was not related to regulation of nox expression by O2. Interestingly, the virulence and persistence in mice of a blood isolate was attenuated by a nox insertion mutation. Global cellular responses of S. pneumoniae, such as competence for genetic exchange or virulence in a mammalian host, could thus be modulated by oxygen via the NADH oxidase activity of the bacteria, although the bacterial energetic metabolism is essentially anaerobic. The enzymatic activity of the NADH oxidase coded by nox was probably involved in transducing the external signal, corresponding to O2 availability, to the cell metabolism and physiology; thus, this enzyme may function as an oxygen sensor. This work establishes, for the first time, the role of O2 in the regulation of pneumococcal transformability and virulence. PMID:10594826

Auzat, I; Chapuy-Regaud, S; Le Bras, G; Dos Santos, D; Ogunniyi, A D; Le Thomas, I; Garel, J R; Paton, J C; Trombe, M C

1999-12-01

337

DNA cloning of human liver monoamine oxidase A and B: Molecular basis of differences in enzymatic properties  

SciTech Connect

The monoamine oxidases play a vital role in the metabolism of biogenic amines in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Using oligonucleotide probes derived from three sequenced peptide fragments, the authors have isolated cDNA clones that encode the A and B forms of monoamine oxidase and have determined the nucleotide sequences of these cDNAs. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences shows that the A and B forms have subunit molecular weights of 59,700 and 58,800, respectively, and have 70% sequence identity. Both sequences contain the pentapeptide Ser-Gly-Gly-Cys-Tyr, in which the obligatory cofactor FAD is covalently bound to cysteine. Based on differences in primary amino acid sequences and RNA gel blot analysis of mRNAs, the A and B forms of monoamine oxidase appear to be derived from separate genes.

Back, A.W.J.; Lan, N.C.; Johnson, D.L.; Abell, C.W.; Bembenek, M.E.; Kwan, S.W.; Seeburg, P.H.; Shih, J.C. (Univ. of Heidelberg (West Germany))

1988-07-01

338

Selected furanochalcones as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase.  

PubMed

The validity of the chalcone scaffold for the design of inhibitors of monoamine oxidase has previously been illustrated. In a systematic attempt to investigate the effect of heterocyclic substitution on the monoamine oxidase inhibitory properties of this versatile scaffold, a series of furanochalcones were synthesized. The results demonstrate that these furan substituted phenylpropenones exhibited moderate to good inhibitory activities towards MAO-B, but showed weak or no inhibition of the MAO-A enzyme. The most active compound, 2E-3-(5-chlorofuran-2-yl)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one, exhibited an IC50 value of 0.174 ?M for the inhibition of MAO-B and 28.6 ?M for the inhibition of MAO-A. Interestingly, contrary to data previously reported for chalcones, these furan substituted derivatives acted as reversible inhibitors, while kinetic analysis revealed a competitive mode of binding. PMID:23860591

Robinson, Sarel J; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Bergh, Jacobus J; Lourens, Anna C U

2013-09-01

339

Characterization of two cytochrome oxidase operons in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002: inactivation of ctaDI affects the PS I:PS II ratio.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria have versatile electron transfer pathways and many of the proteins involved are functional in both respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport. Examples of such proteins include the cytochrome b (6) f complex, NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase complexes. In this study we have cloned and sequenced two gene clusters from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 that potentially encode heme-copper cytochrome oxidases. The ctaCIDIEI and ctaCIIDIIEII gene clusters are most similar to two related gene clusters found in the freshwater cyanobacterial strain Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Unlike Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 does not have a cydAB-like gene cluster which encodes a quinol oxidase. The ctaCIDIEI and ctaCIIDIIEII gene clusters were transcribed polycistronically, although the levels of transcripts for the ctaCIIDIIEII gene cluster were lower than those of the ctaCIDIEI gene cluster. The ctaDI and ctaDII coding sequences were interrupted by interposon mutagenesis and full segregants were isolated and characterized for both single and double mutants. Growth rates, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, oxygen consumption and oxygen evolution were examined in the wild type and mutant strains. Differences between the wild type and mutant strains observed in 77 K fluorescence spectra and in pulse-amplified modulated (PAM) fluorescence studies suggest that the cyanobacterial oxidases play a role in photoinhibition and high light tolerance in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. PMID:16437183

Nomura, Christopher T; Persson, Søren; Shen, Gaozhong; Inoue-Sakamoto, Kaori; Bryant, Donald A

2006-02-01

340

Creatinine Inhibits D-Amino Acid Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) activity by various uremic retention products and guanidino compounds was investigated. Creatinine (CTN) was found to inhibit DAO at a similar concentration in the sera of uremic patients. The inhibition was competitive and the Ki value was 2.7 mM. Moreover, CTN was shown to interact with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), a coenzyme of DAO.

Y. Nohara; J. Suzuki; T. Kinoshita; M. Watanabe

2002-01-01

341

Defensive Roles of Polyphenol Oxidase in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are widely distributed and well-studied oxidative enzymes, and their effects on discoloration in damaged and diseased plant tissues have been known for many years. The discovery in C.A. Ryan's laboratory in the mid-1990s that tomato PPO is induced by the herbivore defense signals systemin and jasmonate, together with seminal work on PPO's possible effects on herbiv-

C. Peter Constabel; Raymond Barbehenn

342

Ligand interactions with galactose oxidase: mechanistic insights.  

PubMed Central

Interactions between galactose oxidase and small molecules have been explored using a combination of optical absorption, circular dichroism, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies to detect complex formation and characterize the products. Anions bind directly to the cupric center in both active and inactive galactose oxidase, converting to complexes with optical and EPR spectra that are distinctly different from those of the starting aquo enzyme. Azide binding is coupled to stoichiometric proton uptake by the enzyme, reflecting the generation of a strong base (pKa > 9) in the active site anion adduct. At low temperature, the aquo enzyme converts to a form that exhibits the characteristic optical and EPR spectra of an anion complex, apparently reflecting deprotonation of the coordinated water. Anion binding results in a loss of the optical transition arising from coordinated tyrosine, implying displacement of the axial tyrosine ligand on forming the adduct. Nitric oxide binds to galactose oxidase, forming a specific complex exhibiting an unusual EPR spectrum with all g values below 2. The absence of Cu splitting in this spectrum and the observation that the cupric EPR signal from the active site metal ion is not significantly decreased in the complex suggest a nonmetal interaction site for NO in galactose oxidase. These results have been interpreted in terms of a mechanistic scheme where substrate binding displaces a tyrosinate ligand from the active site cupric ion, generating a base that may serve to deprotonate the coordinated hydroxyl group of the substrate, activating it for oxidation. The protein-NO interactions may probe a nonmetal O2 binding site in this enzyme. PMID:8386015

Whittaker, M M; Whittaker, J W

1993-01-01

343

XANTHINE OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN REGENERATING LIVER*  

E-print Network

The xanthine oxiclase activity of mouse regenerating liver has been shown to be elevated during the period of rapid liver growth and proliferation. This increase is evident when the enzyme activity is expressed per unit wet tissue weight, per unit nitrogen, or per cell. The adrenal cortex probably plays only a minor role in implementing this phenomenon. Further augmentation of the xanthine oxidase level of regenerating liver is not induced by the administration of large quantities of the substrate, xanthine, to the animal.

Muriel Feigelson; Philip Feigelson; Paul; R. Gross; Ab Stract

344

Oxidase Reactions of Tomato Anionic Peroxidase 1  

PubMed Central

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) anionic peroxidase was found to catalyze oxidase reactions with NADH, glutathione, dithiothreitol, oxaloacetate, and hydroquinone as substrates with a mean activity 30% that of horseradish peroxidase; this is in contrast to the negligible activity of the tomato enzyme as compared to the horseradish enzyme in catalyzing an indoleacetic acid-oxidase reaction with only Mn2+ and a phenol as cofactors. Substitution of Ce3+ for Mn2+ produced an 18-fold larger response with the tomato enzyme than with the horseradish enzyme, suggesting a significant difference in the autocatalytic indoleacetic acid-oxidase reactions with these two enzymes. In attempting to compare enzyme activities with 2,4-dichlorophenol as a cofactor, it was found that reaction rates increased exponentially with both increasing cofactor concentration and increasing enzyme concentration. While the former response may be analogous to allosteric control of enzyme activity, the latter response is contrary to the principle that reaction rate is proportional to enzyme concentration, and additionally makes any comparison of enzyme activity difficult. PMID:16664567

Brooks, James L.

1986-01-01

345

Nanoparticle strategies for cancer therapeutics: Nucleic acids, polyamines, bovine serum amine oxidase and iron oxide nanoparticles (Review).  

PubMed

Nanotechnology for cancer gene therapy is an emerging field. Nucleic acids, polyamine analogues and cytotoxic products of polyamine oxidation, generated in situ by an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, can be developed for nanotechnology-based cancer therapeutics with reduced systemic toxicity and improved therapeutic efficacy. Nucleic acid-based gene therapy approaches depend on the compaction of DNA/RNA to nanoparticles and polyamine analogues are excellent agents for the condensation of nucleic acids to nanoparticles. Polyamines and amine oxidases are found in higher levels in tumours compared to that of normal tissues. Therefore, the metabolism of polyamines spermidine and spermine, and their diamine precursor, putrescine, can be targets for antineoplastic therapy since these naturally occurring alkylamines are essential for normal mammalian cell growth. Intracellular polyamine concentrations are maintained at a cell type-specific set point through the coordinated and highly regulated interplay between biosynthesis, transport, and catabolism. In particular, polyamine catabolism involves copper-containing amine oxidases. Several studies showed an important role of these enzymes in developmental and disease-related processes in animals through the control of polyamine homeostasis in response to normal cellular signals, drug treatment, and environmental and/or cellular stress. The production of toxic aldehydes and reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 in particular, by these oxidases suggests a mechanism by which amine oxidases can be exploited as antineoplastic drug targets. The combination of bovine serum amine oxidase (BSAO) and polyamines prevents tumour growth, particularly well if the enzyme has been conjugated with a biocompatible hydrogel polymer. The findings described herein suggest that enzymatically formed cytotoxic agents activate stress signal transduction pathways, leading to apoptotic cell death. Consequently, superparamagnetic nanoparticles or other advanced nanosystem based on directed nucleic acid assemblies, polyamine-induced DNA condensation, and bovine serum amine oxidase may be proposed for futuristic anticancer therapy utilizing nucleic acids, polyamines and BSAO. BSAO based nanoparticles can be employed for the generation of cytotoxic polyamine metabolites. PMID:25333509

Agostinelli, Enzo; Vianello, Fabio; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Thomas, Thresia; Thomas, T J

2015-01-01

346

NADPH oxidase expression in active multiple sclerosis lesions in relation to oxidative tissue damage and mitochondrial injury  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, associated with demyelination and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms of tissue injury are poorly understood, but recent data suggest that mitochondrial injury may play an important role in this process. Mitochondrial injury can be triggered by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide species, and we recently provided evidence for oxidative damage of oligodendrocytes and dystrophic axons in early stages of active multiple sclerosis lesions. In this study, we identified potential sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species through gene expression in carefully staged and dissected lesion areas and by immunohistochemical analysis of protein expression. Genome-wide microarrays confirmed mitochondrial injury in active multiple sclerosis lesions, which may serve as an important source of reactive oxygen species. In addition, we found differences in the gene expression levels of various nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits between initial multiple sclerosis lesions and control white matter. These results were confirmed at the protein level by means of immunohistochemistry, showing upregulation of the subunits gp91phox, p22phox, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 in activated microglia in classical active as well as slowly expanding lesions. The subunits gp91phox and p22phox were constitutively expressed in microglia and were upregulated in the initial lesion. In contrast, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 expression were more restricted to the zone of initial damage or to lesions from patients with acute or early relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. Double labelling showed co-expression of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits in activated microglia and infiltrated macrophages, suggesting the assembly of functional complexes. Our data suggest that the inflammation-associated oxidative burst in activated microglia and macrophages plays an important role in demyelination and free radical-mediated tissue injury in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. PMID:22366799

Fischer, Marie T.; Sharma, Rakhi; Lim, Jamie L.; Haider, Lukas; Frischer, Josa M.; Drexhage, Joost; Mahad, Don; Bradl, Monika; van Horssen, Jack

2012-01-01

347

Occurrence and environmental stress responses of two plastid terminal oxidases in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).  

PubMed

The plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) is a plastoquinol oxidase involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in higher plants, and may also represent the elusive oxidase in chlororespiration. Haematococcus pluvialis is a green alga that has the ability to synthesize and accumulate large amounts of the red carotenoid astaxanthin (ca. 2% of dry weight) under various stress conditions. However, the occurrence and function of PTOX in astaxanthin synthesis and the stress response in this organism is unknown. In this study, two ptox cDNAs were cloned and sequenced from H. pluvialis and were designated as ptox1 and ptox2. Genome sequence analysis and database searching revealed that duplication of PTOX gene occurred in certain eukaryotic algae, but not in cyanobacteria and higher plants. The physiological and biochemical evidence indicated that PTOX is involved in astaxanthin synthesis and plays a critical protective role against stress. Analysis of the transcriptional expression of the PTOXs and phytoene desaturase gene further suggests that it may be PTOX1 rather than PTOX2 that is co-regulated with astaxanthin synthesis. The fact that the changes in transcripts of ptoxs in response to high light and other stressors and the differential expression of ptox1 and ptox2, suggests that PTOX, coupled with astaxanthin synthesis pathway, exerts broad, yet undefined functions in addition to those identified in higher plants. PMID:19408010

Wang, Jiangxin; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

2009-06-01

348

Discovery and characterization of a 5-hydroxymethylfurfural oxidase from Methylovorus sp. strain MP688.  

PubMed

In the search for useful and renewable chemical building blocks, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) has emerged as a very promising candidate, as it can be prepared from sugars. HMF can be oxidized to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), which is used as a substitute for petroleum-based terephthalate in polymer production. On the basis of a recently identified bacterial degradation pathway for HMF, candidate genes responsible for selective HMF oxidation have been identified. Heterologous expression of a protein from Methylovorus sp. strain MP688 in Escherichia coli and subsequent enzyme characterization showed that the respective gene indeed encodes an efficient HMF oxidase (HMFO). HMFO is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing oxidase and belongs to the glucose-methanol-choline-type flavoprotein oxidase family. Intriguingly, the activity of HMFO is not restricted to HMF, as it is active with a wide range of aromatic primary alcohols and aldehydes. The enzyme was shown to be relatively thermostable and active over a broad pH range. This makes HMFO a promising oxidative biocatalyst that can be used for the production of FDCA from HMF, a reaction involving both alcohol and aldehyde oxidations. PMID:24271187

Dijkman, Willem P; Fraaije, Marco W

2014-02-01

349

Defensive Roles of Polyphenol Oxidase in Plants C. Peter Constabel and Raymond Barbehenn  

E-print Network

Oxidase Polyphenol oxidase (catechol oxidase; E.C. 1.10.3.2) has been purified and char- acterized fromChapter 12 Defensive Roles of Polyphenol Oxidase in Plants C. Peter Constabel and Raymond Barbehenn Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are widely distributed and well-studied oxidative enzymes

Constabel, Peter

350

Isolation, sequence, and bacterial expression of a cDNA for (S)-tetrahydroberberine oxidase from cultured berberine-producing Coptis japonica cells.  

PubMed Central

cDNA clones for the (S)-tetrahydroberberine (H4Ber) oxidase of cultured berberine-producing Coptis japonica cells were isolated by screening a C. japonica cDNA library with synthetic nucleotides that can encode the NH2-terminal sequence of this enzyme. Analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the cloned cDNA inserts revealed a 759-base-pair open reading frame that encoded a 253-amino acid polypeptide with a Mr of 27,089 and NH2-terminal and internal sequences identical with those of the (S)-H4Ber oxidase, as determined by microsequencing methods. Escherichia coli were transformed with an expression vector carrying (S)-H4Ber oxidase cDNA. The transformed bacteria were induced to overproduce a 28-kDa protein that reacted with Coptis (S)-H4Ber oxidase-specific antibody. A comparison of the derived amino acid sequence of (S)-H4Ber oxidase with sequences in the protein data base of the Protein Research Foundation showed a marked similarity between (S)-H4Ber oxidase and the NH2-terminal portion of mouse P1-450, which is encoded by a single exon of the mouse P1-450 gene. The availability of cloned cDNA for (S)-H4Ber oxidase allows use of the methods of molecular biology to study the regulation of (S)-H4Ber oxidase gene expression in cultured C. japonica cells in relation to berberine biosynthesis. Images PMID:2463630

Okada, N; Koizumi, N; Tanaka, T; Ohkubo, H; Nakanishi, S; Yamada, Y

1989-01-01

351

The amine oxidases of human placenta and pregnancy plasma  

PubMed Central

1. The purification of monoamine oxidase and diamine oxidase from normal human term placental tissue is described. 2. The properties of these enzymes are reported and compared with the properties of unpurified human pregnancy plasma. 3. This comparison shows that the amine oxidase of pregnancy plasma has properties corresponding to purified placental diamine oxidase, suggesting a placental origin for the plasma enzyme system. 4. Detailed kinetic study of the purified placental diamine oxidase suggests that it has a Ping Pong sequence, a mechanism of action and rate-limiting step similar to the diamine oxidase of pig kidney. 5. It is suggested that the enzyme system is important in protecting the foeto-placental unit from excesses of biogenic amines. PMID:4219137

Bardsley, William G.; Crabbe, M. James C.; Scott, Ian V.

1974-01-01

352

Reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the retrosplenial cortex after lesions to the anterior thalamic nuclei.  

PubMed

The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) make a critical contribution to hippocampal system functions. Growing experimental work shows that the effects of ATN lesions often resemble those of hippocampal lesions and both markedly reduce the expression of immediate-early gene markers in the retrosplenial cortex, which still appears normal by standard histological means. This study shows that moderate ATN damage was sufficient to produce severe spatial memory impairment as measured in a radial-arm maze. Furthermore, ATN rats exhibited reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the most superficial cortical layers of the granular retrosplenial cortex, and, to a lesser extent, in the anterior cingulate cortex. By contrast, no change in cytochrome oxidase activity was observed in other limbic cortical regions or in the hippocampal formation. Altogether our results indicate that endogenous long-term brain metabolic capacity within the granular retrosplenial cortex is compromised by even limited ATN damage. PMID:23660649

Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena; Arias, Jorge L; Bontempi, Bruno; Wolff, Mathieu

2013-08-01

353

Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the cytochrome o terminal oxidase  

SciTech Connect

A respiration-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli has been isolated which is unable to grow aerobically on nonfermentable substrates such as succinate and lactate. Spectroscopic and immunological studies showed that this mutant lacks the cytochrome o terminal oxidase of the high aeration branch of the aerobic electron transport chain. This strain carries a mutation in a gene designated cyo which is cotransducible with the acrA locus. Mutations in cyo were obtained by mutagenizing a strain that was cyd and, thus, was lacking the cytochrome d terminal oxidase. Strain RG99, which carries both the cyd/sup -/ and cyo/sup -/ alleles, grows normally under anaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. Introduction of the cyd/sup +/ allele into the strain restores the respiration function of the strain, indicating that the cytochrome o branch of the respiratory chain is dispensable under normal laboratory growth conditions.

Au, D.C.T.; Lorence, R.M.; Gennis, R.B.

1985-01-01

354

In vitro and in vivo inhibition of lysyl oxidase byaminopropionitriles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of lysyl oxidase (protein?lysine 6?oxidase, EC 1.4.3.13) decreases the rate of collagen and elastin cross?link formation and produces osteolathyrism in animals. Organic nitriles, including ß?aminopropionitrile (BAPN), have been shown to irreversibly inhibit lysyl oxidase in vitro. Both BAPN and 3,3'?iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) have been shown to produce osteolathyric changes when administered to animals. To date compounds that have been reported

Kenneth R. Wilmarth; John R. Froines

1992-01-01

355

Gravity Responsive NADH Oxidase of the Plasma Membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for sensing gravity using an NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane which has been found to respond to unit gravity and low centrifugal g forces. The oxidation rate of NADH supplied to the NADH oxidase is measured and translated to represent the relative gravitational force exerted on the protein. The NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane may be obtained from plant or animal sources or may be produced recombinantly.

Morre, D. James (Inventor)

2002-01-01

356

PHOTOCHEMICAL ACTION SPECTRUM OF THE TERMINAL OXIDASE OF MIXED FUNCTION OXIDASE SYSTEMS.  

PubMed

The reversal of the carbon monoxide inhibition by bands of monochromatic light was determined for the oxidative demethylation of codeine and monomethyl-4-aminopyrine and the hydroxylation of acetanilide by rat liver microsomes and for the hydroxylation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone at carbon-21 by bovine adrenocortical microsomes. Maximum reversal occurred at 450 millimicrons, the light absorption maximum of the CO compound of the CO-binding pigment of microsomes. The agreement between photochemical action spectrum and spectrophotometric difference spectrum supports the conclusion that the CO-binding pigment is the terminal oxidase of mixed function oxidase systems of mammals. PMID:14221486

COOPER, D Y; LEVIN, S; NARASIMHULU, S; ROSENTHAL, O

1965-01-22

357

Disrupted and transgenic urate oxidase alter urate and dopaminergic neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Urate is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, owing to the evolutionary disruption of the gene encoding urate oxidase (UOx). Elevated urate can cause gout and urolithiasis and is associated with cardiovascular and other diseases. However, urate also possesses antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Recent convergence of epidemiological and clinical data has identified urate as a predictor of both reduced risk and favorable progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In rodents, functional UOx catalyzes urate oxidation to allantoin. We found that UOx KO mice with a constitutive mutation of the gene have increased concentrations of brain urate. By contrast, UOx transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing the enzyme have reduced brain urate concentrations. Effects of the complementary UOx manipulations were assessed in a mouse intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of hemiparkinsonism. UOx KO mice exhibit attenuated toxic effects of 6-OHDA on nigral dopaminergic cell counts, striatal dopamine content, and rotational behavior. Conversely, Tg overexpression of UOx exacerbates these morphological, neurochemical, and functional lesions of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. Together our data support a neuroprotective role of endogenous urate in dopaminergic neurons and strengthen the rationale for developing urate-elevating strategies as potential disease-modifying therapy for PD. PMID:23248282

Chen, Xiqun; Burdett, Thomas C.; Desjardins, Cody A.; Logan, Robert; Cipriani, Sara; Xu, Yuehang; Schwarzschild, Michael A.

2013-01-01

358

Polyphenol oxidases and phenolics in relation to resistance against cucumber scab in Cucumis Sativus I. Fungal and host polyphenol oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In culture filtrates ofCladosporium cucumerinum, the fungus causing cucumber scab, a constitutive, exocellular catechol oxidase was found; moreover, dihydroxy-phenylalanine and chlorogenic acid oxidases were produced. Catechol oxidase was detected in noticeable activity as soon as the pH of the culture medium had reached a value of 6.0, or if the medium was adjusted to this pH before sterilizing. The Michaelis

A. Fuchs

1965-01-01

359

Characterization of a Flavoprotein Oxidase from Opium Poppy Catalyzing the Final Steps in Sanguinarine and Papaverine Biosynthesis*  

PubMed Central

Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes the analgesic morphine, the antimicrobials sanguinarine and berberine, and the vasodilator papaverine. The two-electron oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine catalyzed by dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (DBOX) is the final step in sanguinarine biosynthesis. The formation of the fully conjugated ring system in sanguinarine is similar to the four-electron oxidations of (S)-canadine to berberine and (S)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine. We report the isolation and functional characterization of an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cDNA encoding DBOX, a flavoprotein oxidase with homology to (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase and the berberine bridge enzyme. A query of translated opium poppy stem transcriptome databases using berberine bridge enzyme yielded several candidate genes, including an (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase-like sequence selected for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme preferentially catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine to sanguinarine but also converted (RS)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine and several protoberberine alkaloids to oxidized forms, including (RS)-canadine to berberine. The Km values of 201 and 146 ?m for dihydrosanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, respectively, suggested high concentrations of these substrates in the plant. Virus-induced gene silencing to reduce DBOX transcript levels resulted in a corresponding reduction in sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, and papaverine accumulation in opium poppy roots in support of DBOX as a multifunctional oxidative enzyme in BIA metabolism. PMID:23118227

Hagel, Jillian M.; Beaudoin, Guillaume A. W.; Fossati, Elena; Ekins, Andrew; Martin, Vincent J. J.; Facchini, Peter J.

2012-01-01

360

The human lysyl oxidase-like 2 protein functions as an amine oxidase toward collagen and elastin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) protein is a human paralogue of lysyl oxidase (LOX) that functions as an amine oxidase for\\u000a formation of lysine-derived cross-links found in collagen and elastin. In addition to the C-terminal domains characteristic\\u000a to the LOX family members, LOXL2 contains four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains in the N-terminus. In order\\u000a to assess the amine oxidase

Young-Mi Kim; Eun-Cheol Kim; Youngho Kim

2011-01-01

361

Bienzyme biosensors for glucose, ethanol and putrescine built on oxidase and sweet potato peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amperometric biosensors for glucose, ethanol, and biogenic amines (putrescine) were constructed using oxidase\\/peroxidase bienzyme systems. The H2O2 produced by the oxidase in reaction with its substrate is converted into a measurable signal via a novel peroxidase purified from sweet potato peels. All developed biosensors are based on redox hydrogels formed of oxidases (glucose oxidase, alcohol oxidase, or amine oxidase) and

Jaime Castillo; Szilveszter Gáspár; Ivan Sakharov; Elisabeth Csöregi

2003-01-01

362

Expression of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase during Leaf Ontogeny in White Clover1  

PubMed Central

We examined the expression of three distinct 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes during leaf ontogeny in white clover (Trifolium repens). Significant production of ethylene occurs at the apex, in newly initiated leaves, and in senescent leaf tissue. We used a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 3?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify three distinct DNA sequences designated TRACO1, TRACO2, and TRACO3, each with homology to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Southern analysis confirmed that these sequences represent three distinct genes. Northern analysis revealed that TRACO1 is expressed specifically in the apex and TRACO2 is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in developing leaf tissue. The third gene, TRACO3, is expressed in senescent leaf tissue. Antibodies were raised to each gene product expressed in Escherichia coli, and western analysis showed that the TRACO1 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 205 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed preferentially in apical tissue. The TRACO2 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 36.4 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in mature green tissue. No protein recognition by the TRACO3 antibody could be detected in senescent tissue or at any other stage of leaf development. PMID:10318691

Hunter, Donald A.; Yoo, Sang Dong; Butcher, Stephen M.; McManus, Michael T.

1999-01-01

363

Thylakoid terminal oxidases are essential for the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to survive rapidly changing light intensities.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis and respiration in the thylakoid membrane, suggesting that the two processes are interlinked. However, the role of the respiratory electron transfer chain under natural environmental conditions has not been established. Through targeted gene disruption, mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were generated that lacked combinations of the three terminal oxidases: the thylakoid membrane-localized cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and quinol oxidase (Cyd) and the cytoplasmic membrane-localized alternative respiratory terminal oxidase. All strains demonstrated similar growth under continuous moderate or high light or 12-h moderate-light/dark square-wave cycles. However, under 12-h high-light/dark square-wave cycles, the COX/Cyd mutant displayed impaired growth and was completely photobleached after approximately 2 d. In contrast, use of sinusoidal light/dark cycles to simulate natural diurnal conditions resulted in little photobleaching, although growth was slower. Under high-light/dark square-wave cycles, the COX/Cyd mutant suffered a significant loss of photosynthetic efficiency during dark periods, a greater level of oxidative stress, and reduced glycogen degradation compared with the wild type. The mutant was susceptible to photoinhibition under pulsing but not constant light. These findings confirm a role for thylakoid-localized terminal oxidases in efficient dark respiration, reduction of oxidative stress, and accommodation of sudden light changes, demonstrating the strong selective pressure to maintain linked photosynthetic and respiratory electron chains within the thylakoid membrane. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a phenotypic difference in growth between terminal oxidase mutants and wild-type cells and highlights the need to examine mutant phenotypes under a range of conditions. PMID:23463783

Lea-Smith, David J; Ross, Nic; Zori, Maria; Bendall, Derek S; Dennis, John S; Scott, Stuart A; Smith, Alison G; Howe, Christopher J

2013-05-01

364

Conversion of starch to ethanol in a recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing rice [alpha]-amylase from a novel Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase promoter  

SciTech Connect

A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing and secreting rice [alpha]-amylase, converts starch to ethanol. The rice [alpha]-amylase gene (OS103) was placed under the transcriptional control of the promoter from a newly described Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase genomic clone. The nucleotide sequences of ZZA1 and other methanol-regulated promoters were analyzed. A highly conserved sequence (TTG-N[sub 3]-GCTTCCAA-N[sub 5]-TGGT) was found in the 5' flanking regions of alcohol oxidase, methanol oxidase, and dihydroxyacetone synthase genes in Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, and Candida biodinii S2. The yeast strain containing the ZZA1-OS103 fusion secreted biologically active enzyme into the culture media while fermenting soluble starch. 45 refs., 8 figs.

Kumagai, M.H.; Sverlow, G.G.; della-Cioppa, G.; Grill, L.K. (Biosource Genetics Corporation, Vacaville, CA (United States))

1993-05-01

365

Cotton Effects in Plant Ferredoxin and Xanthine Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The position and magnitude of the optically active absorption bands in the non-haem iron proteins xanthine oxidase and spinach ferredoxin are found to be very similar. A study of the Cotton effects in these proteins suggests that xanthine oxidase contains four identical pairs of iron atoms while spinach ferredoxin contains only one pair.

K. Garbett; R. D. Gillard; P. F. KNOWLES; J. E. STANGROOM

1967-01-01

366

Kinetic properties of glycerophosphate oxidase isolated from dry baker's yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycerophosphate oxidase is a flavoprotein responsible for the catalysis of the oxidation of the glycerophosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate, through the reduction of the oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The glycerophosphate oxidase from baker's yeast was specific for l-?-glycerol phosphate. It was estimated by monitoring the consumption of oxygen with an oxygraph. An increase of 32% in consumption of oxygen was

Luciana Amade Camargo; Maria Henriques Lourenço Ribeiro; Maristela de Freitas Sanches Peres; Edwil Aparecida de Lucca Gattás

2008-01-01

367

Effect of contraceptive steroids on monoamine oxidase activity  

PubMed Central

Cyclical variations in monoamine oxidase activity during the human menstrual cycle, specific to the endometrium and modified in women undergoing contraceptive steroid treatment, may reflect changes in hormonal environment. Treatment of rats with individual constituents of the contraceptive pill causes analogous changes: oestrogens inhibit and progestogens potentiate uterine monoamine oxidase activity. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3

Southgate, Jennifer; Collins, G. G. S.; Pryse-Davies, J.; Sandler, M.

1969-01-01

368

Brief Communications Brain Monoamine Oxidase A Activity Predicts Trait  

E-print Network

Brief Communications Brain Monoamine Oxidase A Activity Predicts Trait Aggression Nelly Alia of this behavior. A potential neu- rochemical target is monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme involved in metabolism of monoamines in brain and other or- gans (Shih and Thompson, 1999). MAO A catalytic activity re

Goldstein, Rita

369

Genetic and Genomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Interactions with Arabidopsis; Evidence of Resistance Mediated through NADPH Oxidases  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defense pathways. The Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 Genome array was used to assess global gene expression changes in plants infected with AG8 and AG2-1 at seven days post-infection. While there was considerable overlap in the response, some gene families were differentially affected by AG8 or AG2-1 and included those involved in oxidative stress, cell wall associated proteins, transcription factors and heat shock protein genes. Since a substantial proportion of the gene expression changes were associated with oxidative stress responses, we analysed the role of NADPH oxidases in resistance. While single NADPH oxidase mutants had no effect, a NADPH oxidase double mutant atrbohf atrbohd resulted in an almost complete loss of resistance to AG8, suggesting that reactive oxidative species play an important role in Arabidopsis's resistance to R. solani. PMID:23451091

Foley, Rhonda C.; Gleason, Cynthia A.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Hamann, Thorsten; Singh, Karam B.

2013-01-01

370

Specific and reversible immobilization of NADH oxidase on functionalized carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology-inspired biocatalyst systems have attracted a lot of attention in enzyme immobilization recently. Theoretically, nanomaterials are ideal supporting materials because they can provide the upper limits on enzyme-efficiency-determining factors such as surface area/volume ratio, enzyme loading capacity and mass transfer resistance. However, common immobilization methods have limited the applicability of these biocatalysts owing to enzyme leaching, 3D structure loss, and strong diffusion resistance. Expensive enzyme purification step is also required for these methods before immobilization. In this work, we show an efficient immobilization method based on specific interaction between His-tagged NADH oxidase and functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes without requiring enzyme purification for immobilization. We cloned the annotated NADH oxidase gene from Bacillus cereus genome and overexpressed with pET30 vector encoding N-terminal 6× His-tag. The His-tagged NADH oxidase was then immobilized onto single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with N(?),N(?)-bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine hydrate. The resulting nanoscale biocatalyst has overcome the foresaid limitations, and demonstrates good loading capacity and stability while maintaining 92% maximum activity of the native enzyme. We further demonstrate that the immobilization is reversible and can retain ca. 92% activity for a couple of loading cycles. PMID:20630484

Wang, Liang; Wei, Li; Chen, Yuan; Jiang, Rongrong

2010-10-01

371

Heterologous expression of two FAD-dependent oxidases with (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase activity from Arge mone mexicana and Berberis wilsoniae in insect cells.  

PubMed

Berberine, palmatine and dehydrocoreximine are end products of protoberberine biosynthesis. These quaternary protoberberines are elicitor inducible and, like other phytoalexins, are highly oxidized. The oxidative potential of these compounds is derived from a diverse array of biosynthetic steps involving hydroxylation, intra-molecular C-C coupling, methylenedioxy bridge formation and a dehydrogenation reaction as the final step in the biosynthesis. For the berberine biosynthetic pathway, the identification of the dehydrogenase gene is the last remaining uncharacterized step in the elucidation of the biosynthesis at the gene level. An enzyme able to catalyze these reactions, (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase (STOX, EC 1.3.3.8), was originally purified in the 1980s from suspension cells of Berberis wilsoniae and identified as a flavoprotein (Amann et al. 1984). We report enzymatic activity from recombinant STOX expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. The coding sequence was derived successively from peptide sequences of purified STOX protein. Furthermore, a recombinant oxidase with protoberberine dehydrogenase activity was obtained from a cDNA library of Argemone mexicana, a traditional medicinal plant that contains protoberberine alkaloids. The relationship of the two enzymes is discussed regarding their enzymatic activity, phylogeny and the alkaloid occurrence in the plants. Potential substrate binding and STOX-specific amino acid residues were identified based on sequence analysis and homology modeling. PMID:21327819

Gesell, Andreas; Chávez, Maria Luisa Díaz; Kramell, Robert; Piotrowski, Markus; Macheroux, Peter; Kutchan, Toni M

2011-06-01

372

Interheme electron tunneling in cytochrome c oxidase  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain that catalyzes respiratory reduction of dioxygen (O2) to water in all eukaryotes and many aerobic bacteria. CcO, and its homologs among the heme-copper oxidases, has an active site composed of an oxygen-binding heme and a copper center in the vicinity, plus another heme group that donates electrons to this site. In most oxidoreduction enzymes, electron transfer (eT) takes place by quantum-mechanical electron tunneling. Here we show by independent molecular dynamics and quantum-chemical methods that the heme-heme eT in CcO differs from the majority of cases in having an exceptionally low reorganization energy. We show that the rate of interheme eT in CcO may nevertheless be predicted by the Moser-Dutton equation if reinterpreted as the average of the eT rates between all individual atoms of the donor and acceptor weighed by the respective packing densities between them. We argue that this modification may be necessary at short donor/acceptor distances comparable to the donor/acceptor radii. PMID:21106766

Kaila, Ville R. I.; Johansson, Mikael P.; Sundholm, Dage; Wikstrom, Marten

2010-01-01

373

Bacterial xanthine oxidase from Arthrobacter S-2.  

PubMed Central

Arthrobacter S-2, originally isolated by enrichment on xanthine, produced high levels of xanthine oxidase activity, requiring as little as a 20-fold purification to approach homogeneity with some preparations. Molecular oxygen, ferricyanide, and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol served as electron acceptors, but nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide did not. The enzyme was relatively specific when compared with previously studied xanthine-oxidizing enzymes, but at least one purine was observed to be oxidized at each of the three positions of the purine ring that have been subject to oxidation by this type of enzyme. The enzyme had a relatively high Km for xanthine (1.3 X 10(-4) M), and substrate inhibition was not observed with this compound, in contrast to the enzyme from cow's milk. In fact, an opposite effect was observed, and double-reciprocal plots with xanthine as the variable substrate showed a concave downward deviation at high concentrations. At 2.5 mM xanthine the enzyme had a specific activity approximately 50 times that of the most active preparations of the milk enzyme. The spectrum of the Arthrobacter enzyme resembled that of milk xanthine oxidase, suggesting a similarity of the prosthetic centers of the two enzymes. The bacterial enzyme was relatively small and may be dimeric, with approximate native and subunit molecular weights of 146,000 and 79,000, respectively. PMID:681279

Woolfolk, C A; Downard, J S

1978-01-01

374

The complex roles of NADPH oxidases in fungal infection.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidases play key roles in immunity and inflammation that go beyond the production of microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS). The past decade has brought a new appreciation for the diversity of roles played by ROS in signalling associated with inflammation and immunity. NADPH oxidase activity affects disease outcome during infections by human pathogenic fungi, an important group of emerging and opportunistic pathogens that includes Candida, Aspergillus and Cryptococcus species. Here we review how alternative roles of NADPH oxidase activity impact fungal infection and how ROS signalling affects fungal physiology. Particular attention is paid to roles for NADPH oxidase in immune migration, immunoregulation in pulmonary infection, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, autophagy and inflammasome activity. These recent advances highlight the power and versatility of spatiotemporally controlled redox regulation in the context of infection, and point to a need to understand the molecular consequences of NADPH oxidase activity in the cell. PMID:24905433

Hogan, Deborah; Wheeler, Robert T

2014-08-01

375

Ascorbic acid and L-gulonolactone oxidase in lagomorphs.  

PubMed

1. The activity of L-gulonolactone oxidase (EC 1.1.3.8) in the liver of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) is about 10-fold greater in winter than in summer. 2. L-gulonolactone oxidase activity is low and tissue ascorbate high during all seasons in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). 3. Liver contents of ascorbate fall to low levels in L. americanus fed on rabbit chow in the laboratory. 4. The activity of L-gulonolactone oxidase in liver of Sylvilagus and Oryctolagus is depressed by feeding high levels of L-ascorbic acid. 5. The New Zealand White breed of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has considerably higher levels of L-gulonolactone oxidase and liver ascorbate than does the Dutch breed. 6. In a wild population of Oryctolagus sampled in Australia L-gulonolactone oxidase levels were intermediate between those of the two domestic breeds and more variable than either. PMID:318384

Jenness, R; Birney, E C; Ayaz, K L

1978-01-01

376

The human lysyl oxidase-like 2 protein functions as an amine oxidase toward collagen and elastin.  

PubMed

The lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) protein is a human paralogue of lysyl oxidase (LOX) that functions as an amine oxidase for formation of lysine-derived cross-links found in collagen and elastin. In addition to the C-terminal domains characteristic to the LOX family members, LOXL2 contains four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains in the N-terminus. In order to assess the amine oxidase activity of LOXL2, we expressed a series of recombinant LOXL2 proteins with deletions in the SRCR domains, using an Escherichia coli expression system. All of the purified recombinant LOXL2 proteins, with or without the SRCR domains in the N-terminus, showed significant amine oxidase activity toward several different types of collagen and elastin in in vitro amine oxidase assays, indicating deletion of the SRCR domains does not interfere with amine oxidase activity of LOXL2. Further, amine oxidase activity of LOXL2 was not susceptible to inhibition by ?-aminopropionitrile, an irreversible inhibitor of LOX, suggesting a different enzymatic mechanism between these two paralogues. PMID:20306300

Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Youngho

2011-01-01

377

Tumor necrosis factor-?-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation in human cardiomyocytes is mediated by NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

An elevated level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? is implicated in several cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. Numerous reports have demonstrated that TNF-? activates nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, resulting in the upregulation of several genes that regulate inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is also activated by TNF-? and plays a crucial role in redox-sensitive signaling pathways. The present study investigated whether NADPH oxidase mediates TNF-?-induced NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression. Human cardiomyocytes were treated with recombinant TNF-? with or without pretreatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and apocynin, inhibitors of NADPH oxidase. TNF-?-induced ROS production was measured using 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay. TNF-?-induced NF-kappaB activation was also examined using immunoblot; NF-kappaB binding to its binding motif was determined using a Cignal reporter luciferase assay and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. TNF-?-induced upregulation of interleukin (IL)-1? and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 was investigated using real-time PCR and immunoblot. TNF-?-induced ROS production in cardiomyocytes was mediated by NADPH oxidase. Phosphorylation of IKK-?/? and p65, degradation of IkappaB?, binding of NF-kappaB to its binding motif, and upregulation of IL-1? and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-? were significantly attenuated by treatment with DPI and apocynin. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that NADPH oxidase plays a role in regulation of TNF-?-induced NF-kappaB activation and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1? and VCAM-1, in human cardiomyocytes. PMID:25059721

Moe, Kyaw Thu; Khairunnisa, Katwadi; Yin, Nwe Oo; Chin-Dusting, Jaye; Wong, Philip; Wong, Meng Cheong

2014-09-01

378

The Cox3p assembly module of yeast cytochrome oxidase  

PubMed Central

Yeast cytochrome oxidase (COX) was previously inferred to assemble from three modules, each containing one of the three mitochondrially encoded subunits and a different subset of the eight nuclear gene products that make up this respiratory complex. Pull-down assays of pulse-labeled mitochondria enabled us to characterize Cox3p subassemblies that behave as COX precursors and contain Cox4p, Cox7p, and Cox13p. Surprisingly, Cox4p is a constituent of two other complexes, one of which was previously proposed to be an intermediate of Cox1p biogenesis. This suggests that Cox4p, which contacts Cox1p and Cox3p in the holoenzyme, can be incorporated into COX by two alternative pathways. In addition to subunits of COX, some Cox3p intermediates contain Rcf1p, a protein associated with the supercomplex that stabilizes the interaction of COX with the bc1 (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) complex. Finally, our results indicate that although assembly of the Cox1p module is not contingent on the presence of Cox3p, the converse is not true, as none of the Cox3p subassemblies were detected in a mutant blocked in translation of Cox1p. These studies support our proposal that Cox3p and Cox1p are separate assembly modules with unique compositions of ancillary factors and subunits derived from the nuclear genome. PMID:24478450

Su, Chen-Hsien; McStay, Gavin P.; Tzagoloff, Alexander

2014-01-01

379

Leishmania major possesses a unique HemG-type protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase  

PubMed Central

Leishmania major was proposed to either utilize haem from its host or partially synthesize the tetrapyrrole from host provided precursors. However, only indirect evidence was available for this partial late haem biosynthetic pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the LMJF_06_1280 gene of L. major encodes a HemG-type PPO (protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase) catalysing the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX. Interestingly, trypanosomatids are currently the only known eukaryotes possessing HemG-type enzymes. The LMJF_06_1280 gene forms a potential transcriptional unit with LMJF_06_1270 encoding CPO (coproporphyrinogen III oxidase) and with LMJF_06_1290 for a cytochrome b5. In vivo function of the L. major hemG gene was shown by the functional complementation of the Escherichia coli ?hemG strain LG285. Restored haem formation in E. coli was observed using HPLC analyses. Purified recombinant L. major HemG revealed PPO activity in vitro using different ubiquinones and triphenyltetrazolium as electron acceptors. FMN was identified as the L. major HemG cofactor. Active site residues were found to be essential for HemG catalysis. These data in combination with the solved crystal structures of L. major CPO and the physiological proof of a ferrochelatase activity provide clear-cut evidence for a partial haem biosynthetic pathway in L. major. PMID:24962471

Zwerschke, Dagmar; Karrie, Simone; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

2014-01-01

380

Reduction of NADPH-Oxidase Activity Ameliorates the Cardiovascular Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Williams-Beuren Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hallmark feature of Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is a generalized arteriopathy due to elastin deficiency, presenting as stenoses of medium and large arteries and leading to hypertension and other cardiovascular complications. Deletion of a functional NCF1 gene copy has been shown to protect a proportion of WBS patients against hypertension, likely through reduced NADPH-oxidase (NOX)–mediated oxidative stress. DD mice, carrying

Victoria Campuzano; Maria Segura-Puimedon; Verena Terrado; Carolina Sánchez-Rodríguez; Mathilde Coustets; Mauricio Menacho-Márquez; Julián Nevado; Xosé R. Bustelo; Uta Francke; Luis A. Pérez-Jurado

2012-01-01

381

d-Amino acid oxidase knockdown in the mouse cerebellum reduces NR2A mRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus mediated RNA-interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach to study genes in vivo. Here we report a method using lentivirus-delivered RNAi to knockdown the glial enzyme, d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), in the mouse cerebellum. After initial characterisation in vitro, we achieved a 40–50% reduction of DAO mRNA in the cerebellum 7 and 28days after a single injection of lentivirus encoding

Philip W. J. Burnet; Patrick N. Anderson; Li Chen; Natalia Nikiforova; Paul J. Harrison; Matthew J. A. Wood

2011-01-01

382

Evidence for the interaction of d-amino acid oxidase with pLG72 in a glial cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating genetic evidence indicates that the primate-specific gene locus G72\\/G30 is related to schizophrenia: it encodes for the protein pLG72, whose function is still the subject of controversy. We recently demonstrated that pLG72 negatively affects the activity of human d-amino acid oxidase (hDAAO, also related to schizophrenia susceptibility), which in neurons and (predominantly) in glia is expected to catabolize the

Silvia Sacchi; Pamela Cappelletti; Stefano Giovannardi; Loredano Pollegioni

2011-01-01

383