Note: This page contains sample records for the topic multicopper oxidase gene from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Gene structure and molecular analysis of the laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Completed genome sequences have made it clear that multicopper oxidases related to laccase are widely distributed as multigene families in higher plants. Laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) sequences culled from GenBank and the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, as well as those from several newly cloned genes, were used to construct a gene phylogeny that clearly divided plant LMCOs into six distinct classes,

Bonnie C. McCaig; Richard B. Meagher; Jeffrey F. D. Dean

2005-01-01

2

Characterization of the multicopper oxidase gene family in Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

The multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes includes laccases, which oxidize a broad range of substrates including diphenols, and several oxidases with specific substrates such as iron, copper or ascorbic acid. We have identified five putative MCO genes in the genome of Anopheles gambiae and have cloned cDNAs encompassing the full coding region for each gene. MCO1 mRNA was detected in all developmental stages and in all of the larval and adult tissues tested. We observed an increase in MCO1 transcript abundance in the midguts and Malphighian tubules of adult females following a blood meal and in adult abdominal carcasses in response to an immune challenge. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of MCO2 mRNA were identified. The A isoform of MCO2 was previously detected in larval and pupal cuticle where it probably catalyzes sclerotization reactions (He et al., 2007). The B isoform was transcriptionally upregulated in ovaries in response to a blood meal. MCO3 mRNA was detected in the adult midgut, Malpighian tubules, and male reproductive tissues; like MCO1, it was upregulated in response to an immune challenge or a blood meal. MCO4 and MCO5 were observed primarily in eggs and in the abdominal carcass of larvae. A phylogenetic analysis of insect MCO genes identified putative orthologs of MCO1 and MCO2 in all of the insect genomes tested, whereas MCO3, MCO4 and MCO5 were found only in the two mosquito species analyzed. MCO2 orthologs have especially high sequence similarity, suggesting that they are under strong purifying selection; the A isoforms are more conserved than the B isoforms. The mosquito specific group shares a common ancestor with MCO2. This initial study of mosquito MCOs suggests that MCO2 may be required for egg development or eggshell tanning in addition to cuticle tanning, while MCO1 and MCO3 may be involved in metal metabolism or immunity.

Gorman, Maureen J.; Dittmer, Neal T.; Marshall, Jeremy L.; Kanost, Michael R.

2008-01-01

3

Evolution of multicopper oxidase genes in coprophilous and non-coprophilous members of the order sordariales.  

PubMed

Multicopper oxidases (MCO) catalyze the biological oxidation of various aromatic substrates and have been identified in plants, insects, bacteria, and wood rotting fungi. In nature, they are involved in biodegradation of biopolymers such as lignin and humic compounds, but have also been tested for various industrial applications. In fungi, MCOs have been shown to play important roles during their life cycles, such as in fruiting body formation, pigment formation and pathogenicity. Coprophilous fungi, which grow on the dung of herbivores, appear to encode an unexpectedly high number of enzymes capable of at least partly degrading lignin. This study compared the MCO-coding capacity of the coprophilous filamentous ascomycetes Podospora anserina and Sordaria macrospora with closely related non-coprophilous members of the order Sordariales. An increase of MCO genes in coprophilic members of the Sordariales most probably occurred by gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer events. PMID:21966247

Pöggeler, Stefanie

2011-04-01

4

Evolution of Multicopper Oxidase Genes in Coprophilous and Non-Coprophilous Members of the Order Sordariales  

PubMed Central

Multicopper oxidases (MCO) catalyze the biological oxidation of various aromatic substrates and have been identified in plants, insects, bacteria, and wood rotting fungi. In nature, they are involved in biodegradation of biopolymers such as lignin and humic compounds, but have also been tested for various industrial applications. In fungi, MCOs have been shown to play important roles during their life cycles, such as in fruiting body formation, pigment formation and pathogenicity. Coprophilous fungi, which grow on the dung of herbivores, appear to encode an unexpectedly high number of enzymes capable of at least partly degrading lignin. This study compared the MCO-coding capacity of the coprophilous filamentous ascomycetes Podospora anserina and Sordaria macrospora with closely related non-coprophilous members of the order Sordariales. An increase of MCO genes in coprophilic members of the Sordariales most probably occurred by gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer events.

Poggeler, Stefanie

2011-01-01

5

Multicopper oxidases and oxygenases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper is an essential trace element in living systems, present in the parts per million concentration range. It is a key cofactor in a diverse array of biological oxidation-reduction reactions. These involve either outer-sphere electron transfer, as in the blue copper proteins and the Cu{sub A} site of cytochrome oxidase and nitrous oxide redutase, or inner-sphere electron transfer in the

Edward I. Solomon; Uma M. Sundaram; Timothy E. Machonkin

1996-01-01

6

Crystal Structure of a Two-domain Multicopper Oxidase  

PubMed Central

The two-domain multicopper oxidases are proposed to be key intermediates in the evolution of three-domain multicopper oxidases. A number of two-domain multicopper oxidases have been identified from genome sequences and are classified as type A, type B, or type C on the basis of the predicted location of the type 1 copper center. The crystal structure of blue copper oxidase, a type C two-domain multicopper oxidase from Nitrosomonas europaea, has been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. Blue copper oxidase is a trimer, of which each subunit comprises two cupredoxin domains. Each subunit houses a type 1 copper site in domain 1 and a type 2/type 3 trinuclear copper cluster at the subunit-subunit interface. The coordination geometry at the trinuclear copper site is consistent with reduction of the copper ions. Although the overall architecture of blue copper oxidase is similar to nitrite reductases, detailed structural alignments show that the fold and domain orientation more closely resemble the three-domain multicopper oxidases. These observations have important implications for the evolution of nitrite reductases and multicopper oxidases.

Lawton, Thomas J.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Arp, Daniel J.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

2009-01-01

7

Elimination of Manganese(II,III) Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 by a Double Knockout of Two Putative Multicopper Oxidase Genes  

PubMed Central

Bacterial manganese(II) oxidation impacts the redox cycling of Mn, other elements, and compounds in the environment; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of and enzymes responsible for Mn(II) oxidation. In several Mn(II)-oxidizing organisms, the identified Mn(II) oxidase belongs to either the multicopper oxidase (MCO) or the heme peroxidase family of proteins. However, the identity of the oxidase in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 has long remained unknown. To identify the P. putida GB-1 oxidase, we searched its genome and found several homologues of known or suspected Mn(II) oxidase-encoding genes (mnxG, mofA, moxA, and mopA). To narrow this list, we assumed that the Mn(II) oxidase gene would be conserved among Mn(II)-oxidizing pseudomonads but not in nonoxidizers and performed a genome comparison to 11 Pseudomonas species. We further assumed that the oxidase gene would be regulated by MnxR, a transcription factor required for Mn(II) oxidation. Two loci met all these criteria: PputGB1_2447, which encodes an MCO homologous to MnxG, and PputGB1_2665, which encodes an MCO with very low homology to MofA. In-frame deletions of each locus resulted in strains that retained some ability to oxidize Mn(II) or Mn(III); loss of oxidation was attained only upon deletion of both genes. These results suggest that PputGB1_2447 and PputGB1_2665 encode two MCOs that are independently capable of oxidizing both Mn(II) and Mn(III). The purpose of this redundancy is unclear; however, differences in oxidation phenotype for the single mutants suggest specialization in function for the two enzymes.

McCarthy, James K.; Tebo, Bradley M.

2013-01-01

8

Insect multicopper oxidases: Diversity, properties, and physiological roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a group of related proteins that are ubiquitous in nature. They perform a wide variety of functions including pigmentation, lignin synthesis and degradation, iron homeostasis, and morphogenesis. The laccases of fungi are intensely studied for their biotechnological potential as a more environmentally friendly alternative to harsh or toxic chemicals used for certain industrial applications. Research into

Neal T. Dittmer; Michael R. Kanost

2010-01-01

9

Characterization of Laccase-like Multicopper Oxidases (LMCOs) in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laccase-like multicopper oxidases (LMCOs) have repeatedly been associated with the process of lignification in plants, and previous work suggested that these enzymes might be acting as specific marker for highly localized, small-scale lignification events...

J. F. D. Dean

2008-01-01

10

Diversity of Two-Domain Laccase-Like Multicopper Oxidase Genes in Streptomyces spp.: Identification of Genes Potentially Involved in Extracellular Activities and Lignocellulose Degradation during Composting of Agricultural Waste.  

PubMed

Traditional three-domain fungal and bacterial laccases have been extensively studied for their significance in various biotechnological applications. Growing molecular evidence points to a wide occurrence of more recently recognized two-domain laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes in Streptomyces spp. However, the current knowledge about their ecological role and distribution in natural or artificial ecosystems is insufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and composition of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes in agricultural waste composting, which will contribute to the understanding of the ecological function of Streptomyces two-domain LMCOs with potential extracellular activity and ligninolytic capacity. A new specific PCR primer pair was designed to target the two conserved copper binding regions of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes. The obtained sequences mainly clustered with Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces violaceusniger, and Streptomyces griseus. Gene libraries retrieved from six composting samples revealed high diversity and a rapid succession of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes during composting. The obtained sequence types cluster in 8 distinct clades, most of which are homologous with Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes, but the sequences of clades III and VIII do not match with any reference sequence of known streptomycetes. Both lignocellulose degradation rates and phenol oxidase activity at pH 8.0 in the composting process were found to be positively associated with the abundance of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes. These observations provide important clues that Streptomyces two-domain LMCOs are potentially involved in bacterial extracellular phenol oxidase activities and lignocellulose breakdown during agricultural waste composting. PMID:24657870

Lu, Lunhui; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Anwei; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Min; Yuan, Yujie; Wu, Haipeng; Lai, Mingyong; He, Yibin

2014-06-01

11

A Multicopper Oxidase Is Required for Copper Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is one of the most important bacterial pathogens. Recent work has revealed that the natural bactericidal properties of copper are utilized by the host immune system to combat infections with bacteria, including M. tuberculosis. However, M. tuberculosis employs multiple mechanisms to reduce the internal copper amount by efflux and sequestration, which are required for virulence of M. tuberculosis. Here, we describe an alternative mechanism of copper resistance by M. tuberculosis. Deletion of the rv0846c gene increased the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to copper at least 10-fold, establishing Rv0846c as a major component of copper resistance in M. tuberculosis. In vitro assays showed that Rv0846c oxidized organic substrates and Fe(II). Importantly, mutation of the predicted copper-coordinating cysteine 486 resulted in inactive Rv0846c protein which did not protect M. tuberculosis against copper stress. Hence, Rv0846c is a multicopper oxidase of M. tuberculosis and was renamed mycobacterial multicopper oxidase (MmcO). MmcO is membrane associated, probably by lipidation after export across the inner membrane by the twin-arginine translocation system. However, mutation of the lipidation site did not affect the oxidase activity or the copper protective function of MmcO. Our study revealed MmcO as an important copper resistance mechanism of M. tuberculosis, which possibly acts by oxidation of toxic Cu(I) in the periplasm.

Rowland, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

12

CotA, a Multicopper Oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, Exhibits Manganese-Oxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II) oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II) oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II)-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II)-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II) oxidase activity was obtained at 53°C in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II)-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II) was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II) were 14.85±1.17 mM, 3.01×10?6±0.21 M·min?1 and 0.32±0.02 s?1, respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II) from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II) oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms, but also offers a potential biocatalyst for Mn(II) removal.

Su, Jianmei; Bao, Peng; Bai, Tenglong; Deng, Lin; Wu, Hui; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

2013-01-01

13

Design of Carbon Nanotube-Based Gas-Diffusion Cathode for O2 Reduction by Multicopper Oxidases (Postprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multicopper oxidases, such as laccase or bilirubin oxidase, are known to reduce molecular oxygen at very high redox potentials, which makes them attractive biocatalysts for enzymatic cathodes in biological fuel cells. By designing an enzymatic gas-diffusi...

C. Lau E. R. Adkins H. R. Luckarift P. Atanassov R. P. Ramasamy

2011-01-01

14

Multicopper Oxidase-3 Is a Laccase Associated with the Peritrophic Matrix of Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

The multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes includes laccases, which oxidize a broad range of substrates including polyphenols and phenylendiamines; ferroxidases, which oxidize ferrous iron; and several other oxidases with specific substrates such as ascorbate, bilirubin or copper. The genome of Anopheles gambiae, a species of mosquito, encodes five putative multicopper oxidases. Of these five, only AgMCO2 has known enzymatic and physiological functions: it is a highly conserved laccase that functions in cuticle pigmentation and tanning by oxidizing dopamine and dopamine derivatives. AgMCO3 is a mosquito-specific gene that is expressed predominantly in adult midguts and Malpighian tubules. To determine its enzymatic function, we purified recombinant AgMCO3 and analyzed its activity. AgMCO3 oxidized hydroquinone (a p-diphenol), the five o-diphenols tested, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and p-phenylenediamine, but not ferrous iron. The catalytic efficiencies of AgMCO3 were similar to those of cuticular laccases (MCO2 orthologs), except that AgMCO3 oxidized all of the phenolic substrates with similar efficiencies whereas the MCO2 isoforms were less efficient at oxidizing catechol or dopa. These results demonstrate that AgMCO3 can be classified as a laccase and suggest that AgMCO3 has a somewhat broader substrate specificity than MCO2 orthologs. In addition, we observed AgMCO3 immunoreactivity in the peritrophic matrix, which functions as a selective barrier between the blood meal and midgut epithelial cells, protecting the midgut from mechanical damage, pathogens, and toxic molecules. We propose that AgMCO3 may oxidize toxic molecules in the blood meal leading to detoxification or to cross-linking of the molecules to the peritrophic matrix, thus targeting them for excretion.

Lang, Minglin; Kanost, Michael R.; Gorman, Maureen J.

2012-01-01

15

Characterization of Laccase-like Multicopper Oxidases (LMCOs) in Arabidopsis thaliana  

SciTech Connect

Laccase-like multicopper oxidases (LMCOs) have repeatedly been associated with the process of lignification in plants, and previous work suggested that these enzymes might be acting as specific marker for highly localized, small-scale lignification events in tissues not typically thought of as lignified. However, plant LMCOs typically occur as members of gene families and different family members can display disparate enzyme activities and overlapping patterns of expression in bulk tissues. This study used reporter genes and knockout mutants to document the involvement of a specific Arabidopsis thaliana LMCO family member (At2g30210 ) in early root development, specifically with development of endodermal tissues. Expression of the gene product was found to be under the control of sucrose levels, but the gene also responded to fluctuations in salt concentrations. The expression patterns of this gene were consistent with its involvement in the formation of suberin in the Casparian strip of root endodermis. An additional LMCO (At5g58910) displayed a more generalized expression in the radicles emergent seedlings. Additional members of the Arabidopsis LMCO family (At2g29130, At5g01190, and At5g05390) were also investigated with reporter gene constructs and knockout mutants. Expression of these LMCOs was associated with lignifying xylem, and the genes had over-lapping expression. Single knockout mutants did not display obvious phenotypes, suggesting that the gene products might have degenerate functionality that could compensate for loss of a single LMCO function.

Jeffrey F.D. Dean

2008-06-09

16

A Novel Extracellular Multicopper Oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium with Ferroxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Lignin degradation by the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium involves various extracellular oxidative enzymes, including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and a peroxide-generating enzyme, glyoxal oxidase. Recent studies have suggested that laccases also may be produced by this fungus, but these conclusions have been controversial. We identified four sequences related to laccases and ferroxidases (Fet3) in a search of the publicly available P. chrysosporium database. One gene, designated mco1, has a typical eukaryotic secretion signal and is transcribed in defined media and in colonized wood. Structural analysis and multiple alignments identified residues common to laccase and Fet3 sequences. A recombinant MCO1 (rMCO1) protein expressed in Aspergillus nidulans had a molecular mass of 78 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the copper I-type center was confirmed by the UV-visible spectrum. rMCO1 oxidized various compounds, including 2,2?-azino(bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) and aromatic amines, although phenolic compounds were poor substrates. The best substrate was Fe2+, with a Km close to 2 ?M. Collectively, these results suggest that the P. chrysosporium genome does not encode a typical laccase but rather encodes a unique extracellular multicopper oxidase with strong ferroxidase activity.

Larrondo, Luis F.; Salas, Loreto; Melo, Francisco; Vicuna, Rafael; Cullen, Daniel

2003-01-01

17

Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. Results The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and McoG from the commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from 80 to 110 kDa. McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPPDA) and 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline) sulfonic acid (ABTS), and appeared to be a promising biocatalyst. Besides oxidizing a variety of phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the decolorization and detoxification of the widely used textile dye malachite green. Conclusions The A. niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the synthetic dye malachite green, showing to have an interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst.

2012-01-01

18

Determining the Role of Multicopper Oxidases in Manganese(II) Oxidation by Marine Bacillus Spores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria play an important role in the environmental cycling of Mn by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) and forming insoluble Mn(III/IV) oxides. These biogenic Mn oxides are renowned for their strong sorptive and oxidative properties, which control the speciation and availability of many metals and organic compounds. A wide variety of bacteria are known to catalyze the oxidation of Mn(II); one of the most frequently isolated types are Bacillus species that oxidize Mn(II) only as metabolically dormant spores. We are using genetic and biochemical methods to study the molecular mechanisms of this process in these organisms. mnxG, a gene related to the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes, is required for Mn(II) oxidation in the model organism, Bacillus sp. strain SG-1. Mn(II)-oxidizing activity can be detected in crude protein extracts of the exosporium and as a discrete band in SDS-PAGE gels, however previous attempts to purify or identify this Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme have failed. A direct link between the Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme and the MCO gene suspected to encode it has never been made. We used genetic and biochemical methods to investigate the role of the MCO in the mechanism of Mn(II) oxidation. Comparative analysis of the mnx operon from several diverse Mn(II)-oxidizing Bacillus spores revealed that mnxG is the most highly conserved gene in the operon, and that copper binding sites are highly conserved. As with Mn(II) oxidases from other organisms, heterologous expression of the Bacillus mnxG in E. coli did not yield an active Mn(II) oxidase. Purifying sufficient quantities of the native Mn(II) oxidase from Bacillus species for biochemical characterization has proven difficult because the enzyme does not appear to be abundant, and it is highly insoluble. We were able to partially purify the Mn(II) oxidase, and to analyze the active band by in-gel trypsin digestion followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS/MS spectra provided a conclusive match to mnxG, suggesting that this MCO directly catalyzes the oxidation of Mn(II) and the precipitation of Mn(IV) oxide, which represents a novel reaction for a MCO. MS/MS analysis of bands identified by in-gel activity assays is a powerful method of identifying novel enzymes responsible for geochemical processes.

Dick, G. J.; Tebo, B. M.

2005-12-01

19

Identification and characterization of a novel multicopper oxidase from Acidomyces acidophilus with ferroxidase activity.  

PubMed

A new multicopper oxidase gene AaMco1 was identified in Acidomyces acidophilus, a pigmented extremophile ascomycete originally isolated from acidic water. Sequence analysis revealed that it encodes a 682 amino acid protein with an apparent molecular mass of 85 kDa as determined by denaturing SDS-PAGE. Interestingly, AaMco1 has a predicted N-terminal transmembrane helix and no signal peptide. To obtain an active and soluble protein, AaMco1 was truncated at its N-terminal to remove the transmembrane helix, but even in this form the protein was found in the insoluble fraction. AaMco1 and its truncated form were then denatured, purified and renatured before characterization. Structural analysis and protein characterization by enzymatic assays indicate that AaMco1 has ferroxidase activity. AaMco1 is also able to oxidize the DMPPDA compound and could be part of a new phylogenetic cluster, the ascomycete MCOs family, described for the first time here. PMID:24582726

Boonen, France; Vandamme, Anne-Michèle; Etoundi, Emilie; Pigneur, Lise-Marie; Housen, Isabelle

2014-07-01

20

Atmospheric N deposition increases bacterial laccase-like multicopper oxidases: implications for organic matter decay.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic release of biologically available nitrogen (N) has increased dramatically over the last 150 years, which can alter the processes controlling carbon (C) storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan in the United States, nearly 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. This change occurred concomitantly with compositional changes in Basidiomycete fungi and in Actinobacteria, as well as the downregulation of fungal lignocelluloytic genes. Recently, laccase-like multicopper oxidases (LMCOs) have been discovered among bacteria which can oxidize ?-O-4 linkages in phenolic compounds (e.g., lignin and humic compounds), resulting in the production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Here, we examined how nearly 2 decades of experimental N deposition has affected the abundance and composition of saprotrophic bacteria possessing LMCO genes. In our experiment, LMCO genes were more abundant in the forest floor under experimental N deposition whereas the abundances of bacteria and fungi were unchanged. Experimental N deposition also led to less-diverse, significantly altered bacterial and LMCO gene assemblages, with taxa implicated in organic matter decay (i.e., Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria) accounting for the majority of compositional changes. These results suggest that experimental N deposition favors bacteria in the forest floor that harbor the LMCO gene and represents a plausible mechanism by which anthropogenic N deposition has reduced decomposition, increased soil C storage, and accelerated phenolic DOC production in our field experiment. Our observations suggest that future rates of atmospheric N deposition could fundamentally alter the physiological potential of soil microbial communities. PMID:24837374

Freedman, Zachary; Zak, Donald R

2014-07-15

21

Iodide Oxidation by a Novel Multicopper Oxidase from the Alphaproteobacterium Strain Q-1  

PubMed Central

Alphaproteobacterium strain Q-1 is able to oxidize iodide (I?) to molecular iodine (I2) by an oxidase-like enzyme. One of the two isoforms of the iodide-oxidizing enzyme (IOE-II) produced by this strain was excised from a native polyacrylamide gel, eluted, and purified. IOE-II appeared as a single band (51 kDa) and showed significant in-gel iodide-oxidizing activity in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis without heat treatment. However, at least two bands with much higher molecular masses (150 and 230 kDa) were observed with heat treatment (95°C, 3 min). IOE-II was inhibited by NaN3, KCN, EDTA, and a copper chelator, o-phenanthroline. In addition to iodide, IOE-II showed significant activities toward phenolic compounds such as syringaldazine, 2,6-dimethoxy phenol, and p-phenylenediamine. IOE-II contained copper atoms as prosthetic groups and had UV/VIS absorption peaks at 320 and 590 nm. Comparison of several internal amino acid sequences obtained from trypsin-digested IOE-II with a draft genome sequence of strain Q-1 revealed that the products of two open reading frames (IoxA and IoxC), with predicted molecular masses of 62 and 71 kDa, are involved in iodide oxidation. Furthermore, subsequent tandem mass spectrometric analysis repeatedly detected peptides from IoxA and IoxC with high sequence coverage (32 to 40%). IoxA showed homology with the family of multicopper oxidases and included four copper-binding regions that are highly conserved among various multicopper oxidases. These results suggest that IOE-II is a multicopper oxidase and that it may occur as a multimeric complex in which at least two proteins (IoxA and IoxC) are associated.

Suzuki, Mio; Eda, Yoshifumi; Ohsawa, Shiaki; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Kan; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshikawa, Jun; Sato, Ikuo; Fujii, Takaaki

2012-01-01

22

Surfactant-assisted direct electron transfer between multi-copper oxidases and carbon nanotube-based porous electrodes.  

PubMed

The effects of pre-treatment with surfactants on the electrocatalytic reaction of multi-copper oxidases were quantitatively evaluated using a well-structured carbon nanotube forest electrode. It was found that both the charge polarity of the head group and the aromatics in the tail part of the surfactants affect the efficiency of enzymatic electrocatalysis. PMID:24871387

Ogawa, Yudai; Yoshino, Syuhei; Miyake, Takeo; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko

2014-06-11

23

Crystal structure of the blue multicopper oxidase from the white-rot fungus Trametes trogii complexed with p-toluate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicopper oxidase, the fungal laccase glycoenzyme from the white-rot basidiomycete fungus Trametes (Funalia) trogii, was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved at 1.58Å using molecular replacement techniques.Model refinement resulted in R-factor and R-free values of 17.4% and 19.0%, respectively. The T. trogii laccase structural model reveals the presence of a ligand bound to the T1 active site which

Irene Matera; Antonella Gullotto; Silvia Tilli; Marta Ferraroni; Andrea Scozzafava; Fabrizio Briganti

2008-01-01

24

Multireference Ab Initio Calculations of g tensors for Trinuclear Copper Clusters in Multicopper Oxidases  

PubMed Central

EPR spectroscopy has proven to be an indispensable tool in elucidating the structure of metal sites in proteins. In recent years, experimental EPR data have been complemented by theoretical calculations, which have become a standard tool of many quantum chemical packages. However, there have only been a few attempts to calculate EPR g tensors for exchange-coupled systems with more than two spins. In this work, we present a quantum chemical study of structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of intermediates in the reaction cycle of multicopper oxidases and of their inorganic models. All these systems contain three copper(II) ions bridged by hydroxide or O2? anions and their ground states are antiferromagnetically coupled doublets. We demonstrate that only multireference methods, such as CASSCF/CASPT2 or MRCI can yield qualitatively correct results (compared to the experimental values) and consider the accuracy of the calculated EPR g tensors as the current benchmark of quantum chemical methods. By decomposing the calculated g tensors into terms arising from interactions of the ground state with the various excited states, the origin of the zero-field splitting is explained. The results of the study demonstrate that a truly quantitative prediction of the g tensors of exchange-coupled systems is a great challenge to contemporary theory. The predictions strongly depend on small energy differences that are difficult to predict with sufficient accuracy by any quantum chemical method that is applicable to systems of the size of our target systems.

Vancoillie, Steven; Chalupsky, Jakub; Ryde, Ulf; Solomon, Edward I.; Pierloot, Kristine; Neese, Frank; Rulisek, Lubomir

2010-01-01

25

Impact of copper limitation on expression and function of multicopper oxidases (ferroxidases).  

PubMed

Copper is an essential trace element whose recommended intake is met by most North American diets. However, incidence of new cases of secondary copper deficiency is rising due to complications of gastric bypass surgery and high zinc exposure. Patients frequently are ataxic and anemic. Anemia of copper deficiency was first described in the 19th century, but the underlying biochemistry remains unknown. Approximately one dozen cuproenzymes have been characterized in mammals. Four of these are referred to as multicopper oxidases (MCO) due to their copper binding geometries. They have iron oxidase activity (ferroxidase). These include the hepatic secreted protein ceruloplasmin representing ?90% of plasma copper, a splice-variant of ceruloplasmin originally characterized in brain linked by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) to membranes, an intestinal enriched MCO named hephaestin, and newly described MCO in placenta called zyklopen. Limitation in available copper appears to limit function of the MCO group exhibited as impaired iron flux due to the copper requirement of MCO for their ferroxidase activity. Dietary copper deficiency is associated with lower levels of ceruloplasmin, GPI-ceruloplasmin, and hephaestin. Limitation of copper does not appear to limit synthesis of MCO but rather their stability and turnover. However, there appears to be a disconnect between limitation in MCO function and anemia, because humans and mice missing ceruloplasmin are not anemic despite hepatic iron overload and hypoferremia. Furthermore, anemic copper-deficient mammals are not improved by iron replacement. This suggests that the anemia of copper deficiency is not caused by iron limitation but rather impairment in iron utilization. PMID:22332037

Prohaska, Joseph R

2011-03-01

26

Mn(II,III) oxidation and MnO2 mineralization by an expressed bacterial multicopper oxidase  

PubMed Central

Reactive Mn(IV) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and control the bioavailability and distribution of many toxic and essential elements and organic compounds. Their formation is thought to be dependent on microbial enzymes, because spontaneous Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxidation is slow. Several species of marine Bacillus spores oxidize Mn(II) on their exosporium, the outermost layer of the spore, encrusting them with Mn(IV) oxides. Molecular studies have identified the mnx (Mn oxidation) genes, including mnxG, encoding a putative multicopper oxidase (MCO), as responsible for this two-electron oxidation, a surprising finding because MCOs only catalyze single-electron transfer reactions. Characterization of the enzymatic mechanism has been hindered by the lack of purified protein. By purifying active protein from the mnxDEFG expression construct, we found that the resulting enzyme is a blue (absorption maximum 590 nm) complex containing MnxE, MnxF, and MnxG proteins. Further, by analyzing the Mn(II)- and (III)-oxidizing activity in the presence of a Mn(III) chelator, pyrophosphate, we found that the complex facilitates both electron transfers from Mn(II) to Mn(III) and from Mn(III) to Mn(IV). X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the Mn mineral product confirmed its similarity to Mn(IV) oxides generated by whole spores. Our results demonstrate that Mn oxidation from soluble Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxides is a two-step reaction catalyzed by an MCO-containing complex. With the purification of active Mn oxidase, we will be able to uncover its mechanism, broadening our understanding of Mn mineral formation and the bioinorganic capabilities of MCOs.

Butterfield, Cristina N.; Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Spiro, Thomas G.; Tebo, Bradley M.

2013-01-01

27

NMR study of the exchange coupling in the trinuclear cluster of the multicopper oxidase Fet3p  

PubMed Central

Fet3p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a multicopper oxidase (MCO) which oxidizes Fe2+ to Fe3+. The electronic structure of the different copper centers in this family of enzymes has been extensively studied and discussed for years with a particular focus on the exchange coupling regime in the trinuclear cluster (TNC). Using NMR spectroscopy we have quantified the exchange coupling constant in the type 3 center in a fully metallated oxidase; this value in Fet3p is significantly higher than that reported for proteins containing isolated type 3 centers as in tyrosinase. We also provide evidence of exchange coupling between the type 2 and the type 3 Cu2+ ions, which supports the crystallographic evidence of dioxygen binding to the TNC. This work provides the foundation for the application of NMR to these complex systems.

Zaballa, Maria-Eugenia; Ziegler, Lynn; Kosman, Daniel J.; Vila, Alejandro J.

2010-01-01

28

Engineering Klebsiella sp. 601 multicopper oxidase enhances the catalytic efficiency towards phenolic substrates  

PubMed Central

Background Structural comparison between bacterial CueO and fungal laccases has suggested that a charged residue Glu (E106) in CueO replaces the corresponding residue Phe in fungal laccases at the gate of the tunnel connecting type II copper to the protein surface and an extra ?-helix (L351-G378) near the type I copper site covers the substrate binding pocket and might compromise the electron transfer from substrate to type I copper. To test this hypothesis, several mutants were made in Klebsiella sp. 601 multicopper oxidase, which is highly homologous to E. coli CueO with a similarity of 90% and an identity of 78%. Results The E106F mutant gave smaller Km (2.4-7fold) and kcat (1-4.4 fold) values for all three substrates DMP, ABTS and SGZ as compared with those for the wild-type enzyme. Its slightly larger kcat/Km values for three substrates mainly come from the decreased Km. Deleting ?-helix (L351-G378) resulted in the formation of inactive inclusion body when the mutant ??351-378 was expressed in E. coli. Another mutant ?351-380M was then made via substitution of seven amino acid residues in the ?-helix (L351-G378) region. The ?351-380M mutant was active, and displayed a far-UV CD spectrum markedly different from that for wild-type enzyme. Kinetic studies showed the ?351-380M mutant gave very low Km values for DMP, ABTS and SGZ, 4.5-, 1.9- and 7-fold less than those for the wild type. In addition, kcat/Km values were increased, 9.4-fold for DMP, similar for ABTS and 3-fold for SGZ. Conclusion The Glu residue at position 106 appears not to be the only factor affecting the copper binding, and it may also play a role in maintaining enzyme conformation. The ?-helix (L351-G378) may not only block access to the type I copper site but also play a role in substrate specificities of bacterial MCOs. The ?351-380M mutant catalyzing oxidation of the phenolic substrate DMP effectively would be very useful in green chemistry.

2011-01-01

29

Crystal structure and electron transfer kinetics of CueO, a multicopper oxidase required for copper homeostasis in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

CueO (YacK), a multicopper oxidase, is part of the copper-regulatory cue operon in Escherichia coli. The crystal structure of CueO has been determined to 1.4-? resolution by using multiple anomalous dispersion phasing and an automated building procedure that yielded a nearly complete model without manual intervention. This is the highest resolution multicopper oxidase structure yet determined and provides a particularly clear view of the four coppers at the catalytic center. The overall structure is similar to those of laccase and ascorbate oxidase, but contains an extra 42-residue insert in domain 3 that includes 14 methionines, nine of which lie in a helix that covers the entrance to the type I (T1, blue) copper site. The trinuclear copper cluster has a conformation not previously seen: the Cu-O-Cu binuclear species is nearly linear (Cu-O-Cu bond angle = 170°) and the third (type II) copper lies only 3.1 ? from the bridging oxygen. CueO activity was maximal at pH 6.5 and in the presence of >100 ?M Cu(II). Measurements of intermolecular and intramolecular electron transfer with laser flash photolysis in the absence of Cu(II) show that, in addition to the normal reduction of the T1 copper, which occurs with a slow rate (k = 4 × 107 M?1?s?1), a second electron transfer process occurs to an unknown site, possibly the trinuclear cluster, with k = 9 × 107 M?1?s?1, followed by a slow intramolecular electron transfer to T1 copper (k ?10 s?1). These results suggest the methionine-rich helix blocks access to the T1 site in the absence of excess copper.

Roberts, Sue A.; Weichsel, Andrzej; Grass, Gregor; Thakali, Keshari; Hazzard, James T.; Tollin, Gordon; Rensing, Christopher; Montfort, William R.

2002-01-01

30

Biochemical studies of the multicopper oxidase (small laccase) from Streptomyces coelicolor using bioactive phytochemicals and site-directed mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Multicopper oxidases can act on a broad spectrum of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. These enzymes include laccases, which are widely distributed in plants and fungi, and were more recently identified in bacteria. Here, we present the results of biochemical and mutational studies of small laccase (SLAC), a multicopper oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor (SCO6712). In addition to typical laccase substrates, SLAC was tested using phenolic compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity. SLAC showed oxidase activity against 12 of 23 substrates tested, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, morin, kaempferol and myricetin. The kinetic parameters of SLAC were determined for 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, quercetin, morin and myricetin, and maximum reaction rates were observed with myricetin, where kcat and Km values at 60°C were 8.1 (±?0.8) s?1 and 0.9 (±?0.3) mM respectively. SLAC had a broad pH optimum for activity (between pH?4 and 8) and temperature optimum at 60–70°C. It demonstrated remarkable thermostability with a half-life of over 10?h at 80°C and over 7?h at 90°C. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed 17 amino acid residues important for SLAC activity including the 10 His residues involved in copper coordination. Most notably, the Y229A and Y230A mutant proteins showed over 10-fold increase in activity compared with the wild-type SLAC, which was correlated to higher copper incorporation, while kinetic analyses with S929A predicts localization of this residue near the meta-position of aromatic substrates. Funding Information Funding for this research was provided by the Government of Ontario for the project ‘FFABnet: Functionalized Fibre and Biochemicals’ (ORF-RE-05-005), and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

Sherif, Mohammed; Waung, Debbie; Korbeci, Bihter; Mavisakalyan, Valentina; Flick, Robert; Brown, Greg; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; Yakunin, Alexander F; Master, Emma R

2013-01-01

31

Effect of enzymatic orientation through the use of syringaldazine molecules on multiple multi-copper oxidase enzymes.  

PubMed

The effect of proper enzyme orientation at the electrode surface was explored for two multi-copper oxygen reducing enzymes: Bilirubin Oxidase (BOx) and Laccase (Lac). Simultaneous utilization of "tethering" agent (1-pyrenebutanoic acid, succinimidyl ester; PBSE), for stable enzyme immobilization, and syringaldazine (Syr), for enzyme orientation, of both Lac and BOx led to a notable enhancement of the electrode performance. For Lac cathodes tested in solution it was established that PBSE-Lac and PBSE-Syr-Lac modified cathodes demonstrated approximately 6 and 9 times increase in current density, respectively, compared to physically adsorbed and randomly oriented Lac cathodes. Further testing in solution utilizing BOx showed an even higher increase in achievable current densities, thus BOx was chosen for additional testing in air-breathing mode. In subsequent air-breathing experiments the incorporation of PBSE and Syr with BOx resulted in current densities of 0.65 ± 0.1 mA cm(-2); 2.5 times higher when compared to an unmodified BOx cathode. A fully tethered/oriented BOx cathode was combined with a NAD-dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase anode for the fabrication of a complete enzymatic membraneless fuel cell. A maximum power of 1.03 ± 0.06 mW cm(-2) was recorded for the complete fuel cell. The observed significant enhancement in the performance of "oriented" cathodes was a result of proper enzyme orientation, leading to facilitated enzyme/electrode interface interactions. PMID:24875125

Ulyanova, Yevgenia; Babanova, Sofia; Pinchon, Erica; Matanovic, Ivana; Singhal, Sameer; Atanassov, Plamen

2014-07-14

32

Using planktonic microorganisms to supply the unpurified multi-copper oxidases laccase and copper efflux oxidases at a biofuel cell cathode.  

PubMed

The feasibility to apply crude culture supernatants that contain the multicopper oxidases laccase or copper efflux oxidase (CueO) as oxygen reducing catalysts in a biofuel cell cathode is shown. As enzyme-secreting recombinant planktonic microorganisms, the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica and the bacterium Escherichia coli were investigated. The cultivation and operation conditions (choice of medium, pH) had distinct effects on the electro-catalytic performance. The highest current density of 119±23?Acm(-2) at 0.400V vs. NHE was obtained with the crude culture supernatant of E. coli cells overexpressing CueO and tested at pH 5.0. In comparison, at pH 7.4 the electrode potential at 100?Acm(-2) is 0.25V lower. Laccase-containing supernatants of Y. lipolytica yielded a maximum current density of 6.7±0.4?Acm(-2) at 0.644V vs. NHE. These results open future possibilities to circumvent elaborate enzyme purification procedures and realize cost effective and easy-to-operate enzymatic biofuel cells. PMID:24607459

Sané, Sabine; Richter, Katrin; Rubenwolf, Stefanie; Matschke, Nina Joan; Jolivalt, Claude; Madzak, Catherine; Zengerle, Roland; Gescher, Johannes; Kerzenmacher, Sven

2014-04-01

33

Crystal Structures of Multicopper Oxidase CueO Bound to Copper(I) and Silver(I)  

PubMed Central

The multicopper oxidase CueO oxidizes toxic Cu(I) and is required for copper homeostasis in Escherichia coli. Like many proteins involved in copper homeostasis, CueO has a methionine-rich segment that is thought to be critical for copper handling. How such segments function is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of CueO at 1.1 Å with the 45-residue methionine-rich segment fully resolved, revealing an N-terminal helical segment with methionine residues juxtaposed for Cu(I) ligation and a C-terminal highly mobile segment rich in methionine and histidine residues. We also report structures of CueO with a C500S mutation, which leads to loss of the T1 copper, and CueO with six methionines changed to serine. Soaking C500S CueO crystals with Cu(I), or wild-type CueO crystals with Ag(I), leads to occupancy of three sites, the previously identified substrate-binding site and two new sites along the methionine-rich helix, involving methionines 358, 362, 368, and 376. Mutation of these residues leads to a ?4-fold reduction in kcat for Cu(I) oxidation. Ag(I), which often appears with copper in nature, strongly inhibits CueO oxidase activities in vitro and compromises copper tolerance in vivo, particularly in the absence of the complementary copper efflux cus system. Together, these studies demonstrate a role for the methionine-rich insert of CueO in the binding and oxidation of Cu(I) and highlight the interplay among cue and cus systems in copper and silver homeostasis.

Singh, Satish K.; Roberts, Sue A.; McDevitt, Sylvia F.; Weichsel, Andrzej; Wildner, Guenter F.; Grass, Gregor B.; Rensing, Christopher; Montfort, William R.

2011-01-01

34

In vitro unfolding of yeast multicopper oxidase Fet3p variants reveals unique role of each metal site  

PubMed Central

Fet3p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a multicopper oxidase (MCO) that contains 3 cupredoxin-like ?-barrel domains and 4 copper ions located in 3 distinct metal sites (T1 in domain 3, T2, and the binuclear T3 at the interface between domains 1 and 3). To better understand how protein structure and stability is defined by cofactor coordination in MCO proteins, we assessed thermal unfolding of apo and metallated forms of Fet3p by using spectroscopic and calorimetric methods in vitro (pH 7). We find that unfolding reactions of apo and different holo forms of Fet3p are irreversible reactions that depend on the scan rate. The domains in apo-Fet3p unfold sequentially [thermal midpoint (Tm) of 45 °C, 62 °C, and 72 °C; 1 K/min]. Addition of T3 imposes strain in the apo structure that results in coupled domain unfolding and low stability (Tm of 50 °C; 1 K/min). Further inclusion of T2 (i.e., only T1 absent) increases overall stability by ?5 °C but unfolding remains coupled in 1 step. Introduction of T1, producing fully-loaded holo-Fet3p (or in the absence of T2), results in stabilization of domain 3, which uncouples unfolding of the domains; unfolding of domain 2 occurs first along with Cu-site perturbations (Tm 50–55 °C; 1 K/min), followed by unfolding of domains 1 and 3 (?65–70 °C; 1 K/min). Our results suggest that there is a metal-induced tradeoff between overall protein stability and metal coordination in members of the MCO family.

Sedlak, Erik; Ziegler, Lynn; Kosman, Daniel J.; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

2008-01-01

35

Catalytic oxidation of manganese(II) by multicopper oxidase CueO and characterization of the biogenic Mn oxide.  

PubMed

Manganese(II) contamination is naturally occurring in many groundwater and surface water sources. Moreover, industrial wastewater is also responsible for much of the Mn(II) contamination. Nowadays, Mn(II) contamination has become a serious environmental problem in some regions of the world. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II) from water, we found a new biocatalyst multicopper oxidase CueO, which was firstly proved to catalyze the oxidation of Mn(II) both in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, we established a CueO-mediated catalysis system to prepare biogenic Mn oxide (BioMnOx), which was confirmed to be ?-Mn3O4 by X-ray diffraction. This newly prepared BioMnOx consisted of 53.6% Mn(II), 18.4% Mn(III) and 28.0% Mn(IV) characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It exhibited distinct polyhedral structure with nanoparticles of 150-350 nm diameters observed by transmission electron microscopy. Importantly, CueO could remove 35.7% of Mn(II) after a seven-day reaction, and on the other hand, the cueO-overexpressing Escherichia coli strain (ECueO) could also oxidize 58.1% dissolved Mn(II), and simultaneously remove 97.7% Mn(II). Based on these results, we suggest that ECueO strain and CueO enzyme have potential applications on Mn(II) decontamination in water treatment. PMID:24699422

Su, Jianmei; Deng, Lin; Huang, Liangbo; Guo, Shujin; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

2014-06-01

36

Characterization of endogenous and recombinant forms of laccase-2, a multicopper oxidase from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta  

PubMed Central

Laccases belong to the group of multicopper oxidases that exhibit wide substrate specificity for polyphenols and aromatic amines. They are found in plants, fungi, bacteria, and insects. In insects the only known role for laccase is in cuticle sclerotization. However, extracting laccase from the insect’s cuticle requires proteolysis, resulting in an enzyme that is missing its amino-terminus. To circumvent this problem, we expressed and purified full-length and amino-terminally truncated recombinant forms of laccase-2 from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We also purified the endogenous enzyme from the pharate pupal cuticle and used peptide mass fingerprinting analysis to confirm that it is laccase-2. All three enzymes had pH optima between 5 and 5.5 when using N-acetyldopamine (NADA) or N-?-alanyldopamine (NBAD) as substrates. The laccases exhibited typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics when NADA was used as a substrate, with Km values of 0.46 mM, 0.43 mM, and 0.63 mM, respectively, for the full-length recombinant, truncated recombinant, and cuticular laccases; the apparent kcat values were 100 min?1, 80 min?1, and 290 min?1. The similarity in activity of the two recombinant laccases suggests that laccase-2 is expressed in an active form rather than as a zymogen, as had been previously proposed. This conclusion is consistent with the detection of activity in untanned pupal wing cuticle using the laccase substrate 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). Immunoblot analysis of proteins extracted from both tanned and untanned cuticle detected only a single protein of 84 kDa, consistent with the full-length enzyme. With NBAD as substrate, the full-length recombinant and cuticular laccases showed kinetics indicative of substrate inhibition, with Km values of 1.9 mM and 0.47 mM, respectively, and apparent kcat values of 200 min?1 and 180 min?1. These results enhance our understanding of cuticle sclerotization, and may aid in the design of insecticides targeting insect laccases.

Dittmer, Neal T.; Gorman, Maureen J.; Kanost, Michael R.

2009-01-01

37

Crystal structure of a blue laccase from Lentinus tigrinus: evidences for intermediates in the molecular oxygen reductive splitting by multicopper oxidases  

PubMed Central

Background Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in pathogenesis, immunogenesis and morphogenesis of organisms and in the metabolic turnover of complex organic substances. They catalyze the coupling between the four one-electron oxidations of a broad range of substrates with the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. These catalytic processes are made possible by the contemporaneous presence of at least four copper ion sites, classified according to their spectroscopic properties: one type 1 (T1) site where the electrons from the reducing substrates are accepted, one type 2 (T2), and a coupled binuclear type 3 pair (T3) which are assembled in a T2/T3 trinuclear cluster where the electrons are transferred to perform the O2 reduction to H2O. Results The structure of a laccase from the white-rot fungus Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus, a glycoenzyme involved in lignin biodegradation, was solved at 1.5 Å. It reveals a asymmetric unit containing two laccase molecules (A and B). The progressive reduction of the copper ions centers obtained by the long-term exposure of the crystals to the high-intensity X-ray synchrotron beam radiation under aerobic conditions and high pH allowed us to detect two sequential intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction pathway: the "peroxide" and the "native" intermediates, previously hypothesized through spectroscopic, kinetic and molecular mechanics studies. Specifically the electron-density maps revealed the presence of an end-on bridging, ?-?1:?1 peroxide ion between the two T3 coppers in molecule B, result of a two-electrons reduction, whereas in molecule A an oxo ion bridging the three coppers of the T2/T3 cluster (?3-oxo bridge) together with an hydroxide ion externally bridging the two T3 copper ions, products of the four-electrons reduction of molecular oxygen, were best modelled. Conclusion This is the first structure of a multicopper oxidase which allowed the detection of two intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction and splitting. The observed features allow to positively substantiate an accurate mechanism of dioxygen reduction catalyzed by multicopper oxidases providing general insights into the reductive cleavage of the O-O bonds, a leading problem in many areas of biology.

Ferraroni, Marta; Myasoedova, Nina M; Schmatchenko, Vadim; Leontievsky, Alexey A; Golovleva, Ludmila A; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

2007-01-01

38

Structural changes caused by radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis: the effect of X-ray absorbed dose in a fungal multicopper oxidase  

PubMed Central

X-ray radiation induces two main effects at metal centres contained in protein crystals: radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis and a resulting decrease in metal occupancy. In blue multicopper oxidases (BMCOs), the geometry of the active centres and the metal-to-ligand distances change depending on the oxidation states of the Cu atoms, suggesting that these alterations are catalytically relevant to the binding, activation and reduction of O2. In this work, the X-ray-determined three-dimensional structure of laccase from the basidiomycete Coriolopsis gallica (Cg L), a high catalytic potential BMCO, is described. By combining spectroscopic techniques (UV–Vis, EPR and XAS) and X-ray crystallography, structural changes at and around the active copper centres were related to pH and absorbed X-­ray dose (energy deposited per unit mass). Depletion of two of the four active Cu atoms as well as low occupancies of the remaining Cu atoms, together with different conformations of the metal centres, were observed at both acidic pH and high absorbed dose, correlating with more reduced states of the active coppers. These observations provide additional evidence to support the role of flexibility of copper sites during O2 reduction. This study supports previous observations indicating that interpretations regarding redox state and metal coordination need to take radiation effects explicitly into account.

De la Mora, Eugenio; Lovett, Janet E.; Blanford, Christopher F.; Garman, Elspeth F.; Valderrama, Brenda; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique

2012-01-01

39

Crystal Structures of Multicopper Oxidase CueO Bound to Copper(I) and Silver(I): Functional Role of a Methonine-Rich Sequence  

SciTech Connect

The multicopper oxidase CueO oxidizes toxic Cu(I) and is required for copper homeostasis in Escherichia coli. Like many proteins involved in copper homeostasis, CueO has a methionine-rich segment that is thought to be critical for copper handling. How such segments function is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of CueO at 1.1 {angstrom} with the 45-residue methionine-rich segment fully resolved, revealing an N-terminal helical segment with methionine residues juxtaposed for Cu(I) ligation and a C-terminal highly mobile segment rich in methionine and histidine residues. We also report structures of CueO with a C500S mutation, which leads to loss of the T1 copper, and CueO with six methionines changed to serine. Soaking C500S CueO crystals with Cu(I), or wild-type CueO crystals with Ag(I), leads to occupancy of three sites, the previously identified substrate-binding site and two new sites along the methionine-rich helix, involving methionines 358, 362, 368, and 376. Mutation of these residues leads to a {approx}4-fold reduction in kcat for Cu(I) oxidation. Ag(I), which often appears with copper in nature, strongly inhibits CueO oxidase activities in vitro and compromises copper tolerance in vivo, particularly in the absence of the complementary copper efflux cus system. Together, these studies demonstrate a role for the methionine-rich insert of CueO in the binding and oxidation of Cu(I) and highlight the interplay among cue and cus systems in copper and silver homeostasis.

Singh, Satish K.; Roberts, Sue A.; McDevitt, Sylvia F.; Weichsel, Andrzej; Wildner, Guenter F.; Grass, Gregor B.; Rensing, Christopher; Montfort, William R. (Skidmore); (Bundeswehr); (Ariz)

2011-10-24

40

The Two Oxidized Forms of the Trinuclear Cu Cluster in the Multicopper Oxidases And Mechanism for the Decay of the Native Intermediate  

SciTech Connect

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) catalyze the 4e{sup -} reduction of O2 to H2O. The reaction of the fully reduced enzyme with O2 generates the native intermediate (NI), which undergoes a slow decay to the resting enzyme in the absence of substrate. NI is a fully oxidized form, but its spectral features are very different from those of the resting form (also fully oxidized), because the type 2 and the coupled-binuclear type 3 Cu centers in the O2-reducing trinuclear Cu cluster site are isolated in the resting enzyme, whereas these are all bridged by a {mu}3-oxo ligand in NI. Notably, the one azide-bound NI (NI{sub Az}) exhibits spectral features very similar to those of NI, in which the {mu}3-oxo ligand in NI has been replaced by a {mu}3-bridged azide. Comparison of the spectral features of NI and NIAz, combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, allows refinement of the NI structure. The decay of NI to the resting enzyme proceeds via successive proton-assisted steps, whereas the rate-limiting step involves structural rearrangement of the {mu}3-oxo-bridge from inside to outside the cluster. This phenomenon is consistent with the slow rate of NI decay that uncouples the resting enzyme from the catalytic cycle, leaving NI as the catalytically relevant fully oxidized form of the MCO active site. The all-bridged structure of NI would facilitate electron transfer to all three Cu centers of the trinuclear cluster for rapid proton-coupled reduction of NI to the fully reduced form for catalytic turnover.

Yoon, J.; Liboiron, B.D.; Sarangi, R.; Hodgson, K.O.; Hedman, B.; Solomona, E.I.; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

2007-10-10

41

Direct electron-transfer conduits constructed at the interface between multicopper oxidase and nanocrystalline semiconductive Fe oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, the electron-transfer reactions occurring at the interface between bilirubin oxidase (BOD) and nanocrystalline hematite (?-Fe 2O 3) were characterized. Cyclic voltammograms indicated that BOD has an affinity for hematite surfaces and establishes a direct electron-transfer (DET) conduit between the primary electron acceptor T1 site and the conduction band of ?-Fe 2O 3. DET was also confirmed photo-electrochemically, as cathodic photocurrents were generated when a nanocomposite of BOD and ?-Fe 2O 3 was illuminated under oxygenated conditions. A proline residue displayed a high-binding affinity for hematite surfaces and is therefore likely part of an orientation-controlled motif which serves to locate BOD at the T1 site at a suitable distance for DET to ?-Fe 2O 3.

Nakamura, Ryuhei; Kamiya, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

2010-10-01

42

The Escherichia coli Cell Division Protein and Model Tat Substrate SufI (FtsP) Localizes to the Septal Ring and Has a Multicopper Oxidase-Like Structure  

PubMed Central

The Escherichia coli protein SufI (FtsP) has recently been proposed to be a component of the cell division apparatus. The SufI protein is also in widespread experimental use as a model substrate in studies of the Tat (twin arginine translocation) protein transport system. We have used SufI-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusions to show that SufI localizes to the septal ring in the dividing cell. We have also determined the structure of SufI by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 Å. SufI is structurally related to the multicopper oxidase superfamily but lacks metal cofactors. The structure of SufI suggests it serves a scaffolding rather than an enzymatic role in the septal ring and reveals regions of the protein likely to be involved in the protein–protein interactions required to assemble SufI at the septal ring.

Tarry, Michael; Arends, S.J. Ryan; Roversi, Pietro; Piette, Evan; Sargent, Frank; Berks, Ben C.; Weiss, David S.; Lea, Susan M.

2009-01-01

43

Structure of the human lysyl oxidase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase (EC 1.4.3.13), an extracellular copper enzyme, initiates the crosslinking of collagens and elastin by catalyzing oxidative deamination of the [epsilon]-amino group in certain lysine and hydroxylysine residues. The authors report here that the human lysyl oxidase gene is about 15 kb in size and consists of seven exons. Transcription is initiated at one major site and four minor

E. R. Haemaelaeinen; R. Kemppainen; T. Pihlajaniemi; K. I. Kivirikko

1993-01-01

44

The mammalian aldehyde oxidase gene family  

PubMed Central

Aldehyde oxidases (EC 1.2.3.1) are a small group of structurally conserved cytosolic proteins represented in both the animal and plant kingdoms. In vertebrates, aldehyde oxidases constitute the small sub-family of molybdo-flavoenzymes, along with the evolutionarily and structurally related protein, xanthine oxidoreductase. These enzymes require a molybdo-pterin cofactor (molybdenum cofactor, MoCo) and flavin adenine dinucleotide for their catalytic activity. Aldehyde oxidases have broad substrate specificity and catalyse the hydroxylation of N-heterocycles and the oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding acid. In humans, a single aldehyde oxidase gene (AOX1) and two pseudogenes clustering on a short stretch of chromosome 2q are known. In other mammals, a variable number of structurally conserved aldehyde oxidase genes has been described. Four genes (Aox1, Aox3, Aox4 and Aox3l1), coding for an equivalent number of catalytically active enzymes, are present in the mouse and rat genomes. Although human AOX1 and its homologous proteins are best known as drug metabolising enzymes, the physiological substrate(s) and function(s) are as yet unknown. The present paper provides an update of the available information on the evolutionary history, tissue- and cell-specific distribution and function of mammalian aldehyde oxidases.

2009-01-01

45

Identification of Zyklopen, a New Member of the Vertebrate Multicopper Ferroxidase Family, and Characterization in Rodents and Human Cells123  

PubMed Central

We previously detected a membrane-bound, copper-containing oxidase that may be involved in iron efflux in BeWo cells, a human placental cell line. We have now identified a gene encoding a predicted multicopper ferroxidase (MCF) with a putative C-terminal membrane-spanning sequence and high sequence identity to hephaestin (Heph) and ceruloplasmin (Cp), the other known vertebrate MCF. Molecular modeling revealed conservation of all type I, II, and III copper-binding sites as well as a putative iron-binding site. Protein expression was observed in multiple diverse mouse tissues, including placenta and mammary gland, and the expression pattern was distinct from that of Cp and Heph. The protein possessed ferroxidase activity, and protein levels decreased in cellular copper deficiency. Knockdown with small interfering RNA in BeWo cells indicates that this gene represents the previously detected oxidase. We propose calling this new member of the MCF family “zyklopen.”

Chen, Huijun; Attieh, Zouhair K.; Syed, Basharut A.; Kuo, Yien-Ming; Stevens, Valerie; Fuqua, Brie K.; Andersen, Henriette S.; Naylor, Claire E.; Evans, Robert W.; Gambling, Lorraine; Danzeisen, Ruth; Bacouri-Haidar, Mhenia; Usta, Julnar; Vulpe, Chris D.; McArdle, Harry J.

2010-01-01

46

Terminal Oxidase Diversity and Function in "Metallosphaera yellowstonensis": Gene Expression and Protein Modeling Suggest Mechanisms of Fe(II) Oxidation in the Sulfolobales? †  

PubMed Central

“Metallosphaera yellowstonensis” is a thermoacidophilic archaeon isolated from Yellowstone National Park that is capable of autotrophic growth using Fe(II), elemental S, or pyrite as electron donors. Analysis of the draft genome sequence from M. yellowstonensis strain MK1 revealed seven different copies of heme copper oxidases (subunit I) in a total of five different terminal oxidase complexes, including doxBCEF, foxABCDEFGHIJ, soxABC, and the soxM supercomplex, as well as a novel hypothetical two-protein doxB-like polyferredoxin complex. Other genes found in M. yellowstonensis with possible roles in S and or Fe cycling include a thiosulfate oxidase (tqoAB), a sulfite oxidase (som), a cbsA cytochrome b558/566, several small blue copper proteins, and a novel gene sequence coding for a putative multicopper oxidase (Mco). Results from gene expression studies, including reverse transcriptase (RT) quantitative PCR (qPCR) of cultures grown autotrophically on either Fe(II), pyrite, or elemental S showed that the fox gene cluster and mco are highly expressed under conditions where Fe(II) is an electron donor. Metagenome sequence and gene expression studies of Fe-oxide mats confirmed the importance of fox genes (e.g., foxA and foxC) and mco under Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions. Protein modeling of FoxC suggests a novel lysine-lysine or lysine-arginine heme B binding domain, indicating that it is likely the cytochrome component of a heterodimer complex with foxG as a ferredoxin subunit. Analysis of mco shows that it encodes a novel multicopper blue protein with two plastocyanin type I copper domains that may play a role in the transfer of electrons within the Fox protein complex. An understanding of metabolic pathways involved in aerobic iron and sulfur oxidation in Sulfolobales has broad implications for understanding the evolution and niche diversification of these thermophiles as well as practical applications in fields such as bioleaching of trace metals from pyritic ores.

Kozubal, M. A.; Dlakic, M.; Macur, R. E.; Inskeep, W. P.

2011-01-01

47

Terminal oxidase diversity and function in "Metallosphaera yellowstonensis": gene expression and protein modeling suggest mechanisms of Fe(II) oxidation in the sulfolobales.  

PubMed

"Metallosphaera yellowstonensis" is a thermoacidophilic archaeon isolated from Yellowstone National Park that is capable of autotrophic growth using Fe(II), elemental S, or pyrite as electron donors. Analysis of the draft genome sequence from M. yellowstonensis strain MK1 revealed seven different copies of heme copper oxidases (subunit I) in a total of five different terminal oxidase complexes, including doxBCEF, foxABCDEFGHIJ, soxABC, and the soxM supercomplex, as well as a novel hypothetical two-protein doxB-like polyferredoxin complex. Other genes found in M. yellowstonensis with possible roles in S and or Fe cycling include a thiosulfate oxidase (tqoAB), a sulfite oxidase (som), a cbsA cytochrome b(558/566), several small blue copper proteins, and a novel gene sequence coding for a putative multicopper oxidase (Mco). Results from gene expression studies, including reverse transcriptase (RT) quantitative PCR (qPCR) of cultures grown autotrophically on either Fe(II), pyrite, or elemental S showed that the fox gene cluster and mco are highly expressed under conditions where Fe(II) is an electron donor. Metagenome sequence and gene expression studies of Fe-oxide mats confirmed the importance of fox genes (e.g., foxA and foxC) and mco under Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions. Protein modeling of FoxC suggests a novel lysine-lysine or lysine-arginine heme B binding domain, indicating that it is likely the cytochrome component of a heterodimer complex with foxG as a ferredoxin subunit. Analysis of mco shows that it encodes a novel multicopper blue protein with two plastocyanin type I copper domains that may play a role in the transfer of electrons within the Fox protein complex. An understanding of metabolic pathways involved in aerobic iron and sulfur oxidation in Sulfolobales has broad implications for understanding the evolution and niche diversification of these thermophiles as well as practical applications in fields such as bioleaching of trace metals from pyritic ores. PMID:21239558

Kozubal, M A; Dlakic, M; Macur, R E; Inskeep, W P

2011-03-01

48

Genes Involved in Copper Homeostasis in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Recently, genes for two copper-responsive regulatory systems were identified in the Escherichia coli chromosome. In this report, data are presented that support a hypothesis that the putative multicopper oxidase CueO and the transenvelope transporter CusCFBA are involved in copper tolerance in E. coli.

Grass, Gregor; Rensing, Christopher

2001-01-01

49

Cloning and expression of the potato alternative oxidase gene  

SciTech Connect

Mitochondria from 24-hour-aged potato slices possess an alternative path capacity and a 36kD protein not present in fresh potato mitochondria. This 36kD protein was identified by a monoclonal antibody against the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase. These results suggest de novo synthesis of the 36kD protein during the aging process. To investigate this phenomenon, a clone containing a potato alternative oxidase gene was isolated from a cDNA library using the S. guttatum gene as a probe. This clone shows areas of high homology to the S. guttatum gene. Norther blots of RNA from fresh and 24-hour-aged potato slices are being probed with the potato gene to examine its expression in relation to the appearance of the 36kD protein.

Hiser, C.; McIntosh, L. (MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (USA) Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-05-01

50

A new gene with sequence and structural similarity to the gene encoding human lysyl oxidase.  

PubMed

We have isolated a number of recombinant clones from a human skin fibroblast cDNA library that contain extensive sequence homology to several coding domains within the human lysyl oxidase mRNA. Using one of these lysyl oxidase-like cDNAs, we obtained several overlapping genomic DNA recombinants. Restriction mapping and DNA sequence analysis revealed that the complete sequence of the lysyl oxidase-like mRNA was encoded by seven exons distributed throughout 25 kilobases of genomic DNA. Exons 2-6 encoded the region of greatest homology to lysyl oxidase. The size of these five exons, moreover, was exactly the same as the size of the corresponding exons within the lysyl oxidase gene. Northern blot analysis also revealed the concomitant appearance of lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like mRNA in several human tissues. It appears therefore that the genes encoding lysyl oxidase and a lysyl oxidase-like protein share a common evolutionary origin and may also be functionally related. PMID:7706256

Kim, Y; Boyd, C D; Csiszar, K

1995-03-31

51

Characterization of two brassinosteroid C-6 oxidase genes in pea.  

PubMed

C-6 oxidation genes play a key role in the regulation of biologically active brassinosteroid (BR) levels in the plant. They control BR activation, which involves the C-6 oxidation of 6-deoxocastasterone (6-DeoxoCS) to castasterone (CS) and in some cases the further conversion of CS to brassinolide (BL). C-6 oxidation is controlled by the CYP85A family of cytochrome P450s, and to date, two CYP85As have been isolated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), two in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), one in rice (Oryza sativa), and one in grape (Vitis vinifera). We have now isolated two CYP85As (CYP85A1 and CYP85A6) from pea (Pisum sativum). However, unlike Arabidopsis and tomato, which both contain one BR C-6 oxidase that converts 6-DeoxoCS to CS and one BR C-6 Baeyer-Villiger oxidase that converts 6-DeoxoCS right through to BL, the two BR C-6 oxidases in pea both act principally to convert 6-DeoxoCS to CS. The isolation of these two BR C-6 oxidation genes in pea highlights the species-specific differences associated with C-6 oxidation. In addition, we have isolated a novel BR-deficient mutant, lke, which blocks the function of one of these two BR C-6 oxidases (CYP85A6). The lke mutant exhibits a phenotype intermediate between wild-type plants and previously characterized pea BR mutants (lk, lka, and lkb) and contains reduced levels of CS and increased levels of 6-DeoxoCS. To date, lke is the only mutant identified in pea that blocks the latter steps of BR biosynthesis and it will therefore provide an excellent tool to further examine the regulation of BR biosynthesis and the relative biological activities of CS and BL in pea. PMID:17322341

Jager, Corinne E; Symons, Gregory M; Nomura, Takahito; Yamada, Yumiko; Smith, Jennifer J; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Weller, James L; Yokota, Takao; Reid, James B

2007-04-01

52

Molecular evolution of the polyamine oxidase gene family in Metazoa  

PubMed Central

Background Polyamine oxidase enzymes catalyze the oxidation of polyamines and acetylpolyamines. Since polyamines are basic regulators of cell growth and proliferation, their homeostasis is crucial for cell life. Members of the polyamine oxidase gene family have been identified in a wide variety of animals, including vertebrates, arthropodes, nematodes, placozoa, as well as in plants and fungi. Polyamine oxidases (PAOs) from yeast can oxidize spermine, N1-acetylspermine, and N1-acetylspermidine, however, in vertebrates two different enzymes, namely spermine oxidase (SMO) and acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), specifically catalyze the oxidation of spermine, and N1-acetylspermine/N1-acetylspermidine, respectively. Little is known about the molecular evolutionary history of these enzymes. However, since the yeast PAO is able to catalyze the oxidation of both acetylated and non acetylated polyamines, and in vertebrates these functions are addressed by two specialized polyamine oxidase subfamilies (APAO and SMO), it can be hypothesized an ancestral reference for the former enzyme from which the latter would have been derived. Results We analysed 36 SMO, 26 APAO, and 14 PAO homologue protein sequences from 54 taxa including various vertebrates and invertebrates. The analysis of the full-length sequences and the principal domains of vertebrate and invertebrate PAOs yielded consensus primary protein sequences for vertebrate SMOs and APAOs, and invertebrate PAOs. This analysis, coupled to molecular modeling techniques, also unveiled sequence regions that confer specific structural and functional properties, including substrate specificity, by the different PAO subfamilies. Molecular phylogenetic trees revealed a basal position of all the invertebrates PAO enzymes relative to vertebrate SMOs and APAOs. PAOs from insects constitute a monophyletic clade. Two PAO variants sampled in the amphioxus are basal to the dichotomy between two well supported monophyletic clades including, respectively, all the SMOs and APAOs from vertebrates. The two vertebrate monophyletic clades clustered strictly mirroring the organismal phylogeny of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Evidences from comparative genomic analysis, structural evolution and functional divergence in a phylogenetic framework across Metazoa suggested an evolutionary scenario where the ancestor PAO coding sequence, present in invertebrates as an orthologous gene, has been duplicated in the vertebrate branch to originate the paralogous SMO and APAO genes. A further genome evolution event concerns the SMO gene of placental, but not marsupial and monotremate, mammals which increased its functional variation following an alternative splicing (AS) mechanism. Conclusions In this study the explicit integration in a phylogenomic framework of phylogenetic tree construction, structure prediction, and biochemical function data/prediction, allowed inferring the molecular evolutionary history of the PAO gene family and to disambiguate paralogous genes related by duplication event (SMO and APAO) and orthologous genes related by speciation events (PAOs, SMOs/APAOs). Further, while in vertebrates experimental data corroborate SMO and APAO molecular function predictions, in invertebrates the finding of a supported phylogenetic clusters of insect PAOs and the co-occurrence of two PAO variants in the amphioxus urgently claim the need for future structure-function studies.

2012-01-01

53

Arsenite Oxidase aox Genes from a Metal-Resistant ?-Proteobacterium  

PubMed Central

The ?-proteobacterial strain ULPAs1, isolated from an arsenic-contaminated environment, is able to efficiently oxidize arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)]. Mutagenesis with a lacZ-based reporter transposon yielded two knockout derivatives deficient in arsenite oxidation. Sequence analysis of the DNA flanking the transposon insertions in the two mutants identified two adjacent open reading frames, named aoxA and aoxB, as well as a putative promoter upstream of the aoxA gene. Reverse transcription-PCR data indicated that these genes are organized in an operonic structure. The proteins encoded by aoxA and aoxB share 64 and 72% identity with the small Rieske subunit and the large subunit of the purified and crystallized arsenite oxidase of Alcaligenes faecalis, respectively (P. J. Ellis, T. Conrads, R. Hille, and P. Kuhn, Structure [Cambridge] 9:125-132, 2001). Importantly, almost all amino acids involved in cofactor interactions in both subunits of the A. faecalis enzyme were conserved in the corresponding sequences of strain ULPAs1. An additional Tat (twin-arginine translocation) signal peptide sequence was detected at the N terminus of the protein encoded by aoxA, strongly suggesting that the Tat pathway is involved in the translocation of the arsenite oxidase to its known periplasmic location.

Muller, Daniel; Lievremont, Didier; Simeonova, Diliana Dancheva; Hubert, Jean-Claude; Lett, Marie-Claire

2003-01-01

54

Functional analysis of the promoter and first intron of the human lysyl oxidase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in the synthesis and activity of lysyl oxidase occur concomitant with developmental changes in collagen and elastin deposition and with the pathogenesis of several acquired and heritable connective tissue disorders. To begin to unravel the mechanisms that control lysyloxidase gene expression, we have previously reported the complete exon-intron structure of the human lysyl oxidase gene. We have now sequenced

Katalin Csiszar; Ildoko Entersz; Philip C. Trackman; Dvorit Samid; Charles D. Boyd

1996-01-01

55

Lysyl oxidase (lox) gene deficiency affects osteoblastic phenotype.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes cross-linking of elastin and collagen, which is essential for the structural integrity and function of bone tissue. The present study examined the role of Lox gene deficiency for the osteoblast phenotype in primary calvarial osteoblasts from E18.5 Lox knockout (Lox ( -/- )) and wild type (wt) (C57BL/6) mice. Next to Lox gene depletion, mRNA expression of Lox isoforms, LOXL1-4, was significantly downregulated in Lox ( -/- ) bone tissue. A significant decrease of DNA synthesis of Lox ( -/- ) osteoblasts compared to wt was found. Early stages of osteoblastic apoptosis studied by annexin-V binding as well as later stages of DNA fragmentation were not affected. However, mineral nodule formation and osteoblastic differentiation were markedly decreased, as revealed by significant downregulation of osteoblastic markers, type I collagen, bone sialoprotein, and Runx2/Cbfa1. PMID:19458888

Pischon, N; Mäki, J M; Weisshaupt, P; Heng, N; Palamakumbura, A H; N'Guessan, P; Ding, A; Radlanski, R; Renz, H; Bronckers, T A L J J; Myllyharju, J; Kielbassa, A M; Kleber, B M; Bernimoulin, J-P; Trackman, P C

2009-08-01

56

Differential and wound-inducible expression of 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase genes in sunflower seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort towards understanding the biochemical properties and physiological functions of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologues, we have isolated three ACC oxidase clones from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings. ACCO1 is a cDNA clone while ACCO2 and ACCO3 and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction clones. Southern analysis indicated the existence of at least three members in the sunflower ACC oxidase gene

Jin-Hao Liu; Siew Hwee Lee-Tamon; David M. Reid

1997-01-01

57

Human monoamine oxidase A gene determines levels of enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a critical enzyme in the degradative deamination of biogenic amines throughout the body. Two biochemically distinct forms of the enzyme, A and B, are encoded in separate genes on the human X chromosome. In these studies we investigated the role of the structural gene for MAO-A in determining levels of activity in humans, as measured in cultured skin fibroblasts. The coding sequence of the mRNA for MAO-A was determined by first-strand cDNA synthesis, PCR amplification, and direct dideoxy sequencing. Two single-basepair substitutions were observed in cDNAs from cells with a 30-fold difference in activity levels. These two substitutions were in the third base of a triplet codon and hence did not affect the deduced amino acid sequence but did affect the presence or absence of restriction-enzyme sites for EcoRV and Fnu4HI, which could be elucidated on PCR fragments derived from genomic DNA or cDNAs. A third polymorphism for MspI in the noncoding region of the MAOA gene was also evaluated by Southern blot analysis using genomic DNA. Statistically significant associations were observed between the alleles for MAOA and levels of MAO activity in human male fibroblast lines. This association indicates that the MAOA gene itself is a major determinant of activity levels, apparently, in part, through noncoding, regulatory elements. PMID:1678250

Hotamisligil, G S; Breakefield, X O

1991-08-01

58

Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation  

PubMed Central

Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has earned the nickname “warrior gene” because it has been linked to aggression in observational and survey-based studies. However, no controlled experimental studies have tested whether the warrior gene actually drives behavioral manifestations of these tendencies. We report an experiment, synthesizing work in psychology and behavioral economics, which demonstrates that aggression occurs with greater intensity and frequency as provocation is experimentally manipulated upwards, especially among low activity MAOA (MAOA-L) subjects. In this study, subjects paid to punish those they believed had taken money from them by administering varying amounts of unpleasantly hot (spicy) sauce to their opponent. There is some evidence of a main effect for genotype and some evidence for a gene by environment interaction, such that MAOA is less associated with the occurrence of aggression in a low provocation condition, but significantly predicts such behavior in a high provocation situation. This new evidence for genetic influences on aggression and punishment behavior complicates characterizations of humans as “altruistic” punishers and supports theories of cooperation that propose mixed strategies in the population. It also suggests important implications for the role of individual variance in genetic factors contributing to everyday behaviors and decisions.

McDermott, Rose; Tingley, Dustin; Cowden, Jonathan; Frazzetto, Giovanni; Johnson, Dominic D. P.

2009-01-01

59

Cloning and characterization of a human lysyl oxidase-like 3 gene ( hLOXL3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the PCR primers generated from human expressed sequence tag (EST), the cDNA of lysyl oxidase-like gene 3 (LOXL3), a new member of human lysyl oxidases gene family, was cloned from the human fetal brain mRNA. The predicted amino acid sequence of the hLOXL3 gene was highly homologous to mLOR2. Bioinformatics analysis shows that hLOXL3 protein is also a member

Yan Huang; Jianliang Dai; Rong Tang; Wei Zhao; Zongxiang Zhou; Wei Wang; Kang Ying; Yi Xie; Yumin Mao

2001-01-01

60

Cloning of an insecticidal cholesterol oxidase gene and its expression in bacteria and in plant protoplasts.  

PubMed Central

We cloned and sequenced structural gene choM, which encodes an insecticidally active cholesterol oxidase in Streptomyces sp. strain A19249. The primary translation product was predicted to be a 547-amino-acid protein whose first 43 amino acids constitute a secretory signal peptide. Expression of the gene with the signal sequence in Escherichia coli resulted in production of a protein that had enzymatic and insecticidal properties which were indistinguishable from those of the cholesterol oxidase secreted by Streptomyces sp. strain A19249. Expression of the gene with or without the signal sequence in tobacco protoplasts resulted in production of an enzymatically active cholesterol oxidase. Images

Corbin, D R; Greenplate, J T; Wong, E Y; Purcell, J P

1994-01-01

61

Isolation of a gene encoding a glycosylated cytokinin oxidase from maize.  

PubMed

The major cytokinin oxidase in immature maize kernels was purified to homogeneity. Selected tryptic peptides were used to design degenerate oligonucleotide primers for PCR isolation of a fragment of the oxidase gene. Hybridization of the PCR fragment to a maize genomic library allowed isolation of a full-length cytokinin oxidase gene (ckx1). The gene encodes a protein of approximately 57 kDa that possesses a signal peptide, eight consensus N-glycosylation sequences and a consensus FAD binding sequence. Expression of ckx1 in Pichia caused secretion of active glycosylated cytokinin oxidase that contains a substrate-reducible FAD. The gene displays sequence homology with a putative oxidoreductase from Arabidopsis thaliana and with the fas5 gene from Rhodococcus fascians. PMID:10049708

Morris, R O; Bilyeu, K D; Laskey, J G; Cheikh, N N

1999-02-16

62

Identification, characterization, and localization of the human lysyl oxidase-related gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase (lox) initiates the formation of inter- and intra-strand covalent crosslinks of mature collagen and elastin in connective tissue. The lox gene has been cloned and mapped to human chromosome 5q23.3-31.2. The lysyl oxidase gene is approximately 15 kb in size and consists of seven exons. Lox mRNA is expressed at high levels in rat aorta and lung, and

K. S. Carlisle; J. K. Mellott; T. P. Yang

1994-01-01

63

Lysyl oxidase gene expression in the stromal reaction to in situ and invasive ductal breast carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Lysyl oxidase is involved in the main pathway of collagen and elastin cross-linking: it has a role in the maturation of fibrillar matrix proteins in fibrosing processes and dictates their stability against metalloproteases. The stromal reaction patterns in ductal breast carcinoma are known to be morphologically varied. This has raised the hypothesis that there might be a differential expression of the lysyl oxidase gene as a function of stromal reaction pattern. The present study investigates this potential correlation and the role of matrix protein cross-linking in stromal differentiation. Lysyl oxidase was detected by immunohistochemistry and lysyl oxidase gene expression by in situ hybridization. Maximal expression was observed in myofibroblasts and myoepithelial cells around in situ tumors and in the reactive fibrosis facing the invasion front of infiltrating tumors. The lysyl oxidase substrates were observed in parallel, resulting in the stabilization of a scar-like peritumor barrier. In contrast, a lack of lysyl oxidase was associated with the loose or scirrhous stroma accompanying invading tumors; here, in situ hybridization revealed type I collagen synthesis, resulting in the deposition of non-cross-linked matrix proteins susceptible to degradation. The early development of a cross-linked matrix around ductal breast carcinoma suggests a possible bost defense mechanism, whereas the synchronous or late stromal reaction lacking lysyl oxidase favors tumor dispersion. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Peyrol, S.; Raccurt, M.; Gerard, F.; Gleyzal, C.; Grimaud, J. A.; Sommer, P.

1997-01-01

64

Common polymorphisms in human lysyl oxidase genes are not associated with the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affects approximately 3% of adolescents, the genetic contributions have proven difficult\\u000a to identify. Work in model organisms, including zebrafish, chickens, and mice, has implicated the lysyl oxidase family of\\u000a enzymes in the development of scoliosis. We hypothesized that common polymorphisms in the five human lysyl oxidase genes (LOX, LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4) may be associated

Tracy L McGregor; Christina A Gurnett; Matthew B Dobbs; Carol A Wise; Jose A Morcuende; Thomas M Morgan; Ramkumar Menon; Louis J Muglia

2011-01-01

65

Phylogenetic Analysis of Six-Domain Multi-Copper Blue Proteins  

PubMed Central

Multicopper blue proteins, composed of several repetitive copper-binding domains similar to one-domain cupredoxin-like proteins, were found in almost all organisms. They are classified into the three different groups, based on their two-, three- or six-domain organization. We found orthologs of chordate six-domain copper-binding proteins in animals, plants, bacteria and archea. The phylogenetic analysis of 183 multicopper blue proteins and their copper-binding sites comparison make us think that all the modern six-domain blue proteins have originated from the common ancestral six-domain protein in the process of gene duplication and copper-binding sites loss as a result of amino acid substitutions.

Vasin, Andrey; Klotchenko, Sergey; Puchkova, Ludmila

2013-01-01

66

Transcriptional changes of gibberellin oxidase genes in grapevines with or without gibberellin application during inflorescence development.  

PubMed

The concept that gibberellin (GA) application on seeded grapevines induces seedlessness has been known for decades in viticulture. GA was applied to inflorescence clusters of seeded diploid grapevine cultivar 'Tamnara' (Vitis spp.) at 14 days before full bloom (DBF). Morphological and molecular effects of GA application were examined on the induction of parthenocarpic fruit development. With GA application, ovaries were enlarged and pollen tube growth was completely inhibited. Vitis GA oxidase enzymes, key determinants for GA level, were characterized through phylogenetic analysis with Arabidopsis GA oxidase enzymes. Five VvGA 20-oxidase (VvGA20ox), three VvGA 3-oxidase (VvGA3ox), and nine VvGA 2-oxidase (VvGA2ox) family proteins, and one VvGA methyltransferase (VvGAMT) and one Vitis cytochrome P450 714A1 proteins were identified, and their expression patterns were analyzed during inflorescence development from 14 DBF to 5 days after full bloom (DAF). VvGA2ox1, VvGA20ox3, and VvGA3ox2 were the most abundantly expressed genes in each gene family at 7, 5, and 2 DBF, respectively. Following GA application at 14 DBF inducing seedlessness, GA catabolic genes such as VvGAMT2, VvGA2ox3, and VvGA2ox4 were up-regulated at 12 DBF, full bloom, and 5 DAF, respectively. Conversely, most GA biosynthetic genes, VvGA20oxs and VvGA3oxs, were down-regulated at near full bloom, and the timing of their peak expression was changed. These results suggest that GA application at pre-bloom changes the GA biosynthesis into GA catabolic pathway at near full bloom by altering the transcription level and timing of GA oxidase genes during grapevine inflorescence development. PMID:24374939

Jung, Chan Jin; Hur, Youn Young; Jung, Sung-Min; Noh, Jung-Ho; Do, Gyung-Ran; Park, Seo-June; Nam, Jong-Chul; Park, Kyo-Sun; Hwang, Hae-Sung; Choi, Doil; Lee, Hee Jae

2014-03-01

67

Phylogenetic analysis supports horizontal gene transfer of L-amino acid oxidase gene in Streptococcus oligofermentans  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of 10 amino acid sequences from 19 Streptococcus species showed that S. oligofermentans clustered within the mitis group. However, the L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) of S. oligofermentans showed a different clustering pattern from the other proteins analyzed implicating horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the origin of the S. oligofermentans LAAO gene. LAAO of S. oligofermentans is known to confer ability to compete with other oral cavity bacteria, most notably S. mutans; therefore, the HGT event may have been important in extending the ecological niche occupied by this species, consistent with those of other studies suggesting that HGT can play a key role in enabling bacterial species to occupy new ecological niches.

Boggs, Joseph M.; South, April H.; Hughes, Austin L.

2012-01-01

68

Characterization of the gene family for alternative oxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the copy number of the gene for alternative oxidase (AOX) of Arabidopsis thaliana by amplification by PCR and Southern hybridization. These studies indicated that there are at least four copies of the AOX gene in Arabidopsis. We isolated genomic clones containing individual copies (designated as AOX1a, AOX1b, AOX1c and AOX2) of the AOX genes. Interestingly, two of the

Daisuke Saisho; Eiji Nambara; Satoshi Naito; Nobuhiro Tsutsumi; Atsushi Hirai; Mikio Nakazono

1997-01-01

69

Southern blot screening for lignin peroxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase genes in 30 fungal species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening to detect genes encoding lignin peroxidase (LiP) and aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO) has been carried out with 30 fungal strain using DNA probes from genes lpo of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (encoding LiP isoenzyme H8) and aao of Pleurotus eryngii. Evidence for the presence of genes closely related to lpo was found in Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma australe, Lentinula

E. Varela; A. T. Martínez; M. J. Martínez

2000-01-01

70

Oxalate oxidase: a novel reporter gene for monocot and dicot transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wheat germin gene, with oxalate oxidase (OxO) activity, can be used as a sensitive reporter gene in both monocot and dicot transformations. Detection of H2O2 generated from OxO oxidation of oxalate provides simple, rapid detection of gene expression. Inexpensive substrates are required for both assays. OxO activity, could be detected histochemically in minutes, without chlorophyll clearing procedures. This assay

John Simmonds; Leslie Cass; Elizabeth Routly; Keith Hubbard; Pauline Donaldson; Bonnie Bancroft; Andrea Davidson; Sheryl Hubbard; Daina Simmonds

2004-01-01

71

Functional analysis of the promoter and first intron of the human lysyl oxidase gene.  

PubMed

Alterations in the synthesis and activity of lysyl oxidase occur concomitant with developmental changes in collagen and elastin deposition and with the pathogenesis of several acquired and heritable connective tissue disorders. To begin to unravel the mechanisms that control lysyloxidase gene expression, we have previously reported the complete exon-intron structure of the human lysyl oxidase gene. We have now sequenced this entire gene, including all six introns and 4 kb of DNA 5' of exon 1. Analysis of over 13 kb of intervening sequence and 5' flanking sequence revealed a concentration of conserved consensus sequence elements within the first intron and 1 kb immediately 5' of exon 1. Analysis of intron 1 and the 5' flanking domain, using recombinant plasmids containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene, identified functional DNA sequence elements within these non-coding domains responsible for inhibition and up-regulation of CAT activity in primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, in smooth muscle cells, revertant cells derived from an osteosarcoma cell line and malignant c-Ha-ras-transformed osteosarcoma cells. DNA sequence elements within intron 1, in particular, resulted in a marked increase in CAT reporter activity in cultured fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and osteosarcoma cells. In c-Ha-ras-transformed osteosarcoma cells, however, no such enhancer activity of intron 1 sequence was observed. Ras-transformed osteosarcoma cells exhibited reduced steady-state levels of lysyl oxidase mRNA that was primarily controlled through reduced transcription of the lysyl oxidase gene. The lack of any up-regulation of CAT activity in these ras-transformed cells by sequence elements within intron 1 suggests a complex interaction between cis-acting domains and trans-acting transcriptional factors in the 5' promoter domain and the first intron of the lysyl oxidase gene. PMID:8983023

Csiszar, K; Entersz, I; Trackman, P C; Samid, D; Boyd, C D

1996-01-01

72

Monoamine Oxidase a Promoter Gene Associated with Problem Behavior in Adults with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A functional polymorphism in the promoter of the gene encoding monoamine oxidase A has been associated with problem behavior in various populations. We examined the association of MAOA alleles in adult males with intellectual/developmental disabilities with and without established histories of problem behavior. These data were compared with a…

May, Michael E.; Srour, Ali; Hedges, Lora K.; Lightfoot, David A.; Phillips, John A., III; Blakely, Randy D.; Kennedy, Craig H.

2009-01-01

73

The four aldehyde oxidases of Drosophila melanogaster have different gene expression patterns and enzyme substrate specificities.  

PubMed

In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, four genes coding for aldehyde oxidases (AOX1-4) were identified on chromosome 3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AOX gene cluster evolved via independent duplication events in the vertebrate and invertebrate lineages. The functional role and the substrate specificity of the distinct Drosophila AOX enzymes is unknown. Two loss-of-function mutant alleles in this gene region, low pyridoxal oxidase (Po(lpo)) and aldehyde oxidase-1 (Aldox-1(n1)) are associated with a phenotype characterized by undetectable AOX enzymatic activity. However, the genes involved and the corresponding mutations have not yet been identified. In this study we characterized the activities, substrate specificities and expression profiles of the four AOX enzymes in D. melanogaster. We show that the Po(lpo)-associated phenotype is the consequence of a structural alteration of the AOX1 gene. We identified an 11-bp deletion in the Po(lpo) allele, resulting in a frame-shift event, which removes the molybdenum cofactor domain of the encoded enzyme. Furthermore, we show that AOX2 activity is detectable only during metamorphosis and characterize a Minos-AOX2 insertion in this developmental gene that disrupts its activity. We demonstrate that the Aldox-1(n1) phenotype maps to the AOX3 gene and AOX4 activity is not detectable in our assays. PMID:24737760

Marelja, Zvonimir; Dambowsky, Miriam; Bolis, Marco; Georgiou, Marina L; Garattini, Enrico; Missirlis, Fanis; Leimkühler, Silke

2014-06-15

74

Structure and evolution of vertebrate aldehyde oxidases: from gene duplication to gene suppression.  

PubMed

Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) and xanthine dehydrogenases (XDHs) belong to the family of molybdo-flavoenzymes. Although AOXs are not identifiable in fungi, these enzymes are represented in certain protists and the majority of plants and vertebrates. The physiological functions and substrates of AOXs are unknown. Nevertheless, AOXs are major drug metabolizing enzymes, oxidizing a wide range of aromatic aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds of medical/toxicological importance. Using genome sequencing data, we predict the structures of AOX genes and pseudogenes, reconstructing their evolution. Fishes are the most primitive organisms with an AOX gene (AOX?), originating from the duplication of an ancestral XDH. Further evolution of fishes resulted in the duplication of AOX? into AOX? and successive pseudogenization of AOX?. AOX? is maintained in amphibians and it is the likely precursors of reptilian, avian, and mammalian AOX1. Amphibian AOX? is a duplication of AOX? and the likely ancestor of reptilian and avian AOX2, which, in turn, gave rise to mammalian AOX3L1. Subsequent gene duplications generated the two mammalian genes, AOX3 and AOX4. The evolution of mammalian AOX genes is dominated by pseudogenization and deletion events. Our analysis is relevant from a structural point of view, as it provides information on the residues characterizing the three domains of each mammalian AOX isoenzyme. We cloned the cDNAs encoding the AOX proteins of guinea pig and cynomolgus monkeys, two unique species as to the evolution of this enzyme family. We identify chimeric RNAs from the human AOX3 and AOX3L1 pseudogenes with potential to encode a novel microRNA. PMID:23263164

Kurosaki, Mami; Bolis, Marco; Fratelli, Maddalena; Barzago, Maria Monica; Pattini, Linda; Perretta, Gemma; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico

2013-05-01

75

The complete derived amino acid sequence of human lysyl oxidase and assignment of the gene to chromosome 5 (extensive sequence homology with the murine ras recision gene).  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of lysine residues to alpha-aminoadipic-delta-semialdehyde. This is the first step in the covalent cross-linking of collagen and tropoelastin and results in the formation of insoluble collagen and elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix. We have characterized the complete nucleotide sequence of human lysyl oxidase (EC 1.4.3.13) and compared the derived amino acid sequence (417-amino acids) to rat lysyl oxidase and the mouse ras recision gene (rrg). 88% of amino acids and 83% of nucleotides were conserved between human and rat lysyl oxidase. The mouse ras recision gene demonstrated 89% conservation of amino acids with human lysyl oxidase. The sequence conservation was not evenly distributed along the molecule. The carboxy terminus of the protein, which contains the putative copper binding sites and is likely to be the catalytically active domain, was more highly conserved than the amino terminus. The 89% amino acid sequence similarity between the murine ras recision gene and human lysyl oxidase suggests that they are the same gene product. Therefore, in addition to cross linking of extracellular matrix proteins, lysyl oxidase may have a direct role in tumor suppression. Northern blot analysis of poly A+RNA from cultured skin fibroblasts revealed at least three-distinct transcripts, sized 4.8 kb, 3.8 kb and 2.0 kb. In addition, using a panel of human mouse cell hybrids, the lysyl oxidase gene was assigned to human chromosome 5. PMID:1357535

Mariani, T J; Trackman, P C; Kagan, H M; Eddy, R L; Shows, T B; Boyd, C D; Deak, S B

1992-06-01

76

Cloning and in situ expression studies of the Hydrogenobaculum arsenite oxidase genes.  

PubMed

Novel arsenite [As(III)] oxidase structural genes (aoxAB) were cloned from Hydrogenobaculum bacteria isolated from an acidic geothermal spring. Reverse transcriptase PCR demonstrated expression throughout the outflow channel, and the aoxB cDNA clones exhibited distribution patterns relative to the physicochemical gradients in the spring. Microelectrode analyses provided evidence of quantitative As(III) transformation within the microbial mat. PMID:19304831

Clingenpeel, Scott R; D'Imperio, Seth; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg K; McDermott, Timothy R

2009-05-01

77

Detection of lysyl oxidase gene expression in rat skin during wound healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) initiates the crosslinking of the lysine-derived aldehyde and plays an essential role in maturation of\\u000a collagen, for example in wound healing. Although the activity of this enzyme has been examined in various disorders, and a\\u000a further intriguing aspect of the relationship between LOX and tumorigenesis has recently emerged, its gene expression pattern\\u000a in tissues is still unknown.

H. Fushida-Takemura; M. Fukuda; N. Maekawa; M. Chanoki; H. Kobayashi; N. Yashiro; M. Ishii; T. Hamada; S. Otani; A. Ooshima

1996-01-01

78

Mutations in the Lysyl Oxidase Gene Not Associated with Intracranial Aneurysm in Central European Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lysyl oxidase is a promising candidate gene for a mutation search in intracranial aneurysm families because (a) it controls the processing, cross-linking and maturation of collagen and elastin fibers in the blood vessel wall, (b) its expression levels and activity are altered in different animal models of aneurysm pathogenesis, and (c) it is encoded within the chromosome 5q22–31 region

Anne Hofer; Süheyla Özkan; Marcella Hermans; Nina Kubassek; Matthias Sitzer; Johannes Burtscher; Ulrich Knopp; Beate Schoch; Isabel Wanke; Felix Huebner; Andreas Raabe; Helmuth Steinmetz; Georg Auburger

2004-01-01

79

Regulation of NADPH oxidase gene expression with PKA and cytokine IL-4 in neurons and microglia.  

PubMed

Neuronal excitation is mediated by the activation of NMDA receptor and associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species due to the activation of NADPH oxidase complex proteins. The activation of Gs protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) induces neuronal activation in the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated signal cascade and regulates NADPH oxidase activity. However, it is unknown whether PKA regulates NADPH oxidase gene expression in neurons and microglia. In the present research, the NADPH oxidase gene expression was studied in rat cortical neurons and microglia in vitro. Purified microglial cells were identified with OX-42 antibody and they also expressed apolipoprotein E (ApoE). The time-dependent effect of cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) (20 ng/ml) in NADPH oxidase gene expression was studied in microglial cells. The levels of mRNA were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of NOX1, NOX2, and NCF2 was upregulated after IL-4 treatment for 4 h, but it was downregulated after 8-24 h. The expression of NCF1 was suppressed during any time of cytokine effect. IL-4 upregulated arginase1 (Arg1) and serine racemase1 (SRR1) gene expressions in microglia. Amyloid beta (Ab) suppressed NOX2, NCF1, and NCF2 gene expressions and upregulated glutamate cystine transporter (xCT), although IL-4 attenuated the effect of Ab (500 ?M) in the upregulation of xCT gene expression. The activation of PKA with agonist dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) (100 ?M) induced the upregulation of Arg1 gene expression in microglia involving in the process of microglial activation. The transcription of NOX1, NOX2, and NCF1 was suppressed in microglial cells after dbcAMP treatment within 24 h. Neurons were identified with the microtubule-associated protein tau. The uniform distribution of tau along axons was established in normal neurons. Tau protein was redistributed after PKA agonist dbcAMP treatment for 24 h. L-glutamate (50 ?M) caused the apoptotic processes and the accumulation of tau in the soma of neurons and along axons. The activation of PKA for 24 h induced the transcriptional upregulation of NOX1 and NCF1 in cortical neurons. However, L-glutamate suppressed NOX1 gene expression in neurons. These data demonstrate that the effects of IL-4 and dbcAMP are similar in the regulation of SRR1, Arg1, and NADPH oxidase complex gene expressions in neurons and microglia. IL-4 prevents glutamate release from microglia suppressing xCT expression induced by Ab. These findings suggest that the activation of GPCR in PKA-mediated pathway leads to transcriptional regulation of NADPH oxidase complex. The modulation of GPCR activation may inhibit the oxidative stress in neurons. PMID:22565378

Savchenko, Valentina L

2013-04-01

80

Southern blot screening for lignin peroxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase genes in 30 fungal species.  

PubMed

Screening to detect genes encoding lignin peroxidase (LiP) and aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO) has been carried out with 30 fungal strain using DNA probes from genes lpo of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (encoding LiP isoenzyme H8) and aao of Pleurotus eryngii. Evidence for the presence of genes closely related to lpo was found in Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma australe, Lentinula degener, Peniophora gigantea, P. chrysosporium, Phanerochaete flavido-alba and Trametes tersicolor, whereas the gene aao was detected in Pleurotus species and B. adusta. The presence of both genes was only detected in B. adusta. These results suggest that different enzymatic system, formed by enzymes encoded by different genes, are responsible for lignin degradation by white-rot fungi. PMID:11051421

Varela, E; Martínez, A T; Martínez, M J

2000-10-13

81

Expression and signal regulation of the alternative oxidase genes under abiotic stresses.  

PubMed

Plants in their natural environment frequently face various abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, and chilling. Plant mitochondria contain an alternative oxidase (AOX), which is encoded by a small family of nuclear genes. AOX genes have been shown to be highly responsive to abiotic stresses. Using transgenic plants with varying levels of AOX expression, it has been confirmed that AOX genes are important for abiotic stress tolerance. Although the roles of AOX under abiotic stresses have been extensively studied and there are several excellent reviews on this topic, the differential expression patterns of the AOX gene family members and the signal regulation of AOX gene(s) under abiotic stresses have not been extensively summarized. Here, we review and discuss the current progress of these two important issues. PMID:24004533

Feng, Hanqing; Guan, Dongdong; Sun, Kun; Wang, Yifeng; Zhang, Tengguo; Wang, Rongfang

2013-12-01

82

Cloning and characterization of ERG25, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding C-4 sterol methyl oxidase.  

PubMed Central

We have cloned the Saccharomyces cerevisiae C-4 sterol methyl oxidase ERG25 gene. The sterol methyl oxidase performs the first of three enzymic steps required to remove the two C-4 methyl groups leading to cholesterol (animal), ergosterol (fungal), and stigmasterol (plant) biosynthesis. An ergosterol auxotroph, erg25, which fails to demethylate and concomitantly accumulates 4,4-dimethylzy-mosterol, was isolated after mutagenesis. A complementing clone consisting of a 1.35-kb Dra I fragment encoded a 309-amino acid polypeptide (calculated molecular mass, 36.48 kDa). The amino acid sequence shows a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal KKXX and three histidine-rich clusters found in eukaryotic membrane desaturases and in a bacterial alkane hydroxylase and xylene monooxygenase. The sterol profile of an ERG25 disruptant was consistent with the erg25 allele obtained by mutagenesis.

Bard, M; Bruner, D A; Pierson, C A; Lees, N D; Biermann, B; Frye, L; Koegel, C; Barbuch, R

1996-01-01

83

Characterization of Two Brassinosteroid C-6 Oxidase Genes in Pea1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

C-6 oxidation genes play a key role in the regulation of biologically active brassinosteroid (BR) levels in the plant. They control BR activation, which involves the C-6 oxidation of 6-deoxocastasterone (6-DeoxoCS) to castasterone (CS) and in some cases the further conversion of CS to brassinolide (BL). C-6 oxidation is controlled by the CYP85A family of cytochrome P450s, and to date, two CYP85As have been isolated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), two in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), one in rice (Oryza sativa), and one in grape (Vitis vinifera). We have now isolated two CYP85As (CYP85A1 and CYP85A6) from pea (Pisum sativum). However, unlike Arabidopsis and tomato, which both contain one BR C-6 oxidase that converts 6-DeoxoCS to CS and one BR C-6 Baeyer-Villiger oxidase that converts 6-DeoxoCS right through to BL, the two BR C-6 oxidases in pea both act principally to convert 6-DeoxoCS to CS. The isolation of these two BR C-6 oxidation genes in pea highlights the species-specific differences associated with C-6 oxidation. In addition, we have isolated a novel BR-deficient mutant, lke, which blocks the function of one of these two BR C-6 oxidases (CYP85A6). The lke mutant exhibits a phenotype intermediate between wild-type plants and previously characterized pea BR mutants (lk, lka, and lkb) and contains reduced levels of CS and increased levels of 6-DeoxoCS. To date, lke is the only mutant identified in pea that blocks the latter steps of BR biosynthesis and it will therefore provide an excellent tool to further examine the regulation of BR biosynthesis and the relative biological activities of CS and BL in pea.

Jager, Corinne E.; Symons, Gregory M.; Nomura, Takahito; Yamada, Yumiko; Smith, Jennifer J.; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Weller, James L.; Yokota, Takao; Reid, James B.

2007-01-01

84

Probing the location of the substrate binding site of ascorbate oxidase near type 1 copper: an investigation through spectroscopic, inhibition and docking studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation addresses the problem of the binding mode of phenolic inhibitors and the substrate ascorbate to the active site of ascorbate oxidase. The results from both types of compounds indicate that the binding site is located in a pocket near the type 1 copper center. This information is of general interst for blue multicopper oxidases. Docking calculations performed

Laura Santagostini; Michele Gullotti; Luca De Gioia; Piercarlo Fantucci; Elena Franzini; Augusto Marchesini; Enrico Monzani; Luigi Casella

2004-01-01

85

A novel mutation of coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO) gene in a Japanese family.  

PubMed

Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by a deficiency of coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO). Only 11 mutations of the gene have been reported to date as the mutations responsible for HCP. We report here a novel mutation of the gene responsible for the disease in a Japanese family. Analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified DNA fragments of the gene by direct-sequencing and/or cloning-based sequencing methods revealed the gene abnormality responsible for the disease. The mutation found was a single base deletion of T at nt position 526, which results in frame shift and truncation of coded protein at amino acid position 204. Screening of pre-symptomatic cases seemed to be possible by PCR restriction analysis using restriction enzyme Xcm I. PMID:9747031

Susa, S; Daimon, M; Yamamori, I; Kondo, M; Yamatani, K; Sasaki, H; Kato, T

1998-01-01

86

Cloning and expression analysis of an aldehyde oxidase gene in Arachis hygogaea L.  

PubMed

Aldehyde oxidase (AO) plays important role in plant hormone biosynthetic pathways, such as abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The enzyme catalyzes the last step of the pathways. In this study a full-length cDNA encoding an aldyhyde oxidase was cloned and sequenced from leaves of peanut by RT-PCR, RACE-PCR and genomic DNA walking methods. The full-length cDNA, designated as Arachis hygogaea L. aldehyde oxidase 1 (AhAO1), consists of an open reading frame of 4131 bp, a 326 bp 5' untranslated region and a 128 bp 3' untranslated region including a poly (A) tail of 21 nucleotides. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 1377 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 150 kDa and an isoelectric point (pl) of 6.99. Analysis of amino acid sequence of AhAO1 shows that it had 61%, 59% and 55% identity with the AOs from tomato, Arabidopsis and maize, respectively The peanut AO polypeptide contains consensus sequences for iron-sulfur centers and a molybdenum cofactor (MoCo)-binding domain. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that AhAO1 expression was higher in leaves than in roots of peanut. PMID:20112869

Yang, Lixia; Liang, Jianhua; Li, Haihang; Li, Ling

2009-01-01

87

Enhancing Resistance to Sclerotinia minor in Peanut by Expressing a Barley Oxalate Oxidase Gene1  

PubMed Central

Sclerotinia minor Jagger is the causal agent of Sclerotinia blight, a highly destructive disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Based on evidence that oxalic acid is involved in the pathogenicity of many Sclerotinia species, our objectives were to recover transgenic peanut plants expressing an oxalic acid-degrading oxalate oxidase and to evaluate them for increased resistance to S. minor. Transformed plants were regenerated from embryogenic cultures of three Virginia peanut cultivars (Wilson, Perry, and NC-7). A colorimetric enzyme assay was used to screen for oxalate oxidase activity in leaf tissue. Candidate plants with a range of expression levels were chosen for further analysis. Integration of the transgene was confirmed by Southern-blot analysis, and gene expression was demonstrated in transformants by northern-blot analysis. A sensitive fluorescent enzyme assay was used to quantify expression levels for comparison to the colorimetric protocol. A detached leaflet assay tested whether transgene expression could limit lesion size resulting from direct application of oxalic acid. Lesion size was significantly reduced in transgenic plants compared to nontransformed controls (65%–89% reduction at high oxalic acid concentrations). A second bioassay examined lesion size after inoculation of leaflets with S. minor mycelia. Lesion size was reduced by 75% to 97% in transformed plants, providing evidence that oxalate oxidase can confer enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight in peanut.

Livingstone, D. Malcolm; Hampton, Jaime L.; Phipps, Patrick M.; Grabau, Elizabeth A.

2005-01-01

88

Structure and promoter organization of the human monoamine oxidase A and B genes.  

PubMed Central

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B play an important role in regulating levels of biogenic amines. MAO A and B cDNAs have been cloned and the deduced amino acids share 73% sequence identity. The genes for MAOA and B are comprised of 15 exons interspersed by 14 introns, span at least 60 kb and exhibit identical exon-intron organization. These findings suggest that the MAOA and MAOB genes are derived from the duplication of a common ancestral gene. The core promoter region of MAOA is comprised of two 90 bp repeats, each of which contains two Spl elements and lacks a TATA box. The MAOB core promoter region contains two sets of overlapping Spl sites which flank a CACCC element all upstream of a TATA box. The different organization of the MAOA and MAOB promoters may underlie their different cell and tissue specific expression.

Shih, J C; Grimsby, J; Chen, K; Zhu, Q S

1993-01-01

89

X-ray analysis of bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria at 2.3 ? resolution using a twinned crystal  

PubMed Central

Bilirubin oxidase (BOD), a multicopper oxidase found in Myrothecium verrucaria, catalyzes the oxidation of bilirubin to biliverdin. Oxygen is the electron acceptor and is reduced to water. BOD is used for diagnostic analysis of bilirubin in serum and has attracted considerable attention as an enzymatic catalyst for the cathode of biofuel cells that work under neutral conditions. Here, the crystal structure of BOD is reported for the first time. Blue bipyramid-shaped crystals of BOD obtained in 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) and ammonium sulfate solution were merohedrally twinned in space group P63. Structure determination was achieved by the single anomalous diffraction (SAD) method using the anomalous diffraction of Cu atoms and synchrotron radiation and twin refinement was performed in the resolution range 33–2.3?Å. The overall organization of BOD is almost the same as that of other multicopper oxidases: the protein is folded into three domains and a total of four copper-binding sites are found in domains 1 and 3. Although the four copper-binding sites were almost identical to those of other multicopper oxidases, the hydrophilic Asn residue (at the same position as a hydrophobic residue such as Leu in other multicopper oxidases) very close to the type I copper might contribute to the characteristically high redox potential of BOD.

Mizutani, Kimihiko; Toyoda, Mayuko; Sagara, Kenta; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Atsuko; Kamitaka, Yuji; Tsujimura, Seiya; Nakanishi, Yuji; Sugiura, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Shotaro; Kano, Kenji; Mikami, Bunzo

2010-01-01

90

Differential activation of two ACC oxidase gene promoters from melon during plant development and in response to pathogen attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) oxidase genes are differentially expressed in melon during development and in response\\u000a to various stresses. We investigated the molecular basis of their transcription by analyzing the 5? untranslated regions of\\u000a the ACC oxidase genes CM-ACO1 and CM-ACO3. In order to determine how their temporal and spatial expression patterns were established, we fused the promoter regions\\u000a of CM-ACO1 (726?bp)

E. Lasserre; F. Godard; T. Bouquin; J. A. Hernandez; J.-C. Pech; D. Roby; C. Balagué

1997-01-01

91

Chromosome assignments of genes in man using mouse-human somatic cell hybrids: Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (indophenol oxidase-B, tetrameric) to chromosome 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from mouse\\/human somatic cell hybrids is presented for the synteny of the genes for indophenol oxidase-B (tetrameric) and cytoplasmic malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40). Assignment of these two genes to chromosome 6 is further confirmed. The identification of indophenol oxidase-B (tetrameric) as mitochondrial superoxide dismutase is discussed.

Richard Creagan; Jay Tischfield; Florence Ricciuti; Frank H. Ruddle

1973-01-01

92

Molecular evolution of the ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase gene in Oryzeae  

PubMed Central

We surveyed the substitution patterns in the ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) gene in 11 species of Oryzeae with an outgroup in the Ehrhartoidaea. The synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates showed a high positive correlation with each other, but were negatively correlated with codon usage bias and GC content at third codon positions. The substitution rate was heterogenous among lineages. Likelihood-ratio tests showed that the non-synonymous/synonymous rate ratio changed significantly among lineages. Site-specific models provided no evidence for positive selection of particular amino acid sites in any codon of the KAO gene. This finding suggested that the significant rate heterogeneity among some lineages may have been caused by variability in the relaxation of the selective constraint among lineages or by neutral processes.

Yang, Yanhua; Chen, Keping

2012-01-01

93

Maize cytokinin oxidase genes: differential expression and cloning of two new cDNAs.  

PubMed

Cytokinin oxidases (CKOs) play a major role in the regulation of hormone levels in plants by irreversibly degrading cytokinins. Two new cDNAs from maize (CKO2 and CKO3) were cloned and CKO activity of a recombinant CKO3 enzyme was demonstrated. CKO2 and CKO3 encode flavoproteins with 93% identity among each other compared with 45% identity with CKO1. The respective genes were mapped to BIN 3.05/06 and BIN 8.06 which belong to duplicated regions of the maize genome. For a better understanding of the role of CKO2 and CKO3 in maize development, their expression profiles were analysed in different organs and during kernel development via semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Different spatial and temporal expression patterns were observed for the two genes, as well as for CKO1 and two additional genes CKO4 and CKO5. CKO2 to CKO5 genes were mainly expressed in vegetative tissues, with unique expression patterns. CKO1 was most strongly expressed in the kernel. All five genes were expressed at early stages of kernel development, a period when a peak in cytokinin levels and a high cell division rate in the endosperm have been described. However, each gene had its own expression profile with a major difference concerning the onset of expression. PMID:15475375

Massonneau, Agnès; Houba-Hérin, Nicole; Pethe, Claude; Madzak, Catherine; Falque, Matthieu; Mercy, Mathieu; Kopecny, David; Majira, Amel; Rogowsky, Peter; Laloue, Michel

2004-12-01

94

Expression cloning of the nox, mdh and ldh genes from Thermus species encoding NADH oxidase, malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thermus thermophilus HB8 mdh and ldh genes and the T. aquaticus EP00276 nox and mdh genes encoding the biotechnologically important enzymes NADH oxidase (EC 1.6.99.3), malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) were cloned on the basis of known sequences from related species using the polymerase chain reaction. The nox and mdh genes were directly placed under

Ho-Jin Park; Roland Kreutzer

1994-01-01

95

Exogenously induced expression of ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene perception, phospholipase D, and Rboh-oxidase genes in broccoli seedlings  

PubMed Central

In higher plants, copper ions, hydrogen peroxide, and cycloheximide have been recognized as very effective inducers of the transcriptional activity of genes encoding the enzymes of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. In this report, the transcriptional patterns of genes encoding the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases (ACSs), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidases (ACOs), ETR1, ETR2, and ERS1 ethylene receptors, phospholipase D (PLD)-?1, -?2, -?1, and -?, and respiratory burst oxidase homologue (Rboh)-NADPH oxidase-D and -F in response to these inducers in Brassica oleracea etiolated seedlings are shown. ACS1, ACO1, ETR2, PLD-?1, and RbohD represent genes whose expression was considerably affected by all of the inducers used. The investigations were performed on the seedlings with (i) ethylene insensitivity and (ii) a reduced level of the PLD-derived phosphatidic acid (PA). The general conclusion is that the expression of ACS1, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -11, ACO1, ETR1, ERS1, and ETR2, PLD-? 1, and RbohD and F genes is undoubtedly under the reciprocal cross-talk of the ethylene and PAPLD signalling routes; both signals affect it in concerted or opposite ways depending on the gene or the type of stimuli. The results of these studies on broccoli seedlings are in agreement with the hypothesis that PA may directly affect the ethylene signal transduction pathway via an inhibitory effect on CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) activity.

Jakubowicz, Malgorzata; Galganska, Hanna; Nowak, Witold; Sadowski, Jan

2010-01-01

96

Arsenite oxidase gene diversity among Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria from El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile.  

PubMed

Arsenic concentrations (450-600 ?mol L(-1)) at the El Tatio Geyser Field in northern Chile are an order of magnitude greater than at other natural geothermal sites, making El Tatio an ideal location to investigate unique microbial diversity and metabolisms associated with the arsenic cycle in low sulfide, > 50 °C, and circumneutral pH waters. 16S rRNA gene and arsenite oxidase gene (aioA) diversities were evaluated from biofilms and microbial mats from two geyser-discharge stream transects. Chloroflexi was the most prevalent bacterial phylum at flow distances where arsenite was converted to arsenate, corresponding to roughly 60 °C. Among aioA-like gene sequences retrieved, most had homology to whole genomes of Chloroflexus aurantiacus, but others were homologous to alphaproteobacterial and undifferentiated beta- and gammaproteobacterial groups. No Deinococci, Thermus, Aquificales, or Chlorobi aioA-like genes were retrieved. The functional importance of amino acid sites was evaluated from evolutionary trace analyses of all retrieved aioA genes. Fifteen conserved residue sites identified across all phylogenetic groups highlight a conserved functional core, while six divergent sites demonstrate potential differences in electron transfer modes. This research expands the known distribution and diversity of arsenite oxidation in natural geothermal settings, and provides information about the evolutionary history of microbe-arsenic interactions. PMID:23066664

Engel, Annette Summers; Johnson, Lindsey R; Porter, Megan L

2013-03-01

97

Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene from 13 sipunculan genera: intra- and interphylum relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Sipunculans are a phylum of non-segmented, marine worms. Although they are well characterized morphologically, relationships within the phylum and the relationship of Sipun- cula to other spiralian phyla have been strongly debated. I analyzed representatives of 13 of 17 described genera using a 654-bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, to construct the first intraphylum

Joseph L. Statona

2005-01-01

98

Fosinopril and Losartan Regulate Klotho Gene and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase Expression in Kidneys of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Klotho, a newly identified antiaging gene, predominantly detected in the kidney, has pleiotropic protective effects on kidney diseases. Several studies have confirmed the association between Klotho and oxidative stress. The present studies were performed to explore effects of fosinopril (Fos) and losartan (Los) on Klotho and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expression in kidneys of spontaneously hypertensive rats

Rong Tang; Qiao-ling Zhou; Xiang Ao; Wei-sheng Peng; Pouranan Veeraragoo; Tian-feng Tang

2011-01-01

99

Differential Expression and Turnover of the Tomato Polyphenol Oxidase Gene Family during Vegetative and Reproductive Development.  

PubMed Central

Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are encoded by a highly conserved, seven-member gene family clustered within a 165-kb locus on chromosome 8 of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Using gene-specific probes capable of differentiating between PPO A/C, PPO B, PPO D, and PPO E/F, we examined the spatial and temporal expression of this gene family during vegetative and reproductive development. RNA blots and in situ hybridization using these probes showed that although PPO expression is primarily confined to early stages of development, the steady-state mRNA levels of these genes are subject to complex patterns of spatial and temporal regulation in vegetative and reproductive organs. Young tomato leaves and flowers possess the most abundant PPO transcripts. PPO B is the most abundant in young leaves, whereas in the inflorescence PPO B and E/F transcripts are dominant. Differential expression of PPOs is also observed in various trichome types. PPO A/C are specifically expressed in type I and type IV trichomes. In contrast, PPO D is only expressed in type VI trichomes. Type I, IV, and VI trichomes possess PPO E/F transcripts. Immunolocalization verified the translational activity of PPOs identified by in situ hybridization and suggested cell-type-specific, developmentally programmed PPO turnover. In addition, immunolocalization demonstrated the accumulation of PPO in specific idioblast cells of stems, leaves, and fruits.

Thipyapong, P.; Joel, D. M.; Steffens, J. C.

1997-01-01

100

Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A  

SciTech Connect

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1993-10-22

101

Nematode-induced expression of atao1, a gene encoding an extracellular diamine oxidase associated with developing vascular tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theatao1gene ofArabidopsis thalianaencodes an extracellular copper amine oxidase expressed during early stages of vascular tissue development. Transgenic plants harbouring a ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (uidA) under the control of theatao1promoter were grown in soil and challenged with the nematodesMeloidogyne incognitaandHeterodera schachtii.No GUS activity was observed during root invasion by either nematode. GUS activity was first observed in the gall induced

S. G Møller; P. E Urwin; H. J Atkinson; M. J McPherson

1998-01-01

102

Differential regulation of the two genes encoding Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome c oxidase subunit V by heme and the HAP2 and REO1 genes.  

PubMed Central

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the COX5a and COX5b genes encode two forms of cytochrome c oxidase subunit V, Va and Vb. We report here that heme increases COX5a expression and decreases COX5b expression and that the HAP2 and REO1 genes are involved in positive regulation of COX5a and negative regulation of COX5b, respectively. Heme regulation of COX5a and COX5b may dictate which subunit V isoform is available for assembly into cytochrome c oxidase under conditions of high- and low-oxygen tension. Images

Trueblood, C E; Wright, R M; Poyton, R O

1988-01-01

103

Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Blue” copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Za?tsev, V. N.; Mikha?lov, A. M.

2008-01-01

104

Induction of genes encoding NADPH oxidase components and activation of IFN regulatory factor-1 by prolactin in fish macrophages.  

PubMed

The role played by prolactin (PRL) in fish immunity is scant. We report here that stimulation of the Atlantic salmon monocytic cell line SHK-1 with native salmon PRL resulted in activation of the respiratory burst and induction of the expression of the genes encoding the phagocyte NADPH oxidase components p47phox, p67phox and gp91phox, and the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1). Interestingly, the pharmacologic inhibition of the Jak/Stat signaling pathway with AG490 blocked reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the induction of genes encoding the NADPH oxidase components and IRF-1 in PRL-activated SHK-1 cells. In addition, PRL promoted the phosphorylation of Stat and induced the DNA binding activity of IRF-1. These results, together with the presence of several consensus target motifs for Stat and IRF-1 in the promoter of the tilapia p47phox gene, suggest that PRL regulates p47phox gene expression in fish through the activation of these two key transcription factors. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PRL induces the expression of the genes encoding the major phagocyte NADPH oxidase components and ROS production in fish macrophages via the JAK2/Stat/IRF-1 signaling pathway. PMID:23548829

Olavarría, Víctor H; Figueroa, Jaime E; Mulero, Victoriano

2013-12-01

105

The Multicopper Ferroxidase Hephaestin Enhances Intestinal Iron Absorption in Mice  

PubMed Central

Hephaestin is a vertebrate multicopper ferroxidase important for the transfer of dietary iron from intestinal cells to the blood. Hephaestin is mutated in the sex-linked anemia mouse, resulting in iron deficiency. However, sex-linked anemia mice still retain some hephaestin ferroxidase activity. They survive, breed, and their anemia improves with age. To gain a better understanding of the role of hephaestin in iron homeostasis, we used the Cre-lox system to generate knockout mouse models with whole body or intestine-specific (Villin promoter) ablation of hephaestin. Both types of mice were viable, indicating that hephaestin is not essential and that other mechanisms, multicopper ferroxidase-dependent or not, must compensate for hephaestin deficiency. The knockout strains, however, both developed a microcytic, hypochromic anemia, suggesting severe iron deficiency and confirming that hephaestin plays an important role in body iron acquisition. Consistent with this, the knockout mice accumulated iron in duodenal enterocytes and had reduced intestinal iron absorption. In addition, the similarities of the phenotypes of the whole body and intestine-specific hephaestin knockout mice clarify the important role of hephaestin specifically in intestinal enterocytes in maintaining whole body iron homeostasis. These mouse models will serve as valuable tools to study the role of hephaestin and associated proteins in iron transport in the small intestine and other tissues.

Fuqua, Brie K.; Lu, Yan; Darshan, Deepak; Frazer, David M.; Wilkins, Sarah J.; Wolkow, Natalie; Bell, Austin G.; Hsu, JoAnn; Yu, Catherine C.; Chen, Huijun; Dunaief, Joshua L.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Vulpe, Chris D.

2014-01-01

106

Transcriptional activation through ETS domain binding sites in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV gene  

SciTech Connect

A mutational analysis of the rat cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (RCO4) promoter region revealed the presence of a major control element consisting of a tandemly repeated pair of binding sites for a nuclear factor from HeLa cells. This factor was designated NRF-2 (nuclear respiratory factor 2) because a functional recognition site was also found in the human ATP synthase {beta}-subunit gene. Deletion or site-directed point mutations of the NRF-2 binding sites in the RCO4 promoter resulted in substantial loss of transcriptional activity, and synthetic oligomers of the NRF-2 binding sites from both genes stimulated a heterologous promoter when cloned in cis. NRF-2 binding a transcriptional activation required a purine-rich core sequence, GGAA. This motif is characteristic of the recognition site for a family of activators referred to as ETS domain proteins because of the similarity within their DNA-binding domains to the ets-1 proto-oncogene product. NRF-2 recognized an authentic Ets-1 site within the Moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat, and this site was able to compete for NRF-2 binding to the RCO4 promoter sequence. However, in contrast to Ets-1, which appears to be exclusive to lymphoid tissues, NRF-2 has the broad tissue distribution expected of a regulator of respiratory chain expression.

Virbasius, J.V.; Scarpulla, R.C. (Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States))

1991-11-01

107

Association between monoamine oxidase gene polymorphisms and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in korean children.  

PubMed

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of the school-age population. ADHD is familial and genetic studies estimate heritability at 80-90%. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the genetic type and alleles for the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene in Korean children with ADHD. The sample consisted of 180 ADHD children and 159 control children. We diagnosed ADHD according to DSM-IV. ADHD symptoms were evaluated with Conners' Parent Rating Scales and Dupaul Parent ADHD Rating Scales. Blood samples were taken from the 339 subjects, DNA was extracted from blood lymphocytes, and polymerase chain reaction was performed for MAO polymorphism. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using the chi-square test. We compared the allele and genotype frequencies of MAO gene polymorphism in the ADHD and control groups. This study showed that there was a significant correlation among the frequencies of the rs5906883 (odds ratio [OR]=1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.08-2.00, p=0.014) and the rs3027407 (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.03-1.91, p=0.029) alleles of MAO, but the final conclusions are not definite. Follow-up studies with larger patient or pure subgroups are expected. These results suggested that MAO might be related to ADHD symptoms. PMID:24977324

Kwon, Ho Jang; Jin, Han Jun; Lim, Myung Ho

2014-07-01

108

Molecular cloning of human lysyl oxidase and assignment of the gene to chromosome 5q23.3-31.2.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase (EC 1.4.3.13) initiates the crosslinking of collagens and elastin by catalyzing oxidative deamination of the epsilon-amino group in certain lysine and hydroxylysine residues. We report here on the isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for the enzyme from human placenta and rat aorta lambda gt11 cDNA libraries. A cDNA clone for human lysyl oxidase covers all the coding sequences, 230 nucleotides of the 5' and 299 nucleotides, of the 3' untranslated sequences, including a poly(A) tail of 23 nucleotides. This cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 417 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 21 amino acids. Sequencing of two rat lysyl oxidase cDNA clones indicated six differences between the present and the previously published sequence for the rat enzyme [Trackman et al. (1990) Biochemistry 29: 4863-4870], resulting in frameshifts in the translated sequence. The human lysyl oxidase sequence was found to be 78% identical to the revised rat sequence at the nucleotide level and 84% identical at the amino acid level, with the degree of identity unevenly distributed between various regions of the coded polypeptide. Northern blot analysis of human skin fibroblasts RNA indicated that the human lysyl oxidase cDNA hybridizes to at least four mRNA species; their sizes are about 5.5, 4.3, 2.4, and 2.0 kb. Analysis of a panel of 25 human x hamster cell hybrids by Southern blotting mapped the human lysyl oxidase gene to chromosome 5, and in situ hybridization mapped it to 5q23.3-31.2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1685472

Hämäläinen, E R; Jones, T A; Sheer, D; Taskinen, K; Pihlajaniemi, T; Kivirikko, K I

1991-11-01

109

Cytokinin Oxidase Gene Expression in Maize Is Localized to the Vasculature, and Is Induced by Cytokinins, Abscisic Acid, and Abiotic Stress  

PubMed Central

Cytokinins are hormones that play an essential role in plant growth and development. The irreversible degradation of cytokinins, catalyzed by cytokinin oxidase, is an important mechanism by which plants modulate their cytokinin levels. Cytokinin oxidase has been well characterized biochemically, but its regulation at the molecular level is not well understood. We isolated a cytokinin oxidase open reading frame from maize (Zea mays), called Ckx1, and we used it as a probe in northern and in situ hybridization experiments. We found that the gene is expressed in a developmental manner in the kernel, which correlates with cytokinin levels and cytokinin oxidase activity. In situ hybridization with Ckx1 and transgenic expression of a transcriptional fusion of the Ckx1 promoter to the Escherichia coli ?-glucuronidase reporter gene revealed that the gene is expressed in the vascular bundles of kernels, seedling roots, and coleoptiles. We show that Ckx1 gene expression is inducible in various organs by synthetic and natural cytokinins. Ckx1 is also induced by abscisic acid, which may control cytokinin oxidase expression in the kernel under abiotic stress. We hypothesize that under non-stress conditions, cytokinin oxidase in maize plays a role in controlling growth and development via regulation of cytokinin levels transiting in the xylem. In addition, we suggest that under environmental stress conditions, cytokinin oxidase gene induction by abscisic acid results in aberrant degradation of cytokinins therefore impairing normal development.

Brugiere, Norbert; Jiao, Shuping; Hantke, Sabine; Zinselmeier, Chris; Roessler, Jeffrey A.; Niu, Xiaomu; Jones, Robert J.; Habben, Jeffrey E.

2003-01-01

110

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and polymorphisms in Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA): a revisit.  

PubMed

Literature describes multiple possible links between genetic variations in the neuroadrenergic system and the occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome. The X-chromosomal Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is one of the genes with regulatory activity in the noradrenergic and serotonergic neuronal systems and a polymorphism of the promoter which affects the activity of this gene has been proclaimed to contribute significantly to the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in three studies from 2009, 2012 and 2013. However, these studies described different significant correlations regarding gender or age of children. Since several studies, suggesting associations between genetic variations and SIDS, were disproved by follow-up analysis, this study was conducted to take a closer look at the MAOA gene and its polymorphisms. The functional MAOA promoter length polymorphism was investigated in 261 SIDS cases and 93 control subjects. Moreover, the allele distribution of 12 coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MAOA gene was examined in 285 SIDS cases and 93 controls by a minisequencing technique. In contrast to prior studies with fewer individuals, no significant correlations between the occurrence of SIDS and the frequency of allele variants of the promoter polymorphism could be demonstrated, even including the results from the abovementioned previous studies. Regarding the SNPs, three statistically significant associations were observed which had not been described before. This study clearly disproves interactions between MAOA promoter polymorphisms and SIDS, even if variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms of MAOA should be subjected to further analysis to clarify their impact on SIDS. PMID:24173666

Groß, Maximilian; Bajanowski, Thomas; Vennemann, Mechtild; Poetsch, Micaela

2014-01-01

111

Lysyl Oxidase (ras Recision Gene) Expression in Human Amnion: Ontogeny and Cellular Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile strength of human fetal membranes is attributable to interstitial collagens of the zona compacta of the avascular amnion. Collagenfiberstrengthandproteolyticresistanceisprovidedbyinter- and intramolecular cross-links of collagen fibrils, which are formed in a series of reactions initiated by lysyl oxidase. Lysyl oxidase activity in amnion tissues varied by more than 400-fold in a highly significant inverse manner as a function of

M. LINETTE CASEY; PAUL C. MACDONALD

2010-01-01

112

Wound and ethylene induction of the ACC oxidase melon gene CM-ACO1 occurs via two direct and independent transduction pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme ACC oxidase catalyses the last step of ethylene biosynthesis in plants. Expression of the melon ACC oxidase gene, CM-ACO1, is rapidly induced (within 10 min) by ethylene treatment or upon wounding in leaves. The inhibitor of ethylene action, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), inhibited the accumulation of ethylene-induced CM-ACO1 mRNA transcripts, while wound-induced expression of the gene was not affected. The

Thomas Bouquin; Eric Lasserre; Jérôme Pradier; Jean-Claude Pech; Claudine Balagué

1997-01-01

113

Secretory expression and purification of Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in PMR1 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding glucose oxidase (GOD) from Aspergillus niger was expressed as a secretory product in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Six consecutive histidine residues were fused to the C-terminus of GOD to facilitate purification. The recombinant GOD-His6 secreted by S. cerevisiae migrated as a broad diffuse band on SDS–PAGE, with an apparent molecular weight higher than that in natural A.

Ji-Hyun Ko; Moon Sun Hahm; Hyun Ah Kang; Soo Wan Nam; Bong Hyun Chung

2002-01-01

114

Disease Resistance Conferred by Expression of a Gene Encoding H2O2Generating Glucose Oxidase in Transgenic Potato Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant defense responses to pathogen infection involve the production of active oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H202). We obtained transgenic potato plants expressing a funga1 gene encoding glucose oxidase, which generates H202 when glucose is oxidized. H2O2 levels were elevated in both leaf and tuber tissues of these plants. Transgenic potato tubers exhibited strong resistance to a bacterial soft rot

Gusui Wu; Barry J. Shortt; Ellen B. Lawrence; Elaine B. Levine; Karen C. Fitzsimmons; Dilip M. Shah

1995-01-01

115

The Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase II Gene in Bacillus Stick Insects: Ancestry of Hybrids, Androgenesis, and Phylogenetic Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequencing of a cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene fragment in Bacillus taxa provided evidence that the bisexual B. rossius is the maternal ancestor of the hybridogenetic B. rossius–grandii strains and revealed the same ancestry for both parthenogenetic hybrids: the diploid B. whitei (B. rossius\\/grandii grandii) and the triploid B. lynceorum (B. rossius\\/grandii grandii\\/atticus). Present data clearly demonstrate that all Bacillus

Barbara Mantovani; Marco Passamonti; Valerio Scali

2001-01-01

116

A novel papaya ACC oxidase gene ( CP-ACO2) associated with late stage fruit ripening and leaf senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase cDNA clone (CP-ACO2, 1485 bp) was isolated from papaya for the first time. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 77% identity with the previously reported papaya CP-ACO1. Genomic Southern analysis with gene specific probes showed that CP-ACO2 is single copy in papaya genome. It was also identified to be ethylene and wounding inducible, an observation

Yu-Ting Chen; Yi-Ru Lee; Chih-Yuan Yang; Yuh-Tai Wang; Shang-Fa Yang; Jei-Fu Shaw

2003-01-01

117

Lysyl Oxidase Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene Inactivated by Methylation and Loss of Heterozygosity in Human Gastric Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and HRAS-like suppressor (HRASLS) are silenced in human gastric cancers and are reported to have growth-suppressive activities in ras-transformed mouse\\/rat fibroblasts. Here, we analyzed whether or not LOX and HRASLS are tumor suppressor genes in human gastric cancers. Loss of heterozygosity and promoter methylation of LOX were detected in 33% (9 of 27) and 27% (26 of

Atsushi Kaneda; Kuniko Wakazono; Tetsuya Tsukamoto; Naoko Watanabe; Yukiko Yagi; Masae Tatematsu; Michio Kaminishi; Takashi Sugimura; Toshikazu Ushijima

2004-01-01

118

Current issues in species identification for forensic science and the validity of using the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species identification techniques commonly utilized in Australian Forensic Science laboratories are gel immunodifussion antigen\\u000a antibody reactions and hair comparison analysis. Both of these techniques have significant limitations and should be considered\\u000a indicative opinion based tests. The Barcode of Life Initiative aims to sequence a section of DNA (~648 base pairs) for the\\u000a Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial gene (COI) in all

Linzi Wilson-Wilde; Janette Norman; James Robertson; Stephen Sarre; Arthur Georges

2010-01-01

119

Allelic variation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes located on chromosomes 2A and 2D and development of functional markers for the PPO genes in common wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity is highly related to the undesirable browning of wheat-based end products, especially Asian\\u000a noodles. Characterization of PPO genes and the development of their functional markers are of great importance for marker-assisted\\u000a selection in wheat breeding. In the present study, complete genomic DNA sequences of two PPO genes, one each located on chromosomes\\u000a 2A and 2D and

X. Y. He; Z. H. He; L. P. Zhang; D. J. Sun; C. F. Morris; E. P. Fuerst; X. C. Xia

2007-01-01

120

Cytochrome o (cyoABCDE) and d (cydAB) oxidase gene expression in Escherichia coli is regulated by oxygen, pH, and the fnr gene product  

SciTech Connect

The aerobic respiratory chain of Escherichia coli contains two terminal oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of ubiquinol-8 and the reduction of oxygen to water. They are the cytochrome o oxidase complex encoded by cyoABCDE and the cytochrome d oxidase complex encoded by cydAB. To determine how these genes are regulated in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, including oxygen, we examined their expression by using lacZ protein fusions in wild-type and fnr mutant strains of E. coli. Based on the pattern of anaerobic cydAB expression observed, we propose the existence of a second, as yet unidentified, regulatory element that must function either to activate cydAB expression as oxygen becomes limiting or to repress cydAB expression aerobically. Whereas cytochrome o oxidase encoded by cyoABCDE appears to be produced only under oxygen-rich growth conditions, in keeping with its biochemical properties, cytochrome d oxidase is expressed moderately aerobically and is elevated yet further when oxygen becomes limiting so that the organism can cope better under oxygen starvation conditions. We also examined cyoABCDE and cydAB expression in response to growth on alternative carbon compounds and to changes in the culture medium pH and osmolarity.

Cotter, P.A.; Gunsalus, R.P. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Chepuri, V.; Gennis, R.B. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

1990-11-01

121

Characterization of human SCO1 and COX17 genes in mitochondrial cytochrome-c-oxidase deficiency.  

PubMed

At least three proteins, COX17p, SCO1p, and its homologue SCO2p are thought to be involved in mitochondrial copper transport to cytochrome-c-oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain. Recently, we and others have shown that mutations in SCO2 are associated with a lethal infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP) with COX-deficiency. The majority of patients with a similar phenotype were, however, negative for SCO2 mutations, suggesting the other genes as candidates for this disorder. Here we report on the genomic organization of SCO1 and COX17 on human chromosomes 17 and 3 respectively, and the complete sequence analysis of COX17 and SCO1 in 30 patients with COX deficiency. Using a panel of human:mouse-monochromosomal hybrids, the expression of COX17 was specifically restricted to chromosome 3, indicating that the previously reported sequence on chromosome 13 represents a pseudogene. DNA sequence analysis of SCO1 and COX17 in nine patients with severe COX deficiency and fatal HCMP, and in 21 patients with other COX deficiency disorders, did not reveal any pathogenic mutations or polymorphisms. We conclude that neither SCO1 nor COX17 are common causes of COX deficiency disorders. PMID:11027508

Horvath, R; Lochmüller, H; Stucka, R; Yao, J; Shoubridge, E A; Kim, S H; Gerbitz, K D; Jaksch, M

2000-09-24

122

Differential expression of two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes in broccoli after harvest.  

PubMed

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) floral tissues rapidly differentiate and grow before harvest and then senesce rapidly after harvest. Associated with this postharvest deterioration is an increase in ethylene production by florets. Two cDNA clones having high nucleotide identity to sequences encoding 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase were isolated from senescing florets. The cDNAs, ACC Ox1 and ACC Ox2, apparently encode mRNAs from different genes. ACC Ox1 transcripts were found at low levels in whole florets at the time of harvest and increased markedly in abundance after harvest. ACC Ox1 transcript abundance also increased in sepals after harvest and in excised yellowing leaves. Transcripts corresponding to ACC Ox2 were found exclusively within the reproductive structures. These ACC Ox2 transcripts were absent at harvest but started to increase in abundance within 2 h of harvest and then accumulated to high levels. Hormone treatment did not alter the abundance of ACC Ox1 transcripts, whereas ACC Ox2 transcripts increased in abundance after treatment with abscisic acid and propylene. Wounding did not affect the levels of ACC Ox1 or Ox2 transcripts after harvest. At harvest, individual broccoli florets were closed and remained unpollinated. We propose a model whereby the rapid increase in ACC Ox1 and Ox2 transcript abundance after harvest contributes to increased ethylene production by florets. This ethylene may regulate aspects of postharvest senescence, in particular chlorophyll loss. PMID:7610162

Pogson, B J; Downs, C G; Davies, K M

1995-06-01

123

Differential expression of two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes in broccoli after harvest.  

PubMed Central

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) floral tissues rapidly differentiate and grow before harvest and then senesce rapidly after harvest. Associated with this postharvest deterioration is an increase in ethylene production by florets. Two cDNA clones having high nucleotide identity to sequences encoding 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase were isolated from senescing florets. The cDNAs, ACC Ox1 and ACC Ox2, apparently encode mRNAs from different genes. ACC Ox1 transcripts were found at low levels in whole florets at the time of harvest and increased markedly in abundance after harvest. ACC Ox1 transcript abundance also increased in sepals after harvest and in excised yellowing leaves. Transcripts corresponding to ACC Ox2 were found exclusively within the reproductive structures. These ACC Ox2 transcripts were absent at harvest but started to increase in abundance within 2 h of harvest and then accumulated to high levels. Hormone treatment did not alter the abundance of ACC Ox1 transcripts, whereas ACC Ox2 transcripts increased in abundance after treatment with abscisic acid and propylene. Wounding did not affect the levels of ACC Ox1 or Ox2 transcripts after harvest. At harvest, individual broccoli florets were closed and remained unpollinated. We propose a model whereby the rapid increase in ACC Ox1 and Ox2 transcript abundance after harvest contributes to increased ethylene production by florets. This ethylene may regulate aspects of postharvest senescence, in particular chlorophyll loss.

Pogson, B J; Downs, C G; Davies, K M

1995-01-01

124

Probable presence of an ubiquitous cryptic mitochondrial gene on the antisense strand of the cytochrome oxidase I gene  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondria mediate most of the energy production that occurs in the majority of eukaryotic organisms. These subcellular organelles contain a genome that differs from the nuclear genome and is referred to as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite a disparity in gene content, all mtDNAs encode at least two components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, including cytochrome c oxidase I (Cox1). Presentation of the hypothesis A positionally conserved ORF has been found on the complementary strand of the cox1 genes of both eukaryotic mitochondria (protist, plant, fungal and animal) and alpha-proteobacteria. This putative gene has been named gau for gene antisense ubiquitous in mtDNAs. The length of the deduced protein is approximately 100 amino acids. In vertebrates, several stop codons have been found in the mt gau region, and potentially functional gau regions have been found in nuclear genomes. However, a recent bioinformatics study showed that several hypothetical overlapping mt genes could be predicted, including gau; this involves the possible import of the cytosolic AGR tRNA into the mitochondria and/or the expression of mt antisense tRNAs with anticodons recognizing AGR codons according to an alternative genetic code that is induced by the presence of suppressor tRNAs. Despite an evolutionary distance of at least 1.5 to 2.0 billion years, the deduced Gau proteins share some conserved amino acid signatures and structure, which suggests a possible conserved function. Moreover, BLAST analysis identified rare, sense-oriented ESTs with poly(A) tails that include the entire gau region. Immunohistochemical analyses using an anti-Gau monoclonal antibody revealed strict co-localization of Gau proteins and a mitochondrial marker. Testing the hypothesis This hypothesis could be tested by purifying the gau gene product and determining its sequence. Cell biological experiments are needed to determine the physiological role of this protein. Implications of the hypothesis Studies of the gau ORF will shed light on the origin of novel genes and their functions in organelles and could also have medical implications for human diseases that are caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, this strengthens evidence for mitochondrial genes coded according to an overlapping genetic code.

2011-01-01

125

Structure and expression of three genes encoding ACC oxidase homologs from melon ( Cucumis melo L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme ACC oxidase catalyses the last step of ethylene biosynthesis in plants, converting 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene. We have previously described the isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone (pMEL1) encoding an ACC oxidase homolog from melon (Cucumis melo L.). Here we report the isolation and characterization of three genomic clones, corresponding to three putative members of the

E. Lasserre; T. Bouquin; J. A. Hernandez; J.-C. Pech; C. Balagué; J. Bull

1996-01-01

126

Structure and transcriptional control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae POX1 gene encoding acyl-coenzyme A oxidase.  

PubMed

We have cloned the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene coding for the peroxisomal enzyme: fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (POX). The gene (named POX1) is unique in S. cerevisiae and has been identified through homology with the POX4 and POX5 genes of Candida tropicalis. The POX1 gene encodes a 84-kDa POX protein composed of 748 amino acids. The identity between the S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis enzymes is about 40%, and there is a greater degree of similarity between the N termini than the C termini. A disruption of the POX1 coding sequence diminishes the ability of yeast cells to grow on oleic acid as a sole carbon source. The expression of the POX1 gene is regulated at the level of transcription, and is induced more than 25-fold by the addition of oleic acid to the medium. PMID:2189786

Dmochowska, A; Dignard, D; Maleszka, R; Thomas, D Y

1990-04-16

127

Engineering the alternative oxidase gene to better understand and counteract mitochondrial defects: state of the art and perspectives.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial disorders are nowadays recognized as impinging on most areas of medicine. They include specific and widespread organ involvement, including both tissue degeneration and tumour formation. Despite the spectacular progresses made in the identification of their underlying molecular basis, effective therapy remains a distant goal. Our still rudimentary understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms by which these diseases arise constitutes an obstacle to developing any rational treatments. In this context, the idea of using a heterologous gene, encoding a supplemental oxidase otherwise absent from mammals, potentially bypassing the defective portion of the respiratory chain, was proposed more than 10 years ago. The recent progress made in the expression of the alternative oxidase in a wide range of biological systems and disease conditions reveals great potential benefit, considering the broad impact of mitochondrial diseases. This review addresses the state of the art and the perspectives that can be now envisaged by using this strategy. PMID:24383965

El-Khoury, Riyad; Kemppainen, Kia K; Dufour, Eric; Szibor, Marten; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

2014-04-01

128

Cloning and characterization of the yeast HEM14 gene coding for protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the molecular target of diphenyl ether-type herbicides.  

PubMed

Protoporphyrinogen oxidase, which catalyzes the oxygen-dependent aromatization of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX, is the molecular target of diphenyl ether type herbicides. The structural gene for the yeast protoporphyrinogen oxidase, HEM14, was isolated by functional complementation of a hem14-1 protoporphyrinogen oxidase-deficient yeast mutant, using a novel one-step colored screening procedure to identify heme-synthesizing cells. The hem14-1 mutation was genetically linked to URA3, a marker on chromosome V, and HEM14 was physically mapped on the right arm of this chromosome, between PRP22 and FAA2. Disruption of the HEM14 gene leads to protoporphyrinogen oxidase deficiency in vivo (heme deficiency and accumulation of heme precursors), and in vitro (lack of immunodetectable protein or enzyme activity). The HEM14 gene encodes a 539-amino acid protein (59,665 Da; pI 9.3) containing an ADP- beta alpha beta-binding fold similar to those of several other flavoproteins. Yeast protoporphyrinogen oxidase was somewhat similar to the HemY gene product of Bacillus subtilis and to the human and mouse protoporphyrinogen oxidases. Studies on protoporphyrinogen oxidase overexpressed in yeast and purified as wild-type enzyme showed that (i) the NH2-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence of protoporphyrinogen oxidase is not cleaved during importation; (ii) the enzyme, as purified, had a typical flavin semiquinone absorption spectrum; and (iii) the enzyme was strongly inhibited by diphenyl ether-type herbicides and readily photolabeled by a diazoketone derivative of tritiated acifluorfen. The mutant allele hem14-1 contains two mutations, L422P and K424E, responsible for the inactive enzyme. Both mutations introduced independently in the wild-type HEM14 gene completely inactivated the protein when analyzed in an Escherichia coli expression system. PMID:8621563

Camadro, J M; Labbe, P

1996-04-12

129

Expression of thiamin biosynthetic genes (thiCOGE) and production of symbiotic terminal oxidase cbb3 in Rhizobium etli.  

PubMed Central

In this paper we report the cloning and sequence analysis of four genes, located on plasmid pb, which are involved in the synthesis of thiamin in Rhizobium etli (thiC, thiO, thiG, and thiE). Two precursors, 4-methyl-5-(beta-hydroxyethyl)thiazole monophosphate and 4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine pyrophosphate, are coupled to form thiamin monophosphate, which is then phosphorylated to make thiamin pyrophosphate. The first open reading frame (ORF) product, of 610 residues, has significant homology (69% identity) with the product of thiC from Escherichia coli, which is involved in the synthesis of hydroxymethylpyrimidine. The second ORF product, of 327 residues, is the product of a novel gene denoted thiO. A protein motif involved in flavin adenine dinucleotide binding was found in the amino-terminal part of ThiO; also, residues involved in the catalytic site of D-amino acid oxidases are conserved in ThiO, suggesting that it catalyzes the oxidative deamination of some intermediate of thiamin biosynthesis. The third ORF product, of 323 residues, has significant homology (38% identity) with ThiG from E. coli, which is involved in the synthesis of the thiazole. The fourth ORF product, of 204 residues, has significant homology (47% identity) with the product of thiE from E. coli, which is involved in the condensation of hydroxymethylpyrimidine and thiazole. Strain CFN037 is an R. etli mutant induced by a single Tn5mob insertion in the promoter region of the thiCOGE gene cluster. The Tn5mob insertion in CFN037 occurred within a 39-bp region which is highly conserved in all of the thiC promoters analyzed and promotes constitutive expression of thiC. Primer extension analysis showed that thiC transcription in strain CFN037 originates within the Tn5 element. Analysis of c-type protein content and expression of the fixNOQP operon, which codes for the symbiotic terminal oxidase cbb3, revealed that CFN037 produces the cbb3 terminal oxidase. These data show a direct relationship between expression of thiC and production of the cbb3 terminal oxidase. This is consistent with the proposition that a purine-related metabolite, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, is a negative effector of the production of the symbiotic terminal oxidase cbb3 in R. etli.

Miranda-Rios, J; Morera, C; Taboada, H; Davalos, A; Encarnacion, S; Mora, J; Soberon, M

1997-01-01

130

Cloning of a Novel Nicotine Oxidase Gene from Pseudomonas sp. Strain HZN6 Whose Product Nonenantioselectively Degrades Nicotine to Pseudooxynicotine  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain HZN6 utilizes nicotine as its sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. However, its catabolic mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, self-formed adaptor PCR was performed to amplify the upstream sequence of the pseudooxynicotine amine oxidase gene. A 1,437-bp open reading frame (designated nox) was found to encode a nicotine oxidase (NOX) that shows 30% amino acid sequence identity with 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans. The nox gene was cloned into a broad-host-range cloning vector and transferred into the non-nicotine-degrading bacteria Escherichia coli DH5? (DH-nox) and Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (KT-nox). The transconjugant KT-nox obtained nicotine degradation ability and yielded an equimolar amount of pseudooxynicotine, while DH-nox did not. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that the nox gene is expressed in both DH5? and KT2440, suggesting that additional factors required for nicotine degradation are present in a Pseudomonas strain(s), but not in E. coli. The mutant of strain HZN6 with nox disrupted lost the ability to degrade nicotine, but not pseudooxynicotine. These results suggested that the nox gene is responsible for the first step of nicotine degradation. The (RS)-nicotine degradation results showed that the two enantiomers were degraded at approximately the same rate, indicating that NOX does not show chiral selectivity. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that both the conserved flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding GXGXXG motif and His456 are essential for nicotine degradation activity.

Qiu, Jiguo; Ma, Yun; Zhang, Jing; Wen, Yuezhong

2013-01-01

131

The LOXL2 Gene Encodes a New Lysyl Oxidase-like Protein and Is Expressed at High Levels in Reproductive Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reported in this paper the complete cDNA sequence, gene structure, and tissue-specific expression of LOXL2, a new amine oxidase and a member of an emerging family of human lysyl oxidases. The predicted amino acid sequence, from several overlapping cDNA clones isolated from placenta and spleen cDNA libraries, shared extensive sequence homology with the con- served copper-binding and catalytic

Claude Jourdan-Le Saux; Heike Tronecker; Ljubica Bogic; Gillian D. Bryant-Greenwood; Charles D. Boyd; Katalin Csiszar

1999-01-01

132

Association analysis of a polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase B gene with Parkinson`s disease in a Japanese population  

SciTech Connect

The polymorphic allele of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) gene detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was associated with Parkinson`s disease (PD) in Caucasians. We characterized this polymorphic allele, allele 1, of the MAO-B gene using direct sequencing of PCR products. A single DNA substitution (G-A), resulting gain of Mae III restriction site was detected in intron 13 of the MAO-B gene. The allele associated with PD in Caucasians was twice as frequent as in healthy Japanese, but the association of the allele of the MAO-B gene was not observed in Japanese patients with PD. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Morimoto, Yuji; Murayama, Nobuhiro; Kuwano, Akira; Kondo, Ikuko [Ehime Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-18

133

Cloning and Molecular Analyses of a Gibberellin 20-Oxidase Gene Expressed Specifically in Developing Seeds of Watermelon1  

PubMed Central

To understand the biosynthesis and functional role of gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds, we isolated Cv20ox, a cDNA clone from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) that shows significant amino acid homology with GA 20-oxidases. The complementary DNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which oxidized GA12 at C-20 to the C19 compound GA9, a precursor of bioactive GAs. RNA-blot analysis showed that the Cv20ox gene was expressed specifically in developing seeds. The gene was strongly expressed in the integument tissues, and it was also expressed weakly in inner seed tissues. In parthenocarpic fruits induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea treatment, the expression pattern of Cv20ox did not change, indicating that the GA 20-oxidase gene is expressed primarily in the maternal cells of developing seeds. The promoter of Cv20ox was isolated and fused to the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. In a transient expression system, ?-glucuronidase staining was detectable only in the integument tissues of developing watermelon seeds.

Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Junyul; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; An, Gynheung

1999-01-01

134

Systematic screening of lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) family genes demonstrates that LOXL2 is a susceptibility gene to intracranial aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four lysyl oxidase family genes (LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4), which catalyze cross-linking of collagen and elastin, were considered to be functional candidates for intracranial aneurysms\\u000a (IA) and were extensively screened for genetic susceptibility in Japanese IA patients. Total RNA was isolated from four paired\\u000a ruptured IA and superficial temporal artery (STA) tissue and examined by real-time RT-PCR. The expression

Hiroyuki Akagawa; Akira Narita; Haruhiko Yamada; Atsushi Tajima; Boris Krischek; Hidetoshi Kasuya; Tomokatsu Hori; Motoo Kubota; Naokatsu Saeki; Akira Hata; Tohru Mizutani; Ituro Inoue

2007-01-01

135

A Rice Semi-Dwarf Gene, Tan-Ginbozu (D35), Encodes the Gibberellin Biosynthesis Enzyme, ent-Kaurene Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rice (Oryza sativa L.) semi-dwarf cultivar, Tan-Ginbozu (d35Tan-Ginbozu), contributed to the increase in crop productivity in Japan in the 1950s. Previous studies suggested that the semi-dwarf stature of d35Tan-Ginbozu is caused by a defective early step of gibberellin biosynthesis, which is catalyzed by ent-kaurene oxidase (KO). To study the molecular characteristics of d35Tan-Ginbozu, we isolated 5 KO-like(KOL) genes from

Hironori Itoh; Tomoko Tatsumi; Tomoaki Sakamoto; Kazuko Otomo; Tomonobu Toyomasu; Hidemi Kitano; Motoyuki Ashikari; Shigeyuki Ichihara; Makoto Matsuoka

2004-01-01

136

Enhanced tolerance to light stress of transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the codA gene for a bacterial choline oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arabidopsis thaliana was transformed with the codA gene from Arthrobacter globiformis. This gene encodes choline oxidase, an enzyme that converts choline to glycinebetaine. The photosynthetic activity, monitored in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence, of transformed plants was more tolerant to light stress than that of wild-type plants. This enhanced tolerance to light stress was caused by acceleration of the recovery of

Alia; Yasuo Kondo; Atsushi Sakamoto; Hideko Nonaka; Hidenori Hayashi; P. Pardha Saradhi; Tony H. H. Chen; Norio Murata

1999-01-01

137

Identification of the Lysyl Oxidase Gene as a Target of the Antioncogenic Transcription Factor, IRF-1, and Its Possible Role in Tumor Suppression1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional activator IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and its antagonistic represser IRF-2 are regulators of the IFN system. IRF-1 also manifests tumor suppressive activity, and its inactivation could contribute to the development of human hematopoietic malignancies. Here, we report the identification of the lysyl oxidase gene as a target gene of IRF-1. An IRF response element was identified in

Rosemary Sok-Pin Tan; Tadatsugu Taniguchi; Hisashi Harada

1996-01-01

138

Hereditary Coproporphyria Associated with the Q306X Mutation in the Coproporphyrin Oxidase Gene Presenting with Acute Ataxia  

PubMed Central

Background Hereditary coproporphyria (HCPO) is a low-penetrance, autosomal dominant, acute hepatic porphyria characterized by the overproduction and excretion of coproporphyrin. The most common neurological manifestations of this entity include peripheral, predominantly motor dysfunction, and central nervous system dysfunction. Ataxia associated with HCPO has not been reported previously. The aim of this article is to report a patient with HCPO presenting with acute ataxia. Case Report We describe a 44-year-old patient presenting clinically with acute ataxia who was diagnosed with HCPO; mutations were analyzed in the coproporphyrin-oxidase III (CPOX) gene in the patient and in six asymptomatic first-degree relatives. Discussion The patient was heterozygous for a mutation causing the amino acid exchange Q306X in the CPOX gene. No relatives carried the same or another mutation in the CPOX gene. HCPO should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with ataxia.

Jimenez-Jimenez, Felix Javier; Agundez, Jose A. G.; Martinez, Carmen; Navacerrada, Francisco; Plaza-Nieto, Jose Francisco; Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Belen; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Garcia-Martin, Elena

2013-01-01

139

Enhanced germination under high-salt conditions of seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis with a bacterial gene ( codA ) for choline oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arabidopsis thaliana was transformed previously with thecodA gene from the soil bacteriumArthrobacter globiformis. This gene encodes choline oxidase, the enzyme that converts choline to glycinebetaine. Transformation with thecodA gene significantly enhanced the tolerance of transgenic plants to low temperature and high-salt stress. We report here that\\u000a seeds of transgenic plants that expressed thecodA gene were also more tolerant to salt

Hidenori Hayashi; Alia; Atsushi Sakamoto; Hideko Nonaka; Tony H. H. Chen; Norio Murata

1998-01-01

140

maoB, a gene that encodes a positive regulator of the monoamine oxidase gene (maoA) in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The structural gene for copper- and topa quinone-containing monoamine oxidase (maoA) and an unknown amine oxidase gene have been located at 30.9 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome. Deletion analysis showed that the unknown gene was located within a 1.1-kb cloned fragment adjacent to the maoA gene. The nucleotide sequence of this fragment was determined, and a single open reading frame (maoB) consisting of 903 bp was found. The gene encoded a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 34,619 Da which was correlated with the migration on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel. The predicted amino acid sequence of the MaoB protein was identical to the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence derived by Edman degradation of the protein synthesized under the self-promoter. No homology of the nucleotide sequence of maoB to the sequences of any reported genes was found. However, the amino acid sequence of MaoB showed a high level of homology with respect to the helix-turn-helix motif of the AraC family in its C terminus. The homology search and disruption of maoA on the chromosome led to the conclusion that MaoB is a transcriptional activator of maoA but not an amine oxidase. The consensus sequence of the cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein complex binding domain was adjacent to the putative promoter for the maoB gene. By use of lac gene fusions with the maoA and maoB genes, we showed that the maoA gene is regulated by tyramine and MaoB and that the expression of the maoB gene is subject to catabolite repression. Thus, it seems likely that tyramine and the MaoB protein activate the transcription of maoA by binding to the regulatory region of the maoA gene.

Yamashita, M; Azakami, H; Yokoro, N; Roh, J H; Suzuki, H; Kumagai, H; Murooka, Y

1996-01-01

141

glcLocus ofEscherichia coli: Characterization of Genes Encoding the Subunits of Glycolate Oxidase and theglcRegulator Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thelocusglc(min64.5),associatedwiththeglycolateutilizationtraitinEscherichiacoli,isknowntocontain glcB, encoding malate synthase G, and the gene(s) needed for glycolate oxidase activity. Subcloning, sequenc- ing,insertionmutagenesis,andexpressionstudiesshowedfiveadditionalgenes:glcCandintheotherdirection glcD,glcE,glcF, andglcGfollowed byglcB. The geneglcCmay encode theglcregulator protein. Consistently a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase insertion mutation abolished both glycolate oxidase and malate synthase G activities. The proteins encoded fromglcDandglcEdisplayed similarity to severalflavoenzymes, the one from glcF was found to be similar to iron-sulfur proteins, and

MARIA-TERESA PELLICER; JOSEFA BADIA; JUAN AGUILAR

142

Evidence for a genetic association between alleles of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder  

SciTech Connect

We present evidence of a genetic association between bipolar disorder and alleles at 3 monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) markers, but not with alleles of a monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) polymorphism. The 3 MAOA markers, including one associated with low MAOA activity, show strong allelic association with each other but surprisingly not with MAOB. Our results are significantly only for females, though the number of males in our sample is too small to draw any definite conclusions. Our data is consistent with recent reports of reduced MAOA activity in patients with abnormal behavioral phenotypes. The strength of the association is weak, but significant, which suggests that alleles at the MAOA locus contribute to susceptibility to bipolar disorder rather than being a major determinant. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Lim, L.C.C.; Sham, P.; Castle, D. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

1995-08-14

143

Gene expression and oxalate oxidase activity of two germin isoforms induced by stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat germin is a homopentameric 125 kD glycoprotein mainly localized in the cell wall of monocots, and is a specific marker\\u000a of the onset of growth in germinating seeds. The major objective of this study was to examine the expression and oxalate oxidase\\u000a activity of two wheat germin isoforms: gf-2.8 and gf-3.8 in transgenic tobacco plants. The transgenic tobacco plants

Justyna Nowakowska

1998-01-01

144

Isolation and characterization of two putative cytokinin oxidase genes related to grain number per spike phenotype in wheat.  

PubMed

Cytokinin oxidases are involved in the regulation of plant cytokinin levels, which are important in regulating plant growth and development, and may affect the yield of cereals. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two putative cytokinin oxidase genes, TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2, from wheat. Both TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 are mapped to the 0.24-0.55 region of the short arm of wheat chromosome 3D and their coding proteins are most closely related to OsCKX2. Phylogenetic tree analysis reveals that TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 belong to the clustered clade I of monocot plants. Tissue expression pattern show that both TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 genes are highly expressed in young spikes and culms of wheat. The detailed spatial expression pattern of TaCKX2.1 were further conducted by in situ hybridization and promoter-fused GUS expression in Arabidopsis experiments. A collection of 12 typical common wheat varieties exhibiting grain number per spike ranging from 31 to 139 were used for the transcription abundance detection of two TaCKX2 genes. A significantly positive correlation between expression level of two TaCKX2 genes and grain number per spike suggests that TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 on wheat chromosome 3DS may play an important role in wheat spike morphogenesis. PMID:21104150

Zhang, Jinpeng; Liu, Weihua; Yang, Xinming; Gao, Ainong; Li, Xiuquan; Wu, Xiaoyang; Li, Lihui

2011-04-01

145

Knock-down of the COX3 and COX17 gene expression of cytochrome c oxidase in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COX3 gene encodes a core subunit of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) whereas the COX17 gene encodes a chaperone delivering copper to the enzyme. Mutants of these two genes were isolated by RNA interference in\\u000a the microalga Chlamydomonas. The COX3 mRNA was completely lacking in the cox3-RNAi mutant and no activity and assembly of complex IV were detected.

Claire Remacle; Nadine Coosemans; Frédéric Jans; Marc Hanikenne; Patrick Motte; Pierre Cardol

2010-01-01

146

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and their related dual oxidases are known to have significant roles in innate immunity and cell proliferation. In this study, the 5,545 bp cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene containing a full-length open reading frame was cloned. It was shown to include an N-terminal signal peptide consisting of 28 amino acid residues, a 240 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), an 802 bp 3'-terminal region (3'-UTR), which contains nine ATTTA motifs, and a 4,503 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 1,500 amino acid residues. Structural analysis indicated that BmDuox contains a typical peroxidase domain at the N-terminus followed by a calcium-binding domain, a ferric-reducing domain, six transmembrane regions and binding domains for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Transcriptional analysis revealed that BmDuox mRNA was expressed more highly in the head, testis and trachea compared to the midgut, hemocyte, Malpighian tube, ovary, fat bodies and silk glands. BmDuox mRNA was expressed during all the developmental stages of the silkworm. Subcellular localization revealed that BmDoux was present mainly in the periphery of the cells. Some cytoplasmic staining was detected, with rare signals in the nucleus. Expression of BmDuox was induced significantly in the larval midgut upon challenge by Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). BmDuox-deleted larvae showed a marked increase in microbial proliferation in the midgut after ingestion of fluorescence-labeled bacteria compared to the control. We conclude that reducing BmDuox expression greatly increased the bacterial load, suggesting BmDuox has an important role in inhibiting microbial proliferation and the maintenance of homeostasis in the silkworm midgut. PMID:23936382

Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Xiang, Xingwei; Gong, Chengliang; Wu, Xiaofeng

2013-01-01

147

Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Dual Oxidase (BmDuox) Gene from the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and their related dual oxidases are known to have significant roles in innate immunity and cell proliferation. In this study, the 5,545 bp cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene containing a full-length open reading frame was cloned. It was shown to include an N-terminal signal peptide consisting of 28 amino acid residues, a 240 bp 5?-terminal untranslated region (5?-UTR), an 802 bp 3?-terminal region (3?-UTR), which contains nine ATTTA motifs, and a 4,503 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 1,500 amino acid residues. Structural analysis indicated that BmDuox contains a typical peroxidase domain at the N-terminus followed by a calcium-binding domain, a ferric-reducing domain, six transmembrane regions and binding domains for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Transcriptional analysis revealed that BmDuox mRNA was expressed more highly in the head, testis and trachea compared to the midgut, hemocyte, Malpighian tube, ovary, fat bodies and silk glands. BmDuox mRNA was expressed during all the developmental stages of the silkworm. Subcellular localization revealed that BmDoux was present mainly in the periphery of the cells. Some cytoplasmic staining was detected, with rare signals in the nucleus. Expression of BmDuox was induced significantly in the larval midgut upon challenge by Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). BmDuox-deleted larvae showed a marked increase in microbial proliferation in the midgut after ingestion of fluorescence-labeled bacteria compared to the control. We conclude that reducing BmDuox expression greatly increased the bacterial load, suggesting BmDuox has an important role in inhibiting microbial proliferation and the maintenance of homeostasis in the silkworm midgut.

Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Xiang, Xingwei; Gong, Chengliang; Wu, Xiaofeng

2013-01-01

148

A novel phylogeny and morphological reconstruction of the PIN genes and first phylogeny of the ACC-oxidases (ACOs)  

PubMed Central

The PIN and ACO gene families present interesting questions about the evolution of plant physiology, including testing hypotheses about the ecological drivers of their diversification and whether unrelated genes have been recruited for similar functions. The PIN-formed proteins contribute to the polar transport of auxin, a hormone which regulates plant growth and development. PIN loci are categorized into groups according to their protein length and structure, as well as subcellular localization. An interesting question with PIN genes is the nature of the ancestral form and location. ACOs are members of a superfamily of oxygenases and oxidases that catalyze the last step of ethylene synthesis, which regulates many aspects of the plant life cycle. We used publicly available PIN and ACO sequences to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Third codon positions of these genes in monocots have a high GC content, which could be historical but is more likely due to a mutational bias. Thus, we developed methods to extract phylogenetic information from nucleotide sequences while avoiding this convergent feature. One method consisted in using only A-T transformations, and another used only the first and second codon positions for serine, which can only take A or T and G or C, respectively. We also conducted tree-searches for both gene families using unaligned amino acid sequences and dynamic homology. PIN genes appear to have diversified earlier than ACOs, with monocot and dicot copies more mixed in the phylogeny. However, gymnosperm PINs appear to be derived and not closely related to those from primitive plants. We find strong support for a long PIN gene ancestor with short forms subsequently evolving one or more times. ACO genes appear to have diversified mostly since the dicot-monocot split, as most genes cluster into a small number of monocot and dicot clades when the tree is rooted by genes from mosses. Gymnosperm ACOs were recovered as closely related and derived.

Clouse, Ronald M.; Carraro, Nicola

2014-01-01

149

Knockdown of the Rhipicephalus microplus Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit III Gene Is Associated with a Failure of Anaplasma marginale Transmission.  

PubMed

Rhipicephalus microplus is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite of cattle and an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical regions. The primary determinants for A. marginale transmission are infection of the tick gut, followed by infection of salivary glands. Transmission of A. marginale to cattle occurs via infected saliva delivered during tick feeding. Interference in colonization of either the tick gut or salivary glands can affect transmission of A. marginale to naïve animals. In this study, we used the tick embryonic cell line BME26 to identify genes that are modulated in response to A. marginale infection. Suppression-subtractive hybridization libraries (SSH) were constructed, and five up-regulated genes {glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome c oxidase sub III (COXIII), dynein (DYN), synaptobrevin (SYN) and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate 3-phosphatase (PHOS)} were selected as targets for functional in vivo genomic analysis. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to determine the effect of tick gene knockdown on A. marginale acquisition and transmission. Although RNAi consistently knocked down all individually examined tick genes in infected tick guts and salivary glands, only the group of ticks injected with dsCOXIII failed to transmit A. marginale to naïve calves. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that RNAi of a tick gene is associated with a failure of A. marginale transmission. PMID:24878588

Bifano, Thais D; Ueti, Massaro W; Esteves, Eliane; Reif, Kathryn E; Braz, Glória R C; Scoles, Glen A; Bastos, Reginaldo G; White, Stephen N; Daffre, Sirlei

2014-01-01

150

Knockdown of the Rhipicephalus microplus Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit III Gene Is Associated with a Failure of Anaplasma marginale Transmission  

PubMed Central

Rhipicephalus microplus is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite of cattle and an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical regions. The primary determinants for A. marginale transmission are infection of the tick gut, followed by infection of salivary glands. Transmission of A. marginale to cattle occurs via infected saliva delivered during tick feeding. Interference in colonization of either the tick gut or salivary glands can affect transmission of A. marginale to naïve animals. In this study, we used the tick embryonic cell line BME26 to identify genes that are modulated in response to A. marginale infection. Suppression-subtractive hybridization libraries (SSH) were constructed, and five up-regulated genes {glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome c oxidase sub III (COXIII), dynein (DYN), synaptobrevin (SYN) and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate 3-phosphatase (PHOS)} were selected as targets for functional in vivo genomic analysis. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to determine the effect of tick gene knockdown on A. marginale acquisition and transmission. Although RNAi consistently knocked down all individually examined tick genes in infected tick guts and salivary glands, only the group of ticks injected with dsCOXIII failed to transmit A. marginale to naïve calves. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that RNAi of a tick gene is associated with a failure of A. marginale transmission.

Bifano, Thais D.; Ueti, Massaro W.; Esteves, Eliane; Reif, Kathryn E.; Braz, Gloria R. C.; Scoles, Glen A.; Bastos, Reginaldo G.; White, Stephen N.; Daffre, Sirlei

2014-01-01

151

A restriction fragment length polymorphism results in a nonconservative amino acid substitution encoded within the first exon of the human lysyl oxidase gene.  

PubMed

A cDNA covering most of the coding sequence for human lysyl oxidase was used to screen, by Southern blot analysis, genomic DNA from circulating lymphocytes obtained from unrelated, apparently normal individuals. A heritable restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) within a PstI restriction site was detected in 36% of individuals screened (a total of 72 chromosomes were analyzed). The major allele was represented as a 1.7-kb PstI restriction fragment. The minor allele was detected as 1.4 and 0.3kb restriction fragments. Lambda phage-DNA recombinants were isolated from a human lung fibroblast genomic DNA library using the human lysyl oxidase cDNA clone. DNA sequence analysis of several selected phage recombinants revealed that 83% of the coding sequence of lysyl oxidase was localized in four separate exons. Analysis of the coding sequence within exon 1, the most 5' exon within the lysyl oxidase gene, revealed that the PstI RFLP was due to a G-->A transition resulting in a nonconservative arginine to glutamine substitution proximal to a propeptide cleavage domain encoded by exon 1 of the lysyl oxidase gene. PMID:8100215

Csiszar, K; Mariani, T J; Gosin, J S; Deak, S B; Boyd, C D

1993-05-01

152

Species identification of the forensically important flies in Iwate prefecture, Japan based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (COI) sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biological species identification of forensically important flies distributed in Iwate prefecture, Japan, was carried out, and the utility of this method was evaluated. The dipteran nymphs that were early colonizers on the corpse were reared to adult and morphologically identified. Meanwhile they were sequenced over a 304 base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (COI).

Kiyoshi Saigusa; Masataka Takamiya; Yasuhiro Aoki

153

The role of the LRPPRC (leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat cassette) gene in cytochrome oxidase assembly: mutation causes lowered levels of COX (cytochrome c oxidase) I and COX III mRNA  

PubMed Central

Leigh syndrome French Canadian (LSFC) is a variant of cytochrome oxidase deficiency found in Québec and caused by mutations in the LRPPRC (leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat cassette) gene. Northern blots showed that the LRPPRC mRNA levels seen in skeletal muscle>heart>placenta>kidney>liver>lung=brain were proportionally almost opposite in strength to the severity of the enzymic cytochrome oxidase defect. The levels of COX (cytochrome c oxidase) I and COX III mRNA visible on Northern blots were reduced in LSFC patients due to the common (A354V, Ala354?Val) founder mutation. The amount of LRPPRC protein found in both fibroblast and liver mitochondria from LSFC patients was consistently reduced to <30% of control levels. Import of [35S]methionine LRPPRC into rat liver mitochondria was slower for the mutant (A354V) protein. A titre of LRPPRC protein was also found in nuclear fractions that could not be easily accounted for by mitochondrial contamination. [35S]Methionine labelling of mitochondrial translation products showed that the translation of COX I, and perhaps COX III, was specifically reduced in the presence of the mutation. These results suggest that the gene product of LRPPRC, like PET 309p, has a role in the translation or stability of the mRNA for mitochondrially encoded COX subunits. A more diffuse distribution of LRPPRC in LSFC cells compared with controls was evident when viewed by immunofluorescence microscopy, with less LRPPRC present in peripheral mitochondria.

2004-01-01

154

A multicopper ferroxidase involved in iron binding to transferrins in Dunaliella salina plasma membranes.  

PubMed

The halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina is unique among plants in that it utilizes a transferrin (TTf) to mediate iron acquisition (Fisher, M., Zamir, A., and Pick, U. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 17553-17558). Two new proteins that are induced by iron deprivation were identified in plasma membranes of D. salina as follows: a multicopper ferroxidase termed D-Fox and an internally duplicated glycoprotein (p130B). D-Fox and p130B are accessible to glycolytic, proteolytic, and biotin surface tagging treatments, suggesting that they are surface-exposed glycoproteins. Induction of D-Fox was also manifested by ferroxidase activity in plasma membrane preparations. These results are puzzling because ferroxidases in yeast and in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii function in redox-mediated iron uptake, a mechanism that is not known to operate in D. salina. Two lines of evidence suggest that D-Fox and p130B interact with D. salina triplicated transferrin (TTf). First, chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectroscopy analysis showed that D-Fox and p130B associate with TTf and with another plasma membrane transferrin. Second, detergent-solubilized D-Fox and p130B comigrated on blue native gels with plasma membrane transferrins. 59Fe autoradiography indicated that this complex binds Fe3+ ions. Also, the induction of D-Fox and p130B is kinetically correlated with enhanced iron binding and uptake activities. These results suggest that D-Fox and p130B associate with plasma membrane transferrins forming a complex that enhances iron binding and iron uptake. We propose that the function of D-Fox in D. salina has been modified during evolution from redox-mediated to transferrin-mediated iron uptake, following a gene transfer event of transferrins from an ancestral animal cell. PMID:17227764

Paz, Yakov; Katz, Adriana; Pick, Uri

2007-03-23

155

Sclerotinia blight resistance in Virginia-type peanut transformed with a barley oxalate oxidase gene.  

PubMed

Transgenic peanut lines expressing oxalate oxidase, a novel enzyme to peanut, were evaluated for resistance to Sclerotinia blight in naturally infested fields over a 5-year period. Area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) for transgenic lines in single rows planted with seed from single-plant selections averaged 78, 83, and 90% lower than nontransgenic parents in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. In addition, AUDPC in 14 transgenic lines planted with bulked seed in two-row plots averaged 81% lower compared with nontransgenic parents in 2005 and 86% lower in 16 transgenic lines in 2006. Six transgenic lines yielded 488 to 1,260 kg/ha greater than nontransgenic parents in 2005, and 10 lines yielded 537 to 2,490 kg/ha greater in 2006. Fluazinam (0.58 kg a.i./ha) fungicide sprays in 2008 and 2009 reduced AUDPC in transgenic and nontransgenic lines but AUDPC was lowest in transgenic lines. Without fluazinam, yields of transgenic lines averaged 1,133 to 1,578 kg/ha greater than nontransgenic lines in 2008 and 1,670 to 2,755 kg/ha greater in 2009. These results demonstrated that the insertion of barley oxalate oxidase in peanut conveyed a high level of resistance to Sclerotinia blight, and negated the need for costly fungicide sprays. PMID:21303213

Partridge-Telenko, D E; Hu, J; Livingstone, D M; Shew, B B; Phipps, P M; Grabau, E A

2011-07-01

156

Transformation of a marker-free and vector-free antisense ACC oxidase gene cassette into melon via the pollen-tube pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of work  Melons have short shelf-lives due to fruit ripening caused by ethylene production. The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid\\u000a (ACC) oxidase gene is essential for ethylene biosynthesis. As fruit ripening in other fruit crops can be deterred by down-regulation\\u000a of ACC oxidase expression, we have carried out similar work to improve fruit quality and shelf-life of the melon Cucumis melo.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A marker-free

Jinfeng Hao; Yiding Niu; Baojun Yang; Feng Gao; Liquan Zhang; Jing Wang; Agula Hasi

2011-01-01

157

Reduced polyphenol oxidase gene expression and enzymatic browning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with artificial microRNAs  

PubMed Central

Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), often encoded by a multi-gene family, causes oxidative browning, a significant problem in many food products. Low-browning potatoes were produced previously through suppression of PPO gene expression, but the contribution of individual PPO gene isoform to the oxidative browning process was unknown. Here we investigated the contributions of different PPO genes to total PPO protein activity, and the correlations between PPO protein level, PPO activity and tuber tissue browning potential by suppression of all previously characterized potato PPO genes, both individually and in combination using artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) technology. Results Survey of the potato genome database revealed 9 PPO-like gene models, named StuPPO1 to StuPPO9 in this report. StuPPO1, StuPPO2, StuPPO3 and StuPPO4 are allelic to the characterized POTP1/P2, POT32, POT33 and POT72, respectively. Fewer ESTs were found to support the transcriptions of StuPPO5 to StuPPO8. StuPPO9 related ESTs were expressed at significant higher levels in pathogen-infected potato tissues. A series of browning phenotypes were obtained by suppressing StuPPO1 to StuPPO4 genes alone and in combination. Down-regulation of one or several of the PPO genes did not usually cause up-regulation of the other PPO genes in the transgenic potato tubers, but resulted in reduced PPO protein levels. The different PPO genes did not contribute equally to the total PPO protein content in the tuber tissues, with StuPPO2 accounting for ~ 55% as the major contributor, followed by StuPPO1, ~ 25-30% and StuPPO3 and StuPPO4 together with less than 15%. Strongly positive correlations between PPO protein level, PPO activity and browning potential were demonstrated in our analysis. Low PPO activity and low-browning potatoes were produced by simultaneous down-regulation of StuPPO2 to StuPPO4, but the greatest reduction occurred when StuPPO1 to StuPPO4 were all suppressed. Conclusion StuPPO1 to StuPPO4 genes contributed to browning reactions in tuber tissues but their effect was not equal. Different PPO genes may be regulated independently reflecting their diversified functions. Our results show that amiRNAs can be used to suppress closely related members of highly conserved multi-gene family. This approach also suggests a new strategy for breeding low-browning crops using small DNA inserts.

2014-01-01

158

Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding functional homologues of the yeast metal chaperone Cox19p, involved in cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains two nearly identical genes which encode proteins showing similarity with the yeast metal chaperone Cox19p,\\u000a involved in cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis. One of these genes (AtCOX19-1) produces two transcript forms that arise from an alternative splicing event and encode proteins with different N-terminal\\u000a portions. Both AtCOX19 isoforms are imported into mitochondria in vitro and are found

Carolina V. Attallah; Elina Welchen; Claire Pujol; Geraldine Bonnard; Daniel H. Gonzalez

2007-01-01

159

Glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger. Cloning, gene sequence, secretion from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and kinetic analysis of a yeast-derived enzyme.  

PubMed

The gene for Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4) has been cloned from both cDNA and genomic libraries using oligonucleotide probes derived from the amino acid sequences of peptide fragments of the enzyme. The mature enzyme consists of 583 amino acids and is preceded by a 22-amino acid presequence. No intervening sequences are found within the coding region. The enzyme contains 3 cysteine residues and 8 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. The protein shows 26% identity with alcohol oxidase of Hansenuela polymorpha, and the N terminus has a sequence homologous with the AMP-binding region of other flavoenzymes such as p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase and glutathione reductase. Recombinant yeast expression plasmids have been constructed containing a hybrid yeast alcohol dehydrogenase II-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter, either the yeast alpha-factor pheromone leader or the glucose oxidase presequence, and the mature glucose oxidase coding sequence. When transformed into yeast, these plasmids direct the synthesis and secretion of between 75 and 400 micrograms/ml of active glucose oxidase. Analysis of the yeast-derived enzymes shows that they are of comparable specific activity and have more extensive N-linked glycosylation than the A. niger protein. PMID:2406261

Frederick, K R; Tung, J; Emerick, R S; Masiarz, F R; Chamberlain, S H; Vasavada, A; Rosenberg, S; Chakraborty, S; Schopfer, L M; Schopter, L M

1990-03-01

160

Phylogenetic relationships among Sarcocystis species in cervids, cattle and sheep inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.  

PubMed

Coccidian parasites in the genus Sarcocystis have a two-host life cycle, and have traditionally been identified on the basis of morphological features of the sarcocyst stage in their intermediate hosts. Additional molecular species identification, delimitation and phylogeny of Sarcocystis spp. have been based mainly on the nuclear ssrRNA gene. This gene is well suited for discrimination between more distant species but less so for closely related species. The objective of this study was therefore to establish the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) as a novel genetic marker for Sarcocystis spp. and assess its utility for species identification and delimitation. New primers were developed and 1,020-1,095 bp long cox1 sequences were obtained from 155 isolates of 22 Sarcocystis spp. from cattle, sheep, red deer, reindeer, roe deer and moose, and used for phylogenetic reconstructions. For 18 species, the intraspecific and interspecific sequence identities were 98.5-100% and 58-92%, respectively. The four other species had previously been regarded as two species (Sarcocystis rangiferi, Sarcocystis tarandi), each infecting both reindeer and red deer. From cox1 data, each of those appeared to be two separate species, with S. rangiferi and S. tarandi being restricted to reindeer. Thus, cox1 sequences seem to perform better than ssrRNA gene sequences for delimitation of closely related species. The 22 species were distributed in three major clades according to their definitive hosts as in phylogenetic trees obtained from the ssrRNA gene. There were only minor differences in the branching order of different taxa between the trees obtained from either gene. This study has successfully established cox1 as a novel genetic marker for future research on Sarcocystis spp. It has also provided the first published molecular identification of Sarcocystis gigantea and Sarcocystis tenella in Norwegian sheep, and of Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis sinensis in Argentinean cattle. PMID:23542092

Gjerde, Bjørn

2013-06-01

161

Expression of a Streptomyces 3-hydroxysteroid oxidase gene in oilseeds for converting phytosterols to phytostanols.  

PubMed

Plant sterols and their hydrogenated forms, stanols, have attracted much attention because of their benefits to human health in reducing serum and LDL cholesterol levels, with vegetable oil processing being their major source in several food products currently sold. The predominant forms of plant sterol end products are sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and brassicasterol (in brassica). In this study, 3-hydroxysteroid oxidase from Streptomyces hygroscopicus was utilized to engineer oilseeds from rapeseed (Brassica napus) and soybean (Glycine max), respectively, to modify the relative amounts of specific sterols to stanols. Each of the major phytosterols had its C-5 double bond selectively reduced to the corresponding phytostanol without affecting other functionalities, such as the C-22 double bond of stigmasterol in soybean seed and of brassicasterol in rapeseed. Additionally, several novel phytostanols were obtained that are not produced by chemical hydrogenation of phytosterols normally present in plants. PMID:12475617

Venkatramesh, Mylavarapu; Karunanandaa, Balasulojini; Sun, Bin; Gunter, Catharine A; Boddupalli, Sekhar; Kishore, Ganesh M

2003-01-01

162

A laterally acquired galactose oxidase-like gene is required for aerial development during osmotic stress in Streptomyces coelicolor.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that most Actinobacterial orthologs of S. coelicolor SCO2837, encoding a metal-dependent galactose oxidase-like protein, are found within Streptomyces and were probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Disruption of SCO2837 (glxA) caused a conditional bld phenotype that could not be reversed by extracellular complementation. Studies aimed at characterising the regulation of expression of glxA showed that it is not a target for other bld genes. We provide evidence that glxA is required for osmotic adaptation, although independently from the known osmotic stress response element SigB. glxA has been predicted to be part of an operon with the transcription unit comprising the upstream cslA gene and glxA. However, both phenotypic and expression studies indicate that it is also expressed from an independent promoter region internal to cslA. GlxA displays an in situ localisation pattern similar to that one observed for CslA at hyphal tips, but localisation of the former is independent of the latter. The functional role of GlxA in relation to CslA is discussed. PMID:23326581

Liman, Recep; Facey, Paul D; van Keulen, Geertje; Dyson, Paul J; Del Sol, Ricardo

2013-01-01

163

ACO1, a gene for aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase: effects on internode elongation at the heading stage in rice.  

PubMed

Although reports on a gene for 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase (ACO1) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) suggest that high levels of its transcript are associated with internode elongation of deep-water rice during submergence, the role of ACO1 in rice development is largely unknown. The tissue-specificity of ACO1 expression indicated that its transcript significantly accumulated in lower parts of elongating internodes at the heading stage. Histochemical analysis and in situ hybridization showed that the ACO1 expression was localized in the basal parts of leaf sheaths immediately above nodes or the lower parts of elongating internodes. To further examine the role of ACO1, ACO1-deficient (aco1) and overexpressing (ACO1-OX) mutants were characterized. The total length of the elongated internodes of aco1 mutants was slightly shorter than that of wild-type plants and that of ACO1-OX mutants was longer. Interestingly, expression of the ACC synthase gene ACS1 and ethylene signalling gene OsEIN2 was up-regulated in the aco1 mutants. This study suggests that the ACO1 has a little effect on internode elongation at the heading stage, and that up-regulation of the ACS1 and OsEIN2 expression may attenuate inhibition of internode elongation. PMID:20040065

Iwamoto, M; Baba-Kasai, A; Kiyota, S; Hara, N; Takano, M

2010-05-01

164

Features and applications of bilirubin oxidases.  

PubMed

Discovered in 1981 by Tanaka and Murao (Agric Biol Chem 45:2383-2384, 1981), bilirubin oxidase (BOD) is a sub-group of multicopper oxidases (MCOs) also utilizing four Cu(+/2+) ions. It catalyzes the oxidation of bilirubin to biliverdin, hence the classification of bilirubin oxidase, and has been primarily used in the determination of bilirubin in serum and thereby in the diagnostic of jaundice. Unlike laccases, the most studied MCOs, BODs display a high activity and stability at neutral pH, a high tolerance towards chloride anions and other chelators, and for some species, a high thermal tolerance. Therefore, BODs could potentially be an alternative to laccase which are so far mainly restricted to applications in acid media. Because of growing interest in BODs for numerous applications under mild pH conditions, based on the number of patents and publications published in the last 5 years, here I will summarize the available data on the biochemical properties of BODs, their occurrence, and their possible biotechnological use in (1) the field of Healthcare for the elaboration of biofuel cells or bilirubin sensors or (2) the field of environmentally desirable applications such as depollution, decolorization of dyes, and pulp bleaching. PMID:22878843

Mano, Nicolas

2012-10-01

165

Bilirubin oxidases in bioelectrochemistry: features and recent findings.  

PubMed

Bilirubin oxidases, a sub class of the Multicopper oxidases family, were discovered in 1981 by Tanaka and Murao (Murao and Tanaka, 1981) and first used for the detection of bilirubin. Since 2001 and the pioneering work of Tsujimura, these BODs have attracted a lot of attention for the reduction of O2. Unlike laccases, these BODs are stable in physiological conditions (20mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 0.14 M NaCl, 37 °C) and more than 120 papers have been published in the last 7 years. Here, we will first briefly describe some general features of BODs and then review the use of BODs for bilirubin biosensors and the recent achievements and progress toward the elaboration of efficient O2 reducing cathodes. PMID:23911663

Mano, Nicolas; Edembe, Lise

2013-12-15

166

Finding New Enzymes from Bacterial Physiology: A Successful Approach Illustrated by the Detection of Novel Oxidases in Marinomonas mediterranea  

PubMed Central

The identification and study of marine microorganisms with unique physiological traits can be a very powerful tool discovering novel enzymes of possible biotechnological interest. This approach can complement the enormous amount of data concerning gene diversity in marine environments offered by metagenomic analysis, and can help to place the activities associated with those sequences in the context of microbial cellular metabolism and physiology. Accordingly, the detection and isolation of microorganisms that may be a good source of enzymes is of great importance. Marinomonas mediterranea, for example, has proven to be one such useful microorganism. This Gram-negative marine bacterium was first selected because of the unusually high amounts of melanins synthesized in media containing the amino acid l-tyrosine. The study of its molecular biology has allowed the cloning of several genes encoding oxidases of biotechnological interest, particularly in white and red biotechnology. Characterization of the operon encoding the tyrosinase responsible for melanin synthesis revealed that a second gene in that operon encodes a protein, PpoB2, which is involved in copper transfer to tyrosinase. This finding made PpoB2 the first protein in the COG5486 group to which a physiological role has been assigned. Another enzyme of interest described in M. mediterranea is a multicopper oxidase encoding a membrane-associated enzyme that shows oxidative activity on a wide range of substrates typical of both laccases and tyrosinases. Finally, an enzyme very specific for l-lysine, which oxidises this amino acid in epsilon position and that has received a new EC number (1.4.3.20), has also been described for M. mediterranea. Overall, the studies carried out on this bacterium illustrate the power of exploring the physiology of selected microorganisms to discover novel enzymes of biotechnological relevance.

Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Solano, Francisco; Lucas-Elio, Patricia

2010-01-01

167

Cloning and Characterization of theEscherichia coli hemN Gene Encoding the Oxygen-Independent Coproporphyrinogen III Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, an enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidative decar- boxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to form protoporphyrinogen IX. Genetic and biochemical studies sug- gested the presence of two different coproporphyrinogen III oxidases, one for aerobic (HemF) and one for anaerobic (HemN) conditions. Here we report the cloning of thehemNgene encoding the oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase from Escherichia

BARBARA TROUP; CHRISTOPH HUNGERER; ANDDIETER JAHN

1995-01-01

168

The OXA1L gene that controls cytochrome oxidase assembly maps to the 14q11.2 region of the human genome  

SciTech Connect

Cytochrome-c oxidase, the terminal complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain that transfers electrons from cytochrome c to oxygen, has a critical role in cellular energy metabolism. In eukaryotes, the cytochrome-c oxidase complex is composed of from 7 to 13 subunits (in mammals), and its assembly depends on several nuclear-encoded proteins. The 0XA1 gene, which was first isolated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encodes a protein essential for cytochrome-c oxidase assembly. The human OXA1-like (OXA1L, previously designated OXA1Hs) cDNA was isolated by functional complementation of an oxa1{sup -} mutation in yeast. The deduced sequences of the two Oxa1 and Oxa1L proteins share 33% identity. Oxygen consumption measurements and cytochrome absorption spectra show that replacement of the yeast protein with the human homolog leads to the correct assembly of cytochrome-c oxidase, suggesting that these proteins play essentially the same role in both organisms. In this report, we have used both somatic cell hybrid mapping and in situ hybridization to localize the OXA1L gene on the human genome. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Molina-Gomes, D.; Viegas-Pequignot, E. [INSERM, Paris (France); Bonnefoy, N.; Dujardin, G. [Universite Paris, Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others

1995-11-20

169

Structural, phylogenetic and docking studies of D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA), a candidate schizophrenia gene  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative disorder that occurs worldwide and can be difficult to diagnose. It is the foremost neurological disorder leading to suicide among patients in both developed and underdeveloped countries. D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA), also known as G72, is directly implicated in the glutamateric hypothesis of schizophrenia. It activates D-amino acid oxidase, which oxidizes D-serine, leading to modulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Methods MODELLER (9v10) was utilized to generate three dimensional structures of the DAOA candidate gene. The HOPE server was used for mutational analysis. The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA5) tool was utilized to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the candidate gene DAOA. AutoDock was used for protein-ligand docking and Gramm-X and PatchDock for protein-protein docking. Results A suitable template (1ZCA) was selected by employing BLASTp on the basis of 33% query coverage, 27% identity and E-value 4.9. The Rampage evaluation tool showed 91.1% favored region, 4.9% allowed region and 4.1% outlier region in DAOA. ERRAT demonstrated that the predicted model had a 50.909% quality factor. Mutational analysis of DAOA revealed significant effects on hydrogen bonding and correct folding of the DAOA protein, which in turn affect protein conformation. Ciona was inferred as the outgroup. Tetrapods were in their appropriate clusters with bifurcations. Human amino acid sequences are conserved, with chimpanzee and gorilla showing more than 80% homology and bootstrap value based on 1000 replications. Molecular docking analysis was employed to elucidate the binding mode of the reported ligand complex for DAOA. The docking experiment demonstrated that DAOA is involved in major amino acid interactions: the residues that interact most strongly with the ligand C28H28N3O5PS2 are polar but uncharged (Gln36, Asn38, Thr 122) and non-polar hydrophobic (Ile119, Ser171, Ser21, Ala31). Protein-protein docking simulation demonstrated two ionic bonds and one hydrogen bond involving DAOA. Lys-7 of the receptor protein interacted with Lys-163 and Asp-2037. Tyr-03 interacted with Arg-286 of the ligand protein and formed a hydrogen bond. Conclusion The predicted interactions might serve to inhibit the disease-related allele. It is assumed that current bioinformatics methods will contribute significantly to identifying, analyzing and curing schizophrenia. There is an urgent need to develop effective drugs for schizophrenia, and tools for examining candidate genes more accurately and efficiently are required.

2013-01-01

170

Characterization of Fasciola hepatica genotypes from cattle and sheep in Iran using cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1).  

PubMed

The present study compared the genetic variation among 19 different isolates of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and sheep in different areas of Iran using sequence data for mitochondrial DNA gene, the subunit 1 of cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1). Four different CO1 genotypes were detected among F. hepatica isolates that showed five variable nucleotide positions (accession nos.; GQ398051, GQ398052, GQ398053, GQ398054). Nucleotide sequence variation among 19 isolates for CO1 analyzed in this study ranged from 0% to 0.98% in Iran. Among the five polymorphism sites identified in this study, only one (T to G at position 51 in 5'end of GQ175362) resulted in putative amino acid alteration of phenylalanine (TTT) to leucine (TTG) in CO1. A phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data revealed that host associations and geographic location are likely not useful markers for Fasciola genotype classification. In addition, morphological analysis showed that the ratios of body length and body width of some (n?=?5) of the 19 examined F. hepatica isolates were intermediate between F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, representing the substantial polymorphism of the F. hepatica species and the difficulty in the accurate recognition based on morphological features. In conclusion, Iranian F. hepatica exhibited the presence of considerable genetic diversity at CO1. PMID:22186976

Moazeni, Mohammad; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Izadpanah, Afshin

2012-06-01

171

Association study between the monoamine oxidase A gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwanese samples  

PubMed Central

Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable disorder of childhood characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Molecular genetic and pharmacological studies suggest the involvement of the dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) encodes an enzyme that degrades biogenic amines, including neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. In this study we examined a 30 bp promoter variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) and a functional G/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 941 in exon 8 (941G/T) of MAO-A for association with ADHD in a Taiwanese sample of 212 ADHD probands. Methods Within-family transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used to analyse association of MAO-A polymorphisms with ADHD in a Taiwanese population. Results A nominally significant association was found between the G-allele of 941G/T in MAO-A and ADHD (TDT: P = 0.034. OR = 1.57). Haplotype analysis identified increased transmission of a haplotype consisting of the 3-repeat allele of the promoter VNTR and the G-allele of the 941G/T SNP (P = 0.045) to ADHD cases which the strong association with the G-allele drove. Conclusion These findings suggest the importance of the 941G/T MAO-A polymorphism in the development of ADHD in the Taiwanese population. These results replicate previously published findings in a Caucasian sample.

Xu, Xiaohui; Brookes, Keeley; Chen, Chih-Ken; Huang, Yu-Shu; Wu, Yu-Yu; Asherson, Philip

2007-01-01

172

Mouse paracentric inversion In(3)55Rk mutates the urate oxidase gene.  

PubMed

The paracentric inversion In(3)55Rk on mouse Chromosome 3 (Chr 3) was induced by cesium irradiation. Genetic crosses indicate the proximal breakpoint cosegregates with D3Mit324 and D3Mit92; the distal breakpoint cosegregates with D3Mit127, D3Mit160, and D3Mit200. Giemsa-banded chromosomes show the inversion spans approximately 80% of Chr 3. The proximal breakpoint occurs within band 3A2, not 3B as reported previously; the distal breakpoint occurs within band 3H3. Mice homozygous for the inversion exhibit nephropathy indicative of uricase deficiency. Southern blot analyses of urate oxidase, Uox, show two RFLPs of genomic mutant DNA: an EcoRI site between exons 4-8 and a BamHI site 3' to exon 6. Mutant cDNA fails to amplify downstream of base 844 at the 3' end of exon 7. FISH analysis of chromosomes from inversion heterozygotes, using a cosmid clone containing genomic wild-type DNA for Uox exons 2-4, shows that a 5' segment of the mutated Uox allele on the inverted chromosome has been transposed from the distal breakpoint region to the proximal breakpoint region. Clinical, histopathological, and Northern analyses indicate that our radiation-induced mutation, uox(In), is a putative null. PMID:11474184

Cook, S A; Akeson, E C; Calvano, C; Johnson, K R; Mandell, J; Hawes, N L; Bronson, R T; Roderick, T H; Davisson, M T

2001-01-01

173

Detection of glycolate oxidase gene glcD diversity among cultured and environmental marine bacteria.  

PubMed

Of eight laboratory cultures of marine gamma- and alpha-Proteobacteria tested, growth on glycolate as a sole carbon source was detected for only three species: Pseudomonas stutzeri, Oceanimonas doudoroffii and Roseobacter sp. isolate Y3F. Degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed to amplify glcD, which encodes the D-subunit of the enzyme glycolate oxidase; glcD could be amplified only from those cultures that grew on glycolate. The PCR primers were used to explore glcD diversity in four field samples collected from different ocean environments: an Atlantic Gulf Stream Ring, sampled above and below the thermocline and two Pacific coastal sites, Parks Bay and San Juan Channel, WA. Environmental glcD sequences belonged to six major bacterial phylogenetic groups, with most sequences forming novel clades with no close relatives. Different patterns of glcD diversity were observed within and between the two nutrient regimes. Comparison of glcD and 16S rDNA diversity and analyses of available bacterial genomes and a metgenomic library from the Sargasso Sea show that glycolate-utilizing potential exists in only a subset of bacteria. Glycolate is produced in marine environments mainly by phytoplankton. Examination of glcD diversity will aid in understanding the influence of phytoplankton on bacterial community structure. PMID:16958750

Lau, W W Y; Armbrust, E V

2006-10-01

174

[Cloning and expression of Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in methylotrophic yeast].  

PubMed

The DNA fragment encoding A. niger glucose oxidase was amplified by PCR using A. niger genomic DNA as template, and was cloned into vector of pPIC9 for expression in Pichia pastoris. When transformed into methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris GS115, The constructed plasmid pPICGOD1 directed the synthesis and secretion of functionally active GOD. After induction in MM medium for 4 days, the GOD activity in the medium reached 30-40 u/mL. SDS-PAGE revealed that recombinant yeast GOD was expressed up to 60%-70% of the total soluble protein, and the secreted GOD could be purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with one purification step using Q Sepharose Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography. The recombinant yeast GOD had very high catalytic activity, showed about 1.6-fold increase of specific activity over the commercial A. niger GOD. Kinetic analysis clearly demonstrated that recombinant yeast GOD showed similar substrate affinity for glucose to A. niger GOD, but the turnover number of the GOD from yeast was determined to be much higher than that of A. niger GOD. In addition, the linear range of glucose electrode made with recombinant yeast GOD was efficiently widened due to the high catalytic activity of yeast GOD. PMID:11702696

Zhou, Y F; Zhang, X E; Liu, H; Zhang, C G; Cass, A E

2001-07-01

175

Retrovirus gene therapy for X-linked chronic granulomatous disease can achieve stable long-term correction of oxidase activity in peripheral blood neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from infection. The first CGD gene therapy trial resulted in only short-term marking of 0.01% to 0.1% of neutrophils. A recent study, using busulfan conditioning and an SFFV retrovirus vector, achieved more than 20% marking in 2 patients with X-linked CGD. However, oxidase correction per marked neutrophil was less than normal and not sustained. Despite this, patients clearly benefited in that severe infections resolved. As such, we initiated a gene therapy trial for X-CGD to treat severe infections unresponsive to conventional therapy. We treated 3 adult patients using busulfan conditioning and an MFGS retroviral vector encoding gp91phox, achieving early marking of 26%, 5%, and 4% of neutrophils, respectively, with sustained long-term marking of 1.1% and 0.03% of neutrophils in 2 of the patients. Gene-marked neutrophils have sustained full correction of oxidase activity for 34 and 11 months, respectively, with full or partial resolution of infection in those 2 patients. Gene marking is polyclonal with no clonal dominance. We conclude that busulfan conditioning together with an MFGS vector is capable of achieving long-term correction of neutrophil oxidase function sufficient to provide benefit in management of severe infection. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00394316.

Choi, Uimook; Theobald, Narda; Linton, Gilda; Long Priel, Debra A.; Kuhns, Doug; Malech, Harry L.

2010-01-01

176

Heterologous expression of a gene encoding cholesterol oxidase in probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii under the control of native promoters.  

PubMed

To develop systems for the expression of heterologous genes in probiotic strains of Lactobacillus and Propionibacterium, we used Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii and a modified gene encoding cholesterol oxidase (choA) from Streptomyces sp. to generate working models. The acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (acc) promoter derived from the acc operon of L. plantarum L137 and a previously constructed shuttle vector, pRN14, were used to construct vectors for the expression of heterologous genes in lactic acid bacteria. The concentration of cholesterol oxidase in recombinant L. plantarum carrying choA fused to the NH2-terminal region of the first open reading frame of the acc operon was 3.6 mU/mg of protein. Using the promoters from Propionibacterium, namely, P4, P8, and P138, which enabled high-level expression of choA in Escherichia coli, and a previously constructed shuttle vector pPK705, we constructed expression vectors for Propionibacterium. In recombinant P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii IFO12426, the activities of cholesterol oxidase generated under the control of promoters P4, P8, and P138 were 1.6, 4.3, and 7.2 U/mg of protein, respectively. The expression of heterologous genes may facilitate the production of useful proteins in these economically important bacteria. PMID:16233128

Kiatpapan, P; Yamashita, M; Kawaraichi, N; Yasuda, T; Murooka, Y

2001-01-01

177

NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species increases expression of monocyte chemotactic factor genes in cultured adipocytes.  

PubMed

Excess glucose and free fatty acids delivered to adipose tissue causes local inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance. Glucose and palmitate generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adipocytes, leading to monocyte chemotactic factor gene expression. Docosahexaenoate (DHA) has the opposite effect. In this study, we evaluated the potential sources of ROS in the presence of excess nutrients. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to palmitate and DHA (250 ?M) in either 5 or 25 mM glucose to evaluate the relative roles of mitochondrial electron transport and NADPH oxidases (NOX) as sources of ROS. Excess glucose and palmitate did not increase mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, glucose exposure increased glycolysis. Of the NOX family members, only NOX4 was expressed in adipocytes. Moreover, its activity was increased by excess glucose and palmitate and decreased by DHA. Silencing NOX4 inhibited palmitate- and glucose-stimulated ROS generation and monocyte chemotactic factor gene expression. NADPH, a substrate for NOX, and pentose phosphate pathway activity increased with glucose but not palmitate and decreased with DHA exposure. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors and siRNA suppressed ROS generation and monocyte chemotactic factor gene expression induced by both glucose and palmitate. Finally, both high glucose and palmitate induced NOX4 translocation into lipid rafts, effects that were blocked by DHA. Excess glucose and palmitate generate ROS via NOX4 rather than by mitochondrial oxidation in cultured adipocytes. NOX4 is regulated by both NADPH generated in the PPP and translocation of NOX4 into lipid rafts, leading to expression of monocyte chemotactic factors. PMID:22287546

Han, Chang Yeop; Umemoto, Tomio; Omer, Mohamed; Den Hartigh, Laura J; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; LeBoeuf, Renee; Buller, Carolyn L; Sweet, Ian R; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abel, E Dale; Chait, Alan

2012-03-23

178

NADPH Oxidase-derived Reactive Oxygen Species Increases Expression of Monocyte Chemotactic Factor Genes in Cultured Adipocytes*  

PubMed Central

Excess glucose and free fatty acids delivered to adipose tissue causes local inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance. Glucose and palmitate generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adipocytes, leading to monocyte chemotactic factor gene expression. Docosahexaenoate (DHA) has the opposite effect. In this study, we evaluated the potential sources of ROS in the presence of excess nutrients. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to palmitate and DHA (250 ?m) in either 5 or 25 mm glucose to evaluate the relative roles of mitochondrial electron transport and NADPH oxidases (NOX) as sources of ROS. Excess glucose and palmitate did not increase mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, glucose exposure increased glycolysis. Of the NOX family members, only NOX4 was expressed in adipocytes. Moreover, its activity was increased by excess glucose and palmitate and decreased by DHA. Silencing NOX4 inhibited palmitate- and glucose-stimulated ROS generation and monocyte chemotactic factor gene expression. NADPH, a substrate for NOX, and pentose phosphate pathway activity increased with glucose but not palmitate and decreased with DHA exposure. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors and siRNA suppressed ROS generation and monocyte chemotactic factor gene expression induced by both glucose and palmitate. Finally, both high glucose and palmitate induced NOX4 translocation into lipid rafts, effects that were blocked by DHA. Excess glucose and palmitate generate ROS via NOX4 rather than by mitochondrial oxidation in cultured adipocytes. NOX4 is regulated by both NADPH generated in the PPP and translocation of NOX4 into lipid rafts, leading to expression of monocyte chemotactic factors.

Han, Chang Yeop; Umemoto, Tomio; Omer, Mohamed; Den Hartigh, Laura J.; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; LeBoeuf, Renee; Buller, Carolyn L.; Sweet, Ian R.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abel, E. Dale; Chait, Alan

2012-01-01

179

Enhanced drought and heat stress tolerance of tobacco plants with ectopically enhanced cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene expression  

PubMed Central

Responses to drought, heat, and combined stress were compared in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants ectopically expressing the cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase CKX1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana L. under the control of either the predominantly root-expressed WRKY6 promoter or the constitutive 35S promoter, and in the wild type. WRKY6:CKX1 plants exhibited high CKX activity in the roots under control conditions. Under stress, the activity of the WRKY6 promoter was down-regulated and the concomitantly reduced cytokinin degradation coincided with raised bioactive cytokinin levels during the early phase of the stress response, which might contribute to enhanced stress tolerance of this genotype. Constitutive expression of CKX1 resulted in an enlarged root system, a stunted, dwarf shoot phenotype, and a low basal level of expression of the dehydration marker gene ERD10B. The high drought tolerance of this genotype was associated with a relatively moderate drop in leaf water potential and a significant decrease in leaf osmotic potential. Basal expression of the proline biosynthetic gene P5CSA was raised. Both wild-type and WRKY6:CKX1 plants responded to heat stress by transient elevation of stomatal conductance, which correlated with an enhanced abscisic acid catabolism. 35S:CKX1 transgenic plants exhibited a small and delayed stomatal response. Nevertheless, they maintained a lower leaf temperature than the other genotypes. Heat shock applied to drought-stressed plants exaggerated the negative stress effects, probably due to the additional water loss caused by a transient stimulation of transpiration. The results indicate that modulation of cytokinin levels may positively affect plant responses to abiotic stress through a variety of physiological mechanisms.

Vankova, Radomira

2013-01-01

180

Truncating mutations in the Wilson disease gene ATP7B are associated with very low serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity and an early onset of Wilson disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the gene ATP7B cause Wilson disease, a copper storage disorder with a high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. We aimed to evaluate whether 'severe' protein-truncating ATP7B mutations (SMs) are associated with low serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activities and an early age of onset when compared to missense mutations (MMs). METHODS: The clinical phenotype of 59 genetically confirmed WD patients

Uta Merle; Karl Heinz Weiss; Christoph Eisenbach; Sabine Tuma; Peter Ferenci; Wolfgang Stremmel

2010-01-01

181

Constitutive expression of a fungal glucose oxidase gene in transgenic tobacco confers chilling tolerance through the activation of antioxidative defence system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific evidences in the literature have shown that plants treated exogenously with micromole concentration of hydrogen\\u000a peroxide (H2O2) acquire abiotic stress tolerance potential, without substantial disturbances in the endogenous H2O2 pool. In this study, we enhanced the endogenous H2O2 content of tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L. cv. SR1) plants by the constitutive expression of a glucose oxidase (GO; EC 1.1.3.4) gene

Subbiyan Maruthasalam; Yi Lun Liu; Ching Mei Sun; Pei Ying Chen; Chih Wen Yu; Pei Fang Lee; Chin Ho Lin

2010-01-01

182

Anammox Bacterial Diversity in Various Aquatic Ecosystems Based on the Detection of Hydrazine Oxidase Genes ( hzoA \\/ hzoB )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anammox bacteria belonging to the phylum Planctomycetes are responsible for N removal through NH4+ oxidation coupled with NO2? reduction. Microbial diversity and ecology of anammox bacteria have not yet been fully revealed due to limitations of 16S\\u000a rRNA analysis. The hydrazine oxidase gene in cluster 1 (hereafter hzoA\\/hzoB) was suggested as a proper genetic marker due to its high expression

Matthew D. Hirsch; Zachery T. Long; Bongkeun Song

2011-01-01

183

A novel human lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL4) on chromosome 10q24 has an altered scavenger receptor cysteine rich domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a novel 14-exon human lysyl oxidase-like gene, LOXL4, on chromosome 10q24. The cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of LOXL4 demonstrates a conserved C-terminal region including the characteristic copper-binding site, lysyl and tyrosyl residues and a cytokine receptor-like domain. One of the four N-terminal SRCR domains contains a 13 amino acid insertion encoded by a short exon

L. Asuncion; B. Fogelgren; K. S. K. Fong; S. F. T. Fong; Y. Kim; K. Csiszar

2001-01-01

184

Elevated Transcription of the Gene QSOX1 Encoding Quiescin Q6 Sulfhydryl Oxidase 1 in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

The q arm of chromosome 1 is frequently amplified at the gene level in breast cancer. Since the significance of this is unclear we investigated whether 1q genes are overexpressed in this disease. The cDNA levels of 1q-located genes were analysed in a search for overexpressed genes. 26 genes mapping to the 1q arm show highly significant (P?0.01) overexpression of transcripts in breast cancer compared to normal breast tissue. Amongst those showing the highest levels of overexpression in both expressed sequence tag (EST) and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) databases was enzyme quiescin Q6 sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1). We investigated QSOX1 cDNA derived from T47D breast carcinoma cells by RT-PCR and 3?-RACE PCR and identified a novel extended form of QSOX1 transcript, containing a long 3?UTR, nearly double the size of the previously reported QSOX1 cDNA, and confirmed its 3? end nucleotide sequence using RACE-PCR. We also used quantitative real-time PCR to analyse a panel of cDNAs derived from 50 clinically-graded normal and malignant breast tissue samples for the expression of QSOX1 mRNAs. QSOX1 transcription was elevated in an increasing proportion in the grade 2 and grade 3 tumours (graded according to the Nottingham prognostic index), with 10 of the 15 grade 3 tumours (67%) examined exceeding the normal range. There was a significant correlation between relative transcript level and clinical grade (P?0.01) for all qPCR primer sets tested. QSOX1 mRNA levels, based on SAGE expression data, did not correlate with either Estrogen Receptor (ER) or Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (ErbB-2 or HER2/neu) expression. Our data indicate that QSOX1 is a potential new prognostic marker which may prove of use in the staging of breast tumours and the stratification of breast cancer patients.

Soloviev, Mikhail; Esteves, Michelle P.; Amiri, Fakhria; Crompton, Mark R.; Rider, Christopher C.

2013-01-01

185

Disease resistance conferred by expression of a gene encoding H2O2-generating glucose oxidase in transgenic potato plants.  

PubMed

Plant defense responses to pathogen infection involve the production of active oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We obtained transgenic potato plants expressing a fungal gene encoding glucose oxidase, which generates H2O2 when glucose is oxidized. H2O2 levels were elevated in both leaf and tuber tissues of these plants. Transgenic potato tubers exhibited strong resistance to a bacterial soft rot disease caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp carotovora, and disease resistance was sustained under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions of bacterial infection. This resistance to soft rot was apparently mediated by elevated levels of H2O2, because the resistance could be counteracted by exogenously added H2O2-degrading catalase. The transgenic plants with increased levels of H2O2 also exhibited enhanced resistance to potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans. The development of lesions resulting from infection by P. infestans was significantly delayed in leaves of these plants. Thus, the expression of an active oxygen species-generating enzyme in transgenic plants represents a novel approach for engineering broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants. PMID:8589621

Wu, G; Shortt, B J; Lawrence, E B; Levine, E B; Fitzsimmons, K C; Shah, D M

1995-09-01

186

Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from Peru by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene.  

PubMed

Echinococcus granulosus, the etiologic agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans and other animal species, is distributed worldwide. Ten intra-specific variants, or genotypes (G1-G10), have been defined based on genetic diversity. To determine the genotypes present in endemic areas of Peru, samples were collected from cattle (44), sheep (41) and humans (14) from Junín, Puno Huancavelica, Cusco, Arequipa and Ayacucho. DNA was extracted from protoscolex and/or germinal layers derived from 99 E. granulosus isolates and used as templates to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. The resulting polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and further examined by sequence analysis. All isolates, independent of the host, exhibited the G1 genotype. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three isolates from Ayacucho shared the same cluster with microvariant G1(4). The G1 genotype is considered the most widespread and infectious form of E. granulosus worldwide and our results confirm that the same patterns apply to this country. Therefore, these findings should be taken into consideration in developing prevention strategies and control programs for CE in Peru. PMID:20944997

Sánchez, Elizabeth; Cáceres, Omar; Náquira, César; Garcia, David; Patiño, Gladys; Silvia, Herrera; Volotão, Aline C; Fernandes, Octavio

2010-09-01

187

Identification of host blood from engorged mosquitoes collected in western Uganda using cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious disease events are frequently caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that are maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arthropod vectors and vertebrate wildlife species, with spillover to humans in areas where human and wildlife populations interface. The greater Congo basin region, including Uganda, has historically been a hot spot for emergence of known and novel arboviruses. Surveillance of arthropod vectors is a critical activity in monitoring and predicting outbreaks of arboviral disease, and identification of blood meals in engorged arthropods collected during surveillance efforts provides insight into the ecology of arboviruses and their vectors. As part of an ongoing arbovirus surveillance project we analyzed blood meals from engorged mosquitoes collected at five sites in western Uganda November 2008-June 2010. We extracted DNA from the dissected and triturated abdomens of engorged mosquito specimens. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced to identify the source of the mosquito host blood. Blood meals were analyzed from 533 engorged mosquito specimens; 440 of these blood meals were successfully identified from 33 mosquito species. Species identifications were made for 285 of the 440 identified specimens with the remainder identified to genus, family, or order. When combined with published arbovirus isolation and serologic survey data, our results suggest possible vector-reservoir relationships for several arboviruses, including Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. PMID:23778610

Crabtree, Mary B; Kading, Rebekah C; Mutebi, John-Paul; Lutwama, Julius J; Miller, Barry R

2013-07-01

188

Lack of association of lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene polymorphisms with intracranial aneurysm in a south Indian population.  

PubMed

Intracranial aneurysm (IA) accounts for 85 % of haemorrhagic stroke and is mainly caused due to weakening of arterial wall. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a cuproenzyme involved in cross linking structural proteins collagen and elastin, thus providing structural stability to artery. Using a case-control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether the variants in LOX gene flanking the two LD block, can increase risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. SNPs were genotyped by fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR (KASPar) chemistry. We selected 200 radiologically confirmed aneurysmal cases and 235 ethnically and age and gender matched controls from the Dravidian Malayalam speaking population of South India. We observed marked interethnic differences in the genotype distribution of LOX variants when compared to Japanese and African populations. However, there was no significant association with any of the LOX variants with IA. This study also could not observe any significant role of LOX polymorphisms in influencing IA either directly or indirectly through its confounding factors such as hypertension and gender in South Indian population. PMID:24065528

Sathyan, Sanish; Koshy, Linda; Sarada Lekshmi, K R; Easwer, H V; Premkumar, S; Alapatt, Jacob P; Nair, Suresh; Bhattacharya, R N; Banerjee, Moinak

2013-10-01

189

Monoamine oxidase-A is a major target gene for glucocorticoids in human skeletal muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skeletal myopathy is a common complication of endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoid excess, yet its pathogenetic mechanisms remain unclear. There is accumulating evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved in this process. To explore the glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional adaptations that may affect mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, we studied gene expression profiles in dexamethasone-treated primary human skeletal myocytes using a

Irini Manoli; Hanh Le; Salvatore Alesci; Kimberly K. McFann; Yan A. Su; Tomoshige Kino; George P. Chrousos; Marc R. Blackman

2005-01-01

190

Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato  

SciTech Connect

Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-05-01

191

Current issues in species identification for forensic science and the validity of using the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.  

PubMed

Species identification techniques commonly utilized in Australian Forensic Science laboratories are gel immunodifussion antigen antibody reactions and hair comparison analysis. Both of these techniques have significant limitations and should be considered indicative opinion based tests. The Barcode of Life Initiative aims to sequence a section of DNA (~648 base pairs) for the Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial gene (COI) in all living species on Earth, with the data generated being uploaded to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) which can then be used for species identification. The COI gene therefore offers forensics scientists an opportunity to use the marker to analyze unknown samples and compare sequences generated in BOLD. Once sequences from enough species are on the database, it is anticipated that routine identification of an unknown species may be possible. However, most forensic laboratories are not yet suited to this type of analysis and do not have the expertise to fully interpret the implications of matches and non matches involving a poorly sampled taxa (for example where there are cryptic species) and in providing the required opinion evidence. Currently, the use of BOLD is limited by the number of relevant species held in the database and the quality assurance and regulation of sequences that are there. In this paper, the COI methodology and BOLD are tested on a selection of introduced and Australian mammals in a forensic environment as the first step necessary in the implementation of this approach in the Australian context. Our data indicates that the COI methodology performs well on distinct species but needs further exploration when identifying more closely related species. It is evident from our study that changes will be required to implement DNA based wildlife forensics using the BOLD approach for forensic applications and recommendations are made for the future adoption of this technology into forensic laboratories. PMID:20563888

Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Norman, Janette; Robertson, James; Sarre, Stephen; Georges, Arthur

2010-09-01

192

Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Brazil: possible origins inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.  

PubMed

The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, originally from northeast India through Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Indonesian archipelago, is a major termite pest introduced in several countries around the world, including Brazil. We sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene from individuals representing 23 populations. Phylogenetic analysis of COII gene sequences from this and other studies resulted in two main groups: (1) populations of Cleveland (USA) and four populations of Malaysia and (2) populations of Brazil, four populations of Malaysia, and one population from each of Thailand, Puerto Rico, and Key West (USA). Three new localities are reported here, considerably enlarging the distribution of C. gestroi in Brazil: Campo Grande (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), Itajaí (state of Santa Catarina), and Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul). PMID:20924414

Martins, C; Fontes, L R; Bueno, O C; Martins, V G

2010-09-01

193

No evidence for allelic association between bipolar disorder and monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphisms.  

PubMed

We have tested the hypothesis that DNA markers in the MAOA gene show allelic association with bipolar affective disorder. Eighty-four unrelated Caucasian patients with DSM III-R bipolar disorder and 84 Caucasian controls were typed for three markers in MAOA: a dinucleotide repeat in intron 2, a VNTR in intron 1, and an Fnu4HI RFLP in exon 8. No evidence for allelic association was observed between any of the markers and bipolar disorder. PMID:7485269

Craddock, N; Daniels, J; Roberts, E; Rees, M; McGuffin, P; Owen, M J

1995-08-14

194

No evidence for allelic association between bipolar disorder and monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

We have tested the hypothesis that DNA markers in the MAOA gene show allelic association with bipolar affective disorder. Eighty-four unrelated Caucasian patients with DSM III-R bipolar disorder and 84 Caucasian controls were typed for three markers in MAOA: a dinucleotide repeat in intron 2, a VNTR in intron 1, and an Fnu4HI RFLP in exon 8. No evidence for allelic association was observed between any of the markers and bipolar disorder. 9 refs., 1 tab.

Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; Roberts, E. [Univ. of Wales, College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)] [and others

1995-08-14

195

Cloning and Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate Oxidase Gene from Orchid (Dendrobium Spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloning of the DenACO from Dendrobium hybrid cultivar Anna was performed by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the open reading frame of this gene is 942 bp long, encoded for a protein of 313 amino acid residues. The calculated molecular mass of the deduced polypeptide is 35.6 kD and the predicted isoelectric point is 4.19. The deduced amino

Sudarat Thanonkeo; Pornthap Thanonkeo; Walai Rukhavej

196

Carrot alternative oxidase gene AOX2a demonstrates allelic and genotypic polymorphisms in intron 3.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletions (InDels) are becoming important genetic markers for major crop species. In this study, we focus on variations at genomic level of the Daucus carota L. AOX2a gene. The use of gene-specific primers designed in exon regions on the boundaries of introns permitted to recognize intron length polymorphism (ILP) in intron 3 AOX2a by simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The length of intron 3 can vary in individual carrot plants. Thus, allelic variation can be used as a tool to discriminate between single plant genotypes. Using this approach, individual plants from cv. Rotin and from diverse breeding lines and cultivars were identified that showed genetic variability by AOX2a ILPs. Repetitive patterns of intron length variation have been observed which allows grouping of genotypes. Polymorphic and identical PCR fragments revealed underlying high levels of sequence polymorphism. Variability was due to InDel events and intron single nucleotide polymorphisms (ISNPs), with a repetitive deletion in intron 3 affecting a putative pre-miRNA site. The results suggest that high AOX2a gene diversity in D. carota can be explored for the development of functional markers related to agronomic traits. PMID:19941625

Guerra Cardoso, Hélia; Doroteia Campos, Maria; Rita Costa, Ana; Catarina Campos, Maria; Nothnagel, Thomas; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

2009-12-01

197

Polymorphism of the NADH\\/NADPH Oxidase p22 phox Gene in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Oxidative stress in the vasculature has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). NADH\\/NADPH oxidase is a key enzyme of superoxide production in the vasculature. p22 phox, an essential component of NADH\\/NADPH oxidase, has four types of polymorphism. The C242T polymorphism changes histidine-72 to tyrosine, located in the potential heme-binding sites, whereas A640G polymorphism is located in

Nobutaka Inoue; Seinosuke Kawashima; Kenji Kanazawa; Shinichiro Yamada; Hozuka Akita; Mitsuhiro Yokoyama

198

Functional expression of the Acanthamoeba castellanii alternative oxidase in Escherichia coli; regulation of the activity and evidence for Acaox gene function.  

PubMed

To evidence Acanthamoeba castellanii alternative oxidase (AcAOX) gene product function, we studied alterations in the levels of mRNA and protein and AcAOX activity during growth in amoeba batch culture. Moreover, heterologous expression of AcAOX in AOX-deficient Escherichia coli confirmed by the protein immunodetection and functional studies was performed. Despite the presence of native bo and bd quinol oxidases in E. coli membrane, from which the latter is known to be cyanide-resistant, functional expression of AcAOX in E. coli conferred cyanide-resistant benzohydroxamate-sensitive respiration on the bacteria. Moreover, AcAOX activity in transformed bacteria was stimulated by GMP and inhibited by ATP, indicating that AcAOX is regulated by mutual exclusion of purine nucleotides, which was previously demonstrated in the mitochondria of A. castellanii. PMID:24860925

Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

2014-06-01

199

Severity of ulcerative colitis is associated with a polymorphism at diamine oxidase gene but not at histamine N-methyltransferase gene  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyse the role of two common polymorphisms in genes coding for histamine metabolising enzymes as it relates to the risk to develop ulcerative colitis (UC) and the clinical course of these patients. METHODS: A cohort of 229 unrelated patients with UC recruited from a single centre and 261 healthy volunteers were analysed for the presence of Thr105Ile and His645Asp amino acid substitutions at histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) and diamine oxidase (ABP1) enzymes, respectively, by amplification-restriction procedures. All patients were phenotyped and followed up for at least 2 years (mean time 11 years). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the distribution of ABP1 alleles between ulcerative colitis patients and healthy individuals [OR (95% CI) for variant alleles?=?1.22 (0.91-1.61)]. However, mutated ABP1 alleles were present with higher frequency among the 58 patients that required immunosuppresive drugs [OR (95 % CI) for carriers of mutated alleles 2.41 (1.21-4.83; P?=?0.006)], with a significant gene-dose effect (P?=?0.0038). In agreement with the predominant role of ABP1 versus HNMT on local histamine metabolism in human bowel, the frequencies for carriers of HNMT genotypes or mutated alleles were similar among patients, regardless clinical evolution, and control individuals. CONCLUSION: The His645Asp polymorphism of the histamine metabolising enzyme ABP1 is related to severity of ulcerative colitis.

Garcia-Martin, Elena; Mendoza, Juan L; Martinez, Carmen; Taxonera, Carlos; Urcelay, Elena; Ladero, Jose M; de la Concha, Emilio G; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel; Agundez, Jose AG

2006-01-01

200

Sterol uptake induced by an impairment of pyridoxal phosphate synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: cloning and sequencing of the PDX3 gene encoding pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) phosphate oxidase.  

PubMed Central

Exogenous sterols do not permeate wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic conditions. However, mutant strain FKerg7, affected in lanosterol synthase, is a sterol auxotroph which is able to grow aerobically in the presence of ergosterol. Viability of this strain depends on the presence of an additional mutation, aux30, that leads to sterol permeability. Cells bearing the aux30 mutation fail to grow in standard yeast nitrogen base medium containing pyridoxine but grow normally if pyridoxine is replaced by either pyridoxal or pyridoxamine. These mutants are characterized by a lack in pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) phosphate oxidase [P(N/M)P oxidase] (EC 1.4.3.5) activity. The pleiotropic phenotype induced by the aux30 mutation includes a strong perturbation in amino acid biosynthesis. Strains bearing the aux30 mutation also display atypic fatty acid, sterol, and cytochrome patterns. Transformation of an aux30 strain with a replicative vector carrying the wild-type PDX3 gene encoding P(N/M)P oxidase restored wild-type fatty acid, sterol, and cytochrome patterns and suppressed exogenous sterol accumulation. It is proposed that sterol permeation of aux30 strains in mainly the consequence of their leaky Hem- character. The amino acid sequence of S. cerevisiae P(N/M)P oxidase inferred from the nucleotide sequence of PDX3 shows a high percentage of homology with the corresponding enzymes from Escherichia coli and Myxococcus xanthus. Several putative Gcn4p binding sequences are present in the PDX3 promoter region, leading to the assumption that transcription of this gene is under the general control of nitrogen metabolism.

Loubbardi, A; Marcireau, C; Karst, F; Guilloton, M

1995-01-01

201

Potential contribution of monoamine oxidase a gene variants in ADHD and behavioral co-morbidities: scenario in eastern Indian probands.  

PubMed

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed behavioral disorder in children with a high frequency of co-morbid conditions like conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). These traits are controlled by neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the degradation of amines, has been reported to be associated with aggression, impulsivity, depression, and mood changes. We hypothesized that MAOA can have a potential role in ADHD associated CD/ODD and analyzed 24 markers in a group of Indo-Caucasoid subjects. ADHD probands and controls (N = 150 each) matched for ethnicity and gender were recruited following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV. Appropriate scales were used for measuring CD and ODD traits. Markers were genotyped by PCR-based methods and data obtained analyzed using the Cocaphase program under UNPHASED. Only eight markers were found to be polymorphic. rs6323 "G" allele showed higher frequencies in ADHD (P = 0.0023), ADHD + CD (P = 0.03) and ADHD + ODD (P = 0.01) as compared to controls. Haplotype analysis revealed statistically significant difference for three haplotypes in ADHD cases (P < 0.02). Statistically significant differences were also noticed for haplotypes in ADHD + CD and ADHD + ODD cases (P < 0.01). LD analysis showed significant variation in different groups. Multidimensionality reduction analysis showed independent as well as interactive effects of markers. Genotypes showed correlation with behavioral problems in ADHD and ADHD + CD. We interpret that MAOA gene variants may contribute to the etiology of ADHD as well as associated co-morbid CD and ODD in this ethnic group. PMID:24652311

Karmakar, A; Maitra, S; Verma, D; Chakraborti, B; Goswami, R; Ghosh, P; Sinha, S; Mohanakumar, K P; Usha, R; Mukhopadhyay, K

2014-05-01

202

Cloning and Expression Analysis of Litchi (Litchi Chinensis Sonn.) Polyphenol Oxidase Gene and Relationship with Postharvest Pericarp Browning  

PubMed Central

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) plays a key role in the postharvest pericarp browning of litchi fruit, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned the litchi PPO gene (LcPPO, JF926153), and described its expression patterns. The LcPPO cDNA sequence was 2120 bps in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1800 bps. The ORF encoded a polypeptide with 599 amino acid residues, sharing high similarities with other plant PPO. The DNA sequence of the ORF contained a 215-bp intron. After carrying out quantitative RT-PCR, we proved that the LcPPO expression was tissue-specific, exhibiting the highest level in the flower and leaf. In the pericarp of newly-harvested litchi fruits, the LcPPO expression level was relatively high compared with developing fruits. Regardless of the litchi cultivar and treatment conditions, the LcPPO expression level and the PPO activity in pericarp of postharvest fruits exhibited the similar variations. When the fruits were stored at room temperature without packaging, all the pericarp browning index, PPO activity and the LcPPO expression level of litchi pericarps were reaching the highest in Nandaowuhe (the most rapid browning cultivar), but the lowest in Ziniangxi (the slowest browning cultivar) within 2 d postharvest. Preserving the fruits of Feizixiao in 0.2-?m plastic bag at room temperature would decrease the rate of pericarp water loss, delay the pericarp browning, and also cause the reduction of the pericarp PPO activity and LcPPO expression level within 3 d postharvest. In addition, postharvest storage of Feizixiao fruit stored at 4°C delayed the pericarp browning while decreasing the pericarp PPO activity and LcPPO expression level within 2 d after harvest. Thus, we concluded that the up-regulation of LcPPO expression in pericarp at early stage of postharvest storage likely enhanced the PPO activity and further accelerated the postharvest pericarp browning of litchi fruit.

Wang, Jiabao; Liu, Baohua; Xiao, Qian; Li, Huanling; Sun, Jinhua

2014-01-01

203

Oxidase Test Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The oxidase test is used to detect the presence of the enzyme cytochrome oxidase in microorganisms.  While used as a taxonomic tool for many microorganisms, the test was established initially to differentiate Neisseria spp. (oxidase positive) from Acinetobacter (oxidase negative) and Pseudomonas spp. (oxidase positive) from the Enterobacteriaceae (oxidase negative).

American Society For Microbiology;

2010-11-11

204

Cloning and expression analysis of the Ccrboh gene encoding respiratory burst oxidase in Citrullus colocynthis and grafting onto Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)  

PubMed Central

A full-length drought-responsive gene Ccrboh, encoding the respiratory burst oxidase homologue (rboh), was cloned in Citrullus colocynthis, a very drought-tolerant cucurbit species. The robh protein, also named NADPH oxidase, is conserved in plants and animals, and functions in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The Ccrboh gene accumulated in a tissue-specific pattern when C. colocynthis was treated with PEG, abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), or NaCl, while the homologous rboh gene did not show any change in C. lanatus var. lanatus, cultivated watermelon, during drought. Grafting experiments were conducted using C. colocynthis or C. lanatus as the rootstock or scion. Results showed that the rootstock significantly affects gene expression in the scion, and some signals might be transported from the root to the shoot. Ccrboh in C. colocynthis was found to function early during plant development, reaching high mRNA transcript levels 3 d after germination. The subcellular location of Ccrboh was investigated by transient expression of the 35S::Ccrboh::GFP fusion construct in protoplasts. The result confirmed that Ccrboh is a transmembrane protein. Our data suggest that Ccrboh might be functionally important during the acclimation of plants to stress and also in plant development. It holds great promise for improving drought tolerance of other cucurbit species.

Si, Ying; Dane, Fenny; Rashotte, Aaron; Kang, Kwonkyoo; Singh, Narendra K.

2010-01-01

205

RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) Papaya Fruit.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Bakar, Umi Kalsom Abu; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

2014-01-01

206

Gene-gene interaction between the monoamine oxidase A gene and solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, noradrenalin) member 2 gene in anorexia nervosa (restrictive subtype)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We earlier found an association between anorexia nervosa (AN) restrictive subtype (AN-R) and an inserted sequence within the NETpPR, a polymorphic region located in the promoter of the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, noradrenalin) member 2 (SLC6A2) gene. To further examine the noradrenergic system in AN-R we performed an association study with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) in the promoter

Ruth E Urwin; Bruce H Bennetts; Bridget Wilcken; Basiliki Lampropoulos; Peter J V Beumont; Janice D Russell; Sue L Tanner; Kenneth P Nunn

2003-01-01

207

Effect of ascorbate oxidase over-expression on ascorbate recycling gene expression in response to agents imposing oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbate oxidase (AO) is a cell wall-localized enzyme that uses oxygen to catalyse the oxidation of ascorbate (AA) to the unstable radical monodehydroascorbate (MDHA) which rapidly disproportionates to yield dehy- droascorbate (DHA) and AA, and thus contributes to the regulation of the AA redox state. Here, it is reported that in vivo lowering of the apoplast AA redox state, through

Vasileios Fotopoulos; Maite Sanmartin; Angelos K. Kanellis

2006-01-01

208

Molecular cloning and characterization of Trypanosoma vivax alternative oxidase (AOX) gene, a target of the trypanocide ascofuranone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypanosoma vivax causes nagana disease in cattle. Since T. vivax is transmitted not only by tsetse flies but also by other biting flies (non-cyclic transmission), the parasite has been distributed to and has had a significant economic impact on wide geographical areas, including Africa and South America. Our previous study on Trypanosoma brucei brucei showed that the trypanosome alternative oxidase

Takashi Suzuki; Coh-ichi Nihei; Yoshisada Yabu; Tetsuo Hashimoto; Mitsuko Suzuki; Ayako Yoshida; Kazuo Nagai; Tomoyoshi Hosokawa; Nobuko Minagawa; Shuichi Suzuki; Kiyoshi Kita; Nobuo Ohta

2004-01-01

209

Association of NADPH oxidase p22phox gene C242T, A640G and -930A/G polymorphisms with primary knee osteoarthritis in the Greek population.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis with still unknown pathogenic etiology and considerable contribution of genetic factors. Recently, a new emerging role of oxidative stress in the pathology of OA has been reported, lacking however elucidation of the underlying mechanism. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase being a complex enzyme produced by chondrocytes, presents the major source of reactive oxygen species and main contributor of increased oxidative stress. The present study aims to evaluate the association of NADPH oxidase p22phox gene C242T, A640G and -A930G polymorphisms with primary knee OA in the Greek population. One hundred fifty five patients with primary symptomatic knee OA participated in the study along with 139 matched controls. Genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between both study groups. NADPH p22phox -A930G polymorphism was significantly associated with knee OA in the crude analysis (P = 0.018). No significant difference was detected for C242T and A640G polymorphisms (P > 0.05). The association between -A930G polymorphism and knee OA disappeared when the results were adjusted for obesity (P = 0.078, odds ratio 0.54, 95 % CI 0.272-1.071). The interaction between all three polymorphisms was not significant. The present study shows that NADPH oxidase p22phox gene C242T, A640G and -A930G polymorphisms are not risk factors for knee OA susceptibility in the Greek population. Further studies are needed to give a global view of the importance of this polymorphism in the pathogenesis of OA. PMID:23922196

Lepetsos, Panagiotis; Pampanos, Andreas; Lallos, Stergios; Kanavakis, Emmanouil; Korres, Dimitrios; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Efstathopoulos, Nicolaos

2013-09-01

210

Over-expression of genes coding for proline oxidase, riboflavin kinase, cytochrome c oxidase and an MFS transporter induced by acriflavin in Trichophyton rubrum.  

PubMed

Acriflavin (3,6-acridinediamine) and other acridine derivatives act in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at the level of DNA-coiling enzymes (topoisomerases) causing the stabilization of the enzyme-DNA cleavable complex. In order to better understand the mode of action of acriflavin, Differential Display RT-PCR was used to isolate transcripts specifically over-expressed during exposure of Trichophyton rubrum mycelia to this drug. Five transcripts, whose differential expressions were confirmed by Northern blotting, revealed genes not previously described in this dermatophyte. Functional grouping identified putative enzymes possibly involved in the mitochondrial respiratory electron-transport chain and in iron transport. These results may be relevant to our understanding of the molecular events involved in the stress response of T. rubrum to acriflavin. PMID:18324492

Segato, Fernando; Nozawa, Sérgio R; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M

2008-03-01

211

Novel Point Mutations and A8027G Polymorphism in Mitochondrial-DNA-Encoded Cytochrome c Oxidase II Gene in Mexican Patients with Probable Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been thought to contribute to Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis through the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations and net production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase plays a key role in the regulation of aerobic production of energy and is composed of 13 subunits. The 3 largest subunits (I, II, and III) forming the catalytic core are encoded by mitochondrial DNA. The aim of this work was to look for mutations in mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase gene II (MTCO II) in blood samples from probable AD Mexican patients. MTCO II gene was sequenced in 33 patients with diagnosis of probable AD. Four patients (12%) harbored the A8027G polymorphism and three of them were early onset (EO) AD cases with familial history of the disease. In addition, other four patients with EOAD had only one of the following point mutations: A8003C, T8082C, C8201T, or G7603A. Neither of the point mutations found in this work has been described previously for AD patients, and the A8027G polymorphism has been described previously; however, it hasn't been related to AD. We will need further investigation to demonstrate the role of the point mutations of mitochondrial DNA in the pathogenesis of AD.

Loera-Castaneda, Veronica; Sandoval-Ramirez, Lucila; Pacheco Moises, Fermin Paul; Macias-Islas, Miguel Angel; Alatorre Jimenez, Moises Alejandro; Gonzalez-Renovato, Erika Daniela; Cortes-Enriquez, Fernando; Celis de la Rosa, Alfredo; Velazquez-Brizuela, Irma E.

2014-01-01

212

Overexpression of a maize sulfite oxidase gene in tobacco enhances tolerance to sulfite stress via sulfite oxidation and CAT-mediated H2O2 scavenging.  

PubMed

Sulfite oxidase (SO) plays an important role in sulfite metabolism. To date, the molecular mechanisms of sulfite metabolism in plants are largely unknown. Previously, a full-length cDNA of the putative sulfite oxidase gene from maize (ZmSO) was cloned, and its response to SO(2)/sulfite stress at the transcriptional level was characterized. In this study, the recombinant ZmSO protein was purified from E. coli. It exhibited sulfite-dependent activity and had strong affinity for the substrate sulfite. Over-expression (OE) of ZmSO in tobacco plants enhanced their tolerance to sulfite stress. The plants showed much less damage, less sulfite accumulation, but greater amounts of sulfate. This suggests that tolerance of transgenic plants to sulfite was enhanced by increasing SO expression levels. Interestingly, H(2)O(2) accumulation levels by histochemical detection and quantitative determination in the OE plants were much less than those in the wild-type upon sulfite stress. Furthermore, reductions of catalase levels detected in the OE lines were considerably less than in the wild-type plants. This indicates that SO may play an important role in protecting CAT from inhibition by excess sulfite. Collectively, these data demonstrate that transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing ZmSO enhance tolerance to excess sulfite through sulfite oxidation and catalase-mediated hydrogen peroxide scavenging. This is the first SO gene from monocots to be functionally characterized. PMID:22693572

Xia, Zongliang; Sun, Kaile; Wang, Meiping; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Jianyu

2012-01-01

213

Phylogeographic analysis of the firefly, Luciola lateralis, in Japan and Korea based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).  

PubMed

Luciola lateralis is widely distributed throughout the Korean Peninsula, northeast China, Sakhalin, and Japan. Two ecological types are recognized in Japan based on flash and hatching time characteristics. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene was surveyed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for Japan (46 populations) and Korea (two populations). Eleven haplotypes were detected. Gene trees revealed that haplotypes between Japan and Korea are much more differentiated in nucleotide sequences (8.1%) than those within Japan (0.3-1.4%) and Korea (0.7%). Haplotypes between Honshu and Hokkaido are not separated as clades, and the two ecological types cannot be segregated from each other phylogenetically. We suggest that the Japanese populations of this species may have dispersed within one million years ago and that ecological differences may be the result of physiological adaptation to cold climates. PMID:15524308

Suzuki, Hirobumi; Sato, Yasushi; Ohba, Nobuyoshi; Bae, Jin-Sik; Jin, Byung-Rae; Sohn, Hung-Dae; Kim, Sam-Eun

2004-10-01

214

Isolation and characterization of a mutant protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii conferring resistance to porphyric herbicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plant and algal cells, inhibition of the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) by the N-phenyl heterocyclic herbicide S-23142 causes massive protoporphyrin IX accumulation, resulting in membrane deterioration and cell lethality in the light. We have identified a 40.4 kb genomic fragment encoding S-23142 resistance by using transformation to screen an indexed cosmid library made from nuclear DNA of the dominant

Barbara L. Randolph-Anderson; Ryo Sato; Anita M. Johnson; Elizabeth H. Harris; Charles R. Hauser; Kenji Oeda; Fumiharu Ishige; Shoichi Nishio; Nicholas W. Gillham; John E. Boynton

1998-01-01

215

Identification of a gene for pyruvate-insensitive mitochondrial alternative oxidase expressed in the thermogenic appendices in Arum maculatum.  

PubMed

Heat production in thermogenic plants has been attributed to a large increase in the expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX acts as an alternative terminal oxidase in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, where it reduces molecular oxygen to water. In contrast to the mitochondrial terminal oxidase, cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is nonprotonmotive and thus allows the dramatic drop in free energy between ubiquinol and oxygen to be dissipated as heat. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based cloning, we reveal that, although at least seven cDNAs for AOX exist (AmAOX1a, -1b, -1c, -1d, -1e, -1f, and -1g) in Arum maculatum, the organ and developmental regulation for each is distinct. In particular, the expression of AmAOX1e transcripts appears to predominate in thermogenic appendices among the seven AmAOXs. Interestingly, the amino acid sequence of AmAOX1e indicates that the ENV element found in almost all other AOX sequences, including AmAOX1a, -1b, -1c, -1d, and -1f, is substituted by QNT. The existence of a QNT motif in AmAOX1e was confirmed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of mitochondrial proteins from thermogenic appendices. Further functional analyses with mitochondria prepared using a yeast heterologous expression system demonstrated that AmAOX1e is insensitive to stimulation by pyruvate. These data suggest that a QNT type of pyruvate-insensitive AOX, AmAOX1e, plays a crucial role in stage- and organ-specific heat production in the appendices of A. maculatum. PMID:21988877

Ito, Kikukatsu; Ogata, Takafumi; Kakizaki, Yusuke; Elliott, Catherine; Albury, Mary S; Moore, Anthony L

2011-12-01

216

Expression of Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase (ThoX, LNOX, Duox) Genes and Proteins in Human Thyroid Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large homolog of NADPH oxidase flavoprotein LNOX2, and probably LNOX1, are flavoproteins involved in the thyroid H2O2 gen- erator. Western blot analysis of membrane proteins from normal human thyroid, using antipeptide antibodies, indicated that LNOX1,2 are 164-kDa glycoproteins and that N-glycosylated motifs account for at least 10 -20 kDa of their total apparent molecular mass. Northern blot analysis of

BERNARD CAILLOU; CORINNE DUPUY; LUDOVIC LACROIX; MARIA NOCERA; MONIQUE TALBOT; RENEE OHAYON; DANIELLE DEME; JEAN-MICHEL BIDART; MARTIN SCHLUMBERGER; ALAIN VIRION

2010-01-01

217

Co-occurrence of the Multicopper Oxidases Tyrosinase and Laccase in Lichens in Sub-order Peltigerineae  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Following previous findings of high extracellular redox activity in lichens and the presence of laccases in lichen cell walls, the work presented here additionally demonstrates the presence of tyrosinases. Tests were made for the presence of tyrosinases in 40 species of lichens, and from selected species their cellular location and molecular weights were determined. The effects of stress and inhibitors on enzyme activity were also studied. • Methods Tyrosinase and laccase activities were assayed spectrophotometrically using a variety of substrates. The molecular mass of the enzymes was estimated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. • Key Results Extracellular tyrosinase and laccase activity was measured in 40 species of lichens from different taxonomic groupings and contrasting habitats. Out of 20 species tested from the sub-order Peltigerineae, all displayed significant tyrosinase and laccase activity, while activity was low or absent in other species tested. Representatives from both groups of lichens displayed low peroxidase activities. Identification of the enzymes as tyrosinases was confirmed by the ability of lichen thalli or leachates derived by shaking lichens in distilled water to metabolize substrates such as l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), tyrosine and epinephrine readily in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, the sensitivity of the enzymes to the inhibitors cyanide, azide and hexylresorcinol, activation by SDS and having typical tyrosinase molecular masses of approx. 60?kDa. Comparing different species within the Peltigerineae showed that the activities of tyrosinases and laccase were correlated to each other. Desiccation and wounding stimulated laccase activity, while only wounding stimulated tyrosinase activity. • Conclusions Cell walls of lichens in sub-order Peltigerineae have much higher activities and a greater diversity of cell wall redox enzymes compared with other lichens. Possible roles of tyrosinases include melanization, removal of toxic phenols or quinones, and production of herbivore deterrents.

LAUFER, ZSANETT; BECKETT, RICHARD P.; MINIBAYEVA, FARIDA V.

2006-01-01

218

Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II genes, the ATPase9 gene, the NADH dehydrogenase ND4L and ND5 gene complex, and the glutaminyl, methionyl and arginyl tRNA genes from Trichophyton rubrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the nucleotide sequence of a 5248 bp-long region of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum. This region which represents about 1\\/4 of the total mt genome of this species reveals a compact organization of genes including: the glutaminyl tRNA, the methionyl tRNA, the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene, the arginyl tRNA, the

Claude Bièvre; Bernard Dujon

1992-01-01

219

PET111, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nuclear Gene Required for Translation of the Mitochondrial mRNA Encoding Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit II  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the nuclear gene PET111 are recessive and specifically block accumulation of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (coxII), the product of a mitochondrial gene. However, the coxII mRNA is present in pet111 mutants at a level approximately one-third that of wild type. The simplest explanation for this phenotype is that PET111 is required for translation of the coxII mRNA. The reduced steady-state level of this mRNA is probably a secondary effect, caused by increased degradation of the untranslated transcript. Mitochondrial suppressors of pet111, carried on rho- mtDNAs, bypass the requirement for PET111 in coxII translation. Three suppressors are fusions between the coxII structural gene and other mitochondrial genes, that encode chimeric proteins consisting of the N-terminal portions of other mitochondrially coded proteins fused to the coxII precursor protein. When present together with rho+ mtDNA in a heteroplasmic state, these suppressors allow coxII synthesis in pet111 mutants. Thus in wild type, the PET111 product, or something under its control, probably acts at a site coded in the proximal portion of the gene for coxII to promote translation of the mRNA. PET111 was isolated by molecular cloning and genetically mapped to a position approximately midway between rna1 and SUP8 on chromosome XIII.

Poutre, Candace G.; Fox, Thomas D.

1987-01-01

220

Structure, Organization, and Transcriptional Regulation of a Family of Copper Radical Oxidase Genes in the Lignin-Degrading Basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

PubMed Central

The white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces an array of nonspecific extracellular enzymes thought to be involved in lignin degradation, including lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases, and the H2O2-generating copper radical oxidase, glyoxal oxidase (GLX). Preliminary analysis of the P. chrysosporium draft genome had identified six sequences with significant similarity to GLX and designated cro1 through cro6. The predicted mature protein sequences diverge substantially from one another, but the residues coordinating copper and constituting the radical redox site are conserved. Transcript profiles, microscopic examination, and lignin analysis of inoculated thin wood sections are consistent with differential regulation as decay advances. The cro2-encoded protein was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in defined medium. The cro2 cDNA was successfully expressed in Aspergillus nidulans under the control of the A. niger glucoamylase promoter and secretion signal. The recombinant CRO2 protein had a substantially different substrate preference than GLX. The role of structurally and functionally diverse cro genes in lignocellulose degradation remains to be established.

Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Sabat, Grzegorz; Mozuch, Michael; Kersten, Philip J.; Cullen, Dan; Blanchette, Robert A.

2006-01-01

221

Structure, organization, and transcriptional regulation of a family of copper radical oxidase genes in the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

The white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces an array of nonspecific extracellular enzymes thought to be involved in lignin degradation, including lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases, and the H2O2-generating copper radical oxidase, glyoxal oxidase (GLX). Preliminary analysis of the P. chrysosporium draft genome had identified six sequences with significant similarity to GLX and designated cro1 through cro6. The predicted mature protein sequences diverge substantially from one another, but the residues coordinating copper and constituting the radical redox site are conserved. Transcript profiles, microscopic examination, and lignin analysis of inoculated thin wood sections are consistent with differential regulation as decay advances. The cro2-encoded protein was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in defined medium. The cro2 cDNA was successfully expressed in Aspergillus nidulans under the control of the A. niger glucoamylase promoter and secretion signal. The recombinant CRO2 protein had a substantially different substrate preference than GLX. The role of structurally and functionally diverse cro genes in lignocellulose degradation remains to be established. PMID:16820482

Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Sabat, Grzegorz; Mozuch, Michael; Kersten, Philip J; Cullen, Dan; Blanchette, Robert A

2006-07-01

222

Taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships between species of the genus Culex (Diptera: culicidae) from Brazil inferred from the cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial gene.  

PubMed

Species of the genus Culex Linnaeus have been incriminated as the main vectors of lymphatic filariases and are important vectors of arboviruses, including West Nile virus. Sequences corresponding to a fragment of 478 bp of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, which includes part of the barcode region, of 37 individuals of 17 species of genus Culex were generated to establish relationships among five subgenera, Culex, Phenacomyia, Melanoconion, Microculex, and Carrollia, and one species of the genus Lutzia that occurs in Brazil. Bayesian methods were employed for the phylogenetic analyses. Results of sequence comparisons showed that individuals identified as Culex dolosus, Culex mollis, and Culex imitator possess high intraspecific divergence (3.1, 2.3, and 3.5%, respectively) when using the Kimura two parameters model. These differences were associated either with distinct morphological characteristics of the male genitalia or larval and pupal stages, suggesting that these may represent species complexes. The Bayesian topology suggested that the genus and subgenus Culex are paraphyletic relative to Lutzia and Phenacomyia, respectively. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences may be a useful tool to both estimate phylogenetic relationships and identify morphologically similar species of the genus Culex. PMID:21485362

Demari-Silva, Bruna; Vesgueiro, Fabiana Tavares; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

2011-03-01

223

Analysis of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene in bipolar affective disorder by association studies, meta-analyses, and sequencing of the promoter.  

PubMed

Monoamine oxidases catalyse the oxidative degradation of biogenic amines including neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Three groups have reported positive associations of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene with bipolar affective disorder although other studies have been negative. In an extension of a previous study [Rubinsztein et al., 1996: Human Molec Genet 5:779-782] we report association studies of MAOA polymorphic markers and affective disorders. The polymorphisms comprised a CA-repeat microsatellite in intron 2 and a Fnu4HI G/T silent polymorphism at position 941 of the cDNA sequence. No significant differences were found when the control allele frequencies were compared with those in bipolar, unipolar, or combined bipolar + unipolar groups. Meta-analyses were then performed to include the data of all published studies using the MAOA microsatellite and Fnu4HI polymorphisms. Separate meta-analyses were performed for Caucasian and Japanese studies, as allele frequencies of the microsatellite in these populations were markedly different. Associations of bipolar affective disorder in pooled male and female groups were found with the MAOA microsatellite in both the Caucasian (P < 0.02) and the Japanese (P < 0.02) meta-analyses. In view of these positive associations, and as previous results have shown that coding variants do not account for the normal population variation in MAOA activity, over 1,300 bp of the promoter were sequenced in 22 bipolar cases and 1 control. A novel polymorphic promoter variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) located approximately 1,200 bp upstream from the translation start site was demonstrated. However, there was no association of this promoter VNTR with affective disorder. These results suggest that there may be functional variants in other regions of the MAOA gene or neighbouring genes that affect bipolar affective disorder risk. PMID:10402508

Furlong, R A; Ho, L; Rubinsztein, J S; Walsh, C; Paykel, E S; Rubinsztein, D C

1999-08-20

224

Knock-down of the COX3 and COX17 gene expression of cytochrome c oxidase in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

The COX3 gene encodes a core subunit of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) whereas the COX17 gene encodes a chaperone delivering copper to the enzyme. Mutants of these two genes were isolated by RNA interference in the microalga Chlamydomonas. The COX3 mRNA was completely lacking in the cox3-RNAi mutant and no activity and assembly of complex IV were detected. The cox17-RNAi mutant presented a reduced level of COX17 mRNA, a reduced activity of the cytochrome c oxidase but no modification of its amount. The cox3-RNAi mutant had only 40% of the wild-type rate of dark respiration which was cyanide-insensitive. The mutant presented a 60% decrease of H(2)O(2) production in the dark compared to wild type, which probably accounts for a reduced electron leakage by respiratory complexes III and IV. In contrast, the cox17-RNAi mutant showed no modification of respiration and of H(2)O(2) production in the dark but a two to threefold increase of H(2)O(2) in the light compared to wild type and the cox3-RNAi mutant. The cox17-RNAi mutant was more sensitive to cadmium than the wild-type and cox3-RNAi strains. This suggested that besides its role in complex IV assembly, Cox17 could have additional functions in the cell such as metal detoxification or Reactive Oxygen Species protection or signaling. Concerning Cox3, its role in Chlamydomonas complex IV is similar to that of other eukaryotes although this subunit is encoded in the nuclear genome in the alga contrary to the situation found in all other organisms. PMID:20700628

Remacle, Claire; Coosemans, Nadine; Jans, Frédéric; Hanikenne, Marc; Motte, Patrick; Cardol, Pierre

2010-10-01

225

Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II genes, the ATPase9 gene, the NADH dehydrogenase ND4L and ND5 gene complex, and the glutaminyl, methionyl and arginyl tRNA genes from Trichophyton rubrum.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the nucleotide sequence of a 5248 bp-long region of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum. This region which represents about 1/4 of the total mt genome of this species reveals a compact organization of genes including: the glutaminyl tRNA, the methionyl tRNA, the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene, the arginyl tRNA, the mitochondrial version of the ATPase subunit 9 gene, the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene and a part of the NADH dehydrogenase ND4L and ND5 gene "complex". The main features of the part of mt DNA sequenced is the non-interrupted COXI gene and the presence in the mitochondrial version of the ATPase 9 gene of a small group IA intron. The extensive amino-acid sequence similarity with the equivalent gene in Aspergillus nidulans and Neuropora crassa indicates that this gene codes for a dicyclohexylcarbodiimide binding protein. The conserved arrangement of this portion of the mt genome and the presence of tRNAs between the protein-coding genes are compatible with a large polycistronic transcript processed by the excision of tRNAs, or similar secondary structures, as proposed for other fungal or mammalian mt DNAS. PMID:1326416

de Bièvre, C; Dujon, B

1992-09-01

226

A functional polymorphism in the NAD(P)H oxidase subunit CYBA is related to gene expression, enzyme activity, and outcome in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

NAD(P)H oxidase is a major endogenous source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS may not only be involved in carcinogenesis but also in efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents like doxorubicin. By a comprehensive genotyping approach covering 48 genetic polymorphisms (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in five subunits of phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase, we asked whether they affect gene expression, enzymatic activity, and outcome of CHO(E)P chemotherapy. A highly consistent effect was observed for the CYBA 640A>G variant. In peripheral blood granulocytes of 125 healthy volunteers, the G allele of 640A>G was associated with lower NAD(P)H oxidase activity (P = 0.006). Moreover, the G allele was associated with lower mRNA and protein expression (both P = 0.02). Of clinical importance, the outcome of patients suffering from non-Hodgkin lymphoma and treated with CHO(E)P regimen was dependent on the CYBA 640A>G polymorphism. In an exploratory study (n = 401), carriers of 640GG had an event-free survival (EFS) risk ratio of 1.95 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.31-2.90; P = 0.001] compared with 640AA. In a confirmatory set (n = 477), the risk ratios were 1.53 (1.04-2.25, P = 0.03). The complete set of 878 patients showed a relative risk of 1.72 (1.30-2.26) and 1.59 (1.14-2.21) for EFS and overall survival, respectively. Further molecular-biological experiments showed lower expression and reduced stability of transcripts with the G allele in lymphoblastoid cell lines. Transfection of allele-specific plasmids into HEK293 cells elicited lower activity for the G allele in a luciferase reporter gene construct. Thus, CYBA 640A>G was shown to be a functional polymorphism with possible consequences for patients receiving CHO(E)P chemotherapy and might have further implications for other ROS-mediated modalities. PMID:20215507

Hoffmann, Marion; Schirmer, Markus A; Tzvetkov, Mladen V; Kreuz, Markus; Ziepert, Marita; Wojnowski, Leszek; Kube, Dieter; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Trümper, Lorenz; Loeffler, Markus; Brockmöller, Jürgen

2010-03-15

227

[Genetic variation and differentiation of wood mice from the genus Sylvaemus inferred from sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene fragment].  

PubMed

To ascertain intra- and interspecific differentiation patterns of some Sylvaemus wood mice species (S. uralensis, S. sylvaticus, S. ponticus, S. flavicollis, and S. fulvipectus), sequence variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) fragment (654 bp) was analyzed and the data obtained using several molecular genetic markers were compared. Distinct isolation of all Sylvaemus species (including closely related allopatric S. flavicollis and S. ponticus), as well as of the European and Asian races of pygmy wood mouse S. uralensis at the COI gene was demonstrated. However, genetic differences of the Sylvaemus species were 1.5 times and more higher than the distance (D) between the races of S. uralenciis. This finding provides no ample grounds to treat the latter as the independent species. The only specimen of Pamir-Alay subspecies S. uralensis pallipes examined showed closest relatedness to to the Asian race, although was rather distant from it (D = 0.038). No reliable isolation of the eastern European and southern European chromosomal forms, representing the European race of S. uralensis, as well as of their presumptive hybrids from the outskirts of the city of Sal'sk, Rostov region, at the COI gene was revealed. A hybrid origin of the populations of pygmy wood mouse from the outskirts of the Talapker railway station, Novovarshavsky district, Omsk region, was confirmed. In preliminary studies, based on karyotypic characters, these populations were diagnosed as distant hybrids of the eastern European chromosomal form and the Asian race. In yellow-necked wood mouse S. flavicollis from the territory of Russia and Ukraine, weak differentiation into northern and southern lineages (with mean genetic distance between them of 0.020) was observed. Considerably different relative genetic distances between the races of S. uralensis and the S. flavicollis--S. ponticus species pair, inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and cytochrome b gene data, indicated that the rates of evolution of different mitochondrial genome regions could be very different. It is suggested that transformations of the cytochrome b gene, or at least its part, were irregular in time and/or in different phyletic lineages (i.e., accelerated upon the formation of pygmy wood mouse races, and delayed upon the establishment of S. flavicollis and S. ponticus). PMID:22568000

Bogdanov, A S; Stakheev, V V; Zykov, A E; Iakimenko, V V; Mal'kova, M G

2012-02-01

228

Real time expression of ACC oxidase and PR-protein genes mediated by Methylobacterium spp. in tomato plants challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.  

PubMed

Biotic stress like pathogenic infection increases ethylene biosynthesis in plants and ethylene inhibitors are known to alleviate the severity of plant disease incidence. This study aimed to reduce the bacterial spot disease incidence in tomato plants caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (XCV) by modulating stress ethylene with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse condition, Methylobacterium strains inoculated and pathogen challenged tomato plants had low ethylene emission compared to pathogen infected ones. ACC accumulation and ACC oxidase (ACO) activity with ACO related gene expression increased in XCV infected tomato plants over Methylobacterium strains inoculated plants. Among the Methylobacterium spp., CBMB12 resulted lowest ACO related gene expression (1.46 Normalized Fold Expression), whereas CBMB20 had high gene expression (3.42 Normalized Fold Expression) in pathogen challenged tomato. But a significant increase in ACO gene expression (7.09 Normalized Fold Expression) was observed in the bacterial pathogen infected plants. In contrast, Methylobacterium strains enhanced ?-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activities in pathogen challenged tomato plants. The respective increase in ?-1,3-glucanase related gene expressions due to CBMB12, CBMB15, and CBMB20 strains were 66.3, 25.5 and 10.4% higher over pathogen infected plants. Similarly, PAL gene expression was high with 0.67 and 0.30 Normalized Fold Expression, in pathogen challenged tomato plants inoculated with CBMB12 and CBMB15 strains. The results suggest that ethylene is a crucial factor in bacterial spot disease incidence and that methylobacteria with ACC deaminase activity can reduce the disease severity with ultimate pathogenesis-related protein increase in tomato. PMID:24974333

Yim, W J; Kim, K Y; Lee, Y W; Sundaram, S P; Lee, Y; Sa, T M

2014-07-15

229

The plant energy-dissipating mitochondrial systems: depicting the genomic structure and the expression profiles of the gene families of uncoupling protein and alternative oxidase in monocots and dicots.  

PubMed

The simultaneous existence of alternative oxidases and uncoupling proteins in plants has raised the question as to why plants need two energy-dissipating systems with apparently similar physiological functions. A probably complete plant uncoupling protein gene family is described and the expression profiles of this family compared with the multigene family of alternative oxidases in Arabidopsis thaliana and sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) employed as dicot and monocot models, respectively. In total, six uncoupling protein genes, AtPUMP1-6, were recognized within the Arabidopsis genome and five (SsPUMP1-5) in a sugarcane EST database. The recombinant AtPUMP5 protein displayed similar biochemical properties as AtPUMP1. Sugarcane possessed four Arabidopsis AOx1-type orthologues (SsAOx1a-1d); no sugarcane orthologue corresponding to Arabidopsis AOx2-type genes was identified. Phylogenetic and expression analyses suggested that AtAOx1d does not belong to the AOx1-type family but forms a new (AOx3-type) family. Tissue-enriched expression profiling revealed that uncoupling protein genes were expressed more ubiquitously than the alternative oxidase genes. Distinct expression patterns among gene family members were observed between monocots and dicots and during chilling stress. These findings suggest that the members of each energy-dissipating system are subject to different cell or tissue/organ transcriptional regulation. As a result, plants may respond more flexibly to adverse biotic and abiotic conditions, in which oxidative stress is involved. PMID:16473895

Borecky, Jirí; Nogueira, Fábio T S; de Oliveira, Kívia A P; Maia, Ivan G; Vercesi, Aníbal E; Arruda, Paulo

2006-01-01

230

Ortholog search of proteins involved in copper delivery to cytochrome C oxidase and functional analysis of paralogs and gene neighbors by genomic context.  

PubMed

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a multi-subunit enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Delivery of metal cofactors to COX is essential for assembly, which represents a long-standing puzzle. The proteins Cox17, Sco1/2, and Cox11 are necessary for copper insertion into CuA and CuB redox centers of COX in eukaryotes. A genome-wide search in all prokaryotic genomes combined with genomic context reveals that only Sco and Cox11 have orthologs in prokaryotes. However, while Cox11 function is confined to COX assembly, Sco acts as a multifunctional linker connecting a variety of biological processes. Multifunctionality is achieved by gene duplication and paralogs. Neighbor genes of Sco paralogs often encode cuproenzymes and cytochrome c domains and, in some cases, Sco is fused to cytochrome c. This led us to suggest that cytochrome c might be relevant to Sco function and the two proteins might jointly be involved in COX assembly. Sco is also related, in terms of gene neighborhood and phylogenetic occurrence, to a newly detected protein involved in copper trafficking in bacteria and archaea, but with no sequence similarity to the mitochondrial copper chaperone Cox17. By linking the assembly system to the copper uptake system, Sco allows COX to face alternative copper trafficking pathways. PMID:15707358

Arnesano, Fabio; Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano; Martinelli, Manuele

2005-01-01

231

Partial protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene deletions, due to different Alu-mediated mechanisms, identified by MLPA analysis in patients with variegate porphyria  

PubMed Central

Variegate porphyria (VP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited hepatic porphyria. The genetic defect in the PPOX gene leads to a partial defect of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme of heme biosynthesis. Affected individuals can develop cutaneous symptoms in sun-exposed areas of the skin and/or neuropsychiatric acute attacks. The identification of the genetic defect in VP families is of crucial importance to detect the carrier status which allows counseling to prevent potentially life threatening neurovisceral attacks, usually triggered by factors such as certain drugs, alcohol or fasting. In a total of 31 Swedish VP families sequence analysis had identified a genetic defect in 26. In the remaining five families an extended genetic investigation was necessary. After the development of a synthetic probe set, MLPA analysis to screen for single exon deletions/duplications was performed. We describe here, for the first time, two partial deletions within the PPOX gene detected by MLPA analysis. One deletion affects exon 5 and 6 (c.339-197_616+320del1099) and has been identified in four families, most probably after a founder effect. The other extends from exon 5 to exon 9 (c.339-350_987+229del2609) and was found in one family. We show that both deletions are mediated by Alu repeats. Our findings emphasize the usefulness of MLPA analysis as a complement to PPOX gene sequencing analysis for comprehensive genetic diagnostics in patients with VP.

2013-01-01

232

Partial protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene deletions, due to different Alu-mediated mechanisms, identified by MLPA analysis in patients with variegate porphyria.  

PubMed

Variegate porphyria (VP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited hepatic porphyria. The genetic defect in the PPOX gene leads to a partial defect of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme of heme biosynthesis. Affected individuals can develop cutaneous symptoms in sun-exposed areas of the skin and/or neuropsychiatric acute attacks. The identification of the genetic defect in VP families is of crucial importance to detect the carrier status which allows counseling to prevent potentially life threatening neurovisceral attacks, usually triggered by factors such as certain drugs, alcohol or fasting.In a total of 31 Swedish VP families sequence analysis had identified a genetic defect in 26. In the remaining five families an extended genetic investigation was necessary. After the development of a synthetic probe set, MLPA analysis to screen for single exon deletions/duplications was performed.We describe here, for the first time, two partial deletions within the PPOX gene detected by MLPA analysis. One deletion affects exon 5 and 6 (c.339-197_616+320del1099) and has been identified in four families, most probably after a founder effect. The other extends from exon 5 to exon 9 (c.339-350_987+229del2609) and was found in one family. We show that both deletions are mediated by Alu repeats.Our findings emphasize the usefulness of MLPA analysis as a complement to PPOX gene sequencing analysis for comprehensive genetic diagnostics in patients with VP. PMID:23324528

Barbaro, Michela; Kotajärvi, Maire; Harper, Pauline; Floderus, Ylva

2013-01-01

233

Functional analysis of the Trichoderma harzianum nox1 gene, encoding an NADPH oxidase, relates production of reactive oxygen species to specific biocontrol activity against Pythium ultimum.  

PubMed

The synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the first events following pathogenic interactions in eukaryotic cells, and NADPH oxidases are involved in the formation of such ROS. The nox1 gene of Trichoderma harzianum was cloned, and its role in antagonism against phytopathogens was analyzed in nox1-overexpressed transformants. The increased levels of nox1 expression in these transformants were accompanied by an increase in ROS production during their direct confrontation with Pythium ultimum. The transformants displayed an increased hydrolytic pattern, as determined by comparing protease, cellulase, and chitinase activities with those for the wild type. In confrontation assays against P. ultimum the nox1-overexpressed transformants were more effective than the wild type, but not in assays against Botrytis cinerea or Rhizoctonia solani. A transcriptomic analysis using a Trichoderma high-density oligonucleotide (HDO) microarray also showed that, compared to gene expression for the interaction of wild-type T. harzianum and P. ultimum, genes related to protease, cellulase, and chitinase activities were differentially upregulated in the interaction of a nox1-overexpressed transformant with this pathogen. Our results show that nox1 is involved in T. harzianum ROS production and antagonism against P. ultimum. PMID:21421791

Montero-Barrientos, M; Hermosa, R; Cardoza, R E; Gutiérrez, S; Monte, E

2011-05-01

234

The origin of the Tibetan Mastiff and species identification of Canis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and COI barcoding.  

PubMed

DNA barcoding is an effective technique to identify species and analyze phylogenesis and evolution. However, research on and application of DNA barcoding in Canis have not been carried out. In this study, we analyzed two species of Canis, Canis lupus (n = 115) and Canis latrans (n = 4), using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (1545 bp) and COI barcoding (648 bp DNA sequence of the COI gene). The results showed that the COI gene, as the moderate variant sequence, applied to the analysis of the phylogenesis of Canis members, and COI barcoding applied to species identification of Canis members. Phylogenetic trees and networks showed that domestic dogs had four maternal origins (A to D) and that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from Clade A; this result supports the theory of an East Asian origin of domestic dogs. Clustering analysis and networking revealed the presence of a closer relative between the Tibetan Mastiff and the Old English sheepdog, Newfoundland, Rottweiler and Saint Bernard, which confirms that many well-known large breed dogs in the world, such as the Old English sheepdog, may have the same blood lineage as that of the Tibetan Mastiff. PMID:22440462

Li, Y; Zhao, X; Pan, Z; Xie, Z; Liu, H; Xu, Y; Li, Q

2011-12-01

235

Direct Identification of a Bacterial Manganese(II) Oxidase, the Multicopper Oxidase MnxG, from Spores of Several Different Marine Bacillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms catalyze the formation of naturally occurring Mn oxides, but little is known about the biochemical mechanisms of this important biogeochemical process. We used tandem mass spectrometry to directly analyze the Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme from marine Bacillus spores, identified as an Mn oxide band with an in-gel activity assay. Nine distinct peptides recovered from the Mn oxide band of two Bacillus

Gregory J. Dick; Justin W. Torpey; Terry J. Beveridge; Bradley M. Tebo

2008-01-01

236

Hypoxia-response element (HRE)-directed transcriptional regulation of the rat lysyl oxidase gene in response to cobalt and cadmium.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase (LO) catalyzes crosslink of collagen, elastin, and histone H1, stabilizing the extracellular matrix and cell nucleus. This enzyme displays dual functions for tumorigenesis, i.e., as a tumor suppressor inactivating the ras oncogene and as a tumor promoter enhancing malignant cell metastasis. To elucidate LO transcriptional regulation, we have cloned the 804 base pair region upstream of the translation start site (ATG) of the rat LO gene with the maximal promoter activity. Computer analysis indicated that at least four hypoxia-response element (HRE) consensuses (5'-ACGTG-3') exist in the cloned LO promoter. Treatment of rat lung fibroblasts (RFL6) with CoCl2 (Co, 10-100 ?M), a chemical hypoxia reagent, enhanced LO mRNA expression and promoter activities. Overexpression of LO was associated with upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? at mRNA levels in cobalt (Co)-treated cells. Thus, LO is a hypoxia-responsive gene. Dominant negative-HIF-1? inhibited LO promoter activities stimulated by Co. Electrophoretic mobility shift, oligonucleotide competition, and in vitro translated HIF-1? binding assays indicated that only one HRE mapped at -387/-383 relative to ATG was functionally active among four consensuses. Site-directed mutation of this HRE significantly diminished the Co-induced and LO promoter-directed expression of the reporter gene. Cadmium (Cd), an inducer of reactive oxygen species, inhibited HIF-1? mRNA expression and HIF-1? binding to the LO gene in Co-treated cells as revealed by RT-PCR and ChIP assays, respectively. Thus, modulation of the HRE activity by Co and Cd plays a critical role in LO gene transactivation. PMID:23161664

Gao, Song; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Yinzhi; Toselli, Paul; Li, Wande

2013-04-01

237

Neuron-specific specificity protein 4 bigenomically regulates the transcription of all mitochondria- and nucleus-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes in neurons.  

PubMed

Neurons are highly dependent on oxidative metabolism for their energy supply, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a key energy-generating enzyme in the mitochondria. A unique feature of COX is that it is one of only four proteins in mammalian cells that are bigenomically regulated. Of its thirteen subunits, three are encoded in the mitochondrial genome and ten are nuclear-encoded on nine different chromosomes. The mechanism of regulating this multisubunit, bigenomic enzyme poses a distinct challenge. In recent years, we found that nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 (NRF-1 and NRF-2) mediate such bigenomic coordination. The latest candidate is the specificity factor (Sp) family of proteins. In N2a cells, we found that Sp1 regulates all 13 COX subunits. However, we discovered recently that in primary neurons, it is Sp4 and not Sp1 that regulates some of the key glutamatergic receptor subunit genes. The question naturally arises as to the role of Sp4 in regulating COX in primary neurons. The present study utilized multiple approaches, including chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, knockdown and over-expression of Sp4, as well as functional assays to document that Sp4 indeed functionally regulate all 13 subunits of COX as well as mitochondrial transcription factors A and B. The present study discovered that among the specificity family of transcription factors, it is the less known neuron-specific Sp4 that regulates the expression of all 13 subunits of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) enzyme in primary neurons. Sp4 also regulates the three mitochondrial transcription factors (TFAM, TFB1M, and TFB2M) and a COX assembly protein SURF-1 in primary neurons. PMID:24032355

Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Dhar, Shilpa; Liu, Qiuli; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

2013-11-01

238

Bilirubin Oxidase from Bacillus pumilus: A promising enzyme for the elaboration of efficient cathodes in Biofuel cells  

PubMed Central

A CotA Multicopper Oxidase (MCO) from Bacillus pumilus, previously identified as a laccase, has been studied and characterized as a new bacterial Bilirubin Oxidase (BOD). The 59kDa protein containing four coppers, was successfully over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity in one step. This 509 amino-acid enzyme, having 67% and 26% sequence identity with CotA from Bacillus subtilis and BOD from Myrothecium verrucaria, respectively, shows higher turnover activity towards bilirubin compared to other bacterial MCOs. The current density for O2 reduction, when immobilized in a redox hydrogel, is only 12% smaller than the current obtained with Trachyderma tsunodae BOD. Under continuous electrocatalysis, an electrode modified with the new BOD is more stable, and has a higher tolerance towards NaCl, than a T. tsunodae BOD modified electrode. This makes BOD from B. pumilus an attractive new candidate for application in biofuel cells and biosensors.

Durand, Fabien; Kjaergaard, Christian Hauge; Suraniti, Emmanuel; Gounel, Sebastien; Hadt, Ryan G.; Solomon, Edward I; Mano, Nicolas

2013-01-01

239

Group I introns in the liverwort mitochondrial genome: the gene coding for subunit 1 of cytochrome oxidase shares five intron positions with its fungal counterparts.  

PubMed Central

The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, contains thirty-two introns. Twenty-five of these introns possess the characteristic secondary structures and consensus sequences of group II introns. The remaining seven are group I introns, six of which happen to interrupt the gene coding for subunit 1 of cytochrome oxidase (cox1). Interestingly, the insertion sites of one group II and four group I introns in the cox1 gene coincide with those of the respective fungal mitochondrial interns. Moreover, comparison of the four group I introns with their fungal counterparts shows that group I introns inserted at identical genomic sites in different organisms are indeed related to one another, in terms of the peptide sequences generated from the complete or fragmental ORFs encoded by these introns. At the same time, the liverwort introns turned out to be more divergent from their fungal cognates than the latter are from one another. We therefore conclude that vertical transmission from a common ancestor organism is the simplest explanation for the presence of cognate introns in liverwort and fungal mitochondrial genomes.

Ohta, E; Oda, K; Yamato, K; Nakamura, Y; Takemura, M; Nozato, N; Akashi, K; Ohyama, K; Michel, F

1993-01-01

240

[Comparative analysis of variability of three mitochondrial genes of cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in wild and domestic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  

PubMed

For the first time, we studied the polymorphism of three mitochondrial genes of the cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in natural populations of wild carp living in the Volga, Amur, and Don River Basins, as well as in European Hungarian carp and two pedigree lines of Ropsha carp of domestic breeding. The highest level of nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the studied samples was detected for the cox1 gene (pi = 0.61, h = 100%). Two lines of the Ropsha carp (pi = 0.61, h = 100%) and the Far East population of Amur wild carp from Shershikh strait (Am: pi = 0.20, h = 70%) were the most polymorphic for three genes. The second sample of Amur wild carp from the Amur River (Ac), as well as the samples of Volga and Don wild carp and Hungarian carp had lower values of variability. The presence of two main genealogical lines of the wild carp and carp was demonstrated based on the total sequence of three genes, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequences in the studied area. One of these lines (line I) is typical of the sample of Amur wild carp (Am) and three members of the Ropsha carp. Line II is developed by sequences of Volga, Don, and Amur wild carp (Ac), as well as European Hungarian carp and seven other members of the Ropsha carp. Three to four sublines, which differ in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, were found within the lines. Possible reasons for the origin of genomic variability in wild carp, as well as in European and Russian breeds of carp, are discussed. PMID:23516901

Torgunakova, O A; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K

2012-12-01

241

Noninvasive hypoxia monitor based on gene-free engineering of lactate oxidase for analysis of undiluted sweat.  

PubMed

We report on the Prussian Blue based lactate biosensor with the remarkably increased upper detection limit suitable for analysis of undiluted sweat. Engineering of the enzyme lactate oxidase has been carried out upon its immobilization from water-isopropanol mixtures with the high (90%) content of organic solvent. To decrease the enzyme binding constant, we propose to shield the substrate binding sites in its active center with negatively charged polyelectrolyte. The biosensor made from the optimal mixture (3% ?- aminopropyltriethoxysilane and 5% perfluorosulfonated ionomer) is characterized by the calibration graph, which even in batch mode is shifted for 2 orders of magnitude toward high analyte concentrations as compared to it of lactate sensitive electrode made without Nafion analogue. In flow-injection mode, the biosensor allows lactate detection up to 0.5 M. The biosensor displays stable response for 4 h of continuous operation. The achieved analytical performance characteristics allow the monitoring of lactate content in undiluted sweat. A successful validation of the elaborated flow-through monitor with the integrated biosensor opens new horizons for noninvasive diagnostics of hypoxia-related conditions. PMID:24837858

Pribil, Medeya M; Laptev, Gennady U; Karyakina, Elena E; Karyakin, Arkady A

2014-06-01

242

Identification and genetic characterization of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene that controls tree stature and reproductive growth in plum.  

PubMed

Several dwarf plum genotypes (Prunus salicina L.), due to deficiency of unknown gibberellin (GA) signalling, were identified. A cDNA encoding GA 2-oxidase (PslGA2ox), the major gibberellin catabolic enzyme in plants, was cloned and used to screen the GA-deficient hybrids. This resulted in the identification of a dwarf plum hybrid, designated as DGO24, that exhibits a markedly elevated PslGA2ox signal. Grafting 'Early Golden' (EG), a commercial plum cultivar, on DGO24 (EG/D) enhanced PslGA2ox accumulation in the scion part and generated trees of compact stature. Assessment of active GAs in such trees revealed that DGO24 and EG/D accumulated relatively much lower quantities of main bioactive GAs (GA(1) and GA(4)) than control trees (EG/M). Moreover, the physiological function of PslGA2ox was studied by determining the molecular and developmental consequences due to ectopic expression in Arabidopsis. Among several lines, two groups of homozygous transgenics that exhibited contrasting phenotypes were identified. Group-1 displayed a dwarf growth pattern typical of mutants with a GA deficiency including smaller leaves, shorter stems, and delay in the development of reproductive events. In contrast, Group-2 exhibited a 'GA overdose' phenotype as all the plants showed elongated growth, a typical response to GA application, even under limited GA conditions, potentially due to co-suppression of closely related Arabidopsis homologous. The studies reveal the possibility of utilizing PslGA2ox as a marker for developing size-controlling rootstocks in Prunus. PMID:22080981

El-Sharkawy, I; El Kayal, W; Prasath, D; Fernández, H; Bouzayen, M; Svircev, A M; Jayasankar, S

2012-02-01

243

Identification and genetic characterization of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene that controls tree stature and reproductive growth in plum  

PubMed Central

Several dwarf plum genotypes (Prunus salicina L.), due to deficiency of unknown gibberellin (GA) signalling, were identified. A cDNA encoding GA 2-oxidase (PslGA2ox), the major gibberellin catabolic enzyme in plants, was cloned and used to screen the GA-deficient hybrids. This resulted in the identification of a dwarf plum hybrid, designated as DGO24, that exhibits a markedly elevated PslGA2ox signal. Grafting ‘Early Golden’ (EG), a commercial plum cultivar, on DGO24 (EG/D) enhanced PslGA2ox accumulation in the scion part and generated trees of compact stature. Assessment of active GAs in such trees revealed that DGO24 and EG/D accumulated relatively much lower quantities of main bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA4) than control trees (EG/M). Moreover, the physiological function of PslGA2ox was studied by determining the molecular and developmental consequences due to ectopic expression in Arabidopsis. Among several lines, two groups of homozygous transgenics that exhibited contrasting phenotypes were identified. Group-1 displayed a dwarf growth pattern typical of mutants with a GA deficiency including smaller leaves, shorter stems, and delay in the development of reproductive events. In contrast, Group-2 exhibited a ‘GA overdose’ phenotype as all the plants showed elongated growth, a typical response to GA application, even under limited GA conditions, potentially due to co-suppression of closely related Arabidopsis homologous. The studies reveal the possibility of utilizing PslGA2ox as a marker for developing size-controlling rootstocks in Prunus.

El-Sharkawy, I.; El Kayal, W.; Prasath, D.; Fernandez, H.; Bouzayen, M.; Svircev, A. M.; Jayasankar, S.

2012-01-01

244

Multiple genes, including a member of the AAA family, are essential for degradation of unassembled subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase in yeast mitochondria.  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome c oxidase consists of three mitochondrion- and several nucleus-encoded subunits. We previously found that in a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking nucleus-encoded subunit 4 of this enzyme (CoxIV), subunits 2 and 3 (CoxII and CoxIII), both encoded by the mitochondrial DNA, were unstable and rapidly degraded in mitochondria, presumably because the subunits cannot assemble normally. To analyze the molecular machinery involved in this proteolytic pathway, we obtained four mutants defective in the degradation of unassembled CoxII (osd mutants) by screening CoxIV-deficient cells for the accumulation of CoxII. All of the mutants were recessive and were classified into three different complementation groups. Tetrad analyses revealed that the phenotype of each mutant was caused by a single nuclear mutation. These results suggest strongly that at least three nuclear genes (the OSD genes) are required for this degradation system. Interestingly, degradation of CoxIII was not affected in the mutants, implying that the two subunits are degraded by distinct pathways. We also cloned the OSD1 gene by complementation of the temperature sensitivity of osd1-1 mutants with a COXIV+ genetic background on a nonfermentable glycerol medium. We found it to encode a member of a family (the AAA family) of putative ATPases, which proved to be identical to recently described YME1 and YTA11. Immunological analyses revealed that Osd1 protein is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane. Disruption of the predicted ATP-binding cassette by site-directed mutagenesis eliminated biological activities, thereby underscoring the importance of ATP for function.

Nakai, T; Yasuhara, T; Fujiki, Y; Ohashi, A

1995-01-01

245

Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene  

PubMed Central

Background: Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran. Methods: DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474–475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phylogenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P) model of neighbor-joining method. Results: Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran) in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individuals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%. Conclusion: Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis.

Naddaf, Saied Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan

2012-01-01

246

Association study between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia: lack of association with schizophrenia and possible association with affective disturbances of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) catalyzes monoamine neurotransmitters including dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), and norepinephrine. MAOA also plays a key role in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MAOA gene located on the X chromosome and schizophrenia. We also analyzed the relationships between these SNPs and the common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia such as persecutory delusion, auditory hallucinations, affective disturbances, and poor concentration. Two hundred seventy five Korean schizophrenia patients and 289 control subjects were recruited. Three SNPs [rs6323 (Arg294Arg), rs1137070 (Asp470Asp), and rs3027407 (3'-untranslated region)] of the MAOA gene were selected and genotyped by direct sequencing. The common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia according to the Operation Criteria Checklist were analyzed. Three examined SNPs showed no associations with male and female schizophrenia, respectively (p > 0.05). In the analysis of the common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients, three examined SNPs were associated with affective disturbances, especially restricted affect and blunted affect in male schizophrenia, respectively (restricted affect, p = 0.002, OR = 2.71, 95 % CI 1.45-5.00; blunted affect, p = 0.009, OR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.22-4.12). The SNPs were not associated with other clinical symptoms of schizophrenia (persecutory delusion, auditory hallucinations, and poor concentration). These results suggest that exonic SNPs (rs6323, rs1137070, and rs3027407) of the MAOA gene may be contributed to affective disturbances of Korean males schizophrenia, especially restricted affect and blunted affect. PMID:24510409

Kim, Su Kang; Park, Hae Jeong; Seok, Hosik; Jeon, Hye Sook; Chung, Joo-Ho; Kang, Won Sub; Kim, Jong Woo; Yu, Gyeong Im; Shin, Dong Hoon

2014-05-01

247

Regulation of the Alternative Oxidase Aox1 Gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Role of the Nitrogen Source on the Expression of a Reporter Gene under the Control of the Aox1 Promoter1  

PubMed Central

In higher plants, various developmental and environmental conditions enhance expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX), whereas its induction in fungi is mainly dependent on cytochrome pathway restriction and triggering by reactive oxygen species. The AOX of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is encoded by two different genes, the Aox1 gene being much more transcribed than Aox2. To analyze the transcriptional regulation of Aox1, we have fused its 1.4-kb promoter region to the promoterless arylsulfatase (Ars) reporter gene and measured ARS enzyme activities in transformants carrying the chimeric construct. We show that the Aox1 promoter is generally unresponsive to a number of known AOX inducers, including stress agents, respiratory inhibitors, and metabolites, possibly because the AOX activity is constitutively high in the alga. In contrast, the Aox1 expression is strongly dependent on the nitrogen source, being down-regulated by ammonium and stimulated by nitrate. Inactivation of nitrate reductase leads to a further increase of expression. The stimulation by nitrate also occurs at the AOX protein and respiratory levels. A deletion analysis of the Aox1 promoter region demonstrates that a short upstream segment (?253 to +59 with respect to the transcription start site) is sufficient to ensure gene expression and regulation, but that distal elements are required for full gene expression. The observed pattern of AOX regulation points to the possible interaction between chloroplast and mitochondria in relation to a potential increase of photogenerated ATP when nitrate is used as a nitrogen source.

Baurain, Denis; Dinant, Monique; Coosemans, Nadine; Matagne, Rene F.

2003-01-01

248

Lysyl Oxidase, Cellular Senescence and Tumor Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replicative senescence may provide a mechanism of tumor suppression and tumor suppressor genes of the extracellular matrix, like lysyl oxidase, may play a role in cellular senescence. To test this hypothesis and determine whether the extracellular matrix may serve as a marker, the steady-state levels of human lysyl oxidase, a-I type III collagen and ß-actin transcripts were assessed in various

Rashmi Sharma; Jeffrey A. Kramer; Stephen A. Krawetz

1997-01-01

249

New restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the cytochrome oxidase I gene facilitate host strain identification of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

Several restriction sites in the cytochrome oxidase I gene of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), were identified by sequence analysis as potentially being specific to one of the two host strains. Strain specificity was demonstrated for populations in Florida, Texas, Mississippi, Georgia, and North Carolina, with an AciI and SacI site specific to the rice (Oryjza spp.)-strain and a BsmI and HinfI site joining an already characterized MspI site as diagnostic of the corn (Zea mays L.)-strain. All four of these sites can be detected by digestion of a single 568-bp polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragment, but the use of two enzymes in separate digests was found to provide accurate and rapid determination of strain identity. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated by the analysis of almost 200 adult and larval specimens from the Mississippi delta region. The results indicated that the corn-strain is likely to be the primary strain infesting cotton (Gossypium spp.) and that an unexpected outbreak of fall armyworm on the ornamental tree Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. was due almost entirely to the rice-strain. PMID:16813297

Nagoshi, Rod N; Meagher, Robert L; Adamczyk, John J; Braman, S Kristine; Brandenburg, Rick L; Nuessly, Gregg

2006-06-01

250

Genetic variation of Gongylonema pulchrum from wild animals and cattle in Japan based on ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes.  

PubMed

The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide, including monkeys and humans. Due to its wide host range, it has been suggested that the worm may be transmitted locally to any mammalian host by chance. To investigate this notion, the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), mainly regions of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2, and a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of mitochondrial DNA of G. pulchrum were characterized using parasites from the following hosts located in Japan: cattle, sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, a feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The rDNA nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum were generally well conserved regardless of their host origin. However, a few insertions/deletions of nucleotides along with a few base substitutions in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions were observed in G. pulchrum from sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques, and those differed from G. pulchrum in cattle, the feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The COI sequences of G. pulchrum were further divided into multiple haplotypes and two groups of haplotypes, i.e. those from a majority of sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques and those from cattle and zoo animals, were clearly differentiated. Our findings indicate that domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles of the gullet worm are currently present, at least in Japan. PMID:22967753

Makouloutou, P; Setsuda, A; Yokoyama, M; Tsuji, T; Saita, E; Torii, H; Kaneshiro, Y; Sasaki, M; Maeda, K; Une, Y; Hasegawa, H; Sato, H

2013-09-01

251

Mutations in monoamine oxidase (MAO) genes in mice lead to hypersensitivity to serotonin-enhancing drugs: implications for drug side effects in humans.  

PubMed

A possible side effect of serotonin-enhancing drugs is the serotonin syndrome, which can be lethal. Here we examined possible hypersensitivity to two such drugs, the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) and the atypical opioid tramadol, in mice lacking the genes for both monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and MAOB. MAOA/B-knockout (KO) mice displayed baseline serotonin syndrome behaviors, and these behavioral responses were highly exaggerated following 5-HTP or tramadol versus baseline and wild-type (WT) littermates. Compared with MAOA/B-WT mice, baseline tissue serotonin levels were increased ?2.6-3.9-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. Following 5-HTP, serotonin levels were further increased ?4.5-6.2-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. These exaggerated responses are in line with the exaggerated responses following serotonin-enhancing drugs that we previously observed in mice lacking the serotonin transporter (SERT). These findings provide a second genetic mouse model suggestive of possible human vulnerability to the serotonin syndrome in individuals with lesser-expressing MAO or SERT polymorphisms that confer serotonergic system changes. PMID:22964922

Fox, M A; Panessiti, M G; Moya, P R; Tolliver, T J; Chen, K; Shih, J C; Murphy, D L

2013-12-01

252

Himantura tutul sp. nov. (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae), a new ocellated whipray from the tropical Indo-West Pacific, described from its cytochrome-oxidase I gene sequence.  

PubMed

It has been previously established that the Leopard Whipray, Himantura leoparda, consists of two genetically isolated, cryptic species, provisionally designated as 'Cluster 1' and 'Cluster 4' (Arlyza et al., Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 65 (2013) [1]). Here, we show that the two cryptic species differ by the spotting patterns on the dorsal surface of adults: Cluster-4 individuals tend to have larger-ocellated spots, which also more often have a continuous contour than Cluster-1 individuals. We show that H. leoparda's holotype has the typical larger-ocellated spot pattern, designating Cluster 4 as the actual H. leoparda. The other species (Cluster 1) is described as Himantura tutul sp. nov. on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 655-base pair fragment of its cytochrome-oxidase I gene (GenBank accession No. JX263335). Nucleotide synapomorphies at this locus clearly distinguish H. tutul sp. nov. from all three other valid species in the H. uarnak species complex, namely H. leoparda, H. uarnak, and H. undulata. H. tutul sp. nov. has a wide distribution in the Indo-West Pacific, from the shores of eastern Africa to the Indo-Malay archipelago. H. leoparda under its new definition has a similarly wide Indo-West Pacific distribution. PMID:23608177

Borsa, Philippe; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Shen, Kang-Ning; Arlyza, Irma S; Solihin, Dedy D; Berrebi, Patrick

2013-02-01

253

The rebalanced pathway significantly enhances acetoin production by disruption of acetoin reductase gene and moderate-expression of a new water-forming NADH oxidase in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis produces acetoin as a major extracellular product. However, the by-products of 2,3-butanediol, lactic acid and ethanol were accompanied in the NADH-dependent pathways. In this work, metabolic engineering strategies were proposed to redistribute the carbon flux to acetoin by manipulation the NADH levels. We first knocked out the acetoin reductase gene bdhA to block the main flux from acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Then, among four putative candidates, we successfully screened an active water-forming NADH oxidase, YODC. Moderate-expression of YODC in the bdhA disrupted B. subtilis weakened the NADH-linked pathways to by-product pools of acetoin. Through these strategies, acetoin production was improved to 56.7g/l with an increase of 35.3%, while the production of 2,3-butanediol, lactic acid and ethanol were decreased by 92.3%, 70.1% and 75.0%, respectively, simultaneously the fermentation duration was decreased 1.7-fold. Acetoin productivity by B. subtilis was improved to 0.639g/(lh). PMID:24525333

Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Rongzhen; Bao, Teng; Rao, Zhiming; Yang, Taowei; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Li, Huazhong; Yang, Shangtian

2014-05-01

254

Down-regulation of acyl-CoA oxidase gene expression and increased NF-kappaB activity in etomoxir-induced cardiac hypertrophy.  

PubMed

Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is required for hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. Etomoxir is an irreversible inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and induces cardiac hypertrophy through an unknown mechanism. We studied the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in the heart of mice treated for 1 or 10 days with etomoxir (100 mg/kg/day). Etomoxir administration for 1 day significantly increased (4.4-fold induction) the mRNA expression of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in peroxisomal beta-oxidation. In contrast, etomoxir treatment for 10 days dramatically decreased ACO mRNA levels by 96%. The reduction in ACO expression in the hearts of 10-day etomoxir-treated mice was accompanied by an increase in the mRNA expression of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and the cardiac marker of oxidative stress bax. Moreover, the activity of the redox-regulated transcription factor NF-kappaB was increased in heart after 10 days of etomoxir treatment. Overall, the findings here presented show that etomoxir treatment may induce cardiac hypertrophy via increased cellular oxidative stress and NF-kappaB activation. PMID:12576521

Cabrero, Agatha; Merlos, Manuel; Laguna, Juan C; Carrera, Manuel Vázquez

2003-02-01

255

Rcf1 and Rcf2, Members of the Hypoxia-Induced Gene 1 Protein Family, Are Critical Components of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome bc1-Cytochrome c Oxidase Supercomplex  

PubMed Central

We report that Rcf1 (formerly Aim31), a member of the conserved hypoxia-induced gene 1 (Hig1) protein family, represents a novel component of the yeast cytochrome bc1-cytochrome c oxidase (COX) supercomplex. Rcf1 (respiratory supercomplex factor 1) partitions with the COX complex, and evidence that it may act as a bridge to the cytochrome bc1 complex is presented. Rcf1 interacts with the Cox3 subunit and can do so prior to their assembly into the COX complex. A close proximity of Rcf1 and members of the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) family was also established. Rcf1 displays overlapping function with another Hig1-related protein, Rcf2 (formerly Aim38), and their joint presence is required for optimal COX enzyme activity and the correct assembly of the cytochrome bc1-COX supercomplex. Rcf1 and Rcf2 can independently associate with the cytochrome bc1-COX supercomplex, indicating that at least two forms of this supercomplex exist within mitochondria. We provide evidence that the association with the cytochrome bc1-COX supercomplex and regulation of the COX complex are a conserved feature of Hig1 family members. Based on our findings, we propose a model where the Hig1 proteins regulate the COX enzyme activity through Cox3 and associated Cox12 protein, in a manner that may be influenced by the neighboring AAC proteins.

Strogolova, Vera; Furness, Andrew; Robb-McGrath, Micaela; Garlich, Joshua

2012-01-01

256

An mtDNA mutation in the initiation codon of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit II gene results in lower levels of the protein and a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy.  

PubMed Central

A novel heteroplasmic 7587T-->C mutation in the mitochondrial genome which changes the initiation codon of the gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX II), was found in a family with mitochondrial disease. This T-->C transition is predicted to change the initiating methionine to threonine. The mutation load was present at 67% in muscle from the index case and at 91% in muscle from the patient's clinically affected son. Muscle biopsy samples revealed isolated COX deficiency and mitochondrial proliferation. Single-muscle-fiber analysis revealed that the 7587C copy was at much higher load in COX-negative fibers than in COX-positive fibers. After microphotometric enzyme analysis, the mutation was shown to cause a decrease in COX activity when the mutant load was >55%-65%. In fibroblasts from one family member, which contained >95% mutated mtDNA, there was no detectable synthesis or any steady-state level of COX II. This new mutation constitutes a new mechanism by which mtDNA mutations can cause disease-defective initiation of translation.

Clark, K M; Taylor, R W; Johnson, M A; Chinnery, P F; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Z M; Andrews, R M; Nelson, I P; Wood, N W; Lamont, P J; Hanna, M G; Lightowlers, R N; Turnbull, D M

1999-01-01

257

Mutation T318M in the CYP11B2 gene encoding P450c11AS (aldosterone synthase) causes corticosterone methyl oxidase II deficiency  

SciTech Connect

Corticosterone methyl oxidase (CMO) deficiency refers to disorders of aldosterone synthesis due to mutations in the CYP11B2 gene encoding cytochrome P450c11AS, which is the adrenal aldosterone synthase. Type I CMO deficiency is associated with low concentrations of 18OH-corticosterone and aldosterone, due to severe mutations in P450c11AS, while type III CMO deficiency is associated with high concentrations of 18OH-corticosterone and low concentrations of aldosterone, due to less severe mutations of P450c11AS. A single type of mutation, compound homozygosity for R181W and V386A, has been reported as the cause of CMOII deficiency in an inbred population. We now report a patient with a typical clinical and hormonal picture of CMOII deficiency. Direct sequencing of patient and parent DNAs showed that the mother`s allele contributed R181W and the deletion/frameshift mutation {Delta}C372, while the father`s allele contributed T318M and V386A. These mutants were recreated in cDNA expression vectors singly and in the parental pairs, showing that neither allele contributed any measurable activity. This would suggest the patient should have CMOI deficiency. These studies suggest that other factors besides P450c11AS are involved in the genesis of the distinctive CMOI and CMOII phenotypes. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Zhang, G.; Rodriguez, H.; Miller, W.L. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

258

Oxygen-dependent expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4-2 gene expression is mediated by transcription factors RBPJ, CXXC5 and CHCHD2  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the electron transport chain, made up of 13 subunits encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Subunit 4 (COX4), a key regulatory subunit, exists as two isoforms, the ubiquitous isoform 1 and the tissue-specific (predominantly lung) isoform 2 (COX4I2). COX4I2 renders lung COX about 2-fold more active compared with liver COX, which lacks COX4I2. We previously identified a highly conserved 13-bp sequence in the proximal promoter of COX4I2 that functions as an oxygen responsive element (ORE), maximally active at a 4% oxygen concentration. Here, we have identified three transcription factors that bind this conserved ORE, namely recombination signal sequence–binding protein J? (RBPJ), coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain 2 (CHCHD2) and CXXC finger protein 5 (CXXC5). We demonstrate that RBPJ and CHCHD2 function towards activating the ORE at 4% oxygen, whereas CXXC5 functions as an inhibitor. To validate results derived from cultured cells, we show using RNA interference a similar effect of these transcription factors in the gene regulation of COX4I2 in primary pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Depending on the oxygen tension, a concerted action of the three transcription factors regulates the expression of COX4I2 that, as we discuss, could augment both COX activity and its ability to cope with altered cellular energy requirements.

Aras, Siddhesh; Pak, Oleg; Sommer, Natascha; Finley, Russell; Huttemann, Maik; Weissmann, Norbert; Grossman, Lawrence I.

2013-01-01

259

Identification, characterization and nutritional regulation of two isoforms of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 gene in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

PubMed

In peroxisome, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) is the first rate-limiting enzyme of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway, which catalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. Two isoforms of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 were firstly identified in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in this study. ACOX1 isoform1 (ACOX1i1) and ACOX1 isoform2 (ACOX1i2) were encoded by the single gene with 661 amino acids in length. The coding region of both isoforms consisted of 14 exons. The residues from 89 to 193 in ACOX1i1 were encoded by exon 3b, while in ACOX1i2 they were encoded by exon 3a. Homologous alignment analysis indicated that the varied region (the residues from 89 to 193) of ACOX1i1 was more conserved than ACOX1i2 in vertebrates (Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia and Pisces). The mRNA expression level of ACOX1i1 and ACOX1i2 was detected separately in eleven tissues and the results indicated that ACOXi1 expression was the highest in liver followed by kidney and brain, while the expression of ACOXi2 was the highest in kidney followed by liver. The normalized levels of both transcript variants were comparable in most tissues, however the level of ACOX1i2 was significantly higher than that of ACOX1i1 in white muscle and kidney (5.1 fold and 3.1 fold), and ACOX1i1 was significantly higher than ACOX1i2 in gill and brain (4.8 fold and 1.9 fold). In different nutritional states, the expression levels of both isoforms in liver were comparable between fasting and most of post-feeding time points, except that the expression at 3h post-feeding was significantly lower than others. The expression of ACOX1i1 in the kidney also showed the similar pattern, indicating the lowest expression at 8h post-feeding, however, no significant change was seen in ACOX2i2 among all nutritional states. These results suggested that ACOX1i1 and i2 may play different roles in tissues, and their expression levels were differently modulated by nutritional stage. PMID:24802117

He, An-Yuan; Liu, Cai-Zhi; Chen, Li-Qiao; Ning, Li-Jun; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Li, Er-Chao; Du, Zhen-Yu

2014-07-15

260

Association of a Monoamine Oxidase-A Gene Promoter Polymorphism with ADHD and Anxiety in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to examine the association between a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAO-A gene and severity of ADHD and anxiety in boys with ASD. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 5- to 14-year-old boys with ASD (n = 43). Planned…

Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Hatchwell, Eli; Gadow, Kenneth D.

2009-01-01

261

Increase in BrAO1 gene expression and aldehyde oxidase activity during clubroot development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).  

PubMed

SUMMARY In clubroot disease, gall formation is induced by infection with the obligate biotroph Plasmodiophora brassicae due to increased levels of auxins and cytokinins. Because aldehyde oxidase (AO) may be involved in auxin biosynthesis in plants, we isolated two AO genes (BrAO1 and BrAO2) from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis cv. Muso), which are the most similar to AAO1 among Arabidopsis AO genes, and examined their expressions during clubroot development. The expression of BrAO1 was enhanced in inoculated roots from 15 days post-inoculation (dpi) when visible clubroots were still undetectable. Thereafter, BrAO1 expression increased with clubroot development compared with uninoculated roots, although BrAO2 expression was repressed. In situ hybridization revealed that BrAO1 was strongly expressed in tissues that were invaded by immature plasmodia at 35 dpi, suggesting that BrAO1 expression was enhanced by the pathogen in order to establish its pathogenesis. In addition, we detected AO activity, as evidenced by the occurrence of at least six bands (BrAO-a to BrAO-f) in the roots of Chinese cabbage using an active staining method with benzaldehyde and indlole-3-aldehyde as the substrate. Coincidental with BrAO1 expression, the signals of BrAO-a and BrAO-d increased with inoculation by P. brassicae during clubroot development compared with healthy roots, resulting in an increase in total AO activity. By contrast, the band BrAO-b decreased post-inoculation, in parallel with the expression of BrAO2. The other bands of activity were not clearly influenced by the infection. Based on these results, we discuss the involvement of AO in auxin-overproduction during clubroot development in Chinese cabbage. PMID:20507442

Ando, Sugihiro; Tsushima, Seiya; Tagiri, Akemi; Kamachi, Shinichiro; Konagaya, Ken-Ichi; Hagio, Takashi; Tabei, Yutaka

2006-07-01

262

Physiologic responses and gene diversity indicate olive alternative oxidase as a potential source for markers involved in efficient adventitious root induction.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees are mainly propagated by adventitious rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings. However, efficient commercial propagation of valuable olive tree cultivars or landraces by semi-hardwood cuttings can often be restricted by a low rooting capacity. We hypothesize that root induction is a plant cell reaction linked to oxidative stress and that activity of stress-induced alternative oxidase (AOX) is importantly involved in adventitious rooting. To identify AOX as a source for potential functional marker sequences that may assist tree breeding, genetic variability has to be demonstrated that can affect gene regulation. The paper presents an applied, multidisciplinary research approach demonstrating first indications of an important relationship between AOX activity and differential adventitious rooting in semi-hardwood cuttings. Root induction in the easy-to-root Portuguese cultivar 'Cobrançosa' could be significantly reduced by treatment with salicyl-hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of AOX activity. On the contrary, treatment with H2O2 or pyruvate, both known to induce AOX activity, increased the degree of rooting. Recently, identification of several O. europaea (Oe) AOX gene sequences has been reported from our group. Here we present for the first time partial sequences of OeAOX2. To search for polymorphisms inside of OeAOX genes, partial OeAOX2 sequences from the cultivars 'Galega vulgar', 'Cobrançosa' and 'Picual' were cloned from genomic DNA and cDNA, including exon, intron and 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) sequences. The data revealed polymorphic sites in several regions of OeAOX2. The 3'-UTR was the most important source for polymorphisms showing 5.7% of variability. Variability in the exon region accounted 3.4 and 2% in the intron. Further, analysis performed at the cDNA from microshoots of 'Galega vulgar' revealed transcript length variation for the 3'-UTR of OeAOX2 ranging between 76 and 301 bp. The identified polymorphisms and 3'-UTR length variation can be explored in future studies for effects on gene regulation and a potential linkage to olive rooting phenotypes in view of marker-assisted plant selection. PMID:19941624

Santos Macedo, Elisete; Cardoso, Hélia G; Hernández, Alejandro; Peixe, Augusto A; Polidoros, Alexios; Ferreira, Alexandre; Cordeiro, António; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

2009-12-01

263

Identification of regulatory elements involved in expression and induction by sucrose and UV-B light of the Arabidopsis thaliana COX5b-2 gene, encoding an isoform of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5b.  

PubMed

The promoter sequences required for expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana COX5b-2 gene, encoding an isoform of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5b, were analyzed using plants transformed with deleted and mutagenized forms of the promoter fused to gus. A 1000-bp promoter fragment produces expression in root and shoot meristems, leaf and cotyledon tips, and anthers. Deletion analysis indicated the presence of positive and negative regulatory elements. A regulatory element located between -660 and -620 from the translation start site was identified as a G-box by mutagenic analysis. Mutation of the G-box, that is present within the coding region of the preceding gene in the genome, increases expression of COX5b-2 in cotyledon and leaf lamina and abolishes induction by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light, which presumably acts through the removal of an inhibitory factor. Identified positive regulatory elements include a site II element (TGGGCC), a related element with the sequence TGGGTC and four initiator elements (YTCANTYY) that completely abolish expression when mutated in combination. Site II elements are also involved in the response to sucrose. The results imply that the COX5b-2 gene has retained expression characteristics presented by most respiratory chain component genes, but its expression mechanisms have diverged from those employed by COX5b-1, the other gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5b in Arabidopsis. PMID:19781003

Comelli, Raúl N; Gonzalez, Daniel H

2009-11-01

264

Gibberellin 3-oxidase Gene Expression Patterns Influence Gibberellin Biosynthesis, Growth, and Development in Pea1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Gibberellins (GAs) are key modulators of plant growth and development. PsGA3ox1 (LE) encodes a GA 3?-hydroxylase that catalyzes the conversion of GA20 to biologically active GA1. To further clarify the role of GA3ox expression during pea (Pisum sativum) plant growth and development, we generated transgenic pea lines (in a lele background) with cauliflower mosaic virus-35S-driven expression of PsGA3ox1 (LE). PsGA3ox1 transgene expression led to higher GA1 concentrations in a tissue-specific and development-specific manner, altering GA biosynthesis and catabolism gene expression and plant phenotype. PsGA3ox1 transgenic plants had longer internodes, tendrils, and fruits, larger stipules, and displayed delayed flowering, increased apical meristem life, and altered vascular development relative to the null controls. Transgenic PsGA3ox1 overexpression lines were then compared with lines where endogenous PsGA3ox1 (LE) was introduced, by a series of backcrosses, into the same genetic background (BC LEle). Most notably, the BC LEle plants had substantially longer internodes containing much greater GA1 levels than the transgenic PsGA3ox1 plants. Induction of expression of the GA deactivation gene PsGA2ox1 appears to make an important contribution to limiting the increase of internode GA1 to modest levels for the transgenic lines. In contrast, PsGA3ox1 (LE) expression driven by its endogenous promoter was coordinated within the internode tissue to avoid feed-forward regulation of PsGA2ox1, resulting in much greater GA1 accumulation. These studies further our fundamental understanding of the regulation of GA biosynthesis and catabolism at the tissue and organ level and demonstrate that the timing/localization of GA3ox expression within an organ affects both GA homeostasis and GA1 levels, and thereby growth.

Reinecke, Dennis M.; Wickramarathna, Aruna D.; Ozga, Jocelyn A.; Kurepin, Leonid V.; Jin, Alena L.; Good, Allen G.; Pharis, Richard P.

2013-01-01

265

Sex-specific associations of variants in regulatory regions of NADPH oxidase-2 (CYBB) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) genes with kidney disease in type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. The superoxide-generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase 2 (NOX2, encoded by the CYBB gene) and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) play opposing roles in the balance of cellular redox status. In the present study, we investigated associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions of CYBB and GPX4 with kidney disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. Two functional SNPs, rs6610650 (CYBB promoter region, chromosome X) and rs713041 (GPX4 3'untranslated region, chromosome 19), were genotyped in 451 patients with type 1 diabetes from a Brazilian cohort (diabetic nephropathy: 44.6%) and in 945 French/Belgian patients with type 1 diabetes from Genesis and GENEDIAB cohorts (diabetic nephropathy: 62.3%). The minor A-allele of CYBB rs6610650 was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Brazilian women, and with the prevalence of established/advanced nephropathy in French/Belgian women (odds ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.11-2.78, p = 0.016). The minor T-allele of GPX4 rs713041 was inversely associated with the prevalence of established/advanced nephropathy in Brazilian men (odds ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.13-0.68, p = 0.004), and associated with higher eGFR in French/Belgian men. In conclusion, these heterogeneous results suggest that neither CYBB nor GPX4 are major genetic determinants of diabetic nephropathy, but nevertheless, they could modulate in a gender-specific manner the risk for renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23919599

Monteiro, M B; Patente, T A; Mohammedi, K; Queiroz, M S; Azevedo, M J; Canani, L H; Parisi, M C; Marre, M; Velho, G; Corrêa-Giannella, M L

2013-10-01

266

Phylogenetic position of Linguatula arctica and Linguatula serrata (Pentastomida) as inferred from the nuclear 18S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.  

PubMed

Genomic DNA was isolated from a Linguatula serrata female expelled from a dog imported to Norway from Romania and from four Linguatula arctica females collected from semi-domesticated reindeer from northern Norway and subjected to PCR amplification of the complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene and a 1,045-bp portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). The two species differed at two of 1,830 nucleotide positions (99.9% identity) of the complete 18S rRNA gene sequences and at 102 of 1,045 nucleotide positions (90.2% identity) of the partial cox1 sequences. The four isolates of L. arctica showed no genetic variation in either gene. The new cox1 primers may facilitate the diagnosis of various developmental stages of L. arctica and L. serrata in their hosts. In separate phylogenetic analyses using the maximum likelihood method on sequence data from either gene, L. arctica and L. serrata clustered with members of the order Cephalobaenida rather than with members of the order Porocephalida, in which the genus Linguatula is currently placed based on morphological characters. The phylogenetic relationship of L. arctica, L. serrata and other pentastomids to other metazoan groups could not be clearly resolved, but the pentastomids did not seem to have a sister relationship to crustaceans of the subclass Branchiura as found in other studies. A more extensive taxon sampling, including molecular characterisation of more pentastomid taxa across different genera, seems to be necessary in order to estimate the true relationship of the Pentastomida to other metazoan groups. PMID:23873617

Gjerde, Bjørn

2013-10-01

267

Oxidases and related redox systems  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of a symposium on oxidases and related redoxsystems. Topics covered include: Oxidases and related redoxsystems, Flavoprotein oxidases and oxygenases, Peroxidases, and Cytochrome P-450 and related proteins.

King, T.E. (Inst. for Structural and Functional Studies, Univ. City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA (US)); Mason, H.S. (Dept. of Biochemistry, Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (US)); Morrison, M. (Saint Jude Children's Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA). Dept. of Biochemical and Chemical Pharmacology)

1988-01-01

268

Identification of Trichinella isolates by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism of the mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I gene 1 Note: nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper are available in the GenBank ™ databases under accession numbers AF129486–AF129494. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a polymerase chain reaction based approach using restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I to identify nine genotypes (Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi-European strains, Trichinella britovi-Japanese strains, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella T5, Trichinella T6, Trichinella T8 and Trichinella pseudospiralis) in the genus Trichinella. Partial mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I genes of nine genotypes were

I Nagano; Z Wu; A Matsuo; E Pozio; Y Takahashi

1999-01-01

269

Molecular relationships and classification of several tufted capuchin lineages (Cebus apella, Cebus xanthosternos and Cebus nigritus, Cebidae), by means of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.  

PubMed

The morphological systematics of the tufted capuchins is confusing. In an attempt to clarify the complex systematics and phylogeography of this taxon, we provide a first molecular analysis. We obtained mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (mtCOII) gene sequences from 49 tufted capuchins that had exact geographic origins from diverse lineages in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, French Guyana, Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay and that belonged to clearly recognized morphological taxa. This project had 4 main findings: (1) we determined 2 established and related taxa in the northern Amazon River area, which we named C. a. apella and C. a. fatuellus. C. a. apella is distributed from French Guyana until, at least, the Negro River in the northern Brazilian Amazon, whereas C. a. fatuellus is distributed throughout the Colombian Eastern Llanos and the northern Colombian Amazon. We also determined 2 other southern C. apella taxa, which we named C. a. macrodon and C. a. cay. C. a. macrodon has a western and southern Amazon distribution, while C. a. cay has a more southern distribution outside the Amazon basin. (2) In the upper Amazon basin, there is a unique lineage (C. a. macrocephalus) with 1 widely distributed haplotype. The 4 morphological subspecies (C. a. maranonis, C. a. macrocephalus, C. a. peruanus, C. a. pallidus), and maybe a fifth unknown subspecies, described in this area were molecularly undifferentiated at least for the mitochondrial gene analyzed. (3) Our molecular analysis determined that 1 individual of C. robustus fell into the lineage of C. a. macrocephalus. Therefore, this form does not receive any specific name. (4) The animals classified a priori as C. nigritus and C. xanthosternos (because of their morphological phenotypes and by their geographical origins) were clearly differentiated from the other specimens analyzed with the molecular marker employed. Therefore, we consider that these 2 lineages could be assigned the status of full species following the biological species definition. (5) In 2001, Groves described 4 tufted capuchin species (C. apella, C. libidinosus, C. nigritus and C. xanthosternos), while Silva Jr. determined 7 species (C. apella, C. macrocephalus, C. libidinosus, C. cay, C. nigritus, C. robustus and C. xanthosternos). The tests of Swofford-Olsen-Waddell-Hillis, of Shimodaira and Hasegawa and of Templeton did not fit with either of these two classificatory schemes, although Groves' scheme was better with regard to our data than that of Silva Jr. (6) All the temporal splits among the tufted capuchin taxa studied were estimated to have occurred during the last phase of the Pleistocene by using the ? statistic applied to the median joining haplotype network. PMID:23128150

Ruiz-García, Manuel; Castillo, Maria Ignacia; Lichilín-Ortiz, Nicolás; Pinedo-Castro, Myreya

2012-01-01

270

PPAR? and Proline Oxidase in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Proline is metabolized by its own specialized enzymes with their own tissue and subcellular localizations and mechanisms of regulation. The central enzyme in this metabolic system is proline oxidase, a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing enzyme which is tightly bound to mitochondrial inner membranes. The electrons from proline can be used to generate ATP or can directly reduce oxygen to form superoxide. Although proline may be derived from the diet and biosynthesized endogenously, an important source in the microenvironment is from degradation of extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases. Previous studies showed that proline oxidase is a p53-induced gene and its overexpression can initiate proline-dependent apoptosis by both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Another important factor regulating proline oxidase is peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). Importantly, in several cancer cells, proline oxidase may be an important mediator of the PPAR?-stimulated generation of ROS and induction of apoptosis. Knockdown of proline oxidase expression by antisense RNA markedly decreased these PPAR?-stimulated effects. These findings suggest an important role in the proposed antitumor effects of PPAR?. Moreover, it is possible that proline oxidase may contribute to the other metabolic effects of PPAR?.

Phang, James M.; Pandhare, Jui; Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Yongmin

2008-01-01

271

Regulation of Lysyl Oxidase by Interferon-g in Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase is an essential catalyst for the cross-linking of extracellular collagen and elastin. Abnormalities in lysyl oxidase activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of arterial diseases characterized by abnormal matrix remodeling. This study tested the hypothesis that interferon (IFN)- g, a proinflammatory cytokine present in aortic aneurysm and arteriosclerotic plaque rupture, downregulates lysyl oxidase gene expression in rat aortic

Yun Ling Song; John W. Ford; David Gordon; Charles J. Shanley

272

Daucus carota L. – An old model for cell reprogramming gains new importance through a novel expansion pattern of alternative oxidase ( AOX) genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper highlights Daucus carota L. as an ideal model to complement plant stress research on Arabidopsis thaliana L. Recently, alternative oxidase (AOX) is discussed as functional marker candidate for cell reprogramming upon stress. Carrot is the most studied species for cell reprogramming and our current research reveals that it is the only one that has expanded both AOX sub-family

J. H. Costa; H. G. Cardoso; M. D. Campos; A. Zavattieri; A. M. Frederico; D. Fernandes de Melo; B. Arnholdt-Schmitt

2009-01-01

273

Cholesterol oxidase: physiological functions  

PubMed Central

An important aspect of catalysis by cholesterol oxidase (3?-hydroxysteroid oxidase) is the nature of its association with the lipid bilayer that contains the sterol substrate. Efficient catalytic turnover is affected by the association of the protein with the membrane as well as the solubility of the substrate in the lipid bilayer. In this review, the binding of cholesterol oxidase to the lipid bilayer, its turnover of substrates presented in different physical environments, and how these conditions affect substrate specificity are discussed. The physiological functions of the enzyme in bacterial metabolism, pathogenesis, and macrolide biosynthesis are reviewed in this context.

Kreit, Joseph; Sampson, Nicole S.

2009-01-01

274

A novel proteolytic processing of prolysyl oxidase  

PubMed Central

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an amine oxidase that is critical for the stability of connective tissues. The secreted proLOX is enzymatically quiescent and is activated through proteolytic cleavage between residue Gly162 and Asp163 (residue numbers according to the mouse LOX) by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-1 gene products. Here we report a novel processing of proLOX identified in vitro and in vivo. Two forms of mature LOX were identified and characterized by their immunoreactivity to specific antibodies, amine oxidase activity and mass spectrometry. One form was identified as a well characterized BMP-1 processed LOX protein. Another was found to be a truncated form of LOX (tLOX) resulting from the cleavage at the carboxy terminus of Arg192. The tLOX still appeared to retain amine oxidase activity. The results from the proLOX gene deletion and mutation experiments indicated that the processing occurs independent of the cleavage of proLOX by BMP-1 gene products and likely requires the presence of LOX propeptide. These results indicate that proLOX could be processed by two different mechanisms producing two forms of active LOX.

Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Katafuchi, Michitsuna; Tokutomi, Kentaro; Mocanu, Viorel; Parker, Carol E.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

2012-01-01

275

A novel proteolytic processing of prolysyl oxidase.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an amine oxidase that is critical for the stability of connective tissues. The secreted proLOX is enzymatically quiescent and is activated through proteolytic cleavage between residues Gly(162) and Asp(163) (residue numbers according to the mouse LOX) by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-1 gene products. Here we report a novel processing of proLOX identified in vitro and in vivo. Two forms of mature LOX were identified and characterized by their immunoreactivity to specific antibodies, amine oxidase activity, and mass spectrometry. One form was identified as a well-characterized BMP-1 processed LOX protein. Another was found to be a truncated form of LOX resulting from the cleavage at the carboxy terminus of Arg(192). The truncated form of LOX still appeared to retain amine oxidase activity. The results from the proLOX gene deletion and mutation experiments indicated that the processing occurs independent of the cleavage of proLOX by BMP-1 gene products and likely requires the presence of LOX propeptide. These results indicate that proLOX could be processed by two different mechanisms producing two forms of active LOX. PMID:21591931

Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Katafuchi, Michitsuna; Tokutomi, Kentaro; Mocanu, Viorel; Parker, Carol E; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

2011-01-01

276

Differential expression of ACC oxidase genes during low-pH-induced root hair formation in lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root hair formation is induced in lettuce seedlings when the seedlings are transferred from a liquid medium at pH 6.0 to one\\u000a at pH 4.0. Auxin, ethylene, and light are also required for the induction of root hair formation. To investigate the mechanism\\u000a by which ethylene production is regulated during root hair formation, we isolated three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid\\u000a (ACC) oxidase

Hidenori Takahashi; Testuhito Shinkawa; Shinjiro Nakai; Yasunori Inoue

2010-01-01

277

Depression of enzyme activities and gene expression of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase in cut carnation flowers under high-temperature conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature depression of ethylene production in cut carnation flowers cv. ‘Excerea’ can occur because of inhibition\\u000a of ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) activities in flowers. Large differences were apparent between ACS activity in\\u000a petals at 24°C and 32°C. These ACC-accumulation-related activities were markedly decreased in petals at 32°C, indicating that\\u000a a low ACS activity and ACC accumulation in

Pranom Yangkhamman; Koji Tanase; Kazuo Ichimura; Seiichi Fukai

2007-01-01

278

Identification of a Gene for Pyruvate-Insensitive Mitochondrial Alternative Oxidase Expressed in the Thermogenic Appendices in Arum maculatum1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Heat production in thermogenic plants has been attributed to a large increase in the expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX acts as an alternative terminal oxidase in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, where it reduces molecular oxygen to water. In contrast to the mitochondrial terminal oxidase, cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is nonprotonmotive and thus allows the dramatic drop in free energy between ubiquinol and oxygen to be dissipated as heat. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based cloning, we reveal that, although at least seven cDNAs for AOX exist (AmAOX1a, -1b, -1c, -1d, -1e, -1f, and -1g) in Arum maculatum, the organ and developmental regulation for each is distinct. In particular, the expression of AmAOX1e transcripts appears to predominate in thermogenic appendices among the seven AmAOXs. Interestingly, the amino acid sequence of AmAOX1e indicates that the ENV element found in almost all other AOX sequences, including AmAOX1a, -1b, -1c, -1d, and -1f, is substituted by QNT. The existence of a QNT motif in AmAOX1e was confirmed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of mitochondrial proteins from thermogenic appendices. Further functional analyses with mitochondria prepared using a yeast heterologous expression system demonstrated that AmAOX1e is insensitive to stimulation by pyruvate. These data suggest that a QNT type of pyruvate-insensitive AOX, AmAOX1e, plays a crucial role in stage- and organ-specific heat production in the appendices of A. maculatum.

Ito, Kikukatsu; Ogata, Takafumi; Kakizaki, Yusuke; Elliott, Catherine; Albury, Mary S.; Moore, Anthony L.

2011-01-01

279

Lysyl Oxidase Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity in the Rat Ovary: Regulation by Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, Androgen, and Transforming Growth Factor-beta Superfamily Members in Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes the final enzymatic reaction required for cross-linking of collagen and elastin fibers and therefore has a crucial role in regulating the formation and maintenance of extracellular matrix in the ovary. LOX mRNA is abundantly expressed in rat granulosa cells. To examine how regulation of LOX in the ovary might influence follicular development, we studied LOX mRNA

CHRISTOPHER R. HARLOW; MICK RAE; LINDSAY DAVIDSON; PHILIP C. TRACKMAN; STEPHEN G. HILLIER

2003-01-01

280

Central Nervous System, Uterus, Heart, and Leukocyte Expression of the LOXL3 Gene, Encoding a Novel Lysyl Oxidase-Like Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BLASTN search using the mouse lor-2 cDNA identified three overlapping ESTs (AI752772, AA852888, and R55706) in the GenBank database. These expressed sequence tags were assembled into a contig of 3121 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 2262 bp. The encoded putative polypeptide of 754 amino acids presented all structural characteristics of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme family, a

Claude Jourdan-Le Saux; Arianne Tomsche; Aniko Ujfalusi; Libin Jia; Katalin Csiszar

2001-01-01

281

Molybdenum trioxide nanoparticles with intrinsic sulfite oxidase activity.  

PubMed

Sulfite oxidase is a mitochondria-located molybdenum-containing enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate in the amino acid and lipid metabolism. Therefore, it plays a major role in detoxification processes, where defects in the enzyme cause a severe infant disease leading to early death with no efficient or cost-effective therapy in sight. Here we report that molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanoparticles display an intrinsic biomimetic sulfite oxidase activity under physiological conditions, and, functionalized with a customized bifunctional ligand containing dopamine as anchor group and triphenylphosphonium ion as targeting agent, they selectively target the mitochondria while being highly dispersible in aqueous solutions. Chemically induced sulfite oxidase knockdown cells treated with MoO3 nanoparticles recovered their sulfite oxidase activity in vitro, which makes MoO3 nanoparticles a potential therapeutic for sulfite oxidase deficiency and opens new avenues for cost-effective therapies for gene-induced deficiencies. PMID:24702461

Ragg, Ruben; Natalio, Filipe; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Janssen, Henning; Kashyap, Anubha; Strand, Dennis; Strand, Susanne; Tremel, Wolfgang

2014-05-27

282

Probing the location of the substrate binding site of ascorbate oxidase near type 1 copper: an investigation through spectroscopic, inhibition and docking studies.  

PubMed

The present investigation addresses the problem of the binding mode of phenolic inhibitors and the substrate ascorbate to the active site of ascorbate oxidase. The results from both types of compounds indicate that the binding site is located in a pocket near the type 1 copper center. This information is of general interest for blue multicopper oxidases. Docking calculations performed on the ascorbate oxidase-ascorbate complex show that binding of the substrate occurs in a pocket near type 1 Cu, and is stabilized by at least five hydrogen bonding interactions with protein residues, one of which involves the His512 Cu ligand. Similar docking studies show that the isomeric fluorophenols, which act as competitive inhibitors toward ascorbate, bind to the enzyme in a manner similar to ascorbate. The docking calculations are supported by 19F NMR relaxation measurements performed on fluorophenols in the presence of the enzyme, which show that the bound inhibitors undergo enhanced relaxation by the paramagnetic effect of a nearby Cu center. Unambiguous support to the location of the inhibitor close to type 1 Cu was obtained by comparative relaxation measurements of the fluorophenols in the presence of the ascorbate oxidase derivative where a Zn atom selectively replaces the paramagnetic type 2 Cu. The latter experiments show that contribution to relaxation of the bound inhibitors by the type 2 Cu site is negligible. PMID:15006640

Santagostini, Laura; Gullotti, Michele; De Gioia, Luca; Fantucci, Piercarlo; Franzini, Elena; Marchesini, Augusto; Monzani, Enrico; Casella, Luigi

2004-05-01

283

The structure and inhibition of human diamine oxidase†,‡  

PubMed Central

Humans have three functioning genes that code for copper-containing amine oxidases. The product of the AOC1 gene is a so-called diamine oxidase (hDAO), named for its substrate preference for diamines, particularly histamine. hDAO has been cloned and expressed in insect cells and the structure of the native enzyme determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.8 Å. The homodimeric structure has the archetypal amine oxidase fold. Two active sites, one in each subunit, are characterized by the presence of a copper ion and a topaquinone residue formed by the post-translational modification of a tyrosine. Although hDAO shares 37.9 % sequence identity with another human copper amine oxidase, semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, its substrate binding pocket and entry channel are distinctly different in accord with the different substrate specificities. The structures of two inhibitor complexes of hDAO, berenil and pentamidine, have been refined to resolutions of 2.1 Å and 2.2 Å, respectively. They bind non-covalently in the active site channel. The inhibitor binding suggests that an aspartic acid residue, conserved in all diamine oxidases but absent from other amine oxidases, is responsible for the diamine specificity by interacting with the second amino group of preferred diamine substrates.

McGrath, Aaron P; Hilmer, Kimberly M; Collyer, Charles A; Shepard, Eric M; Elmore, Bradley O.; Brown, Doreen E; Dooley, David M; Guss, J Mitchell

2009-01-01

284

Inventory control: cytochrome c oxidase assembly regulates mitochondrial translation.  

PubMed

Mitochondria maintain genome and translation machinery to synthesize a small subset of subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system. To build up functional enzymes, these organellar gene products must assemble with imported subunits that are encoded in the nucleus. New findings on the early steps of cytochrome c oxidase assembly reveal how the mitochondrial translation of its core component, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1), is directly coupled to the assembly of this respiratory complex. PMID:21179059

Mick, David U; Fox, Thomas D; Rehling, Peter

2011-01-01

285

Random nucleotide substitutions in primate nonfunctional gene for l-gulono-?-lactone oxidase, the missing enzyme in l-ascorbic acid biosynthesis 1 The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper have been submitted to GenBank under accession Nos. AB025719, AB025786, and AB025787. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans and other primates have no functional gene for l-gulono-?-lactone oxidase that catalyzes the last step of l-ascorbic acid biosynthesis. The 164-nucleotide sequence of exon X of the gene was compared among human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and macaque, and it was found that nucleotide substitutions had occurred at random throughout the sequence with a single nucleotide deletion, indicating that the primate

Yuriko Ohta; Morimitsu Nishikimi

1999-01-01

286

Regulation of L-amino acid oxidase and of D-amino acid oxidase in Neurospora crassa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurospora crassa possesses an inducible L-amino acid oxidase that is expressed only when cells are derepressed for nitrogen in the presence of an amino acid. Enzyme synthesis requires both induction by an amino acid and simultaneous nitrogen catabolite derepression. Carbon limition in the presence of an amino acid does not permit induction of L-amino acid oxidase. The nit-2 gene is

Len Sikora; George A. Marzluf

1982-01-01

287

Electrochemical identification of artificial oligonucleotides related to bovine species. Potential for identification of species based on mismatches in the mitochondrial cytochrome C1 oxidase gene.  

PubMed

Our studies show that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) of films of ds-DNA on gold allow us to distinguish between mitochondrial DNA fragments of the cytochrome c(1) oxidase (mt-Cox1) of three related species of the subfamily 'Bovinae' (Bos taurus, Bison bison, and Bison bonasus). In EIS, a perfectly matched DNA gives rise to a considerably larger charge transfer resistance R(ct) compared to mismatched pairings. Differences in charge transfer resistance, ?R(ct), before and after the addition of Zn(2+) ions provide an additional tool for identification. In addition, all ds-DNA films were studied by SECM and their kinetic parameters were determined. Perfectly matched ds-DNAs are readily distinguished from mismatched duplexes by their lower rate constants. Our system can be used multiple times by dehybridization and rehybridization of capture strands up to the 250 pmole level. PMID:21847503

Shamsi, Mohtashim Hassan; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

2011-11-21

288

NADPH Oxidase 4 Regulates Cardiomyocyte Differentiation via Redox Activation of c-Jun Protein and the cis-Regulation of GATA-4 Gene Transcription*  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can modulate cellular phenotype and function in part through the redox modulation of the activity of transcription factors. We demonstrate here the potential of Nox4 to drive cardiomyocyte differentiation in pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells, and we show that this involves the redox activation of c-Jun. This in turn acts to up-regulate GATA-4 expression, one of the earliest markers of cardiotypic differentiation, through a defined and highly conserved cis-acting motif within the GATA-4 promoter. These data therefore suggest a mechanism whereby ROS act in pluripotential cells in vivo to regulate the initial transcription of critical tissue-restricted determinant(s) of the cardiomyocyte phenotype, including GATA-4. The ROS-dependent activation, mediated by Nox4, of widely expressed redox-regulated transcription factors, such as c-Jun, is fundamental to this process.

Murray, Thomas V. A.; Smyrnias, Ioannis; Shah, Ajay M.; Brewer, Alison C.

2013-01-01

289

Ethylene Synthesis Regulated by Biphasic Induction of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Genes Is Required for Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation and Cell Death in Ozone-Exposed Tomato1  

PubMed Central

We show that above a certain threshold concentration, ozone leads to leaf injury in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Ozone-induced leaf damage was preceded by a rapid increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase activity, ACC content, and ethylene emission. Changes in mRNA levels of specific ACC synthase, ACC oxidase, and ethylene receptor genes occurred within 1 to 5 h. Expression of the genes encoding components of ethylene biosynthesis and perception, and biochemistry of ethylene synthesis suggested that ozone-induced ethylene synthesis in tomato is under biphasic control. In transgenic plants containing an LE-ACO1 promoter-?-glucuronidase fusion construct, ?-glucuronidase activity increased rapidly at the beginning of the O3 exposure and had a spatial distribution resembling the pattern of extracellular H2O2 production at 7 h, which coincided with the cell death pattern after 24 h. Ethylene synthesis and perception were required for active H2O2 production and cell death resulting in visible tissue damage. The results demonstrate a selective ozone response of ethylene biosynthetic genes and suggest a role for ethylene, in combination with the burst of H2O2 production, in regulating the spread of cell death.

Moeder, Wolfgang; Barry, Cornelius S.; Tauriainen, Airi A.; Betz, Christian; Tuomainen, Jaana; Utriainen, Merja; Grierson, Donald; Sandermann, Heinrich; Langebartels, Christian; Kangasjarvi, Jaakko

2002-01-01

290

Characterization and developmental expression of chick aortic lysyl oxidase.  

PubMed

The complete primary structure of chick lysyl oxidase was determined by recombinant DNA techniques. The nucleotide sequence of contiguous chick lysyl oxidase cDNA clones contained an open reading frame of 1260 bases which encodes a predicted protein of 420 amino acid residues (48,150 Da). In comparison to the deduced primary structure of rat lysyl oxidase, the chick enzyme is larger in size and exhibits a strong conservation of sequence within the latter two thirds of the molecule (92% identity) and a high degree of divergence in the first 150 amino acid residues (60% identity allowing for several insertions in both sequences). The developmental steady-state levels of lysyl oxidase mRNA together with the mRNAs encoding two of the enzyme's substrates (tropoelastin and type I collagen) increased between 8 and 16 days of embryonic development. Although levels of lysyl oxidase mRNA increased during aortic embryogenesis, the specific activity of the enzyme remained fairly constant suggesting that lysyl oxidase activity increases in direct proportion to total protein synthesis and cell number. In situ hybridization showed that the spatial expressions of lysyl oxidase and tropoelastin transcripts differ suggesting that the enzyme and substrate genes are differentially regulated within the cells of the arterial wall. PMID:1360009

Wu, Y; Rich, C B; Lincecum, J; Trackman, P C; Kagan, H M; Foster, J A

1992-12-01

291

Autocrine growth factor regulation of lysyl oxidase expression in transformed fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase catalyzes oxidative deamination of peptidyl-lysine and hydroxylysine residues in collagens and lysine residues in elastin to form peptidyl aldehydes that are required for the formation of covalent cross-links in normal extracellular matrix biosynthesis. Lysyl oxidase in addition has tumor suppressor activity, and phenotypic reversion of transformed cell lines is accompanied by increased lysyl oxidase expression. The mechanism of low expression of lysyl oxidase in tumor cells is unknown. The present study investigates the hypothesis that autocrine growth factor pathways maintain low lysyl oxidase expression levels in c-H-ras-transformed fibroblasts (RS485 cell line). Autocrine pathways were blocked with suramin, a general inhibitor of growth factor receptor binding, and resulted in more than a 10-fold increase in lysyl oxidase expression and proenzyme production. This regulation was found to be reversible and occurred at the transcriptional level determined using lysyl oxidase promoter/reporter gene assays. Function blocking anti-fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) antibody enhanced lysyl oxidase expression in the absence of suramin. Finally, the addition of FGF-2 to suramin-treated cells completely reversed suramin stimulation of lysyl oxidase mRNA levels. Data support that an FGF-2 autocrine pathway inhibits lysyl oxidase transcription in the tumorigenic-transformed RS485 cell line. This finding may be of therapeutic significance and, in addition, provides a new experimental approach to investigate the mechanism of the tumor suppressor activity of lysyl oxidase. PMID:12788924

Palamakumbura, Amitha H; Sommer, Pascal; Trackman, Philip C

2003-08-15

292

De novo microdeletion of Xp11.3 exclusively encompassing the monoamine oxidase A and B genes in a male infant with episodic hypotonia: a genomics approach to personalized medicine.  

PubMed

Monoamine oxidase A and B (MAOA and MAOB) play key roles in deaminating neurotransmitters and various other biogenic amines. Patients deficient in one or both enzymes have distinct metabolic and neurologic profiles. MAOB deficient patients exhibit normal clinical characteristics and behavior, while MAOA deficient patients have borderline intellectual deficiency and impaired impulse control. Patients who lack both MAOA and MAOB have the most extreme laboratory values (urine, blood, and CSF serotonin 4-6 times normal, with elevated O-methylated amine metabolites and reduced deaminated metabolites) in addition to severe intellectual deficiency and behavioral problems. Mice lacking maoa and moab exhibit decreased proliferation of neural stem cells beginning in late gestation and persisting into adulthood. These mice show significantly increased monoamine levels, particularly serotonin, as well as anxiety-like behaviors as adults, suggesting that brain maturation in late embryonic development is adversely affected by elevated serotonin levels. We report the case of a male infant with a de novo Xp11.3 microdeletion exclusively encompassing the MAOA and MAOB genes. This newly recognized X-linked disorder is characterized by severe intellectual disability and unusual episodes of hypotonia, which resemble atonic seizures, but have no EEG correlate. A customized low dietary amine diet was implemented in an attempt to prevent the cardiovascular complications that can result from the excessive intake of these compounds. This is the second report of this deletion and the first attempt to maintain the patient's cardiovascular health through dietary manipulation. Even though a diet low in tyramine, phenylethylamine, and dopa/dopamine is necessary for long-term management, it will not rescue the abnormal monoamine profile seen in combined MAOA and MAOB deficiency. Our patient displays markedly elevated levels of serotonin in blood, serum, urine, and CSF while on this diet. Serotonin biosynthesis inhibitors like para-chlorophenylalanine and p-ethynylphenylalanine may be needed to lower serotonin levels in patients with absent monoamine oxidase enzymes. PMID:22365943

O'Leary, Ryan E; Shih, Jean C; Hyland, Keith; Kramer, Nancy; Asher, Y Jane Tavyev; Graham, John M

2012-05-01

293

Lysyl Oxidase and P-ATPase-7A Expression during Embryonic Development in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase activity is critical for the assembly and cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen and elastin. Moreover, lysyl oxidase activity is sensitive to changes in copper status and genetic perturbations in copper transport, e.g., mutations in the P-type ATPase gene, ATP7A, associated with cellular copper transport. Lysyl oxidase may also serve as a vehicle for copper transport

E. H. Tchaparian; J. Y. Uriu-Adams; C. L. Keen; A. E. Mitchell; R. B. Rucker

2000-01-01

294

Coupling of energy metabolism and synaptic transmission at the transcriptional level: role of nuclear respiratory factor 1 in regulating both cytochrome c oxidase and NMDA glutamate receptor subunit genes.  

PubMed

Neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled processes. Regions high in neuronal activity, especially of the glutamatergic type, have high levels of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Perturbations in neuronal activity affect the expressions of COX and glutamatergic NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1). The present study sought to test our hypothesis that the coupling extends to the transcriptional level, whereby NR1 and possibly other NR subunits and COX are coregulated by the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), which regulates all COX subunit genes. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutations, and real-time quantitative PCR, NRF-1 was found to functionally bind to the promoters of Grin 1 (NR1), Grin 2b (NR2b) and COX subunit genes, but not of Grin2a and Grin3a genes. These transcripts were upregulated by KCl and downregulated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) in cultured primary neurons. However, silencing of NRF-1 with small interference RNA blocked the upregulation of Grin1, Grin2b, and COX induced by KCl, and overexpression of NRF-1 rescued these transcripts that were suppressed by TTX. NRF-1 binding sites on Grin1 and Grin2b genes are also highly conserved among mice, rats, and humans. Thus, NRF-1 is an essential transcription factor critical in the coregulation of NR1, NR2b, and COX, and coupling exists at the transcriptional level to ensure coordinated expressions of proteins important for synaptic transmission and energy metabolism. PMID:19144849

Dhar, Shilpa S; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

2009-01-14

295

TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor gene: The role of NAD(P)H oxidase 4  

SciTech Connect

Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), oxidative stress, and elevated inflammatory cytokines are some of the components that contribute to plaque formation in the vasculature. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) is released during vascular injury, and contributes to lesion formation also by affecting VSMC proliferation. Recently, an A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor (A{sub 2B}AR) knockout mouse illustrated that this receptor is a tissue protector, in that it inhibits VSMC proliferation and attenuates the inflammatory response following injury, including the release of TNF-{alpha}. Here, we show a regulatory loop by which TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR in VSMC in vitro and in vivo. The effect of this cytokine is mimicked by its known downstream target, NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (Nox4). Nox4 upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR, and Nox inhibitors dampen the effect of TNF-{alpha}. Hence, our study is the first to show that signaling associated with Nox4 is also able to upregulate the tissue protecting A{sub 2B}AR.

St Hilaire, Cynthia; Koupenova, Milka; Carroll, Shannon H.; Smith, Barbara D. [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Ravid, Katya [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)], E-mail: ravid@biochem.bumc.bu.edu

2008-10-24

296

Natural Compounds as Modulators of NADPH Oxidases  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals generated ubiquitously by all mammalian cells, but their relative unbalance triggers also diseases through intracellular damage to DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are the only known enzyme family with the sole function to produce ROS. The NOX physiological functions concern host defence, cellular signaling, regulation of gene expression, and cell differentiation. On the other hand, increased NOX activity contributes to a wide range of pathological processes, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, organ failure, and cancer. Therefore targeting these enzymatic ROS sources by natural compounds, without affecting the physiological redox state, may be an important tool. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role of NOX enzymes in physiology and pathology and provides an overview of the currently available NADPH oxidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts such as polyphenols.

2013-01-01

297

Purification of a cytochrome bd terminal oxidase encoded by the Escherichia coli app locus from a delta cyo delta cyd strain complemented by genes from Bacillus firmus OF4.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli GK100, with deletions in the operons encoding its two terminal oxidases, cytochrome bo and ctyochrome bd, was complemented for growth on succinate by a recombinant plasmid (pMS100) containing a 3.4-kb region of DNA from alkaliphilic Bacillus firmus OF4. The complementing DNA was predicted to encode five proteins, but neither sequence analysis nor complementation experiments with subclones provided insight into the basis for the complementation. Cytochrome difference spectra of everted membrane vesicles from the transformed strain had characteristics of a cytochrome bd spectrum but with features different from those observed for alkaliphile membranes. To determine the bacterial source and identity of the structural genes for the cytochrome bd in the transformed mutant, the complex was extracted and partially purified. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, two polypeptides were resolved from the preparation, 43 (subunit I) and 27 (subunit II) kDa. An internal peptide from subunit I was sequenced, and it yielded the same primary sequence as is found in positions 496 to 510 of E. coli appC. Consistent with the microsequencing results pMS100 failed to complement a triple mutant of E. coli carrying a deletion in appB as well as in the cyo and cyd loci. The deduced sequence of AppBC had been predicted to be very similar to the sequence of CydAB (J. Dassa et al., Mol. Gen. Genet. 229:341-352, 1991) but this is the first demonstration that the former is indeed a cytochrome bd terminal oxidase. The enzyme catalyzed oxygen uptake coupled to quinol or N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine oxidation, and the activity was sensitive to cyanide. No cross-reactivity to subunit-specific polyclonal antibodies directed against the two individual subunits of cyd-encoded cytochrome bd was detected. Since this is the second cytochrome bd discovered in E. coli, it is proposed that the two complexes be designated cytochrome bd-I (cydAB-encoded enzyme) and cytochrome bd-II (appBC-encoded enzyme). In addition, cbdAB is suggested as a more appropriate gene designation for cytochrome bd than either appBC or cyxAB.

Sturr, M G; Krulwich, T A; Hicks, D B

1996-01-01

298

Epigenetic inhibition of lysyl oxidase transcription after transformation by ras oncogene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase is an extracellular enzyme involved in connective tissue maturation that also acts as a phenotypic suppressor of the ras oncogene. To understand how this suppressor is controlled, gene transcription was studied and the promoter was characterized. Nuclear runoff transcription assays indicated that the markedly reduced amounts of lysyl oxidase message detected after ras transformation resulted from inhibition of

Sara Contente; Kaylene Kenyon; Priya Sriraman; Savitri Subramanyan; Robert M. Friedman

1999-01-01

299

Purification, Cloning, and Three-Dimensional Structure Prediction of Micrococcus luteus FAD-Containing Tyramine Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FAD-containing tyramine oxidase enzyme and gene from the Gram (+) bacterium Micrococcus luteus were isolated, and computer prediction was used to propose a preliminary 3D model of the protein. A 2.8-kb Sau3AI fragment containing the structural gene of tyramine oxidase was cloned from a M. luteus genomic DNA library. The 1332 bp gene encodes a protein of 443 amino

Jung Hyeob Roh; Johan Wouters; Eric Depiereux; Hideaki Yukawa; Masayuki Inui; Hiromichi Minami; Hideyuki Suzuki; Hidehiko Kumagai

2000-01-01

300

Role of amine oxidase expression to maintain putrescine homeostasis in Rhodococcus opacus.  

PubMed

While applications of amine oxidases are increasing, few have been characterised and our understanding of their biological role and strategies for bacteria exploitation are limited. By altering the nitrogen source (NH4Cl, putrescine and cadaverine (diamines) and butylamine (monoamine)) and concentration, we have identified a constitutive flavin dependent oxidase (EC 1.4.3.10) within Rhodococcus opacus. The activity of this oxidase can be increased by over two orders of magnitude in the presence of aliphatic diamines. In addition, the expression of a copper dependent diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.22) was observed at diamine concentrations>1mM or when cells were grown with butylamine, which acts to inhibit the flavin oxidase. A Michaelis-Menten kinetic treatment of the flavin oxidase delivered a Michaelis constant (KM)=190?M and maximum rate (kcat)=21.8s(-1) for the oxidative deamination of putrescine with a lower KM (=60?M) and comparable kcat (=18.2s(-1)) for the copper oxidase. MALDI-TOF and genomic analyses have indicated a metabolic clustering of functionally related genes. From a consideration of amine oxidase specificity and sequence homology, we propose a putrescine degradation pathway within Rhodococcus that utilises oxidases in tandem with subsequent dehydrogenase and transaminase enzymes. The implications of PUT homeostasis through the action of the two oxidases are discussed with respect to stressors, evolution and application in microbe-assisted phytoremediation or bio-augmentation. PMID:23540932

Foster, Alexander; Barnes, Nicole; Speight, Robert; Morris, Peter C; Keane, Mark A

2013-04-10

301

Lysyl oxidase gene expression and enzyme activity in the rat ovary: regulation by follicle-stimulating hormone, androgen, and transforming growth factor-beta superfamily members in vitro.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes the final enzymatic reaction required for cross-linking of collagen and elastin fibers and therefore has a crucial role in regulating the formation and maintenance of extracellular matrix in the ovary. LOX mRNA is abundantly expressed in rat granulosa cells. To examine how regulation of LOX in the ovary might influence follicular development, we studied LOX mRNA expression and enzyme activity in rat granulosa cells from late preantral/early antral follicles in vitro. FSH dose dependently inhibited LOX mRNA and enzyme activity (50% reduction at 10 ng/ml) in vitro, and FSH action was mimicked by 8-bromo-cAMP, suggesting FSH action via elevation of cAMP. Dihydrotestosterone alone enhanced LOX mRNA and enzyme activity, but potentiated the effect of FSH, causing a further reduction. TGFbeta1 alone dose dependently enhanced LOX mRNA (5-fold increase at 10 ng/ml) and activity (1.5-fold increase). FSH dose dependently inhibited the increase in LOX mRNA and activity caused by TGFbeta1 (by up to 84% and 80%, respectively). Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) and activin A, at the same concentration as TGFbeta1 (10 ng/ml), stimulated LOX mRNA and activity within 6 h, although overall expression was higher at 48 h. All three factors when combined with FSH further reduced both mRNA and enzyme activity (by up to 60%) compared with FSH alone. These findings indicate control of LOX at endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine levels within the ovary and suggest coordinated regulation of ovarian extracellular matrix during follicular development, with FSH determining whether local factors act as stimulators or inhibitors of LOX. PMID:12488341

Harlow, Christopher R; Rae, Mick; Davidson, Lindsay; Trackman, Philip C; Hillier, Stephen G

2003-01-01

302

Epigenetic inhibition of lysyl oxidase transcription after transformation by ras oncogene.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase is an extracellular enzyme involved in connective tissue maturation that also acts as a phenotypic suppressor of the ras oncogene. To understand how this suppressor is controlled, gene transcription was studied and the promoter was characterized. Nuclear runoff transcription assays indicated that the markedly reduced amounts of lysyl oxidase message detected after ras transformation resulted from inhibition of lysyl oxidase transcription. Interferon-mediated phenotypic reversion of ras transformed cells, in which the ras oncogene continued to be expressed, was accompanied by the restoration of lysyl oxidase transcription. Reporter gene assay of a transfected mouse lysyl oxidase promoter indicated that it was active in the transformed background, despite the silencing of the endogenous lysyl oxidase promoter. The detection of comparable amounts of mRNA for transcription factors IRF-1 and IRF-2 in normal and ras-transformed cell lines suggests that the differential transcription of lysyl oxidase was not due to regulation of IRFs. Lysyl oxidase promoter activity was localized to a 126 bp region that includes two consensus TATA boxes with associated confirmed cap signals. Analysis of a human lysyl oxidase promoter sequence indicated similar promoter elements and extensive sequence identity with the mouse promoter. The binding of transcription factor AP2 to sites predicted in the control region was confirmed by DNase footprinting. Lysyl oxidase transcription was stimulated by dexamethasone treatment of cells, but this effect could not be assigned within the approximately 3 kb region tested in reporter gene constructs. The promoter activity of the lysyl oxidase reporter gene construct was completely abolished by in vitro DNA methylation, suggesting that the transcriptional suppression after transformation by the ras oncogene may involve DNA methylation. PMID:10391127

Contente, S; Kenyon, K; Sriraman, P; Subramanyan, S; Friedman, R M

1999-04-01

303

Cloning and characterization of a fifth human lysyl oxidase isoenzyme: the third member of the lysyl oxidase-related subfamily with four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the complete cDNA sequence of the human lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) gene, a new member of the lysyl oxidase (LO) gene family. The predicted polypeptide is 756 amino acids long, including a 24-residue signal peptide. The C-terminal region contains a LO domain similar to those of LOX, LOXL, LOXL2 and LOXL3. The N-terminal region has four subregions similar

Joni M. Mäki; Hilkka Tikkanen; Kari I. Kivirikko

2001-01-01

304

The propeptide domain of lysyl oxidase induces phenotypic reversion of ras-transformed cells.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase is an extracellular enzyme critical for the normal biosynthesis of collagens and elastin. In addition, lysyl oxidase reverts ras-mediated transformation, and lysyl oxidase expression is down-regulated in human cancers. Since suramin inhibits growth factor signaling pathways and induces lysyl oxidase in ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells (RS485 cells), we sought to investigate the effects of suramin on the phenotype of transformed cells and the role of lysyl oxidase in mediating these effects. Suramin treatment resulted in a more normal phenotype as judged by growth rate, cell cycle parameters, and morphology. beta-aminopropionitrile, the selective inhibitor of lysyl oxidase enzyme activity, was remarkably unable to block suramin-induced reversion. By contrast, ectopic antisense lysyl oxidase demonstrated that lysyl oxidase gene expression mediated phenotypic reversion. Since lysyl oxidase is synthesized as a 50 kDa precursor and processed to a 30 kDa active enzyme and 18 kDa propeptide, the effects of these two products on the transformed phenotype of RS485 cells were then directly assessed in the absence of suramin. Here we report, for the first time, that the lysyl oxidase propeptide, and not the lysyl oxidase enzyme, inhibits ras-dependent transformation as determined by effects on cell proliferation assays, growth in soft agar, and Akt-dependent induction of NF-kappaB activity. Thus, the lysyl oxidase propeptide, which is released during extracellular proteolytic processing of pro-lysyl oxidase, functions to inhibit ras-dependent cell transformation. PMID:15277520

Palamakumbura, Amitha H; Jeay, Sébastien; Guo, Ying; Pischon, Nicole; Sommer, Pascal; Sonenshein, Gail E; Trackman, Philip C

2004-09-24

305

After-ripening alters the gene expression pattern of oxidases involved in the ethylene and gibberellin pathways during early imbibition of Sisymbrium officinale L. seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

After-ripening (AR) in Sisymbrium officinale seeds altered SoACS7, SoACO2, SoGA20ox2, SoGA3ox2, and SoGA2ox6 gene expression. Except for SoGA20ox2 expression, which sharply diminished, the expression of the other genes rose during development, particularly that of SoACS7. In contrast, only the SoACO2 and SoGA2ox6 transcripts increased with seed desiccation; the others decreased. AR increased the SoGA3ox2 transcript in dry seed, but dramatically

Raquel Iglesias-Fernandez; Angel Matilla

2009-01-01

306

Interfacial behavior and activity of laccase and bilirubin oxidase on bare gold surfaces.  

PubMed

Two blue multicopper oxidases (MCOs) (viz. Trametes hirsuta laccase (ThLc) and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOx)) were immobilized on bare polycrystalline gold (Au) surfaces by direct adsorption from both dilute and concentrated enzyme solutions. The adsorption was studied in situ by means of null ellipsometry. Moreover, both enzyme-modified and bare Au electrodes were investigated in detail by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as electrochemically. When adsorbed from dilute solutions (0.125 and 0.25 mg mL?¹ in the cases of ThLc and MvBOx, respectively), the amounts of enzyme per unit area were determined to be ca. 1.7 and 4.8 pmol cm?², whereas the protein film thicknesses were determined to be 29 and 30 Å for ThLc and MvBOx, respectively. A well-pronounced bioelectrocatalytic reduction of molecular oxygen (O?) was observed on MvBOx/Au biocathodes, whereas this was not the case for ThLc-modified Au electrodes (i.e., adsorbed ThLc was catalytically inactive). The initially observed apparent k(cat)(app) values for adsorbed MvBOx and the enzyme in solution were found to be very close to each other (viz. 54 and 58 s?¹, respectively (pH 7.4, 25 °C)). However, after 3 h of operation of MvBOx/Au biocathodes, kcatapp dropped to 23 s?¹. On the basis of the experimental results, conformational changes of the enzymes (in all likelihood, their flattening on the Au surface) were suggested to explain the deactivation of MCOs on the bare Au electrodes. PMID:24564218

Pankratov, Dmitry; Sotres, Javier; Barrantes, Alejandro; Arnebrant, Thomas; Shleev, Sergey

2014-03-18

307

Functional expression of amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger (AO-I) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to prepare recombinant amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger after overexpressing in yeast. The yeast expression vector pDR197 that includes a constitutive PMA1 promoter was used for the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant amine oxidase was extracted from the growth medium of the yeast, purified to homogeneity and identified by activity assay and MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprinting. Similarity search in the newly published A. niger genome identified six genes coding for copper amine oxidase, two of them corresponding to the previously described enzymes AO-I a methylamine oxidase and three other genes coding for FAD amine oxidases. Thus, A. niger possesses an enormous metabolic gear to grow on amine compounds and thus support its saprophytic lifestyle. PMID:17899443

Kolaríková, Katerina; Galuszka, Petr; Sedlárová, Iva; Sebela, Marek; Frébort, Ivo

2009-01-01

308

Draft Genome Sequence of Strain Q-1, an Iodide-Oxidizing Alphaproteobacterium Isolated from Natural Gas Brine Water  

PubMed Central

Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain Q-1, an iodide (I?)-oxidizing heterotrophic bacterium in the class Alphaproteobacteria isolated from natural gas brine water. The genome sequence contained a multicopper oxidase gene probably responsible for iodide oxidation. A photosynthetic gene cluster was found but genes for carbon-fixation were absent.

Ehara, Ayaka; Suzuki, Haruo; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

2014-01-01

309

Molecular events that contribute to lysyl oxidase enzyme activity and insoluble collagen accumulation in osteosarcoma cell clones.  

PubMed

Maximum collagen synthesis and maximum accumulation of insoluble collagen occur at different phenotypic stages in developing osteoblastic cell cultures. Insoluble collagen accumulation depends in part on the activity of extracellular enzymes including procollagen N-proteinases, procollagen C-proteinase (derived from the BMP1 gene), and lysyl oxidase. In addition to its action on procollagen, procollagen C-proteinase processes prolysyl oxidase to mature 32-kDa lysyl oxidase. The regulation of extracellular activities that control insoluble collagen accumulation has not been studied extensively. The present study compares molecular events that control production of a collagenous mineralized extracellular matrix in vitro among five different murine osteosarcoma cell clones derived from the same tumor, but which differ in their ability to produce an insoluble mineralized matrix. Levels of insoluble type I collagen, insoluble calcium, bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP-1), and lysyl oxidase expression, lysyl oxidase biosynthesis, lysyl oxidase activity, and prolysyl oxidase processing activity were determined. Results surprisingly indicate that lysyl oxidase activity is not related closely to lysyl oxidase messenger RNA (mRNA) levels among the different cell clones. However, it appears that BMP-1-dependent prolysyl oxidase processing could contribute to the observed lysyl oxidase activity. Highest collagen and BMP-1 mRNA levels, prolysyl oxidase processing activity, and lysyl oxidase activity occurred in a cell clone (K8) that showed the highest levels of insoluble collagen accumulation. Culture media from a cell clone (K37) that accumulates little insoluble collagen or calcium but expresses high levels of lysyl oxidase mRNA contained low molecular weight fragments of lysyl oxidase protein and showed low lysyl oxidase activity. By contrast the K14 cell line exhibits relatively high lysyl oxidase activity and collagen accumulation, but low levels of mature lysyl oxidase protein. Together, these studies indicate that catabolic as well as anabolic activities are important in regulating insoluble collagen accumulation in osteoblastic cells. In addition, results suggest that products of genes homologous to lysyl oxidase may contribute to observed lysyl oxidase activity. PMID:10841188

Uzel, M I; Shih, S D; Gross, H; Kessler, E; Gerstenfeld, L C; Trackman, P C

2000-06-01

310

Paradoxical roles for lysyl oxidases in cancer—A prospect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) enzyme that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagens or elastin in the extracellular compartment, thereby regulating the tensile strength of tissues. However, recent reports have demonstrated novel roles for LOX, including the ability to regulate gene transcription, motility\\/migration, and cell adhesion. These diverse functions have led researchers to hypothesize that LOX may have

Stacey L. Payne; Mary J. C. Hendrix; Dawn A. Kirschmann

2007-01-01

311

Isopentenyl Transferase and Cytokinin Oxidase\\/Dehydrogenase Gene Family Members are Differentially Expressed During Pod and Seed Development in Rapid-cycling Brassica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant hormone group, the cytokinins, regulates many stages of plant growth and development. Regulation includes that of\\u000a cell division and enhancement of sink strength, both of which are important processes in seed development and embryonic growth.\\u000a Two gene families play a key role in maintaining cytokinin homeostasis: isopentenyl transferase (IPT), which catalyzes the\\u000a rate-limiting step in the formation of

David O'KeefeJiancheng; Jiancheng Song; Paula E. Jameson

2011-01-01

312

A Penicillium chrysogenum gene ( aox ) identified by specific induction upon shifting pH encodes for a protein which shows high homology to fungal alcohol oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum were grown in controlled bioreactors under conditions of penicillin production and one was shifted from the initial pH 6.0 to pH 8.0. RNA was isolated from both cultures and used for a differential hybridization experiment to identify genes specifically induced upon this pH shift. About 2,000 plaques of a cDNA library constructed from pH 8.0

Klaus Holzmann; Edith Schreiner; Helmut Schwab

2002-01-01

313

NADPH Oxidase and Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase (Nox) is a unique, multi-protein, electron transport system that produces large amounts of superoxide via the reduction of molecular oxygen. Nox-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in a variety of physiological processes, including host defense and signal transduction. However, over the past decade, the involvement of (Nox)-dependent oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases has been increasingly recognized. ROS produced by Nox proteins contribute to neurodegenerative diseases through distinct mechanisms, such as oxidation of DNA, proteins, lipids, amino acids and metals, in addition to activation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on Nox involvement in neurodegeneration, focusing on Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases.

Hernandes, Marina S; Britto, Luiz R G

2012-01-01

314

Cloning of the cyo locus encoding the cytochrome o terminal oxidase complex of Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The structural genes encoding the cytochrome o terminal oxidase complex (cyo) of Escherichia coli have been subcloned into the multicopy plasmid pBR322 after the Mu-mediated transposition of the gene locus from the bacterial chromosome onto the conjugative R plasmid RP4. Introduction of cyo plasmids into strains (cyo cyd) lacking both terminal oxidases restored the ability of the strains to grow aerobically on nonfermentable substrates. Strains carrying the cyo plasmids produced 5 to 10 times more cytochrome o oxidase than did control strains. The gene products encoded by the cyo plasmids could be immunoprecipitated with monospecific antibodies raised against cytochrome o. The cloned genes will be valuable for studying the structure, function, and regulation of the cytochrome o terminal oxidase complex.

Au, D.C.T.; Gennis, R.B.

1987-07-01

315

Expression of the alternative oxidase complements cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in human cells  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical conditions, ranging from early onset devastating encephalomyopathy and cardiomyopathy, to neurological diseases in adulthood and in the elderly. No method of compensating successfully for COX deficiency has been reported so far. In vitro, COX-deficient human cells require additional glucose, pyruvate and uridine for normal growth and are specifically sensitive to oxidative stress. Here, we have tested whether the expression of a mitochondrially targeted, cyanide-resistant, alternative oxidase (AOX) from Ciona intestinalis could alleviate the metabolic abnormalities of COX-deficient human cells either from a patient harbouring a COX15 pathological mutation or rendered deficient by silencing the COX10 gene using shRNA. We demonstrate that the expression of the AOX, well-tolerated by the cells, compensates for both the growth defect and the pronounced oxidant-sensitivity of COX-deficient human cells.

Dassa, Emmanuel P; Dufour, Eric; Goncalves, Sergio; Paupe, Vincent; Hakkaart, Gertjan A J; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

2009-01-01

316

Heterologous expression and characterization of Choline Oxidase from the soil bacterium Arthrobacter nicotianae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of a microbial screening of soil samples for new oxidases, different enrichment strategies were carried out.\\u000a With choline as the only carbon source, a microorganism was isolated and identified as Arthrobacter nicotianae. From this strain, a gene coding for a choline oxidase was isolated from chromosomal DNA. This gene named codA was cloned in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold

D. Ribitsch; W. Karl; E. Wehrschütz-Sigl; S. Tutz; P. Remler; H. J. Weber; K. Gruber; R. Stehr; C. Bessler; N. Hoven; K. Sauter; K. H. Maurer; H. Schwab

2009-01-01

317

[Identification of Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi occidentalis (Ixodidae) by the analysis of the gene fragment COXI (cytochrome oxidase subunit I)].  

PubMed

Ticks of the genus Ixodes were collected in 2010 in the lowland part of Toguchinsk district of Novosibirsk Province (Russia) and in the forest-park area of Novosibirsk Scientific Centre and its outskirts (Sovetskiy district of Novosibirsk), and identified as Ixodes persulcatus (Schulze, 1930) (18 females and 13 males) and Ixodes pavlovskyi (13 females and 10 males). Ten specimens of each sex from each collecting site were examined. The following nine characters were used: the length and width of the scutum (conscutum) and of the gnathosoma in ventral view; the length of palpal segments II-III; the width of the hypostome; the length of idiosoma with scapula, of leg I, of the medial spur on fore coxa (Taiga..., 1985; Filippova, Musatov, 1996; Filippova, Panova, 1998). According to morphometric characters, specimens of Ixodes pavlovskyi collected in the forest-park area of the Novosibirsk Scientific Centre were identified as the subspecies I. p. occidentalis Filippova et Panova, 1998. Nucleotide sequences of the COI mitochondrial gene fragment were determined for 56 ticks. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene fragment in representatives of the persulcatus-ricinus species-group dwelling in Asia demonstrated high degree of conservatism. Molecular-genetic methods allow reliable identification of morphologically similar species I. pavlovskyi and I. persulcatus, pathogenic for humans. PMID:23458013

Livanova, N N; Tikunova, N V; Livanov, S G; Fomenko, N V

2012-01-01

318

Myocardial xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

High-energy phosphates in heart muscle deprived of oxygen are rapidly broken down to purine nucleosides and oxypurines. We studied the role of xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.3.2/EC 1.2.1.37) in this process with novel high-pressure liquid chromatographic techniques. Under various conditions, including ischemia and anoxia, the isolated perfused rat heart released adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine, and also substantial amounts of xanthine and urate. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, greatly enhanced the release of hypoxanthine. From the purine release we calculated that the rat heart contained about 18 mU xanthine oxidase per g wet weight. Subsequently, we measured a xanthine oxidase activity of 9 mU/g wet wt. in rat-heart homogenate. When endogenous low molecular weight inhibitors were removed by gel-filtration, the activity increased to 31 mU/g wet wt. Rat myocardial xanthine oxidase seems to be present mainly in the dehydrogenase form, which upon storage at -20 degrees C is converted to the oxidase form. PMID:6575831

Schoutsen, B; De Jong, J W; Harmsen, E; De Tombe, P P; Achterberg, P W

1983-07-14

319

Novel genetic diversity within Anopheles punctimacula s.l.: phylogenetic discrepancy between the Barcode cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2).  

PubMed

Anopheles punctimacula s.l. is a regional malaria vector in parts of Central America, but its role in transmission is controversial due to its unresolved taxonomic status. Two cryptic species, An. malefactor and An. calderoni, have been previously confused with this taxon, and evidence for further genetic differentiation has been proposed. In the present study we collected and morphologically identified adult female mosquitoes of An. punctimacula s.l. from 10 localities across Panama and one in Costa Rica. DNA sequences from three molecular regions, the three prime end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (3' COI), the Barcode region in the five prime end of the COI (5' COI), and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) were used to test the hypothesis of new molecular lineages within An. punctimacula s.l. Phylogenetic analyses using the 3' COI depicted six highly supported molecular lineages (A-F), none of which was An. malefactor. In contrast, phylogenetic inference with the 5' COI demonstrated paraphyly. Tree topologies based on the combined COI regions and ITS2 sequence data supported the same six lineages as the 3' COI alone. As a whole this evidence suggests that An. punctimacula s.l. comprises two geographically isolated lineages, but it is not clear whether these are true species. The phylogenetic structure of the An. punctimacula cluster as well as that of other unknown lineages (C type I vs C type II; D vs E) appears to be driven by geographic partition, because members of these assemblages did not overlap spatially. We report An. malefactor for the first time in Costa Rica, but our data do not support the presence of An. calderoni in Panama. PMID:23806568

Loaiza, Jose R; Scott, Marilyn E; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I; Rovira, Jose R; Dutari, Larissa C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bickersmith, Sara; Conn, Jan E

2013-10-01

320

Regulation of the Marinomonas mediterranea Antimicrobial Protein Lysine Oxidase by l-Lysine and the Sensor Histidine Kinase PpoS? †  

PubMed Central

Some Gram-negative bacteria express a novel enzyme with lysine-?-oxidase (LOD) activity (EC 1.4.3.20). The oxidation of l-Lys generates, among other products, hydrogen peroxide, which confers antimicrobial properties to this kind of enzyme and has been shown to be involved in cell death during biofilm development and differentiation. In addition to LOD, the melanogenic marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea, which forms part of the microbiota of the marine plant Posidonia oceanica, expresses two other oxidases of biotechnological interest, a multicopper oxidase, PpoA, with laccase activity and a tyrosinase named PpoB, which is responsible for melanin synthesis. By using both lacZ fusions with the lodAB promoter and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), this study shows that the hybrid sensor histidine kinase PpoS regulates LOD activity at the transcriptional level. Although PpoS also regulates PpoA and PpoB, in this case, the regulatory effect cannot be attributed only to a transcriptional regulation. Further studies indicate that LOD activity is induced at the posttranscriptional level by l-Lys as well as by two structurally similar compounds, l-Arg and meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAP), neither of which is a substrate of the enzyme. The inducing effect of these compounds is specific for LOD activity since PpoA and PpoB are not affected by them. This study offers, for the first time, insights into the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of the antimicrobial protein lysine-?-oxidase in M. mediterranea, which could be important in the microbial colonization of the seagrass P. oceanica.

Molina-Quintero, Luisa R.; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

2010-01-01

321

After-ripening alters the gene expression pattern of oxidases involved in the ethylene and gibberellin pathways during early imbibition of Sisymbrium officinale L. seeds  

PubMed Central

After-ripening (AR) in Sisymbrium officinale seeds altered SoACS7, SoACO2, SoGA20ox2, SoGA3ox2, and SoGA2ox6 gene expression. Except for SoGA20ox2 expression, which sharply diminished, the expression of the other genes rose during development, particularly that of SoACS7. In contrast, only the SoACO2 and SoGA2ox6 transcripts increased with seed desiccation; the others decreased. AR increased the SoGA3ox2 transcript in dry seed, but dramatically decreased the SoACS7 transcript. At the onset of imbibition, AR inhibited SoACS7 and SoACO2 expression and stimulated that of SoGA20ox2, SoGA3ox2, and SoGA2ox6, demonstrating that the participation of ethylene (ET) and gibberellins (GAs) differs in after-ripened and non-after-ripened seeds. The inhibition of SoACO2 expression in the presence of GA4+7, paclobutrazol (PB), inhibitors of ET synthesis and signalling (IESS), and notably ET+GA4+7 indicated ET–GA cross-talk in non-after-ripened seeds. A positive effect of AR in reversing this inhibition was found. The idea of ET–GA cross-talk is also supported by the effect of ET on SoGA3ox2 expression, notably induced by the AR process. In contrast, SoGA20ox2 expression did not appear to be susceptible to AR. SoGA2ox6 expression, poorly known in seeds, suggests that AR prompted an up-regulation under all treatments studied, whereas in non-after-ripened seeds expression was down-regulated. On the other hand, the ?-mannanase (MAN) activity dramatically increased in dry after-ripened seed, being significantly boosted by ET. The absence of MAN inhibition by IESS suggests that although ET seems to be one of the factors controlling MAN, its presence did not appear to be essential. GA4+7 only increased MAN in seeds wich were after-ripened. Here, it is proposed that ET and GAs participate actively in establishing the AR process.

Iglesias-Fernandez, Raquel; Matilla, Angel

2009-01-01

322

Lysyl Oxidase-Like and Lysyl Oxidase Are Present in the Dermis and Epidermis of a Skin Equivalent and in Human Skin and Are Associated to Elastic Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elastic fiber formation involves the secretion of tropoelastin which is converted to insoluble elastin by cross-linking, initiated by the oxidative deamination of lysine residues by lysyl oxidase. Five lysyl oxidase genes have been discovered. This study deals with the expression of two isoforms, LOX and LOX-like (LOXL), in human foreskin and in a human skin-equivalent (SE) model that allows the

Emmanuelle Noblesse; Valérie Cenizo; Charbel Bouez; Agnès Borel; Claudine Gleyzal; Simone Peyrol; Marie-Paule Jacob; Pascal Sommer; Odile Damour

2004-01-01

323

Multiple bone morphogenetic protein 1-related mammalian metalloproteinases process pro-lysyl oxidase at the correct physiological site and control lysyl oxidase activation in mouse embryo fibroblast cultures.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase catalyzes the final enzymatic step required for collagen and elastin cross-linking in extracellular matrix biosynthesis. Pro-lysyl oxidase is processed by procollagen C-proteinase activity, which also removes the C-propeptides of procollagens I-III. The Bmp1 gene encodes two procollagen C-proteinases: bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP-1) and mammalian Tolloid (mTLD). Mammalian Tolloid-like (mTLL)-1 and -2 are two genetically distinct BMP-1-related proteinases, and mTLL-1 has been shown to have procollagen C-proteinase activity. The present study is the first to directly compare pro-lysyl oxidase processing by these four related proteinases. In vitro assays with purified recombinant enzymes show that all four proteinases productively cleave pro-lysyl oxidase at the correct physiological site but that BMP-1 is 3-, 15-, and 20-fold more efficient than mTLL-1, mTLL-2, and mTLD, respectively. To more directly assess the roles of BMP-1 and mTLL-1 in lysyl oxidase activation by connective tissue cells, fibroblasts cultured from Bmp1-null, Tll1-null, and Bmp1/Tll1 double null mouse embryos, thus lacking BMP-1/mTLD, mTLL-1, or all three enzymes, respectively, were assayed for lysyl oxidase enzyme activity and for accumulation of pro-lysyl oxidase and mature approximately 30-kDa lysyl oxidase. Wild type cells or cells singly null for Bmp1 or Tll1 all produced both pro-lysyl oxidase and processed lysyl oxidase at similar levels, indicating apparently normal levels of processing, consistent with enzyme activity data. In contrast, double null Bmp1/Tll1 cells produced predominantly unprocessed 50-kDa pro-lysyl oxidase and had lysyl oxidase enzyme activity diminished by 70% compared with wild type, Bmp1-null, and Tll1-null cells. Thus, the combination of BMP-1/mTLD and mTLL-1 is shown to be responsible for the majority of processing leading to activation of lysyl oxidase by murine embryonic fibroblasts, whereas in vitro studies identify pro-lysyl oxidase as the first known substrate for mTLL-2. PMID:11313359

Uzel, M I; Scott, I C; Babakhanlou-Chase, H; Palamakumbura, A H; Pappano, W N; Hong, H H; Greenspan, D S; Trackman, P C

2001-06-22

324

Expression and Chloroplast Targeting of Cholesterol Oxidase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants  

PubMed Central

Cholesterol oxidase represents a novel type of insecticidal protein with potent activity against the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with the cholesterol oxidase choM gene and expressed cytosolic and chloroplast-targeted versions of the ChoM protein. Transgenic leaf tissues expressing cholesterol oxidase exerted insecticidal activity against boll weevil larvae. Our results indicate that cholesterol oxidase can metabolize phytosterols in vivo when produced cytosolically or when targeted to chloroplasts. The transgenic plants exhibiting cytosolic expression accumulated low levels of saturated sterols known as stanols, and displayed severe developmental aberrations. In contrast, the transgenic plants expressing chloroplast-targeted cholesterol oxidase maintained a greater accumulation of stanols, and appeared phenotypically and developmentally normal. These results are discussed within the context of plant sterol distribution and metabolism.

Corbin, David R.; Grebenok, Robert J.; Ohnmeiss, Thomas E.; Greenplate, John T.; Purcell, John P.

2001-01-01

325

Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of a Cytokinin Oxidase from Maize1  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that cytokinin oxidases, which oxidatively remove cytokinin side chains to produce adenine and the corresponding isopentenyl aldehyde, play a major role in regulating cytokinin levels in planta. Partially purified fractions of cytokinin oxidase from various species have been studied for many years, but have yet to clearly reveal the properties of the enzyme or to define its biological significance. Details of the genomic organization of the recently isolated maize (Zea mays) cytokinin oxidase gene (ckx1) and some of its Arabidopsis homologs are now presented. Expression of an intronless ckx1 in Pichia pastoris allowed production of large amounts of recombinant cytokinin oxidase and facilitated detailed kinetic and cofactor analysis and comparison with the native enzyme. The enzyme is a flavoprotein containing covalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide, but no detectable heavy metals. Expression of the oxidase in maize tissues is described.

Bilyeu, Kristin D.; Cole, Jean L.; Laskey, James G.; Riekhof, Wayne R.; Esparza, Thomas J.; Kramer, Michelle D.; Morris, Roy O.

2001-01-01

326

NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794–2814.

Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

2014-01-01

327

NADPH oxidases in vascular pathology.  

PubMed

Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of "kindling radicals," which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794-2814. PMID:24180474

Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta; Guzik, Tomasz J

2014-06-10

328

Coupling in cytochrome c oxidase  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome c oxidase (ferrocytochrome c: oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 1.9.3.1) can be resolved into an electron transfer complex (ETC) and an ionophore transfer complex (ITC). Coupling requires an interaction between the moving electron in the ETC and a moving, positively charged ionophore-cation adduct in the ITC. The duplex character of cytochrome oxidase facilitates this interaction. The ITC mediates cyclical cation transport. It can be replaced as the coupling partner by the combination of valinomycin and nigericin in the presence of K+ when cytochrome oxidase is incorporated into liposomes containing acidic phospholipids or by the combination of lipid cytochrome c and bile acids in an ITC-resolved preparation of the ETC. Respiratory control can be induced by incorporating cytochrome oxidase into vesicles of unfractionated whole mitochondrial lipid. The activity of the ITC is suppressed by such incorporation and this suppression leads to the emergence of respiratory control. The ionophoroproteins of the ITC can be extracted into organic solvents; some 50% of the total protein of cytochrome oxidase is extractable. The release of free ionophore is achieved by tryptic digestion of the ionophoroprotein. Preliminary to this release the ionophoroprotein is degraded to an ionophoropeptide. Electrogenic ionophores, as well as uncoupler, are liberated by such proteolysis. The ITC contains a set of ionophoroproteins imbedded in a matrix of phospholipid. Images

Kessler, R. J.; Blondin, G. A.; Zande, H. Vande; Haworth, R. A.; Green, D. E.

1977-01-01

329

An archaebacterial terminal oxidase combines core structures of two mitochondrial respiratory complexes.  

PubMed Central

The operon coding for a respiratory quinol oxidase was cloned from thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. It contains three genes, soxA, soxB and soxC. The first two genes code for proteins related to the cytochrome c oxidase subunits II and I, respectively. soxC encodes a protein homologous to cytochrome b, which is a subunit of the mitochondrial and bacterial cytochrome c reductases and the chloroplast cytochrome b6f complex. soxA is preceded by a promoter and the genes are cotranscribed into a 4 kb mRNA. Their protein products form a complex which has been partially purified and has quinol oxidase activity. The reduced minus oxidized absorption spectrum of the complex has two maxima at 586 and 606 nm. The latter is typical of cytochrome c oxidase. The complex contains four haems A. Two haems belong to the 'cytochrome oxidase' part of the complex and two are probably bound to be apocytochrome b (SoxC) and responsible for the 586 nm absorption peak. The homology between the sox gene products and their mitochondrial counterparts suggests that energy conservation coupled to the quinol oxidation catalysed either by the Sulfolobus oxidase or two mitochondrial respiratory enzymes may have a similar mechanism. Images

Lubben, M; Kolmerer, B; Saraste, M

1992-01-01

330

Peroxisomal polyamine oxidase and NADPH-oxidase cross-talk for ROS homeostasis which affects respiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intracellular compartments is of critical importance as ROS have been linked with nearly all cellular processes and more importantly with diseases and aging. PAs are nitrogenous molecules with an evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of metabolic and energetic status of cells. Recent evidence also suggests that polyamines (PA) are major regulators of ROS homeostasis. In Arabidopsis the backconversion of the PAs spermidine (Spd) and spermine to putrescine and Spd, respectively, is catalyzed by two peroxisomal PA oxidases (AtPAO). However, the physiological role of this pathway remains largely elusive. Here we explore the role of peroxisomal PA backconversion and in particular that catalyzed by the highly expressed AtPAO3 in the regulation of ROS homeostasis and mitochondrial respiratory burst. Exogenous PAs exert an NADPH-oxidase dependent stimulation of oxygen consumption, with Spd exerting the strongest effect. This increase is attenuated by treatment with the NADPH-oxidase blocker diphenyleneiodonium iodide (DPI). Loss-of-function of AtPAO3 gene results to increased NADPH-oxidase-dependent production of superoxide anions ([Formula: see text] ), but not H2O2, which activate the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway (AOX). On the contrary, overexpression of AtPAO3 results to an increased but balanced production of both H2O2 and [Formula: see text] . These results suggest that the ratio of [Formula: see text] /H2O2 regulates respiratory chain in mitochondria, with PA-dependent production of [Formula: see text] by NADPH-oxidase tilting the balance of electron transfer chain in favor of the AOX pathway. In addition, AtPAO3 seems to be an important component in the regulating module of ROS homeostasis, while a conserved role for PA backconversion and ROS across kingdoms is discussed. PMID:24765099

Andronis, Efthimios A; Moschou, Panagiotis N; Toumi, Imene; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A

2014-01-01

331

Peroxisomal polyamine oxidase and NADPH-oxidase cross-talk for ROS homeostasis which affects respiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intracellular compartments is of critical importance as ROS have been linked with nearly all cellular processes and more importantly with diseases and aging. PAs are nitrogenous molecules with an evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of metabolic and energetic status of cells. Recent evidence also suggests that polyamines (PA) are major regulators of ROS homeostasis. In Arabidopsis the backconversion of the PAs spermidine (Spd) and spermine to putrescine and Spd, respectively, is catalyzed by two peroxisomal PA oxidases (AtPAO). However, the physiological role of this pathway remains largely elusive. Here we explore the role of peroxisomal PA backconversion and in particular that catalyzed by the highly expressed AtPAO3 in the regulation of ROS homeostasis and mitochondrial respiratory burst. Exogenous PAs exert an NADPH-oxidase dependent stimulation of oxygen consumption, with Spd exerting the strongest effect. This increase is attenuated by treatment with the NADPH-oxidase blocker diphenyleneiodonium iodide (DPI). Loss-of-function of AtPAO3 gene results to increased NADPH-oxidase-dependent production of superoxide anions (O2•? ), but not H2O2, which activate the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway (AOX). On the contrary, overexpression of AtPAO3 results to an increased but balanced production of both H2O2 and O2•? . These results suggest that the ratio of O2•? /H2O2 regulates respiratory chain in mitochondria, with PA-dependent production of O2•? by NADPH-oxidase tilting the balance of electron transfer chain in favor of the AOX pathway. In addition, AtPAO3 seems to be an important component in the regulating module of ROS homeostasis, while a conserved role for PA backconversion and ROS across kingdoms is discussed.

Andronis, Efthimios A.; Moschou, Panagiotis N.; Toumi, Imene; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.

2014-01-01

332

Lysyl Oxidase-related Protein1 Promotes Tumor Fibrosis and Tumor Progression in Vivo1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lysyl oxidase gene family members function as extracellular matrix modulating enzymes. We have found that another member of this family, lysyl oxidase related protein-1 (LOR-1), is highly expressed in metastatic breast cancer-derived cell lines but not in the nonmetastatic estrogen- dependent MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, LOR-1 expression in periductal tumor cells of breast carcinomas is significantly correlated with increased tumor

Gal Akiri; Edmond Sabo; Hagit Dafni; Zehava Vadasz; Yelena Kartvelishvily; Noga Gan; Ofra Kessler; Tzafra Cohen; Murray Resnick; Michal Neeman; Gera Neufeld

2003-01-01

333

Vitamer Levels, Stress Response, Enzyme Activity, and Gene Regulation of Arabidopsis Lines Mutant in the Pyridoxine/Pyridoxamine 5?-Phosphate Oxidase (PDX3) and the Pyridoxal Kinase (SOS4) Genes Involved in the Vitamin B6 Salvage Pathway1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

PDX3 and SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE4 (SOS4), encoding pyridoxine/pyridoxamine 5?-phosphate oxidase and pyridoxal kinase, respectively, are the only known genes involved in the salvage pathway of pyridoxal 5?-phosphate in plants. In this study, we determined the phenotype, stress responses, vitamer levels, and regulation of the vitamin B6 pathway genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants mutant in PDX3 and SOS4. sos4 mutant plants showed a distinct phenotype characterized by chlorosis and reduced plant size, as well as hypersensitivity to sucrose in addition to the previously noted NaCl sensitivity. This mutant had higher levels of pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxal 5?-phosphate than the wild type, reflected in an increase in total vitamin B6 observed through HPLC analysis and yeast bioassay. The sos4 mutant showed increased activity of PDX3 as well as of the B6 de novo pathway enzyme PDX1, correlating with increased total B6 levels. Two independent lines with T-DNA insertions in the promoter region of PDX3 (pdx3-1 and pdx3-2) had decreased PDX3 activity. Both also had decreased activity of PDX1, which correlated with lower levels of total vitamin B6 observed using the yeast bioassay; however, no differences were noted in levels of individual vitamers by HPLC analysis. Both pdx3 mutants showed growth reduction in vitro and in vivo as well as an inability to increase growth under high light conditions. Increased expression of salvage and some of the de novo pathway genes was observed in both the pdx3 and sos4 mutants. In all mutants, increased expression was more dramatic for the salvage pathway genes.

Gonzalez, Eugenia; Danehower, David; Daub, Margaret E.

2007-01-01

334

Alternative oxidase expression in aged potato tuber slices  

SciTech Connect

Higher plant mitochondria posses a cyanide-resistant, hydroxamate-sensitive alternative pathway of electron transport that does not conserve energy. Aging of potato tuber slices for 24 hours leads to the development of an alternative pathway capacity. We have shown that a monoclonal antibody raised against the alternative pathway terminal oxidase of Sauromatum guttatum crossreacts with a protein of similar size in aged potato slice mitochondria. This protein was partially purified and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and its relative levels parallel the rise in cyanide-resistant respiration. We are using a putative clone of the S. guttatum alternative oxidase gene to isolate the equivalent gene from potato and to examine its expression.

Hiser, C.; Herdies, L.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1989-04-01

335

NADPH oxidases: progress and opportunities.  

PubMed

Abstract From the initial discovery in 1999 that NADPH oxidases comprise a family of enzymes to our current focus on drug development to treat multiple pathologies related to this enzyme family, progress has been swift and impressive. We have expanded our understanding of the extent of the family, the basic enzymatic biochemistry, the multiple cellular functions controlled by NADPH oxidases, and their varied roles in physiology and diseases. We have developed numerous cell culture tools, animal models, and human databases that have allowed us to delve deeply into the various roles of these enzymes. However, it is clear that much remains to be learned and that there are many opportunities for new tools and new research directions to more fully understand these critical enzymes. With this Antioxidants and Redox Signaling Forum, we explore in detail the progress, challenges, and opportunities in Nox biology. Progress so far has clearly shown that NADPH oxidases are integral to fully functioning organisms and that the dysregulation of Nox enzymes contributes to a wide variety of pathologies. We have the opportunity to develop new tools and small molecules that will not only help us to better understand the molecular underpinnings of NADPH oxidases but also to develop treatments for diverse human diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2692-2694. PMID:24730700

San Martin, Alejandra; Griendling, Kathy K

2014-06-10

336

The size heterogeneity of human lysyl oxidase mRNA is due to alternate polyadenylation site and not alternate exon usage.  

PubMed

We have isolated the entire gene coding for human lysyl oxidase. Coding and untranslated domains of human lysyl oxidase mRNA were found in 7 exons, distributed throughout approximately 14 kb of human genomic DNA. The appearance of exon sequences in lysyl oxidase mRNA in several human tissues was determined using a reverse transcriptase - PCR assay. In contrast to a previous report, this analysis has unambiguously shown that the size heterogeneity of lysyl oxidase mRNA was not due to alternate usage of any of the exons of the lysyl oxidase gene. Moreover, DNA sequence analysis of the entire 3.8 kb 3'-untranslated region (UTR) within exon 7 revealed multiple poly-adenylation sites which were shown to be differentially expressed in human skin fibroblasts. This differential usage of polyadenylation sites within the 3'-UTR explains the appearance of multiple lysyl oxidase mRNAs of different sizes. PMID:8531927

Boyd, C D; Mariani, T J; Kim, Y; Csiszar, K

1995-01-01

337

The gene CYP3 encoding P450pcn1 (nifedipine oxidase) is tightly linked to the gene COL1A2 encoding collagen type 1 alpha on 7q21-q22.1.  

PubMed Central

CYP3, the gene which encodes the hepatic cytochrome P450pcn1, the isozyme responsible for the metabolic oxidation of the calcium channel-blocking drug nifedipine, has recently been mapped to human chromosome 7 using somatic cell hybrids. Using multilocus linkage analysis in CEPH families, we examined the linkage of a cDNA probe (hPCN1) for CYP3 to the oncogene MET, the pro-alpha 2(1) collagen gene COL1A2, and the T-cell receptor beta-chain gene TCRB, together with three arbitrary loci D7S8, D7S13, and D7S16, defined by the anonymous DNA probes pJ3.11, pB79a, and p7C22, respectively. From 70 CEPH parents screened with a StyI RFLP for hPCN1, four informative families were found each with both parental and maternal grandparents and 6-11 children per family. Tight linkage emerged between CYP3 and COL1A2, with a maximum combined lod score of 5.72 at theta = 0, suggesting the most likely subchromosomal localization of CYP3 is 7q21.3-q22.1. Images Figure 1

Brooks, B A; McBride, O W; Dolphin, C T; Farrall, M; Scambler, P J; Gonzalez, F J; Idle, J R

1988-01-01

338

Physiological role of the respiratory quinol oxidase in the anaerobic nitrite-reducing methanotroph 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera'.  

PubMed

The anaerobic nitrite-reducing methanotroph 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' ('Ca. M. oxyfera') produces oxygen from nitrite by a novel pathway. The major part of the O(2) is used for methane activation and oxidation, which proceeds by the route well known for aerobic methanotrophs. Residual oxygen may serve other purposes, such as respiration. We have found that the genome of 'Ca. M. oxyfera' harbours four sets of genes encoding terminal respiratory oxidases: two cytochrome c oxidases, a third putative bo-type ubiquinol oxidase, and a cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase. Illumina sequencing of reverse-transcribed total community RNA and quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that all four sets of genes were transcribed, albeit at low levels. Oxygen-uptake and inhibition experiments, UV-visible absorption spectral characteristics and EPR spectroscopy of solubilized membranes showed that only one of the four oxidases is functionally produced by 'Ca. M. oxyfera', notably the membrane-bound bo-type terminal oxidase. These findings open a new role for terminal respiratory oxidases in anaerobic systems, and are an additional indication of the flexibility of terminal oxidases, of which the distribution among anaerobic micro-organisms may be largely underestimated. PMID:21071492

Wu, Ming L; de Vries, Simon; van Alen, Theo A; Butler, Margaret K; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Keltjens, Jan T; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc

2011-03-01

339

Function of the Pyruvate Oxidase-Lactate Oxidase Cascade in Interspecies Competition between Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Complex interspecies interactions occur constantly between oral commensals and the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque. Previously, we showed that oral commensal Streptococcus oligofermentans possesses multiple enzymes for H2O2 production, especially lactate oxidase (Lox), allowing it to out-compete S. mutans. In this study, through extensive biochemical and genetic studies, we identified a pyruvate oxidase (pox) gene in S. oligofermentans. A pox deletion mutant completely lost Pox activity, while ectopically expressed pox restored activity. Pox was determined to produce most of the H2O2 in the earlier growth phase and log phase, while Lox mainly contributed to H2O2 production in stationary phase. Both pox and lox were expressed throughout the growth phase, while expression of the lox gene increased by about 2.5-fold when cells entered stationary phase. Since lactate accumulation occurred to a large degree in stationary phase, the differential Pox- and Lox-generated H2O2 can be attributed to differential gene expression and substrate availability. Interestingly, inactivation of pox causes a dramatic reduction in H2O2 production from lactate, suggesting a synergistic action of the two oxidases in converting lactate into H2O2. In an in vitro two-species biofilm experiment, the pox mutant of S. oligofermentans failed to inhibit S. mutans even though lox was active. In summary, S. oligofermentans develops a Pox-Lox synergy strategy to maximize its H2O2 formation so as to win the interspecies competition.

Liu, Lei

2012-01-01

340

The size heterogeneity of human lysyl oxidase mRNA is due to alternate polyadenylation site and not alternate exon usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated the entire gene coding for human lysyl oxidase. Coding and untranslated domains of human lysyl oxidase mRNA were found in 7 exons, distributed throughout approximately 14kb of human genomic DNA. The appearance of exon sequences in lysyl oxidase mRNA in several human tissues was determined using a reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. In contrast to a previous report, this

Charles D. Boyd; Thomas J. Mariani; Youngho Kim; Katalin Csiszar

1995-01-01

341

Purification of enzymatically active human lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like protein from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular copper dependent enzyme catalyzing lysine-derived cross-links in extracellular matrix proteins. Recent molecular cloning has revealed the existence of a LOX family consisting of LOX and four lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXLs; LOXL, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4). Each member of the LOX family contains a copper-binding domain, residues for lysyl-tyrosyl quinone, and a cytokine receptor-like domain. Very recently, novel functions, such as tumor suppression, cellular senescence, and chemotaxis, have been attributed to this family of amine oxidases, but functional differences among the family members have yet to be determined. For efficient expression and purification, we cloned the cDNAs corresponding to proteolytically processed forms of LOX (LOX-p) and LOXL (LOXL-p1 and LOXL-p2) into a bacterial expression vector pET21a with six continuous histidine codons attached to the 3' of the gene. The recombinant proteins were purified with nickel-chelating affinity chromatography and converted into enzymatically active forms by stepwise dialysis in the presence of N-lauroylsarcosinate and Cu2+. The purified LOX-p, LOXL-p1, and LOXL-p2 proteins showed specific amine oxidase activity of 0.097, 0.054, and 0.150 U/mg, respectively, which was inhibited by beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a specific inhibitor of LOX. Availability of these pure and active forms of LOX and LOXLs will be significantly helpful in functional studies related to substrate specificity and crystal structures of this family of amine oxidases. PMID:14550642

Jung, Sang Taek; Kim, Moon Suk; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyung Chul; Kim, Youngho

2003-10-01

342

Recovery of choline oxidase activity by in vitro recombination of individual segments.  

PubMed

Initial attempts to express a choline oxidase from Arthrobacter pascens (APChO-syn) in Escherichia coli starting from a synthetic gene only led to inactive protein. However, activity was regained by the systematic exchange of individual segments of the gene with segments from a choline oxidase-encoding gene from Arthrobacter globiformis yielding a functional chimeric enzyme. Next, a sequence alignment of the exchanged segment with other choline oxidases revealed a mutation in the APChO-syn, showing that residue 200 was a threonine instead of an asparagine, which is, thus, crucial for confering enzyme activity and, hence, provides an explanation for the initial lack of activity. The active recombinant APChO-syn-T200N variant was biochemically characterized showing an optimum at pH 8.0 and at 37 degrees C. Furthermore, the substrate specificity was examined using N,N-dimethylethanolamine, N-methylethanolamine and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol. PMID:18704397

Heinze, Birgit; Hoven, Nina; O'Connell, Timothy; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Bartsch, Sebastian; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

2008-11-01

343

Gibberellin oxidase activities in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids.  

PubMed

Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids isolated from root nodules of soybean (Glycine max.) plants converted the gibberellin (GA) precursor [(14)C1]GA12 into several products identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as [(14)C1]GA24, [(14)C1]GA9, [(14)C1]GA15, GA9 17-nor-16-one and unidentified products. The oxidation of GA12, catalyzed by the GA 20-oxidase, was present in symbiotic bacteroids from plants around flowering, but not in bacteroids from plants at either an early vegetative stage or at late growth stages. Expression of cps and ks genes, involved in ent-kaurene biosynthesis, was also demonstrated in bacteroids from soybean plants around flowering. Earlier precursors of the GA pathway, ent-[(14)C1]kaurenoic acid or [(14)C4]GA12-aldehyde, were efficiently utilized by B. japonicum bacteroids to give labelled GA9 plus intermediates partially oxidized at C-20, as well as GA9 17-nor-16-one and an unidentified product. No 3? or 13-hydroxylated [(14)C]GAs were detected in any of the incubations. Moreover the C19-GAs [(14)C1]GA4 or [(14)C1]GA20 were recovered unconverted upon incubation with the bacteroids which supports the absence of GA 3?-hydroxylase activity in B. japonicum. The bacterial 20-oxidase utilized the 13-hydroxylated substrates [(14)C1]GA53, [(14)C1]GA44 or [(14)C1]GA19, although with less efficiency than [(14)C1]GA12 to give [(14)C1]GA20 as final product, while the 3?-hydroxylated substrate [(14)C1]GA14 was converted to [(14)C1]GA4 to a very small extent. Endogenous GA9 and GA24 were identified by GC-MS in methanolic nodule extracts. These results suggest that B. japonicum bacteroids would synthesize GA9 under the symbiotic conditions present in soybean root nodules. PMID:24378220

Méndez, Constanza; Baginsky, Cecilia; Hedden, Peter; Gong, Fan; Carú, Margarita; Rojas, María Cecilia

2014-02-01

344

Monoamine oxidase in adult Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda).  

PubMed

A membrane-bound monoamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.4) was demonstrated in homogenates of Hymenolepis diminuta. The enzyme oxidized a variety of biologically active amines (in decreasing order: dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, tryptamine, tyramine, octopamine), there was, however, no activity with 5-hydroxytryptamine or benzylamine. No diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6.) could be detected in H. diminuta (using histamine, cadaverine or putrescine as substrates). The monoamine oxidase from H. diminuta was not inhibited by azide, hydroxylamine or semicarbazide, but was inhibited by cupferron, alpha-alpha dipyridyl and iodoacetamide, and by the specific monoamine oxidase inhibitors pargyline, nialamide and iproniazid. Several anthelmintics were also found to be inhibitors of monoamine oxidase. The possible roles of monoamine oxidase in H. diminuta are discussed. PMID:419001

Moreno, M S; Barrett, J

1979-02-01

345

Lysyl oxidase: properties, regulation and multiple functions in biology.  

PubMed

Lysyl oxidase (LO) is a copper-dependent amine oxidase that plays a critical role in the biogenesis of connective tissue matrices by crosslinking the extracellular matrix proteins, collagen and elastin. Levels of LO increase in many fibrotic diseases, while expression of the enzyme is decreased in certain diseases involving impaired copper metabolism. While the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme is not yet available, many of its physical-chemical properties, its novel carbonyl cofactor, and its catalytic mechanism have been described. Lysyl oxidase is synthesized as a preproprotein, secreted as a 50 kDa, N-glycosylated proenzyme and then proteolytically cleaved to the 32 kDa, catalytically active, mature enzyme. Within the past decade, the gene encoding LO has been cloned, facilitating investigations of the regulation of expression of the enzyme in response to diverse stimuli and in numerous disease states. Transforming growth factor-beta, platelet-derived growth factor, angiotensin II, retinoic acid, fibroblast growth factor, altered serum conditions, and shear stress are among the effectors or conditions that regulate LO expression. New, LO-like genes have also been identified and cloned, suggesting the existence of a multigene family. It has also become increasingly evident that LO may have other important biological functions in addition to its role in the crosslinking of elastin and collagen in the extracellular matrix. PMID:9524359

Smith-Mungo, L I; Kagan, H M

1998-02-01

346

Incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase.  

PubMed Central

Lysyl oxidase is a copper-dependent enzyme involved in extracellular processing of collagens and elastin. Although it is known that copper is essential for the functional activity of the enzyme, there is little information on the incorporation of copper. In the present study we examined the insertion of copper into lysyl oxidase using 67Cu in cell-free transcription/translation assays and in normal skin fibroblast culture systems. When a full-length lysyl oxidase cDNA was used as a template for transcription/translation reactions in vitro, unprocessed prolysyl oxidase appeared to bind copper. To examine further the post-translational incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase, confluent skin fibroblasts were incubated with inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide, 10 microg/ml), glycosylation (tunicamycin, 10 microg/ml), protein secretion (brefeldin A, 10 microg/ml) and prolysyl oxidase processing (procollagen C-peptidase inhibitor, 2.5 microg/ml) together with 300 microCi of carrier-free 67Cu. It was observed that protein synthesis was a prerequisite for copper incorporation, but inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin did not affect the secretion of 67Cu as lysyl oxidase. Brefeldin A inhibited the secretion of 67Ci-labelled lysyl oxidase by 46%, but the intracellular incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase was not affected. In addition, the inhibition of the extracellular proteolytic processing of prolysyl oxidase to lysyl oxidase had minimal effects on the secretion of protein-bound 67Cu. Our results indicate that, similar to caeruloplasmin processing [Sato and Gitlin (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 5128-5134], copper is inserted into prolysyl oxidase independently of glycosylation.

Kosonen, T; Uriu-Hare, J Y; Clegg, M S; Keen, C L; Rucker, R B

1997-01-01

347

Dietary inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of monoamine oxidase is one way to treat depression and anxiety. The information now available on the pharmacokinetics\\u000a of flavonoids and of the components of tobacco prompted an exploration of whether a healthy diet (with or without smoking)\\u000a provides active compounds in amounts sufficient to partially inhibit monoamine oxidase. A literature search was used to identify\\u000a dietary monoamine oxidase

Sarah E. Dixon Clarke; Rona R. Ramsay

2011-01-01

348

Glycolate Oxidase Modulates Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Signal Transduction during Nonhost Resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

In contrast to gene-for-gene disease resistance, nonhost resistance governs defense responses to a broad range of potential pathogen species. To identify specific genes involved in the signal transduction cascade associated with nonhost disease resistance, we used a virus-induced gene-silencing screen in Nicotiana benthamiana, and identified the peroxisomal enzyme glycolate oxidase (GOX) as an essential component of nonhost resistance. GOX-silenced N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana GOX T-DNA insertion mutants are compromised for nonhost resistance. Moreover, Arabidopsis gox mutants have lower H2O2 accumulation, reduced callose deposition, and reduced electrolyte leakage upon inoculation with hypersensitive response–causing nonhost pathogens. Arabidopsis gox mutants were not affected in NADPH oxidase activity, and silencing of a gene encoding NADPH oxidase (Respiratory burst oxidase homolog) in the gox mutants did not further increase susceptibility to nonhost pathogens, suggesting that GOX functions independently from NADPH oxidase. In the two gox mutants examined (haox2 and gox3), the expression of several defense-related genes upon nonhost pathogen inoculation was decreased compared with wild-type plants. Here we show that GOX is an alternative source for the production of H2O2 during both gene-for-gene and nonhost resistance responses.

Rojas, Clemencia M.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Wang, Keri; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kaundal, Amita; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

2012-01-01

349

Functional deficiencies of sulfite oxidase: Differential diagnoses in neonates presenting with intractable seizures and cystic encephalomalacia.  

PubMed

Sulfite oxidase is a mitochondrial enzyme encoded by the SUOX gene and essential for the detoxification of sulfite which results mainly from the catabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Decreased activity of this enzyme can either be due to mutations in the SUOX gene or secondary to defects in the synthesis of its cofactor, the molybdenum cofactor. Defects in the synthesis of the molybdenum cofactor are caused by mutations in one of the genes MOCS1, MOCS2, MOCS3 and GEPH and result in combined deficiencies of the enzymes sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. Although present in many ethnic groups, isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are rare inborn errors of metabolism, which makes awareness of key clinical and laboratory features of affected individuals crucial for early diagnosis. We report clinical, radiologic, biochemical and genetic data on a Brazilian and on a Turkish child with sulfite oxidase deficiency due to the isolated defect and impaired synthesis of the molybdenum cofactor, respectively. Both patients presented with early onset seizures and neurological deterioration. They showed no sulfite oxidase activity in fibroblasts and were homozygous for the mutations c.1136A>G in the SUOX gene and c.667insCGA in the MOCS1 gene, respectively. Widely available routine laboratory tests such as assessment of total homocysteine and uric acid are indicated in children with a clinical presentation resembling that of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and may help in obtaining a tentative diagnosis locally, which requires confirmation by specialized laboratories. PMID:19793632

Sass, Jörn Oliver; Gunduz, Aysegul; Araujo Rodrigues Funayama, Carolina; Korkmaz, Baris; Dantas Pinto, Kylvia Giselle; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Yanasse Dos Santos, Letícia; Taskiran, Emine; de Fátima Turcato, Marlene; Lam, Ching-Wan; Reiss, Jochen; Walter, Melanie; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz; Camelo Junior, José Simon

2010-08-01

350

Photoreactions of cytochrome C oxidase.  

PubMed

The photoreduction of oxidized bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) by visible and UV radiation was investigated in the absence and presence of external reagents. In the former case, the quantum yields for direct photoreduction of heme A (heme a + heme a(3)) were 2.6 +/- 0.5 x 10(-3), 4 +/- 1 x 10(-4), and 4 +/- 2 x 10(-6) with pulsed laser irradiation at 266, 355 and 532 nm, respectively. Within experimental uncertainty, the quantum yields did not depend on pulse energy, implying that the mechanism is monophotonic. Irradiation with 355 nm light resulted in spectral changes similar to those produced independently by reduction with dithionite, whereby the low-spin heme a and Cu(A) are reduced first. Extended illumination at 355 and 532 nm yielded substantial amounts of reduced heme a(3). Heme decomposition was noted with 266 nm light. In the presence of formate and cyanide ions, which bind at the binuclear heme a(3)/copper center in CcO, irradiation at 355 nm caused selective reduction of only the low-spin heme a and Cu(A). The addition of ferrioxalate ion dramatically increased the efficiency of cytochrome c oxidase photoreduction. The quantum efficiency for heme A reduction was found to be near unity, significantly greater than for other known methods of photoreduction. The active reductant is most likely ferrous iron, and its reduction of the enzyme is thermodynamically driven by the reformation of ferrioxalate in the presence of excess oxalate ion. Other metalloenzymes with redox potentials similar to those of cytochrome c oxidase should be amenable to indirect photoreduction by this method. PMID:16789843

Winterle, John S; Einarsdóttir, Olöf

2006-01-01

351

Inhibition of NADPH oxidase promotes alternative and anti-inflammatory microglial activation during neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Like macrophages, microglia are functionally polarized into different phenotypic activation states, referred as classical and alternative. The balance of the two phenotypes may be critical to ensure proper brain homeostasis, and may be altered in brain pathological states, such as Alzheimer’s disease. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in microglial activation state using p47phox and gp91phox-deficient mice as well as apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor during neuroinflammation induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of LPS or A?1–42. We showed that NADPH oxidase plays a critical role in the modulation of microglial phenotype and subsequent inflammatory response. We demonstrated that inhibition of NADPH oxidase or gene deletion of its functional p47phox subunit switched microglial activation from a classical to an alternative state in response to an inflammatory challenge. Moreover, we showed a shift in redox state towards an oxidized milieu and that subpopulations of microglia retain their detrimental phenotype in Alzheimer’s disease brains. Microglia can change their activation phenotype depending on NADPH oxidase-dependent redox state of microenvironment. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase represents a promising neuroprotective approach to reduce oxidative stress and modulate microglial phenotype towards an alternative state.

Choi, Sang-Ho; Aid, Saba; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Jackson, Sharon H.; Bosetti, Francesca

2012-01-01

352

Oxidative innate immune defenses by Nox/Duox family NADPH Oxidases  

PubMed Central

The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in innate immunity was first recognized in professional phagocytes undergoing a “respiratory burst” upon activation. This robust oxygen consumption is related to a superoxide-generating enzyme, the phagocytic NADPH oxidase (Nox2 or phox). The oxidase is essential for microbial killing, since patients lacking a functional oxidase suffer from enhanced susceptibility to microbial infections. ROS derived from superoxide attack bacteria in the isolated niche of the neutrophil phagosome. The oxidase is electrogenic, alters ion currents across membranes, induces apoptosis, regulates cytokine production, influences gene expression, and promotes formation of extracellular traps. Recently, new homologues of Nox2 were discovered establishing the Nox family of NADPH oxidases that encompasses seven members. Nox1 is highly expressed in the colon epithelium, and can be induced by LPS or IFN-?. Nox4 was implicated in innate immunity since LPS induces Nox4-dependent ROS generation. Duox1 and Duox2 localize to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in major airways, salivary glands, and the gastrointestinal tract, and provide extracellular hydrogen peroxide to lactoperoxidase to produce antimicrobial hypothiocyanite ions. Th1 and Th2 cytokines regulate expression of Dual oxidases in human airways and may thereby act in host defense or in proinflammatory responses.

Rada, Balazs; Leto, Thomas L.

2009-01-01

353

Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of the cholesterol oxidase CgChoA from Chryseobacterium gleum  

PubMed Central

Background Cholesterol oxidases are important enzymes for applications such as the analysis of cholesterol in clinical samples, the synthesis of steroid derived drugs, and are considered as potential antibacterial drug targets. Results The gene choA encoding a cholesterol oxidase from Chryseobacterium gleum DSM 16776 was cloned into the pQE-30 expression vector and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 co-transformed with pRARE2. The N-terminally His-tagged cholesterol oxidase (CgChoA) was assigned to be a monomer in solution by size exclusion chromatography, showed a temperature optimum of 35°C, and a pH optimum at 6.75 using 0.011 M MOPS buffer under the tested conditions. The purified protein showed a maximum activity of 15.5 U/mg. CgChoA showed a Michaelis-Menten like kinetic behavior only when the substrate was dissolved in water and taurocholate (apparent Km?=?0.5 mM). In addition, the conversion of cholesterol by CgChoA was studied via biocatalytic batches at analytical scale, and cholest-4-en-3-one was confirmed as product by HPLC-MS. Conclusion CgChoA is a true cholesterol oxidase which activity ranges among the high performing described cholesterol oxidases from other organisms. Thus, the enzyme broadens the available toolbox of cholesterol oxidases for e.g. synthetic and biosensing applications.

2014-01-01

354

Molecular Characterization of the Oxalate Oxidase Involved in the Response of Barley to the Powdery Mildew Fungus1  

PubMed Central

Previously we reported that oxalate oxidase activity increases in extracts of barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves in response to the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria [syn. Erysiphe] graminis f.sp. hordei) and proposed this as a source of H2O2 during plant-pathogen interactions. In this paper we show that the N terminus of the major pathogen-response oxalate oxidase has a high degree of sequence identity to previously characterized germin-like oxalate oxidases. Two cDNAs were isolated, pHvOxOa, which represents this major enzyme, and pHvOxOb', representing a closely related enzyme. Our data suggest the presence of only two oxalate oxidase genes in the barley genome, i.e. a gene encoding HvOxOa, which possibly exists in several copies, and a single-copy gene encoding HvOxOb. The use of 3? end gene-specific probes has allowed us to demonstrate that the HvOxOa transcript accumulates to 6 times the level of the HvOxOb transcript in response to the powdery mildew fungus. The transcripts were detected in both compatible and incompatible interactions with a similar accumulation pattern. The oxalate oxidase is found exclusively in the leaf mesophyll, where it is cell wall located. A model for a signal transduction pathway in which oxalate oxidase plays a central role is proposed for the regulation of the hypersensitive response.

Zhou, Fasong; Zhang, Ziguo; Gregersen, Per L.; Mikkelsen, J?rn D.; de Neergaard, Eigil; Collinge, David B.; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

1998-01-01

355

The therapeutic potential of monoamine oxidase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors were among the first antidepressants to be discovered and have long been used as such. It now seems that many of these agents might have therapeutic value in several common neurodegenerative conditions, independently of their inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity. However, many claims and some counter-claims have been made about the physiological importance of these enzymes and

Dale Edmondson; Keith F. Tipton; Moussa B. H. Youdim

2006-01-01

356

Hyperuricemia and xanthine oxidase in preeclampsia, revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperuricemia is associated with the severity of preeclampsia and with fetal outcome. Traditionally the high uric acid concentration in preeclampsia has been attributed solely to renal dysfunction. Preeclampsia is also characterized by increased free radical formation and elevated oxidative stress. Xanthine dehydrogenase\\/oxidase produces uric acid. Xanthine dehydrogenase\\/oxidase is present as two isoforms in vivo. Uric acid production is coupled with

A. Many; C. A. Hubel; J. M. Roberts

1996-01-01

357

Physiological roles of NOX/NADPH oxidase, the superoxide-generating enzyme  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase is a superoxide (O2•?)-generating enzyme first identified in phagocytes, essential for their bactericidal activities. Later, in non-phagocytes, production of O2•? was also demonstrated in an NADPH-dependent manner. In the last decade, several non-phagocyte-type NADPH oxidases have been identified. The catalytic subunit of these oxidases, NOX, constitutes the NOX family. There are five homologs in the family, NOX1 to NOX5, and two related enzymes, DUOX1 and DUOX2. Transgenic or gene-disrupted mice of the NOX family have also been established. NOX/DUOX proteins possess distinct features in the dependency on other components for their enzymatic activities, tissue distributions, and physiological functions. This review summarized the characteristics of the NOX family proteins, especially focused on their functions clarified through studies using gene-modified mice.

Katsuyama, Masato; Matsuno, Kuniharu; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro

2012-01-01

358

Spermine oxidase: ten years after.  

PubMed

Spermine oxidase (SMO) was discovered much more recently than other enzymes involved in polyamine metabolism; this review summarizes 10 years of researches on this enzyme. Spermine oxidase (SMO) is a FAD-dependent enzyme that specifically oxidizes spermine (Spm) and plays a dominant role in the highly regulated mammalian polyamines catabolism. SMO participates in drug response, apoptosis, response to stressful stimuli and etiology of several pathological conditions, including cancer. SMO is a highly inducible enzyme, its deregulation can alter polyamine homeostasis, and dysregulation of polyamine catabolism is often associated with several disease states. The oxidative products of SMO activity are spermidine, and the reactive oxygen species H(2)O(2) and the aldehyde 3-aminopropanal each with the potential to produce cellular damages and pathologies. The SMO substrate Spm is a tetramine that plays mandatory roles in several cell functions, such as DNA synthesis, cellular proliferation, modulation of ion channels function, cellular signaling, nitric oxide synthesis and inhibition of immune responses. The goal of this review is to cover the main biochemical, cellular and physiological processes in which SMO is involved. PMID:21809080

Cervelli, Manuela; Amendola, Roberto; Polticelli, Fabio; Mariottini, Paolo

2012-02-01

359

Immunological comparison of sulfite oxidase  

SciTech Connect

Polyclonal antibodies (rabbit), elicited against FPLC-purified chicken and rat liver sulfite oxidase (SO), have been examined for inhibition and binding to purified chicken (C), rat (R), bovine (B), alligator (A) and shark (S) liver enzymes. Anti-CSO IgG cross-reacted with all five enzymes, with varying affinities, in the order CSO=ASO{gt}RSO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-ROS IgG also cross-reacted with all five enzymes in the order RSO{gt}CSO=ASO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited sulfite:cyt. c reductase (S:CR), sulfite:ferricyanide reductase (S:FR) and sulfite:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (S:DR) activities of CSO to different extents (S:CR{gt}S:FR=S:DR). Similar differential inhibition was found for anti-ROS IgG and RSO S:CR, S:FR and S:DR activities. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited S:CR activities in the order CSO=ASO{much gt}SSO{gt}BSO. RSO was uninhibited. For anti-RSO IgG the inhibition order was RSO{gt}SSO{gt}BSO{gt}ASO. CSO was uninhibited. Anti-CSO and RSO IgGs partially inhibited Chlorella nitrate reductase (NR). Minor cross-reactivity was found for xanthine oxidase. Common antigenic determinants for all five SO's and NR are indicated.

Pollock, V.; Barber, M.J. (Univ. South Florida College, Tampa (United States))

1991-03-11

360

NADPH oxidases regulate CD44 and hyaluronic acid expression in thrombin-treated vascular smooth muscle cells and in atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The intracellular signaling events by which NADPH oxidase-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function and atherogenesis are yet to be entirely elucidated. We previously demonstrated that NADPH oxidase deficiency decreased atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice and identified adhesion protein CD44 as an important ROS-sensitive gene expressed in VSMC and atherosclerotic lesions. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase-generated ROS regulate the expression of CD44 and its principal ligand, hyaluronan (HA), and how CD44-HA interaction affects VSMC proliferation and migration and inflammatory gene expression in apoE(-/-) mice aortas. Thrombin-induced CD44 expression is mediated by transcription factor AP-1 in a NADPH oxidase-dependent manner. NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS generation enhanced thrombin-induced HA synthesis, and hyaluronan synthase 2 expression in VSMC. Hyaluronidase, which generates low molecular weight HA (LMW-HA), is induced in VSMC in a NADPH oxidase-dependent manner and LMW-HA stimulated ROS generation and cell proliferation in wild-type but not p47(phox-/-) VSMC, effects that were enhanced by thrombin pretreatment. Haptotactic VSMC migration toward HA was increased by thrombin in a CD44-dependent manner. HA expression in atherosclerotic lesions and plasma-soluble CD44 and HA levels were higher in apoE(-/-) compared with apoE(-/-)/p47(phox-/-) mice. HA-regulated pro-inflammatory gene expression was higher in apoE(-/-) than apoE(-/-)/p47(phox-/-) mouse aortas. GKT136901, a specific inhibitor of Nox1- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidase activity, attenuated ROS generation and atherosclerosis and decreased CD44 and HA expression in atherosclerotic lesions. Together, these data suggest that increased CD44 and HA expression and CD44-HA-dependent gene regulation may play a role in atherosclerosis stimulated by NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:20558727

Vendrov, Aleksandr E; Madamanchi, Nageswara R; Niu, Xi-Lin; Molnar, Kimberly C; Runge, Mason; Szyndralewiez, Cédric; Page, Patrick; Runge, Marschall S

2010-08-20

361

NADPH Oxidases Regulate CD44 and Hyaluronic Acid Expression in Thrombin-treated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and in Atherosclerosis*  

PubMed Central

The intracellular signaling events by which NADPH oxidase-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function and atherogenesis are yet to be entirely elucidated. We previously demonstrated that NADPH oxidase deficiency decreased atherosclerosis in apoE?/? mice and identified adhesion protein CD44 as an important ROS-sensitive gene expressed in VSMC and atherosclerotic lesions. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase-generated ROS regulate the expression of CD44 and its principal ligand, hyaluronan (HA), and how CD44-HA interaction affects VSMC proliferation and migration and inflammatory gene expression in apoE?/? mice aortas. Thrombin-induced CD44 expression is mediated by transcription factor AP-1 in a NADPH oxidase-dependent manner. NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS generation enhanced thrombin-induced HA synthesis, and hyaluronan synthase 2 expression in VSMC. Hyaluronidase, which generates low molecular weight HA (LMW-HA), is induced in VSMC in a NADPH oxidase-dependent manner and LMW-HA stimulated ROS generation and cell proliferation in wild-type but not p47phox?/? VSMC, effects that were enhanced by thrombin pretreatment. Haptotactic VSMC migration toward HA was increased by thrombin in a CD44-dependent manner. HA expression in atherosclerotic lesions and plasma-soluble CD44 and HA levels were higher in apoE?/? compared with apoE?/?/p47phox?/? mice. HA-regulated pro-inflammatory gene expression was higher in apoE?/? than apoE?/?/p47phox?/? mouse aortas. GKT136901, a specific inhibitor of Nox1- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidase activity, attenuated ROS generation and atherosclerosis and decreased CD44 and HA expression in atherosclerotic lesions. Together, these data suggest that increased CD44 and HA expression and CD44-HA-dependent gene regulation may play a role in atherosclerosis stimulated by NADPH oxidase activation.

Vendrov, Aleksandr E.; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Niu, Xi-Lin; Molnar, Kimberly C.; Runge, Mason; Szyndralewiez, Cedric; Page, Patrick; Runge, Marschall S.

2010-01-01

362

The C-terminal region controls correct folding of genus Trametes pyranose 2-oxidases.  

PubMed

The pyranose 2-oxidases from Trametes ochracea and Trametes pubescens share markedly similar amino acid sequences with identity of 93.4%. When expressed from the recombinant plasmids based on the same vector in the Escherichia coli host strain BL21(DE3) at higher growth temperatures, they differ strikingly in the formation of the inclusion bodies. Upon overexpression in the cultures performed at 28 degrees C, the specific activity of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. pubescens was eight times higher than that from T. ochracea: 93% of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. ochracea and only 15% of that from T. pubescens was present in the form of inclusion bodies. To ascertain the cause of this difference, both cloned genes were shuffled. Site-directed recombination of p2o cDNAs revealed that DNA constructs ending with 3' end of p2o cDNA from T. pubescens code for proteins that are folded into an active form to the greater extent, regardless of the gene expression level. "In silicio" analysis of physico-chemical properties of the protein sequences of pyranose 2-oxidases revealed that the sequence of amino acid residues 368-430, constituting the small, head domain of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. pubescens, affects positively the enzyme folding at higher cultivation temperatures. The domain differs in six amino acid residues from that of T. ochracea. PMID:17566580

Maresová, Helena; Palyzová, Andrea; Kyslík, Pavel

2007-06-30

363

Modular assembly of yeast cytochrome oxidase  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of yeast cytochrome oxidase (COX) biogenesis identified Cox1p, one of the three mitochondrially encoded core subunits, in two high–molecular weight complexes combined with regulatory/assembly factors essential for expression of this subunit. In the present study we use pulse-chase labeling experiments in conjunction with isolated mitochondria to identify new Cox1p intermediates and place them in an ordered pathway. Our results indicate that before its assimilation into COX, Cox1p transitions through five intermediates that are differentiated by their compositions of accessory factors and of two of the eight imported subunits. We propose a model of COX biogenesis in which Cox1p and the two other mitochondrial gene products, Cox2p and Cox3p, constitute independent assembly modules, each with its own complement of subunits. Unlike their bacterial counterparts, which are composed only of the individual core subunits, the final sequence in which the mitochondrial modules associate to form the holoenzyme may have been conserved during evolution.

McStay, Gavin P.; Su, Chen Hsien; Tzagoloff, Alexander

2013-01-01

364

Alternative promoter activation leads to the expression of a novel human lysyl oxidase variant that functions as an amine oxidase.  

PubMed

The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family is an emerging family of amine oxidases that is responsible for lysine-mediated crosslinks found in collagen and elastin. Several novel functions, such as tumor suppression, tumor progression, cellular senescence, chemotaxis and the modification of histones have recently been attributed to the LOX family of proteins. In the search for more human LOX paralogs, in the present study, we identified several expressed sequence tag (EST) clones that showed an alternative exon-intron splice pattern from LOX. These ESTs corresponded to the LOX transcript variant 2 (LOX-v2) that was recently reported in GenBank (accession no. NM_001178102). LOX-v2 mRNA lacks exon 1 of LOX, but contains an additional 222 bp sequence from the 5'-flanking intronic region of exon 2. The deduced LOX-v2 polypeptide contains the characteristic C-terminal domains of the LOX family, but does not contain the N-terminal propeptide region that has been reported to have tumor suppressor activity. In peroxidase-coupled fluorometric assays, LOX-v2 showed ?-aminopropionitrile-inhibitable amine oxidase activity toward collagen and elastin. RT-PCR analysis of human tissues revealed a distinct tissue specificity of LOX-v2 expression compared to that of LOX. Promoter assays indicated that an alternative promoter element present in the exon 1 region of LOX was sufficient for the differential expression of LOX-v2. These findings indicate that the human LOX gene encodes 2 variants, LOX and LOX-v2, both of which function as amine oxidases with distinct tissue specificities. PMID:25017124

Kim, Seonkwan; Park, Sunhyang; Kim, Youngho

2014-09-01

365

Crosstalk between mitochondria and NADPH oxidases  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in physiological and pathological processes. In recent years, a feed-forward regulation of the ROS sources has been reported. The interaction between main cellular sources of ROS, such as mitochondria and NADPH oxidases, however, remain obscure. This work summarizes the latest findings on the role of crosstalk between mitochondria and NADPH oxidases in pathophysiological processes. Mitochondria have the highest levels of antioxidants in the cell and play an important role in the maintenance of cellular redox status, thereby acting as an ROS and redox sink and limiting NADPH oxidase activity. Mitochondria, however, are not only a target for ROS produced by NADPH oxidase but also a significant source of ROS, which under certain condition may stimulate NADPH oxidases. This crosstalk between mitochondria and NADPH oxidases, therefore, may represent a feed-forward vicious cycle of ROS production which can be pharmacologically targeted under conditions of oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants break this vicious cycle, inhibiting ROS production by mitochondria and reducing NADPH oxidase activity. This may provide a novel strategy for treatment of many pathological conditions including aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and degenerative neurological disorders in which mitochondrial oxidative stress seems to play a role. It is conceivable that the use of mitochondria-targeted treatments would be effective in these conditions.

Dikalov, Sergey

2011-01-01

366

Riboflavin kinase couples TNF receptor 1 to NADPH oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidase function as defence and signalling molecules related to innate immunity and various cellular responses. The activation of NADPH oxidase in response to plasma membrane receptor activation depends on the phosphorylation of cytoplasmic oxidase subunits, their translocation to membranes and the assembly of all NADPH oxidase components. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a

Benjamin Yazdanpanah; Katja Wiegmann; Vladimir Tchikov; Oleg Krut; Carola Pongratz; Michael Schramm; Andre Kleinridders; Thomas Wunderlich; Hamid Kashkar; Olaf Utermöhlen; Jens C. Brüning; Stefan Schütze; Martin Krönke

2009-01-01

367

NADPH oxidase-4 mediates myofibroblast activation and fibrogenic responses to lung injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of enzymes, which catalyze the reduction of O2 to reactive oxygen species, have increased in number during eukaryotic evolution. Seven isoforms of the NOX gene family have been identified in mammals; however, specific roles of NOX enzymes in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology have not been fully elucidated. The best established physiological role of

Louise Hecker; Ragini Vittal; Tamara Jones; Rajesh Jagirdar; Tracy R Luckhardt; Jeffrey C Horowitz; Subramaniam Pennathur; Fernando J Martinez; Victor J Thannickal

2009-01-01

368

Immunochemical study in three patients with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency presenting leigh's encephalomyelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency has been characterized by remarkable clinical heterogeneity because of the complexity of the enzyme. This complex enzyme consists of thirteen subunits which are the product of two separate genomes. Three larger subunits (I-III) are encoded by mitochondrial DNA and synthesized on mitochondrial ribosomes, whereas smaller subunits (IV-VII) are nuclear gene products. The clinical heterogeneity may be

S. Miyabayashi; T. Ito; D. Abukawa; K. Narisawa; K. Tada; M. Tanaka; T. Ozawa; M. Droste; B. Kadenbach

1987-01-01

369

Characterization of the Streptococcus pneumoniae NADH oxidase that is required for infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen capable of causing serious infections. NADH oxidase, a factor necessary for infection, was previously identified as part of a signature-tagged mutagenesis screen of a S. pneumoniae clinical isolate, 0100993. The mutant, with a plasmid insertion disrupting the nox gene, was attenuated for virulence in a murine respiratory tract infection model. A complete refined

Jun Yu; Alexander P. Bryant; Andrea Marra; Michael A. Lonetto; Karen A. Ingraham; Alison F. Chalker; David J. Holmes; David Holden; Martin Rosenberg; Damien McDevitt; SmithKline Beecham

2001-01-01

370

Lipid Accumulation, Lipid Body Formation, and Acyl Coenzyme A Oxidases of the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yarrowia lipolytica contains five acyl-coenzyme A oxidases (Aox), encoded by the POX1 to POX5 genes, that catalyze the limiting step of peroxisomal -oxidation. In this study, we analyzed morphological changes of Y. lipolytica growing in an oleic acid medium and the effect of POX deletions on lipid accumulation. Protrusions involved in the uptake of lipid droplets (LDs) from the medium

K. Mlickova; Emeline Roux; Karin Athenstaedt; Sabine d'Andrea; Gunther Daum; Thierry Chardot; Jean-Marc Nicaud

2004-01-01

371

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors and neuroprotection: a review.  

PubMed

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors have been available for more than 50 years, initially developed as antidepressants but currently used in a variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions. There has been a recent surge of interest in monoamine oxidase inhibitors because of their reported neuroprotective and/or neurorescue properties. Interestingly, it seems that often these properties are independent of their ability to inhibit monoamine oxidase. This review article presents an overview of the neuroprotective/neurorescue properties of these multifaceted drugs and focuses on phenelzine, (-)-deprenyl, rasagiline, ladostigil, tranylcypromine, moclobemide, and clorgyline and their possible neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:22960850

Al-Nuaimi, Saleem K; Mackenzie, Erin M; Baker, Glen B

2012-11-01

372

The Tumor Suppressor Activity of the Lysyl Oxidase Propeptide Reverses the Invasive Phenotype of Her2\\/neu-Driven Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the lysyl oxidase gene (LOX) was found to inhibit the transforming activity of the ras oncogene in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and was hence named the ras recision gene (rrg). Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is synthesized and secreted as a 50-kDa inactive proenzyme (Pro-LOX), which is processed by proteo- lytic cleavage to a functional 32-kDa enzyme and an 18-kDa propeptide

Chengyin Min; Kathrin H. Kirsch; Yingshe Zhao; Sebastien Jeay; Amitha H. Palamakumbura; Philip C. Trackman; Gail E. Sonenshein

2007-01-01

373

Immunological and molecular comparison of polyphenol oxidase in Rosaceae fruit trees.  

PubMed

An antibody raised against apple polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cross-reacted with PPOs from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sinensis) and Japanese loquat (Eriobotrya japonica). Core fragments (681 bp) of the corresponding PPO genes were amplified and characterized. The deduced protein sequences showed identities of 85.3 to 97.5%. Chlorogenic acid oxidase activity of these PPOs showed higher activities when assayed at pH 4 than at pH 6. These results indicate that PPOs in Rosaceae plants are structurally and enzymatically similar. PMID:10385997

Haruta, M; Murata, M; Kadokura, H; Homma, S

1999-03-01

374

Molecular and structural modeling of the Phanerochaete flavido - alba extracellular laccase reveals its ferroxidase structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba is highly efficient in the oxidation of olive oil wastewater-derived polyphenols. This capability is largely due to the action\\u000a of a multicopper-oxidase (MCO), encoded by the pfaL gene. We describe the sequence and organization of pfaL gene and the biochemical characterization and predicted 3D structural model of the encoded protein. pfaL gene organization and peptide sequence

Francisco Rodríguez-Rincón; Antonio Suarez; Mathias Lucas; Luis Fernando Larrondo; Teresa de la Rubia; Julio Polaina; José Martínez

2010-01-01

375

Mode and Tempo of Molecular Evolution in the Nematode Caenorhabditis: Cytochrome Oxidase I1 and Calmodulin Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through direct sequencing methods, the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome oxidase subunit two (CO 11) and the single-copy nuclear gene for calmodulin were compared among strains of Caenorhab- ditis elegans and two other Caenorhabditis species (C. remanei and C. briggsae). In addition the CO I1 sequence was determined from a distantly related nematode, Steinernema intermedii. Among the 11 strains of C.

W. Kelley Thomas; Allan C. Wilson

376

Activation of Polyphenol Oxidase of Chloroplasts 1  

PubMed Central

Polyphenol oxidase of leaves is located mainly in chloroplasts isolated by differential or sucrose density gradient centrifugation. This activity is part of the lamellar structure that is not lost on repeated washing of the plastids. The oxidase activity was stable during prolonged storage of the particles at 4 C or —18 C. The Km (dihydroxyphenylalanine) for spinach leaf polyphenol oxidase was 7 mm by a spectrophotometric assay and 2 mm by the manometric assay. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaf peroxisomal fraction, after isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient, did not coincide with the peroxisomal enzymes but was attributed to proplastids at nearly the same specific density. Plants were grouped by the latency properties for polyphenol oxidase in their isolated chloroplasts. In a group including spinach, Swiss chard, and beet leaves the plastids immediately after preparation from fresh leaves required a small amount of light for maximal rates of oxidation of dihydroxyphenylalanine. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the dark or light increased many fold during aging of these chloroplasts for 1 to 5 days. Soluble polyphenol oxidase of the cytoplasm was not so stimulated. Chloroplasts prepared from stored leaves were also much more active than from fresh leaves. Maximum rates of dihydroxyphenylalanine oxidation were 2 to 6 mmoles × mg?1 chlorophyll × hr?1. Equal stimulation of latent polyphenol oxidase in fresh or aged chloroplasts in this group was obtained by either light, an aged trypsin digest, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea, or antimycin A. A variety of other treatments did not activate or had little effect on the oxidase, including various peptides, salts, detergents, and other proteolytic enzymes. Activation of latent polyphenol oxidase in spinach chloroplasts by trypsin amounted to as much as 30-fold. The trypsin activation occurred even after the trypsin had been treated with 10% trichloroacetic acid, 1.0 n HCl or boiled for 30 minutes. No single peptide from the digested trypsin was found to be the sole activating factor. About 0.25 ?g of trypsin activated 50% the polyphenol oxidase activity in a standard chloroplast assay containing 2.1 ?g of chlorophyll. Treatment of spinach chloroplasts with tris buffer or ethylenediamine tetraacetate extracted the ATPase activity, but the polyphenol oxidase activity remained with the broken plastids. However these treatments increased the latent polyphenol oxidase activity 50- to 100-fold. Chloroplasts from a second group of plants, including alfalfa, wheat, oats, peas, and sugarcane leaves, oxidized dihydroxyphenylalanine at a rate of 11 to 120 ?moles × mg?1 chlorophyll × hr?1. Polyphenol oxidase in these chloroplasts required a low intensity of red light for activity. Fifty or 75% activation of the oxidase in wheat chloroplasts required 4 to 6 foot candles of light and more light was required for alfalfa chloroplasts. Blue or far red light were ineffective. Trypsin was inhibitory. Upon aging chloroplasts from wheat leaves, but not alfalfa or peas, for 5 to 7 days at 4 C the total polyphenol oxidase activity did not increase, but the activation characteristics changed to those of chloroplasts from the spinach group. Chloroplasts from a third group of plants, including bean, tomato, and corn leaves, slowly oxidized dihydroxyphenylalanine in the dark and exhibited no latency.

Tolbert, N. E.

1973-01-01

377

Isolation, characterization, and molecular cloning of a thermostable xylitol oxidase from Streptomyces sp. IKD472.  

PubMed

A thermophilic bacterium, Streptomyces sp. IKD472, that can oxidize xylitol was isolated from a hot spring and was found to produce xylitol oxidase. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular weight of 43 k as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. This novel enzyme is capable of catalyzing the oxidation of one mole of xylitol to form one mole each of xylose and hydrogen peroxide. Since the V(max)K(m) value for xylitol was two and four times higher than those for galactitol and n-sorbitol, respectively, the enzyme was designated as xylitol oxidase. The enzyme was stable in the pH range from 5.5 to 10.5 and at temperatures up to 65 degrees C. The optimal temperature and pH were 55 degrees C and pH 7.5, respectively. Xylitol oxidase bound one mole of FAD as a coenzyme per mole of protein. The amino acid sequence of the NH2 terminus and the fragments obtained by lysylendpeptidase digestion of xylitol oxidase were determined for preparation of synthetic oligonucleotides as hybridization probes. A 2.8-kb chromosomal fragment hybridizing to the probes was cloned into pUC18 in Escherichia coli. The gene consists of an open reading frame of 1245 by that encodes a protein containing 415 amino acids with a molecular weight of 44,730 but without the conserved nucleotide-binding sequence, Gly-X-Gly-X-X-Gly. The amino acid sequence has 70% identity to putative oxidoreductase from Streptomyces coelicolar, 51% to sorbitol oxidase from Streptomyces sp., and 26% to L-gulonolactone oxidase from rat in terms of the overall amino acid sequence. DNA manipulation of the cloned gene in E. coli, by alteration of a strong promoter and a synthesized ribosome-binding sequence at an appropriate position, resulted in overproduction of xylitol oxidase 100 times more than that produced in the original Streptomyces sp. IKD472. The enzyme properties of recombinant xylitol oxidase were the same as those of the authentic enzyme. Stable xylitol oxidases, which allow easier quantitative analysis of xylitol, are useful for clinical applications. PMID:16232758

Yamashita, M; Omura, H; Okamoto, E; Furuya, Y; Yabuuchi, M; Fukahi, K; Murooka, Y

2000-01-01

378

The mouse liver aldehyde oxidase locus ( Aox )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wide variability has been demonstrated in the properties and presumably the genetic constitution of aldehyde oxidases of 30 different strains of inbred mice. Genetic control of aldehyde oxidase (Aox) has been shown to reside in linkage group XIII and to be 9.6±0.4 recombination units from isocitric dehydrogenase (Id-1) and 28.3±3.5 recombination units from dipeptidase-1 (Dip-1). On the basis of these

J. G. Watson; T. J. Higgins; P. B. Collins; S. Chaykin

1972-01-01

379

Tumor suppressive effect of lysyl oxidase proenzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase acts as both a matrix modifying enzyme and an oncogene suppressor. It is synthesized as a 50-kDa proenzyme, secreted, and processed into an ?30 kDa mature, active enzyme and an 18-kDa propeptide. The tumor suppressive effect of lysyl oxidase appears to be exerted within the cell, so the subcellular localization of protein forms was investigated. Propeptide-specific antibody detected 50-kDa

Sara Contente; Tze-Jou Annie Yeh; Robert M. Friedman

2009-01-01

380

Two novel mutations of SURF1 in Leigh syndrome with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is the most common cause of Leigh syndrome (LS). COX consists of ten nuclear-encoded and three mtDNA-encoded structural subunits. Although the nucleotide sequences of all 13 genes are known, no mutation was found in nuclear-encoded subunit genes of COX-deficiency patients. Zhu et al. (1998) and Tiranti et al. (1998) found nine mutations in the surfeit

Michio Teraoka; Yuji Yokoyama; Shinsuke Ninomiya; Chiyo Inoue; Sumie Yamashita; Yoshiki Seino

1999-01-01

381

Up-Regulation of Lysyl Oxidase in Spontaneous Revertants of H-ras-transformed Rat Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoplastic transformation mediated by ras oncogenes is associated with down-regulation of gene expression. We have constructed a subtracted complementary DNA library from preneoplastic rat 208F fibroblasts by hybridizing with mRNA from a ras-transformed subclone. One of the complementary DNA clones identified by this approach encodes the 3' end of iysyl oxidase, the homologue of the mouse ras recision gene. Expression

Alex Hajnal; Roman Klemenz