Sample records for multicopper oxidase gene

  1. Gene structure and molecular analysis of the laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie C. McCaig; Richard B. Meagher; Jeffrey F. D. Dean

    2005-01-01

    Completed genome sequences have made it clear that multicopper oxidases related to laccase are widely distributed as multigene families in higher plants. Laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) sequences culled from GenBank and the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, as well as those from several newly cloned genes, were used to construct a gene phylogeny that clearly divided plant LMCOs into six distinct classes,

  2. Exploring laccase-like multicopper oxidase genes from the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei: a functional, phylogenetic and evolutionary study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The diversity and function of ligninolytic genes in soil-inhabiting ascomycetes has not yet been elucidated, despite their possible role in plant litter decay processes. Among ascomycetes, Trichoderma reesei is a model organism of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, used for its unique secretion ability especially for cellulase production. T. reesei has only been reported as a cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic organism although genome annotation revealed 6 laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes. The purpose of this work was i) to validate the function of a candidate LMCO gene from T. reesei, and ii) to reconstruct LMCO phylogeny and perform evolutionary analysis testing for positive selection. Results After homologous overproduction of a candidate LMCO gene, extracellular laccase activity was detected when ABTS or SRG were used as substrates, and the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity followed by biochemical characterization. The recombinant protein, called TrLAC1, has a molecular mass of 104 kDa. Optimal temperature and pH were respectively 40-45°C and 4, by using ABTS as substrate. TrLAC1 showed broad pH stability range of 3 to 7. Temperature stability revealed that TrLAC1 is not a thermostable enzyme, which was also confirmed by unfolding studies monitored by circular dichroism. Evolutionary studies were performed to shed light on the LMCO family, and the phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using maximum-likelihood method. LMCO and classical laccases were clearly divided into two distinct groups. Finally, Darwinian selection was tested, and the results showed that positive selection drove the evolution of sequences leading to well-known laccases involved in ligninolysis. Positively-selected sites were observed that could be used as targets for mutagenesis and functional studies between classical laccases and LMCO from T. reesei. Conclusions Homologous production and evolutionary studies of the first LMCO from the biomass-degrading fungus T. reesei gives new insights into the physicochemical parameters and biodiversity in this family. PMID:20735824

  3. [Ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen: the three multicopper oxidases important for human iron metabolism].

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Diana; Gromadzka, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Multi-copper oxidases are a group of proteins which demonstrate enzymatic activity and are capable of oxidizing their substrates with the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to two water molecules. For some multi-copper oxidases there has been demonstrated ferroxidase activity which is related to their specific structure characterized by the presence of copper centres and iron-binding sites. Three multi-copper oxidases have been included in this group: ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen. Multi-copper oxidases which are expressed in different tissues are capable of oxidizing a wide spectrum of substrates. Multi-copper oxidases are capable of oxidizing a wide spectrum of substrates. Ceruloplasmin exhibits antioxidant activity as well as being involved in many other biological processes. The observations of phenotypic effects of absence or low expression of multi-copper ferroxidase-coding genes suggest that the main role of these proteins is taking part in iron metabolism. The main role of ceruloplasmin in iron turnover is oxidizing Fe2+ into Fe3+, a process which is essential for iron binding to transferrin (the main iron-transporting protein), as well as to ferritin (the main iron-storage protein). The function of hephaestin as ferroxidase is essential for iron binding to apotransferrin in the lamina propria of the intestinal mucosa, a process that is important for further transport of iron to the liver by the portal vein. Available data indicate that zyklopen is responsible for the placental iron transport. The presence of three multi-copper oxidases with ferroxidase activity emphasizes the significance of oxidation for iron metabolism. The distribution of multi-copper ferroxidases in many tissues ensures the proper iron turnover in the body as well as preventing toxic effects related to the presence of Fe2+ ions. These ions contribute to generation of free radicals, including the highly reactive hydroxyl radical, through the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions. PMID:24988611

  4. Elimination of Manganese(II,III) Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 by a Double Knockout of Two Putative Multicopper Oxidase Genes

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James K.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial manganese(II) oxidation impacts the redox cycling of Mn, other elements, and compounds in the environment; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of and enzymes responsible for Mn(II) oxidation. In several Mn(II)-oxidizing organisms, the identified Mn(II) oxidase belongs to either the multicopper oxidase (MCO) or the heme peroxidase family of proteins. However, the identity of the oxidase in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 has long remained unknown. To identify the P. putida GB-1 oxidase, we searched its genome and found several homologues of known or suspected Mn(II) oxidase-encoding genes (mnxG, mofA, moxA, and mopA). To narrow this list, we assumed that the Mn(II) oxidase gene would be conserved among Mn(II)-oxidizing pseudomonads but not in nonoxidizers and performed a genome comparison to 11 Pseudomonas species. We further assumed that the oxidase gene would be regulated by MnxR, a transcription factor required for Mn(II) oxidation. Two loci met all these criteria: PputGB1_2447, which encodes an MCO homologous to MnxG, and PputGB1_2665, which encodes an MCO with very low homology to MofA. In-frame deletions of each locus resulted in strains that retained some ability to oxidize Mn(II) or Mn(III); loss of oxidation was attained only upon deletion of both genes. These results suggest that PputGB1_2447 and PputGB1_2665 encode two MCOs that are independently capable of oxidizing both Mn(II) and Mn(III). The purpose of this redundancy is unclear; however, differences in oxidation phenotype for the single mutants suggest specialization in function for the two enzymes. PMID:23124227

  5. Multicopper oxidase-1 is a ferroxidase essential for iron homeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lang, Minglin; Braun, Caroline L; Kanost, Michael R; Gorman, Maureen J

    2012-08-14

    Multicopper ferroxidases catalyze the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. In yeast and algae, they participate in cellular uptake of iron; in mammals, they facilitate cellular efflux. The mechanisms of iron metabolism in insects are still poorly understood, and insect multicopper ferroxidases have not been identified. In this paper, we present evidence that Drosophila melanogaster multicopper oxidase-1 (MCO1) is a functional ferroxidase. We identified candidate iron-binding residues in the MCO1 sequence and found that purified recombinant MCO1 oxidizes ferrous iron. An association between MCO1 function and iron homeostasis was confirmed by two observations: RNAi-mediated knockdown of MCO1 resulted in decreased iron accumulation in midguts and whole insects, and weak knockdown increased the longevity of flies fed a toxic concentration of iron. Strong knockdown of MCO1 resulted in pupal lethality, indicating that MCO1 is an essential gene. Immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrated that MCO1 is located on the basal surfaces of the digestive system and Malpighian tubules. We propose that MCO1 oxidizes ferrous iron in the hemolymph and that the resulting ferric iron is bound by transferrin or melanotransferrin, leading to iron storage, iron withholding from pathogens, regulation of oxidative stress, and/or epithelial maturation. These proposed functions are distinct from those of other known ferroxidases. Given that MCO1 orthologues are present in all insect genomes analyzed to date, this discovery is an important step toward understanding iron metabolism in insects. PMID:22847425

  6. A Multicopper Oxidase Is Required for Copper Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is one of the most important bacterial pathogens. Recent work has revealed that the natural bactericidal properties of copper are utilized by the host immune system to combat infections with bacteria, including M. tuberculosis. However, M. tuberculosis employs multiple mechanisms to reduce the internal copper amount by efflux and sequestration, which are required for virulence of M. tuberculosis. Here, we describe an alternative mechanism of copper resistance by M. tuberculosis. Deletion of the rv0846c gene increased the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to copper at least 10-fold, establishing Rv0846c as a major component of copper resistance in M. tuberculosis. In vitro assays showed that Rv0846c oxidized organic substrates and Fe(II). Importantly, mutation of the predicted copper-coordinating cysteine 486 resulted in inactive Rv0846c protein which did not protect M. tuberculosis against copper stress. Hence, Rv0846c is a multicopper oxidase of M. tuberculosis and was renamed mycobacterial multicopper oxidase (MmcO). MmcO is membrane associated, probably by lipidation after export across the inner membrane by the twin-arginine translocation system. However, mutation of the lipidation site did not affect the oxidase activity or the copper protective function of MmcO. Our study revealed MmcO as an important copper resistance mechanism of M. tuberculosis, which possibly acts by oxidation of toxic Cu(I) in the periplasm. PMID:23772064

  7. Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M; Braun, Caroline L; Davis, Lawrence C; Kanost, Michael R; Gorman, Maureen J

    2015-04-01

    Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surprising because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism. PMID:25701385

  8. A multicopper oxidase contributes to the copper tolerance of Brucella melitensis 16M.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tonglei; Wang, Shaohua; Wang, Zhen; Peng, Xiaowei; Lu, Yanli; Wu, Qingmin

    2015-06-01

    Copper is a potent antimicrobial agent. Multiple mechanisms of copper tolerance are utilized by some pathogenic bacteria. BMEII0580, which is significantly similar to the multicopper oxidase from Escherichia coli, was predicted to be the probable blue copper protein YacK precursor in Brucella melitensis 16M, and was designated as Brucella multicopper oxidase (BmcO). A bioinformatics analysis indicated that the typical motifs of multicopper oxidases are present in BmcO. BmcO, the expression of which was up-regulated by copper, could catalyze the oxidation of 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and para-phenylenediamine (pPD), which are widely used as substrates for multicopper oxidase. Additionally, BmcO exhibited ferroxidase activity, which indicated that it might play an important role in the Fe(2+) uptake of B. melitensis. Importantly, the mutant strain 16M?bmcO was more sensitive to copper than the wild-type strain B. melitensis 16M as well as its complementation strain 16M?bmcO(bmcO). The infection assays of cells showed that similar bacterial numbers of B. melitensis 16M, 16M?bmcO and 16M?bmcO(bmcO) strains were recovered from the infected macrophages. This result indicated that BmcO was not essential for B. melitensis intracellular growth. In conclusion, our results confirm that BmcO is a multicopper oxidase and contributes to the copper tolerance of B. melitensis 16M. PMID:25956175

  9. Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. Results The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and McoG from the commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from 80 to 110 kDa. McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPPDA) and 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline) sulfonic acid (ABTS), and appeared to be a promising biocatalyst. Besides oxidizing a variety of phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the decolorization and detoxification of the widely used textile dye malachite green. Conclusions The A. niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the synthetic dye malachite green, showing to have an interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst. PMID:23270588

  10. Laccase versus Laccase-Like Multi-Copper Oxidase: A Comparative Study of Similar Enzymes with Diverse Substrate Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term “laccase-like multi-copper oxidase” (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

  11. Surfactant-assisted direct electron transfer between multi-copper oxidases and carbon nanotube-based porous electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yudai; Yoshino, Syuhei; Miyake, Takeo; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko

    2014-07-14

    The effects of pre-treatment with surfactants on the electrocatalytic reaction of multi-copper oxidases were quantitatively evaluated using a well-structured carbon nanotube forest electrode. It was found that both the charge polarity of the head group and the aromatics in the tail part of the surfactants affect the efficiency of enzymatic electrocatalysis. PMID:24871387

  12. Laccase versus laccase-like multi-copper oxidase: a comparative study of similar enzymes with diverse substrate spectra.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Renate; Ihssen, Julian; Richter, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric; Schilling, Boris; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds including substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range, copper-containing laccases are versatile biocatalysts, capable of oxidizing numerous natural and non-natural industry-relevant compounds, with water as the sole by-product. In the present study, 10 of the 11 multi-copper oxidases, hitherto considered to be laccases, from fungi, plant and bacterial origin were compared. A substrate screen of 91 natural and non-natural compounds was recorded and revealed a fairly broad but distinctive substrate spectrum amongst the enzymes. Even though the enzymes share conserved active site residues we found that the substrate ranges of the individual enzymes varied considerably. The EC classification is based on the type of chemical reaction performed and the actual name of the enzyme often refers to the physiological substrate. However, for the enzymes studied in this work such classification is not feasible, even more so as their prime substrates or natural functions are mainly unknown. The classification of multi-copper oxidases assigned as laccases remains a challenge. For the sake of simplicity we propose to introduce the term "laccase-like multi-copper oxidase" (LMCO) in addition to the term laccase that we use exclusively for the enzyme originally identified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera. PMID:23755261

  13. Catalytic Cycle of Multicopper Oxidases Studied by Combined Quantum- and Molecular-Mechanical Free-Energy Perturbation Methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Jilai; Farrokhnia, Maryam; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Ryde, Ulf

    2015-07-01

    We have used combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical free-energy perturbation methods in combination with explicit solvent simulations to study the reaction mechanism of the multicopper oxidases, in particular, the regeneration of the reduced state from the native intermediate. For 52 putative states of the trinuclear copper cluster, differing in the oxidation states of the copper ions and the protonation states of water- and O2-derived ligands, we have studied redox potentials, acidity constants, isomerization reactions, as well as water- and O2 binding reactions. Thereby, we can propose a full reaction mechanism of the multicopper oxidases with atomic detail. We also show that the two copper sites in the protein communicate so that redox potentials and acidity constants of one site are affected by up to 0.2 V or 3 pKa units by a change in the oxidation state of the other site. PMID:26039490

  14. Biochemical properties and yields of diverse bacterial laccase-like multicopper oxidases expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ihssen, Julian; Reiss, Renate; Luchsinger, Ronny; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are multi-copper oxidases that oxidize a broad range of substrates at the expense of molecular oxygen, without any need for co-factor regeneration. These enzymes bear high potential for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals and the modification of (bio)polymers. Here we describe cloning and expression of five novel bacterial laccase-like multi copper oxidases (LMCOs) of diverse origin which were identified by homology searches in online databases. Activity yields under different expression conditions and temperature stabilities were compared to three previously described enzymes from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus clausii. In almost all cases, a switch to oxygen-limited growth conditions after induction increased volumetric activity considerably. For proteins with predicted signal peptides for secretion, recombinant expression with and without signal sequence was investigated. Bacillus CotA-type LMCOs outperformed enzymes from Streptomyces and Gram-negative bacteria with respect to activity yields in Escherichia coli and application relevant biochemical properties. The novel Bacillus coagulans LMCO combined high activity yields in E. coli with unprecedented activity at strong alkaline pH and high storage stability, making it a promising candidate for further development. PMID:26068013

  15. Multicopper oxidases: a workshop on copper coordination chemistry, electron transfer, and metallophysiology.

    PubMed

    Kosman, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are unique among copper proteins in that they contain at least one each of the three types of biologic copper sites, type 1, type 2, and the binuclear type 3. MCOs are descended from the family of small blue copper proteins (cupredoxins) that likely arose as a complement to the heme-iron-based cytochromes involved in electron transport; this event corresponded to the aerobiosis of the biosphere that resulted in the conversion of Fe(II) to Fe(III) as the predominant redox state of this essential metal and the solubilization of copper from Cu(2)S to Cu(H(2)O)( n ) (2+). MCOs are encoded in genomes in all three kingdoms and play essential roles in the physiology of essentially all aerobes. With four redox-active copper centers, MCOs share with terminal copper-heme oxidases the ability to catalyze the four-electron reduction of O(2) to two molecules of water. The electron transfers associated with this reaction are both outer and inner sphere in nature and their mechanisms have been fairly well established. A subset of MCO proteins exhibit specificity for Fe(2+), Cu(+), and/or Mn(2+) as reducing substrates and have been designated as metallooxidases. These enzymes, in particular the ferroxidases found in all fungi and metazoans, play critical roles in the metal metabolism of the expressing organism. PMID:19816718

  16. Biochemical properties and yields of diverse bacterial laccase-like multicopper oxidases expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ihssen, Julian; Reiss, Renate; Luchsinger, Ronny; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are multi-copper oxidases that oxidize a broad range of substrates at the expense of molecular oxygen, without any need for co-factor regeneration. These enzymes bear high potential for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals and the modification of (bio)polymers. Here we describe cloning and expression of five novel bacterial laccase-like multi copper oxidases (LMCOs) of diverse origin which were identified by homology searches in online databases. Activity yields under different expression conditions and temperature stabilities were compared to three previously described enzymes from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus clausii. In almost all cases, a switch to oxygen-limited growth conditions after induction increased volumetric activity considerably. For proteins with predicted signal peptides for secretion, recombinant expression with and without signal sequence was investigated. Bacillus CotA-type LMCOs outperformed enzymes from Streptomyces and Gram-negative bacteria with respect to activity yields in Escherichia coli and application relevant biochemical properties. The novel Bacillus coagulans LMCO combined high activity yields in E. coli with unprecedented activity at strong alkaline pH and high storage stability, making it a promising candidate for further development. PMID:26068013

  17. Impact of Copper Limitation on Expression and Function of Multicopper Oxidases (Ferroxidases)12

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element whose recommended intake is met by most North American diets. However, incidence of new cases of secondary copper deficiency is rising due to complications of gastric bypass surgery and high zinc exposure. Patients frequently are ataxic and anemic. Anemia of copper deficiency was first described in the 19th century, but the underlying biochemistry remains unknown. Approximately one dozen cuproenzymes have been characterized in mammals. Four of these are referred to as multicopper oxidases (MCO) due to their copper binding geometries. They have iron oxidase activity (ferroxidase). These include the hepatic secreted protein ceruloplasmin representing ?90% of plasma copper, a splice-variant of ceruloplasmin originally characterized in brain linked by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) to membranes, an intestinal enriched MCO named hephaestin, and newly described MCO in placenta called zyklopen. Limitation in available copper appears to limit function of the MCO group exhibited as impaired iron flux due to the copper requirement of MCO for their ferroxidase activity. Dietary copper deficiency is associated with lower levels of ceruloplasmin, GPI-ceruloplasmin, and hephaestin. Limitation of copper does not appear to limit synthesis of MCO but rather their stability and turnover. However, there appears to be a disconnect between limitation in MCO function and anemia, because humans and mice missing ceruloplasmin are not anemic despite hepatic iron overload and hypoferremia. Furthermore, anemic copper-deficient mammals are not improved by iron replacement. This suggests that the anemia of copper deficiency is not caused by iron limitation but rather impairment in iron utilization. PMID:22332037

  18. Impact of copper limitation on expression and function of multicopper oxidases (ferroxidases).

    PubMed

    Prohaska, Joseph R

    2011-03-01

    Copper is an essential trace element whose recommended intake is met by most North American diets. However, incidence of new cases of secondary copper deficiency is rising due to complications of gastric bypass surgery and high zinc exposure. Patients frequently are ataxic and anemic. Anemia of copper deficiency was first described in the 19th century, but the underlying biochemistry remains unknown. Approximately one dozen cuproenzymes have been characterized in mammals. Four of these are referred to as multicopper oxidases (MCO) due to their copper binding geometries. They have iron oxidase activity (ferroxidase). These include the hepatic secreted protein ceruloplasmin representing ?90% of plasma copper, a splice-variant of ceruloplasmin originally characterized in brain linked by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) to membranes, an intestinal enriched MCO named hephaestin, and newly described MCO in placenta called zyklopen. Limitation in available copper appears to limit function of the MCO group exhibited as impaired iron flux due to the copper requirement of MCO for their ferroxidase activity. Dietary copper deficiency is associated with lower levels of ceruloplasmin, GPI-ceruloplasmin, and hephaestin. Limitation of copper does not appear to limit synthesis of MCO but rather their stability and turnover. However, there appears to be a disconnect between limitation in MCO function and anemia, because humans and mice missing ceruloplasmin are not anemic despite hepatic iron overload and hypoferremia. Furthermore, anemic copper-deficient mammals are not improved by iron replacement. This suggests that the anemia of copper deficiency is not caused by iron limitation but rather impairment in iron utilization. PMID:22332037

  19. Reaction mechanisms of the multicopper oxidase CueO from Escherichia coli support its functional role as a cuprous oxidase.

    PubMed

    Djoko, Karrera Y; Chong, Lee Xin; Wedd, Anthony G; Xiao, Zhiguang

    2010-02-17

    CueO from Escherichia coli is a multicopper oxidase (MCO) involved in copper tolerance under aerobic conditions. It features four copper atoms that act as electron transfer (T1) and dioxygen reduction (T2, T3; trinuclear) sites. In addition, it displays a methionine-rich insert which includes a helix that blocks physical access to the T1 site and which provides an extra labile site T4 adjacent to the T1 center. This T4 site is required for CueO function. Like many MCOs, CueO exhibits phenol oxidase activity with broad substrate specificity. Maximal activity with model substrate 2,6-dimethoxyphenol required stoichiometric occupation of T4 by Cu(II) (notation: Cu(II)-CueO). This was achieved in Mops buffer which has little affinity for Cu(2+). However, pH buffers that bind or precipitate Cu(2+) (Tris, BisTris, and KPi) generated enzyme with a vacant T4 site (notation: square-CueO) which has no phenol oxidase activity. Addition of excess Cu(2+) effectively generated a Cu(2+) buffer and recovered the activity partially or completely, depending upon the specific pH buffer. This phenomenon allowed reliable estimation of the affinity of T4 for Cu(II): K(D) = 5.5 x 10(-9) M. CueO is involved in copper tolerance and has been suggested to be a cuprous oxidase. The anion [Cu(I)(Bca)(2)](3-) (Bca = bicinchoninate) acted as a novel chromophoric substrate. It is a robust reagent, being air-stable and having a Cu(I) affinity comparable to those of periplasmic Cu(I) binding proteins. The influences of pH buffer composition and of excess Cu(2+) on cuprous oxidation were diametrically opposite to those seen for phenol oxidation, suggesting that square-CueO, not Cu(II)-CueO, is the resting form of the cuprous oxidase. Steady-state kinetics demonstrated that the intact anion [Cu(I)(Bca)(2)](3-), not "free" Cu(+), is the substrate that donates Cu(I) directly to T4. The data did not follow classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics but could be fitted satisfactorily by an extension that considered the effect of free ligand Bca. The K(m) term consists of two components, allowing estimation of the transient affinity of T4 for Cu(I): K(D) = 1.3 x 10(-13) M. It may be concluded that Cu(I) carried by [Cu(I)(Bca)(2)](3-) is oxidized only upon complete transfer of Cu(I) to T4. The transfer is required to induce a negative shift in the copper reduction potential to allow oxidation and electron transfer to the T1 site. The results provide compelling evidence that CueO is a cuprous oxidase. The new approach will have significant application to the study of metallo-oxidase enzymes. PMID:20088522

  20. The Fox1 ferroxidase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a new multicopper oxidase structural paradigm.

    PubMed

    Terzulli, Alaina J; Kosman, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    Multicopper oxidases (MCO) contain at least four copper atoms arrayed in three distinct ligand fields supported by two canonical structural features: (1) multiples of the cupredoxin fold and (2) four unique sequence elements that include the ten histidine and one cysteine ligands to the four copper atoms. Ferroxidases are a subfamily of MCO proteins that contain residues supporting a specific reactivity towards ferrous iron; these MCOs play a vital role in iron metabolism in bacteria, algae, fungi, and mammals. In contrast to the fungal ferroxidases, e.g., Fet3p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mammalian ceruloplasmin (Cp) is twice as large (six vs. three cupredoxin domains) and contains three type 1, or "blue," copper sites. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii expresses a putative ferroxidase, Fox1, which has sequence similarity to human Cp (hCp). Eschewing the standard sequence-based modeling paradigm, we have constructed a function-based model of the Fox1 protein which replicates hCp's six copper-site ligand arrays with an overall root mean square deviation of 1.4 A. Analysis of this model has led also to assignment of motifs in Fox1 that are unique to ferroxidases, the strongest evidence to date that the well-characterized fungal high-affinity iron uptake system is essential to iron homeostasis in green algae. The model of Fox1 also establishes a subfamily of MCO proteins with a noncanonical copper-ligand organization. These diverse structures suggest alternative mechanisms for intramolecular electron transfer and require a new trajectory for the evolution of the MCO superfamily. PMID:19023602

  1. Biochemical studies of the multicopper oxidase (small laccase) from Streptomyces coelicolor using bioactive phytochemicals and site-directed mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Mohammed; Waung, Debbie; Korbeci, Bihter; Mavisakalyan, Valentina; Flick, Robert; Brown, Greg; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; Yakunin, Alexander F; Master, Emma R

    2013-01-01

    Summary Multicopper oxidases can act on a broad spectrum of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. These enzymes include laccases, which are widely distributed in plants and fungi, and were more recently identified in bacteria. Here, we present the results of biochemical and mutational studies of small laccase (SLAC), a multicopper oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor (SCO6712). In addition to typical laccase substrates, SLAC was tested using phenolic compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity. SLAC showed oxidase activity against 12 of 23 substrates tested, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, morin, kaempferol and myricetin. The kinetic parameters of SLAC were determined for 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, quercetin, morin and myricetin, and maximum reaction rates were observed with myricetin, where kcat and Km values at 60°C were 8.1 (±?0.8) s?1 and 0.9 (±?0.3) mM respectively. SLAC had a broad pH optimum for activity (between pH?4 and 8) and temperature optimum at 60–70°C. It demonstrated remarkable thermostability with a half-life of over 10?h at 80°C and over 7?h at 90°C. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed 17 amino acid residues important for SLAC activity including the 10 His residues involved in copper coordination. Most notably, the Y229A and Y230A mutant proteins showed over 10-fold increase in activity compared with the wild-type SLAC, which was correlated to higher copper incorporation, while kinetic analyses with S929A predicts localization of this residue near the meta-position of aromatic substrates. Funding Information Funding for this research was provided by the Government of Ontario for the project ‘FFABnet: Functionalized Fibre and Biochemicals’ (ORF-RE-05-005), and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. PMID:23815400

  2. Thermostable multicopper oxidase from Thermusthermophilus HB27: crystallization and preliminaryX-ray diffraction analysis of apo and holo forms

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano-Posada H.; Stojanoff V.; Valderrama B.; Rudino-Pinera E.

    2011-09-17

    A thermostable multicopper oxidase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (Tth-MCO) was successfully crystallized using the sitting-drop and hanging-drop vapour-diffusion methods. Crystallization conditions and preliminary X-ray diffraction data to 1.5 {angstrom} resolution obtained using synchrotron radiation at 100 K are reported. The crystals belonged to space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.6, b = 110.3, c = 96.3 {angstrom}. A monomer in the asymmetric unit yielded a Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) of 2.60 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1} and a solvent content of 53%. An inactive enzyme form, apo-Tth-MCO, was also crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. In addition, a second inactive form of the enzyme, Hg-Tth-MCO, was obtained by soaking apo-Tth-MCO crystals with mercury(II) chloride and data were collected to a resolution of 1.7 {angstrom}.

  3. Effect of enzymatic orientation through the use of syringaldazine molecules on multiple multi-copper oxidase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ulyanova, Yevgenia; Babanova, Sofia; Pinchon, Erica; Matanovic, Ivana; Singhal, Sameer; Atanassov, Plamen

    2014-07-14

    The effect of proper enzyme orientation at the electrode surface was explored for two multi-copper oxygen reducing enzymes: Bilirubin Oxidase (BOx) and Laccase (Lac). Simultaneous utilization of "tethering" agent (1-pyrenebutanoic acid, succinimidyl ester; PBSE), for stable enzyme immobilization, and syringaldazine (Syr), for enzyme orientation, of both Lac and BOx led to a notable enhancement of the electrode performance. For Lac cathodes tested in solution it was established that PBSE-Lac and PBSE-Syr-Lac modified cathodes demonstrated approximately 6 and 9 times increase in current density, respectively, compared to physically adsorbed and randomly oriented Lac cathodes. Further testing in solution utilizing BOx showed an even higher increase in achievable current densities, thus BOx was chosen for additional testing in air-breathing mode. In subsequent air-breathing experiments the incorporation of PBSE and Syr with BOx resulted in current densities of 0.65 ± 0.1 mA cm(-2); 2.5 times higher when compared to an unmodified BOx cathode. A fully tethered/oriented BOx cathode was combined with a NAD-dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase anode for the fabrication of a complete enzymatic membraneless fuel cell. A maximum power of 1.03 ± 0.06 mW cm(-2) was recorded for the complete fuel cell. The observed significant enhancement in the performance of "oriented" cathodes was a result of proper enzyme orientation, leading to facilitated enzyme/electrode interface interactions. PMID:24875125

  4. A new multicopper oxidase from Gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis with activity modulating methionine rich tail.

    PubMed

    Classen, Thomas; Pietruszka, Jörg; Schuback, Saskia Marina

    2013-05-01

    Multicopper oxidases are involved in a wide variety of physiological tasks in nature. They are part of the lignin formation/decomposition system in plants and fungi. In bacteria they are part of developmental processes and the heavy metal resistance apparatus. A well characterised example is the copper tolerance protein CueO of Escherichia coli (CueO(EC)). Here, we report the heterologous expression of the apo- and holo-form of CueO(RE), a homologue to CueO(EC) from Rhodococcus erythropolis. Upon incubation with copper(II) ions, low active apo-CueO(RE) was converted into the active holo-CueO(RE) in vivo. The holo-form was physico-chemically characterised using a copper(I) BCA complex and the model substrate 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. The spectroscopic and catalytic properties are different from CueO(EC), revealing a high catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of 115 min(-1)mM(-1) with physiological K(m) of 80 ?M for the cuprous oxidase activity. At the C-terminus of CueO(RE) a methionine rich tail region was identified which can be found in a variety of actinobacteria. Chimeras of the E. coli and R. erythropolis enzymes were constructed to investigate the influence of this tail regarding kinetic parameters. It was shown that the tail did not have the same function as the corresponding methionine rich loop in CueO(EC). However, it modulated the kinetic properties of the enzyme. PMID:23485678

  5. A novel resting form of the trinuclear copper center in the double mutant of a multicopper oxidase, CueO, Cys500Ser/Glu506Ala.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Takao; Sugiyama, Ryosuke; Kataoka, Kunishige; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    A multicopper oxidase, CueO was doubly mutated at its type I copper ligand, Cys500 and an acidic amino acid residue located in the proton transfer pathway, Glu506, to Ser and Ala, respectively. Cys500Ser/Glu506Ala was mainly in a novel resting form to afford the absorption band at ca. 400nm and an EPR signal with a highly anisotropic character derived from type III copper. However, Cys500Ser/Glu506Ala gave the same reaction intermediate (peroxide intermediate) as that from Cys500Ser and Cys500Ser/Glu506Gln. PMID:25840508

  6. Catalytic oxidation of manganese(II) by multicopper oxidase CueO and characterization of the biogenic Mn oxide.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianmei; Deng, Lin; Huang, Liangbo; Guo, Shujin; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

    2014-06-01

    Manganese(II) contamination is naturally occurring in many groundwater and surface water sources. Moreover, industrial wastewater is also responsible for much of the Mn(II) contamination. Nowadays, Mn(II) contamination has become a serious environmental problem in some regions of the world. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II) from water, we found a new biocatalyst multicopper oxidase CueO, which was firstly proved to catalyze the oxidation of Mn(II) both in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, we established a CueO-mediated catalysis system to prepare biogenic Mn oxide (BioMnOx), which was confirmed to be ?-Mn3O4 by X-ray diffraction. This newly prepared BioMnOx consisted of 53.6% Mn(II), 18.4% Mn(III) and 28.0% Mn(IV) characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It exhibited distinct polyhedral structure with nanoparticles of 150-350 nm diameters observed by transmission electron microscopy. Importantly, CueO could remove 35.7% of Mn(II) after a seven-day reaction, and on the other hand, the cueO-overexpressing Escherichia coli strain (ECueO) could also oxidize 58.1% dissolved Mn(II), and simultaneously remove 97.7% Mn(II). Based on these results, we suggest that ECueO strain and CueO enzyme have potential applications on Mn(II) decontamination in water treatment. PMID:24699422

  7. Crystal structure of a blue laccase from Lentinus tigrinus: evidences for intermediates in the molecular oxygen reductive splitting by multicopper oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Ferraroni, Marta; Myasoedova, Nina M; Schmatchenko, Vadim; Leontievsky, Alexey A; Golovleva, Ludmila A; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    Background Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in pathogenesis, immunogenesis and morphogenesis of organisms and in the metabolic turnover of complex organic substances. They catalyze the coupling between the four one-electron oxidations of a broad range of substrates with the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. These catalytic processes are made possible by the contemporaneous presence of at least four copper ion sites, classified according to their spectroscopic properties: one type 1 (T1) site where the electrons from the reducing substrates are accepted, one type 2 (T2), and a coupled binuclear type 3 pair (T3) which are assembled in a T2/T3 trinuclear cluster where the electrons are transferred to perform the O2 reduction to H2O. Results The structure of a laccase from the white-rot fungus Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus, a glycoenzyme involved in lignin biodegradation, was solved at 1.5 Å. It reveals a asymmetric unit containing two laccase molecules (A and B). The progressive reduction of the copper ions centers obtained by the long-term exposure of the crystals to the high-intensity X-ray synchrotron beam radiation under aerobic conditions and high pH allowed us to detect two sequential intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction pathway: the "peroxide" and the "native" intermediates, previously hypothesized through spectroscopic, kinetic and molecular mechanics studies. Specifically the electron-density maps revealed the presence of an end-on bridging, ?-?1:?1 peroxide ion between the two T3 coppers in molecule B, result of a two-electrons reduction, whereas in molecule A an oxo ion bridging the three coppers of the T2/T3 cluster (?3-oxo bridge) together with an hydroxide ion externally bridging the two T3 copper ions, products of the four-electrons reduction of molecular oxygen, were best modelled. Conclusion This is the first structure of a multicopper oxidase which allowed the detection of two intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction and splitting. The observed features allow to positively substantiate an accurate mechanism of dioxygen reduction catalyzed by multicopper oxidases providing general insights into the reductive cleavage of the O-O bonds, a leading problem in many areas of biology. PMID:17897461

  8. Surface Mn(II) oxidation actuated by a multicopper oxidase in a soil bacterium leads to the formation of manganese oxide minerals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhongming; Chen, Hong; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chang; Ni, Hong; Zhao, Changsong; Ali, Muhammad; Liu, Fan; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report that a bacterial multicopper oxidase (MCO266) catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation on the cell surface, resulting in the surface deposition of Mn(III) and Mn(IV) oxides and the gradual formation of bulky oxide aggregates. These aggregates serve as nucleation centers for the formation of Mn oxide micronodules and Mn-rich sediments. A soil-borne Escherichia coli with high Mn(II)-oxidizing activity formed Mn(III)/Mn(IV) oxide deposit layers and aggregates under laboratory culture conditions. We engineered MCO266 onto the cell surfaces of both an activity-negative recipient and wild-type strains. The results confirmed that MCO266 governs Mn(II) oxidation and initiates the formation of deposits and aggregates. By contrast, a cell-free substrate, heat-killed strains, and intracellularly expressed or purified MCO266 failed to catalyze Mn(II) oxidation. However, purified MCO266 exhibited Mn(II)-oxidizing activity when combined with cell outer membrane component (COMC) fractions in vitro. We demonstrated that Mn(II) oxidation and aggregate formation occurred through an oxygen-dependent biotic transformation process that requires a certain minimum Mn(II) concentration. We propose an approximate electron transfer pathway in which MCO266 transfers only one electron to convert Mn(II) to Mn(III) and then cooperates with other COMC electron transporters to transfer the other electron required to oxidize Mn(III) to Mn(IV). PMID:26039669

  9. Surface Mn(II) oxidation actuated by a multicopper oxidase in a soil bacterium leads to the formation of manganese oxide minerals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhongming; Chen, Hong; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chang; Ni, Hong; Zhao, Changsong; Ali, Muhammad; Liu, Fan; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report that a bacterial multicopper oxidase (MCO266) catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation on the cell surface, resulting in the surface deposition of Mn(III) and Mn(IV) oxides and the gradual formation of bulky oxide aggregates. These aggregates serve as nucleation centers for the formation of Mn oxide micronodules and Mn-rich sediments. A soil-borne Escherichia coli with high Mn(II)-oxidizing activity formed Mn(III)/Mn(IV) oxide deposit layers and aggregates under laboratory culture conditions. We engineered MCO266 onto the cell surfaces of both an activity-negative recipient and wild-type strains. The results confirmed that MCO266 governs Mn(II) oxidation and initiates the formation of deposits and aggregates. By contrast, a cell-free substrate, heat-killed strains, and intracellularly expressed or purified MCO266 failed to catalyze Mn(II) oxidation. However, purified MCO266 exhibited Mn(II)-oxidizing activity when combined with cell outer membrane component (COMC) fractions in vitro. We demonstrated that Mn(II) oxidation and aggregate formation occurred through an oxygen-dependent biotic transformation process that requires a certain minimum Mn(II) concentration. We propose an approximate electron transfer pathway in which MCO266 transfers only one electron to convert Mn(II) to Mn(III) and then cooperates with other COMC electron transporters to transfer the other electron required to oxidize Mn(III) to Mn(IV). PMID:26039669

  10. Crystal Structures of Multicopper Oxidase CueO Bound to Copper(I) and Silver(I): Functional Role of a Methonine-Rich Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satish K.; Roberts, Sue A.; McDevitt, Sylvia F.; Weichsel, Andrzej; Wildner, Guenter F.; Grass, Gregor B.; Rensing, Christopher; Montfort, William R. (Skidmore); (Bundeswehr); (Ariz)

    2011-10-24

    The multicopper oxidase CueO oxidizes toxic Cu(I) and is required for copper homeostasis in Escherichia coli. Like many proteins involved in copper homeostasis, CueO has a methionine-rich segment that is thought to be critical for copper handling. How such segments function is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of CueO at 1.1 {angstrom} with the 45-residue methionine-rich segment fully resolved, revealing an N-terminal helical segment with methionine residues juxtaposed for Cu(I) ligation and a C-terminal highly mobile segment rich in methionine and histidine residues. We also report structures of CueO with a C500S mutation, which leads to loss of the T1 copper, and CueO with six methionines changed to serine. Soaking C500S CueO crystals with Cu(I), or wild-type CueO crystals with Ag(I), leads to occupancy of three sites, the previously identified substrate-binding site and two new sites along the methionine-rich helix, involving methionines 358, 362, 368, and 376. Mutation of these residues leads to a {approx}4-fold reduction in kcat for Cu(I) oxidation. Ag(I), which often appears with copper in nature, strongly inhibits CueO oxidase activities in vitro and compromises copper tolerance in vivo, particularly in the absence of the complementary copper efflux cus system. Together, these studies demonstrate a role for the methionine-rich insert of CueO in the binding and oxidation of Cu(I) and highlight the interplay among cue and cus systems in copper and silver homeostasis.

  11. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a unique multipotent polyphenol oxidase from Marinomonas mediterranea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Sanchez-Amat; Patricia Lucas-El??o; Eva Fernández; Jose Carlos Garc??a-Borrón; Francisco Solano

    2001-01-01

    Marinomonas mediterranea is a recently isolated melanogenic marine bacterium containing laccase and tyrosinase activities. These activities are due to the expression of two polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), a blue multicopper laccase and an SDS-activated tyrosinase. The gene encoding the first one, herein denominated M. mediterranea PpoA, has been isolated by transposon mutagenesis, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Its predicted amino

  12. [Cloning and sequencing of ACC oxidase gene from sugarcane].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Zhang; Li, Yang-Rui; Zhang, Shu-Zhen; Lin, Jun-Fang; Guo, Li-Qiong

    2003-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is not only responsible for the initiation of fruit ripening, senescence and dormancy but also for regulating many other plant developmental processes, such as seed germination, root initiation, growth, floral differentiation, sex differentiation and responding to environment stresses. One of the rate-limiting steps for ethylene biosynthesizing in plant is catalyzed by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase. Understanding of ethylene expressive pattern in plant is an entrance to understand the roles of ethylene on plant. In this paper, two degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed, coding for two conservative amino acid regions in ACC oxidase protein family, the sequences of the two primers were TAGAGCTCGATGC[TA]TG [CT]GA[GA]AA[AC]TGGGG and CGTCTAGAGCTTC[GA]AATCTTGGCTCCTT respectively. A PCR amplification was performed on sugarcane (Saccharum L. Hybrid cv. ROC16) DNA template, and produced a fragment of 940 bp. By using the program of BLAST on NCBI GenBank database, the sequence presented a very high match with the ACC oxidase genes from other plants, 63 searched out sequences were all ACC oxidase genes. After alignment on PCgene program, the identities of the cloned fragment with ACC oxidase genes from rice and bamboo were both reaching about 88%. So we can concluded that the cloned sequence was a member of ACC oxidase genes fragment from sugarcane. The sequence has been submitted to the GenBank database, the accession number is AF442821. According to the ACC oxidase protein family, a 'intron' of 103 bp was excluded and the sequence coded 279 amino acids, which spanned 88% of the putative whole sequence in length. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence deduced from this fragment and the ACC oxidase sequences of other plants retrieved from GenBank were carried out by using PCgene program. The putative amino acid sequence shared a homology of 86% with the ACC oxidases of bamboo and rice, 74.6% with banana, 70% with tomato and potato and 68% with melon and carnation, which showed that the homology of sugarcane ACC oxidase with monocot was higher than with dicot. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that ACC oxidase from sugarcane and ACC oxidases from rice clustered together firstly, and then came those from banana, ACC oxidases of dicot from potato, tomato, petunia, melon, Arabidopsis thaliana and carnation came subsequently. It indicated that sugarcane ACC oxidase had a closer phylogenetic affinities to the monocot ACC oxidase sequences than to the dicot ACC oxidases sequences. The clustering results of ACC oxidase molecules accorded with morphological classification system. PMID:12812078

  13. A Permease-Oxidase Complex Involved in High-Affinity Iron Uptake in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Stearman; Daniel S. Yuan; Yuko Yamaguchi-Iwai; Richard D. Klausner; Andrew Dancis

    1996-01-01

    Iron must cross biological membranes to reach essential intracellular enzymes. Two proteins in the plasma membrane of yeast-a multicopper oxidase, encoded by the FET3 gene, and a permease, encoded by the FTR1 gene-were shown to mediate high-affinity iron uptake. FET3 expression was required for FTR1 protein to be transported to the plasma membrane. FTR1 expression was required for apo-FET3 protein

  14. The Arabidopsis acyl-CoA oxidase gene family.

    PubMed

    Eastmond, P J; Hooks, M; Graham, I A

    2000-12-01

    A family of acyl-CoA oxidase isozymes catalyse the first step in the peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation spiral. Our group and others have recently characterized four genes from this family in the model oilseed Arabidopsis. These genes encode isozymes with different acyl-CoA substrate specificities, which together encompass the full range of fatty acid chain lengths that exist in vivo. Here we review the biochemical properties and physiological roles of the acyl-CoA oxidase isozymes. PMID:11171196

  15. Lysyl Oxidase ( Lox ) Gene Deficiency Affects Osteoblastic Phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Pischon; J. M. Mäki; P. Weisshaupt; N. Heng; A. H. Palamakumbura; P. N’Guessan; A. Ding; R. Radlanski; H. Renz; T. A. L. J. J. Bronckers; J. Myllyharju; A. M. Kielbassa; B. M. Kleber; J.-P. Bernimoulin; P. C. Trackman

    2009-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes cross-linking of elastin and collagen, which is essential for the structural integrity and function\\u000a of bone tissue. The present study examined the role of Lox gene deficiency for the osteoblast phenotype in primary calvarial osteoblasts from E18.5 Lox knockout (Lox\\u000a \\u000a ?\\/?\\u000a ) and wild type (wt) (C57BL\\/6) mice. Next to Lox gene depletion, mRNA expression of

  16. Isolation of a Gene Encoding a Glycosylated Cytokinin Oxidase from Maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy O. Morris; Kristin D. Bilyeu; James G. Laskey; Nordine N. Cheikh

    1999-01-01

    The major cytokinin oxidase in immature maize kernels was purified to homogeneity. Selected tryptic peptides were used to design degenerate oligonucleotide primers for PCR isolation of a fragment of the oxidase gene. Hybridization of the PCR fragment to a maize genomic library allowed isolation of a full-length cytokinin oxidase gene (ckx1). The gene encodes a protein of approximately 57 kDa

  17. Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Rose; Tingley, Dustin; Cowden, Jonathan; Frazzetto, Giovanni; Johnson, Dominic D P

    2009-02-17

    Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has earned the nickname "warrior gene" because it has been linked to aggression in observational and survey-based studies. However, no controlled experimental studies have tested whether the warrior gene actually drives behavioral manifestations of these tendencies. We report an experiment, synthesizing work in psychology and behavioral economics, which demonstrates that aggression occurs with greater intensity and frequency as provocation is experimentally manipulated upwards, especially among low activity MAOA (MAOA-L) subjects. In this study, subjects paid to punish those they believed had taken money from them by administering varying amounts of unpleasantly hot (spicy) sauce to their opponent. There is some evidence of a main effect for genotype and some evidence for a gene by environment interaction, such that MAOA is less associated with the occurrence of aggression in a low provocation condition, but significantly predicts such behavior in a high provocation situation. This new evidence for genetic influences on aggression and punishment behavior complicates characterizations of humans as "altruistic" punishers and supports theories of cooperation that propose mixed strategies in the population. It also suggests important implications for the role of individual variance in genetic factors contributing to everyday behaviors and decisions. PMID:19168625

  18. Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Rose; Tingley, Dustin; Cowden, Jonathan; Frazzetto, Giovanni; Johnson, Dominic D. P.

    2009-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has earned the nickname “warrior gene” because it has been linked to aggression in observational and survey-based studies. However, no controlled experimental studies have tested whether the warrior gene actually drives behavioral manifestations of these tendencies. We report an experiment, synthesizing work in psychology and behavioral economics, which demonstrates that aggression occurs with greater intensity and frequency as provocation is experimentally manipulated upwards, especially among low activity MAOA (MAOA-L) subjects. In this study, subjects paid to punish those they believed had taken money from them by administering varying amounts of unpleasantly hot (spicy) sauce to their opponent. There is some evidence of a main effect for genotype and some evidence for a gene by environment interaction, such that MAOA is less associated with the occurrence of aggression in a low provocation condition, but significantly predicts such behavior in a high provocation situation. This new evidence for genetic influences on aggression and punishment behavior complicates characterizations of humans as “altruistic” punishers and supports theories of cooperation that propose mixed strategies in the population. It also suggests important implications for the role of individual variance in genetic factors contributing to everyday behaviors and decisions. PMID:19168625

  19. Cloning and characterization of a human lysyl oxidase-like 3 gene ( hLOXL3)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Huang; Jianliang Dai; Rong Tang; Wei Zhao; Zongxiang Zhou; Wei Wang; Kang Ying; Yi Xie; Yumin Mao

    2001-01-01

    Using the PCR primers generated from human expressed sequence tag (EST), the cDNA of lysyl oxidase-like gene 3 (LOXL3), a new member of human lysyl oxidases gene family, was cloned from the human fetal brain mRNA. The predicted amino acid sequence of the hLOXL3 gene was highly homologous to mLOR2. Bioinformatics analysis shows that hLOXL3 protein is also a member

  20. The Pea Gene LH Encodes ent-Kaurene Oxidase1

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Sandra E.; Smith, Jennifer J.; Helliwell, Chris A.; Poole, Andrew T.; Reid, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) homolog, PsKO1, of the Arabidopsis GA3 gene was isolated. It codes for a cytochrome P450 from the CYP701A subfamily and has ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity, catalyzing the three step oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid in the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathway when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). PsKO1 is encoded by the LH gene because in three independent mutant alleles, lh-1, lh-2, and lh-3, PsKO1 has altered sequence, and the lh-1 allele, when expressed in yeast, failed to metabolize ent-kaurene. The lh mutants of pea are GA deficient and have reduced internode elongation and root growth. One mutant (lh-2) also causes a large increase in seed abortion. PsKO1 (LH) is expressed in all tissues examined, including stems, roots, and seeds, and appears to be a single-copy gene. Differences in sensitivity to the GA synthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, between the mutants appear to result from the distinct nature of the genetic lesions. These differences may also explain the tissue-specific differences between the mutants. PMID:14988475

  1. Cloning of an insecticidal cholesterol oxidase gene and its expression in bacteria and in plant protoplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, D R; Greenplate, J T; Wong, E Y; Purcell, J P

    1994-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced structural gene choM, which encodes an insecticidally active cholesterol oxidase in Streptomyces sp. strain A19249. The primary translation product was predicted to be a 547-amino-acid protein whose first 43 amino acids constitute a secretory signal peptide. Expression of the gene with the signal sequence in Escherichia coli resulted in production of a protein that had enzymatic and insecticidal properties which were indistinguishable from those of the cholesterol oxidase secreted by Streptomyces sp. strain A19249. Expression of the gene with or without the signal sequence in tobacco protoplasts resulted in production of an enzymatically active cholesterol oxidase. Images PMID:7811062

  2. Common polymorphisms in human lysyl oxidase genes are not associated with the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy L McGregor; Christina A Gurnett; Matthew B Dobbs; Carol A Wise; Jose A Morcuende; Thomas M Morgan; Ramkumar Menon; Louis J Muglia

    2011-01-01

    Background  Although adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affects approximately 3% of adolescents, the genetic contributions have proven difficult\\u000a to identify. Work in model organisms, including zebrafish, chickens, and mice, has implicated the lysyl oxidase family of\\u000a enzymes in the development of scoliosis. We hypothesized that common polymorphisms in the five human lysyl oxidase genes (LOX, LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4) may be associated

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted to As(III). To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma

  4. The expression of lysyl-oxidase gene family members in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, T; Bejar, J; Attias, D; Mischenko, E; Sabo, E; Neufeld, G; Vadasz, Z

    2013-05-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are malignant disorders originating from clonal expansion of a single neoplastic stem cell and characteristically show an increase in bone marrow reticulin fibers. Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are copper-dependent amine oxidases that play a critical role in the biogenesis of connective tissue by crosslinking extracellular matrix proteins, collagen and elastin. Expression of LOX gene family members is increased in disorders associated with increased fibrosis. To evaluate involvement of LOX gene family in various MPNs. In-situ hybridization was used to detect Lysyl-Oxidase family members in bone marrow biopsies from patients with different MPNs. We compared normal bone marrows and those from patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Serum levels of lysyl-oxidase from patients with PMF and healthy controls were also examined. LOX gene family was not detected in normal bone marrows. All members of the LOX gene family were over expressed in PMF. In other MPNs a differential pattern of expression was observed. Differences in gene expression were statistically significant (P < 0.010). The medianserum LOX levels in normal controls was 28.4 ± 2.5 ng\\ml and 44.6 ± 9.44 ng\\ml in PMF (P = 0.02). The varying pattern of expression of LOX genes may reflect differences in the pathophysiology of bone marrow fibrosis in these MPNs. These observations could be used as the basis for future targeted therapy directed against bone marrow fibrosis. PMID:23494965

  5. Rat seminal vesicle FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase. Biochemical characterization and molecular cloning of a member of the new sulfhydryl oxidase/quiescin Q6 gene family.

    PubMed

    Benayoun, B; Esnard-Fève, A; Castella, S; Courty, Y; Esnard, F

    2001-04-27

    Rat FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase was purified; partial sequencing indicated that it was homologous to human quiescin Q6. A cDNA (GenBank accession no. AF285078) was cloned from rat seminal vesicles, and active recombinant sulfhydryl oxidase was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary epithelial cells. This 2472-nucleotide cDNA has an open reading frame of 1710 base pairs, encoding a protein of 570 amino acids including a 32-amino acid leader sequence and two potential sites for N-glycosylation. One of them is used and the 64,000 M(r) purified protein was transformed to 61,000 by the action of endoglycosidase F. Northern blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that there were small amounts of sulfhydryl oxidase in the rat testis, prostate, lung, heart, kidney, spleen, and liver, and that the gene was highly expressed in seminal vesicles and epididymis. Rat sulfhydryl oxidase cDNA corresponds to the human cell growth inhibiting factor cDNA, which could be a differently spliced form of quiescin Q6. Comparing sulfhydryl oxidase sequences with those of human quiescin Q6 and mammalian and Caenorhabditis elegans quiescin Q6-related genes established the existence of a new family of FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase/quiescin Q6-related genes containing protein-disulfide isomerase-type thioredoxin and yeast ERV1 domains. PMID:11278790

  6. Cloning and characterization of a human lysyl oxidase-like 3 gene (hLOXL3).

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Dai, J; Tang, R; Zhao, W; Zhou, Z; Wang, W; Ying, K; Xie, Y; Mao, Y

    2001-04-01

    Using the PCR primers generated from human expressed sequence tag (EST), the cDNA of lysyl oxidase-like gene 3 (LOXL3), a new member of human lysyl oxidases gene family, was cloned from the human fetal brain mRNA. The predicted amino acid sequence of the hLOXL3 gene was highly homologous to mLOR2. Bioinformatics analysis shows that hLOXL3 protein is also a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich family, which contains a 25 amino acids signal peptide. The hLOXL3 gene was mapped to human 2p13 locus by BLAST search and at least 14 exons were found. Expression of the hLOXL3 gene was detected in several human tissues and especially high in spleen and testis. PMID:11334717

  7. Molecular Phylogeny of the Chipmunks Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b and Cytochrome Oxidase II Gene Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoinette J. Piaggio; Greg S. Spicer

    2001-01-01

    There are currently 25 recognized species of the chipmunk genus Tamias. In this study we sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of 23 Tamias species. We analyzed the cyt b sequence and then analyzed a combined data set of cyt b along with a previous data set of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) sequence. Maximum-likelihood was used

  8. The four aldehyde oxidases of Drosophila melanogaster have different gene expression patterns and enzyme substrate specificities

    PubMed Central

    Marelja, Zvonimir; Dambowsky, Miriam; Bolis, Marco; Georgiou, Marina L.; Garattini, Enrico; Missirlis, Fanis; Leimkühler, Silke

    2014-01-01

    In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, four genes coding for aldehyde oxidases (AOX1–4) were identified on chromosome 3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AOX gene cluster evolved via independent duplication events in the vertebrate and invertebrate lineages. The functional role and the substrate specificity of the distinct Drosophila AOX enzymes is unknown. Two loss-of-function mutant alleles in this gene region, low pyridoxal oxidase (Polpo) and aldehyde oxidase-1 (Aldox-1n1) are associated with a phenotype characterized by undetectable AOX enzymatic activity. However, the genes involved and the corresponding mutations have not yet been identified. In this study we characterized the activities, substrate specificities and expression profiles of the four AOX enzymes in D. melanogaster. We show that the Polpo-associated phenotype is the consequence of a structural alteration of the AOX1 gene. We identified an 11-bp deletion in the Polpo allele, resulting in a frame-shift event, which removes the molybdenum cofactor domain of the encoded enzyme. Furthermore, we show that AOX2 activity is detectable only during metamorphosis and characterize a Minos-AOX2 insertion in this developmental gene that disrupts its activity. We demonstrate that the Aldox-1n1 phenotype maps to the AOX3 gene and AOX4 activity is not detectable in our assays. PMID:24737760

  9. Cloning and characterization of ACC oxidase genes from tulip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazumi Momonoi; Kazuaki Shoji; Kumi Yoshida

    Five cDNA clones encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (ACO) were isolated from tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) by differential screening of the petal cDNA library and were designated as TgACO1, TgACO2, TgACO3, TgACO4 and TgACO5. The deduced amino acid sequences exhibited similarity to ACO proteins from other plant species. Among these proteins, TgACO1-4 have high similarity (90-94% identity) each other, whereas

  10. Identification of Genes Required for Alternative Oxidase Production in the Neurospora crassa Gene Knockout Library

    PubMed Central

    Nargang, Frank E.; Adames, Kelly; Rüb, Cornelia; Cheung, Serena; Easton, Nancy; Nargang, Cheryl E.; Chae, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) of Neurospora crassa transfers electrons from ubiquinol to oxygen. The enzyme is not expressed under normal conditions. However, when the function of the standard electron transport chain is compromised, AOX is induced, providing cells with a means to continue respiration and growth. Induction of the enzyme represents a form of retrograde regulation because AOX is encoded by a nuclear gene that responds to signals produced from inefficiently functioning mitochondria. To identify genes required for AOX expression, we have screened the N. crassa gene knockout library for strains that are unable to grow in the presence of antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III of the standard electron transport chain. From the 7800 strains containing knockouts of different genes, we identified 62 strains that have reduced levels of AOX when grown under conditions known to induce the enzyme. Some strains have virtually no AOX, whereas others have only a slight reduction of the protein. A broad range of seemingly unrelated functions are represented in the knockouts. For example, we identified transcription factors, kinases, the mitochondrial import receptor Tom70, three subunits of the COP9 signalosome, a monothiol glutaredoxin, and several hypothetical proteins as being required for wild-type levels of AOX production. Our results suggest that defects in many signaling or metabolic pathways have a negative effect on AOX expression and imply that complex systems control production of the enzyme. PMID:23173086

  11. Production of Dwarf Lettuce by Overexpressing a Pumpkin Gibberellin 20-Oxidase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Tomoya; Nishijima, Takaaki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu; Oyama-Okubo, Naomi; Yamazaki, Hiroko; Hedden, Peter; Lange, Theo; Mander, Lewis N.; Koshioka, Masaji

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effect of overexpressing a pumpkin gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase gene encoding an enzyme that forms predominantly biologically inactive products on GA biosynthesis and plant morphology in transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv Vanguard) plants. Lettuce was transformed with the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase gene downstream of a strong constitutive promoter cassette (El2–35S-?). The transgenic plants in which the pumpkin gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction were dwarfed in the T2 generation, whereas transformants with a normal growth phenotype did not contain the transgene. The result of Southern-blot analysis showed that the transgene was integrated as a single copy; the plants segregated three dwarfs to one normal in the T2 generation, indicating that the transgene was stable and dominant. The endogenous levels of GA1 and GA4 were reduced in the dwarfs, whereas large amounts of GA17 and GA25, which are inactive products of the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase, accumulated in these lines. These results indicate that a functional pumpkin GA 20-oxidase is expressed in the transgenic lettuce, resulting in a diversion of the normal pathway of GA biosynthesis to inactive products. Furthermore, this technique may be useful for controlling plant stature in other agricultural and horticultural species. PMID:11457947

  12. NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content of human Epstein-Barr-virus-transformed B lymphocytes correlate with expression of genes encoding components of the oxidase system.

    PubMed

    Condino-Neto, A; Newburger, P E

    1998-12-15

    We investigated the NADPH oxidase activity, cytochrome b558 content, and gene expression of gp91-phox and p47-phox in normal Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV)-transformed B lymphocytes, compared to EBV-transformed B lymphocytes from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), normal peripheral blood neutrophils or mononuclear cells, and the A301 or C8166 lymphoblastoid cell lines. CGD phenotypes included both "classic" disease with no detectable gp91-phox protein (termed X91(0)) and "variant" phenotype with reduced but detectable gp91-phox protein (X91(-)). Normal EBV-transformed B lymphocytes show a dose-dependent PMA-induced superoxide release. Culturing these cells with IFN-gamma (100 U/ml) and TNF-alpha (1000 U/ml), alone or in combination for 7 days, caused a modest increase in their NADPH oxidase activity (P > 0.05 in all situations). Normal EBV-transformed B lymphocytes have lower NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content than peripheral blood neutrophils or mononuclear cells (P < 0.05 in all situations). In contrast, they have higher NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content than X91(-) CGD EBV-transformed B lymphocytes (P < 0.05 in all situations). A301 or C8166 lymphoblastoid cell lines and X91(0) CGD EBV-transformed B lymphocytes have barely detectable NADPH oxidase activity or cytochrome b558 content (P < 0.05 in all situations). Gene expression studies also show a modest increase in expression and transcription rates of gp91-phox and p47-phox genes in normal EBV-transformed B cells cultured with IFN-gamma (100 U/ml) and TNF-alpha (1000 U/ml), alone or in combination for 7 days. We conclude that NADPH oxidase activity and cytochrome b558 content correlate with gp91-phox and p47-phox gene expression in EBV-transformed B lymphocytes. PMID:9851826

  13. In silico sequence analysis reveals new characteristics of fungal NADPH oxidase genes.

    PubMed

    Détry, Nicolas; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Asiegbu, Fred O; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    NADPH oxidases (Noxes), transmembrane proteins found in most eukaryotic species, generate reactive oxygen species and are thereby involved in essential biological processes. However, the fact that genes encoding ferric reductases and ferric-chelate reductases share high sequence similarities and domains with Nox genes represents a challenge for bioinformatic approaches used to identify Nox-encoding genes. Further, most studies on fungal Nox genes have focused mainly on functionality, rather than sequence properties, and consequently clear differentiation among the various Nox isoforms has not been achieved. We conducted an extensive sequence analysis to identify putative Nox genes among 34 eukaryotes, including 28 fungal genomes and one Oomycota genome. Analyses were performed with respect to phylogeny, transmembrane helices, di-histidine distance and glycosylation. Our analyses indicate that the sequence properties of fungal Nox genes are different from those of human and plant Nox genes, thus providing novel insight that will enable more accurate identification and characterization of fungal Nox genes. PMID:25346600

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of six-domain multi-copper blue proteins.

    PubMed

    Vasin, Andrey; Klotchenko, Sergey; Puchkova, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    Multicopper blue proteins, composed of several repetitive copper-binding domains similar to one-domain cupredoxin-like proteins, were found in almost all organisms. They are classified into the three different groups, based on their two-, three- or six-domain organization. We found orthologs of chordate six-domain copper-binding proteins in animals, plants, bacteria and archea. The phylogenetic analysis of 183 multicopper blue proteins and their copper-binding sites comparison make us think that all the modern six-domain blue proteins have originated from the common ancestral six-domain protein in the process of gene duplication and copper-binding sites loss as a result of amino acid substitutions. PMID:23516668

  15. Evolution of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase II Gene in Collembola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Frati; Chris Simon; Jack Sullivan; David L. Swofford

    1997-01-01

    .   The sequence of the mitochondrial COII gene has been widely used to estimate phylogenetic relationships at different taxomonic\\u000a levels across insects. We investigated the molecular evolution of the COII gene and its usefulness for reconstructing phylogenetic\\u000a relationships within and among four collembolan families. The collembolan COII gene showed the lowest A + T content of all\\u000a insects so far

  16. Cloning and in situ expression studies of the Hydrogenobaculum arsenite oxidase genes.

    PubMed

    Clingenpeel, Scott R; D'Imperio, Seth; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg K; McDermott, Timothy R

    2009-05-01

    Novel arsenite [As(III)] oxidase structural genes (aoxAB) were cloned from Hydrogenobaculum bacteria isolated from an acidic geothermal spring. Reverse transcriptase PCR demonstrated expression throughout the outflow channel, and the aoxB cDNA clones exhibited distribution patterns relative to the physicochemical gradients in the spring. Microelectrode analyses provided evidence of quantitative As(III) transformation within the microbial mat. PMID:19304831

  17. Disruption of the CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE DEFICIENT1 gene leads to cytochrome c oxidase depletion and reorchestrated respiratory metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Jennifer; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Macherel, David; Benamar, Abdelilah; Belcram, Katia; Quadrado, Martine; Arnal, Nadège; Mireau, Hakim

    2014-12-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is the last respiratory complex of the electron transfer chain in mitochondria and is responsible for transferring electrons to oxygen, the final acceptor, in the classical respiratory pathway. The essentiality of this step makes it that depletion in complex IV leads to lethality, thereby impeding studies on complex IV assembly and respiration plasticity in plants. Here, we characterized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) embryo-lethal mutant lines impaired in the expression of the CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE DEFICIENT1 (COD1) gene, which encodes a mitochondria-localized PentatricoPeptide Repeat protein. Although unable to germinate under usual conditions, cod1 homozygous embryos could be rescued from immature seeds and developed in vitro into slow-growing bush-like plantlets devoid of a root system. cod1 mutants were defective in C-to-U editing events in cytochrome oxidase subunit2 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit4 transcripts, encoding subunits of respiratory complex IV and I, respectively, and consequently lacked cytochrome c oxidase activity. We further show that respiratory oxygen consumption by cod1 plantlets is exclusively associated with alternative oxidase activity and that alternative NADH dehydrogenases are also up-regulated in these plants. The metabolomics pattern of cod1 mutants was also deeply altered, suggesting that alternative metabolic pathways compensated for the probable resulting restriction in NADH oxidation. Being the first complex IV-deficient mutants described in higher plants, cod1 lines should be instrumental to future studies on respiration homeostasis. PMID:25301889

  18. The human protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene (PPOX): Organization and location to chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Taketani, Shigeru; Furukawa, Takako; Kohno, Hirao; Tokunaga, Rikio [Kansai Medical Univ., Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-10-10

    We determined the structure of the human protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene after isolation and characterization of lambda phage clones mapping discrete regions of the cDNA. Southern blotting of human genomic DNA showed that there is a single copy of the PPOX gene, and fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes mapped the gene to region 1q22. The gene has 13 exons and about 8 kb. The exon intron boundary sequences conform to consensus acceptor (GTn) and donor (nAG) sequences, and exons in the gene appear to encode functional protein domains. Primer extension analysis revealed two major transcriptional initiation sites in a region with sequence motifs characteristic of a promoter. The promoter region contains multiple Sp1 elements, CCAAT boxes, and potential GATA-1 binding sites. Mapping of the 5{prime} end PPOX mRNA by polymerase chain reaction indicated that there are the same transcripts in erythroid and nonerythroid cells. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Characterization of Two Brassinosteroid C-6 Oxidase Genes in Pea1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Corinne E.; Symons, Gregory M.; Nomura, Takahito; Yamada, Yumiko; Smith, Jennifer J.; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Weller, James L.; Yokota, Takao; Reid, James B.

    2007-01-01

    C-6 oxidation genes play a key role in the regulation of biologically active brassinosteroid (BR) levels in the plant. They control BR activation, which involves the C-6 oxidation of 6-deoxocastasterone (6-DeoxoCS) to castasterone (CS) and in some cases the further conversion of CS to brassinolide (BL). C-6 oxidation is controlled by the CYP85A family of cytochrome P450s, and to date, two CYP85As have been isolated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), two in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), one in rice (Oryza sativa), and one in grape (Vitis vinifera). We have now isolated two CYP85As (CYP85A1 and CYP85A6) from pea (Pisum sativum). However, unlike Arabidopsis and tomato, which both contain one BR C-6 oxidase that converts 6-DeoxoCS to CS and one BR C-6 Baeyer-Villiger oxidase that converts 6-DeoxoCS right through to BL, the two BR C-6 oxidases in pea both act principally to convert 6-DeoxoCS to CS. The isolation of these two BR C-6 oxidation genes in pea highlights the species-specific differences associated with C-6 oxidation. In addition, we have isolated a novel BR-deficient mutant, lke, which blocks the function of one of these two BR C-6 oxidases (CYP85A6). The lke mutant exhibits a phenotype intermediate between wild-type plants and previously characterized pea BR mutants (lk, lka, and lkb) and contains reduced levels of CS and increased levels of 6-DeoxoCS. To date, lke is the only mutant identified in pea that blocks the latter steps of BR biosynthesis and it will therefore provide an excellent tool to further examine the regulation of BR biosynthesis and the relative biological activities of CS and BL in pea. PMID:17322341

  20. Overexpression of a gene encoding hydrogen peroxide-generating oxalate oxidase evokes defense responses in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xu; Bidney, Dennis L; Yalpani, Nasser; Duvick, Jonathan P; Crasta, Oswald; Folkerts, Otto; Lu, Guihua

    2003-09-01

    Oxalate oxidase (OXO) converts oxalic acid (OA) and O(2) to CO(2) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and acts as a source of H(2)O(2) in certain plant-pathogen interactions. To determine if the H(2)O(2) produced by OXO can function as a messenger for activation of defense genes and if OXO can confer resistance against an OA-producing pathogen, we analyzed transgenic sunflower (Helianthus annuus cv SMF3) plants constitutively expressing a wheat (Triticum aestivum) OXO gene. The transgenic leaf tissues could degrade exogenous OA and generate H(2)O(2). Hypersensitive response-like lesion mimicry was observed in the transgenic leaves expressing a high level of OXO, and lesion development was closely associated with elevated levels of H(2)O(2), salicylic acid, and defense gene expression. Activation of defense genes was also observed in the transgenic leaves that had a low level of OXO expression and had no visible lesions, indicating that defense gene activation may not be dependent on hypersensitive response-like cell death. To further understand the pathways that were associated with defense activation, we used GeneCalling, an RNA-profiling technology, to analyze the alteration of gene expression in the transgenic plants. Among the differentially expressed genes, full-length cDNAs encoding homologs of a PR5, a sunflower carbohydrate oxidase, and a defensin were isolated. RNA-blot analysis confirmed that expression of these three genes was significantly induced in the OXO transgenic sunflower leaves. Furthermore, treatment of untransformed sunflower leaves with jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, or H(2)O(2) increased the steady-state levels of these mRNAs. Notably, the transgenic sunflower plants exhibited enhanced resistance against the OA-generating fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. PMID:12970484

  1. A new role for monoamine oxidases in the modulation of macrophage-inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Vega; Pedro Chacon; Javier Monteseirõ ´ n; Moises Alvarez; Gonzalo Alba; JoseMartõ ´ n-Nieto; Francisco J. Bedoya; Elizabeth Pintado; Francisco Sobrino

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on the modulatory role of endogenous H2O2 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)\\/interferon- (IFN-)-induced inducible ni- tric oxide synthase (NOS2) gene expression in rat peritoneal macrophages. Exogenously added H2O2 was initially found to inhibit the synthesis of NOS2, which prompted us to assess the effect of the activ- ity of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and semicarba- zide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) as

  2. Expression of the Talaromyces flavus glucose oxidase gene in cotton and tobacco reduces fungal infection, but is also phytotoxic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona Murray; Danny Llewellyn; Helen McFadden; David Last; Elizabeth S. Dennis; W. James Peacock

    1999-01-01

    Glucose oxidase secreted by the fungus Talaromyces flavus generates, in the presence of glucose, hydrogen peroxide that is\\u000a toxic to phytopathogenic fungi responsible for economically important diseases in many crops. A glucose oxidase gene from\\u000a T. flavus, was modified with a carrot extensin signal peptide and fused to either a constitutive or root-specific plant promoter.\\u000a T1 tobacco plants expressing the enzyme

  3. Identification of forensically important Sarcophagidae (Diptera) based on partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II genes.

    PubMed

    Aly, Sanaa Mohamed; Wen, Jifang; Wang, Xiang

    2013-06-01

    Entomological evidence is of great importance in forensic cases for postmortem interval calculation. The use of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) for postmortem interval estimation is limited because morphological determination is often hampered because of similar characteristics in the larval, pupal, and even adult stage. To make the species identification more accurate and reliable, DNA-based identification is considered. In this study, we assessed the use of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II genes for discrimination of forensically important Sarcophagidae from Egypt and China [Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy), Sarcophaga dux (Thomson), Sarcophaga albiceps (Meigen), and Wohlfahrtia nuba (Wiedemann)]. This region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing of the amplification products and using restriction enzymes HinfI and MfeI. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the Kimura 2-parameter distance model, and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was generated. All examined specimens were assigned to the correct species. Combinations of the restriction enzymes HinfI and MfeI provide different restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles even among 3 sympatric species that belong to the Sarcophaga genus. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the studied partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II genes were found to be instrumental for the molecular identification of these forensically important flesh fly species. PMID:23629402

  4. Arsenite oxidase gene diversity among Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria from El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile.

    PubMed

    Engel, Annette Summers; Johnson, Lindsey R; Porter, Megan L

    2013-03-01

    Arsenic concentrations (450-600 ?mol L(-1)) at the El Tatio Geyser Field in northern Chile are an order of magnitude greater than at other natural geothermal sites, making El Tatio an ideal location to investigate unique microbial diversity and metabolisms associated with the arsenic cycle in low sulfide, > 50 °C, and circumneutral pH waters. 16S rRNA gene and arsenite oxidase gene (aioA) diversities were evaluated from biofilms and microbial mats from two geyser-discharge stream transects. Chloroflexi was the most prevalent bacterial phylum at flow distances where arsenite was converted to arsenate, corresponding to roughly 60 °C. Among aioA-like gene sequences retrieved, most had homology to whole genomes of Chloroflexus aurantiacus, but others were homologous to alphaproteobacterial and undifferentiated beta- and gammaproteobacterial groups. No Deinococci, Thermus, Aquificales, or Chlorobi aioA-like genes were retrieved. The functional importance of amino acid sites was evaluated from evolutionary trace analyses of all retrieved aioA genes. Fifteen conserved residue sites identified across all phylogenetic groups highlight a conserved functional core, while six divergent sites demonstrate potential differences in electron transfer modes. This research expands the known distribution and diversity of arsenite oxidation in natural geothermal settings, and provides information about the evolutionary history of microbe-arsenic interactions. PMID:23066664

  5. The polyphenol oxidase gene family in land plants: Lineage-specific duplication and expansion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are enzymes that typically use molecular oxygen to oxidize ortho-diphenols to ortho-quinones. These commonly cause browning reactions following tissue damage, and may be important in plant defense. Some PPOs function as hydroxylases or in cross-linking reactions, but in most plants their physiological roles are not known. To better understand the importance of PPOs in the plant kingdom, we surveyed PPO gene families in 25 sequenced genomes from chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants. The PPO genes were then analyzed in silico for gene structure, phylogenetic relationships, and targeting signals. Results Many previously uncharacterized PPO genes were uncovered. The moss, Physcomitrella patens, contained 13 PPO genes and Selaginella moellendorffii (spike moss) and Glycine max (soybean) each had 11 genes. Populus trichocarpa (poplar) contained a highly diversified gene family with 11 PPO genes, but several flowering plants had only a single PPO gene. By contrast, no PPO-like sequences were identified in several chlorophyte (green algae) genomes or Arabidopsis (A. lyrata and A. thaliana). We found that many PPOs contained one or two introns often near the 3’ terminus. Furthermore, N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis using ChloroP and TargetP 1.1 predicted that several putative PPOs are synthesized via the secretory pathway, a unique finding as most PPOs are predicted to be chloroplast proteins. Phylogenetic reconstruction of these sequences revealed that large PPO gene repertoires in some species are mostly a consequence of independent bursts of gene duplication, while the lineage leading to Arabidopsis must have lost all PPO genes. Conclusion Our survey identified PPOs in gene families of varying sizes in all land plants except in the genus Arabidopsis. While we found variation in intron numbers and positions, overall PPO gene structure is congruent with the phylogenetic relationships based on primary sequence data. The dynamic nature of this gene family differentiates PPO from other oxidative enzymes, and is consistent with a protein important for a diversity of functions relating to environmental adaptation. PMID:22897796

  6. A molecular defect in coproporphyrinogen oxidase gene causing harderoporphyria, a variant form of hereditary coproporphyria.

    PubMed

    Lamoril, J; Martasek, P; Deybach, J C; Da Silva, V; Grandchamp, B; Nordmann, Y

    1995-02-01

    Hereditary coproporphyria (HC) is an acute hepatic porphyria with autosomal dominant inheritance caused by a deficient activity of coproporphyrinogen IX oxidase (CPX). We previously described harderoporphyria, a homozygous variant form of coproporphyria in three siblings, characterized by a massive excretion of harderoporphyrin and a marked decrease of coproporphyrinogen IX oxidase activity. In this kindred, the transmission of the disease was autosomal recessive. In the present study, sequencing of cDNA and genomic DNA from these patients revealed a point mutation resulting in a lysine to glutamic acid substitution (K304E) in exon 6 of the gene and the absence of the normal allele, suggesting a homozygous state for the mutation. Expression studies of normal and mutated cDNAs in E. coli demonstrated that this amino acid substitution was responsible for the important decrease in the enzyme activity and for the accumulation of harderoporphyrin. The Michaelis constant of the mutated enzyme was 10-fold higher than normal suggesting that the lysine at position 304 is important for binding the substrate: a slightly increased sensitivity to thermal denaturation was also observed. PMID:7757079

  7. Description of the Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit II Gene in Some Genera of New World Monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina S. Ascunce; Esteban Hasson; Marta D. Mudry

    2002-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence variation at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene (COII) was analyzed in 27 New World monkey specimens, nine newly reported herein. The study involved comparisons among platyrrhines and also between platyrrhines and catarrhines. The analysis of the frequencies of transitions and transversions at each codon position showed transitional saturation at third codon position. Neighbor-Joining trees obtained

  8. The terminal quinol oxidase of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Acidianus ambivalens exhibits a novel subunit structure and gene organization.

    PubMed Central

    Purschke, W G; Schmidt, C L; Petersen, A; Schäfer, G

    1997-01-01

    A terminal quinol oxidase has been isolated from the plasma membrane of the crenarchaeon Acidianus ambivalens (DSM 3772) (formerly Desulfurolobus ambivalens), cloned, and sequenced. The detergent-solubilized complex oxidizes caldariella quinol at high rates and is completely inhibited by cyanide and by quinolone analogs, potent inhibitors of quinol oxidases. It is composed of at least five different subunits of 64.9, 38, 20.4, 18.8, and 7.2 kDa; their genes are located in two different operons. doxB, the gene for subunit I, is located together with doxC and two additional small open reading frames (doxE and doxF) in an operon with a complex transcription pattern. Two other genes of the oxidase complex (doxD and doxA) are located in a different operon and are cotranscribed into a common 1.2-kb mRNA. Both operons exist in duplicate on the genome of A. ambivalens. Only subunit I exhibits clear homology to other members of the superfamily of respiratory heme-copper oxidases; however, it reveals 14 transmembrane helices. In contrast, the composition of the accessory proteins is highly unusual; none is homologous to any known accessory protein of cytochrome oxidases, nor do homologs exist in the databases. DoxA is classified as a subunit II equivalent only by analogy of molecular size and hydrophobicity pattern to corresponding polypeptides of other oxidases. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis of the heme-bearing subunit I (DoxB) locate this oxidase at the bottom of the phylogenetic tree, in the branch of heme-copper oxidases recently suggested to be incapable of superstoichiometric proton pumping. This finding is corroborated by lack of the essential amino acid residues delineating the putative H+-pumping channel. It is therefore concluded that A. ambivalens copes with its strongly acidic environment simply by an extreme turnover of its terminal oxidase, generating a proton gradient only by chemical charge separation. PMID:9023221

  9. Cloning and Characterization of the Yeast HEM14 Gene Coding for Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase, the Molecular Target of Diphenyl Ether-type Herbicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Labbe

    1996-01-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase, which catalyzes the ox- ygen-dependent aromatization of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX, is the molecular target of di- phenyl ether type herbicides. The structural gene for the yeast protoporphyrinogen oxidase, HEM14, was iso- lated by functional complementation of a hem14-1 pro- toporphyrinogen oxidase-deficient yeast mutant, using a novel one-step colored screening procedure to identify heme-synthesizing cells. The hem14-1

  10. Isolation and characterization of two putative cytokinin oxidase genes related to grain number per spike phenotype in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinpeng Zhang; Weihua Liu; Xinming Yang; Ainong Gao; Xiuquan Li; Xiaoyang Wu; Lihui Li

    2011-01-01

    Cytokinin oxidases are involved in the regulation of plant cytokinin levels, which are important in regulating plant growth\\u000a and development, and may affect the yield of cereals. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two putative cytokinin\\u000a oxidase genes, TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2, from wheat. Both TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 are mapped to the 0.24–0.55 region of the short arm of

  11. Discovery of a gene involved in a third bacterial protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity through comparative genomic analysis and functional complementation.

    PubMed

    Boynton, Tye O; Gerdes, Svetlana; Craven, Sarah H; Neidle, Ellen L; Phillips, John D; Dailey, Harry A

    2011-07-01

    Tetrapyrroles are ubiquitous molecules in nearly all living organisms. Heme, an iron-containing tetrapyrrole, is widely distributed in nature, including most characterized aerobic and facultative bacteria. A large majority of bacteria that contain heme possess the ability to synthesize it. Despite this capability and the fact that the biosynthetic pathway has been well studied, enzymes catalyzing at least three steps have remained "missing" in many bacteria. In the current work, we have employed comparative genomics via the SEED genomic platform, coupled with experimental verification utilizing Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, to identify one of the missing enzymes, a new protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme in heme biosynthesis. COG1981 was identified by genomic analysis as a candidate protein family for the missing enzyme in bacteria that lacked HemG or HemY, two known protoporphyrinogen oxidases. The predicted amino acid sequence of COG1981 is unlike those of the known enzymes HemG and HemY, but in some genomes, the gene encoding it is found neighboring other heme biosynthetic genes. When the COG1981 gene was deleted from the genome of A. baylyi, a bacterium that lacks both hemG and hemY, the organism became auxotrophic for heme. Cultures accumulated porphyrin intermediates, and crude cell extracts lacked protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity. The heme auxotrophy was rescued by the presence of a plasmid-borne protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene from a number of different organisms, such as hemG from Escherichia coli, hemY from Myxococcus xanthus, or the human gene for protoporphyrinogen oxidase. PMID:21642412

  12. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  13. 6-Hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase of Arthrobacter oxidans. Gene structure of the flavoenzyme and its relationship to 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Brandsch, R; Hinkkanen, A E; Mauch, L; Nagursky, H; Decker, K

    1987-09-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase (6-HDNO) gene of Arthrobacter oxidans is presented. This covalently flavinylated enzyme specifically oxidizes 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine to 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine. Coinduced in the presence of nicotine is a 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine-specific enzyme, 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase (6-HLNO), with FAD noncovalently bound to the apoprotein. A comparison of the nucleotide-derived amino acid sequence of the 6-HDNO with the amino acid sequence data obtained from the purified 6-HLNO polypeptide suggests that the two enantiozymes expressed within the same cell are genetically unrelated. This conclusion is supported by the finding that the FAD-binding sites of the two enzymes are different. 6-HLNO exhibits at the amino-terminus of the polypeptide chain a dinucleotide-binding site characteristic for many other FAD- and NAD(P)-dependent enzymes. No such sequence was found in the nucleotide-derived amino acid sequence of 6-HDNO. PMID:3622516

  14. Association study of monoamine oxidase A/B genes and schizophrenia in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) catalyze the metabolism of dopaminergic neurotransmitters. Polymorphisms of isoforms MAOA and MAOB have been implicated in the etiology of mental disorders such as schizophrenia. Association studies detected these polymorphisms in several populations, however the data have not been conclusive to date. Here, we investigated the association of MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms with schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population. Methods Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs6323 of MAOA and rs1799836 of MAOB, were selected for association analysis in 537 unrelated schizophrenia patients and 536 healthy controls. Single-locus and Haplotype associations were calculated. Results No differences were found in the allelic distribution of rs6323. The G allele of rs1799836 was identified as a risk factor in the development of schizophrenia (P = 0.00001). The risk haplotype rs6323T-rs1799836G was associated with schizophrenia in female patients (P = 0.0002), but the frequency difference was not significant among male groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that MAOB is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. In contrast, no significant associations were observed for the MAOA functional polymorphism with schizophrenia in Han Chinese. These data support further investigation of the role of MAO genes in schizophrenia. PMID:21978760

  15. Association analysis of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Mei J; Davamani, Fabian; Yang, Wei-Chih; Lai, Te-Jen; Sun, H Sunny

    2008-01-01

    Background Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in degrading several different biological amines, including serotonin. Although several pieces of evidence suggested that MAOA is important in the etiology of bipolar affective disorder (BPD), associations for markers of the MAOA gene with BPD were not conclusive and the association has not been investigated in Taiwanese population. This study was designed to illustrate the role of MAOA in the etiology of BPD in Han Chinese. Methods Two markers, a dinucleotide polymorphism in exon 2 and a functional uVNTR on the promoter of the MAOA gene, were used to study the genetic association in 108 unrelated patients with BPD and 103 healthy controls. Allelic distributions of two polymorphisms were analyzed and, caused the MAOA located at X chromosome, haplotype association was performed using haplotype unambiguously assigned in male participants. Results While no difference in allelic distributions of two MAOA polymorphisms was found, the risk haplotype 114S was associated with BPD in male patients (P = 0.03). The significance, however, was not found in female patients with 114S haplotype. Conclusion Results from this study suggest that MAOA may have a gender-specific and small effect on the etiology of BPD in Taiwan. Due to the limited sample size, results from this study need to be confirmed in replicates. PMID:18501009

  16. Mutations in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene in patients with variegate porphyria.

    PubMed

    Deybach, J C; Puy, H; Robréau, A M; Lamoril, J; Da Silva, V; Grandchamp, B; Nordmann, Y

    1996-03-01

    Variegate porphyria (VP) is an acute hepatic porphyria with autosomal dominant inheritance due to a partial deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) activity. The molecular defect responsible for VP was investigated by sequencing PPOX gene coding sequence from four patients in three unrelated VP families of French Caucasian origin. In a first patient, a point insertion of a G at position 1022 of the cDNA, produced a frameshift resulting in a premature stop codon. In three other patients from two unrelated families we found a missense point mutation leading to glycine to arginine substitution (G232R) in exon 7. This Gly232 appears to be a strictly conserved residue through evolution. In one VP family, we observed the cosegregation of the G232R missense mutation and the deficient PPOX activity. The mutations reported here are the first to be described in patients with VP and support the conclusion that PPOX gene defects are disease causing mutations in human variegate porphyria. PMID:8852667

  17. Systematic analysis of coproporphyrinogen oxidase gene defects in hereditary coproporphyria and mutation update.

    PubMed

    Rosipal, R; Lamoril, J; Puy, H; Da Silva, V; Gouya, L; De Rooij, F W; Te Velde, K; Nordmann, Y; Martàsek, P; Deybach, J C

    1999-01-01

    Hereditary coproporphyria (HC) is an acute hepatic porphyria with autosomal dominant inheritance caused by deficient activity of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPO). Clinical manifestations of the disease are characterized by acute attacks of neurological dysfunction often precipitated by drugs, fasting, cyclical hormonal changes, or infectious diseases. Skin photosensitivity may also be present. The seven exons, the exon/intron boundaries and part of 3' noncoding sequence of the CPO gene were systematically analyzed by an exon-by-exon denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) strategy followed by direct sequencing in seven unrelated heterozygous HC patients from France, Holland, and Czech Republic. Seven novel mutations and two new polymorphisms were detected. Among these mutations: two are missense (G197W, W427R), two are nonsense (Q306X, Q385X), two are small deletions (662de14bp; 1168del3bp removing a glycine at position 390), and one is a splicing mutation (IVS1-15c-->g) which creates a new acceptor splice site. The pathological significance of the point mutations G197W, W427R, and the in-frame deletion 390delGly were assessed by their respective expression in a prokaryotic system using site-directed mutagenesis. These mutations resulted in the absence or a dramatic decrease of CPO activity. The two polymorphisms were localized in noncoding part of the gene: 1) a C/G polymorphism in the promotor region, 142 bp upstream from the transcriptional initiation site (-142C/G), and 2) a 6 bp deletion polymorphism in the 3' noncoding part of the CPO gene, 574 bp downstream of the last base of the normal termination codon (+574 delATTCTT). Five intragenic dimorphisms are now well characterized and the high degree of allelic heterogeneity in HC is demonstrated with seven new different mutations making a total of nineteen CPO gene defects reported so far. PMID:9888388

  18. Molecular evolution of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A gene in primates

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Many electron transport chain (ETC) genes show accelerated rates of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in anthropoid primate lineages, yet in non-anthropoid lineages the ETC proteins are typically highly conserved. Here, we test the hypothesis that COX5A, the ETC gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A, shows a pattern of anthropoid-specific adaptive evolution, and investigate the distribution of this protein in catarrhine brains. Results In a dataset comprising 29 vertebrate taxa, including representatives from all major groups of primates, there is nearly 100% conservation of the COX5A amino acid sequence among extant, non-anthropoid placental mammals. The most recent common ancestor of these species lived about 100 million years (MY) ago. In contrast, anthropoid primates show markedly elevated rates of nonsynonymous evolution. In particular, branch site tests identify five positively selected codons in anthropoids, and ancestral reconstructions infer that substitutions in these codons occurred predominantly on stem lineages (anthropoid, ape and New World monkey) and on the human terminal branch. Examination of catarrhine brain samples by immunohistochemistry characterizes for the first time COX5A protein distribution in the primate neocortex, and suggests that the protein is most abundant in the mitochondria of large-size projection neurons. Real time quantitative PCR supports previous microarray results showing COX5A is expressed in cerebral cortical tissue at a higher level in human than in chimpanzee or gorilla. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that both protein structural and gene regulatory changes contributed to COX5A evolution during humankind's ancestry. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adaptations in ETC genes contributed to the emergence of the energetically expensive anthropoid neocortex. PMID:18197981

  19. Codon-Optimized NADH Oxidase Gene Expression and Gene Fusion with Glycerol Dehydrogenase for Bienzyme System with Cofactor Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Shizhen

    2015-01-01

    NADH oxidases (NOXs) play an important role in maintaining balance of NAD+/NADH by catalyzing cofactors regeneration. The expression of nox gene from Lactobacillus brevis in Escherichia coli BL21 (BL21 (DE3)) was studied. Two strategies, the high AT-content in the region adjacent to the initiation codon and codon usage of the whole gene sequence consistent with the host, obtained the NOX activity of 59.9 U/mg and 73.3 U/mg (crude enzyme), with enhanced expression level of 2.0 and 2.5-folds, respectively. Purified NOX activity was 213.8 U/mg. Gene fusion of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) and NOX formed bifuctional multi-enzymes for bioconversion of glycerol coupled with coenzyme regeneration. Kinetic parameters of the GDH-NOX for each substrate, glycerol and NADH, were calculated as Vmax(Glycerol) 20 ?M/min, Km(Glycerol) 19.4 mM, Vmax (NADH) 12.5 ?M/min and Km (NADH) 51.3 ?M, respectively, which indicated the potential application of GDH-NOX for quick glycerol analysis and dioxyacetone biosynthesis. PMID:26115038

  20. The Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus tn79 gene encodes a functional sulfhydryl oxidase enzyme that is able to support the replication of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus lacking the sulfhydryl oxidase ac92 gene

    PubMed Central

    Clem, Stian A.; Wu, Wenbi; Lorena Passarelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac92 is a conserved baculovirus gene with homology to flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Its product, Ac92, is a functional sulfhydryl oxidase. Deletion of ac92 results in almost negligible levels of budded virus (BV) production, defects in occlusion-derived virus (ODV) co-envelopment and their inefficient incorporation into occlusion bodies. To determine the role of sulfhydryl oxidation in the production of BV, envelopment of nucleocapsids, and nucleocapsid incorporation into occlusion bodies, the Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus ortholog, Tn79, was substituted for ac92. Tn79 was found to be an active sulfhydryl oxidase that substituted for Ac92, resulting in the production of infectious BV, albeit about 10-fold less than an ac92-containing virus. Tn79 rescued defects in ODV morphogenesis caused by a lack of ac92. Active Tn79 sulfhydryl oxidase activity is required for efficient BV production, ODV envelopment, and their subsequent incorporation into occlusion bodies in the absence of ac92. PMID:25010286

  1. The Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus tn79 gene encodes a functional sulfhydryl oxidase enzyme that is able to support the replication of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus lacking the sulfhydryl oxidase ac92 gene.

    PubMed

    Clem, Stian A; Wu, Wenbi; Passarelli, A Lorena

    2014-07-01

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac92 is a conserved baculovirus gene with homology to flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Its product, Ac92, is a functional sulfhydryl oxidase. Deletion of ac92 results in almost negligible levels of budded virus (BV) production, defects in occlusion-derived virus (ODV) co-envelopment and their inefficient incorporation into occlusion bodies. To determine the role of sulfhydryl oxidation in the production of BV, envelopment of nucleocapsids, and nucleocapsid incorporation into occlusion bodies, the Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus ortholog, tn79, was substituted for ac92. Tn79 was found to be an active sulfhydryl oxidase that substituted for Ac92, resulting in the production of infectious BV, albeit about 10-fold less than an ac92-containing virus. Tn79 rescued defects in ODV morphogenesis caused by a lack of ac92. Active Tn79 sulfhydryl oxidase activity is required for efficient BV production, ODV envelopment, and their subsequent incorporation into occlusion bodies in the absence of ac92. PMID:25010286

  2. Disease Resistance Conferred by Expression of a Gene Encoding H2O2Generating Glucose Oxidase in Transgenic Potato Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gusui Wu; Barry J. Shortt; Ellen B. Lawrence; Elaine B. Levine; Karen C. Fitzsimmons; Dilip M. Shah

    1995-01-01

    Plant defense responses to pathogen infection involve the production of active oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H202). We obtained transgenic potato plants expressing a funga1 gene encoding glucose oxidase, which generates H202 when glucose is oxidized. H2O2 levels were elevated in both leaf and tuber tissues of these plants. Transgenic potato tubers exhibited strong resistance to a bacterial soft rot

  3. Secretory expression and purification of Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in PMR1 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Hyun Ko; Moon Sun Hahm; Hyun Ah Kang; Soo Wan Nam; Bong Hyun Chung

    2002-01-01

    The gene encoding glucose oxidase (GOD) from Aspergillus niger was expressed as a secretory product in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Six consecutive histidine residues were fused to the C-terminus of GOD to facilitate purification. The recombinant GOD-His6 secreted by S. cerevisiae migrated as a broad diffuse band on SDS–PAGE, with an apparent molecular weight higher than that in natural A.

  4. Heterologous Expression of a Gibberellin 2Oxidase Gene from Arabidopsis thaliana Enhanced the Photosynthesis Capacity in Brassica napus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Zhou; Dan Peng; Jianzhong Lin; Xingqun Huang; Wusheng Peng; Reqing He; Ming Guo; Dongying Tang; Xiaoying Zhao; Xuanming Liu

    2011-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play an important role in regulating plant stature by increasing cell division\\u000a and promoting seed germination. The GA2-oxidase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGA2ox8) was introduced into Brassica napus L. by Agrobacterium-mediated floral-dip transformation with the aim of decreasing the amount of bioactive GA and hence reduced the plant height.\\u000a As anticipated, the transgenic plant

  5. Identification of three mutations and associated haplotypes in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene in South African families with variegate porphyria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Warnich; Maritha J. Kotze; Ilse M. Groenewald; Johannes Z. Groenewald; Maléne G. van Brakel; Carel J. van Heerden; J. Nico; P. de Villiers; Eric F. P. M. Schoenmakers; Shigeru Taketani; Andries E. Retief

    1996-01-01

    Mutation analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from 17 unrelated South African patients with variegate porphyria (VP) revealed three novel missense mutations in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene. A common C to T transition at nucleotide position 452 (R59W) was identified in 15 of the patients analysed, while base changes at positions 336 (H20P) and 779 (R168C) were identified in

  6. Expression of the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its potential applications in wine production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Malherbe; M. du Toit; R. R. Cordero Otero; P. van Rensburg; I. S. Pretorius

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing consumer demand for wines containing lower levels of alcohol and chemical preservatives. The objectives of this study were to express the Aspergillus niger gene encoding a glucose oxidase (GOX; ?-d-glucose:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.3.4) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to evaluate the transformants for lower alcohol production and inhibition of wine spoilage organisms, such as acetic acid bacteria

  7. Cortical Enlargement in Autism is Associated With a Functional VNTR in the Monoamine Oxidase A Gene

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lea K.; Hazlett, Heather C.; Librant, Amy L.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Sheffield, Val C.; Piven, Joesph; Wassink, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is an enzyme expressed in the brain that metabolizes dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin. Abnormalities of serotonin neurotransmission have long been implicated in the psychopathology of autism. A polymorphism exists within the promoter region of the MAOA gene that influences MAOA expression levels so that “low activity” alleles are associated with increased neurotransmitter levels in the brain. Individuals with autism often exhibit elevated serotonin levels. Additional studies indicate that the “low activity” allele may be associated with lower IQ and more severe autistic symptoms. In this study we genotyped the MAOA promoter polymorphism in a group of 29 males (age 2–3 years) with autism and a group of 39 healthy pediatric controls for whom brain MRI data was available. We found a consistent association between the “low activity” allele and larger brain volumes for regions of the cortex in children with autism but not in controls. We did not find evidence for over-transmission of the “low activity” allele in a separate sample of 114 affected sib pairfamilies. Nor did we find any unknown SNPs in yet another sample of 96 probands. Future studies will determine if there is a more severe clinical phenotype associated with both the “low activity” genotype and the larger brain volumes in our sample. PMID:18361446

  8. Identification, cloning and expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ps-x putative urate oxidase gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hesham M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Berekaa, Mahmoud M; Gohar, Yousry M; Elbaz, Mohamed A

    2004-01-01

    In a previous study we reported for the first time the isolation and characterization ofurate oxidase enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work we isolated and cloned a 1.350 kilobase DNA fragment that encode a putative urate oxidase gene from the genomic library of P. aeruginosa Ps-x. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA insert revealed an open reading frame that encodes a protein of a molecular weight of 54.0 kDa. The cloned DNA fragment showed an uricolytic activity when expressed in E. coli DH5alpha. Surprisingly, the nucleotide sequence of the cloned gene showed more than 99% identity to the gene encoding hypothetical protein of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Moreover, the sequence of the cloned gene was closely similar to the corresponding uricase gene of Cellulomonas flavigena (44% similarity), but showed lower similarity values to that of Bacillus sp. BT-90 (24% similarity), Candida utilis (24% similarity). Interestingly, the isolated uricase gene showed closer similarity to uricase from yeast-like symbiotic fungi Beauveria bassiana (35%), Tolypocladium inflatum (29%), Paecilomyces tenuipes (27%) and Cerataphis fransseni (24%). PMID:15790071

  9. Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Za?tsev, V. N.; Mikha?lov, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    “Blue” copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

  10. Spermine oxidase maintains basal skeletal muscle gene expression and fiber size and is strongly repressed by conditions that cause skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Kale S; Fox, Daniel K; Kunkel, Steven D; Stebounova, Larissa V; Murry, Daryl J; Pufall, Miles A; Ebert, Scott M; Dyle, Michael C; Bullard, Steven A; Dierdorff, Jason M; Adams, Christopher M

    2015-01-15

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. To better understand the mechanisms of muscle atrophy, we used mouse models to search for a skeletal muscle protein that helps to maintain muscle mass and is specifically lost during muscle atrophy. We discovered that diverse causes of muscle atrophy (limb immobilization, fasting, muscle denervation, and aging) strongly reduced expression of the enzyme spermine oxidase. Importantly, a reduction in spermine oxidase was sufficient to induce muscle fiber atrophy. Conversely, forced expression of spermine oxidase increased muscle fiber size in multiple models of muscle atrophy (immobilization, fasting, and denervation). Interestingly, the reduction of spermine oxidase during muscle atrophy was mediated by p21, a protein that is highly induced during muscle atrophy and actively promotes muscle atrophy. In addition, we found that spermine oxidase decreased skeletal muscle mRNAs that promote muscle atrophy (e.g., myogenin) and increased mRNAs that help to maintain muscle mass (e.g., mitofusin-2). Thus, in healthy skeletal muscle, a relatively low level of p21 permits expression of spermine oxidase, which helps to maintain basal muscle gene expression and fiber size; conversely, during conditions that cause muscle atrophy, p21 expression rises, leading to reduced spermine oxidase expression, disruption of basal muscle gene expression, and muscle fiber atrophy. Collectively, these results identify spermine oxidase as an important positive regulator of muscle gene expression and fiber size, and elucidate p21-mediated repression of spermine oxidase as a key step in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:25406264

  11. Substrate entasis and electronic coupling elements in electron transfer from Fe in a multicopper ferroxidase.

    PubMed

    Kosman, Daniel J

    2008-03-01

    Outersphere electron transfer in multicopper oxidases occurs at the type 1, blue Cu(II). One class of MCO proteins exhibits a specificity in this reaction towards Fe(II). In work carried out in collaboration with the Solomon lab over the past 7 years, we have delineated the structural motifs that support this ferroxidase specificity and have quantified the contributions that each makes to this outersphere electron transfer reaction from Fe(II) to the type 1 Cu(II). Two features of this electron transfer catalysis stand out. First, the protein provides a binding site for Fe(II) that actually favors Fe(III); this coordination sphere places the bound Fe(II) in a state of "entasis" that can be relieved by loss of an electron. In short, the E(O) of the bound Fe(II) is lowered relative to that of aqueous ferrous iron making electron transfer thermodynamically favorable. Second, carboxylates within this coordination sphere provide an electronic coupling pathway for the electron transfer via their H-bond network with type 1 Cu histidine ligands thus making electron transfer kinetically efficient. This brief report breaks down these contributions to ferroxidase specificity in terms of the semi-classical Marcus equation describing outersphere electron transfer. PMID:18443651

  12. Coordination of cytochrome c oxidase gene expression in the remodelling of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Ana T; Kocha, Katrinka M; Monk, Christopher T; Bremer, Katharina; Moyes, Christopher D

    2011-06-01

    Many fish species respond to low temperature by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, reflected in an increase in activity of the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (COX). COX is composed of 13 subunits, three encoded by mitochondrial (mt)DNA and 10 encoded by nuclear genes. We used real-time PCR to measure mRNA levels for the 10 nuclear-encoded genes that are highly expressed in muscle. We measured mRNA levels in white muscle of three minnow species, each at two temperatures: zebrafish (Danio rerio) acclimated to 11 and 30°C, goldfish (Carassius auratus) acclimated to 4 and 35°C, and northern redbelly dace (Chrosomus eos) collected in winter and summer. We hypothesized that temperature-induced changes in COX activity would be paralleled by COX nuclear-encoded subunit transcript abundance. However, we found mRNA for COX subunits showed pronounced differences in thermal responses. Though zebrafish COX activity did not change in the cold, the transcript levels of four subunits decreased significantly (COX5A1, 60% decrease; COX6A2, 70% decrease; COX6C, 50% decrease; COX7B, 55% decrease). Treatments induced changes in COX activity in both dace (2.9 times in winter fish) and goldfish (2.5 times in cold fish), but the response in transcript levels was highly variable. Some subunits failed to increase in one (goldfish COX7A2, dace COX6A2) or both (COX7B, COX6B2) species. Other transcripts increased 1.7-100 times. The most cold-responsive subunits were COX4-1 (7 and 21.3 times higher in dace and goldfish, respectively), COX5A1 (13.9 and 5 times higher), COX6B1 (6 and 10 times higher), COX6C (11 and 4 times higher) and COX7C (13.3 and 100 times higher). The subunits that most closely paralleled COX increases in the cold were COX5B2 (dace 2.5 times, goldfish 1.7 times) and COX6A2 (dace 4.1 times, goldfish 1.7 times). Collectively, these studies suggest that COX gene expression is not tightly coordinated during cold-induced mitochondrial remodelling in fish muscle. Further, they caution against arguments about the importance of transcriptional regulation based on measurement of mRNA levels of select subunits of multimeric proteins. PMID:21562175

  13. Cloning of a Novel Nicotine Oxidase Gene from Pseudomonas sp. Strain HZN6 Whose Product Nonenantioselectively Degrades Nicotine to Pseudooxynicotine

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jiguo; Ma, Yun; Zhang, Jing; Wen, Yuezhong

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain HZN6 utilizes nicotine as its sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. However, its catabolic mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, self-formed adaptor PCR was performed to amplify the upstream sequence of the pseudooxynicotine amine oxidase gene. A 1,437-bp open reading frame (designated nox) was found to encode a nicotine oxidase (NOX) that shows 30% amino acid sequence identity with 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans. The nox gene was cloned into a broad-host-range cloning vector and transferred into the non-nicotine-degrading bacteria Escherichia coli DH5? (DH-nox) and Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (KT-nox). The transconjugant KT-nox obtained nicotine degradation ability and yielded an equimolar amount of pseudooxynicotine, while DH-nox did not. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that the nox gene is expressed in both DH5? and KT2440, suggesting that additional factors required for nicotine degradation are present in a Pseudomonas strain(s), but not in E. coli. The mutant of strain HZN6 with nox disrupted lost the ability to degrade nicotine, but not pseudooxynicotine. These results suggested that the nox gene is responsible for the first step of nicotine degradation. The (RS)-nicotine degradation results showed that the two enantiomers were degraded at approximately the same rate, indicating that NOX does not show chiral selectivity. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that both the conserved flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding GXGXXG motif and His456 are essential for nicotine degradation activity. PMID:23335761

  14. fbfB, a Gene Encoding a Putative Galactose Oxidase, Is Involved in Stigmatella aurantiaca Fruiting Body Formation

    PubMed Central

    Silakowski, Barbara; Ehret, Heidi; Schairer, Hans Ulrich

    1998-01-01

    Stigmatella aurantiaca is a gram-negative bacterium which forms, under conditions of starvation in a multicellular process, characteristic three-dimensional structures: the fruiting bodies. For studying this complex process, mutants impaired in fruiting body formation have been induced by transposon insertion with a Tn5-derived transposon. The gene affected (fbfB) in one of the mutants (AP182) was studied further. Inactivation of fbfB results in mutants which form only clumps during starvation instead of wild-type fruiting bodies. This mutant phenotype can be partially rescued, if cells of mutants impaired in fbfB function are mixed with those of some independent mutants defective in fruiting before starvation. The fbfB gene is expressed about 14 h after induction of fruiting body formation as determined by measuring ?-galactosidase activity in a merodiploid strain harboring the wild-type gene and an fbfB-?trp-lacZ fusion gene or by Northern (RNA) analysis with the Rhodobacter capsulatus pufBA fragment fused to fbfB as an indicator. The predicted polypeptide FbfB has a molecular mass of 57.8 kDa and shows a significant homology to the galactose oxidase (GaoA) of the fungus Dactylium dendroides. Galactose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of galactose and primary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes. PMID:9495764

  15. Systematic screening of lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) family genes demonstrates that LOXL2 is a susceptibility gene to intracranial aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Akagawa; Akira Narita; Haruhiko Yamada; Atsushi Tajima; Boris Krischek; Hidetoshi Kasuya; Tomokatsu Hori; Motoo Kubota; Naokatsu Saeki; Akira Hata; Tohru Mizutani; Ituro Inoue

    2007-01-01

    Four lysyl oxidase family genes (LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4), which catalyze cross-linking of collagen and elastin, were considered to be functional candidates for intracranial aneurysms\\u000a (IA) and were extensively screened for genetic susceptibility in Japanese IA patients. Total RNA was isolated from four paired\\u000a ruptured IA and superficial temporal artery (STA) tissue and examined by real-time RT-PCR. The expression

  16. Bilirubin oxidase-like proteins from Podospora anserina: promising thermostable enzymes for application in transformation of plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ning; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Silar, Philippe; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence

    2015-03-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi is a critical step for production of biofuels, and laccases are common ligninolytic enzymes envisioned for ligninolysis. Bilirubin oxidases (BODs)-like are related to laccases, but their roles during lignocellulose degradation have not yet been fully investigated. The two BODs of the ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina were characterized by targeted gene deletions. Enzymatic assay revealed that the bod1(?) and bod2(?) mutants lost partly a thermostable laccase activity. A triple mutant inactivated for bod1, bod2 and mco, a previously investigated multicopper oxidase gene distantly related to laccases, had no thermostable laccase activity. The pattern of fruiting body production in the bod1(?) bod2(?) double mutant was changed. The bod1(?) and bod2(?) mutants were reduced in their ability to grow on ligneous and cellulosic materials. Furthermore, bod1(?) and bod2(?) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and triple mutants were more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among BODs and mco. Overall, the data show that bod1, bod2 and mco code for non-canonical thermostable laccases that participate in the degradation of lignocellulose. Thanks to their thermal stability, these enzymes may be more promising candidate for biotechnological application than canonical laccases. PMID:24947769

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of multiple polyphenol oxidase genes in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polypheol oxidase (PPO, Ec 1.10.31) is a major cause of discoloring in raw dough containing wheat flour. PPO is a ubiquitous enzyme that occurs in the outer layers of wheat kernels. High levels of flour PPO have been associated with dimished end-product color and brightness in a variety of products,...

  18. The polyphenol oxidase gene family in poplar: phylogeny, differential expression and identification of a novel, vacuolar isoform.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lan T; Constabel, C Peter

    2011-10-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are oxidative enzymes that convert monophenols and o-diphenols to o-quinones using molecular oxygen. The quinone products are highly reactive following tissue damage and can interact with cellular constituents and cause oxidative browning and cross-linking. The induction of PPO in some plants as a result of wounding, herbivore attack, or pathogen infection has implicated them in defense. However, PPO-like enzymes that act as specific hydroxylases, for example in lignan and pigment biosynthesis, have also been discovered. Here, we present the first genome-enabled analysis of a PPO gene family. The Populus trichocarpa genome was found to contain a minimum of nine complete PPO genes, and seven of these were characterized further. The PPO gene family includes both recently duplicated and divergent sequences that are 36-98% identical at the amino acid level. Gene expression profiling in poplar tissues and organs revealed that the PPO genes are all differentially expressed during normal development, but that only a small subset of PPO genes are significantly upregulated by wounding, methyl jasmonate or pathogen infection. Our studies also identified PtrPPO13, a novel PPO gene that is predicted to encode an N-terminal signal peptide. Transient expression of green fluorescent protein fusions demonstrated its localization to the vacuolar lumen. Together, our findings show that the poplar PPO family is diverse and is likely linked to diverse physiological functions. PMID:21633811

  19. Exploring regulation genes involved in the expression of L-amino acid oxidase in Pseudoalteromonas sp. Rf-1.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiliang; Wang, Ju; Lin, Jianxun; Zhao, Minyan; Qiu, Juanping

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is believed to play important biological and ecological roles in marine niches, thus attracting increasing attention to understand the regulation mechanisms underlying its production. In this study, we investigated genes involved in LAAO production in marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Rf-1 using transposon mutagenesis. Of more than 4,000 mutants screened, 15 mutants showed significant changes in LAAO activity. Desired transposon insertion was confirmed in 12 mutants, in which disrupted genes and corresponding functionswere identified. Analysis of LAAO activity and lao gene expression revealed that GntR family transcriptional regulator, methylase, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, TonB-dependent heme-receptor family, Na+/H+ antiporter and related arsenite permease, N-acetyltransferase GCN5, Ketol-acid reductoisomerase and SAM-dependent methytransferase, and their coding genes may be involved in either upregulation or downregulation pathway at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational and/or posttranslational level. The nhaD and sdmT genes were separately complemented into the corresponding mutants with abolished LAAO-activity. The complementation of either gene can restore LAAO activity and lao gene expression, demonstrating their regulatory role in LAAO biosynthesis. This study provides, for the first time, insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating LAAO production in Pseudoalteromonas sp. Rf-1, which is important to better understand biological and ecological roles of LAAO. PMID:25815733

  20. Isolation of the human peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase gene: organization, promoter analysis, and chromosomal localization.

    PubMed Central

    Varanasi, U; Chu, R; Chu, S; Espinosa, R; LeBeau, M M; Reddy, J K

    1994-01-01

    Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX; EC 1.3.3.6) is the first enzyme of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway, which catalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs, and it donates electrons directly to molecular oxygen, thereby producing H2O2. The discovery of carcinogenic peroxisome proliferators, which markedly increase the levels of this H2O2-producing ACOX in rat and mouse liver, generated interest in peroxisomal beta-oxidation system genes. The present study deals with the structural organization of human ACOX gene. This gene spans approximately 33 kb and consists of 14 exons and 13 introns. Primer-extension analysis revealed three principal cap sites, which were mapped at 50, 52, and 53 nt upstream of the initiator methionine codon. The 5' flanking region of the ACOX gene was sequenced up to 500 bp upstream of the cap sites. This promoter region is G + C-rich and contains three copies of the "GC box" hexanucleotides. Multiple GC boxes are a characteristic feature of the rat ACOX and bifunctional protein genes of the beta-oxidation system. A + T-rich TATA-boxlike sequences, TTTATTT and TTATT, have also been identified in this human ACOX gene, but typical CCAAT motifs are absent. This ACOX gene has been mapped to chromosome 17q25 by in situ hybridization, using a biotinlabeled probe. Images PMID:8159712

  1. Exploring Regulation Genes Involved in the Expression of L-Amino Acid Oxidase in Pseudoalteromonas sp. Rf-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ju; Lin, Jianxun; Zhao, Minyan

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is believed to play important biological and ecological roles in marine niches, thus attracting increasing attention to understand the regulation mechanisms underlying its production. In this study, we investigated genes involved in LAAO production in marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Rf-1 using transposon mutagenesis. Of more than 4,000 mutants screened, 15 mutants showed significant changes in LAAO activity. Desired transposon insertion was confirmed in 12 mutants, in which disrupted genes and corresponding functionswere identified. Analysis of LAAO activity and lao gene expression revealed that GntR family transcriptional regulator, methylase, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, TonB-dependent heme-receptor family, Na+/H+ antiporter and related arsenite permease, N-acetyltransferase GCN5, Ketol-acid reductoisomerase and SAM-dependent methytransferase, and their coding genes may be involved in either upregulation or downregulation pathway at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational and/or posttranslational level. The nhaD and sdmT genes were separately complemented into the corresponding mutants with abolished LAAO-activity. The complementation of either gene can restore LAAO activity and lao gene expression, demonstrating their regulatory role in LAAO biosynthesis. This study provides, for the first time, insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating LAAO production in Pseudoalteromonas sp. Rf-1, which is important to better understand biological and ecological roles of LAAO. PMID:25815733

  2. Mutations in the human SC4MOL gene encoding a methyl sterol oxidase cause psoriasiform dermatitis, microcephaly, and developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    He, Miao; Kratz, Lisa E.; Michel, Joshua J.; Vallejo, Abbe N.; Ferris, Laura; Kelley, Richard I.; Hoover, Jacqueline J.; Jukic, Drazen; Gibson, K. Michael; Wolfe, Lynne A.; Ramachandran, Dhanya; Zwick, Michael E.; Vockley, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Defects in cholesterol synthesis result in a wide variety of symptoms, from neonatal lethality to the relatively mild dysmorphic features and developmental delay found in individuals with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. We report here the identification of mutations in sterol-C4-methyl oxidase–like gene (SC4MOL) as the cause of an autosomal recessive syndrome in a human patient with psoriasiform dermatitis, arthralgias, congenital cataracts, microcephaly, and developmental delay. This gene encodes a sterol-C4-methyl oxidase (SMO), which catalyzes demethylation of C4-methylsterols in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. C4-Methylsterols are meiosis-activating sterols (MASs). They exist at high concentrations in the testis and ovary and play roles in meiosis activation. In this study, we found that an accumulation of MASs in the patient led to cell overproliferation in both skin and blood. SMO deficiency also substantially altered immunocyte phenotype and in vitro function. MASs serve as ligands for liver X receptors ? and ? (LXR? and LXR?), which are important in regulating not only lipid transport in the epidermis, but also innate and adaptive immunity. Deficiency of SMO represents a biochemical defect in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, the clinical spectrum of which remains to be defined. PMID:21285510

  3. High-level expression of the Penicillium notatum glucose oxidase gene in Pichia pastoris using codon optimization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhaowei; Li, Zhuofu; Zhang, Yuhong; Huang, Huoqing; Li, Mu; Zhou, Liwei; Tang, Yunming; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Wei

    2012-03-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) gene from Penicillium notatum was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The 1,815 bp gene, god-w, encodes 604 amino acids. Recombinant GOD-w had optimal activity at 35-40°C and pH 6.2 and was stable, from pH 3 to 7 maintaining >75% maximum activity after incubation at 50°C for 1 h. GOD-w worked as well as commercial GODs to improve bread making. To achieve high-level expression of recombinant GOD in P. pastoris, 272 nucleotides involving 228 residues were mutated, consistent with the codon bias of P. pastoris. The optimized recombinant GOD-m yielded 615 U ml(-1) (2.5 g protein l(-1)) in a 3 l fermentor--410% higher than GOD-w (148 U ml(-1)), and thus is a low-cost alternative for the bread baking industry. PMID:22052258

  4. Knock-down of the COX3 and COX17 gene expression of cytochrome c oxidase in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Remacle; Nadine Coosemans; Frédéric Jans; Marc Hanikenne; Patrick Motte; Pierre Cardol

    2010-01-01

    The COX3 gene encodes a core subunit of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) whereas the COX17 gene encodes a chaperone delivering copper to the enzyme. Mutants of these two genes were isolated by RNA interference in\\u000a the microalga Chlamydomonas. The COX3 mRNA was completely lacking in the cox3-RNAi mutant and no activity and assembly of complex IV were detected.

  5. A novel phylogeny and morphological reconstruction of the PIN genes and first phylogeny of the ACC-oxidases (ACOs)

    PubMed Central

    Clouse, Ronald M.; Carraro, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The PIN and ACO gene families present interesting questions about the evolution of plant physiology, including testing hypotheses about the ecological drivers of their diversification and whether unrelated genes have been recruited for similar functions. The PIN-formed proteins contribute to the polar transport of auxin, a hormone which regulates plant growth and development. PIN loci are categorized into groups according to their protein length and structure, as well as subcellular localization. An interesting question with PIN genes is the nature of the ancestral form and location. ACOs are members of a superfamily of oxygenases and oxidases that catalyze the last step of ethylene synthesis, which regulates many aspects of the plant life cycle. We used publicly available PIN and ACO sequences to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Third codon positions of these genes in monocots have a high GC content, which could be historical but is more likely due to a mutational bias. Thus, we developed methods to extract phylogenetic information from nucleotide sequences while avoiding this convergent feature. One method consisted in using only A-T transformations, and another used only the first and second codon positions for serine, which can only take A or T and G or C, respectively. We also conducted tree-searches for both gene families using unaligned amino acid sequences and dynamic homology. PIN genes appear to have diversified earlier than ACOs, with monocot and dicot copies more mixed in the phylogeny. However, gymnosperm PINs appear to be derived and not closely related to those from primitive plants. We find strong support for a long PIN gene ancestor with short forms subsequently evolving one or more times. ACO genes appear to have diversified mostly since the dicot-monocot split, as most genes cluster into a small number of monocot and dicot clades when the tree is rooted by genes from mosses. Gymnosperm ACOs were recovered as closely related and derived. PMID:25018760

  6. Cloning and expression analysis of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene MFABC1 and the alternative oxidase gene MfAOX1 from Monilinia fructicola.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Guido; Dait, Qun; Paradkar, Manjiri R

    2003-10-01

    Brown rot, caused by Moniliniafructicola (G Wint) Honey, is a serious disease of peach in all commercial peach production areas in the USA, including South Carolina where it has been primarily controlled by pre-harvest application of 14-alpha demethylation (DMI) fungicides for more than 15 years. Recently, the Qo fungicide azoxystrobin was registered for brown rot control and is currently being investigated for its potential as a DMI fungicide rotation partner because of its different mode of action. In an effort to investigate molecular mechanisms of DMI and Qo fungicide resistance in M fructicola, the ABC transporter gene MfABC1 and the alternative oxidase gene MfAOX1 were cloned to study their potential role in conferring fungicide resistance. The MfABC1 gene was 4380 bp in length and contained one intron of 71 bp. The gene revealed high amino acid homologies with atrB from Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Winter, an ABC transporter conferring resistance to many fungicides, including DMI fungicides. MfABC1 gene expression was induced after myclobutanil and propiconazole treatment in isolates with low sensitivity to the same fungicides, and in an isolate with high sensitivity to propiconazole. The results suggest that the MfABC1 gene may be a DMI fungicide resistance determinant in M fructicola. The alternative oxidase gene MfAOX1 from M fructicola was cloned and gene expression was analyzed. The MfAOX1 gene was 1077 bp in length and contained two introns of 54 and 67 bp. The amino acid sequence was 63.8, 63.8 and 57.7% identical to alternative oxidases from Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter, Aspergillus niger van Teighem and A nidulans, respectively. MfAOX1 expression in some but not all M fructicola isolates was induced in mycelia treated with azoxystrobin. Azoxystrobin at 2 microg ml(-1) significantly induced MfAOX1 expression in isolates with low MfAOX1 constitutive expression levels. PMID:14561072

  7. Intragenic deletion in the gene encoding L-gulonolactone oxidase causes vitamin C deficiency in pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lara Hasan; Peter Vögeli; Peter Stoll; Špela Špilar Gerald KramerStranzinger; Stefan Neuenschwander

    2004-01-01

    The absence of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA, or AA) synthesis in scurvy-prone organisms, including humans, other primates, guinea pigs, and flying mammals, was traced to the lack of L-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO) activity. GULO is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the terminal step in the biosynthesis of L-AA. Clinical cases of scurvy were described in a family of Danish pigs. This trait

  8. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene from the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Xiang, Xingwei; Gong, Chengliang; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and their related dual oxidases are known to have significant roles in innate immunity and cell proliferation. In this study, the 5,545 bp cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene containing a full-length open reading frame was cloned. It was shown to include an N-terminal signal peptide consisting of 28 amino acid residues, a 240 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), an 802 bp 3'-terminal region (3'-UTR), which contains nine ATTTA motifs, and a 4,503 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 1,500 amino acid residues. Structural analysis indicated that BmDuox contains a typical peroxidase domain at the N-terminus followed by a calcium-binding domain, a ferric-reducing domain, six transmembrane regions and binding domains for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Transcriptional analysis revealed that BmDuox mRNA was expressed more highly in the head, testis and trachea compared to the midgut, hemocyte, Malpighian tube, ovary, fat bodies and silk glands. BmDuox mRNA was expressed during all the developmental stages of the silkworm. Subcellular localization revealed that BmDoux was present mainly in the periphery of the cells. Some cytoplasmic staining was detected, with rare signals in the nucleus. Expression of BmDuox was induced significantly in the larval midgut upon challenge by Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). BmDuox-deleted larvae showed a marked increase in microbial proliferation in the midgut after ingestion of fluorescence-labeled bacteria compared to the control. We conclude that reducing BmDuox expression greatly increased the bacterial load, suggesting BmDuox has an important role in inhibiting microbial proliferation and the maintenance of homeostasis in the silkworm midgut. PMID:23936382

  9. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Dual Oxidase (BmDuox) Gene from the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Xiang, Xingwei; Gong, Chengliang; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and their related dual oxidases are known to have significant roles in innate immunity and cell proliferation. In this study, the 5,545 bp cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene containing a full-length open reading frame was cloned. It was shown to include an N-terminal signal peptide consisting of 28 amino acid residues, a 240 bp 5?-terminal untranslated region (5?-UTR), an 802 bp 3?-terminal region (3?-UTR), which contains nine ATTTA motifs, and a 4,503 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 1,500 amino acid residues. Structural analysis indicated that BmDuox contains a typical peroxidase domain at the N-terminus followed by a calcium-binding domain, a ferric-reducing domain, six transmembrane regions and binding domains for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Transcriptional analysis revealed that BmDuox mRNA was expressed more highly in the head, testis and trachea compared to the midgut, hemocyte, Malpighian tube, ovary, fat bodies and silk glands. BmDuox mRNA was expressed during all the developmental stages of the silkworm. Subcellular localization revealed that BmDoux was present mainly in the periphery of the cells. Some cytoplasmic staining was detected, with rare signals in the nucleus. Expression of BmDuox was induced significantly in the larval midgut upon challenge by Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). BmDuox-deleted larvae showed a marked increase in microbial proliferation in the midgut after ingestion of fluorescence-labeled bacteria compared to the control. We conclude that reducing BmDuox expression greatly increased the bacterial load, suggesting BmDuox has an important role in inhibiting microbial proliferation and the maintenance of homeostasis in the silkworm midgut. PMID:23936382

  10. Knockdown of the Rhipicephalus microplus Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit III Gene Is Associated with a Failure of Anaplasma marginale Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bifano, Thais D.; Ueti, Massaro W.; Esteves, Eliane; Reif, Kathryn E.; Braz, Glória R. C.; Scoles, Glen A.; Bastos, Reginaldo G.; White, Stephen N.; Daffre, Sirlei

    2014-01-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite of cattle and an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical regions. The primary determinants for A. marginale transmission are infection of the tick gut, followed by infection of salivary glands. Transmission of A. marginale to cattle occurs via infected saliva delivered during tick feeding. Interference in colonization of either the tick gut or salivary glands can affect transmission of A. marginale to naïve animals. In this study, we used the tick embryonic cell line BME26 to identify genes that are modulated in response to A. marginale infection. Suppression-subtractive hybridization libraries (SSH) were constructed, and five up-regulated genes {glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome c oxidase sub III (COXIII), dynein (DYN), synaptobrevin (SYN) and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate 3-phosphatase (PHOS)} were selected as targets for functional in vivo genomic analysis. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to determine the effect of tick gene knockdown on A. marginale acquisition and transmission. Although RNAi consistently knocked down all individually examined tick genes in infected tick guts and salivary glands, only the group of ticks injected with dsCOXIII failed to transmit A. marginale to naïve calves. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that RNAi of a tick gene is associated with a failure of A. marginale transmission. PMID:24878588

  11. Nitric oxide mediated amelioration of arsenic toxicity which alters the alternative oxidase (Aox1) gene expression in Hordeum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, Shalini; Dubey, Pragyan; Singh, Aradhana; Singh, A K

    2015-10-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) as a key molecule in the signal transduction pathway of a biotic stress response has already been described. Recent studies indicate that it also participate in the signaling of abiotic stresses. In the present study, we showed the altered expression of stress responsive gene alternative oxidase (Aox1) in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to arsenic toxicity. Arsenic toxicity decreased the germination percentage, biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoid content whereas, arsenic toxicity enhanced the MDA content and proline content in a dose dependent manner. Other enzyme activities like catalase and superoxide dismutase increased with the increase in concentrations but it fell down at higher concentration of arsenic. Pretreatment of nitric oxide results in the enhanced expression of alternative oxidase which showed the adaptation of alternative pathway during the arsenic stress and it also enhances the growth ability and adaptability towards the arsenic stress. The results support the conclusion that nitric oxide ameliorates the arsenic toxicity not only at the level of antioxidant defense but also by affecting other mechanism of detoxification. PMID:26036416

  12. Identification of a gene essential for protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase activity in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kazushige; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Sano, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Ayumi; Hosaka, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) catalyses the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX during the synthesis of tetrapyrrole molecules. Protox is encoded by the hemY gene in eukaryotes and by the hemG gene in many ?-proteobacteria, including Escherichia coli. It has been suggested that other bacteria possess a yet unidentified type of Protox. To identify a unique bacterial gene encoding Protox, we first introduced the Arabidopsis hemY gene into the genome of the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We subsequently mutagenized the cells by transposon tagging and screened the tagged lines for mutants that were sensitive to acifluorfen, which is a specific inhibitor of the hemY-type Protox. Several cell lines containing the tagged slr1790 locus exhibited acifluorfen sensitivity. The slr1790 gene encodes a putative membrane-spanning protein that is distantly related to the M subunit of NADH dehydrogenase complex I. We attempted to disrupt this gene in the wild-type background of Synechocystis, but we were only able to obtain heteroplasmic disruptants. These cells accumulated a substantial amount of protoporphyrin IX, suggesting that the slr1790 gene is essential for growth and Protox activity of cells. We found that most cyanobacteria and many other bacteria possess slr1790 homologs. We overexpressed an slr1790 homolog of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in Escherichia coli and found that this recombinant protein possesses Protox activity in vitro. These results collectively demonstrate that slr1790 encodes a unique Protox enzyme and we propose naming the slr1790 gene “hemJ.” PMID:20823222

  13. AROMA VOLATILE EMISSION AND EXPRESSION OF 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE (ACC) SYNTHASE AND ACC OXIDASE GENES IN PEARS TREATED WITH 2,4-DP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-propionic acid (2,4-DP) on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and oxidase gene expression by ‘La France’ and aroma production by ‘Bartlett’ pears (Pyrus communis L.) were investigated. In non-stored, non-treated ‘LaFrance’ fruit, the ...

  14. Increase in Anthraquinone Content in Rubia cordifolia Cells Transformed by rol Genes Does Not Involve Activation of the NADPH Oxidase Signaling Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Bulgakov; G. K. Tchernoded; N. P. Mischenko; Yu. N. Shkryl; V. P. Glazunov; S. A. Fedoreyev; Yu. N. Zhuravlev

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that rol plant oncogenes located in Ri-plasmids of Agrobacterium rhizogenes activated synthesis of secondary metabolites in the transformed plant cells. The activator mechanism is still unknown. In this work, we studied whether the NADPH oxidase-signaling pathway, which regulates the synthesis of defense metabolites in plants, is involved in the activator function of the rol genes. It

  15. NEW RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS IN THE CYTOCHROME OXIDASE I GENE FACILITATE HOST STRAIN IDENTIFICATION OF FALL ARMYWORM (LEPIDOPTERA:NOCTUIDAE) POPULATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several restriction sites in the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were identified by sequence analysis as potentially being specific to one of the two host strains. Strain-specificity was demonstrated for populations in Florida, Texas, Mississippi, Geo...

  16. Expression and fate of the nuclearly encoded subunits of cytochrome- c oxidase in cultured human cells depleted of mitochondrial gene products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo G. J. Nijtmans; Johannes N. Spelbrink; Mieke J. M. Van Galen; Mark Zwaan; Petr Klement; Coby Van den Bogert

    1995-01-01

    Synthesis, import, assembly and turnover of the nuclearly encoded subunits of cytochrome-c oxidase were investigated in cultured human cells depleted of mitochondrial gene products by continuous inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis (OP? cells). Immunoprecipitation after pulse labeling demonstrated that the synthesis of the nuclear subunits was not preferentially inhibited, implying that there is no tight regulation in the synthesis of

  17. X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease: Mutations in the CYBB Gene Encoding the gp91- phox Component of Respiratory-Burst Oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Rae; Peter E. Newburger; Mary C. Dinauer; Deborah Noack; Penelope J. Hopkins; Ryoko Kuruto; John T. Curnutte

    1998-01-01

    Summary Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a hereditary disorder of host defense due to absent or decreased ac- tivity of phagocyte NADPH oxidase. The X-linked form of the disease derives from defects in the CYBB gene, which encodes the 91-kD glycoprotein component (termed \\

  18. THE ISOAMYL OXIDASE GENE IN PENICILLIUM GRISEOFULVUM IS PART OF THE PATULIN BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes for the patulin biosynthetic pathway are likely to be arranged in a cluster, as is the case for other mycotoxins. GeneWalking was performed to identify genes both upstream and downstream of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene in Penicillium griseofulvum NRRL 2159A. A gene with high sequ...

  19. Reduced polyphenol oxidase gene expression and enzymatic browning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with artificial microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), often encoded by a multi-gene family, causes oxidative browning, a significant problem in many food products. Low-browning potatoes were produced previously through suppression of PPO gene expression, but the contribution of individual PPO gene isoform to the oxidative browning process was unknown. Here we investigated the contributions of different PPO genes to total PPO protein activity, and the correlations between PPO protein level, PPO activity and tuber tissue browning potential by suppression of all previously characterized potato PPO genes, both individually and in combination using artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) technology. Results Survey of the potato genome database revealed 9 PPO-like gene models, named StuPPO1 to StuPPO9 in this report. StuPPO1, StuPPO2, StuPPO3 and StuPPO4 are allelic to the characterized POTP1/P2, POT32, POT33 and POT72, respectively. Fewer ESTs were found to support the transcriptions of StuPPO5 to StuPPO8. StuPPO9 related ESTs were expressed at significant higher levels in pathogen-infected potato tissues. A series of browning phenotypes were obtained by suppressing StuPPO1 to StuPPO4 genes alone and in combination. Down-regulation of one or several of the PPO genes did not usually cause up-regulation of the other PPO genes in the transgenic potato tubers, but resulted in reduced PPO protein levels. The different PPO genes did not contribute equally to the total PPO protein content in the tuber tissues, with StuPPO2 accounting for ~ 55% as the major contributor, followed by StuPPO1, ~ 25-30% and StuPPO3 and StuPPO4 together with less than 15%. Strongly positive correlations between PPO protein level, PPO activity and browning potential were demonstrated in our analysis. Low PPO activity and low-browning potatoes were produced by simultaneous down-regulation of StuPPO2 to StuPPO4, but the greatest reduction occurred when StuPPO1 to StuPPO4 were all suppressed. Conclusion StuPPO1 to StuPPO4 genes contributed to browning reactions in tuber tissues but their effect was not equal. Different PPO genes may be regulated independently reflecting their diversified functions. Our results show that amiRNAs can be used to suppress closely related members of highly conserved multi-gene family. This approach also suggests a new strategy for breeding low-browning crops using small DNA inserts. PMID:24618103

  20. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the polyamine oxidase gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-25

    Polyamine oxidases (PAOs) are FAD-dependent enzymes associated with polyamine catabolism. In plants, increasing evidences support that PAO genes play essential roles in abiotic and biotic stresses response. In this study, six putative PAO genes (CsPAO1-CsPAO6) were unraveled in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) using the released citrus genome sequences. A total of 203 putative cis-regulatory elements involved in hormone and stress response were predicted in 1.5-kb promoter regions at the upstream of CsPAOs. The CsPAOs can be divided into four major groups, with similar organizations with their counterparts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcripts of CsPAOs were detected in leaf, stem, cotyledon, and root, with the highest levels detected in the roots. The CsPAOs displayed various responses to exogenous treatments with polyamines and ABA and were differentially altered by abiotic stresses, including cold, salt, and mannitol. Overexpression of CsPAO3 in tobacco demonstrated that spermidine and spermine were decreased in the transgenic line, while putrescine was significantly enhanced, implying a potential role of this gene in polyamine back conversion. These data provide valuable knowledge for understanding the roles of the PAO genes in the future. PMID:25445392

  1. Molecular Characterization of Fire Ants, Solenopsis spp., from Brazil Based on Analysis of mtDNA Gene Cytochrome Oxidase I

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Cintia; de Souza, Rodrigo Fernando; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2014-01-01

    Species from the Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species group are native to South America and have a cosmopolitan distribution because they have been accidentally introduced in many countries around the world. In Brazil, they have a wide distribution, including urban areas. The present study was conducted to investigate the characterization of Solenopsis genus populations associated with urban/human interference sites in Brazil by analyzing the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I and estimating the degree of relatedness of these populations to make inferences about their phylogeny and also observe the patterns of mitochondrial haplotype (mitotype) distribution across their range. The results revealed complete geographical coherence and polyphyly for the Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis saevissima species groups, which confirms the diversity of the genera. It also suggests the possibility that reproductively-isolated populations occur, resulting in the evolutionary process of speciation. No predominant haplotype was found in the populations analyzed, but some were more prevalent. PMID:25373197

  2. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on alternative pathway respiration and induction of alternative oxidase gene expression in rice suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Man; Ma, Jun; Li, Hongyu; Jin, Han; Feng, Hanqing

    2010-01-01

    The toxic effects of H2S on plants are well documented. However, the molecular mechanisms reponsible for inhibition of plants by H2S are still not completely understood. We determined the effects of NaHS in the range of 0.5-10 mM on the growth of rice suspension culture cells, as well as on the expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX) gene. AOX is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway (AP) and exists in plant mitochondria. The results showed that H2S treatment enhanced the AP activity. During the process of H2S treatment for 4 h, the AP activity increased dramatically and achieved the peak value at a concentration of 2 mM NaHS. Then it declined at higher concentrations of NaHS (5-10 mM) and maintained a steady level. The AOX1 gene transcript level also showed a similar change as the AP activity. Interestingly, different NaHS concentrations seemed to have different effects on the expression of AOX1a, AOX1b, and AOX1c. The induction of AOX expression by low concentrations of NaHS was inferred through a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent pathway. At the same time, rice cells grown in culture were very sensitive to H2S, different H2S concentrations induced an increase in the cell viability. These results indicate that the H2S-induced AOX induction might play a role in inhibiting the ROS production and have an influence on cell viability. PMID:20737915

  3. Over-expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene from Phaseolus coccineus L. enhances gibberellin inactivation and induces dwarfism in Solanum species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Dijkstra; E. Adams; A. Bhattacharya; A. F. Page; P. Anthony; S. Kourmpetli; J. B. Power; K. C. Lowe; S. G. Thomas; P. Hedden; A. L. Phillips; M. R. Davey

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play a predominant role in regulating plant stature by increasing cell division\\u000a and elongation in stem internodes. The product of the GA 2-oxidase gene from Phaseolus coccineus (PcGA2ox1) inactivates C19-GAs, including the bioactive GAs GA1 and GA4, by 2?-hydroxylation, reducing the availability of these GAs in plants. The PcGA2ox1 gene was introduced into Solanum

  4. Study of a possible role of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene in paranoid schizophrenia among a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhui; Zhang, Jiexu; Yuan, Yanbo; Yu, Xin; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is the enzyme responsible for degradation of several monoamines, such as dopamine and serotonin that are considered as being two of the most important neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To study a possible role of the MAOA gene in conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia, the present study genotyped the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and 41 SNPs across this gene among 555 unrelated patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 567 unrelated healthy controls. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to quantify expression of MAOA mRNA in 73 drug-free patients. While none of these genotyped DNA markers showed allelic association with paranoid schizophrenia, haplotypic association was found for the VNTR-rs6323, VNTR-rs1137070, and VNTR-rs6323-rs1137070 haplotypes in female subjects. Nevertheless, no significant change of the expression of MAOA mRNA was detected in either female or male patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Our study suggests that the interaction between genetic variants within the MAOA gene may contribute to an increased risk of paranoid schizophrenia, but the precise mechanism needs further investigation. PMID:22162429

  5. Activation Tagging of a Dominant Gibberellin Catabolism Gene (GA 2-oxidase) from Poplar That Regulates Tree Stature1

    PubMed Central

    Busov, Victor B.; Meilan, Richard; Pearce, David W.; Ma, Caiping; Rood, Stewart B.; Strauss, Steven H.

    2003-01-01

    We identified a dwarf transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) after screening of 627 independent activation-tagged transgenic lines in tissue culture, greenhouse, and field environments. The cause of the phenotype was a hyperactivated gene encoding GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox), the major gibberellin (GA) catabolic enzyme in plants. The mutation resulted from insertion of a strong transcriptional enhancer near the transcription start site. Overexpression of the poplar GA2ox gene (PtaGA2ox1) caused hyperaccumulation of mRNA transcripts, quantitative shifts in the spectrum of GAs, and similarity in phenotype to transgenic poplars that overexpress a bean (Phaseolus coccineus) GA2ox gene. The poplar PtaGA2ox1 sequence was most closely related to PsGA2ox2 from pea (Pisum sativum) and two poorly known GA2oxs from Arabidopsis (AtGA2ox4 and AtGA2ox5). The dwarf phenotype was reversible through gibberellic acid application to the shoot apex. Transgenic approaches to producing semidwarf trees for use in arboriculture, horticulture, and forestry could have significant economic and environmental benefits, including altered fiber and fruit production, greater ease of management, and reduced risk of spread in wild populations. PMID:12857810

  6. The yeast multicopper oxidase Fet3p and the iron permease Ftr1p physically interact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Carmela Bonaccorsi di Patti; Rossella Miele; M. Eugenia Schininà; Donatella Barra

    2005-01-01

    High affinity iron uptake in yeast is carried out by a multicomponent system formed by the ferroxidase Fet3p and the iron permease Ftr1p. The currently accepted model predicts that Fet3p and Ftr1p are functionally associated, however, a structural interaction between these two proteins has not been proven yet. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has been used to perform cross-linking studies

  7. Primary structure of a Japanese lacquer tree laccase as a prototype enzyme of multicopper oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazutomo Nitta; Kunishige Kataoka; Takeshi Sakurai

    2002-01-01

    The cDNA library of the Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera) was constructed by the reverse transcription of mRNA. A cDNA encoding laccase was amplified by PCR using primers based on the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified laccase and its peptide fragments formed by digestions with chymotrypsin and trypsin, and subcloned. The laccase cDNA clone contained a single, large

  8. Involvement of the NADH oxidase-encoding noxA gene in oxidative stress responses in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Younhee; Lee, Heung-Shick

    2015-02-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum ORF NCgl0328, designated noxA, encodes an NADH oxidase enzyme. The noxA gene, which was preferentially expressed in the log growth phase, was found to be under the control of the whcA, whcB, and whcE genes, which play regulatory roles in cells under oxidative stress. While noxA transcription was minimal in whcE-deleted mutant cells (?whcE) during growth, its transcription was maximal even in the stationary phase in ?whcA cells. The transcription levels of noxA in ?whcB and whcB-overexpressing cells were comparable to the levels only in the log growth phase in ?whcA and whcA-overexpressing cells, respectively. Direct binding of purified WhcA to the promoter region of noxA was observed in vitro. The DNA-protein interaction was only possible in the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. A noxA-deleted mutant strain and a strain overexpressing the noxA gene (P180-noxA) were established, and these strains were found to exhibit defective cell growth. The ?noxA and P180-noxA strains were sensitive to the redox-cycling oxidant menadione, suggesting a role of noxA in redox balancing. Accordingly, the purified NoxA enzyme exhibited NADH-oxidizing activity. Taken together, these data show that noxA plays a role in oxidative stress responses and also that the gene is under direct control of the WhcA protein, which was shown to be a regulatory DNA-binding protein. Furthermore, the involvement and roles of the whcA, whcB, and whcE genes in regulating the expression of noxA were demonstrated. PMID:25549620

  9. Effects of Interaction Between Dopamine D2 Receptor and Monoamine Oxidase A Genes on Smoking Status in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Ling; Ou, Wei-Chih; Chen, Pei-Lain; Liu, Chen-Nu; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lu, Chia-Chen; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Min-Hsuan; Huang, Ching-Shan

    2015-07-01

    Although the effect of gene-gene interaction on nicotine-dopamine metabolism for smoking behavior has been reported, polymorphisms of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) have not been simultaneously examined among smokers. In this study, 481 young Taiwanese men completed a self-report questionnaire on smoking status, and data were obtained on polymorphisms of DRD2 rs1800497, DRD2 rs1079597, MAOA rs309850, and MAOA rs1137070, urinary nicotine, and urinary cotinine. In a comparison of 261 current smokers and 220 never smokers, odds ratios (ORs) for the development of smoking in all genotypes were not statistically significant. Among smokers with DRD2 rs1079597 GG//MAOA rs309850 3-repeat, the OR of heavier smoking was 2.67 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.08, 6.59], p = .031) and the score on the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence was higher (4.26 vs. 2.83) than in those with DRD2 rs1079597 AA//MAOA rs309850 3-repeat. Adjusted urinary cotinine concentration was significantly different between those two groups (median value: 95.83 ng/?l vs. 133.24 ng/?l, respectively, p = .045). These findings suggest that the interaction of DRD2 rs1079597 and MAOA rs309850 3-repeat affects smoking intensity in young Taiwanese men. PMID:26015071

  10. [Nucleotide variation in the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in the Siberian sucker (Catostomus catostomus rostratus) from Kolyma River].

    PubMed

    Bachevskaja, L T; Pereverzeva, V V; Ivanova, G D; Agapova, G A

    2014-10-01

    This study presents the data of the first molecular genetic analysis of the Siberian sucker from Kolyma River. Polymorphism of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase 1 gene was established. Comparative sequence analysis of the gene examined and the GenBank variants characterizing suckers from the rivers of Canada enabled the suggestion that the sucker penetrated to Asia from North America approximately at the end of Early and the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene. It was demonstrated that intrapopulation genetic variation in the Siberian sucker accounted for 11.63% of total variation, while the proportion of the intergroup, component (Fst) constituted 88.37%. It seems likely that a considerable proportion of intergroup variation was caused by the long period of isolation of the Siberian sucker in Kolyma River. The prevalence of one common haplotype, CH-COI 1, in the sample examined indicates that the founder effect played an importaht role in the history of the formation of the Kolyma population. PMID:25720253

  11. Diversity and abundance of the arsenite oxidase gene aioA in geothermal areas of Tengchong, Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Bing; Wang, Yanxin; Guo, Qinghai

    2014-01-01

    A total of 12 samples were collected from the Tengchong geothermal areas of Yunnan, China, with the goal to assess the arsenite (AsIII) oxidation potential of the extant microbial communities as inferred by the abundance and diversity of the AsIII oxidase large subunit gene aioA relative to geochemical context. Arsenic concentrations were higher (on average 251.68 ?g/L) in neutral or alkaline springs than in acidic springs (on average 30.88 ?g/L). aioA abundance ranged from 1.63 × 10(1) to 7.08 × 10(3) per ng of DNA and positively correlated with sulfide and the ratios of arsenate (AsV):total dissolved arsenic (AsTot). Based on qPCR estimates of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundance, aioA-harboring organisms comprised as much as ~15% of the total community. Phylogenetically, the major aioA sequences (270 total) in the acidic hot springs (pH 3.3-4.4) were affiliated with Aquificales and Rhizobiales, while those in neutral or alkaline springs (pH 6.6-9.1) were inferred to be primarily bacteria related to Thermales and Burkholderiales. Interestingly, aioA abundance at one site greatly exceeded bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance, suggesting these aioA genes were archaeal even though phylogenetically these aioA sequences were most similar to the Aquificales. In summary, this study described novel aioA sequences in geothermal features geographically far removed from those in the heavily studied Yellowstone geothermal complex. PMID:24292445

  12. Central nervous system, uterus, heart, and leukocyte expression of the LOXL3 gene, encoding a novel lysyl oxidase-like protein.

    PubMed

    Jourdan-Le Saux, C; Tomsche, A; Ujfalusi, A; Jia, L; Csiszar, K

    2001-06-01

    A BLASTN search using the mouse lor-2 cDNA identified three overlapping ESTs (AI752772, AA852888, and R55706) in the GenBank database. These expressed sequence tags were assembled into a contig of 3121 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 2262 bp. The encoded putative polypeptide of 754 amino acids presented all structural characteristics of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme family, a copper-binding site with four histidyl residues, the lysyl and tyrosyl residues known to be involved in LOX enzyme in the formation of the quinone cofactor and surrounding sequences, and the cytokine receptor-like domain. In addition, four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains were found in the N-terminal region of the protein. The gene encoding this new cDNA, which we have referred to as human lysyl oxidase-like 3 (humanLOXL3), has been mapped to chromosome 2p13.3, overlapping at its 3' end the HtrA2 serine protease gene. The structure of the humanLOXL3 gene was deduced from the BAC clone bac91a19 sequence and contained 14 exons. The expression pattern of this new member of the LOX gene family appears to be different from that of the LOX and LOX-like genes, as the central nervous system, neurons, and also leukocytes expressed humanLOXL3. A BLASTN search of the human EST database indicated the presence of ESTs, corresponding to alternative splice variants of LOXL3, that lacked exon 5 and exon 8. The putative resulting protein retained the region encoding the structural and functional elements of the amine oxidase but the second and fourth SRCR domains were truncated and the potential BMP-1 cleavage site was not present. The presence of domains unrelated to the traditional amine oxidase activity is a strong indication that humanLOXL3 might fulfill other functions in addition to intrinsic enzyme activity. PMID:11386757

  13. Constitutive expression of a fungal glucose oxidase gene in transgenic tobacco confers chilling tolerance through the activation of antioxidative defence system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subbiyan Maruthasalam; Yi Lun Liu; Ching Mei Sun; Pei Ying Chen; Chih Wen Yu; Pei Fang Lee; Chin Ho Lin

    2010-01-01

    Scientific evidences in the literature have shown that plants treated exogenously with micromole concentration of hydrogen\\u000a peroxide (H2O2) acquire abiotic stress tolerance potential, without substantial disturbances in the endogenous H2O2 pool. In this study, we enhanced the endogenous H2O2 content of tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L. cv. SR1) plants by the constitutive expression of a glucose oxidase (GO; EC 1.1.3.4) gene

  14. A TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase subunit II gene for detection of several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Xu; J. T. Tambong

    2011-01-01

    The identification and detection of eight pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae, bacterial pathogens of several important agricultural plants, was achieved by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction of a specific DNA fragment of the cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase gene. Under optimal real-time PCR conditions, the selected primers and probe were specific for the detection of pathovars syringae, tomato, maculicola, tabaci, atropurpurea, phaseolicola,

  15. A novel human lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL4) on chromosome 10q24 has an altered scavenger receptor cysteine rich domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Asuncion; B. Fogelgren; K. S. K. Fong; S. F. T. Fong; Y. Kim; K. Csiszar

    2001-01-01

    We have identified a novel 14-exon human lysyl oxidase-like gene, LOXL4, on chromosome 10q24. The cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of LOXL4 demonstrates a conserved C-terminal region including the characteristic copper-binding site, lysyl and tyrosyl residues and a cytokine receptor-like domain. One of the four N-terminal SRCR domains contains a 13 amino acid insertion encoded by a short exon

  16. Differential Functional Variability of Serotonin Transporter and Monoamine Oxidase A Genes in Macaque Species Displaying Contrasting Levels of Aggression-Related Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens R. Wendland; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Timothy K. Newman; Angelika Timme; Hélène Gachot-Neveu; Bernard Thierry; Stephen J. Suomi

    2006-01-01

    Functional allelic variation in the transcriptional control region of the serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A genes\\u000a has been associated with anxiety- and aggression-related behavior in humans and, more recently, in nonhuman primates. Here,\\u000a we have genotyped these polymorphic regions in seven species of the genus Macaca. Macaques exhibit exceptional inter-species variation in aggression-related social behavior as illustrated by recent

  17. Pear ACO genes encoding putative 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homologs are functionally expressed during fruit ripening and involved in response to salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2012-10-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase catalyzes the final reaction of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, converting ACC into ethylene. Past studies have shown a possible link between ACC oxidase and salicylic acid during fruit ripening in pear, but the relationship has received no more than modest study at the gene expression level. In this study, two cDNA clones encoding putative ACC oxidase, PpACO1 and PpACO2, were isolated from a cDNA library constructed by our own laboratory and produced using mRNA from mesocarp of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai. cv.Whangkeumbae). One cDNA clone, designated PpACO1 (GenBank accession No. JN807390), comprised an open reading frame of 945 bp encoding a protein of 314 amino acids. The other cDNA, designated PpACO2 (GenBank accession No. JN807392), encodes a protein with 322 amino acids that shares high similarity with the known plant ACOs. Using PCR amplification techniques, two genomic clones corresponding to PpACO1 and PpACO2 were isolated and shown to contain independently three introns with typical GT/AG boundaries defining the splice junctions. The PpACO1 gene product shared 99 % identity with an ACC oxidase from pear (Pyrus × bretschneideri Rehd.cv.Yali), and phylogenetic analyses clearly placed the gene product in the ACC oxidase cluster of the pear 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily tree. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the two PpACO genes are differentially expressed in pear tissues. PpACO1 and PpACO2 were predominantly expressed in fruit. The transcripts of PpACO1 were accumulated at relatively low levels in early fruit, but strongly high levels in fruit ripening and senescence stages, while the transcripts of PpACO2 were accumulated at higher levels in early fruit and much lower levels with further fruit cell development than the transcripts of PpACO1. In addition, PpACO1 gene was down-regulated in fruit by salicylic acid (SA). Nevertheless, PpACO2 gene was dramatically up-regulated in fruit by SA. These results suggested that the PpACOs may participate in regulation of fruit ripening and in response to SA in pear. PMID:22711312

  18. Identification of forensically important flesh flies based on a shorter fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y D; Cai, J F; Meng, F M; Chang, Y F; Gu, Y; Lan, L M; Liang, L; Wen, J F

    2012-09-01

    With the development of molecular identification, there has been a great deal of discussion about the feature of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments. Although longer fragments may minimize stochastic variation across taxa and be more likely to reflect broader patterns of nucleotide divergence, shorter fragments have many advantages, such as quick, easy and economical. Extensive application of long mtDNA segments for species identification cannot always be achieved as a result of constraints in time and money. In the present study, a molecular identification method involving the sequencing of a 272-bp 'barcode' fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 55 specimens, representing 7 Chinese sarcophagid species from varying populations, was evaluated. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced segments showed that all sarcophagid specimens were properly assigned into seven species, which indicated the possibility of separation congeneric species with the short fragments. The results of this research will be instrumental for the implementation of the Chinese Sarcophagidae database. PMID:22150605

  19. Population genetic structure of Gasterophilus pecorum in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Zhang, D; Hu, D; Chu, H; Cao, J; Ente, M; Jiang, G; Li, K

    2014-08-01

    Gasterophilosis is a significant threat to equids in the desert steppe of Xinjiang, China, where Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) is the dominant botfly species. A population analysis was conducted on 195 individual G.?pecorum larvae from three host species, Przewalski's horse, the domestic horse and the Asiatic wild ass. The distribution of haplotypes of the maternally inherited mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was analysed to assess the population differentiation of G.?pecorum. High haplotype diversity was observed among G.?pecorum populations from all host species, indicating that the G.?pecorum infecting one host had multiple maternal ancestors. A phylogenetic tree showed six clades, suggesting a high degree of genetic differentiation. A constructed haplotype network described both the origin of the haplotypes and the population structure. The findings indicated that G.?pecorum infections within Przewalski's horses were mainly transmitted from Asiatic wild asses. Clade 1 was found to be the most primitive group and to have evolved to be highly adaptable to the desert steppe. Clade 2 originated from Clade 1, potentially as a result of the annual migration of domestic horses. Revealing the differentiation of the G.?pecorum population is important for elucidating the aetiology of Gasterophilus infection in Xinjiang and for planning appropriate control measures. PMID:25171609

  20. Lack of association of lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene polymorphisms with intracranial aneurysm in a south Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sathyan, Sanish; Koshy, Linda; Sarada Lekshmi, K R; Easwer, H V; Premkumar, S; Alapatt, Jacob P; Nair, Suresh; Bhattacharya, R N; Banerjee, Moinak

    2013-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysm (IA) accounts for 85 % of haemorrhagic stroke and is mainly caused due to weakening of arterial wall. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a cuproenzyme involved in cross linking structural proteins collagen and elastin, thus providing structural stability to artery. Using a case-control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether the variants in LOX gene flanking the two LD block, can increase risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. SNPs were genotyped by fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR (KASPar) chemistry. We selected 200 radiologically confirmed aneurysmal cases and 235 ethnically and age and gender matched controls from the Dravidian Malayalam speaking population of South India. We observed marked interethnic differences in the genotype distribution of LOX variants when compared to Japanese and African populations. However, there was no significant association with any of the LOX variants with IA. This study also could not observe any significant role of LOX polymorphisms in influencing IA either directly or indirectly through its confounding factors such as hypertension and gender in South Indian population. PMID:24065528

  1. The choline oxidase gene codA confers salt tolerance to transgenic Eucalyptus globulus in a semi-confined condition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Kikuchi, Akira; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Nanto, Kazuya; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimada, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Kazuo N

    2013-06-01

    The performance of tree species is influenced by environmental factors and growth stages. To evaluate the practical performance of transgenic tree species, it is insufficient to grow small, young trees under controlled conditions, such as in a growth chamber. Three transgenic Eucalyptus globulus lines, carrying the choline oxidase gene, were investigated for their salt tolerance and expression of the transgene at the young plantlet stage in a special netted-house. To clarify the characteristics at the young as well during the later stages, salt tolerance and the properties of the transgenic lines at large juvenile and adult stages were evaluated in the special netted-house. All transgenic lines showed high glycinebetaine content, particularly in young leaves. Trees of the transgenic line 107-1 showed low damage because of salinity stress based on the results from the chlorophyll analysis and malondialdehyde content, and they survived the high-salt-shock treatment at the large juvenile and adult stages. Only this line showed salt tolerance at all stages in the special netted-house. In this evaluation in the special netted-house, the tolerant line among young plantlets might perform better at all stages. Since evaluation in these special netted-house mimics field evaluation, line 107-1 is a potential tolerant line. PMID:22752644

  2. Variation in the Lysyl Oxidase (LOX) Gene Is Associated with Keratoconus in Family-Based and Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Li, Xiaohui; Epifantseva, Irina; Haritunians, Talin; Siscovick, David; Aldave, Anthony; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rabinowitz, Yaron S

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Keratoconus is a bilateral noninflammatory progressive corneal disorder with complex genetic inheritance and a common cause for cornea transplantation in young adults. A genomewide linkage scan in keratoconus families identified a locus at 5q23.2, overlapping the gene coding for the lysyl oxidase (LOX). LOX encodes an enzyme responsible for collagen cross-linking in a variety of tissues including the cornea. Corneal collagen cross-linking with long-wave ultraviolet light and riboflavin is a promising new treatment for keratoconus. To determine whether LOX is a genetic determinant of the pathogenesis of keratoconus, we analyzed association results of LOX polymorphisms in two independent case-control samples and in keratoconus families. Methods. Association results were analyzed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LOX gene from a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) investigation in two independent panels of patients with keratoconus and controls and in keratoconus families. Results. Evidence of association was found at SNPs rs10519694 and rs2956540 located in intron 4 of LOX in the GWAS discovery case-control panel with P values of 2.3 × 10?3 and 7 × 10?3, respectively. The same two SNPs were found to be associated with keratoconus by family-based association testing with P values of 2.7 × 10?3 and 7.7 × 10?4, respectively. Meta P values of 4.0 × 10?5 and 4.0 × 10?7 were calculated for SNPs rs10519694 and rs2956540 by analyzing case-control and family samples simultaneously. Sequencing of LOX exons in a subset of keratoconus patients identified two polymorphisms, rs1800449 and rs2288393, located in LOX transcripts I and II, associated with keratoconus in case-control and family samples with a meta P value of 0.02. Conclusions. Results provided strong genetic evidence that LOX variants lead to increased susceptibility to developing of keratoconus. PMID:22661479

  3. Monoamine oxidase-A is a major target gene for glucocorticoids in human skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irini Manoli; Hanh Le; Salvatore Alesci; Kimberly K. McFann; Yan A. Su; Tomoshige Kino; George P. Chrousos; Marc R. Blackman

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal myopathy is a common complication of endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoid excess, yet its pathogenetic mechanisms remain unclear. There is accumulating evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved in this process. To explore the glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional adaptations that may affect mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, we studied gene expression profiles in dexamethasone-treated primary human skeletal myocytes using a

  4. Comparative Expression and Phylogenetic Analysis of Maize Cytokinin Dehydrogenase\\/Oxidase (CKX) Gene Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riliang GuJunjie; Junjie Fu; Song Guo; Fengying Duan; Zhangkui Wang; Guohua Mi; Lixing Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) degrades the cytokinin hormone in plants and plays an important role in cytokinin regulatory\\u000a processes. CKX proteins are encoded by a multigene family with a varying number of members. In this study, 13 maize CKX sequences were collected in which ten transcripts were confirmed by RT-PCR. The tissue- and cytokinin-dependent expression\\u000a studies indicated that ZmCKX genes exhibit

  5. Oxyphil cell metaplasia in the parathyroids is characterized by somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in NADH dehydrogenase genes and cytochrome c oxidase activity-impairing genes.

    PubMed

    Müller-Höcker, Josef; Schäfer, Sabine; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Zsurka, Gábor; Kunz, Wolfram S; Prokisch, Holger; Seibel, Peter; Jung, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Oxyphil cell transformation of epithelial cells due to the accumulation of mitochondria occurs often during cellular aging. To understand the pathogenic mechanisms, we studied mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations in the three cell types of the parathyroids using multiplex real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing. mtDNA was analyzed from cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-positive and COX-negative areas of 19 parathyroids. Mitochondria-rich pre-oxyphil/oxyphil cells were more prone to develop COX defects than the mitochondria-poor clear chief cells (P < 0.001). mtDNA increased approximately 2.5-fold from clear chief to oxyphil cells. In COX deficiency, the increase was even more pronounced, and COX-negative oxyphil cells had approximately two times more mtDNA than COX-positive oxyphil cells (P < 0.001), illustrating the influence of COX deficiency on mtDNA biosynthesis, probably as a consequence of insufficient ATP synthesis. Next-generation sequencing revealed a broad spectrum of putative pathogenic mtDNA point mutations affecting NADH dehydrogenase and COX genes as well as regulatory elements of mtDNA. NADH dehydrogenase gene mutations preferentially accumulated in COX-positive pre-oxyphil/oxyphil cells and, therefore, could be essential for inducing oxyphil cell transformation by increasing mtDNA/mitochondrial biogenesis. In contrast, COX-negative cells predominantly harbored mutations in the MT-CO1 and MT-CO3 genes and in regulatory mtDNA elements, but only rarely NADH dehydrogenase mutations. Thus, multiple hits in NADH dehydrogenase and COX activity-impairing genes represent the molecular basis of oxyphil cell transformation in the parathyroids. PMID:25418474

  6. Potential contribution of monoamine oxidase a gene variants in ADHD and behavioral co-morbidities: scenario in eastern Indian probands.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, A; Maitra, S; Verma, D; Chakraborti, B; Goswami, R; Ghosh, P; Sinha, S; Mohanakumar, K P; Usha, R; Mukhopadhyay, K

    2014-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed behavioral disorder in children with a high frequency of co-morbid conditions like conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). These traits are controlled by neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the degradation of amines, has been reported to be associated with aggression, impulsivity, depression, and mood changes. We hypothesized that MAOA can have a potential role in ADHD associated CD/ODD and analyzed 24 markers in a group of Indo-Caucasoid subjects. ADHD probands and controls (N = 150 each) matched for ethnicity and gender were recruited following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV. Appropriate scales were used for measuring CD and ODD traits. Markers were genotyped by PCR-based methods and data obtained analyzed using the Cocaphase program under UNPHASED. Only eight markers were found to be polymorphic. rs6323 "G" allele showed higher frequencies in ADHD (P = 0.0023), ADHD + CD (P = 0.03) and ADHD + ODD (P = 0.01) as compared to controls. Haplotype analysis revealed statistically significant difference for three haplotypes in ADHD cases (P < 0.02). Statistically significant differences were also noticed for haplotypes in ADHD + CD and ADHD + ODD cases (P < 0.01). LD analysis showed significant variation in different groups. Multidimensionality reduction analysis showed independent as well as interactive effects of markers. Genotypes showed correlation with behavioral problems in ADHD and ADHD + CD. We interpret that MAOA gene variants may contribute to the etiology of ADHD as well as associated co-morbid CD and ODD in this ethnic group. PMID:24652311

  7. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. PMID:24950439

  8. Cloning and expression analysis of the Ccrboh gene encoding respiratory burst oxidase in Citrullus colocynthis and grafting onto Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)

    PubMed Central

    Si, Ying; Dane, Fenny; Rashotte, Aaron; Kang, Kwonkyoo; Singh, Narendra K.

    2010-01-01

    A full-length drought-responsive gene Ccrboh, encoding the respiratory burst oxidase homologue (rboh), was cloned in Citrullus colocynthis, a very drought-tolerant cucurbit species. The robh protein, also named NADPH oxidase, is conserved in plants and animals, and functions in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The Ccrboh gene accumulated in a tissue-specific pattern when C. colocynthis was treated with PEG, abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), or NaCl, while the homologous rboh gene did not show any change in C. lanatus var. lanatus, cultivated watermelon, during drought. Grafting experiments were conducted using C. colocynthis or C. lanatus as the rootstock or scion. Results showed that the rootstock significantly affects gene expression in the scion, and some signals might be transported from the root to the shoot. Ccrboh in C. colocynthis was found to function early during plant development, reaching high mRNA transcript levels 3 d after germination. The subcellular location of Ccrboh was investigated by transient expression of the 35S::Ccrboh::GFP fusion construct in protoplasts. The result confirmed that Ccrboh is a transmembrane protein. Our data suggest that Ccrboh might be functionally important during the acclimation of plants to stress and also in plant development. It holds great promise for improving drought tolerance of other cucurbit species. PMID:20181664

  9. Oxidase Test Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Society For Microbiology

    2010-11-11

    The oxidase test is used to detect the presence of the enzyme cytochrome oxidase in microorganisms.  While used as a taxonomic tool for many microorganisms, the test was established initially to differentiate Neisseria spp. (oxidase positive) from Acinetobacter (oxidase negative) and Pseudomonas spp. (oxidase positive) from the Enterobacteriaceae (oxidase negative).

  10. Systematic screening of lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) family genes demonstrates that LOXL2 is a susceptibility gene to intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Hiroyuki; Narita, Akira; Yamada, Haruhiko; Tajima, Atsushi; Krischek, Boris; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Hori, Tomokatsu; Kubota, Motoo; Saeki, Naokatsu; Hata, Akira; Mizutani, Tohru; Inoue, Ituro

    2007-05-01

    Four lysyl oxidase family genes (LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4), which catalyze cross-linking of collagen and elastin, were considered to be functional candidates for intracranial aneurysms (IA) and were extensively screened for genetic susceptibility in Japanese IA patients. Total RNA was isolated from four paired ruptured IA and superficial temporal artery (STA) tissue and examined by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of LOXL2 in the paired IA and STA tissues was elevated in the IA tissue. A total of 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LOXL1-4 were genotyped for an allelic association study in 402 Japanese IA patients and 462 Japanese non-IA controls. Allelic associations were evaluated with the chi-square test and the permutation test especially designed for adjustment of multiple testing. SNPs of LOXL1 and LOXL4 were not significantly associated with IA, while several SNPs of LOXL2 and LOXL3 showed nominally significant associations in IA patients. We detected an empirically significant association with one SNP of LOXL2 in familial IA patients after adjustment for multiple testing [chi(2) = 10.23, empirical P = 0.023, OR (95% CI) = 1.49 (1.17, 1.90)]. Furthermore, multilocus interaction was evaluated by multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis. We found that the SNPs of LOXL2 have an interactive effect with elastin (ELN) and LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) that have been previously found to be associated with IA. In conclusion, one SNP of LOXL2 showed a significant association with IA individually, and we also detected a gene-gene interaction of LOXL2 with ELN/LIMK1, which may play an important role in susceptibility to IA. PMID:17287949

  11. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Litchi (Litchi Chinensis Sonn.) Polyphenol Oxidase Gene and Relationship with Postharvest Pericarp Browning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiabao; Liu, Baohua; Xiao, Qian; Li, Huanling; Sun, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) plays a key role in the postharvest pericarp browning of litchi fruit, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned the litchi PPO gene (LcPPO, JF926153), and described its expression patterns. The LcPPO cDNA sequence was 2120 bps in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1800 bps. The ORF encoded a polypeptide with 599 amino acid residues, sharing high similarities with other plant PPO. The DNA sequence of the ORF contained a 215-bp intron. After carrying out quantitative RT-PCR, we proved that the LcPPO expression was tissue-specific, exhibiting the highest level in the flower and leaf. In the pericarp of newly-harvested litchi fruits, the LcPPO expression level was relatively high compared with developing fruits. Regardless of the litchi cultivar and treatment conditions, the LcPPO expression level and the PPO activity in pericarp of postharvest fruits exhibited the similar variations. When the fruits were stored at room temperature without packaging, all the pericarp browning index, PPO activity and the LcPPO expression level of litchi pericarps were reaching the highest in Nandaowuhe (the most rapid browning cultivar), but the lowest in Ziniangxi (the slowest browning cultivar) within 2 d postharvest. Preserving the fruits of Feizixiao in 0.2-?m plastic bag at room temperature would decrease the rate of pericarp water loss, delay the pericarp browning, and also cause the reduction of the pericarp PPO activity and LcPPO expression level within 3 d postharvest. In addition, postharvest storage of Feizixiao fruit stored at 4°C delayed the pericarp browning while decreasing the pericarp PPO activity and LcPPO expression level within 2 d after harvest. Thus, we concluded that the up-regulation of LcPPO expression in pericarp at early stage of postharvest storage likely enhanced the PPO activity and further accelerated the postharvest pericarp browning of litchi fruit. PMID:24763257

  12. Evidence for Lateral Transfer of Genes Encoding Ferredoxins, Nitroreductases, NADH Oxidase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 from Anaerobic Prokaryotes to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Julie E. J.; Wang, Amy; Field, Jessica; Morrison, Hilary G.; McArthur, Andrew G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Loftus, Brendan J.; Samuelson, John

    2002-01-01

    Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are amitochondriate, microaerophilic protists which use fermentation enzymes like those of bacteria to survive anaerobic conditions within the intestinal lumen. Genes encoding fermentation enzymes and related electron transport peptides (e.g., ferredoxins) in giardia organisms and amebae are hypothesized to be derived from either an ancient anaerobic eukaryote (amitochondriate fossil hypothesis), a mitochondrial endosymbiont (hydrogen hypothesis), or anaerobic bacteria (lateral transfer hypothesis). The goals here were to complete the molecular characterization of giardial and amebic fermentation enzymes and to determine the origins of the genes encoding them, when possible. A putative giardia [2Fe-2S]ferredoxin which had a hypothetical organelle-targeting sequence at its N terminus showed similarity to mitochondrial ferredoxins and the hydrogenosomal ferredoxin of Trichomonas vaginalis (another luminal protist). However, phylogenetic trees were star shaped, with weak bootstrap support, so we were unable to confirm or rule out the endosymbiotic origin of the giardia [2Fe-2S]ferredoxin gene. Putative giardial and amebic 6-kDa ferredoxins, ferredoxin-nitroreductase fusion proteins, and oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases each tentatively supported the lateral transfer hypothesis. Although there were not enough sequences to perform meaningful phylogenetic analyses, the unique common occurrence of these peptides and enzymes in giardia organisms, amebae, and the few anaerobic prokaryotes suggests the possibility of lateral transfer. In contrast, there was more robust phylogenetic evidence for the lateral transfer of G. lamblia genes encoding an NADH oxidase from a gram-positive coccus and a microbial group 3 alcohol dehydrogenase from thermoanaerobic prokaryotes. In further support of lateral transfer, the G. lamblia NADH oxidase and adh3 genes appeared to have an evolutionary history distinct from those of E. histolytica. PMID:12455953

  13. A novel human lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL4) on chromosome 10q24 has an altered scavenger receptor cysteine rich domain.

    PubMed

    Asuncion, L; Fogelgren, B; Fong, K S; Fong, S F; Kim, Y; Csiszar, K

    2001-11-01

    We have identified a novel 14-exon human lysyl oxidase-like gene, LOXL4, on chromosome 10q24. The cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of LOXL4 demonstrates a conserved C-terminal region including the characteristic copper-binding site, lysyl and tyrosyl residues and a cytokine receptor-like domain. One of the four N-terminal SRCR domains contains a 13 amino acid insertion encoded by a short exon not present within the closely homologous LOXL2 and LOXL3 genes. The 3.5-kb LOXL4 mRNA is present in pancreas and testis and at lower levels in several other tissues. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle and osteosarcoma (HOS) cells express LOXL4. No expression was detected in HCT-116 and DLD-1 colon, MCF-7 breast and DU-145 prostate cancer cell lines. PMID:11691588

  14. Cloning and Molecular Analyses of a Gibberellin 20Oxidase Gene Expressed Specifically in Developing Seeds of Watermelon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Gyu Kang; Sung-Hoon Jun; Junyul Kim; Hiroshi Kawaide; Yuji Kamiya

    1999-01-01

    To understand the biosynthesis and functional role of gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds, we isolated Cv20ox, a cDNA clone from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) that shows significant amino acid homology with GA 20-oxidases. The complementary DNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which oxi- dized GA12 at C-20 to the C19 compound GA9, a precursor of bioactive

  15. D-amino acid oxidase gene therapy sensitizes glioma cells to the antiglycolytic effect of 3-bromopyruvate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M El Sayed; R M Abou El-Magd; Y Shishido; S P Chung; T Sakai; H Watanabe; S Kagami; K Fukui

    2012-01-01

    Glioma tumors are refractory to conventional treatment. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive type of primary brain tumors in humans. In this study, we introduce oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy as a new suggested treatment for glioblastoma. OSED utilizes D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), which is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress and apoptosis through generating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

  16. Oxygen Reactivity of Both Respiratory Oxidases in Campylobacter jejuni: the cydAB Genes Encode a Cyanide-Resistant, Low-Affinity Oxidase That Is Not of the Cytochrome bd Type?

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rachel J.; Elvers, Karen T.; Lee, Lucy J.; Gidley, Mark D.; Wainwright, Laura M.; Lightfoot, James; Park, Simon F.; Poole, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    The microaerophilic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is a significant food-borne pathogen and is predicted to possess two terminal respiratory oxidases with unknown properties. Inspection of the genome reveals an operon (cydAB) apparently encoding a cytochrome bd-like oxidase homologous to oxidases in Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. However, C. jejuni cells lacked all spectral signals characteristic of the high-spin hemes b and d of these oxidases. Mutation of the cydAB operon of C. jejuni did not have a significant effect on growth, but the mutation reduced formate respiration and the viability of cells cultured in 5% oxygen. Since cyanide resistance of respiration was diminished in the mutant, we propose that C. jejuni CydAB be renamed CioAB (cyanide-insensitive oxidase), as in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We measured the oxygen affinity of each oxidase, using a highly sensitive assay that exploits globin deoxygenation during respiration-catalyzed oxygen uptake. The CioAB-type oxidase exhibited a relatively low affinity for oxygen (Km = 0.8 ?M) and a Vmax of >20 nmol/mg/s. Expression of cioAB was elevated fivefold in cells grown at higher rates of oxygen provision. The alternative, ccoNOQP-encoded cyanide-sensitive oxidase, expected to encode a cytochrome cb?-type enzyme, plays a major role in the microaerobic respiration of C. jejuni, since it appeared to be essential for viability and exhibited a much higher oxygen affinity, with a Km value of 40 nM and a Vmax of 6 to 9 nmol/mg/s. Low-temperature photodissociation spectrophotometry revealed that neither oxidase has ligand-binding activity typical of the heme-copper oxidase family. These data are consistent with cytochrome oxidation during photolysis at low temperatures. PMID:17172349

  17. [Genetic variation and differentiation of wood mice from the genus Sylvaemus inferred from sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene fragment].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, A S; Stakheev, V V; Zykov, A E; Iakimenko, V V; Mal'kova, M G

    2012-02-01

    To ascertain intra- and interspecific differentiation patterns of some Sylvaemus wood mice species (S. uralensis, S. sylvaticus, S. ponticus, S. flavicollis, and S. fulvipectus), sequence variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) fragment (654 bp) was analyzed and the data obtained using several molecular genetic markers were compared. Distinct isolation of all Sylvaemus species (including closely related allopatric S. flavicollis and S. ponticus), as well as of the European and Asian races of pygmy wood mouse S. uralensis at the COI gene was demonstrated. However, genetic differences of the Sylvaemus species were 1.5 times and more higher than the distance (D) between the races of S. uralenciis. This finding provides no ample grounds to treat the latter as the independent species. The only specimen of Pamir-Alay subspecies S. uralensis pallipes examined showed closest relatedness to to the Asian race, although was rather distant from it (D = 0.038). No reliable isolation of the eastern European and southern European chromosomal forms, representing the European race of S. uralensis, as well as of their presumptive hybrids from the outskirts of the city of Sal'sk, Rostov region, at the COI gene was revealed. A hybrid origin of the populations of pygmy wood mouse from the outskirts of the Talapker railway station, Novovarshavsky district, Omsk region, was confirmed. In preliminary studies, based on karyotypic characters, these populations were diagnosed as distant hybrids of the eastern European chromosomal form and the Asian race. In yellow-necked wood mouse S. flavicollis from the territory of Russia and Ukraine, weak differentiation into northern and southern lineages (with mean genetic distance between them of 0.020) was observed. Considerably different relative genetic distances between the races of S. uralensis and the S. flavicollis--S. ponticus species pair, inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and cytochrome b gene data, indicated that the rates of evolution of different mitochondrial genome regions could be very different. It is suggested that transformations of the cytochrome b gene, or at least its part, were irregular in time and/or in different phyletic lineages (i.e., accelerated upon the formation of pygmy wood mouse races, and delayed upon the establishment of S. flavicollis and S. ponticus). PMID:22568000

  18. Structural Insights into Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas,E.; Wilson, H.; Graf, T.; Xiang, S.; Jaramillo-Busquets, S.; Rajagopalan, K.; Kisker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfite oxidase deficiency is a lethal genetic disease that results from defects either in the genes encoding proteins involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis or in the sulfite oxidase gene itself. Several point mutations in the sulfite oxidase gene have been identified from patients suffering from this disease worldwide. Although detailed biochemical analyses have been carried out on these mutations, no structural data could be obtained because of problems in crystallizing recombinant human and rat sulfite oxidases and the failure to clone the chicken sulfite oxidase gene. We synthesized the gene for chicken sulfite oxidase de novo, working backward from the amino acid sequence of the native chicken liver enzyme by PCR amplification of a series of 72 overlapping primers. The recombinant protein displayed the characteristic absorption spectrum of sulfite oxidase and exhibited steady state and rapid kinetic parameters comparable with those of the tissue-derived enzyme. We solved the crystal structures of the wild type and the sulfite oxidase deficiency-causing R138Q (R160Q in humans) variant of recombinant chicken sulfite oxidase in the resting and sulfate-bound forms. Significant alterations in the substrate-binding pocket were detected in the structure of the mutant, and a comparison between the wild type and mutant protein revealed that the active site residue Arg-450 adopts different conformations in the presence and absence of bound sulfate. The size of the binding pocket is thereby considerably reduced, and its position relative to the cofactor is shifted, causing an increase in the distance of the sulfur atom of the bound sulfate to the molybdenum.

  19. Real time expression of ACC oxidase and PR-protein genes mediated by Methylobacterium spp. in tomato plants challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    PubMed

    Yim, W J; Kim, K Y; Lee, Y W; Sundaram, S P; Lee, Y; Sa, T M

    2014-07-15

    Biotic stress like pathogenic infection increases ethylene biosynthesis in plants and ethylene inhibitors are known to alleviate the severity of plant disease incidence. This study aimed to reduce the bacterial spot disease incidence in tomato plants caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (XCV) by modulating stress ethylene with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse condition, Methylobacterium strains inoculated and pathogen challenged tomato plants had low ethylene emission compared to pathogen infected ones. ACC accumulation and ACC oxidase (ACO) activity with ACO related gene expression increased in XCV infected tomato plants over Methylobacterium strains inoculated plants. Among the Methylobacterium spp., CBMB12 resulted lowest ACO related gene expression (1.46 Normalized Fold Expression), whereas CBMB20 had high gene expression (3.42 Normalized Fold Expression) in pathogen challenged tomato. But a significant increase in ACO gene expression (7.09 Normalized Fold Expression) was observed in the bacterial pathogen infected plants. In contrast, Methylobacterium strains enhanced ?-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activities in pathogen challenged tomato plants. The respective increase in ?-1,3-glucanase related gene expressions due to CBMB12, CBMB15, and CBMB20 strains were 66.3, 25.5 and 10.4% higher over pathogen infected plants. Similarly, PAL gene expression was high with 0.67 and 0.30 Normalized Fold Expression, in pathogen challenged tomato plants inoculated with CBMB12 and CBMB15 strains. The results suggest that ethylene is a crucial factor in bacterial spot disease incidence and that methylobacteria with ACC deaminase activity can reduce the disease severity with ultimate pathogenesis-related protein increase in tomato. PMID:24974333

  20. Phylogenetic relationships within Taenia taeniaeformis variants and other taeniid cestodes inferred from the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Bessho, Y; Kamiya, M; Kurosawa, T; Horii, T

    1995-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence variations in a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (391 bp) were examined within seven species of the genus Taenia and two species of the genus Echinococcus, including ten isolates of T. taeniaeformis and six isolates of E. multilocularis. More than a 12% rate of nucleotide differences between taeniid species was found, allowing the species to be distinguished. In E. multilocularis, no sequence variation was observed among isolates, regardless of the host (gray red-backed vole, tundra vole, pig, Norway rat) or area (Japan, Alaska) from which each metacestode had been isolated. In contrast, six distinct sequences were detected among the ten T. taeniaeformis isolates examined. The level of nucleotide variation in the COI gene within T. taeniaeformis isolates except for one isolate from the gray red-backed vole (TtACR), which has been proposed as a distinct strain or a different species, was about 0.3%-4.1%, whereas the COI gene sequence for TtACR differed from those of the other isolates, with levels being 9.0%-9.5%. Phylogenetic trees were then inferred from these sequence data using two different algorithms. PMID:7567901

  1. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency caused by a novel mutation in the MTCO1 gene.

    PubMed

    Debray, François-Guillaume; Seneca, Sara; Gonce, Michel; Vancampenhaut, Kim; Bianchi, Elettra; Boemer, François; Weekers, Laurent; Smet, Joél; Van Coster, Rudy

    2014-07-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is one of the most common respiratory chain deficiencies. A woman was presented at the age of 18y with acute loss of consciousness, non-convulsive status epilepticus, slow neurological deterioration, transient cortical blindness, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, hearing loss, cataract and cognitive decline. Muscle biopsy revealed ragged-red fibers, COX negative fibers and a significant decreased activity of complex IV in a homogenate. Using next generation massive parallel sequencing of the mtDNA, a novel heteroplasmic mutation was identified in MTCO1, m.7402delC, causing frameshift and a premature termination codon. Single fiber PCR showed co-segregation of high mutant load in COX negative fibers. Mutation in mitochondrially encoded complex IV subunits should be considered in mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and COX negative fibers after the common mtDNA mutations have been excluded. PMID:24956508

  2. Hypoxia-response element (HRE)-directed transcriptional regulation of the rat lysyl oxidase gene in response to cobalt and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Yinzhi; Toselli, Paul; Li, Wande

    2013-04-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LO) catalyzes crosslink of collagen, elastin, and histone H1, stabilizing the extracellular matrix and cell nucleus. This enzyme displays dual functions for tumorigenesis, i.e., as a tumor suppressor inactivating the ras oncogene and as a tumor promoter enhancing malignant cell metastasis. To elucidate LO transcriptional regulation, we have cloned the 804 base pair region upstream of the translation start site (ATG) of the rat LO gene with the maximal promoter activity. Computer analysis indicated that at least four hypoxia-response element (HRE) consensuses (5'-ACGTG-3') exist in the cloned LO promoter. Treatment of rat lung fibroblasts (RFL6) with CoCl2 (Co, 10-100 ?M), a chemical hypoxia reagent, enhanced LO mRNA expression and promoter activities. Overexpression of LO was associated with upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? at mRNA levels in cobalt (Co)-treated cells. Thus, LO is a hypoxia-responsive gene. Dominant negative-HIF-1? inhibited LO promoter activities stimulated by Co. Electrophoretic mobility shift, oligonucleotide competition, and in vitro translated HIF-1? binding assays indicated that only one HRE mapped at -387/-383 relative to ATG was functionally active among four consensuses. Site-directed mutation of this HRE significantly diminished the Co-induced and LO promoter-directed expression of the reporter gene. Cadmium (Cd), an inducer of reactive oxygen species, inhibited HIF-1? mRNA expression and HIF-1? binding to the LO gene in Co-treated cells as revealed by RT-PCR and ChIP assays, respectively. Thus, modulation of the HRE activity by Co and Cd plays a critical role in LO gene transactivation. PMID:23161664

  3. Molecular characterization of the Escherichia coli htrD gene: cloning, sequence, regulation, and involvement with cytochrome d oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, J M; Wall, D; Georgopoulos, C

    1993-01-01

    The Escherichia coli htrD gene was originally isolated during a search for new genes required for growth at high temperature. Insertional inactivation of htrD leads to a pleiotropic phenotype characterized by temperature-sensitive growth in rich medium, H2O2 sensitivity, and sensitivity to cysteine. The htrD gene was cloned and sequenced, and an htrD::mini-Tn10 insertion mutation was mapped within this gene. The htrD gene was shown to encode a protein of approximately 17.5 kDa. Expression of the htrD gene was examined by using an phi (htrD-lacZ) operon fusion. It was found that htrD is not temperature regulated and therefore is not a heat shock gene. Further study revealed that htrD expression is increased under aerobic growth conditions. Conversely, under anaerobic growth conditions, htrD expression is decreased. In addition, a mutation within the nearby cydD gene was found to drastically reduce htrD expression under all conditions tested. These results indicate that htrD is somehow involved in aerobic respiration and that the cydD gene product is necessary for htrD gene expression. In agreement with this conclusion, htrD mutant bacteria are unable to oxidize the cytochrome d-specific electron donor N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Images PMID:8380150

  4. Co-occurrence of the Multicopper Oxidases Tyrosinase and Laccase in Lichens in Sub-order Peltigerineae

    PubMed Central

    LAUFER, ZSANETT; BECKETT, RICHARD P.; MINIBAYEVA, FARIDA V.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Following previous findings of high extracellular redox activity in lichens and the presence of laccases in lichen cell walls, the work presented here additionally demonstrates the presence of tyrosinases. Tests were made for the presence of tyrosinases in 40 species of lichens, and from selected species their cellular location and molecular weights were determined. The effects of stress and inhibitors on enzyme activity were also studied. • Methods Tyrosinase and laccase activities were assayed spectrophotometrically using a variety of substrates. The molecular mass of the enzymes was estimated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. • Key Results Extracellular tyrosinase and laccase activity was measured in 40 species of lichens from different taxonomic groupings and contrasting habitats. Out of 20 species tested from the sub-order Peltigerineae, all displayed significant tyrosinase and laccase activity, while activity was low or absent in other species tested. Representatives from both groups of lichens displayed low peroxidase activities. Identification of the enzymes as tyrosinases was confirmed by the ability of lichen thalli or leachates derived by shaking lichens in distilled water to metabolize substrates such as l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), tyrosine and epinephrine readily in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, the sensitivity of the enzymes to the inhibitors cyanide, azide and hexylresorcinol, activation by SDS and having typical tyrosinase molecular masses of approx. 60?kDa. Comparing different species within the Peltigerineae showed that the activities of tyrosinases and laccase were correlated to each other. Desiccation and wounding stimulated laccase activity, while only wounding stimulated tyrosinase activity. • Conclusions Cell walls of lichens in sub-order Peltigerineae have much higher activities and a greater diversity of cell wall redox enzymes compared with other lichens. Possible roles of tyrosinases include melanization, removal of toxic phenols or quinones, and production of herbivore deterrents. PMID:16950829

  5. Overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana gibberellic acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene enhance the vegetative growth and fiber quality in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Withanage, Samanthi Priyanka; Hossain, Md Aktar; Kumar M, Sures; Roslan, Hairul Azman B; Abdullah, Mohammad Puad; Napis, Suhaimi B; Shukor, Nor Aini Ab

    2015-06-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.; Family: Malvaceae), is multipurpose crop, one of the potential alternatives of natural fiber for biocomposite materials. Longer fiber and higher cellulose contents are required for good quality biocomposite materials. However, average length of kenaf fiber (2.6 mm in bast and 1.28 mm in whole plant) is below the critical length (4 mm) for biocomposite production. Present study describes whether fiber length and cellulose content of kenaf plants could be enhanced by increasing GA biosynthesis in plants by overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana Gibberellic Acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene. AtGA20ox gene with intron was overexpressed in kenaf plants under the control of double CaMV 35S promoter, followed by in planta transformation into V36 and G4 varieties of kenaf. The lines with higher levels of bioactive GA (0.3-1.52 ng g(-1) fresh weight) were further characterized for their morphological and biochemical traits including vegetative and reproductive growth, fiber dimension and chemical composition. Positive impact of increased gibberellins on biochemical composition, fiber dimension and their derivative values were demonstrated in some lines of transgenic kenaf including increased cellulose content (91%), fiber length and quality but it still requires further study to confirm the critical level of this particular bioactive GA in transgenic plants. PMID:26175614

  6. Group I introns in the liverwort mitochondrial genome: the gene coding for subunit 1 of cytochrome oxidase shares five intron positions with its fungal counterparts.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, E; Oda, K; Yamato, K; Nakamura, Y; Takemura, M; Nozato, N; Akashi, K; Ohyama, K; Michel, F

    1993-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, contains thirty-two introns. Twenty-five of these introns possess the characteristic secondary structures and consensus sequences of group II introns. The remaining seven are group I introns, six of which happen to interrupt the gene coding for subunit 1 of cytochrome oxidase (cox1). Interestingly, the insertion sites of one group II and four group I introns in the cox1 gene coincide with those of the respective fungal mitochondrial interns. Moreover, comparison of the four group I introns with their fungal counterparts shows that group I introns inserted at identical genomic sites in different organisms are indeed related to one another, in terms of the peptide sequences generated from the complete or fragmental ORFs encoded by these introns. At the same time, the liverwort introns turned out to be more divergent from their fungal cognates than the latter are from one another. We therefore conclude that vertical transmission from a common ancestor organism is the simplest explanation for the presence of cognate introns in liverwort and fungal mitochondrial genomes. PMID:7681945

  7. Overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana gibberellic acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene enhance the vegetative growth and fiber quality in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plants

    PubMed Central

    Withanage, Samanthi Priyanka; Hossain, Md Aktar; Kumar M., Sures; Roslan, Hairul Azman B; Abdullah, Mohammad Puad; Napis, Suhaimi B.; Shukor, Nor Aini Ab.

    2015-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.; Family: Malvaceae), is multipurpose crop, one of the potential alternatives of natural fiber for biocomposite materials. Longer fiber and higher cellulose contents are required for good quality biocomposite materials. However, average length of kenaf fiber (2.6 mm in bast and 1.28 mm in whole plant) is below the critical length (4 mm) for biocomposite production. Present study describes whether fiber length and cellulose content of kenaf plants could be enhanced by increasing GA biosynthesis in plants by overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana Gibberellic Acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene. AtGA20ox gene with intron was overexpressed in kenaf plants under the control of double CaMV 35S promoter, followed by in planta transformation into V36 and G4 varieties of kenaf. The lines with higher levels of bioactive GA (0.3–1.52 ng g?1 fresh weight) were further characterized for their morphological and biochemical traits including vegetative and reproductive growth, fiber dimension and chemical composition. Positive impact of increased gibberellins on biochemical composition, fiber dimension and their derivative values were demonstrated in some lines of transgenic kenaf including increased cellulose content (91%), fiber length and quality but it still requires further study to confirm the critical level of this particular bioactive GA in transgenic plants. PMID:26175614

  8. Regulation of the Alternative Oxidase Aox1 Gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Role of the Nitrogen Source on the Expression of a Reporter Gene under the Control of the Aox1 Promoter1

    PubMed Central

    Baurain, Denis; Dinant, Monique; Coosemans, Nadine; Matagne, René F.

    2003-01-01

    In higher plants, various developmental and environmental conditions enhance expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX), whereas its induction in fungi is mainly dependent on cytochrome pathway restriction and triggering by reactive oxygen species. The AOX of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is encoded by two different genes, the Aox1 gene being much more transcribed than Aox2. To analyze the transcriptional regulation of Aox1, we have fused its 1.4-kb promoter region to the promoterless arylsulfatase (Ars) reporter gene and measured ARS enzyme activities in transformants carrying the chimeric construct. We show that the Aox1 promoter is generally unresponsive to a number of known AOX inducers, including stress agents, respiratory inhibitors, and metabolites, possibly because the AOX activity is constitutively high in the alga. In contrast, the Aox1 expression is strongly dependent on the nitrogen source, being down-regulated by ammonium and stimulated by nitrate. Inactivation of nitrate reductase leads to a further increase of expression. The stimulation by nitrate also occurs at the AOX protein and respiratory levels. A deletion analysis of the Aox1 promoter region demonstrates that a short upstream segment (?253 to +59 with respect to the transcription start site) is sufficient to ensure gene expression and regulation, but that distal elements are required for full gene expression. The observed pattern of AOX regulation points to the possible interaction between chloroplast and mitochondria in relation to a potential increase of photogenerated ATP when nitrate is used as a nitrogen source. PMID:12644691

  9. Association study between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia: lack of association with schizophrenia and possible association with affective disturbances of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Kang; Park, Hae Jeong; Seok, Hosik; Jeon, Hye Sook; Chung, Joo-Ho; Kang, Won Sub; Kim, Jong Woo; Yu, Gyeong Im; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) catalyzes monoamine neurotransmitters including dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), and norepinephrine. MAOA also plays a key role in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MAOA gene located on the X chromosome and schizophrenia. We also analyzed the relationships between these SNPs and the common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia such as persecutory delusion, auditory hallucinations, affective disturbances, and poor concentration. Two hundred seventy five Korean schizophrenia patients and 289 control subjects were recruited. Three SNPs [rs6323 (Arg294Arg), rs1137070 (Asp470Asp), and rs3027407 (3'-untranslated region)] of the MAOA gene were selected and genotyped by direct sequencing. The common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia according to the Operation Criteria Checklist were analyzed. Three examined SNPs showed no associations with male and female schizophrenia, respectively (p>0.05). In the analysis of the common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients, three examined SNPs were associated with affective disturbances, especially restricted affect and blunted affect in male schizophrenia, respectively (restricted affect, p=0.002, OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.45-5.00; blunted affect, p=0.009, OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.22-4.12). The SNPs were not associated with other clinical symptoms of schizophrenia (persecutory delusion, auditory hallucinations, and poor concentration). These results suggest that exonic SNPs (rs6323, rs1137070, and rs3027407) of the MAOA gene may be contributed to affective disturbances of Korean males schizophrenia, especially restricted affect and blunted affect. PMID:24510409

  10. Oxidized frying oil up-regulates hepatic acyl-CoA oxidase and cytochrome P450 4 A1 genes in rats and activates PPARalpha.

    PubMed

    Chao, P M; Chao, C Y; Lin, F J; Huang, C

    2001-12-01

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and its component hydroxy fatty acids were shown to activate peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and gamma (PPARgamma). To test the hypothesis that lipid oxidation products in oxidized frying oil (OFO) can activate PPARalpha and up-regulate its target genes, a feeding experiment and a transactivation experiment were conducted. Based on a 2 x 2 factorial design, four groups of Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were fed diets containing either high (20 g/100 g, HO and HF) or low (5 g/100 g, LO and LF) levels of oxidized frying soybean oil (HO and LO) or fresh soybean oil (HF and LF) for 6 wk. The OFO sample was prepared by frying wheat dough sheets in soybean oil at 205 +/- 5 degrees C for 24 h. OFO dose dependently and significantly increased (P < 0.05) mRNA of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) and cytochrome P(450) 4A1(CYP4A1) in liver of rats. Dietary OFO also dose dependently increased liver microsomal CYP4A protein (P < 0.05). The activity of hepatic ACO of the HO group was sixfold that of the HF group (P < 0.05). Plasma total lipids, liver triglycerides, cholesterol and total lipids were reduced in rats fed the LO and HO diets (P < 0.05). Through the ligand binding domain of PPARalpha, the hydrolyzed OFO enhanced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) reporter gene to a significantly greater extent (P < 0.05) than the hydrolyzed fresh soybean oil in a transactivation assay using a clone of CHO K1 cells stably expressing Gal4-PPARalpha chimeric receptor and UAS4-ALP reporter. The results support our hypothesis that dietary OFO, by activating PPARalpha, up-regulates the expression of PPARalpha downstream genes and alters lipid metabolism in rats. PMID:11739861

  11. Overexpression of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene associated with a pyrethroid resistant strain of German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.).

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Liu, Nannan

    2003-10-01

    A cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COXI) was identified and isolated as a differentially expressed gene between insecticide susceptible ACY and resistant Apyr-R German cockroach strains using PCR-selected subtractive hybridization and cDNA array techniques. The cDNA sequence of COXI has an open reading frame of 1533 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 511 amino acid residues. Northern blot analysis indicated that levels of COXI expression were similar in three life stages (eggs, nymphs, and adults) of the susceptible ACY strain. The expression of COXI in the resistant Apyr-R strain was developmentally regulated, with low expression in eggs, an increase (approximately 1.4-fold) in nymphs, and rose to a maximum (approximately 3-fold) in both adult females and males. Comparison of COXI expression between ACY and Apyr-R strains indicated that there was no difference in the eggs of the two strains, but expression was higher (approximately 1.5-fold) in nymphs and much higher (approximately 3- to 4-fold) in adult males and females of the Apyr-R strain. The levels of COXI mRNA showed about 1.4- and 1.7-fold increase in the abdomen tissues compared with the head+thorax tissues of ACY and Apyr-R strains, respectively. Although expression patterns of COXI in head+thorax and abdomen tissues were similar (i.e. lower in the head+thorax tissues and higher in the abdomen tissues) in both the ACY and Apyr-R strains, the expression of COXI was about 2.5-fold higher in the head+thorax and approximately 3-fold higher in the abdomen tissues of the Apyr-R strain compared with the corresponding ACY samples. The overexpression of COXI in resistant German cockroaches merits the investigation of the importance of the gene in insecticide resistant German cockroaches. PMID:14505698

  12. Cucumber possesses a single terminal alternative oxidase gene that is upregulated by cold stress and in the mosaic (MSC) mitochondrial mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants alternative oxidase (AOX) is an important nuclear-encoded enzyme active in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain, transferring electrons from ubiquinol to alternative oxidase instead of the cytochrome pathway to yield ubiquinone and water. AOX protects against unexpected inhibition of...

  13. Amine Oxidases of Microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Yagodina; E. B. Nikol'skaya; A. E. Khovanskikh; B. N. Kormilitsyn

    2002-01-01

    The review of works on amine oxidases of microorganisms is presented. Preparation, physical-chemical and kinetic properties of amine oxidases from archaebacteria Methanosarcina barkery, group of methane-producing archaebacteria, eubacteria, Sarcina lutea, Micrococcus rubens, M. lutea, representatives of Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Klebsiella and Escherichia, are considered. Besides, the amine oxidases obtained from mycelium of fungus Aspergillus niger are described. The works

  14. Identification and genetic characterization of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene that controls tree stature and reproductive growth in plum

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, I.; El Kayal, W.; Prasath, D.; Fernández, H.; Bouzayen, M.; Svircev, A. M.; Jayasankar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Several dwarf plum genotypes (Prunus salicina L.), due to deficiency of unknown gibberellin (GA) signalling, were identified. A cDNA encoding GA 2-oxidase (PslGA2ox), the major gibberellin catabolic enzyme in plants, was cloned and used to screen the GA-deficient hybrids. This resulted in the identification of a dwarf plum hybrid, designated as DGO24, that exhibits a markedly elevated PslGA2ox signal. Grafting ‘Early Golden’ (EG), a commercial plum cultivar, on DGO24 (EG/D) enhanced PslGA2ox accumulation in the scion part and generated trees of compact stature. Assessment of active GAs in such trees revealed that DGO24 and EG/D accumulated relatively much lower quantities of main bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA4) than control trees (EG/M). Moreover, the physiological function of PslGA2ox was studied by determining the molecular and developmental consequences due to ectopic expression in Arabidopsis. Among several lines, two groups of homozygous transgenics that exhibited contrasting phenotypes were identified. Group-1 displayed a dwarf growth pattern typical of mutants with a GA deficiency including smaller leaves, shorter stems, and delay in the development of reproductive events. In contrast, Group-2 exhibited a ‘GA overdose’ phenotype as all the plants showed elongated growth, a typical response to GA application, even under limited GA conditions, potentially due to co-suppression of closely related Arabidopsis homologous. The studies reveal the possibility of utilizing PslGA2ox as a marker for developing size-controlling rootstocks in Prunus. PMID:22080981

  15. Microbial Oxidation of Arsenite in a Subarctic Environment: Diversity of Arsenite Oxidase Genes and Identification of a Psychrotolerant Arsenite Oxidiser

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, T.; Jamieson, H; Hudson-Edwards, K; Nordstrom, D; Walker, S; Ward, S; Santini, J

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is toxic to most living cells. The two soluble inorganic forms of arsenic are arsenite (+3) and arsenate (+5), with arsenite the more toxic. Prokaryotic metabolism of arsenic has been reported in both thermal and moderate environments and has been shown to be involved in the redox cycling of arsenic. No arsenic metabolism (either dissimilatory arsenate reduction or arsenite oxidation) has ever been reported in cold environments (i.e. < 10 C). Our study site is located 512 kilometres south of the Arctic Circle in the Northwest Territories, Canada in an inactive gold mine which contains mine waste water in excess of 50 mM arsenic. Several thousand tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust are stored in underground chambers and microbial biofilms grow on the chamber walls below seepage points rich in arsenite-containing solutions. We compared the arsenite oxidisers in two subsamples (which differed in arsenite concentration) collected from one biofilm. 'Species' (sequence) richness did not differ between subsamples, but the relative importance of the three identifiable clades did. An arsenite-oxidizing bacterium (designated GM1) was isolated, and was shown to oxidise arsenite in the early exponential growth phase and to grow at a broad range of temperatures (4-25 C). Its arsenite oxidase was constitutively expressed and functioned over a broad temperature range. The diversity of arsenite oxidisers does not significantly differ from two subsamples of a microbial biofilm that vary in arsenite concentrations. GM1 is the first psychrotolerant arsenite oxidiser to be isolated with the ability to grow below 10 C. This ability to grow at low temperatures could be harnessed for arsenic bioremediation in moderate to cold climates.

  16. Genetic Susceptibility for Individual Cooperation Preferences: The Role of Monoamine Oxidase A Gene (MAOA) in the Voluntary Provision of Public Goods

    PubMed Central

    Mertins, Vanessa; Schote, Andrea B.; Hoffeld, Wolfgang; Griessmair, Michele; Meyer, Jobst

    2011-01-01

    In the context of social dilemmas, previous research has shown that human cooperation is mainly based on the social norm of conditional cooperation. While in most cases individuals behave according to such a norm, deviant behavior is no exception. Recent research further suggests that heterogeneity in social behavior might be associated with varying genetic predispositions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between individuals' behavior in a public goods experiment and the promoter-region functional repeat polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA). In a dynamic setting of increasing information about others' contributions, we analyzed differences in two main components of conditional cooperation, namely the players' own contribution and their beliefs regarding the contribution of other players. We showed that there is a significant association between individuals' behavior in a repeated public goods game and MAOA. Our results suggest that male carriers of the low activity alleles cooperate significantly less than those carrying the high activity alleles given a situation where subjects had to rely on their innate beliefs about others' contributions. With increasing information about the others' cooperativeness, the genetic effect diminishes. Furthermore, significant opposing effects for female subjects carrying two low activity alleles were observed. PMID:21698196

  17. Mutations in monoamine oxidase (MAO) genes in mice lead to hypersensitivity to serotonin-enhancing drugs: implications for drug side effects in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fox, MA; Panessiti, MG; Moya, PR; Tolliver, TJ; Chen, K; Shih, JC; Murphy, DL

    2012-01-01

    A possible side effect of serotonin-enhancing drugs is the serotonin syndrome, which can be lethal. Here we examined possible hypersensitivity to two such drugs, the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) and the atypical opioid tramadol, in mice lacking the genes for both monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and MAOB. MAOA/B-knockout (KO) mice displayed baseline serotonin syndrome behaviors, and these behavioral responses were highly exaggerated following 5-HTP or tramadol versus baseline and wild-type (WT) littermates. Compared with MAOA/B-WT mice, baseline tissue serotonin levels were increased ~2.6–3.9-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. Following 5-HTP, serotonin levels were further increased ~4.5–6.2-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. These exaggerated responses are in line with the exaggerated responses following serotonin-enhancing drugs that we previously observed in mice lacking the serotonin transporter (SERT). These findings provide a second genetic mouse model suggestive of possible human vulnerability to the serotonin syndrome in individuals with lesser-expressing MAO or SERT polymorphisms that confer serotonergic system changes. PMID:22964922

  18. Genetic susceptibility for individual cooperation preferences: the role of monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in the voluntary provision of public goods.

    PubMed

    Mertins, Vanessa; Schote, Andrea B; Hoffeld, Wolfgang; Griessmair, Michele; Meyer, Jobst

    2011-01-01

    In the context of social dilemmas, previous research has shown that human cooperation is mainly based on the social norm of conditional cooperation. While in most cases individuals behave according to such a norm, deviant behavior is no exception. Recent research further suggests that heterogeneity in social behavior might be associated with varying genetic predispositions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between individuals' behavior in a public goods experiment and the promoter-region functional repeat polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA). In a dynamic setting of increasing information about others' contributions, we analyzed differences in two main components of conditional cooperation, namely the players' own contribution and their beliefs regarding the contribution of other players. We showed that there is a significant association between individuals' behavior in a repeated public goods game and MAOA. Our results suggest that male carriers of the low activity alleles cooperate significantly less than those carrying the high activity alleles given a situation where subjects had to rely on their innate beliefs about others' contributions. With increasing information about the others' cooperativeness, the genetic effect diminishes. Furthermore, significant opposing effects for female subjects carrying two low activity alleles were observed. PMID:21698196

  19. Better rooting procedure to enhance survival rate of field grown malaysian eksotika papaya transformed with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid oxidase gene.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4?cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  20. Core glycan in the yeast multicopper ferroxidase, Fet3p: a case study of N-linked glycosylation, protein maturation, and stability.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Lynn; Terzulli, Alaina; Sedlak, Erik; Kosman, Daniel J

    2010-09-01

    Glycosylation is essential to the maintenance of protein quality in the vesicular protein trafficking pathway in eukaryotic cells. Using the yeast multicopper oxidase, Fet3p, the hypothesis is tested that core glycosylation suppresses Fet3p nascent chain aggregation during synthesis into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Fet3p has 11 crystallographically mapped N-linked core glycan units. Assembly of four of these units is specifically required for localization of Fet3p to the plasma membrane (PM). Fet3 protein lacking any one of these glycan units is found in an intracellular high-molecular mass species resolvable by blue native gel electrophoresis. Individually, the remaining glycan moieties are not required for ER exit; however, serial deletion of these by N ? A substitution correlates with these desglycan species failure to exit the ER. Desglycan Fet3 proteins that localize to the PM are wild type in function indicating that the missing carbohydrate is not required for native structure and biologic activity. This native function includes the interaction with the iron permease, Ftr1p, and wild type high-affinity iron uptake activity. The four essential sequons are found within relatively nonpolar regions located in surface recesses and are strongly conserved among fungal Fet3 proteins. The remaining N-linked sites are found in more surface exposed, less nonpolar environments, and their conservation is weak or absent. The data indicate that in Fet3p the N-linked glycan has little effect on the enzyme's molecular activity but is critical to its cellular activity by maximizing the protein's exit from the ER and assembly into a functional iron uptake complex. PMID:20662012

  1. HPA axis function in male caregivers: effect of the monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter (MAOA-uVNTR)

    PubMed Central

    Brummett, Beverly H.; Boyle, Stephen H.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; Surwit, Richard S.; Garrett, Melanie E.; Collins, Ann; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Williams, Redford B.

    2008-01-01

    Caregiving stress is associated with negative health outcomes. Neuroendocrine functioning may be a mediator of such outcomes. The MAOA gene regulates activity of neurotransmitters involved with neuroendocrine responses to stress. Differences in polymorphisms of this gene have been shown to influence susceptibility to stress. Therefore, we examined allelic variation in MAOA-uVNTR, a functional polymorphism of MAOA, as a moderator of chronic stress effects on urinary cortisol excretion in 74 males enrolled in a case/control study of caregivers for relatives with dementia. Mixed models analysis of variance were used to examine MAOA-uVNTR genotype (3 vs 3.5/4 repeats) as a moderator of the impact of stress (caregiver versus non-caregiver) on the urinary excretion pattern (overnight, daytime, evening) of cortisol. Caregivers with MAOA-uVNTR alleles associated with less transcriptional activity (3-repeats) displayed a pattern of cortisol excretion–a decrease from overnight to daytime—that was suggestive of HPA axis blunting, as compared to noncaregivers and those caregivers with the more active alleles (3.5/4 repeats) (cortisol p<.043). Individuals with less active MAOA-uVNTR alleles who are under chronic stress may be at increased risk for exhaustion of the HPA response to such stress. PMID:18639608

  2. Phylogenetic position of Linguatula arctica and Linguatula serrata (Pentastomida) as inferred from the nuclear 18S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2013-10-01

    Genomic DNA was isolated from a Linguatula serrata female expelled from a dog imported to Norway from Romania and from four Linguatula arctica females collected from semi-domesticated reindeer from northern Norway and subjected to PCR amplification of the complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene and a 1,045-bp portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). The two species differed at two of 1,830 nucleotide positions (99.9% identity) of the complete 18S rRNA gene sequences and at 102 of 1,045 nucleotide positions (90.2% identity) of the partial cox1 sequences. The four isolates of L. arctica showed no genetic variation in either gene. The new cox1 primers may facilitate the diagnosis of various developmental stages of L. arctica and L. serrata in their hosts. In separate phylogenetic analyses using the maximum likelihood method on sequence data from either gene, L. arctica and L. serrata clustered with members of the order Cephalobaenida rather than with members of the order Porocephalida, in which the genus Linguatula is currently placed based on morphological characters. The phylogenetic relationship of L. arctica, L. serrata and other pentastomids to other metazoan groups could not be clearly resolved, but the pentastomids did not seem to have a sister relationship to crustaceans of the subclass Branchiura as found in other studies. A more extensive taxon sampling, including molecular characterisation of more pentastomid taxa across different genera, seems to be necessary in order to estimate the true relationship of the Pentastomida to other metazoan groups. PMID:23873617

  3. Methods and approaches to study plant mitochondrial alternative oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison E. McDonald; Stephen M. Sieger; Greg C. Vanlerberghe

    2002-01-01

    The alternative oxidase is a non-proton motive 'alternative' to electron transport through the cytochrome pathway. Despite its wasteful nature in terms of energy conservation, the path- way is likely present throughout the plant kingdom and ap- pears to be expressed in most plant tissues. A small alterna- tive oxidase gene family exists, the members of which are differentially expressed in

  4. A prokaryotic alternative oxidase present in the bacterium Novosphingobium aromaticivorans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pål Stenmark; Pär Nordlund

    2003-01-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal oxidase present in the respiratory chain of all plants as well as some yeasts and trypanosomes, but has not previously been found in a prokaryote. We have identified an AOX homologue in Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, the first AOX found in a prokaryote. We have cloned the gene for the N. aromaticivorans AOX and showed

  5. Hyperuricemia and urate nephropathy in urate oxidase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Wakamiya, M; Vaishnav, S; Geske, R; Montgomery, C; Jones, P; Bradley, A; Caskey, C T

    1994-01-18

    Urate oxidase, or uricase (EC 1.7.3.3), is a purine metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of uric acid to allantoin in most mammals except humans and certain other primates. The loss of urate oxidase in the human during primate evolution predisposes man to hyperuricemia, a metabolic disturbance that can lead to gouty arthritis and renal stones. To create a mouse model for hyperuricemia and gout, and to address the question of whether urate oxidase is essential in lower mammalian species, we have disrupted the urate oxidase gene in the mouse by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Unlike the human situation, urate oxidase deficiency in mice causes pronounced hyperuricemia and urate nephropathy. More than half of the mutant mice died before 4 weeks of age, indicating that urate oxidase is essential in mice. These mutant mice may also serve as animal models for hyperuricemia and its related nephropathy in humans. PMID:8290593

  6. Expression of Pisum sativum PsAO3 gene, which encodes an aldehyde oxidase utilizing abscisic aldehyde, is induced under progressively but not rapidly imposed drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Sobczak, Miros?aw

    2013-10-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO; EC 1.2.3.1) catalyzes the final step of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, which is the oxidation of abscisic aldehyde (ABAld) to ABA. Gene expression analyses indicate that the stress-induced Pisum sativum PsAO? isoform, which effectively uses ABAld as a substrate, is encoded by the PsAO3 gene. PsAO3 was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and the recombinant PsAO3 protein revealed substrate preferences highly similar to the native PsAO? protein present in the pea leaves and roots. Both proteins prefer indole-3-aldehyde and naphthaldehyde as substrates, although high activities against abscisic aldehyde and citral were also observed. The Km values of PsAO3 for naphthaldehyde and abscisic aldehyde (4.6 and 5.1 ?M, respectively) were the lowest among the substrates tested. PsAO3 activity was almost completely inhibited by potassium cyanide, diphenyleneiodonium, and methanol. Rapidly imposed drought stress did not increase the level of PsAO3 mRNA or activity of any AO isoform, although an enhanced ABA accumulation and induction of PsNCED2 and -3 (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase; EC 1.13.11.51) expression, both in the pea roots and leaves, was observed. During a progressively induced drought, the level of PsAO3 transcript and PsAO? activity increased significantly in the roots and leaves, whereas ABA accumulation occurred only in the leaves where it was accompanied by induction of the PsNCED3 expression. Therefore, we suppose that next to NCED, also AO (mainly PsAO?) might be involved in regulation of the drought-induced ABA synthesis. However, while the "constitutive activity" of PsAO? is sufficient for the fast generation of ABA under rapid drought stress, the enhanced PsAO? activity is required for the progressive and long-term ABA accumulation in the leaves under progressive drought stress. PMID:23876699

  7. Molecular evolution of cytochrome bd oxidases across proteobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Degli Esposti, Mauro; Rosas-Pérez, Tania; Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis Eduardo; Bolaños, Luis Manuel; Rosenblueth, Monica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2015-03-01

    This work is aimed to resolve the complex molecular evolution of cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, a nearly ubiquitous bacterial enzyme that is involved in redox balance and bioenergetics. Previous studies have created an unclear picture of bd oxidases phylogenesis without considering the existence of diverse types of bd oxidases. Integrated approaches of genomic and protein analysis focused on proteobacteria have generated a molecular classification of diverse types of bd oxidases, which produces a new scenario for interpreting their evolution. A duplication of the original gene cluster of bd oxidase might have occurred in the ancestors of extant ?-proteobacteria of the Rhodospirillales order, such as Acidocella, from which the bd-I type of the oxidase might have diffused to other proteobacterial lineages. In contrast, the Cyanide-Insensitive Oxidase type may have differentiated into recognizable subtypes after another gene cluster duplication. These subtypes are widespread in the genomes of ?-, ?-, and ?-proteobacteria, with occasional instances of lateral gene transfer. In resolving the evolutionary pattern of proteobacterial bd oxidases, this work sheds new light on the basal taxa of ?-proteobacteria from which the ?-proteobacterial lineage probably emerged. PMID:25688108

  8. Phylogeny of Greya (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae), Based on Nucleotide Sequence Variation in Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I and II: Congruence with

    E-print Network

    Thompson, John N.

    in Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I and II: Congruence with Morphological Data Jonathan A&.Brown, * Olle Pellmyr in the cytochrome oxidase I and II genes of the mitochondrial genome. Most parsimonious relationships of 25

  9. Function and Expression Analysis of Gibberellin Oxidases in Apple

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huijun Zhao; Jiangli Dong; Tao Wang

    2010-01-01

    Three cDNAs, encoding gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase (MdGA20ox1, identical to AB037114), 3-oxidase (MdGA3ox1), and 2-oxidase (MdGA2ox1), were isolated from apple cv. Fuji (Malus x domestica). Southern blot analysis indicated that each of these genes belongs to a gene family. Standard enzyme assays show that the\\u000a MdGA20ox1-MBP fusion protein can sequentially oxidize three times at C-20 position of GA12 and GA53 and

  10. Cytokinin Oxidase Regulates Rice Grain Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoyuki Ashikari; Hitoshi Sakakibara; Shaoyang Lin; Toshio Yamamoto; Tomonori Takashi; Asuka Nishimura; Enrique R. Angeles; Qian Qian; Hidemi Kitano; Makoto Matsuoka

    2005-01-01

    Most agriculturally important traits are regulated by genes known as quantitative trait loci (QTLs) derived from natural allelic variations. We here show that a QTL that increases grain productivity in rice, Gn1a, is a gene for cytokinin oxidase\\/dehydrogenase (OsCKX2), an enzyme that degrades the phytohormone cytokinin. Reduced expression of OsCKX2 causes cytokinin accumulation in inflorescence meristems and increases the number

  11. Tumor necrosis factor and immune interferon synergistically induce cytochrome b-245 heavy-chain gene expression and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogenase oxidase in human leukemic myeloid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cassatella, M A; Hartman, L; Perussia, B; Trinchieri, G

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant tumor necrosis factor (rTNF) and rIFN-gamma induce in the human leukemia cell lines HL-60, ML3, and U937 the accumulation of transcripts of the X chromosome-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) gene, encoding the 91-kD heavy chain of cytochrome b-245, a component of the NADPH oxidase of phagocytic cells. The gene is induced within 6 h by either cytokine, and its accumulation is observed upon induction with rIFN-gamma up to 5 d. The combined effect of the two cytokines is more than additive. rIFN-gamma also induces accumulation of X-CGD mRNA in immature myeloid cells from peripheral blood of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, whereas rTNF has almost no effect. The cells from CML patients constitutively express TNF mRNA, suggesting that endogenously produced TNF may play a role in the effect of rIFN-gamma on these cells. rTNF induces X-CGD gene expression in the myeloid cell lines acting, at least in part, at the transcriptional level, as shown in nuclear run-on experiments. The gene encoding the 22-kD light chain of cytochrome b-245 is constitutively expressed in the human myeloid cell lines and the accumulation of its transcripts is affected by neither rTNF nor rIFN-gamma, rTNF and rIFN-gamma synergistically to induce the cell lines to express the cytochrome b-245 heterodimer (as evaluated by its visible spectrum), and to produce NADPH oxidase activity and H2O2 upon stimulation with phorbol diesters. Images PMID:2496143

  12. HypC, the Anthrone Oxidase Involved in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis? †

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Li, Ping; Scharfenstein, Leslie; Chang, Perng-Kuang

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of gene disruption and enzyme activity, hypC, an open reading frame in the region between the pksA (aflC) and nor-1 (aflD) genes in the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster, encodes a 17-kDa oxidase that converts norsolorinic acid anthrone to norsolorinic acid. PMID:20348292

  13. Central Nervous System, Uterus, Heart, and Leukocyte Expression of the LOXL3 Gene, Encoding a Novel Lysyl Oxidase-Like Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Jourdan-Le Saux; Arianne Tomsche; Aniko Ujfalusi; Libin Jia; Katalin Csiszar

    2001-01-01

    A BLASTN search using the mouse lor-2 cDNA identified three overlapping ESTs (AI752772, AA852888, and R55706) in the GenBank database. These expressed sequence tags were assembled into a contig of 3121 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 2262 bp. The encoded putative polypeptide of 754 amino acids presented all structural characteristics of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme family, a

  14. Diversity and Evolutionary History of Iron Metabolism Genes in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Groussman, Ryan D.; Parker, Micaela S.; Armbrust, E. Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Ferroproteins arose early in Earth’s history, prior to the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and the subsequent reduction of bioavailable iron. Today, iron availability limits primary productivity in about 30% of the world’s oceans. Diatoms, responsible for nearly half of oceanic primary production, have evolved molecular strategies for coping with variable iron concentrations. Our understanding of the evolutionary breadth of these strategies has been restricted by the limited number of species for which molecular sequence data is available. To uncover the diversity of strategies marine diatoms employ to meet cellular iron demands, we analyzed 367 newly released marine microbial eukaryotic transcriptomes, which include 47 diatom species. We focused on genes encoding proteins previously identified as having a role in iron management: iron uptake (high-affinity ferric reductase, multi-copper oxidase, and Fe(III) permease); iron storage (ferritin); iron-induced protein substitutions (flavodoxin/ferredoxin, and plastocyanin/cytochrome c6) and defense against reactive oxygen species (superoxide dismutases). Homologs encoding the high-affinity iron uptake system components were detected across the four diatom Classes suggesting an ancient origin for this pathway. Ferritin transcripts were also detected in all Classes, revealing a more widespread utilization of ferritin throughout diatoms than previously recognized. Flavodoxin and plastocyanin transcripts indicate possible alternative redox metal strategies. Predicted localization signals for ferredoxin identify multiple examples of gene transfer from the plastid to the nuclear genome. Transcripts encoding four superoxide dismutase metalloforms were detected, including a putative nickel-coordinating isozyme. Taken together, our results suggest that the majority of iron metabolism genes in diatoms appear to be vertically inherited with functional diversity achieved via possible neofunctionalization of paralogs. This refined view of iron use strategies in diatoms elucidates the history of these adaptations, and provides potential molecular markers for determining the iron nutritional status of different diatom species in environmental samples. PMID:26052941

  15. Delta subclass HD-Zip proteins and a B-3 AP2/ERF transcription factor interact with promoter elements required for expression of the Arabidopsis cytochrome c oxidase 5b-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Comelli, Raúl N; Welchen, Elina; Kim, Hye Jin; Hong, Jong Chan; Gonzalez, Daniel H

    2012-09-01

    We have identified transcription factors that interact with a promoter region involved in expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana COX5b-1 gene, which encodes an isoform of the cytochrome c oxidase zinc binding subunit. Elements with the core sequence ATCATT, involved in induction by sugars, are recognized both in vitro and in one-hybrid assays in yeast by HD-Zip proteins from the delta subclass and, though less efficiently, by the trihelix transcription factor GT-3b. DistalB-like elements (CCACTTG), required for induction by abscisic acid (ABA), interact with ESE1, a member of the B-3 subgroup of AP2/ERF transcription factors. The HD-Zip protein Athb-21 and ESE1 are able to interact in yeast two-hybrid assays with the ABA responsive element binding factor AREB2/ABF4, which binds to a G-box absolutely required for expression of the COX5b-1 gene. Overexpression of the identified transcription factors in plants produces an increase in COX5b-1 transcript levels. Moreover, these factors are able to induce the expression of a reporter gene located in plants under the control of the relevant COX5b-1 promoter regions required for expression. Analysis of promoter regions of COX5b genes from different plant species suggests that the identified transcription factors were recruited for the regulation of COX5b gene expression at different stages during the evolution of dicot plants. PMID:22669746

  16. Utility of Stable Isotope and Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene Sequencing Analyses in Inferring Origin and Authentication of Hairtail Fish and Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejoong; Kumar, K Suresh; Hwang, Seung Yong; Kang, Byeong-Chul; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-06-10

    Mislabeling of fishery products continues to be a serious threat to the global market. Consequently, there is an urgent necessity to develop tools for authenticating and establishing their true origin. This investigation evaluates the suitability of stable isotopes and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequencing in identifying and tracing the origin of hairtail fish and shrimp. By use of COI sequencing, the hairtail fish samples were identified as Trichiurus japonicus and Trichiurus lepturus, while the shrimp samples were identified as Pandalus borealis, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, and Solenocera crassicornis. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of stable isotopes further categorized the individuals of the same species based on the country of origin. Natural and farmed shrimp (from the same country) were distinctly differentiated on the basis of stable isotope values. Therefore, these two methods could be cooperatively utilized to identify and authenticate fishery products, the utilization of which would enhance transparency and fair trade. PMID:25980806

  17. A Plastid Terminal Oxidase Associated with Carotenoid Desaturation during Chromoplast Differentiation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eve-Marie Josse; Andrew J. Simkin; Joel Gaffe; Anne-Marie Laboure; Marcel Kuntz; Pierre Carol

    2000-01-01

    The Arabidopsis IMMUTANS gene encodes a plastid homolog of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase, which is associated with phytoene desaturation. Upon expression in Escherichia coli, this protein confers a detectable cyanide-resistant electron transport to isolated membranes. In this assay this activity is sensitive to n-propyl-gallate, an inhibitor of the alternative oxidase. This protein appears to be a plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX)

  18. The Menkes\\/Wilson Disease Gene Homologue in Yeast Provides Copper to a Ceruloplasmin-Like Oxidase Required for Iron Uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Yuan; Robert Stearman; Andrew Dancis; Teresa Dunn; Troy Beeler; Richard D. Klausner

    1995-01-01

    The CCC2 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is homologous to the human genes defective in Wilson disease and Menkes disease. A biochemical hallmark of these diseases is a deficiency of copper in ceruloplasmin and other copper proteins found in extracytosolic compartments. Here we demonstrate that disruption of the yeast CCC2 gene results in defects in respiration and iron uptake.

  19. Replacement of a terminal cytochrome c oxidase by ubiquinol oxidase during the evolution of acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Minenosuke; Fukushima, Kota; Kayama, Chiho; Arimitsu, Misato; Hirakawa, Hideki; Toyama, Hirohide; Adachi, Osao; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2014-10-01

    The bacterial aerobic respiratory chain has a terminal oxidase of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily, comprised of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and ubiquinol oxidase (UOX); UOX evolved from COX. Acetobacter pasteurianus, an ?-Proteobacterial acetic acid bacterium (AAB), produces UOX but not COX, although it has a partial COX gene cluster, ctaBD and ctaA, in addition to the UOX operon cyaBACD. We expressed ctaB and ctaA genes of A. pasteurianus in Escherichia coli and demonstrated their function as heme O and heme A synthases. We also found that the absence of ctaD function is likely due to accumulated mutations. These COX genes are closely related to other ?-Proteobacterial COX proteins. However, the UOX operons of AAB are closely related to those of the ?/?-Proteobacteria (?-type UOX), distinct from the ?/?-Proteobacterial proteins (?-type UOX), but different from the other ?-type UOX proteins by the absence of the cyoE heme O synthase. Thus, we suggest that A. pasteurianus has a functional ?-type UOX but has lost the COX genes, with the exception of ctaB and ctaA, which supply the heme O and A moieties for UOX. Our results suggest that, in AAB, COX was replaced by ?/?-Proteobacterial UOX via horizontal gene transfer, while the COX genes, except for the heme O/A synthase genes, were lost. PMID:24862920

  20. Coupling of energy metabolism and synaptic transmission at the transcriptional level: Role of nuclear respiratory factor 1 in regulating both cytochrome c oxidase and NMDA glutamate receptor subunit genes

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Shilpa S.; Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled processes. Regions high in neuronal activity, especially of the glutamatergic type, have high levels of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Perturbations in neuronal activity affect the expressions of COX and glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NR1). The present study sought to test our hypothesis that the coupling extends to the transcriptional level, whereby NR1 and possibly other NR subunits and COX are co-regulated by the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), which regulates all COX subunit genes. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutations, and real-time quantitative PCR, NRF-1 was found to functionally bind to the promoters of Grin 1 (NR1), Grin 2b (NR2b) and COX subunit genes, but not of Grin2a and Grin3a genes. These transcripts were up-regulated by KCl and down-regulated by TTX in cultured primary neurons. However, silencing of NRF-1 with small interference RNA blocked the up-regulation of Grin1, Grin2b, and COX induced by KCl, and over-expression of NRF-1 rescued these transcripts that were suppressed by TTX. NRF-1 binding sites on Grin1 and Grin2b genes are also highly conserved among mice, rats, and humans. Thus, NRF-1 is an essential transcription factor critical in the co-regulation of NR1, NR2b, and COX, and coupling exists at the transcriptional level to ensure coordinated expressions of proteins important for synaptic transmission and energy metabolism. PMID:19144849

  1. NADPH oxidases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Roy, Krishnendu; Wu, Yongzhong; Meitzler, Jennifer L; Juhasz, Agnes; Liu, Han; Jiang, Guojian; Lu, Jiamo; Antony, Smitha; Doroshow, James H

    2015-06-01

    The mechanism by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by tumour cells remained incompletely understood until the discovery over the last 15 years of the family of NADPH oxidases (NOXs 1-5 and dual oxidases DUOX1/2) which are structural homologues of gp91phox, the major membrane-bound component of the respiratory burst oxidase of leucocytes. Knowledge of the roles of the NOX isoforms in cancer is rapidly expanding. Recent evidence suggests that both NOX1 and DUOX2 species produce ROS in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of chronic inflammatory stress; cytokine induction (by interferon-?, tumour necrosis factor ?, and interleukins IL-4 and IL-13) of NOX1 and DUOX2 may contribute to the development of colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis, respectively. NOX4 expression is increased in pre-malignant fibrotic states which may lead to carcinomas of the lung and liver. NOX5 is highly expressed in malignant melanomas, prostate cancer and Barrett's oesophagus-associated adenocarcinomas, and in the last it is related to chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux and inflammation. Over-expression of functional NOX proteins in many tissues helps to explain tissue injury and DNA damage from ROS that accompany pre-malignant conditions, as well as elucidating the potential mechanisms of NOX-related damage that contribute to both the initiation and the progression of a wide range of solid and haematopoietic malignancies. PMID:25818486

  2. Natural Compounds as Modulators of NADPH Oxidases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals generated ubiquitously by all mammalian cells, but their relative unbalance triggers also diseases through intracellular damage to DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are the only known enzyme family with the sole function to produce ROS. The NOX physiological functions concern host defence, cellular signaling, regulation of gene expression, and cell differentiation. On the other hand, increased NOX activity contributes to a wide range of pathological processes, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, organ failure, and cancer. Therefore targeting these enzymatic ROS sources by natural compounds, without affecting the physiological redox state, may be an important tool. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role of NOX enzymes in physiology and pathology and provides an overview of the currently available NADPH oxidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts such as polyphenols. PMID:24381714

  3. NADH oxidase of plasma membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. James Morré; Andrew O. Brightman

    1991-01-01

    NADH oxidase is a cyanide-resistant and hormone-responsive oxidase intrinsic to the plasma membrane of both plant and animal cells. The activity has many unique characteristics that distinguish it from other oxidases and oxidoreductases of both organelles and internal membranes and from other oxidoreductases of the plasma membrane. Among these are resistance to inhibition by cyanide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and phenylchloromer-curibenzoate.

  4. TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor gene: The role of NAD(P)H oxidase 4

    SciTech Connect

    St Hilaire, Cynthia; Koupenova, Milka; Carroll, Shannon H.; Smith, Barbara D. [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Ravid, Katya [Department of Biochemistry, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)], E-mail: ravid@biochem.bumc.bu.edu

    2008-10-24

    Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), oxidative stress, and elevated inflammatory cytokines are some of the components that contribute to plaque formation in the vasculature. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) is released during vascular injury, and contributes to lesion formation also by affecting VSMC proliferation. Recently, an A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor (A{sub 2B}AR) knockout mouse illustrated that this receptor is a tissue protector, in that it inhibits VSMC proliferation and attenuates the inflammatory response following injury, including the release of TNF-{alpha}. Here, we show a regulatory loop by which TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR in VSMC in vitro and in vivo. The effect of this cytokine is mimicked by its known downstream target, NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (Nox4). Nox4 upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR, and Nox inhibitors dampen the effect of TNF-{alpha}. Hence, our study is the first to show that signaling associated with Nox4 is also able to upregulate the tissue protecting A{sub 2B}AR.

  5. Cloning and characterization of a fifth human lysyl oxidase isoenzyme: the third member of the lysyl oxidase-related subfamily with four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joni M. Mäki; Hilkka Tikkanen; Kari I. Kivirikko

    2001-01-01

    We report the complete cDNA sequence of the human lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) gene, a new member of the lysyl oxidase (LO) gene family. The predicted polypeptide is 756 amino acids long, including a 24-residue signal peptide. The C-terminal region contains a LO domain similar to those of LOX, LOXL, LOXL2 and LOXL3. The N-terminal region has four subregions similar

  6. Lysyl oxidases: a novel multifunctional amine oxidase family.

    PubMed

    Csiszar, K

    2001-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX), a copper-containing amine oxidase, belongs to a heterogeneous family of enzymes that oxidize primary amine substrates to reactive aldehydes. LOX has been traditionally known for one function, the extracellular catalysis of lysine-derived cross-links in fibrillar collagens and elastin. More recently, diverse roles have been attributed to lysyl oxidase and these novel activities cover a spectrum of diverse biological functions such as developmental regulation, tumor suppression, cell motility, and cellular senescence. Lysyl oxidase has also been shown to have both intracellular and intranuclear locations. The multifunctional properties of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and our recent discovery of three novel members of this amine oxidase family, LOX-like (LOXL), LOXL2, and LOXL3, indicate the possibility that these varied functions are performed in both intracellular and extracellular environments by individual novel members of the LOX amine-oxidase family. Structural similarities of the highly conserved copper-binding and lysyl-tyrosylquinone cofactor sites among the LOX and LOX-like proteins may result in similar amine oxidase activities. However, specific novel functions, such as a potential role in cell adhesion and cell growth control, will be determined by other, conserved domains such as the cytokine receptor-like domain that is shared by all LOXs and by multiple scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains present in LOXL2 and LOXL3. Furthermore, these functions may be carried out in a temporally and spatially regulated fashion. PMID:11642359

  7. Transcriptional coupling of synaptic transmission and energy metabolism: Role of nuclear respiratory factor 1 in co-regulating neuronal nitric oxide synthase and cytochrome c oxidase genes in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Shilpa S.; Liang, Huan Ling; Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Neuronal activity is highly dependent on energy metabolism; yet, the two processes have traditionally been regarded as independently regulated at the transcriptional level. Recently, we found that the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) co-regulates an important energy-generating enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase, as well as critical subunits of glutamatergic receptors. The present study tests our hypothesis that the co-regulation extends to the next level of glutamatergic synapses, namely, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, which generates nitric oxide as a downstream signaling molecule. Using in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutations, and NRF-1 silencing, we documented that NRF-1 functionally bound to Nos1, but not Nos2 (inducible) and Nos3 (endothelial) gene promoters. Both COX and Nos1 transcripts were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl treatment and down-regulated by TTX-mediated impulse blockade in neurons. However, NRF-1 silencing blocked the up-regulation of both Nos1 and COX induced by KCl depolarization, and over-expression of NRF-1 rescued both Nos1 and COX transcripts downregulated by TTX. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that synaptic neuronal transmission and energy metabolism are tightly coupled at the molecular level. PMID:19615412

  8. Nucleotide sequence of Aspergillus nidulans mitochondrial genes coding for ATPase subunit 6, cytochrome oxidase subunit 3, seven unidentified proteins, four tRNAs and L-rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Netzker, R; Köchel, H G; Basak, N; Küntzel, H

    1982-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 14 kb segment of A. nidulans mtDNA reveals a rather compact organization of genes transcribed from the same strand and coding for two functionally known proteins, seven unidentified polypeptides (URFs), 24 tRNAs and two rRNAs. One of the URFs is located in the intron of the L-rRNA gene and codes for a basic protein of 410 residues. The other URFs are in spacer regions and code for hydrophobic proteins. URFa is homologous to human URF4, and URFb produces a polypeptide of 48 residues resembling the human URF6L product (hydrophobic N-terminus, basic C-terminus). The ATPase subunit 6 genes from mitochondria and E. coli appear to share a common ancestor. The codon frequencies of identified genes and URFs are similar, and codons ending with G or C are rarely used. The structures of tRNAs specific for arginine, asparagine, tyrosine and histidine are deduced from gene sequences. PMID:6290989

  9. Molecular abnormalities of coproporphyrinogen oxidase in patients with hereditary coproporphyria.

    PubMed

    Grandchamp, B; Lamoril, J; Puy, H

    1995-04-01

    Genetic defects of coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO) lead to hereditary coproporphyria, an inherited autosomal dominant porphyria. The recent cloning of human cDNAs and of the gene encoding CPO permits deducing the primary structure of the CPO protein and elucidating the molecular basis of HC in some families. PMID:7592568

  10. Overexpression of a GmCnx1 Gene Enhanced Activity of Nitrate Reductase and Aldehyde Oxidase, and Boosted Mosaic Virus Resistance in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng; He, Hongli; Ma, Luping; Yu, Xiaoqian; Mi, Qian; Pang, Jingsong; Tang, Guixiang; Liu, Bao

    2015-01-01

    Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is required for the activities of Moco-dependant enzymes. Cofactor for nitrate reductase and xanthine dehydrogenase (Cnx1) is known to be involved in the biosynthesis of Moco in plants. In this work, a soybean (Glycine max L.) Cnx1 gene (GmCnx1) was transferred into soybean using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Twenty seven positive transgenic soybean plants were identified by coating leaves with phosphinothricin, bar protein quick dip stick and PCR analysis. Moreover, Southern blot analysis was carried out to confirm the insertion of GmCnx1 gene. Furthermore, expression of GmCnx1 gene in leaf and root of all transgenic lines increased 1.04-2.12 and 1.55-3.89 folds, respectively, as compared to wild type with GmCnx1 gene and in line 10 , 22 showing the highest expression. The activities of Moco-related enzymes viz nitrate reductase (NR) and aldehydeoxidase (AO) of T1 generation plants revealed that the best line among the GmCnx1 transgenic plants accumulated 4.25 ?g g-1 h-1 and30 pmol L-1, respectively (approximately 2.6-fold and 3.9-fold higher than non-transgenic control plants).In addition, overexpression ofGmCnx1boosted the resistance to various strains of soybean mosaic virus (SMV). DAS-ELISA analysis further revealed that infection rate of GmCnx1 transgenic plants were generally lower than those of non-transgenic plants among two different virus strains tested. Taken together, this study showed that overexpression of a GmCnx1 gene enhanced NR and AO activities and SMV resistance, suggesting its important role in soybean genetic improvement. PMID:25886067

  11. The Escherichia coli CydX Protein Is a Member of the CydAB Cytochrome bd Oxidase Complex and Is Required for Cytochrome bd Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    VanOrsdel, Caitlin E.; Bhatt, Shantanu; Allen, Rondine J.; Brenner, Evan P.; Hobson, Jessica J.; Jamil, Aqsa; Haynes, Brittany M.; Genson, Allyson M.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome bd oxidase operons from more than 50 species of bacteria contain a short gene encoding a small protein that ranges from ?30 to 50 amino acids and is predicted to localize to the cell membrane. Although cytochrome bd oxidases have been studied for more than 70 years, little is known about the role of this small protein, denoted CydX, in oxidase activity. Here we report that Escherichia coli mutants lacking CydX exhibit phenotypes associated with reduced oxidase activity. In addition, cell membrane extracts from ?cydX mutant strains have reduced oxidase activity in vitro. Consistent with data showing that CydX is required for cytochrome bd oxidase activity, copurification experiments indicate that CydX interacts with the CydAB cytochrome bd oxidase complex. Together, these data support the hypothesis that CydX is a subunit of the CydAB cytochrome bd oxidase complex that is required for complex activity. The results of mutation analysis of CydX suggest that few individual amino acids in the small protein are essential for function, at least in the context of protein overexpression. In addition, the results of analysis of the paralogous small transmembrane protein AppX show that the two proteins could have some overlapping functionality in the cell and that both have the potential to interact with the CydAB complex. PMID:23749980

  12. NADPH oxidases in Eukaryotes: red algae provide new hints!

    PubMed

    Hervé, Cécile; Tonon, Thierry; Collén, Jonas; Corre, Erwan; Boyen, Catherine

    2006-03-01

    The red macro-alga Chondrus crispus is known to produce superoxide radicals in response to cell-free extracts of its green algal pathogenic endophyte Acrochaete operculata. So far, no enzymes involved in this metabolism have been isolated from red algae. We report here the isolation of a gene encoding a homologue of the respiratory burst oxidase gp91(phox) in C. crispus, named Ccrboh. This single copy gene encodes a polypeptide of 825 amino acids. Search performed in available genome and EST algal databases identified sequences showing common features of NADPH oxidases in other algae such as the red unicellular Cyanidioschyzon merolae, the economically valuable red macro-alga Porphyra yezoensis and the two diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Domain organization and phylogenetic relationships with plant, animal, fungal and algal NADPH oxidase homologues were analyzed. Transcription analysis of the C. crispus gene revealed that it was over-transcribed during infection of C. crispus gametophyte by the endophyte A. operculata, and after incubation in presence of atrazine, methyl jasmonate and hydroxyperoxides derived from C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also illustrate the interest of exploring the red algal lineage for gaining insight into the deep evolution of NADPH oxidases in Eukaryotes. PMID:16344959

  13. Molecular Identification of Sibling Species of Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) That Parasitize Buprestid and Cerambycid Beetles by Using Partial Sequences of Mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 and 28S Ribosomal RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Zhongqi; Wang, Xiaoyi; Hou, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    The species belonging to Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are currently the most important insect natural enemies of wood borer pests, mainly buprestid and cerambycid beetles, in China. However, some sibling species of this genus are very difficult to distinguish because of their similar morphological features. To address this issue, we conducted phylogenetic and genetic analyses of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 28S RNA gene sequences from eight species of Sclerodermus reared from different wood borer pests. The eight sibling species were as follows: S. guani Xiao et Wu, S. sichuanensis Xiao, S. pupariae Yang et Yao, and Sclerodermus spp. (Nos. 1–5). A 594-bp fragment of COI and 750-bp fragment of 28S were subsequently sequenced. For COI, the G-C content was found to be low in all the species, averaging to about 30.0%. Sequence divergences (Kimura-2-parameter distances) between congeneric species averaged to 4.5%, and intraspecific divergences averaged to about 0.09%. Further, the maximum sequence divergences between congeneric species and Sclerodermus sp. (No. 5) averaged to about 16.5%. All 136 samples analyzed were included in six reciprocally monophyletic clades in the COI neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. The NJ tree inferred from the 28S rRNA sequence yielded almost identical results, but the samples from S. guani, S. sichuanensis, S. pupariae, and Sclerodermus spp. (Nos. 1–4) clustered together and only Sclerodermus sp. (No. 5) clustered separately. Our findings indicate that the standard barcode region of COI can be efficiently used to distinguish morphologically similar Sclerodermus species. Further, we speculate that Sclerodermus sp. (No. 5) might be a new species of Sclerodermus. PMID:25782000

  14. Novel genetic diversity within Anopheles punctimacula s.l.: Phylogenetic discrepancy between the Barcode cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2)

    PubMed Central

    Loaiza, Jose R.; Scott, Marilyn E.; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I.; Rovira, Jose R.; Dutari, Larissa C.; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bickersmith, Sara; Conn, Jan E.

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles punctimacula s.l. is a regional malaria vector in parts of Central America, but its role in transmission is controversial due to its unresolved taxonomic status. Two cryptic species, An. malefactor and An. calderoni, have been previously confused with this taxon, and evidence for further genetic differentiation has been proposed. In the present study we collected and morphologically identified adult female mosquitoes of An. punctimacula s.l. from 10 localities across Panama and one in Costa Rica. DNA sequences from three molecular regions, the three prime end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (3´ COI), the Barcode region in the five prime end of the COI (5´ COI), and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) were used to test the hypothesis of new molecular lineages within An. punctimacula s.l. Phylogenetic analyses using the 3´ COI depicted six highly supported molecular lineages (A–F), none of which was An. malefactor. In contrast, phylogenetic inference with the 5´ COI demonstrated paraphyly. Tree topologies based on the combined COI regions and ITS2 sequence data supported the same six lineages as the 3´ COI alone. As a whole this evidence suggests that An. punctimacula s.l. comprises two geographically isolated lineages, but it is not clear whether these are true species. The phylogenetic structure of the An. punctimacula cluster as well as that of other unknown lineages (C type I vs C type II; D vs E) appears to be driven by geographic partition, because members of these assemblages did not overlap spatially. We report An. malefactor for the first time in Costa Rica, but our data do not support the presence of An. calderoni in Panama. PMID:23806568

  15. Lysyl Oxidase-Like and Lysyl Oxidase Are Present in the Dermis and Epidermis of a Skin Equivalent and in Human Skin and Are Associated to Elastic Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuelle Noblesse; Valérie Cenizo; Charbel Bouez; Agnès Borel; Claudine Gleyzal; Simone Peyrol; Marie-Paule Jacob; Pascal Sommer; Odile Damour

    2004-01-01

    Elastic fiber formation involves the secretion of tropoelastin which is converted to insoluble elastin by cross-linking, initiated by the oxidative deamination of lysine residues by lysyl oxidase. Five lysyl oxidase genes have been discovered. This study deals with the expression of two isoforms, LOX and LOX-like (LOXL), in human foreskin and in a human skin-equivalent (SE) model that allows the

  16. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of a Cytokinin Oxidase from Maize1

    PubMed Central

    Bilyeu, Kristin D.; Cole, Jean L.; Laskey, James G.; Riekhof, Wayne R.; Esparza, Thomas J.; Kramer, Michelle D.; Morris, Roy O.

    2001-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cytokinin oxidases, which oxidatively remove cytokinin side chains to produce adenine and the corresponding isopentenyl aldehyde, play a major role in regulating cytokinin levels in planta. Partially purified fractions of cytokinin oxidase from various species have been studied for many years, but have yet to clearly reveal the properties of the enzyme or to define its biological significance. Details of the genomic organization of the recently isolated maize (Zea mays) cytokinin oxidase gene (ckx1) and some of its Arabidopsis homologs are now presented. Expression of an intronless ckx1 in Pichia pastoris allowed production of large amounts of recombinant cytokinin oxidase and facilitated detailed kinetic and cofactor analysis and comparison with the native enzyme. The enzyme is a flavoprotein containing covalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide, but no detectable heavy metals. Expression of the oxidase in maize tissues is described. PMID:11154345

  17. Plastid terminal oxidase 2 (PTOX2) is the major oxidase involved in chlororespiration in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Houille-Vernes, Laura; Rappaport, Fabrice; Wollman, Francis-André; Alric, Jean; Johnson, Xenie

    2011-01-01

    By homology with the unique plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) found in plants, two genes encoding oxidases have been found in the Chlamydomonas genome, PTOX1 and PTOX2. Here we report the identification of a knockout mutant of PTOX2. Its molecular and functional characterization demonstrates that it encodes the oxidase most predominantly involved in chlororespiration in this algal species. In this mutant, the plastoquinone pool is constitutively reduced under dark-aerobic conditions, resulting in the mobile light-harvesting complexes being mainly, but reversibly, associated with photosystem I. Accordingly, the ptox2 mutant shows lower fitness than wild type when grown under phototrophic conditions. Single and double mutants devoid of the cytochrome b6f complex and PTOX2 were used to measure the oxidation rates of plastoquinols via PTOX1 and PTOX2. Those lacking both the cytochrome b6f complex and PTOX2 were more sensitive to light than the single mutants lacking either the cytochrome b6f complex or PTOX2, which discloses the role of PTOX2 under extreme conditions where the plastoquinone pool is overreduced. A model for chlororespiration is proposed to relate the electron flow rate through these alternative pathways and the redox state of plastoquinones in the dark. This model suggests that, in green algae and plants, the redox poise results from the balanced accumulation of PTOX and NADPH dehydrogenase. PMID:22143777

  18. Plastid terminal oxidase 2 (PTOX2) is the major oxidase involved in chlororespiration in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Houille-Vernes, Laura; Rappaport, Fabrice; Wollman, Francis-André; Alric, Jean; Johnson, Xenie

    2011-12-20

    By homology with the unique plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) found in plants, two genes encoding oxidases have been found in the Chlamydomonas genome, PTOX1 and PTOX2. Here we report the identification of a knockout mutant of PTOX2. Its molecular and functional characterization demonstrates that it encodes the oxidase most predominantly involved in chlororespiration in this algal species. In this mutant, the plastoquinone pool is constitutively reduced under dark-aerobic conditions, resulting in the mobile light-harvesting complexes being mainly, but reversibly, associated with photosystem I. Accordingly, the ptox2 mutant shows lower fitness than wild type when grown under phototrophic conditions. Single and double mutants devoid of the cytochrome b(6)f complex and PTOX2 were used to measure the oxidation rates of plastoquinols via PTOX1 and PTOX2. Those lacking both the cytochrome b(6)f complex and PTOX2 were more sensitive to light than the single mutants lacking either the cytochrome b(6)f complex or PTOX2, which discloses the role of PTOX2 under extreme conditions where the plastoquinone pool is overreduced. A model for chlororespiration is proposed to relate the electron flow rate through these alternative pathways and the redox state of plastoquinones in the dark. This model suggests that, in green algae and plants, the redox poise results from the balanced accumulation of PTOX and NADPH dehydrogenase. PMID:22143777

  19. NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794–2814. PMID:24180474

  20. [Alternative oxidase in industrial fungi].

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Liu, Qiang; He, Hao; Li, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have been used in industrial fermentation extensively. Based on non-phosphorylating electron transport process, alternative respiration pathway (ARP) acts as an energy overflow, which can balance carbon metabolism and electron transport, allow the continuance of tricarboxylic acid cycle without the formation of ATP, and permit the turnover of carbon skeletons. Alternative respiration pathway also plays an important role in the stress response of fungi and the physiological function of conditioned pathogen. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase responsible for the activity of alternative respiration pathway, which exists widely in higher plants, parts of fungi and algae. Owing to the property that alternative oxidase (AOX) is sensitive to salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and insensitive to conventional inhibitors of cytochrome respiration, alternative respiration pathway by AOX is also named as cyanide-resistant respiration (CRR). In recent years, the study of the alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase has been a hot topic in the area involving cellular respiration metabolism. In this review we summarized the latest research advances about the functions of alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase in industrial fungi. PMID:26021078

  1. Studies on the mechanism of alcohol oxidase 

    E-print Network

    Menon, Vipin

    1994-01-01

    The flavoprotein alcohol oxidase from the yeast Candida boidinii catalyzes the oxidation of primary alcohols to aidehydes with transfer of the electrons to molecular oxygen to form hydrogen peroxide. The mechanism of alcohol oxidase with beta...

  2. Subunit function in eukaryote cytochrome c oxidase. A mutation in the nuclear-coded subunit IV allows assembly but alters the function and stability of yeast cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, R; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Z; Marusich, M; Capaldi, R A

    1991-04-25

    Strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae disrupted in YCOX4, the nuclear gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV, do not assemble a functional or spectrally visible oxidase. We report the characterization of a yeast strain, RM1, expressing a mutated YCOX4 gene which is temperature sensitive for respiration at 37 degrees C, but incorporates cytochrome aa3 over all growth temperatures. The mutant enzyme is less stable than the wild type, with subunit IV readily proteolyzed without gross denaturation of the complex but with a concomitant loss of oxidase activity. When grown fermentatively at 37 degrees C, cytochrome c oxidase from the mutant strain had a turnover number of less than 3% of the normal complex, while Km values and subunit levels were comparable to normal. Thus alterations in subunit IV can perturb the enzyme structure and alter its catalytic rate, implying a role for this subunit in cytochrome c oxidase function as distinct from assembly. PMID:1850417

  3. GLUCOSE OXIDASE REDUCES OXIDATION IN FROZEN SHRIMP

    E-print Network

    role oxygen can have during storage of foods (Scott, 1958). Glucose oxidase-catalase preparations are used to carry out the net reaction: 2 glucose + oxygen glucose oxidase > 2 gluconic acid. catalase of glucose oxidase -catalase would probably be more obvious in shrimp, which were packed in transparent bags

  4. Stereoselective Hydrogen Abstraction by Galactose Oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan G. Minasian; Mei M. Whittaker; James W. Whittaker

    2004-01-01

    The fungal enzyme galactose oxidase is a radical copper oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of a broad range of primary alcohols to aldehydes. Previous mechanistic studies have revealed a large substrate deuterium kinetic isotope effect on galactose oxidase turnover whose magnitude varies systematically over a series of substituted benzyl alcohols, reflecting a change in the character of the transition state

  5. Identification in Marinomonas mediterranea of a novel quinoprotein with glycine oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Campillo-Brocal, Jonatan Cristian; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A novel enzyme with lysine-epsilon oxidase activity was previously described in the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea. This enzyme differs from other l-amino acid oxidases in not being a flavoprotein but containing a quinone cofactor. It is encoded by an operon with two genes lodA and lodB. The first one codes for the oxidase, while the second one encodes a protein required for the expression of the former. Genome sequencing of M. mediterranea has revealed that it contains two additional operons encoding proteins with sequence similarity to LodA. In this study, it is shown that the product of one of such genes, Marme_1655, encodes a protein with glycine oxidase activity. This activity shows important differences in terms of substrate range and sensitivity to inhibitors to other glycine oxidases previously described which are flavoproteins synthesized by Bacillus. The results presented in this study indicate that the products of the genes with different degrees of similarity to lodA detected in bacterial genomes could constitute a reservoir of different oxidases. PMID:23873697

  6. Bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria: X-ray determination of the complete crystal structure and a rational surface modification for enhanced electrocatalytic O2 reduction.

    PubMed

    Cracknell, James A; McNamara, Thomas P; Lowe, Edward D; Blanford, Christopher F

    2011-07-01

    The blue multi-copper oxidase bilirubin oxidase (BOx) from the ascomycete plant pathogen Myrothecium verrucaria (Mv) efficiently catalyses the oxidation of bilirubin to biliverdin, with the concomitant reduction of O(2) to water, a reaction of considerable interest for low-temperature bio-fuel cell applications. We have solved the complete X-ray determined structure of Mv BOx at 2.4 Å resolution, using molecular replacement with the Spore Coat Protein A (CotA) enzyme from Bacillus subtilis (PDB code 1GSK) as a template. The structure reveals an unusual environment around the blue type 1 copper (T1 Cu) that includes two non-coordinating hydrophilic amino acids, asparagine and threonine. The presence of a long, narrow and hydrophilic pocket near the T1 Cu suggests that structure of the substrate-binding site is dynamically determined in vivo. We show that the interaction between the binding pocket of Mv BOx and its highly conjugated natural organic substrate, bilirubin, can be used to stabilise the enzyme on a pyrolytic graphite electrode, more than doubling its electrocatalytic activity relative to the current obtained by simple adsorption of the protein to the carbon surface. PMID:21544308

  7. NADPH oxidases in Eukaryotes: red algae provide new hints!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cécile Hervé; Thierry Tonon; Jonas Collén; Erwan Corre; Catherine Boyen

    2006-01-01

    The red macro-alga Chondrus crispus is known to produce superoxide radicals in response to cell-free extracts of its green algal pathogenic endophyte Acrochaete operculata. So far, no enzymes involved in this metabolism have been isolated from red algae. We report here the isolation of a gene\\u000a encoding a homologue of the respiratory burst oxidase gp91phox in C. crispus, named Ccrboh.

  8. Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides (also referred to as Protox- or PPO-inhibiting herbicides) were commercialized in the 1960s and their market share reached approximately 10% (total herbicide active ingredient output) in the late 1990’s. The wide-spread adoption of glyphosate-resista...

  9. Silencing of DUOX NADPH Oxidases by Promoter Hypermethylation in Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Luxen; Steven A. Belinsky; Ulla G. Knaus

    2008-01-01

    The development of lung cancer is associated with aberrant promoter methylation and thus transcriptional silencing of many tumor suppressor genes or genes critical for cellular maintenance. Here we report that the NADPH oxidases DUOX1 and DUOX2, which are one of the main sources for reactive oxygen species production in the airway, are frequently silenced in human lung cancer. Screening of

  10. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in wheat and wild relatives: Molecular evidence for a multigene family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is the major cause of browning reactions that discolor Asian noodles and other wheat products. It has been hypothesized that genes encoding wheat PPOs may have evolved by gene duplication into a multigene family. Here we characterized PPO genomic sequences from diploid...

  11. Cholesterol oxidase with high catalytic activity from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Screening, molecular genetic analysis, expression and characterization.

    PubMed

    Doukyu, Noriyuki; Nihei, Shyou

    2015-07-01

    An extracellular cholesterol oxidase producer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA157, was isolated by a screening method to detect 6?-hydroperoxycholest-4-en-3-one-forming cholesterol oxidase. On the basis of a putative cholesterol oxidase gene sequence in the genome sequence data of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1, the cholesterol oxidase gene from strain PA157 was cloned. The mature form of the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. The overexpressed enzyme formed inclusion bodies in recombinant E. coli cells grown at 20°C and 30°C. A soluble and active PA157 enzyme was obtained when the recombinant cells were grown at 10°C. The purified enzyme was stable at pH 5.5 to 10 and was most active at pH 7.5-8.0, showing optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 70°C. The enzyme retained about 90% of its activity after incubation for 30 min at 70°C. The enzyme oxidized 3?-hydroxysteroids such as cholesterol, ?-cholestanol, and ?-sitosterol at high rates. The Km value and Vmax value for the cholesterol were 92.6 ?M and 15.9 ?mol/min/mg of protein, respectively. The Vmax value of the enzyme was higher than those of commercially available cholesterol oxidases. This is the first report to characterize a cholesterol oxidase from P. aeruginosa. PMID:25573142

  12. Direct electrochemistry and intramolecular electron transfer of ascorbate oxidase confined on L-cysteine self-assembled gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bhushan; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Fujikawa, Shigenori; Okajima, Takeyoshi; Mao, Lanqun; Ohsaka, Takeo

    2014-02-01

    A direct electrochemistry and intramolecular electron transfer of multicopper oxidases are of a great importance for the fabrication of these enzyme-based bioelectrochemical-devices. Ascorbate oxidase from Acremonium sp. (ASOM) has been successfully immobilized via a chemisorptive interaction on the l-cysteine self-assembled monolayer modified gold electrode (cys-SAM/AuE). Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of ASOM on the cys-SAM/AuE were studied using cyclic voltammetry. A well-defined redox wave centered at 166±3mV (vs. Ag?AgCl?KCl(sat.)) was observed in 5.0mM phosphate buffer solution (pH7.0) at the fabricated ASOM electrode, abbreviated as ASOM/cys-SAM/AuE, confirming a direct electrochemistry, i.e., a direct electron transfer (DET) between ASOM and cys-SAM/AuE. The direct electrochemistry of ASOM was further confirmed by taking into account the chemical oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by O2 via an intramolecular electron transfer in the ASOM as well as the electrocatalytic oxidation of AA at the ASOM/cys-SAM/AuE. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the adsorption of ASOM on the cys-SAM/AuE have been elaborated along with its direct electron transfer at the modified electrodes on the basis of its intramolecular electron transfer and electrocatalytic activity towards ascorbic acid oxidation and O2 reduction. ASOM saturated surface area was obtained as 2.41×10(-11)molcm(-2) with the apparent adsorption coefficient of 1.63×10(6)Lmol(-1). The ASOM confined on the cys-SAM/AuE possesses its essential enzymatic function. PMID:24189123

  13. Effects of Iodonium-Class Flavin Dehydrogenase Inhibitors on Growth, Reactive Oxygen Production, Cell Cycle Progression, NADPH Oxidase 1 Levels, and Gene Expression in Human Colon Cancer Cells and Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Doroshow, James H.; Gaur, Shikha; Markel, Susan; Lu, Jiamo; van Balgooy, Josephus; Synold, Timothy W.; Xi, Bixin; Wu, Xiwei; Juhasz, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Iodonium-class flavoprotein dehydrogenase inhibitors have been demonstrated to possess antiproliferative potential and to inhibit reactive oxygen production in human tumor cells, although the mechanism(s) that explain the relationship between altered cell growth and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remain an area of active investigation. Because of the ability of these compounds to inhibit the activity of flavoprotein-containing epithelial NADPH oxidases, we chose to examine the effects of several iodonium-class flavoprotein inhibitors on human colon cancer cell lines that express high, functional levels of a single such oxidase (NADPH oxidase 1 [Nox1]). We found that diphenylene iodonium (DPI), di-2-thienyliodonium (DTI), and iodoniumdiphenyl inhibited the growth of Caco2, HT-29, and LS-174T colon cancer cells at concentrations (10–250 nM for DPI, 0.5–2.5 ?M for DTI, and 155 nM to 10 ?M for iodoniumdiphenyl) substantially lower than for DU145 human prostate cancer cells that do not possess functional NADPH oxidase activity. Drug treatment was associated with decreased H2O2 production and diminished intracellular ROS levels, lasting up to 24 hr, following short-term (1-hr) exposure to the iodonium analogs. Decreased tumor cell proliferation was caused, in part, by a profound block in cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface in both LS-174T and HT-29 cells exposed to either DPI or DTI; and the G1 block was produced, for LS-174T cells, by upregulation of p27 and a drug concentration-related decrease in the expression of cyclins D1, A, and E that was partially prevented by exogenous H2O2. Not only did DPI and DTI decrease intracellular ROS, they both also significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of Nox1, potentially contributing to the prolonged reduction in tumor cell reactive oxygen levels. We also found that DPI and DTI significantly decreased the growth of both HT-29 and LS-174T human tumor xenografts, at dose levels that produced peak plasma concentrations similar to those utilized for our in vitro experiments. These findings suggest that iodonium analogs have therapeutic potential for NADPH oxidase-containing human colon cancers in vivo, and that at least part of their antineoplastic mechanism of action may be related to targeting Nox1. PMID:23314043

  14. Effects of iodonium-class flavin dehydrogenase inhibitors on growth, reactive oxygen production, cell cycle progression, NADPH oxidase 1 levels, and gene expression in human colon cancer cells and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Doroshow, James H; Gaur, Shikha; Markel, Susan; Lu, Jiamo; van Balgooy, Josephus; Synold, Timothy W; Xi, Bixin; Wu, Xiwei; Juhasz, Agnes

    2013-04-01

    Iodonium-class flavoprotein dehydrogenase inhibitors have been demonstrated to possess antiproliferative potential and to inhibit reactive oxygen production in human tumor cells, although the mechanism(s) that explains the relationship between altered cell growth and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains an area of active investigation. Because of the ability of these compounds to inhibit the activity of flavoprotein-containing epithelial NADPH oxidases, we chose to examine the effects of several iodonium-class flavoprotein inhibitors on human colon cancer cell lines that express high, functional levels of a single such oxidase (NADPH oxidase 1, or Nox1). We found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), di-2-thienyliodonium (DTI), and iodonium diphenyl inhibited the growth of Caco2, HT-29, and LS-174T colon cancer cells at concentrations (10-250nM for DPI, 0.5-2.5?M for DTI, and 155nM to 10?M for iodonium diphenyl) substantially lower than needed for DU145 human prostate cancer cells, which do not possess functional NADPH oxidase activity. Drug treatment was associated with decreased H2O2 production and diminished intracellular ROS levels, lasting up to 24h, after short-term (1-h) exposure to the iodonium analogs. Decreased tumor cell proliferation was caused, in part, by a profound block in cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface in both LS-174T and HT-29 cells exposed to either DPI or DTI; and the G1 block was produced, for LS-174T cells, by upregulation of p27 and a drug concentration-related decrease in the expression of cyclins D1, A, and E that was partially prevented by exogenous H2O2. Not only did DPI and DTI decrease intracellular ROS, they both also significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of Nox1, potentially contributing to the prolonged reduction in tumor cell reactive oxygen levels. We also found that DPI and DTI significantly decreased the growth of both HT-29 and LS-174T human tumor xenografts, at dose levels that produced peak plasma concentrations similar to those utilized for our in vitro experiments. These findings suggest that iodonium analogs have therapeutic potential for NADPH oxidase-containing human colon cancers in vivo and that at least part of their antineoplastic mechanism of action may be related to targeting Nox1. PMID:23314043

  15. Purification of enzymatically active human lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like protein from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang Taek; Kim, Moon Suk; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyung Chul; Kim, Youngho

    2003-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular copper dependent enzyme catalyzing lysine-derived cross-links in extracellular matrix proteins. Recent molecular cloning has revealed the existence of a LOX family consisting of LOX and four lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXLs; LOXL, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4). Each member of the LOX family contains a copper-binding domain, residues for lysyl-tyrosyl quinone, and a cytokine receptor-like domain. Very recently, novel functions, such as tumor suppression, cellular senescence, and chemotaxis, have been attributed to this family of amine oxidases, but functional differences among the family members have yet to be determined. For efficient expression and purification, we cloned the cDNAs corresponding to proteolytically processed forms of LOX (LOX-p) and LOXL (LOXL-p1 and LOXL-p2) into a bacterial expression vector pET21a with six continuous histidine codons attached to the 3' of the gene. The recombinant proteins were purified with nickel-chelating affinity chromatography and converted into enzymatically active forms by stepwise dialysis in the presence of N-lauroylsarcosinate and Cu2+. The purified LOX-p, LOXL-p1, and LOXL-p2 proteins showed specific amine oxidase activity of 0.097, 0.054, and 0.150 U/mg, respectively, which was inhibited by beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a specific inhibitor of LOX. Availability of these pure and active forms of LOX and LOXLs will be significantly helpful in functional studies related to substrate specificity and crystal structures of this family of amine oxidases. PMID:14550642

  16. NADPH oxidases and cardiac remodelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Nabeebaccus; Min Zhang; Ajay M. Shah

    2011-01-01

    A heart under chronic stress undergoes cardiac remodelling, a process that comprises structural and functional changes including\\u000a cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, contractile dysfunction, cell death and ventricular dilatation. Reactive\\u000a oxygen species (ROS)-dependent modulation of intracellular signalling is implicated in the development of cardiac remodelling.\\u000a Among the different ROS sources that are present in the heart, NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are particularly

  17. NADPH oxidase and cardiac failure.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Junya; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2010-08-01

    Increases in oxidative stress in the heart play an important role in mediating hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the consequent development of heart failure. Although it has been widely believed that electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the primary source of oxidative stress in the failing heart, increasing lines of evidence suggest that enzymes which produce reactive oxygen species may also contribute to it. NADPH oxidases are transmembrane enzymes dedicated to producing superoxide (O(2)(-)) by transferring an electron from NAD(P)H to molecular oxygen. Nox4 is a major NADPH oxidase isoform expressed in the heart. Nox4 is localized primarily at mitochondria in cardiac myocytes, and upregulation of Nox4 hypertrophic stimuli enhances O(2)(-) production, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby playing an important role in mediating cardiac dysfunction. Since Nox4 could be a key molecule mediating oxidative stress and pathological hypertrophy, it may serve as an important target of heart failure treatment. In this review, the importance of NADPH oxidases as sources of increased oxidative stress in the failing heart and the role of Nox4 in mediating growth and death of cardiac myocytes are discussed. PMID:20559780

  18. NADPH Oxidase and Cardiac Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Junya; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2011-01-01

    Increases in oxidative stress in the heart play an important role in mediating hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and the consequent development of heart failure. Although it has been widely believed that electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the primary source of oxidative stress in the failing heart, increasing lines of evidence suggest that enzymes which produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) may also contribute to it. NADPH oxidases are transmembrane enzymes dedicated to producing superoxide (O2-) by transferring an electron from NAD(P)H to molecular oxygen. Nox4 is a major NADPH oxidase isoform expressed in the heart. Nox4 is localized primarily at mitochondria in cardiac myocytes, and upregulation of Nox4 hypertrophic stimuli enhances O2- production, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby playing an important role in mediating cardiac dysfunction. Since Nox4 could be a key molecule mediating oxidative stress and pathological hypertrophy, it may serve as an important target of heart failure treatment. In this review, the importance of NADPH oxidases as sources of increased oxidative stress in the failing heart and the role of Nox4 in mediating growth and death of cardiac myocytes are discussed. PMID:20559780

  19. New clusters of arsenite oxidase and unusual bacterial groups in enrichments from arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Munawar; Vogler, Susann; Zargar, Kamrun; Schmidt, Anne-Christine; Saltikov, Chad; Seifert, Jana; Schlömann, Michael

    2012-07-01

    In the present study cultivation-dependent and molecular methods were applied in combination to investigate the arsenite-oxidizing communities in enrichment cultures from arsenic and lead smelter-impacted soils with respect to both 16S rRNA and arsenite oxidase gene diversity. Enrichments with arsenite as the only electron donor resulted in completely different communities than enrichments with yeast extract and the simultaneous presence of arsenite. The lithoautotrophic community appeared to be dominated by Ferrimicrobium-related Actinobacteria, unusual Acidobacteria, Myxobacteria, and ?-Proteobacteria but the heterotrophic community comprised many Dokdonella-related ?-Proteobacteria. Gene sequences of clones encoding arsenite oxidase from the enrichment for lithoautotrophs belonged to three major clusters with sequences from non-cultivated microorganisms. So, primers used to detect arsenite oxidase genes could amplify the genes from many ?-, ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, but not from various strains of the other phyla present in the enrichment for lithotrophs. This was also observed for the isolates where arsenite oxidase genes from new proteobacterial isolates of the genera Burkholderia, Bosea, Alcaligenes, Bradyrhizobium and Methylobacterium could be amplified but the genes of the new Rhodococcus isolate S43 could not. The results indicate that the ability to oxidize arsenite is widespread in various unusual taxa, and molecular methods for their detection require further improvement. PMID:22350109

  20. Origin and evolution of lysyl oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Grau-Bové, Xavier; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Rodriguez-Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidases (LOX) are copper-dependent enzymes that oxidize primary amine substrates to reactive aldehydes. The best-studied role of LOX enzymes is the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in animals by cross-linking collagens and elastin, although intracellular functions have been reported as well. Five different LOX enzymes have been identified in mammals, LOX and LOX-like (LOXL) 1 to 4, showing a highly conserved catalytic carboxy terminal domain and more divergence in the rest of the sequence. Here we have surveyed a wide selection of genomes in order to infer the evolutionary history of LOX. We identified LOX proteins not only in animals, but also in many other eukaryotes, as well as in bacteria and archaea – which reveals a pre-metazoan origin for this gene family. LOX genes expanded during metazoan evolution resulting in two superfamilies, LOXL2/L3/L4 and LOX/L1/L5. Considering the current knowledge on the function of mammalian LOX isoforms in ECM remodeling, we propose that LOXL2/L3/L4 members might have preferentially been involved in making cross-linked collagen IV-based basement membrane, whereas the diversification of LOX/L1/L5 forms contributed to chordate/vertebrate-specific ECM innovations, such as elastin and fibronectin. Our work provides a novel view on the evolution of this family of enzymes. PMID:26024311

  1. Origin and evolution of lysyl oxidases.

    PubMed

    Grau-Bové, Xavier; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Rodriguez-Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidases (LOX) are copper-dependent enzymes that oxidize primary amine substrates to reactive aldehydes. The best-studied role of LOX enzymes is the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in animals by cross-linking collagens and elastin, although intracellular functions have been reported as well. Five different LOX enzymes have been identified in mammals, LOX and LOX-like (LOXL) 1 to 4, showing a highly conserved catalytic carboxy terminal domain and more divergence in the rest of the sequence. Here we have surveyed a wide selection of genomes in order to infer the evolutionary history of LOX. We identified LOX proteins not only in animals, but also in many other eukaryotes, as well as in bacteria and archaea - which reveals a pre-metazoan origin for this gene family. LOX genes expanded during metazoan evolution resulting in two superfamilies, LOXL2/L3/L4 and LOX/L1/L5. Considering the current knowledge on the function of mammalian LOX isoforms in ECM remodeling, we propose that LOXL2/L3/L4 members might have preferentially been involved in making cross-linked collagen IV-based basement membrane, whereas the diversification of LOX/L1/L5 forms contributed to chordate/vertebrate-specific ECM innovations, such as elastin and fibronectin. Our work provides a novel view on the evolution of this family of enzymes. PMID:26024311

  2. Residual NADPH Oxidase Activity and Isolated Lung Involvement in X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maria J.; McSherry, George D.; Ishmael, Faoud T.; Horwitz, Alexandra A.; Nino, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by inherited immune defects resulting from mutations in the NADPH oxidase complex genes. The X-linked type of CGD is caused by defects in the CYBB gene that encodes gp91-phox, a fundamental component of the NADPH oxidase complex. This mutation originates the most common and severe form of CGD, which typically has absence of NADPH oxidase function and aggressive multisystemic infections. We present the case of a 9-year-old child with a rare CYBB mutation that preserves some NADPH oxidase activity, resulting in an atypical mild form of X-linked CGD with isolated lung involvement. Although the clinical picture and partially preserved oxidase function suggested an autosomal recessive form of CGD, genetic testing demonstrated a mutation in the exon 3 of CYBB gene (c.252 G>A, p.Ala84Ala), an uncommon X-linked CGD variant that affects splicing. Atypical presentation and diagnostic difficulties are discussed. This case highlights that the diagnosis of mild forms of X-linked CGD caused by rare CYBB mutations and partially preserved NADPH function should be considered early in the evaluation of atypical and recurrent lung infections. PMID:23193493

  3. Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC inhibits tumor cell invasion and metastasis through a mechanism involving regulation of MMPs, prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl oxidase, nm23, ERK-1, ERK-2, STAT-1, and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in metastatic lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekharan; Kuttan, Girija

    2008-03-01

    Biophytum sensitivum is a traditional oriental herbal medicine that is known for its immunostimulatory and antitumor effects. Tumor metastasis is the most important cause of cancer death. Although B sensitivum was shown to inhibit metastasis, the mechanism underlying this action is not well understood. In the present report, the authors had studied the effect of B sensitivum on the invasion and motility of B16F-10 melanoma cells and investigate the regulatory effect on the expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), prolyl hydoxylase, lysyl oxidase, nm23, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1, ERK-2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1, and proinflammatory cytokines in metastatic tumor-bearing lungs. B sensitivum inhibited the invasion and motility of B16F-10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. B sensitivum inhibited the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas it activated STAT-1 expression in metastatic tumor-bearing lungs. Similarly, inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl oxidase, ERK-1, ERK-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression but activation of nm23 by B sensitivum was observed in metastatic tumor-bearing lungs. B sensitivum treatment also downregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor in metastatic tumor-bearing lungs. In B16F-10 cells, B sensitivum also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Overall, the results indicate that B sensitivum exhibits antimetastatic effects through the inhibition of invasion and motility. The results also suggest that MMPs, prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl oxidase, nm23, ERKs, VEGF, STAT, and proinflammatory cytokines are critical regulators of the B sensitivum-mediated antimetastatic effect. PMID:18292594

  4. Genetic analysis of iron uptake in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Dancis

    1998-01-01

    Objective: We used the methods of yeast genetics to identify genes involved in acquisition of iron by eukaryotic cells. Methods: Mutants were identified with defects in cellular iron uptake. These were organized into an upstream group and a downstream group. The upstream group was involved in the delivery of copper to the multicopper oxidase FET3. Mutants of this group were

  5. Computational Analysis and Low-Scale Constitutive Expression of Laccases Synthetic Genes GlLCC1 from Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B from Pleurotus ostreatus in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Guzmán, Edwin Alfredo; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A.; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio; Cardozo-Bernal, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Lacasses are multicopper oxidases that can catalyze aromatic and non-aromatic compounds concomitantly with reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases have generated a growing interest due to their biotechnological potential applications, such as lignocellulosic material delignification, biopulping and biobleaching, wastewater treatment, and transformation of toxic organic pollutants. In this work we selected fungal genes encoding for laccase enzymes GlLCC1 in Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B in Pleurotus ostreatus. These genes were optimized for codon use, GC content, and regions generating secondary structures. Laccase proposed computational models, and their interaction with ABTS [2, 2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] substrate was evaluated by molecular docking. Synthetic genes were cloned under the control of Pichia pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) constitutive promoter. P. pastoris X-33 was transformed with pGAPZ?A-LaccGluc-Stop and pGAPZ?A-LaccPost-Stop constructs. Optimization reduced GC content by 47 and 49% for LaccGluc-Stop and LaccPost-Stop genes, respectively. A codon adaptation index of 0.84 was obtained for both genes. 3D structure analysis using SuperPose revealed LaccGluc-Stop is similar to the laccase crystallographic structure 1GYC of Trametes versicolor. Interaction analysis of the 3D models validated through ABTS, demonstrated higher substrate affinity for LaccPost-Stop, in agreement with our experimental results with enzymatic activities of 451.08 ± 6.46 UL-1 compared to activities of 0.13 ± 0.028 UL-1 for LaccGluc-Stop. This study demonstrated that G. lucidum GlLCC1 and P. ostreatus POXA 1B gene optimization resulted in constitutive gene expression under GAP promoter and ?-factor leader in P. pastoris. These are important findings in light of recombinant enzyme expression system utility for environmentally friendly designed expression systems, because of the wide range of substrates that laccases can transform. This contributes to a great gamut of products in diverse settings: industry, clinical and chemical use, and environmental applications. PMID:25611746

  6. Ectopic Expression of Pumpkin Gibberellin Oxidases Alters Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Development of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Radi, Abeer; Lange, Theo; Niki, Tomoya; Koshioka, Masaji; Lange, Maria João Pimenta

    2006-01-01

    Immature pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds contain gibberellin (GA) oxidases with unique catalytic properties resulting in GAs of unknown function for plant growth and development. Overexpression of pumpkin GA 7-oxidase (CmGA7ox) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in seedlings with elongated roots, taller plants that flower earlier with only a little increase in bioactive GA4 levels compared to control plants. In the same way, overexpression of the pumpkin GA 3-oxidase1 (CmGA3ox1) resulted in a GA overdose phenotype with increased levels of endogenous GA4. This indicates that, in Arabidopsis, 7-oxidation and 3-oxidation are rate-limiting steps in GA plant hormone biosynthesis that control plant development. With an opposite effect, overexpression of pumpkin seed-specific GA 20-oxidase1 (CmGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis resulted in dwarfed plants that flower late with reduced levels of GA4 and increased levels of physiological inactive GA17 and GA25 and unexpected GA34 levels. Severe dwarfed plants were obtained by overexpression of the pumpkin GA 2-oxidase1 (CmGA2ox1) in Arabidopsis. This dramatic change in phenotype was accompanied by a considerable decrease in the levels of bioactive GA4 and an increase in the corresponding inactivation product GA34 in comparison to control plants. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of four pumpkin GA oxidase-encoding genes to modulate the GA plant hormone pool and alter plant stature and development. PMID:16384902

  7. Physiological roles of NOX/NADPH oxidase, the superoxide-generating enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Katsuyama, Masato; Matsuno, Kuniharu; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro

    2012-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a superoxide (O2•?)-generating enzyme first identified in phagocytes, essential for their bactericidal activities. Later, in non-phagocytes, production of O2•? was also demonstrated in an NADPH-dependent manner. In the last decade, several non-phagocyte-type NADPH oxidases have been identified. The catalytic subunit of these oxidases, NOX, constitutes the NOX family. There are five homologs in the family, NOX1 to NOX5, and two related enzymes, DUOX1 and DUOX2. Transgenic or gene-disrupted mice of the NOX family have also been established. NOX/DUOX proteins possess distinct features in the dependency on other components for their enzymatic activities, tissue distributions, and physiological functions. This review summarized the characteristics of the NOX family proteins, especially focused on their functions clarified through studies using gene-modified mice. PMID:22247596

  8. Some new functions of amine oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mondovì; P. Pietrangeli; L. Morpurgo; E. Masini; R. Federico; M. A. Mateescu; O. Befani; E. Agostinelli

    2003-01-01

    Two contrasting topics are examined in this account: the protective actions of amine oxidases (AOs) resulting from the elimination and\\/or modulation of the levels of polyamines and some biogenic amines, such as histamine, in anaphylactic shock and the cell damaging effect of AOs catabolic products. Other functions of the plasma copper-containing amine oxidase are considered; namely the modification of some

  9. Expression, purification, and immobilization of His-tagged d -amino acid oxidase of Trigonopsis variabilis in Pichia pastoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huabao Zheng; Xiaolan Wang; Jun Chen; Ke Zhu; Yuhua Zhao; Yunliu Yang; Sheng Yang; Weihong Jiang

    2006-01-01

    High-level expression of d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) has been reported in Pichia pastoris by integrating the DAO gene under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter (PAOX1). However, the time taken to reach peak product concentration is usually long (?43 h), and cultivation requires tight regulation of methanol feeding. In this paper, we describe the expression of His-tagged DAO (HDAO) in

  10. Immunological comparison of sulfite oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, V.; Barber, M.J. (Univ. South Florida College, Tampa (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Polyclonal antibodies (rabbit), elicited against FPLC-purified chicken and rat liver sulfite oxidase (SO), have been examined for inhibition and binding to purified chicken (C), rat (R), bovine (B), alligator (A) and shark (S) liver enzymes. Anti-CSO IgG cross-reacted with all five enzymes, with varying affinities, in the order CSO=ASO{gt}RSO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-ROS IgG also cross-reacted with all five enzymes in the order RSO{gt}CSO=ASO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited sulfite:cyt. c reductase (S:CR), sulfite:ferricyanide reductase (S:FR) and sulfite:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (S:DR) activities of CSO to different extents (S:CR{gt}S:FR=S:DR). Similar differential inhibition was found for anti-ROS IgG and RSO S:CR, S:FR and S:DR activities. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited S:CR activities in the order CSO=ASO{much gt}SSO{gt}BSO. RSO was uninhibited. For anti-RSO IgG the inhibition order was RSO{gt}SSO{gt}BSO{gt}ASO. CSO was uninhibited. Anti-CSO and RSO IgGs partially inhibited Chlorella nitrate reductase (NR). Minor cross-reactivity was found for xanthine oxidase. Common antigenic determinants for all five SO's and NR are indicated.

  11. Mice Deficient in Dual Oxidase Maturation Factors Are Severely Hypothyroid

    PubMed Central

    De Deken, Xavier; Mayo, Olga Barca; Raad, Houssam; Weiss, Mia; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Refetoff, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2) are evolutionary conserved reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases responsible for regulated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) release of epithelial cells. Specific maturation factors (DUOXA1 and DUOXA2) are required for targeting of functional DUOX enzymes to the cell surface. Mutations in the single-copy Duox and Duoxa genes of invertebrates cause developmental defects with reduced survival, whereas knockdown in later life impairs intestinal epithelial immune homeostasis. In humans, mutations in both DUOX2 and DUOXA2 can cause congenital hypothyroidism with partial iodide organification defects compatible with a role of DUOX2-generated H2O2 in driving thyroid peroxidase activity. The DUOX1/DUOXA1 system may account for residual iodide organification in patients with loss of DUOX2, but its physiological function is less clear. To provide a murine model recapitulating complete DUOX deficiency, we simultaneously targeted both Duoxa genes by homologous recombination. Knockout of Duoxa genes (Duoxa?/? mice) led to a maturation defect of DUOX proteins lacking Golgi processing of N-glycans and to loss of H2O2 release from thyroid tissue. Postnatally, Duoxa?/? mice developed severe goitreous congenital hypothyroidism with undetectable serum T4 and maximally disinhibited TSH levels. Heterozygous mice had normal thyroid function parameters. 125I uptake and discharge studies and probing of iodinated TG epitopes corroborated the iodide organification defect in Duoxa?/? mice. Duoxa?/? mice on continuous T4 replacement from P6 showed normal growth without an overt phenotype. Our results confirm in vivo the requirement of DUOXA for functional expression of DUOX-based reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases and the role of DUOX isoenzymes as sole source of hormonogenic H2O2. PMID:22301785

  12. Molecular phylogeny of naidid worms (Annelida: Clitellata) based on cytochrome oxidase I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra E. Bely; Gregory A. Wray

    2004-01-01

    Naidids are tiny, primarily freshwater oligochaete annelids which reproduce asexually by fission. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships within this group by sequencing 1224bp of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI) from 26 species of naidids (representing 13 of the 23 genera currently recognized), as well as from four tubificids, their closest allies. Although not completely concordant, maximum parsimony and

  13. EXPRESSION OF TURKEY TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND ACYL COA OXIDASE IN DIFFERENT TISSUES AND GENETIC POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several transcription factors are involved in regulating lipid metabolism in various animal tissues. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and PPAR alpha regulate both lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. Gene fragments for PPAR gamma, PPAR alpha, and acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) have b...

  14. Cold-adapted arsenite oxidase from a psychrotolerant Polaromonas species.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Thomas H; Heath, Matthew D; Martin, Andrew C R; Pankowski, Jaroslaw A; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A; Santini, Joanne M

    2013-04-01

    Polaromonas sp. str. GM1 is an aerobic, psychrotolerant, heterotrophic member of the Betaproteobacteria and is the only isolate capable of oxidising arsenite at temperatures below 10 °C. Sequencing of the aio gene cluster in GM1 revealed the presence of the aioB and aioA genes, which encode the arsenite oxidase but the regulatory genes typically found upstream of aioB in other members of the Proteobacteria were absent. The GM1 Aio was purified to homogeneity and was found to be a heterodimer. The enzyme contained Mo and Fe as cofactors and had, using the artificial electron acceptor 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, a Km for arsenite of 111.70 ± 0.88 ?M and a Vmax of 12.16 ± 0.30 U mg(-1), which is the highest reported specific activity for any known Aio. The temperature-activity profiles of the arsenite oxidases from GM1 and the mesophilic betaproteobacterium Alcaligenes faecalis were compared and showed that the GM1 Aio was more active at low temperatures than that of A. faecalis. A homology model of the GM1 Aio was made using the X-ray crystal structure of the Aio from A. faecalis as the template. Structural changes that account for cold adaptation were identified and it was found that these resulted in increased enzyme flexibility and a reduction in the hydrophobicity of the core. PMID:23150098

  15. Protective action of NADPH oxidase inhibitors and role of NADPH oxidase in pathogenesis of colon inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramonaite, Rima; Skieceviciene, Jurgita; Juzenas, Simonas; Salteniene, Violeta; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Matusevicius, Paulius; Borutaite, Vilmante; Kupcinskas, Limas

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in colon epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic colon inflammation in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: 8 mice with acute DSS-induced colitis (3.5% DSS solution; 7 d), 8 mice with chronic DSS-induced colitis (3.5% DSS solution for 5 d + water for 6 d; 4 cycles; total: 44 d) and 12 mice without DSS supplementation as a control group. Primary colonic epithelial cells were isolated using chelation method. The cells were cultivated in the presence of mediators (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), apocynin or diphenyleneiodonium). Viability of cells was assessed by fluorescent microscopy. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the cells was measured fluorometrically using Amplex Red. Production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) by the colonic epithelial cells was analysed by ELISA. Nox1 gene expression was assessed by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Our study showed that TNF-? level was increased in unstimulated primary colonic cells both in the acute and chronic colitis groups, whereas decreased viability, increased ROS production, and expression of Nox1 was characteristic only for chronic DSS colitis mice when compared to the controls. The stimulation by LPS increased ROS generation via NADPH oxidase and decreased cell viability in mice with acute colitis. Treatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitors increased cell viability and decreased the levels of ROS and TNF-? in the LPS-treated cells isolated from mice of both acute and chronic colitis groups. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed the importance of NADPH oxidase in the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic inflammation of the colon. PMID:25253955

  16. High-level expression of Rhodotorula gracilis D-amino acid oxidase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sandra; Nahalka, Jozef; Winkler, Margit; Bergler, Gabriele; Speight, Robert; Glieder, Anton; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    By combining gene design and heterologous over-expression of Rhodotorula gracilis D-amino acid oxidase (RgDAO) in Pichia pastoris, enzyme production was enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to literature benchmarks, giving 350 kUnits/l of fed-batch bioreactor culture with a productivity of 3.1 kUnits/l h. P. pastoris cells permeabilized by freeze-drying and incubation in 2-propanol (10% v/v) produce a highly active (1.6 kUnits/g dry matter) and stable oxidase preparation. Critical bottlenecks in the development of an RgDAO catalyst for industrial applications have been eliminated. PMID:21053050

  17. NADPH Oxidases and Angiotensin II Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Abel Martin; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade many studies have demonstrated the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NADPH oxidases in angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling, as well as a role for ROS in the development of different diseases in which Ang II is a central component. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of activation of NADPH oxidases by Ang II and describe the molecular targets of ROS in Ang II signaling in the vasculature, kidney and brain. We also discuss the effects of genetic manipulation of NADPH oxidase function on the physiology and pathophysiology of the renin angiotensin system. PMID:19059306

  18. Fibroblast immuno-diagnosis of cytochrome oxidase (COX) deficiency in mitochondrial disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ailian Du; Robert K. Naviaux; Thuy Le; Congfeng Xu; Steven S. Sommer; Richard H. Haas

    2011-01-01

    We studied cytochrome c oxidase (COX) expression patterns in nuclear and mtDNA gene defects. Using quantitative immunocytochemical assay for COX, heteroplasmic staining was seen in MELAS patients with mtDNA mutations but similar staining variability was seen in control cell lines and nuclear gene defects. All fibroblast lines showed a wide variability in cell-to-cell COX I staining intensity. All 8 patient

  19. Plant and animal glycolate oxidases have a common eukaryotic ancestor and convergently duplicated to evolve long-chain 2-hydroxy acid oxidases.

    PubMed

    Esser, Christian; Kuhn, Anke; Groth, Georg; Lercher, Martin J; Maurino, Veronica G

    2014-05-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is a crucial enzyme of plant photorespiration. The encoding gene is thought to have originated from endosymbiotic gene transfer between the eukaryotic host and the cyanobacterial endosymbiont at the base of plantae. However, animals also possess GOX activities. Plant and animal GOX belong to the gene family of (L)-2-hydroxyacid-oxidases ((L)-2-HAOX). We find that all (L)-2-HAOX proteins in animals and archaeplastida go back to one ancestral eukaryotic sequence; the sole exceptions are green algae of the chlorophyta lineage. Chlorophyta replaced the ancestral eukaryotic (L)-2-HAOX with a bacterial ortholog, a lactate oxidase that may have been obtained through the primary endosymbiosis at the base of plantae; independent losses of this gene may explain its absence in other algal lineages (glaucophyta, rhodophyta, and charophyta). We also show that in addition to GOX, plants possess (L)-2-HAOX proteins with different specificities for medium- and long-chain hydroxyacids (lHAOX), likely involved in fatty acid and protein catabolism. Vertebrates possess lHAOX proteins acting on similar substrates as plant lHAOX; however, the existence of GOX and lHAOX subfamilies in both plants and animals is not due to shared ancestry but is the result of convergent evolution in the two most complex eukaryotic lineages. On the basis of targeting sequences and predicted substrate specificities, we conclude that the biological role of plantae (L)-2-HAOX in photorespiration evolved by co-opting an existing peroxisomal protein. PMID:24408912

  20. Activation of polyphenol oxidase of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, N E

    1973-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase of leaves is located mainly in chloroplasts isolated by differential or sucrose density gradient centrifugation. This activity is part of the lamellar structure that is not lost on repeated washing of the plastids. The oxidase activity was stable during prolonged storage of the particles at 4 C or -18 C. The Km (dihydroxyphenylalanine) for spinach leaf polyphenol oxidase was 7 mm by a spectrophotometric assay and 2 mm by the manometric assay. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaf peroxisomal fraction, after isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient, did not coincide with the peroxisomal enzymes but was attributed to proplastids at nearly the same specific density.Plants were grouped by the latency properties for polyphenol oxidase in their isolated chloroplasts. In a group including spinach, Swiss chard, and beet leaves the plastids immediately after preparation from fresh leaves required a small amount of light for maximal rates of oxidation of dihydroxyphenylalanine. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the dark or light increased many fold during aging of these chloroplasts for 1 to 5 days. Soluble polyphenol oxidase of the cytoplasm was not so stimulated. Chloroplasts prepared from stored leaves were also much more active than from fresh leaves. Maximum rates of dihydroxyphenylalanine oxidation were 2 to 6 mmoles x mg(-1) chlorophyll x hr(-1). Equal stimulation of latent polyphenol oxidase in fresh or aged chloroplasts in this group was obtained by either light, an aged trypsin digest, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea, or antimycin A. A variety of other treatments did not activate or had little effect on the oxidase, including various peptides, salts, detergents, and other proteolytic enzymes.Activation of latent polyphenol oxidase in spinach chloroplasts by trypsin amounted to as much as 30-fold. The trypsin activation occurred even after the trypsin had been treated with 10% trichloroacetic acid, 1.0 n HCl or boiled for 30 minutes. No single peptide from the digested trypsin was found to be the sole activating factor. About 0.25 mug of trypsin activated 50% the polyphenol oxidase activity in a standard chloroplast assay containing 2.1 mug of chlorophyll. Treatment of spinach chloroplasts with tris buffer or ethylenediamine tetraacetate extracted the ATPase activity, but the polyphenol oxidase activity remained with the broken plastids. However these treatments increased the latent polyphenol oxidase activity 50- to 100-fold.Chloroplasts from a second group of plants, including alfalfa, wheat, oats, peas, and sugarcane leaves, oxidized dihydroxyphenylalanine at a rate of 11 to 120 mumoles x mg(-1) chlorophyll x hr(-1). Polyphenol oxidase in these chloroplasts required a low intensity of red light for activity. Fifty or 75% activation of the oxidase in wheat chloroplasts required 4 to 6 foot candles of light and more light was required for alfalfa chloroplasts. Blue or far red light were ineffective. Trypsin was inhibitory. Upon aging chloroplasts from wheat leaves, but not alfalfa or peas, for 5 to 7 days at 4 C the total polyphenol oxidase activity did not increase, but the activation characteristics changed to those of chloroplasts from the spinach group. Chloroplasts from a third group of plants, including bean, tomato, and corn leaves, slowly oxidized dihydroxyphenylalanine in the dark and exhibited no latency. PMID:16658308

  1. Cloning and characterization of a fourth human lysyl oxidase isoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Mäki, J M; Kivirikko, K I

    2001-04-15

    We report here the complete cDNA sequence and exon-intron organization of the human lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL)3 gene, a new member of the lysyl oxidase (LO) gene family. The predicted polypeptide is 753 amino acids in length, including a signal peptide of 25 residues. The C-terminal region, residues 529-729, contains a LO domain similar to those in the LOX (the first characterized LO isoenzyme), LOXL and LOXL2 polypeptides. It possesses the putative copper binding sequence, and the lysine and tyrosine residues that form the lysyltyrosyl quinone cofactor. The N-terminal region, which is similar to that in LOXL2 but not those in LOX and LOXL, contains four subregions similar to scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains and a putative nuclear localization signal. Recombinant LOXL3, expressed in HT-1080 cells, was secreted into the culture medium but was not detected by immunofluorescence staining in nuclei. The LOXL3 mRNA is 3.1 kb in size and is expressed in many tissues, the highest levels among the tissues studied being seen in the placenta, heart, ovary, testis, small intestine and spleen. PMID:11284725

  2. NADPH Oxidase Biology and the Regulation of Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Signaling and Cancer Drug Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Paletta-Silva, Rafael; Rocco-Machado, Nathália; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The outdated idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are only dangerous products of cellular metabolism, causing toxic and mutagenic effects on cellular components, is being replaced by the view that ROS have several important functions in cell signaling. In aerobic organisms, ROS can be generated from different sources, including the mitochondrial electron transport chain, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and lipoxygenase, but the only enzyme family that produces ROS as its main product is the NADPH oxidase family (NOX enzymes). These transfer electrons from NADPH (converting it to NADP?) to oxygen to make O2•?. Due to their stability, the products of NADPH oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide are considered the most favorable ROS to act as signaling molecules. Transcription factors that regulate gene expression involved in carcinogenesis are modulated by NADPH oxidase, and it has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapies. The present review discusses the mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase regulates signal transduction pathways in view of tyrosine kinase receptors, which are pivotal to regulating the hallmarks of cancer, and how ROS mediate the cytotoxicity of several cancer drugs employed in clinical practice. PMID:23434665

  3. Role of D-tryptophan oxidase in D-tryptophan utilization by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, R; Slonim, A; Kuhn, J

    1976-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 that require L-tryptophan (trp) are normally unable to utilize D-tryptophan to fulfill their requirement. However, secondary mutations (dadR) that confer this ability can be isolated. In such strains two distinct enzymes are found to be produced at high levels: D-amino acid oxidase (EC 1.4.3.3) and D-tryptophan oxidase. A convenient assay procedure for D-tryptophan oxidase is described. The two enzymes could be distinguished on the basis of their sensitivity to inhibition by L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. Strains that were trp dadR could not grow with D-tryptophan in the presence of L-phenylalanine, but further mutations, Fyo, could be isolated that allowed growth under these conditions. Some of them were characterized by further increases in the level of D-tryptophan oxidase activity and a sharp decrease in D-amino acid oxidase. These kinds of Fyo mutations lay in or near the dadR gene. The substrate specificity of the two enzymes toward a large number of compounds was examined. The transamination of aromatic keto acids was investigated. In the wild-type strain only a single enzyme, transaminase A (EC 2.6.1.5), was found, and it was irreversibly activated when subjected to elevated temperatures. The present state of our knowledge on D-amino acid utilization in E. coli is summarized. PMID:3493

  4. Cloning and characterization of a fifth human lysyl oxidase isoenzyme: the third member of the lysyl oxidase-related subfamily with four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains.

    PubMed

    Mäki, J M; Tikkanen, H; Kivirikko, K I

    2001-11-01

    We report the complete cDNA sequence of the human lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) gene, a new member of the lysyl oxidase (LO) gene family. The predicted polypeptide is 756 amino acids long, including a 24-residue signal peptide. The C-terminal region contains a LO domain similar to those of LOX, LOXL, LOXL2 and LOXL3. The N-terminal region has four subregions similar to scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains that are highly conserved with LOXL2 and LOXL3. The LOXL4 mRNA is approximately 4 kb in size and is expressed in many tissues, the highest levels among the tissues studied being in the skeletal muscle, testis and pancreas. Recombinant LOXL4 expressed in HT-1080 cells was secreted into the culture medium with no evident proteolytic processing. PMID:11691589

  5. Residual NADPH Oxidase and Survival in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Douglas B.; Alvord, W. Gregory; Heller, Theo; Feld, Jordan J.; Pike, Kristen M.; Marciano, Beatriz E.; Uzel, Gulbu; DeRavin, Suk See; Long Priel, Debra A.; Soule, Benjamin P.; Zarember, Kol A.; Malech, Harry L.; Holland, Steven M.; Gallin, John I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Failure to generate phagocyte-derived superoxide and related reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) is the major defect in chronic granulomatous disease, causing recurrent infections and granulomatous complications. Chronic granulomatous disease is caused by missense, nonsense, frameshift, splice, or deletion mutations in the genes for p22phox, p40phox, p47phox, p67phox (autosomal chronic granulomatous disease), or gp91phox (X-linked chronic granulomatous disease), which result in variable production of neutrophil-derived ROIs. We hypothesized that residual ROI production might be linked to survival in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Methods We assessed the risks of illness and death among 287 patients with chronic granulomatous disease from 244 kindreds. Residual ROI production was measured with the use of superoxide-dependent ferricytochrome c reduction and flow cytometry with dihydrorhodamine oxidation assays. Expression of NADPH oxidase component protein was detected by means of immunoblotting, and the affected genes were sequenced to identify causal mutations. Results Survival of patients with chronic granulomatous disease was strongly associated with residual ROI production as a continuous variable, independently of the specific gene affected. Patients with mutations in p47phox and most missense mutations in gp91phox (with the exception of missense mutations in the nucleotide-binding and heme-binding domains) had more residual ROI production than patients with nonsense, frameshift, splice, or deletion mutations in gp91phox. After adolescence, mortality curves diverged according to the extent of residual ROI production. Conclusions Patients with chronic granulomatous disease and modest residual production of ROI have significantly less severe illness and a greater likelihood of long-term survival than patients with little residual ROI production. The production of residual ROI is predicted by the specific NADPH oxidase mutation, regardless of the specific gene affected, and it is a predictor of survival in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:21190454

  6. Targeting NADPH oxidases in vascular pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Schramm, Agata; Matusik, Pawe?; Osmenda, Grzegorz; Guzik, Tomasz J

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a molecular dysregulation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is characterized by a loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Large clinical trials such as HOPE and HPS have not shown a clinical benefit of antioxidant vitamin C or vitamin E treatment, putting into question the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease. A change in the understanding of the molecular nature of oxidative stress has been driven by the results of these trials. Oxidative stress is no longer perceived as a simple imbalance between the production and scavenging of ROS, but as a dysfunction of enzymes involved in ROS production. NADPH oxidases are at the center of these events, underlying the dysfunction of other oxidases including eNOS uncoupling, xanthine oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus NADPH oxidases are important therapeutic targets. Indeed, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) as well as drugs interfering with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibit NADPH oxidase activation and expression. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, AT1 receptor antagonists (sartans) and aliskiren, as well as spironolactone or eplerenone, have been discussed. Molecular aspects of NADPH oxidase regulation must be considered, while thinking about novel pharmacological targeting of this family of enzymes consisting of several homologs Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4 and Nox5 in humans. In order to properly design trials of antioxidant therapies, we must develop reliable techniques for the assessment of local and systemic oxidative stress. Classical antioxidants could be combined with novel oxidase inhibitors. In this review, we discuss NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as VAS2870, VAS3947, GK-136901, S17834 or plumbagin. Therefore, our efforts must focus on generating small molecular weight inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, allowing the selective inhibition of dysfunctional NADPH oxidase homologs. This appears to be the most reasonable approach, potentially much more efficient than non-selective scavenging of all ROS by the administration of antioxidants. PMID:22405985

  7. The GA5 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a multifunctional gibberellin 20-oxidase: Molecular cloning and functional expression

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yun-Ling; Li, Li; Wu, Keqiang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-03

    The biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) after GA{sub 12}-aldehyde involves a series of oxidative steps that lead to the formation of bioactive GAs. Previously, a cDNA clone encoding a GA 20-oxidase [gibberellin, 2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (20-hydroxylating, oxidizing), EC 1.14.11-] was isolated by immunoscreening a cDNA library from liquid endosperm of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) with antibodies against partially purified GA 20-oxidase. Here, we report isolation of a genomic clone for GA 20-oxidase from a genomic library of the long-day species Arabidopsis thaliana Heynh., strain Columbia, by using the pumpkin cDNA clone as a heterologous probe. This genomic clone contains a GA 20-oxidase gene that consists of three exons and two introns. The three exons are 1131-bp long and encode 377 amino acid residues. A cDNA clone corresponding to the putative GA 20-oxidase genomic sequence was constructed with the reverse transcription-PCR method, and the identity of the cDNA clone was confirmed by analyzing the capability of the fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli to convert GA{sub 53} to GA{sub 44} and GA{sub 19} to GA{sub 20}. The Arabidopsis GA 20-oxidase shares 55% identity and >80% similarity with the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase at the derived amino acid level. Both GA 20-oxidases share high homology with other 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs), but the highest homology was found between the two GA 20-oxidases. Mapping results indicated tight linkage between the cloned GA 20-oxidase and the GA locus of Arabidopsis. The ga5 semidwarf mutant contains a G {yields} A point mutation that inserts a translational stop codon in the protein-coding sequence, thus confirming that the GA5 locus encodes GA 20-oxidase. Expression of the GA5 gene in Arabidopsis leaves was enhanced after plants were transferred from short to long days; it was reduced by GA{sub 4} treatment, suggesting end-product repression in the GA biosynthetic pathway. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Characteristics of murine protoporphyrinogen oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, K. L.; Dailey, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4) (PPO) is the penultimate enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Mouse PPO has been purified in low yield and kinetically characterized by this laboratory previously. A new more rapid purification procedure is described herein, and with this protein we detect a noncovalently bound flavin moiety. This flavin is present at approximately stoichiometric amounts in the purified enzyme and has been identified by its fluorescence spectrum and high performance liquid chromatography as flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Fluorescence quenching studies on the flavin yielded a Stern-Volmer quenching constant of 12.08 M-1 for iodide and 1.1 M-1 for acrylamide. Quenching of enzyme tryptophan fluorescence resulted in quenching constants of 6 M-1 and 10 M-1 for iodide and acrylamide, respectively. Plasma scans performed on purified enzyme preparations did not reveal the presence of stoichiometric amounts of protein-bound metal ions, and we were unable to detect any protein-associated pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ). Data from circular dichroism studies predict a secondary structure of the native protein consisting of 30.5% alpha helix, 40.5% beta sheet, 13.7% turn, and 15.3% random coil. Denaturation of PPO with urea resulted in a biphasic curve when ellipticity is plotted against urea concentration, typical of amphipathic proteins. PMID:1304921

  9. Azide inhibition of urate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Gabison, Laure; Colloc'h, Nathalie; Prangé, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    The inhibition of urate oxidase (UOX) by azide was investigated by X-ray diffraction techniques and compared with cyanide inhibition. Two well characterized sites for reagents are present in the enzyme: the dioxygen site and the substrate-binding site. To examine the selectivity of these sites towards azide inhibition, several crystallization conditions were developed. UOX was co-crystallized with azide (N3) in the presence or absence of either uric acid (UA, the natural substrate) or 8-azaxanthine (8AZA, a competitive inhibitor). In a second set of experiments, previously grown orthorhombic crystals of the UOX-UA or UOX-8AZA complexes were soaked in sodium azide solutions. In a third set of experiments, orthorhombic crystals of UOX with the exchangeable ligand 8-nitroxanthine (8NXN) were soaked in a solution containing uric acid and azide simultaneously (competitive soaking). In all assays, the soaking periods were either short (a few hours) or long (one or two months). These different experimental conditions showed that one or other of the sites, or the two sites together, could be inhibited. This also demonstrated that azide not only competes with dioxygen as cyanide does but also competes with the substrate for its enzymatic site. A model in agreement with experimental data would be an azide in equilibrium between two sites, kinetically in favour of the dioxygen site and thermodynamically in favour of the substrate-binding site. PMID:25005084

  10. Alternative oxidase: distribution, induction, properties, structure, regulation, and functions.

    PubMed

    Rogov, A G; Sukhanova, E I; Uralskaya, L A; Aliverdieva, D A; Zvyagilskaya, R A

    2014-12-01

    The respiratory chain in the majority of organisms with aerobic type metabolism features the concomitant existence of the phosphorylating cytochrome pathway and the cyanide- and antimycin A-insensitive oxidative route comprising a so-called alternative oxidase (AOX) as a terminal oxidase. In this review, the history of AOX discovery is described. Considerable evidence is presented that AOX occurs widely in organisms at various levels of organization and is not confined to the plant kingdom. This enzyme has not been found only in Archaea, mammals, some yeasts and protists. Bioinformatics research revealed the sequences characteristic of AOX in representatives of various taxonomic groups. Based on multiple alignments of these sequences, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to infer their possible evolution. The ways of AOX activation, as well as regulatory interactions between AOX and the main respiratory chain are described. Data are summarized concerning the properties of AOX and the AOX-encoding genes whose expression is either constitutive or induced by various factors. Information is presented on the structure of AOX, its active center, and the ubiquinone-binding site. The principal functions of AOX are analyzed, including the cases of cell survival, optimization of respiratory metabolism, protection against excess of reactive oxygen species, and adaptation to variable nutrition sources and to biotic and abiotic stress factors. It is emphasized that different AOX functions complement each other in many instances and are not mutually exclusive. Examples are given to demonstrate that AOX is an important tool to overcome the adverse aftereffects of restricted activity of the main respiratory chain in cells and whole animals. This is the first comprehensive review on alternative oxidases of various organisms ranging from yeasts and protists to vascular plants. PMID:25749168

  11. Identification, Purification, and Characterization of Iminodiacetate Oxidase from the EDTA-Degrading Bacterium BNC1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Louie, Tai Man; Payne, Jason; Bohuslavek, Jan; Bolton, Harvey; Xun, Luying

    2001-01-01

    Microbial degradation of synthetic chelating agents, such as EDTA and nitrilotriacetate (NTA), may help immobilizing radionuclides and heavy metals in the environment. The EDTA- and NTA-degrading bacterium BNC1 uses EDTA monooxygenase to oxidize NTA to iminodiacetate (IDA) and EDTA to ethylenediaminediacetate (EDDA). IDA- and EDDA-degrading enzymes have not been purified and characterized to date. In this report, an IDA oxidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from strain BNC1 by using a combination of eight purification steps. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single protein band of 40 kDa, and by using size exclusion chromatography, we estimated the native enzyme to be a homodimer. Flavin adenine dinucleotide was determined as its prosthetic group. The purified enzyme oxidized IDA to glycine and glyoxylate with the consumption of O2. The temperature and pH optima for IDA oxidation were 35°C and 8, respectively. The apparent Km for IDA was 4.0 mM with a kcat of 5.3 s?1. When the N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined, it matched exactly with that encoded by a previously sequenced hypothetical oxidase gene of BNC1. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product as a C-terminal fusion with a His tag was purified by a one-step nickel affinity chromatography. The purified fusion protein had essentially the same enzymatic activity and properties as the native IDA oxidase. IDA oxidase also oxidized EDDA to ethylenediamine and glyoxylate. Thus, IDA oxidase is likely the second enzyme in both NTA and EDTA degradation pathways in strain BNC1. PMID:11157233

  12. Cloning of rat aorta lysyl oxidase cDNA: Complete codons and predicted amino acid sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Trackman, P.C.; Pratt, A.M.; Wolanski, A.; Tang, Shiowshih; Offner, G.D.; Troxler, R.F.; Kagan, H.M. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (USA))

    1990-05-22

    Lysyl oxidase cDNA clones were identified by their reactivity with anti-bovine lysyl oxidase in a neonatal rat aorta cDNA {lambda}gt11 expression library. A 500-bp cDNA sequence encoding four of six peptides derived from proteolytic digests of bovine aorta lysyl oxidase was found from the overlapping cDNA sequences of two positive clones. The library was rescreened with a radiolabeled cDNA probe made from one of these clones, thus identifying an additional 13 positive clones. Sequencing of the largest two of these overlapping clones resulted in 2,672 bp of cDNA sequence containing partial 5{prime}- and 3{prime}-untranslated sequences of 286 and 1,159 nucleotides, respectively, and a complete open reading frame of 1,227 bp encoding a polypeptide of 409 amino acids (46 kDa), consistent with the 48 {plus minus} 3 kDa cell-free translation product of rat smooth muscle cell RNA that was immunoprecipitated by anti-bovine lysyl oxidase. The rat aorta cDNA-derived amino acid sequence contains the sequence of each of the six peptides isolated and sequenced from the 32-kDa bovine aorta enzyme, including the C-terminal peptide with sequence identity of 96%. Southern blotting of rat genomic DNA with lysyl oxidase cDNA probes indicated that the lysyl oxidase gene is located at a single locus and does not appear to be a member of a multigene family. A potential stem-loop structure was found in the 3{prime}-untranslated region of the cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide, in addition to sequences that are similar to those of other known copper proteins.

  13. Cytochrome bd oxidase, oxidative stress, and dioxygen tolerance of the strictly anaerobic bacterium Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Das, Amaresh; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Ljungdahl, Lars G; Kurtz, Donald M

    2005-03-01

    The gram-positive, thermophilic, acetogenic bacterium Moorella thermoacetica can reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl coenzyme A synthesis) pathway. This report demonstrates that, despite its classification as a strict anaerobe, M. thermoacetica contains a membrane-bound cytochrome bd oxidase that can catalyze reduction of low levels of dioxygen. Whole-cell suspensions of M. thermoacetica had significant endogenous O2 uptake activity, and this activity was increased in the presence of methanol or CO, which are substrates in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Cyanide and azide strongly (approximately 70%) inhibited both the endogenous and CO/methanol-dependent O2 uptake. UV-visible light absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of n-dodecyl-beta-maltoside extracts of M. thermoacetica membranes showed the presence of a cytochrome bd oxidase complex containing cytochrome b561, cytochrome b595, and cytochrome d (chlorin). Subunits I and II of the bd oxidase were identified by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The M. thermoacetica cytochrome bd oxidase exhibited cyanide-sensitive quinol oxidase activity. The M. thermoacetica cytochrome bd (cyd) operon consists of four genes, encoding subunits I and II along with two ABC-type transporter proteins, homologs of which in other bacteria are required for assembly of the bd complex. The level of this cyd operon transcript was significantly increased when M. thermoacetica was grown in the absence of added reducing agent (cysteine + H2S). Expression of a 35-kDa cytosolic protein, identified as a cysteine synthase (CysK), was also induced by the nonreducing growth conditions. The combined evidence indicates that cytochrome bd oxidase and cysteine synthase protect against oxidative stress and contribute to the limited dioxygen tolerance of M. thermoacetica. PMID:15743950

  14. Molecular Insights of p47phox Phosphorylation Dynamics in the Regulation of NADPH Oxidase Activation and Superoxide Production*

    PubMed Central

    Meijles, Daniel N.; Fan, Lampson M.; Howlin, Brendan J.; Li, Jian-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Phagocyte superoxide production by a multicomponent NADPH oxidase is important in host defense against microbial invasion. However inappropriate NADPH oxidase activation causes inflammation. Endothelial cells express NADPH oxidase and endothelial oxidative stress due to prolonged NADPH oxidase activation predisposes many diseases. Discovering the mechanism of NADPH oxidase activation is essential for developing novel treatment of these diseases. The p47phox is a key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase; however, due to the lack of full protein structural information, the mechanistic insight of p47phox phosphorylation in NADPH oxidase activation remains incomplete. Based on crystal structures of three functional domains, we generated a computational structural model of the full p47phox protein. Using a combination of in silico phosphorylation, molecular dynamics simulation and protein/protein docking, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of p47phox is critical for stabilizing its autoinhibited structure. Ser-379 phosphorylation disrupts H-bonds that link the C-terminal tail to the autoinhibitory region (AIR) and the tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, allowing the AIR to undergo phosphorylation to expose the SH3 pocket for p22phox binding. These findings were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene transfection of p47phox?/? coronary microvascular cells. Compared with wild-type p47phox cDNA transfected cells, the single mutation of S379A completely blocked p47phox membrane translocation, binding to p22phox and endothelial O2? production in response to acute stimulation of PKC. p47phox C-terminal tail plays a key role in stabilizing intramolecular interactions at rest. Ser-379 phosphorylation is a molecular switch which initiates p47phox conformational changes and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production by cells. PMID:24970888

  15. Spatiotemporal Localization of d-Amino Acid Oxidase and d-Aspartate Oxidases during Development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Yasuaki; Katane, Masumi; Kawata, Tomonori; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Sekine, Masae; Furuchi, Takemitsu; Kobuna, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Taro; Inoue, Takao; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasuhito

    2012-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that a variety of d-amino acids are present in living organisms and that they possibly play important roles in physiological functions in the body. d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) and d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) are degradative enzymes stereospecific for d-amino acids. They have been identified in various organisms, including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, although the significance of these enzymes and the relevant functions of d-amino acids remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal localization of C. elegans DAO and DDOs (DDO-1, DDO-2, and DDO-3) and measured the levels of several d- and l-amino acids in wild-type C. elegans and four mutants in which each gene for DAO and the DDOs was partially deleted and thereby inactivated. Furthermore, several phenotypes of these mutant strains were characterized. The results reported in this study indicate that C. elegans DAO and DDOs are involved in egg-laying events and the early development of C. elegans. In particular, DDOs appear to play important roles in the development and maturation of germ cells. This work provides novel and useful insights into the physiological functions of these enzymes and d-amino acids in multicellular organisms. PMID:22393259

  16. Bilirubin Oxidase Activity of Bacillus subtilis CotA

    PubMed Central

    Sakasegawa, Shin-ichi; Ishikawa, Hidehiko; Imamura, Shigeyuki; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Goda, Shuichiro; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2006-01-01

    The spore coat protein CotA from Bacillus subtilis was previously identified as a laccase. We have now found that CotA also shows strong bilirubin oxidase activity and markedly higher affinity for bilirubin than conventional bilirubin oxidase. This is the first characterization of bilirubin oxidase activity in a bacterial protein. PMID:16391148

  17. Monoclonal antibodies to the alternative oxidase of higher plant mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Elthon; R. L. Nickels; L. McIntosh

    1989-01-01

    The higher plant mitochondrial electron transport chain contains, in addition to the cytochrome chain which terminates with cytochrome oxidase, an alternative pathway that terminates with an alternative oxidase. The alternative oxidase of Sauromatum guttatum Schott has recently been identified as a cluster of proteins with apparent M{sub r} of 37, 36, and 35 kilodaltons (kD). Monoclonal antibodies have now been

  18. Arxula adeninivorans recombinant urate oxidase and its application in the production of food with low uric acid content.

    PubMed

    Trautwein-Schult, Anke; Jankowska, Dagmara; Cordes, Arno; Hoferichter, Petra; Klein, Christina; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter; Baronian, Keith; Bode, Rüdiger; Kunze, Gotthard

    2013-01-01

    Hyperuricemia and its symptoms are becoming increasingly common worldwide. Elevated serum uric acid levels are caused by increased uric acid synthesis from food constituents and reduced renal excretion. Treatment in most cases involves reducing alcohol intake and consumption of meat and fish or treatment with pharmaceuticals. Another approach could be to reduce uric acid level in food, either during production or consumption. This work reports the production of recombinant urate oxidase by Arxula adeninivorans and its application to reduce uric acid in a food product. The A. adeninivorans urate oxidase amino acid sequence was found to be similar to urate oxidases from other fungi (61-65% identity). In media supplemented with adenine, hypoxanthine or uric acid, induction of the urate oxidase (AUOX) gene and intracellular accumulation of urate oxidase (Auoxp) was observed. The enzyme characteristics were analyzed from isolates of the wild-type strain A. adeninivorans LS3, as well as from those of transgenic strains expressing the AUOX gene under control of the strong constitutive TEF1 promoter or the inducible AYNI1 promoter. The enzyme showed high substrate specificity for uric acid, a broad temperature and pH range, high thermostability and the ability to reduce uric acid content in food. PMID:24022585

  19. Heme-copper oxidases and their electron donors in cyanobacterial respiratory electron transport.

    PubMed

    Bernroitner, Margit; Zamocky, Marcel; Pairer, Martin; Furtmüller, Paul G; Peschek, Günter A; Obinger, Christian

    2008-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are the paradigmatic organisms of oxygenic (plant-type) photosynthesis and aerobic respiration. Since there is still an amazing lack of knowledge on the role and mechanism of their respiratory electron transport, we have critically analyzed all fully or partially sequenced genomes for heme-copper oxidases and their (putative) electron donors cytochrome c(6), plastocyanin, and cytochrome c(M). Well-known structure-function relationships of the two branches of heme-copper oxidases, namely cytochrome c (aa(3)-type) oxidase (COX) and quinol (bo-type) oxidase (QOX), formed the base for a critical inspection of genes and ORFs found in cyanobacterial genomes. It is demonstrated that at least one operon encoding subunits I-III of COX is found in all cyanobacteria, whereas many non-N(2)-fixing species lack QOX. Sequence analysis suggests that both cyanobacterial terminal oxidases should be capable of both the four-electron reduction of dioxygen and proton pumping. All diazotrophic organisms have at least one operon that encodes QOX. In addition, the highly refined specialization in heterocyst forming Nostocales is reflected by the presence of two paralogs encoding COX. The majority of cyanobacterial genomes contain one gene or ORF for plastocyanin and cytochrome c(M), whereas 1-4 paralogs for cytochrome c(6) were found. These findings are discussed with respect to published data about the role of respiration in wild-type and mutated cyanobacterial strains in normal metabolism, stress adaptation, and nitrogen fixation. A model of the branched electron-transport pathways downstream of plastoquinol in cyanobacteria is presented. PMID:18972533

  20. Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia) Extract Activates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Upregulates the Expression of the Acyl CoA Oxidase Gene in H4IIEC3 Hepatoma Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Che-Yi Chao; Ching-jang Huang

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport. Ligands\\/activators of PPAR?, like fibrate-type drugs, may have hypolipidemic effects. To identify food that contains activators of PPAR?, a transactivation assay employing a clone of CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with a (UAS)4-tk-alkaline phosphatase reporter and a chimeric receptor

  1. Development of PEGylated mammalian urate oxidase as a therapy for patients with refractory gout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Hershfield; John S. Sundy; Nancy J. Ganson; Susan J. Kelly

    Gout is a form of arthritis caused by inflammatory crystals of monosodium urate, which deposit in joints when the plasma concentration\\u000a of uric acid chronically exceeds the limit of solubility, ?7 mg\\/dL (0.42 mM). The human species is predisposed to hyperuricemia\\u000a and gout by mutation of the urate oxi dase gene during evolution. Urate oxidases from various sources have been

  2. Polyphenol oxidase overexpression in transgenic Populus enhances resistance to herbivory by forest tent caterpillar ( Malacosoma disstria )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiehua Wang; C. Peter Constabel

    2004-01-01

    In order to functionally analyze the predicted defensive role of leaf polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.1) in Populus, transgenic hybrid aspen ( Populus tremula × P. alba) plants overexpressing a hybrid poplar ( Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides) PtdPPO1 gene were constructed. Regenerated transgenic plants showed high PPO enzyme activity, PtdPPO1 mRNA levels and PPO protein accumulation. In leaf disk bioassays,

  3. Erv1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a FAD-linked sulfhydryl oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeung-Eun Lee; Götz Hofhaus; Thomas Lisowsky

    2000-01-01

    The yeast ERV1 gene encodes a small polypeptide of 189 amino acids that is essential for mitochondrial function and for the viability of the cell. In this study we report the enzymatic activity of this protein as a flavin-linked sulfhydryl oxidase catalyzing the formation of disulfide bridges. Deletion of the amino-terminal part of Erv1p shows that the enzyme activity is

  4. Effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidase induced depolymerization of hyaluronic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Carlin; R. Djursäter; G. Smedegård; B. Gerdin

    1985-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of various anti-inflammatory drugs on the xanthine oxidase derived depolymerization of hyaluronic acid was studied. The depolymerization was assayed by repeated viscosity measurements. By using a low xanthine oxidase activity, the decrease in viscosity with time followed first order reaction kinetics and was therefore suitable for kinetic analysis. The xanthine oxidase activity was monitored by assay of

  5. Flavin Amine Oxidases from the Monoamine Oxidase Structural Family Utilize a Hydride Transfer Mechanism 

    E-print Network

    Henderson Pozzi, Michelle

    2011-08-08

    The amine oxidase family of enzymes has been the center of numerous mechanistic studies because of the medical relevance of the reactions they catalyze. This study describes transient and steady-state kinetic analyses of ...

  6. Role of the NADPH Oxidases DUOX and NOX4 in Thyroid Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Denise P.; Dupuy, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutations are present at high levels in the rat thyroid gland, indicating that the thyrocyte is under oxidative stress, a state in which cellular oxidant levels are high. The most important class of free radicals, or reactive metabolites, is reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The main source of ROS in every cell type seems to be mitochondrial respiration; however, recent data support the idea that NADPH:O(2) oxidoreductase flavoproteins or simply NADPH oxidases (NOX) are enzymes specialized in controlled ROS generation at the subcellular level. Several decades ago, high concentrations of H2O2 were detected at the apical surface of thyrocytes, where thyroid hormone biosynthesis takes place. Only in the last decade has the enzymatic source of H2O2 involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis been well characterized. The cloning of two thyroid genes encoding NADPH oxidases dual oxidases 1 and 2 (DUOX1 and DUOX2) revealed that DUOX2 mutations lead to hereditary hypothyroidism in humans. Recent reports have also described the presence of NOX4 in the thyroid gland and have suggested a pathophysiological role of this member of the NOX family. In the present review, we describe the participation of NADPH oxidases not only in thyroid physiology but also in gland pathophysiology, particularly the involvement of these enzymes in the regulation of thyroid oxidative stress. PMID:24847449

  7. Roles for enteric d-type cytochrome oxidase in N2 fixation and microaerobiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, S; Viollet, S; Smith, A T; Anthony, C

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains that lacked the d-type cytochrome oxidase, the terminal oxidase with a high affinity for O2, grew anaerobically as well as the wild type did and were not impaired in the ability to evolve H2 from either glucose or formate. The anaerobic synthesis and activity of nitrogenase in transconjugants of these strains carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae nif genes were also normal. However, the behavior towards O2 of anaerobically grown bacteria lacking the d-type oxidase differed from that of the wild type in the following ways: the potential O2 uptake was lower, H2 evolution and nitrogenase activity supported by fermentation were more strongly inhibited by O2, and microaerobic O2-dependent nitrogenase activity in the absence of a fermentable carbon source did not occur. These results show that the d-type oxidase serves two functions in enteric bacteria--to conserve energy under microaerobic conditions and to protect anaerobic processes from inhibition by O2. PMID:2156809

  8. A theoretical study of the dioxygen activation by glucose oxidase and copper amine oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Prabhakar; Per E. M. Siegbahn; Boris F. Minaev

    2003-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GO) and copper amine oxidase (CAO) catalyze the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. If a closed-shell cofactor (like FADH2 in GO and topaquinone (TPQ) in CAO) is electron donor in dioxygen reduction, the formation of a closed-shell species (H2O2) is a spin forbidden process. Both in GO and CAO, formation of a superoxide ion that leads

  9. Monoamine Oxidase Expression During Development and Aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonietta Nicotra; Federica Pierucci; Hasan Parvez; Ornella Senatori

    2004-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) isoenzymes play a major role in regulating the concentration of several bioactive amines, including serotonin and catecholamines. Both in the nervous system and in peripheral organs, MAOs can potentially modulate all the processes involving these bioactive amines. In the present article, we review some of the most significant articles published so far on changes in MAOs during

  10. Myeloperoxidase-oxidase oxidation of cysteamine.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, B E; Lindvall, S

    1988-01-01

    Cysteamine oxidation was shown to be catalysed by nanomolar concentrations of myeloperoxidase in a peroxidase-oxidase reaction, i.e. an O2-consuming oxidation of a compound catalysed by peroxidase without H2O2 addition. When auto-oxidation of the thiol was prevented by the metal-ion chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, native, but not heat-inactivated, myeloperoxidase induced changes in the u.v.-light-absorption spectrum of cysteamine. These changes were consistent with disulphide (cystamine) formation. Concomitantly, O2 was consumed and superoxide radical anion formation could be detected by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium reduction. Both superoxide dismutase and catalase inhibited the reaction, whereas the hydroxyl-radical scavengers mannitol and ethanol did not. O2 consumption increased with increasing pH (between pH 6.0 and 8.0), and 50% inhibition was exhibited by about 3 mM-NaCl at pH 7.0 and by about 100 mM-NaCl at pH 8.0. Cysteamine was about 5 times as active (in terms of increased O2 consumption at pH 7.5) as the previously reported peroxidase-oxidase substrates NADPH, dihydroxyfumaric acid and indol-3-ylacetic acid. A possible reaction pathway for the myeloperoxidase-oxidase oxidation of cysteamine is discussed. These results indicate that cysteamine is a very useful substrate for studies on myeloperoxidase-oxidase activity. PMID:2829860

  11. Polyphenol oxidase activity in annual forage clovers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mediated phenol reactions in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) bind forage protein and reduce proteolysis, producing beneficial effects on forage protein degradability, silage fermentation, and soil-N cycling. We evaluated PPO activity in seven previously untested annual c...

  12. Human retina-specific amine oxidase (RAO): cDNA cloning, tissue expression, and chromosomal mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, Yutaka; Kubota, Ryo; Wang, Yimin [Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others] [Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); and others

    1997-03-01

    In search of candidate genes for hereditary retinal disease, we have employed a subtractive and differential cDNA cloning strategy and isolated a novel retina-specific cDNA. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 2187 bp, which encodes a 729-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 80,644 Da. The putative protein contained a conserved domain of copper amine oxidase, which is found in various species from bacteria to mammals. It showed the highest homology to bovine serum amine oxidase, which is believed to control the level of serum biogenic amines. Northern blot analysis of human adult and fetal tissues revealed that the protein is expressed abundantly and specifically in retina as a 2.7-kb transcript. Thus, we considered this protein a human retina-specific amine oxidase (RAO). The RAO gene (AOC2) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to human chromosome 17q21. We propose that AOC2 may be a candidate gene for hereditary ocular diseases. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Adiponectin as a link between type 2 diabetes and vascular NADPH oxidase activity in the human arterial wall: the regulatory role of perivascular adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, Alexios S; Margaritis, Marios; Coutinho, Patricia; Shirodaria, Cheerag; Psarros, Costas; Herdman, Laura; Sanna, Fabio; De Silva, Ravi; Petrou, Mario; Sayeed, Rana; Krasopoulos, George; Lee, Regent; Digby, Janet; Reilly, Svetlana; Bakogiannis, Constantinos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Kessler, Benedikt; Casadei, Barbara; Channon, Keith M; Antoniades, Charalambos

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. We examined the effect of type 2 diabetes on NADPH oxidase in human vessels and explored the mechanisms of this interaction. Segments of internal mammary arteries (IMAs) with their perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and thoracic adipose tissue were obtained from 386 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery (127 with type 2 diabetes). Type 2 diabetes was strongly correlated with hypoadiponectinemia and increased vascular NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anions (O2?(-)). The genetic variability of the ADIPOQ gene and circulating adiponectin (but not interleukin-6) were independent predictors of NADPH oxidase-derived O2?(-). However, adiponectin expression in PVAT was positively correlated with vascular NADPH oxidase-derived O2?(-). Recombinant adiponectin directly inhibited NADPH oxidase in human arteries ex vivo by preventing the activation/membrane translocation of Rac1 and downregulating p22(phox) through a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-mediated mechanism. In ex vivo coincubation models of IMA/PVAT, the activation of arterial NADPH oxidase triggered a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?-mediated upregulation of the adiponectin gene in the neighboring PVAT via the release of vascular oxidation products. We demonstrate for the first time in humans that reduced adiponectin levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes stimulates vascular NADPH oxidase, while PVAT "senses" the increased NADPH oxidase activity in the underlying vessel and responds by upregulating adiponectin gene expression. This PVAT-vessel interaction is identified as a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25552596

  14. Detection of xanthine oxidase in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Newaz, M A; Adeeb, N N

    1998-03-01

    Xanthine oxidase is a highly versatile enzyme which is widely distributed among various species. Though the presence of the enzyme in serum is not yet established, high antibody titre of this enzyme has been reported. Xanthine oxidase is thought to be the principal source of free radical generation via degradation of nucleotides to the end product, uric acid. The aim of this study was to detect xanthine oxidase activity in human plasma and report any significant relationships found between its activity and variables such as race, age and sex for the sample size studied. Forty six normal healthy individuals (14 males and 32 females) were studied. The enzyme activity was measured by a spectrophotometric method whereby the reduction of ferricytochrome c by free radicals was calculated and expressed as nmol O2 production/ml/min. Results obtained showed that there was a positive relationship between xanthine oxidase activity with age (r = 0.415, p < 0.05) and weight (r = 0.369, p < 0.05) in the normal individual. For the age group 30-39 yrs (n = 11), a higher enzyme activity was observed in males (2.71 +/- 1.44) as compared to females (2.34 +/- 1.23) but it was not significant (p = 0.53). For racial distribution, the Malays [M] have a higher enzyme activity (2.65 +/- 0.86, N = 32) than their Indian [I] (2.27 +/- 0.58; N = 7) and Chinese counterparts [C] (1.44 +/- 1.22; N = 7) but this was also not statistically significant (M vs I: p = 0.39; M vs C: p = 0.07; I vs C: p = 0.16). In conclusion this study showed that there is a measurable amount of xanthine oxidase activity in the human plasma. PMID:10968141

  15. Proteomics of multigenic families from species underrepresented in databases: the case of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) polyphenol oxidases.

    PubMed

    Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Luque, Ignacio; Casado-Vela, Juan; Martínez-Esteso, Maria José; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2008-09-01

    Here, we approach the problem of obtaining accurate and reliable information about the gene origin of a protein belonging to a multigenic family, polyphenol oxidase, from an underrepresented species, Eriobotrya japonica. De novo sequencing was a key approach to obtain broad sequence coverage. Alignment of peptides on their most similar homologous protein revealed divergent amino acid positions that lead to hypothesize the minimal number of genes encoding for the proteins analyzed. PMID:18620449

  16. Characterization of the cydAB-Encoded Cytochrome bd Oxidase from Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Kana, Bavesh D.; Weinstein, Edward A.; Avarbock, David; Dawes, Stephanie S.; Rubin, Harvey; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    The cydAB genes from Mycobacterium smegmatis have been cloned and characterized. The cydA and cydB genes encode the two subunits of a cytochrome bd oxidase belonging to the widely distributed family of quinol oxidases found in prokaryotes. The cydD and cydC genes located immediately downstream of cydB encode a putative ATP-binding cassette-type transporter. At room temperature, reduced minus oxidized difference spectra of membranes purified from wild-type M. smegmatis displayed spectral features that are characteristic of the ?-proteobacterial type cytochrome bd oxidase. Inactivation of cydA or cydB by insertion of a kanamycin resistance marker resulted in loss of d-heme absorbance at 631 nm. The d-heme could be restored by transformation of the M. smegmatis cyd mutants with a replicating plasmid carrying the highly homologous cydABDC gene cluster from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Inactivation of cydA had no effect on the ability of M. smegmatis to exit from stationary phase at 37 or 42°C. The growth rate of the cydA mutant was tested under oxystatic conditions. Although no discernible growth defect was observed under moderately aerobic conditions (9.2 to 37.5 × 102 Pa of pO2 or 5 to 21% air saturation), the mutant displayed a significant growth disadvantage when cocultured with the wild type under extreme microaerophilia (0.8 to 1.7 × 102 Pa of pO2 or 0.5 to 1% air saturation). These observations were in accordance with the two- to threefold increase in cydAB gene expression observed upon reduction of the pO2 of the growth medium from 21 to 0.5% air saturation and with the concomitant increase in d-heme absorbance in spectra of membranes isolated from wild-type M. smegmatis cultured at 1% air saturation. Finally, the cydA mutant displayed a competitive growth disadvantage in the presence of the terminal oxidase inhibitor, cyanide, when cocultured with wild type at 21% air saturation in an oxystat. In conjunction with these findings, our results suggest that cytochrome bd is an important terminal oxidase in M. smegmatis. PMID:11717265

  17. Expression of Lactococcus lactis NADH oxidase increases 2,3-butanediol production in Pdc-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Seo, Seung-Oh; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    To minimize glycerol production during 2,3-BD fermentation by the engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Lactococcus lactis water-forming NADH oxidase gene (noxE) was expressed at five different levels. The expression of NADH oxidase substantially decreased the intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio. The S. cerevisiae BD5_T2nox strain expressing noxE produced 2,3-BD with yield of 0.359g 2,3-BD/gglucose and glycerol with 0.069gglycerol/gglucose, which are 23.8% higher and 65.3% lower than those of the isogenic strain without noxE. These results demonstrate that the carbon flux could be redirected from glycerol to 2,3-BD through alteration of the NADH/NAD(+) ratio by the expression of NADH oxidase. PMID:25769689

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species and Angiogenesis: NADPH Oxidase as Target for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth, metastasis, arteriosclerosis as well as embryonic development and wound healing. Its process is dependent on cell proliferation, migration and capillary tube formation in endothelia cells (ECs). High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and H2O2 are observed in various cancer cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that ROS function as signaling molecules to mediate various growth-related responses including angiogenesis. ROS-dependent angiogenesis can be regulated by endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and thioredoxin. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the major angiogenesis factor, is induced in growing tumors and stimulates EC proliferation and migration primarily through the VEGF receptor type2 (VEGFR2, Flk1/KDR). Major source of ROS in ECs is a NADPH oxidase which consists of Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, Nox5, p22phox, p47phox and the small G protein Rac1. NADPH oxidase is activated by various growth factors including VEGF and angiopoietin-1 as well as hypoxia and ischemia, and ROS derived from this oxidase are involved in VEGFR2 autophosphorylation, and diverse redox signaling pathways leading to induction of transcription factors and genes involved in angiogenesis. Dietary antioxidants appear to be effective for treatment of tumor angiogenesis. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the recent progress on role of ROS derived from NADPH oxidase and redox signaling events involved in angiogenesis. Understanding these mechanisms may provide insight into the NADPH oxidase and redox signaling components as potential therapeutic targets for tumor angiogenesis. PMID:18406051

  19. Lysyl oxidase expression and inhibition in uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Abourbih, Daniel A; Di Cesare, Sebastian; Orellana, Maria E; Antecka, Emilia; Martins, Claudia; Petruccelli, Luca A; Burnier, Miguel N

    2010-04-01

    Lysyl oxidase is a marker of poor prognosis in several malignancies and is hypothesized to promote a migratory phenotype in hypoxic breast carcinomas. This study aims to characterize the expression of the lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like proteins in human uveal melanoma cell lines and archival choroidal melanomas using immunohistochemistry. The transcriptional control of lysyl oxidase will also be investigated under simulated hypoxic conditions using cobalt chloride. Lastly, changes in cellular proliferation and invasion will be assessed after the treatment of cell lines with beta-aminopropionitrile, a lysyl oxidase catalytic inhibitor. Retrospective analysis of lysyl oxidase expression in primary human uveal melanoma showed 82% (27 of 33) of tumors being stained positive. High lysyl oxidase expression correlated with the aggressive epithelioid cell type and was associated with shorter metastasis-free survival. Simulated hypoxia resulted in a significant increase in lysyl oxidase mRNA expression. Inhibiting lysyl oxidase's catalytic activity significantly reduced cellular invasion but had no effect on cell proliferation. Our study is the first to show lysyl oxidase expression in primary choroidal melanomas. This protein may represent a potential therapeutic target that warrants further study in this malignancy. PMID:20179655

  20. Tellurite-mediated damage to the Escherichia coli NDH-dehydrogenases and terminal oxidases in aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Vásquez, Waldo A; Abarca-Lagunas, María J; Cornejo, Fabián A; Pinto, Camilo A; Arenas, Felipe A; Vásquez, Claudio C

    2015-01-15

    Escherichia coli exposed to tellurite shows augmented membrane lipid peroxidation and ROS content. Also, reduced thiols, protein carbonylation, [Fe-S] center dismantling, and accumulation of key metabolites occur in these bacteria. In spite of this, not much is known about tellurite effects on the E. coli electron transport chain (ETC). In this work, tellurite-mediated damage to the E. coli ETC's NADH dehydrogenases and terminal oxidases was assessed. Mutant lacking ETC components showed delayed growth, decreased oxygen consumption and increased ROS in the presence of the toxicant. Membranes from tellurite-exposed E. coli exhibited decreased oxygen consumption and dNADH/NADH dehydrogenase activity, showing an impairment of NDH-I but not of NDH-II activity. Regarding terminal oxidases, only the bo oxidase complex was affected by tellurite. When assaying NDH-I and NDH-II activity in the presence of superoxide, the NDH-I complex was preferentially damaged. The activity was partly restored in the presence of reducing agents, sulfide and Fe(2+) under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that damage affects NDH-I [4Fe-4S] centers. Finally, augmented membrane protein oxidation along with reduced oxidase activity was observed in the presence of the toxicant. Also, the increased expression of genes encoding alternative terminal oxidases probably reflects a cell's change towards anaerobic respiration when facing tellurite. PMID:25447814

  1. Differential effects of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibition on sympathetic reinnervation in postinfarct rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Chien-Chang; Hsu, Yu-Jung

    2011-06-01

    Superoxide has been shown to play a major role in ventricular remodeling and arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. However, the source of increased myocardial superoxide production and the role of superoxide in sympathetic innervation remain to be further characterized. Male Wistar rats, after coronary artery ligation, were randomized to vehicle, allopurinol, or apocynin for 4weeks. To determine the role of peroxynitrite in sympathetic reinnervation, we also used 3-morpholinosydnonimine (a peroxynitrite generator). The postinfarction period was associated with increased oxidative stress, as measured by myocardial superoxide, nitrotyrosine, xanthine oxidase activity, NADPH oxidase activity, and dihydroethidium fluorescent staining. Measurement of myocardial norepinephrine levels revealed a significant elevation in vehicle-treated infarcted rats compared with sham. Sympathetic hyperinnervation was blunted after administration of allopurinol. Arrhythmic scores in the allopurinol-treated infarcted rats were significantly lower than those in vehicle. For similar levels of ventricular remodeling, apocynin had no beneficial effects on oxidative stress, sympathetic hyperinnervation, or arrhythmia vulnerability. Allopurinol-treated hearts had significantly decreased nerve growth factor expression, which was substantially increased after coadministration of 3-morpholinosydnonimine. These results indicate that xanthine oxidase but not NADPH oxidase largely mediates superoxide production after myocardial infarction. Xanthine oxidase inhibition ameliorates sympathetic innervation and arrhythmias possibly via inhibition of the peroxynitrite-mediated nerve growth factor pathway. PMID:21295134

  2. Characterization of three bioenergetically active respiratory terminal oxidases in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Pils, D; Schmetterer, G

    2001-09-25

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains three respiratory terminal oxidases (RTOs): cytochrome c oxidase (Cox), quinol oxidase (Cyd), and alternate RTO (ARTO). Mutants lacking combinations of the RTOs were used to characterize these key enzymes of respiration. Pentachlorophenol and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxy-quinoline-N-oxide inhibited Cyd completely, but had little effect on electron transport to the other RTOs. KCN inhibited all three RTOs but the in vivo K(I) for Cox and Cyd was quite different (7 vs. 27 microM), as was their affinity for oxygen (K(M) 1.0 vs. 0.35 microM). ARTO has a very low respiratory activity. However, when uptake of 3-O-methylglucose, an active H+ co-transport, was used to monitor energization of the cytoplasmic membrane, ARTO was similarly effective as the other RTOs. As removal of the gene for cytochrome c(553) had the same effects as removal of ARTO genes, we propose that the ARTO might be a second Cox. The possible functions, localization and regulation of the RTOs are discussed. PMID:11583851

  3. Xanthine oxidase biosensor for monitoring meat spoilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas, D. C.; Gomes, C.; McLamore, E. S.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have designed an electrochemical biosensor for real-time detection of specific biomarkers of bacterial metabolism related to meat spoilage (hypoxanthine and xanthine). The selective biosensor was developed by assembling a `sandwich' of nanomaterials and enzymes on a platinum-iridium electrode (1.6 mm tip diameter). The materials deposited on the sensor tip include amorphous platinum nanoclusters (i.e. Pt black), reduced graphene oxide, nanoceria, and xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase was encapsulated in laponite hydrogel and used for the biorecognition of hypoxanthine and xanthine (two molecules involved in the rotting of meat by spoilage microorganisms). The developed biosensor demonstrated good electrochemical performance toward xanthine with sensitivity of 2.14 +/- 1.48 ?A/mM, response time of 5.2 +/- 1.5 sec, lower detection limit of 150 +/- 39 nM, and retained at least 88% of its activity after 7 days of continuous use.

  4. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  5. Defensive Roles of Polyphenol Oxidase in Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Peter Constabel; Raymond Barbehenn

    Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are widely distributed and well-studied oxidative enzymes, and their effects on discoloration in damaged and diseased plant tissues have been known for many years. The discovery in C.A. Ryan's laboratory in the mid-1990s that tomato PPO is induced by the herbivore defense signals systemin and jasmonate, together with seminal work on PPO's possible effects on herbiv-

  6. A molecular role for lysyl oxidase in breast cancer invasion.

    PubMed

    Kirschmann, Dawn A; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Fong, Sheri F T; Nieva, Daniel R C; Sullivan, Colleen M; Edwards, Elijah M; Sommer, Pascal; Csiszar, Katalin; Hendrix, Mary J C

    2002-08-01

    We identified previously an up-regulation in lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression,an extracellular matrix remodeling enzyme, in a highly invasive/metastatic human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, compared with MCF-7, a poorly invasive/nonmetastatic breast cancer cell line. In this study, we demonstrate that the mRNA expression of LOX and other LOX family members [lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL), LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4] was observed only in breast cancer cells with a highly invasive/metastatic phenotype but not in poorly invasive/nonmetastatic breast cancer cells. LOX and LOXL2 showed the strongest association with invasive potential in both highly invasive/metastatic breast cancer cell lines tested (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T). To determine whether LOX is directly involved in breast cancer invasion, LOX antisense oligonucleotides were transfected into MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells, and found to inhibit invasion through a collagen IV/laminin/gelatin matrix in vitro compared with LOX sense oligonucleotide-treated and untreated controls. In addition, treatment of MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells with beta-aminopropionitrile (an irreversible inhibitor of LOX enzymatic activity) decreased invasive activity. Conversely, MCF-7 cells transfected with the murine LOX gene demonstrated a 2-fold increase in invasiveness that was reversible by the addition of beta-aminopropionitrile in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, endogenous LOX mRNA expression was induced when MCF-7 cells were cultured in the presence of fibroblast conditioned medium or conditioned matrix, suggesting a role for stromal fibroblasts in LOX regulation in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the correlation of LOX up-regulation and invasive/metastatic potential was additionally demonstrated in rat prostatic tumor cell lines, and human cutaneous and uveal melanoma cell lines. These results provide substantial new evidence that LOX is involved in cancer cell invasion. PMID:12154058

  7. Reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the retrosplenial cortex after lesions to the anterior thalamic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena; Arias, Jorge L; Bontempi, Bruno; Wolff, Mathieu

    2013-08-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) make a critical contribution to hippocampal system functions. Growing experimental work shows that the effects of ATN lesions often resemble those of hippocampal lesions and both markedly reduce the expression of immediate-early gene markers in the retrosplenial cortex, which still appears normal by standard histological means. This study shows that moderate ATN damage was sufficient to produce severe spatial memory impairment as measured in a radial-arm maze. Furthermore, ATN rats exhibited reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the most superficial cortical layers of the granular retrosplenial cortex, and, to a lesser extent, in the anterior cingulate cortex. By contrast, no change in cytochrome oxidase activity was observed in other limbic cortical regions or in the hippocampal formation. Altogether our results indicate that endogenous long-term brain metabolic capacity within the granular retrosplenial cortex is compromised by even limited ATN damage. PMID:23660649

  8. Induction of human monocyte motility by lysyl oxidase.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, H M; Cruikshank, W W; Narasimhan, N; Kagan, H M; Center, D M

    1995-12-01

    Lysyl oxidase highly purified from calf aorta was found to be a potent chemotactic agent for unstimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, determined in in vitro assays in Boyden chambers. A typical chemotactic bell-shaped curve was observed, with a maximal migratory response of 237% of control occurring at 10(-10) M lysyl oxidase. The chemotactic response was prevented by prior heat inactivation of the enzyme, by treatment of the enzyme with beta-aminopropionitrile or ethylenediamine, which are active site-directed inhibitors of lysyl oxidase, and by a competing, lysine-containing peptide substrate of lysyl oxidase. The chemoattractant response to lysyl oxidases was characterized by both chemokinetic and chemotactic components. These results raise the possibility that extracellular lysyl oxidase may have important roles to play in biology in addition to its established function in the crosslinking of elastin and collagen. PMID:8785587

  9. Regulation of Superoxide?Producing NADPH Oxidases in Nonphagocytic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryu Takeya; Noriko Ueno; Hideki Sumimoto

    2006-01-01

    The membrane?integrated protein gp91phox functions as the catalytic center of the superoxide?producing phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Recent studies have identified homologs of gp91phox in nonphagocytic cells, which constitute the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family. Activation of the Nox oxidases leads to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby participating in a variety of biological events, such as host defense, hormone biosynthesis, and

  10. A study on the thermostability of microencapsulated glucose oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, K; Muramatsu, N; Kondo, T

    1989-01-01

    Glucose oxidase was microencapsulated within polyurea membranes by the interfacial polymerization method and the stability to heat of the encapsulated enzyme was examined. Thermostability of microencapsulated glucose oxidase was prominent and increased with increase in the amount of glucose oxidase entrapped. This stability, however, could not be ascribed to the peculiar properties of microcapsules but was suggested to be caused by the incorporation of glucose oxidase molecules in the membranes through chemical bonding. This stability revealed that the enzyme molecules in the microcapsules could not always exist in the dissolved form but a fairly large portion of the molecules participated in the polymerization reaction and changed their enzymatic properties. PMID:2723964

  11. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420 Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. (a) Identification. An...

  12. Regulation of nitrite resistance of the cytochrome cbb3 oxidase by cytochrome c ScyA in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jianhua; Jin, Miao; Zhang, Haiyan; Ju, Lili; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Haichun

    2015-02-01

    Cytochrome c proteins, as enzymes to exchange electrons with substrates or as pure electron carriers to shuttle electrons, play vital roles in bacterial respiration and photosynthesis. In Shewanella oneidensis, a research model for the respiratory diversity, at least 42 c-type cytochromes are predicted to be encoded in the genome and are regarded to be the foundation of its highly branched electron transport pathways. However, only a small number of c-type cytochromes have been extensively studied. In this study, we identify soluble cytochrome c ScyA as an important factor influencing the nitrite resistance of a strain devoid of the bd oxidase by utilizing a newly developed transposon mutagenesis vector, which enables overexpression of the gene(s) downstream of the insertion site. We show that when in overabundance ScyA facilitates growth against nitrite inhibition by enhancing nitrite resistance of the cbb3 oxidase. Based on the data presented in this study, we suggest two possible mechanisms underlying the observed effect of ScyA: (1) ScyA increases electron flow to the cbb3 oxidase; (2) ScyA promotes nitrite resistance of the cbb3 oxidase, possibly by direct interaction. PMID:25417822

  13. Evidence for a key role of cytochrome bo3 oxidase in respiratory energy metabolism of Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Richhardt, Janine; Luchterhand, Bettina; Bringer, Stephanie; Büchs, Jochen; Bott, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The obligatory aerobic acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans oxidizes a variety of substrates in the periplasm by membrane-bound dehydrogenases, which transfer the reducing equivalents to ubiquinone. Two quinol oxidases, cytochrome bo3 and cytochrome bd, then catalyze transfer of the electrons from ubiquinol to molecular oxygen. In this study, mutants lacking either of these terminal oxidases were characterized. Deletion of the cydAB genes for cytochrome bd had no obvious influence on growth, whereas the lack of the cyoBACD genes for cytochrome bo3 severely reduced the growth rate and the cell yield. Using a respiration activity monitoring system and adjusting different levels of oxygen availability, hints of a low-oxygen affinity of cytochrome bd oxidase were obtained, which were supported by measurements of oxygen consumption in a respirometer. The H(+)/O ratio of the ?cyoBACD mutant with mannitol as the substrate was 0.56 ± 0.11 and more than 50% lower than that of the reference strain (1.26 ± 0.06) and the ?cydAB mutant (1.31 ± 0.16), indicating that cytochrome bo3 oxidase is the main component for proton extrusion via the respiratory chain. Plasmid-based overexpression of cyoBACD led to increased growth rates and growth yields, both in the wild type and the ?cyoBACD mutant, suggesting that cytochrome bo3 might be a rate-limiting factor of the respiratory chain. PMID:23852873

  14. Characterization of a flavoprotein oxidase from opium poppy catalyzing the final steps in sanguinarine and papaverine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Jillian M; Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Fossati, Elena; Ekins, Andrew; Martin, Vincent J J; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-12-14

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes the analgesic morphine, the antimicrobials sanguinarine and berberine, and the vasodilator papaverine. The two-electron oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine catalyzed by dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (DBOX) is the final step in sanguinarine biosynthesis. The formation of the fully conjugated ring system in sanguinarine is similar to the four-electron oxidations of (S)-canadine to berberine and (S)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine. We report the isolation and functional characterization of an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cDNA encoding DBOX, a flavoprotein oxidase with homology to (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase and the berberine bridge enzyme. A query of translated opium poppy stem transcriptome databases using berberine bridge enzyme yielded several candidate genes, including an (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase-like sequence selected for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme preferentially catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine to sanguinarine but also converted (RS)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine and several protoberberine alkaloids to oxidized forms, including (RS)-canadine to berberine. The K(m) values of 201 and 146 ?m for dihydrosanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, respectively, suggested high concentrations of these substrates in the plant. Virus-induced gene silencing to reduce DBOX transcript levels resulted in a corresponding reduction in sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, and papaverine accumulation in opium poppy roots in support of DBOX as a multifunctional oxidative enzyme in BIA metabolism. PMID:23118227

  15. NADPH Oxidase Promotes Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Röhm, Marc; Grimm, Melissa J.; D'Auria, Anthony C.; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous, filamentous fungi, which can cause invasive aspergillosis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CGD, reflecting the critical role for NADPH oxidase in antifungal host defense. Activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils can be coupled to the release of proteins and chromatin that comingle in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can augment extracellular antimicrobial host defense. NETosis can be driven by NADPH oxidase-dependent and -independent pathways. We therefore undertook an analysis of whether NADPH oxidase was required for NETosis in Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Oropharyngeal instillation of live Aspergillus hyphae induced neutrophilic pneumonitis in both wild-type and NADPH oxidase-deficient (p47phox?/?) mice which had resolved in wild-type mice by day 5 but progressed in p47phox?/? mice. NETs, identified by immunostaining, were observed in lungs of wild-type mice but were absent in p47phox?/? mice. Using bona fide NETs and nuclear chromatin decondensation as an early NETosis marker, we found that NETosis required a functional NADPH oxidase in vivo and ex vivo. In addition, NADPH oxidase increased the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils. Together, our results show that NADPH oxidase is required for pulmonary clearance of Aspergillus hyphae and generation of NETs in vivo. We speculate that dual modulation of NETosis and apoptosis by NADPH oxidase enhances antifungal host defense and promotes resolution of inflammation upon infection clearance. PMID:24549323

  16. Structure and expression of cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homologs isolated from excised mung bean hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Kim, W T; Yang, S F

    1994-01-01

    By screening a mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl cDNA library using a combination of apple (pAE12) and tomato (pTOM13) 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate (ACC)-oxidase cDNAs as probes, putative ACC-oxidase clones were isolated. Based on restriction-enzyme map and DNA-sequencing analyses, they can be divided into two homology classes, represented by pVR-ACO1 and pVR-ACO2. While pVR-ACO1 and pVR-ACO2 exhibit close homology in their coding regions, their 3'-noncoding regions are divergent. pVR-ACO1 is a 1312-bp full-length clone and contains a single open reading frame encoding 317 amino acids (MW = 35.8 kDa), while pVR-ACO2 is 1172 bp long and is a partial cDNA clone encoding 308 amino acids. These two deduced amino-acid sequences share 83% identity, and display considerable sequence conservation (73-86%) to other ACC oxidases from various plant species. Northern blot analyses of RNAs isolated from hypocotyl, leaf, and stem tissues using gene-specific probes indicate that the pVR-ACO1 transcript is present in all parts of the seedling and that the expression in hypocotyls is further increased following excision. The maximum induction of ACC-oxidase transcripts occurred at about 6 h after excision, while the maximum enzyme activity was observed at 24 h. When excised hypocotyls were treated with ethylene a further enhanced level of transcripts was observed. Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ACC-synthase activity, and 2,5-norbornadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed the wound-induced accumulation of ACC-oxidase mRNA, while an addition of ethylene in these tissues restored the accumulation of ACC-oxidase mRNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7765118

  17. Nox NADPH Oxidases and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Thaís L.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Understanding isoform- and context-specific subcellular Nox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase compartmentalization allows relevant functional inferences. This review addresses the interplay between Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an increasingly evident player in redox pathophysiology given its role in redox protein folding and stress responses. Recent Advances: Catalytic/regulatory transmembrane subunits are synthesized in the ER and their processing includes folding, N-glycosylation, heme insertion, p22phox heterodimerization, as shown for phagocyte Nox2. Dual oxidase (Duox) maturation also involves the regulation by ER-resident Duoxa2. The ER is the activation site for some isoforms, typically Nox4, but potentially other isoforms. Such location influences redox/Nox-mediated calcium signaling regulation via ER targets, such as sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Growing evidence suggests that Noxes are integral signaling elements of the unfolded protein response during ER stress, with Nox4 playing a dual prosurvival/proapoptotic role in this setting, whereas Nox2 enhances proapoptotic signaling. ER chaperones such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) closely interact with Noxes. PDI supports growth factor-dependent Nox1 activation and mRNA expression, as well as migration in smooth muscle cells, and PDI overexpression induces acute spontaneous Nox activation. Critical Issues: Mechanisms of PDI effects include possible support of complex formation and RhoGTPase activation. In phagocytes, PDI supports phagocytosis, Nox activation, and redox-dependent interactions with p47phox. Together, the results implicate PDI as possible Nox organizer. Future Directions: We propose that convergence between Noxes and ER may have evolutive roots given ER-related functional contexts, which paved Nox evolution, namely calcium signaling and pathogen killing. Overall, the interplay between Noxes and the ER may provide relevant insights in Nox-related (patho)physiology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2755–2775. PMID:24386930

  18. The interaction of arsenite with xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hille, R; Stewart, R C; Fee, J A; Massey, V

    1983-04-25

    The binding of arsenite to the molybdenum center of milk xanthine oxidase is re-examined. The Kd for the arsenite complex has been determined to be 24 microM from equilibrium binding studies and this value has been confirmed by determination of the association and dissociation rate constants for the interaction of arsenite with xanthine oxidase. Formation of the complex is not prevented by prior reaction of the enzyme with thiol reagents such as 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) or methyl methanethiosulfonate. Binding of arsenite to the enzyme perturbs both the oxidation-reduction potentials and the electron paramagnetic resonance signal of the molybdenum center observed after partial reduction of the enzyme with sodium dithionite. The EPR signal of the partially reduced arsenite-complexed enzyme is further modified in two different ways by the addition of xanthine or salicylate. Other purine and pteridine substrates and products for the enzyme yield EPR signals indistinguishable from that generated by xanthine, whereas aromatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids give signals similar to that observed in the presence of salicylate. It is thus clear that while arsenite prevents enzyme turnover, it does not preclude binding of substrate and product molecules. Binding of arsenite at the molybdenum center of xanthine oxidase does not disturb the oxidation-reduction potentials of the iron-sulfur centers of the enzyme, but evidence is presented to suggest that the midpoint potential of the FAD site is decreased by approximately 15 mV. A structure for the arsenite complex is proposed to provide a framework in which to interpret the EPR signals in a quantitative fashion. PMID:6300101

  19. Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes?

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, J; Jonassaint, C; Pluess, M; Stanton, M; Brummett, B; Williams, R

    2009-01-01

    The classic diathesis–stress framework, which views some individuals as particularly vulnerable to adversity, informs virtually all psychiatric research on behavior–gene–environment (G × E) interaction. An alternative framework of ‘differential susceptibility' is proposed, one which regards those most susceptible to adversity because of their genetic make up as simultaneously most likely to benefit from supportive or enriching experiences—or even just the absence of adversity. Recent G × E findings consistent with this perspective and involving monoamine oxidase-A, 5-HTTLPR (5-hydroxytryptamine-linked polymorphic region polymorphism) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) are reviewed for illustrative purposes. Results considered suggest that putative ‘vulnerability genes' or ‘risk alleles' might, at times, be more appropriately conceptualized as ‘plasticity genes', because they seem to make individuals more susceptible to environmental influences—for better and for worse. PMID:19455150

  20. Purification of Xanthine Dehydrogenase and Sulfite Oxidase from Chicken Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kapila Ratnam; Michael S. Brody; Russ Hille

    1996-01-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase and sulfite oxidase from chicken liver are oxomolybdenum enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid and sulfite to sulfate, respectively. Independent purification protocols have been previously described for both enzymes. Here we describe a procedure by which xanthine dehydrogenase and sulfite oxidase are purified simultaneously from the same batch of fresh chicken liver. Also, unlike

  1. Bilirubin oxidase bioelectrocatalytic cathodes: the impact of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Milton, Ross D; Giroud, Fabien; Thumser, Alfred E; Minteer, Shelley D; Slade, Robert C T

    2014-01-01

    Mediator-less, direct electro-catalytic reduction of oxygen to water by bilirubin oxidase (Myrothecium sp.) was obtained on anthracene-modified, multi-walled carbon nanotubes. H2O2 was found to significantly and irreversibly affect the electro-catalytic activity of bilirubin oxidase, whereas similar electrodes comprised of laccase (Trametes versicolor) were reversibly inhibited. PMID:24185735

  2. Kinetic properties of glycerophosphate oxidase isolated from dry baker's yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Amade Camargo; Maria Henriques Lourenço Ribeiro; Maristela de Freitas Sanches Peres; Edwil Aparecida de Lucca Gattás

    2008-01-01

    The glycerophosphate oxidase is a flavoprotein responsible for the catalysis of the oxidation of the glycerophosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate, through the reduction of the oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The glycerophosphate oxidase from baker's yeast was specific for l-?-glycerol phosphate. It was estimated by monitoring the consumption of oxygen with an oxygraph. An increase of 32% in consumption of oxygen was

  3. Polyphenol Oxidase: Characteristics and Mechanisms of Browning Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Queiroz; Maria Lúcia Mendes Lopes; Eliane Fialho; Vera Lúcia Valente-Mesquita

    2008-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase, a copper-containing metalloprotein, catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds to quinones, which produce brown pigments in wounded tissues. This enzymatic mechanism causes post harvest losses and mainly affects tropical fruits. In this article, some characteristics of polyphenol oxidase from different plants are reviewed and information about conventional and alternative methods to inactivate this enzyme is presented. Characterization of

  4. A study on heat-resistance of microencapsulated glucose oxidase.

    PubMed

    Komori, T; Muramatsu, N; Kondo, T

    1986-01-01

    Polyurea microcapsules containing glucose oxidase were prepared and their thermodurability was examined. Microencapsulated glucose oxidase was found to be more stable to heat than the enzyme in free solution. This stability was enhanced with an increase in the amount of enzyme entrapped in the microcapsules. PMID:3508188

  5. Primary structure of a novel subunit in ba3-cytochrome oxidase from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Soulimane, T.; Than, M. E.; Dewor, M.; Huber, R.; Buse, G.

    2000-01-01

    The bax-type cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus is known as a two subunit enzyme. Deduced from the crystal structure of this enzyme, we discovered the presence of an additional transmembrane helix "subunit IIa" spanning the membrane. The hydrophobic N-terminally blocked protein was isolated in high yield using high-performance liquid chromatography. Its complete amino acid sequence was determined by a combination of automated Edman degradation of both the deformylated and the cyanogen bromide cleaved protein and automated C-terminal sequencing of the native protein. The molecular mass of 3,794 Da as determined by MALDI-MS and by ESI requires the N-terminal methionine to be formylated and is in good agreement with the value calculated from the formylmethionine containing sequence (3,766.5 Da + 28 Da = 3,794.5 Da). This subunit consits of 34 residues forming one helix across the membrane (Lys5-Ala34), which corresponds in space to the first transmembrane helix of subunit II of the cytochrome c oxidases from Paracoccus denitrificans and bovine heart, however, with opposite polarity. It is 35% identical to subunit IV of the ba3-cytochrome oxidase from Natronobacterium pharaonis. The open reading frame encoding this new subunit IIa (cbaD) is located upstream of cbaB in the same operon as the genes for subunit I (cbaA) and subunit II (cbaB). PMID:11152118

  6. Novel Role of NADPH Oxidase in Angiogenesis and Stem/Progenitor Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Urao, Norifumi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Neovascularization is involved in normal development and wound repair as well as ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease. Both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis [de novo new vessel formation through mobilization of stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow (BM) and their homing to the ischemic sites] contribute to the formation of new blood vessels after tissue ischemia. Angiogenesis is dependent on cell proliferation, migration, and capillary tube formation in endothelial cells (ECs). Stem/progenitor cells have been used for cell-based therapy to promote revascularization after peripheral or myocardial ischemia. Excess amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in senescence and apoptosis of ECs and stem/progenitor cells, causing defective neovascularization. ROS at low levels function as signaling molecules to mediate cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and gene expression. NADPH oxidase is one of the major sources of ROS in ECs and stem/progenitor cells, and is activated by various growth factors, cytokines, hypoxia, and ischemia. ROS derived from NADPH oxidase play an important role in redox signaling linked to angiogenesis ECs, as well as stem/progenitor cell mobilization, homing, and differentiation, thereby promoting neovascularization. Understanding these mechanisms may provide insight into NADPH oxidase and its mediators as potential therapeutic targets for ischemic heart and limb disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2517–2533. PMID:19309262

  7. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Koechler; Jessica Cleiss-Arnold; Caroline Proux; Odile Sismeiro; Marie-Agnès Dillies; Florence Goulhen-Chollet; Florence Hommais; Didier Lièvremont; Florence Arsène-Ploetze; Jean-Yves Coppée; Philippe N Bertin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III)

  8. Cytochrome oxidase assembly in yeast requires the product of COX11, a homolog of the P. denitrificans protein encoded by ORF3.

    PubMed Central

    Tzagoloff, A; Capitanio, N; Nobrega, M P; Gatti, D

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of cytochrome oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently shown to require a protein encoded by the nuclear gene COX10. This protein was found to be homologous to the putative protein product of the open reading frame ORF1 reported in one of the cytochrome oxidase operons of Paracoccus denitrificans. In the present study we demonstrate the existence in yeast of a second nuclear gene, COX11, whose encoded protein is homologous to another open reading frame (ORF3) present in the same operon of P. denitrificans. Mutations in COX11 elicit a deficiency in cytochrome oxidase. In this and in other respects cox11 and cox10 mutants have very similar phenotypes. An antibody has been obtained against the yeast COX11 protein. The antibody recognizes a 28 kd protein in yeast mitochondria, consistent with the size of the protein predicted from the sequence of COX11. The COX11 protein is tightly associated with the mitochondrial membrane but is not a component of purified cytochrome oxidase. An analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunits in wild type and in a cox11 mutant suggests that the COX11 protein is not required either for synthesis or transport of the subunit polypeptides into mitochondria. It seems more probable that COX11 protein exerts its effect at some terminal stage of enzyme synthesis, perhaps in directing assembly of the subunits. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2167832

  9. Acyl-CoA oxidase complexes control the chemical message produced by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxing; Feng, Likui; Chinta, Satya; Singh, Prashant; Wang, Yuting; Nunnery, Joshawna K; Butcher, Rebecca A

    2015-03-31

    Caenorhabditis elegans uses ascaroside pheromones to induce development of the stress-resistant dauer larval stage and to coordinate various behaviors. Peroxisomal ?-oxidation cycles are required for the biosynthesis of the fatty acid-derived side chains of the ascarosides. Here we show that three acyl-CoA oxidases, which catalyze the first step in these ?-oxidation cycles, form different protein homo- and heterodimers with distinct substrate preferences. Mutations in the acyl-CoA oxidase genes acox-1, -2, and -3 led to specific defects in ascaroside production. When the acyl-CoA oxidases were expressed alone or in pairs and purified, the resulting acyl-CoA oxidase homo- and heterodimers displayed different side-chain length preferences in an in vitro activity assay. Specifically, an ACOX-1 homodimer controls the production of ascarosides with side chains with nine or fewer carbons, an ACOX-1/ACOX-3 heterodimer controls the production of those with side chains with seven or fewer carbons, and an ACOX-2 homodimer controls the production of those with ?-side chains with less than five carbons. Our results support a biosynthetic model in which ?-oxidation enzymes act directly on the CoA-thioesters of ascaroside biosynthetic precursors. Furthermore, we identify environmental conditions, including high temperature and low food availability, that induce the expression of acox-2 and/or acox-3 and lead to corresponding changes in ascaroside production. Thus, our work uncovers an important mechanism by which C. elegans increases the production of the most potent dauer pheromones, those with the shortest side chains, under specific environmental conditions. PMID:25775534

  10. Genotypic Variation in Cytokinin Oxidase from Phaseolus Callus Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Kaminek, Miroslav; Armstrong, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    Genotypic variation in cytokinin oxidase has been detected in enzyme preparations from Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Great Northern and Phaseolus lunatus L. cv Kingston callus cultures. Although cytokinin oxidase preparations from Great Northern and Kingston callus tissues appear to have very similar substrate specificities, the cytokinin oxidase activities from the two callus tissues were found to differ in a number of other properties. The cytokinin oxidase from P. vulgaris cv Great Northern callus tissue exhibited a pH optimum of 6.5 (bisTris) and had a strong affinity for the lectin concanavalin A. The cytokinin oxidase from P. lunatus cv Kingston callus tissue exhibited a pH optimum of 8.4 (Taps) and did not bind to concanavalin A. The two enzymes also differed in position of elution when chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose. Both cytokinin oxidase activities exhibited enhanced activity and lower pH optima in the presence of copper-imidazole complexes, but the optimum copper-imidazole ratio and the magnitude of enhancement differed for the two activities. In both callus tissues, transient increases in the supply of exogenous cytokinins induced increases in cytokinin oxidase activity. The differences in pH optima and in glycosylation (as evidenced by the observed difference in lectin affinity) of the cytokinin oxidases from Great Northern and Kingston callus tissues suggest that the compartmentation of cytokinin oxidase may differ in the two callus tissues. The possibility that enzyme compartmentation and isozyme variation in cytokinin oxidase may play a role in the regulation of cytokinin degradation in plant tissues is discussed in relation to known differences in the rates of cytokinin degradation in Great Northern and Kingston callus tissues. Images Figure 6 PMID:16667652

  11. Effects of cholesterol oxidase on cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, K Z; Maddaford, T G; Ramjiawan, B; Kutryk, M J; Pierce, G N

    1991-11-13

    Cholesterol oxidase (3 beta-hydroxy-steroid oxidase) catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol to 4-cholesten-3 one and other oxidized cholesterol derivatives. The purpose of the present study was to investigate its effects on cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells were morphologically altered after exposure to cholesterol oxidase in the presence of culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum. If fetal calf serum was absent, cells were unaffected by the treatment. The extent of morphological change of the smooth muscle cells was dependent upon the time of exposure to the enzyme and the concentration of cholesterol oxidase employed. After moderate treatment with cholesterol oxidase, cells excluded trypan blue. Further, a specific mitochondrial marker DASPMI (dimethyl aminostyryl-methyl-pyridiniumiodine) which was used as a fluorescent index of cell viability, revealed that cell viability was unchanged after moderate cholesterol oxidase treatment. Nile red, a hydrophobic probe which selectively stains intracellular lipid droplets, was applied to detect the cellular lipid content after treatment with cholesterol oxidase. Cellular nile red fluorescence intensity increased linearly with the time and concentration of cholesterol oxidase treatment. These results demonstrate that cholesterol oxidase alters lipid deposition in the cell and changes cell morphology. The primary site of action of cholesterol oxidase appears to be independent of the cell membrane itself and instead is dependent upon the lipid content in the surrounding culture media. These changes occur prior to the cytotoxic effects of extensive oxidation. Because oxidized cholesterol may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, our results have implications for intracellular accumulation of lipids in smooth muscle cells during the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:1770944

  12. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80?% (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2?µM for 3 and 6.3?µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3?µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives. PMID:25340468

  13. Interheme electron tunneling in cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Kaila, Ville R. I.; Johansson, Mikael P.; Sundholm, Dage; Wikström, Mårten

    2010-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain that catalyzes respiratory reduction of dioxygen (O2) to water in all eukaryotes and many aerobic bacteria. CcO, and its homologs among the heme-copper oxidases, has an active site composed of an oxygen-binding heme and a copper center in the vicinity, plus another heme group that donates electrons to this site. In most oxidoreduction enzymes, electron transfer (eT) takes place by quantum-mechanical electron tunneling. Here we show by independent molecular dynamics and quantum-chemical methods that the heme-heme eT in CcO differs from the majority of cases in having an exceptionally low reorganization energy. We show that the rate of interheme eT in CcO may nevertheless be predicted by the Moser-Dutton equation if reinterpreted as the average of the eT rates between all individual atoms of the donor and acceptor weighed by the respective packing densities between them. We argue that this modification may be necessary at short donor/acceptor distances comparable to the donor/acceptor radii. PMID:21106766

  14. The Apoplastic Copper AMINE OXIDASE1 Mediates Jasmonic Acid-Induced Protoxylem Differentiation in Arabidopsis Roots.

    PubMed

    Ghuge, Sandip A; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-06-01

    Polyamines are involved in key developmental processes and stress responses. Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine (Put), producing an aldehyde, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) amine oxidase gene At4g14940 (AtAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed at the early stages of vascular tissue differentiation in roots. Here, its role in root development and xylem differentiation was explored by pharmacological and forward/reverse genetic approaches. Analysis of the AtAO1 expression pattern in roots by a promoter::green fluorescent protein-?-glucuronidase fusion revealed strong gene expression in the protoxylem at the transition, elongation, and maturation zones. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induced AtAO1 gene expression in vascular tissues, especially at the transition and elongation zones. Early protoxylem differentiation was observed upon MeJA treatment along with Put level decrease and H2O2 accumulation in wild-type roots, whereas Atao1 loss-of-function mutants were unresponsive to the hormone. The H2O2 scavenger N,N(1)-dimethylthiourea reversed the MeJA-induced early protoxylem differentiation in wild-type seedlings. Likewise, Put, which had no effect on Atao1 mutants, induced early protoxylem differentiation in the wild type, this event being counteracted by N,N(1)-dimethylthiourea treatment. Consistently, AtAO1-overexpressing plants showed lower Put levels and early protoxylem differentiation concurrent with H2O2 accumulation in the root zone where the first protoxylem cells with fully developed secondary wall thickenings are found. These results show that the H2O2 produced via AtAO1-driven Put oxidation plays a role in MeJA signaling leading to early protoxylem differentiation in root. PMID:25883242

  15. Epigenetic Silencing of Lysyl Oxidase-Like-1 through DNA Hypermethylation in an Autosomal Recessive Cutis Laxa Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romain Debret; Valérie Cenizo; Géraldine Aimond; Valérie André; Martine Devillers; Isabelle Rouvet; André Mégarbané; Odile Damour; Pascal Sommer

    2010-01-01

    We have recently reported a case of cutis laxa caused by a fibulin-5 missense mutation (p.C217R). Skin fibroblasts from this individual showed an abnormal pattern of expression of several genes coding for elastic fiber-related proteins, including lysyl oxidase-like-1 (LOXL1). In this study we intended to elucidate the mechanism responsible for LOXL1 downregulation in these fibulin-5-mutant cells. We identified a proximal

  16. Smoking Related Diseases: The Central Role of Monoamine Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, Francine; Peoc’h, Katell; Berlin, Ivan; Thomas, Daniel; Launay, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality. It is well established that monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity is decreased in smokers. Serotonin (5-HT), a major substrate for MAO that circulates as a reserve pool stored in platelets, is a marker of platelet activation. We recently reported that smoking durably modifies the platelet 5-HT/MAO system by inducing a demethylation of the MAO gene promoter resulting in high MAO protein concentration persisting more than ten years after quitting smoking. The present data enlarges the results to another MAO substrate, norepinephrine (NE), further confirming the central role of MAO in tobacco use-induced diseases. Thus, MAO could be a readily accessible and helpful marker in the risk evaluation of smoking-related diseases, from cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases to depression, anxiety and cancer. The present review implements the new finding of epigenetic regulation of MAO and suggests that smoking-induced MAO demethylation can be considered as a hallmark of smoking-related cancers similarly to other aberrant DNA methylations. PMID:21318020

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of apricot fruit polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, T; de Rigal, D; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, D; Gauillard, F; Richard-Forget, F; Fils-Lycaon, B R

    1999-04-01

    A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiment was done to synthesize a homologous polyphenol oxidase (PPO) probe from apricot (Prunus armeniaca var Bergeron) fruit. This probe was further used to isolate a full-length PPO cDNA, PA-PPO (accession no. AF020786), from an immature-green fruit cDNA library. PA-PPO is 2070 bp long and contains a single open reading frame encoding a PPO precursor peptide of 597 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 67.1 kD and an isoelectric point of 6.84. The mature protein has a predicted molecular mass of 56.2 kD and an isoelectric point of 5.84. PA-PPO belongs to a multigene family. The gene is highly expressed in young, immature-green fruit and is turned off early in the ripening process. The ratio of PPO protein to total proteins per fruit apparently remains stable regardless of the stage of development, whereas PPO specific activity peaks at the breaker stage. These results suggest that, in addition to a transcriptional control of PPO expression, other regulation factors such as translational and posttranslational controls also occur. PMID:10198084

  18. Evolution of histamine oxidase activity for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Rosini, Elena; Tonin, Fabio; Vasylieva, Natalia; Marinesco, Stephane; Pollegioni, Loredano

    2014-01-01

    Histamine is present to various degrees in many foods, and concentrations in fish samples are considered a good indicator of freshness and hygienic food quality. Seeking for innovative methods to quantify histamine in foods, we used a synthetic gene designed on the sequence of histamine oxidase from Arthrobacter crystallopoietes (HOD) as the starting point in this study to develop a biosensor. HOD was expressed in Escherichia coli cells with a yield of ?7 mg protein/L of fermentation broth. Recombinant wild-type HOD oxidized histamine and tyramine whereas it was inactive toward putrescine and cadaverine (two amines present in fish samples). The putative residues involved in substrate binding were identified by an in silico docking procedure based on a model of the structure of HOD: site-saturation mutagenesis was performed on 8 positions. The most significant changes in kinetic properties were observed for the P143M HOD: this variant showed higher histamine affinity and lower substrate inhibition by tyramine than wild-type enzyme. Biosensor prototypes were produced using both the wild-type and the P143M variant HOD. These biosensors showed a good sensitivity and selectivity with respect to biogenic amines present in food specimens. Accordingly, the HOD-based biosensor was successfully used to assess histamine in fish samples, yielding values in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC analyses but in a few seconds and at a significantly lower cost per analysis. PMID:23995223

  19. The Cox3p assembly module of yeast cytochrome oxidase.

    PubMed

    Su, Chen-Hsien; McStay, Gavin P; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Yeast cytochrome oxidase (COX) was previously inferred to assemble from three modules, each containing one of the three mitochondrially encoded subunits and a different subset of the eight nuclear gene products that make up this respiratory complex. Pull-down assays of pulse-labeled mitochondria enabled us to characterize Cox3p subassemblies that behave as COX precursors and contain Cox4p, Cox7p, and Cox13p. Surprisingly, Cox4p is a constituent of two other complexes, one of which was previously proposed to be an intermediate of Cox1p biogenesis. This suggests that Cox4p, which contacts Cox1p and Cox3p in the holoenzyme, can be incorporated into COX by two alternative pathways. In addition to subunits of COX, some Cox3p intermediates contain Rcf1p, a protein associated with the supercomplex that stabilizes the interaction of COX with the bc1 (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) complex. Finally, our results indicate that although assembly of the Cox1p module is not contingent on the presence of Cox3p, the converse is not true, as none of the Cox3p subassemblies were detected in a mutant blocked in translation of Cox1p. These studies support our proposal that Cox3p and Cox1p are separate assembly modules with unique compositions of ancillary factors and subunits derived from the nuclear genome. PMID:24478450

  20. ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zargar, Kamrun; Conrad, Alison; Bernick, David L.; Lowe, Todd M.; Stolc, Viktor; Hoeft, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John; Saltikov, Chad W.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle.

  1. Interaction of bovine serum amine oxidase with the polyamine oxidase inactivator MDL 72527.

    PubMed

    Agostinelli, Enzo; Palmigiani, Paola; Vedova, Laura Dalla; Tempera, Giampiero; Belli, Francesca; Seiler, Nikolaus

    2006-02-17

    MDL 72527 was considered a selective inhibitor of FAD-dependent polyamine oxidases. In the present communication, we demonstrate that MDL 72527 inactivates bovine serum amine oxidase, a copper-containing, TPQ-enzyme, time-dependently at 25 degrees C. In striking contrast, the enzyme remained active after incubation with excessive MDL 72527 at 37 degrees C, even after 70 h of incubation. Inactivation of BSAO with MDL 72527 at 25 degrees C did not involve the cofactor, as was shown by spectroscopy and by reaction with phenylhydrazine. Docking of MDL 72527 is difficult, owing to its size and two lipophilic moieties, and it has been shown that minor changes in reaction rate of substrates cause major changes in K(m) and k(cat)/K(m). We hypothesise that subtle conformational changes between 25 and 37 degrees C impair MDL 72527 from productive binding and prevent the nucleophilic group from reacting with the double bond system. PMID:16380084

  2. Evaluation of oxalate decarboxylase and oxalate oxidase for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Cassland, Pierre; Sjöde, Anders; Winestrand, Sandra; Jönsson, Leif J; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    2010-05-01

    Increased recirculation of process water has given rise to problems with formation of calcium oxalate incrusts (scaling) in the pulp and paper industry and in forest biorefineries. The potential in using oxalate decarboxylase from Aspergillus niger for oxalic acid removal in industrial bleaching plant filtrates containing oxalic acid was examined and compared with barley oxalate oxidase. Ten different filtrates from chemical pulping were selected for the evaluation. Oxalate decarboxylase degraded oxalic acid faster than oxalate oxidase in eight of the filtrates, while oxalate oxidase performed better in one filtrate. One of the filtrates inhibited both enzymes. The potential inhibitory effect of selected compounds on the enzymatic activity was tested. Oxalate decarboxylase was more sensitive than oxalate oxidase to hydrogen peroxide. Oxalate decarboxylase was not as sensitive to chlorate and chlorite as oxalate oxidase. Up to 4 mM chlorate ions, the highest concentration tested, had no inhibitory effect on oxalate decarboxylase. Analysis of the filtrates suggests that high concentrations of chlorate present in some of the filtrates were responsible for the higher sensitivity of oxalate oxidase in these filtrates. Oxalate decarboxylase was thus a better choice than oxalate oxidase for treatment of filtrates from chlorine dioxide bleaching. PMID:19763895

  3. Two o-type oxidases in Methylobacillus flagellatum KT.

    PubMed

    Muntyan, M S; Bloch, D A; Dinarieva, T Y; Drachev, L A; Netrusov, A I

    1994-10-14

    Two oxidases of the o-type in membranes of the methanol-grown obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus flagellatum KT were distinguished. For this purpose the kinetic analysis of the laser flash-induced optical absorbance changes of CO-oxidase complexes under reducing conditions was used. The ratio of these oxidases in membranes greatly depended on the phases of bacterial growth. One of the oxidases appeared to belong to the Escherichia coli o-type oxidase family being more sensitive to KCN (Ki = 1 microM). It showed monophasic CO recombination kinetics with tau 25-30 ms and was expressed in the early exponential phase of growth. The other oxidase seemed to be similar to the Bacillus sp. FTU o-type oxidase being less sensitive to KCN (Ki = 6 microM), having three-phasic CO reassociation kinetics with tau 35-70 microseconds, 0.25-0.5 ms and 2-4 ms and dominating in the stationary growth phase. Pyridine haemochrome spectra showed haems A and D to be absent from the bacterial membranes. PMID:7945389

  4. Quantitation of immunoadsorbed flavoprotein oxidases by luminol-mediated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Hinkkanen, A; Maly, F E; Decker, K

    1983-04-01

    The detection of the flavoenzymes 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase and 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase at the sub-femtomol level was achieved by coupling the reaction of the immunoadsorbed proteins to the peroxidase-catalysed oxidation of luminol. The H2O2-producing oxidases retained their full activity when bound to the respective immobilized antibodies. This fact allowed the concentration of the enzymes from very dilute solutions and the quantitative assay of their activities in the microU range. Due to strict stereoselectivity and the absence of immunological cross-reactivity, the two flavoproteins could be determined in the same solution. This method was used to measure the 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase and 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase activities in Escherichia coli RR1 and different Arthrobacter strains cultured under non-inducing conditions. The same activity ratio of 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase/6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase as in D L-nicotine-induced cells of A. oxidans was observed in non-induced wild type and in riboflavin-requiring (rf-) mutant cells of this aerob. PMID:6862382

  5. Why Orange Guaymas Basin Beggiatoa spp. Are Orange: Single-Filament-Genome-Enabled Identification of an Abundant Octaheme Cytochrome with Hydroxylamine Oxidase, Hydrazine Oxidase, and Nitrite Reductase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Siebert, Jason R.; Staunton, Eric; Hegg, Eric L.; Matthysse, Ann G.; Teske, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Orange, white, and yellow vacuolated Beggiatoaceae filaments are visually dominant members of microbial mats found near sea floor hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, with orange filaments typically concentrated toward the mat centers. No marine vacuolate Beggiatoaceae are yet in pure culture, but evidence to date suggests they are nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. The nearly complete genome sequence of a single orange Beggiatoa (“Candidatus Maribeggiatoa”) filament from a microbial mat sample collected in 2008 at a hydrothermal site in Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California, Mexico) was recently obtained. From this sequence, the gene encoding an abundant soluble orange-pigmented protein in Guaymas Basin mat samples (collected in 2009) was identified by microcapillary reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (?LC–MS-MS) of a pigmented band excised from a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. The predicted protein sequence is related to a large group of octaheme cytochromes whose few characterized representatives are hydroxylamine or hydrazine oxidases. The protein was partially purified and shown by in vitro assays to have hydroxylamine oxidase, hydrazine oxidase, and nitrite reductase activities. From what is known of Beggiatoaceae physiology, nitrite reduction is the most likely in vivo role of the octaheme protein, but future experiments are required to confirm this tentative conclusion. Thus, while present-day genomic and proteomic techniques have allowed precise identification of an abundant mat protein, and its potential activities could be assayed, proof of its physiological role remains elusive in the absence of a pure culture that can be genetically manipulated. PMID:23220958

  6. Gene therapy for chronic granulomatous disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Kume; Mary C Dinauer

    2000-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of gene therapy for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited immunodeficiency syndrome, is reviewed. This disorder results from defects in any of the four genes encoding essential subunits of respiratory burst oxidase, the superoxide-generating enzyme complex in phagocytic leukocytes. The absence of respiratory burst oxidants results in recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and can also

  7. Genetic polymorphism of aldehyde oxidase in Donryu rats.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kunio; Masubuchi, Akiko; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Adachi, Mayuko; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Mizugaki, Michinao; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2007-05-01

    One of major metabolic pathways of [(+/-)-4-(4-cyanoanilino)-5,6-dihydro-7-hydroxy-7H-cyclopenta[d]-pyrimidine] (RS-8359), a selective and reversible monoamine oxidase type A inhibitor, is the aldehyde oxidase-catalyzed 2-hydroxylation at the pyrimidine ring. Donryu rats showed a dimorphic pattern for the 2-oxidation activity with about 20- to 40-fold variations in the Vmax/Km values between a low and a high activity group. The rats were classified as extensive metabolizers (EM) and poor metabolizers (PM) of RS-8359, of which ratios were approximately 1:1. One rat among the EM rats of each sex showed extremely high activity, and they were referred to as ultrarapid metabolizers. There was no significant difference in the expression levels of mRNA of aldehyde oxidase between the EM and PM rats. Analysis of nucleotide sequences showed four substitutions, of which the substitutions at 377G>A and 2604C>T caused 110Gly-Ser and 852Ala-Val amino acid changes, respectively. Amino acid residue 110 is located very near the second Fe-S center of aldehyde oxidase. Its change from nonchiral Gly to chiral Ser may result in a conformational change of aldehyde oxidase protein with the shift of isoelectric point value from 5.0 in the EM rats to 6.2 in the PM rats. The 110Gly-Ser amino acid substitution (377G>A) may be primarily responsible for the variations of aldehyde oxidase activity observed in Donryu rats, in addition to the difference of expression levels of aldehyde oxidase protein. If a new drug candidate is primarily metabolized by aldehyde oxidase, attention should be given to using a rat strain with high aldehyde oxidase activity and small individual variation. PMID:17293383

  8. Current status of NADPH oxidase research in cardiovascular pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Rodiño-Janeiro, Bruno K; Paradela-Dobarro, Beatriz; Castiñeiras-Landeira, María Isabel; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; González-Juanatey, José R; Álvarez, Ezequiel

    2013-01-01

    The implications of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease have been known for some decades. Rationally, therapeutic antioxidant strategies combating oxidative stress have been developed, but the results of clinical trials have not been as good as expected. Therefore, to move forward in the design of new therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease based on prevention of production of reactive oxygen species, steps must be taken on two fronts, ie, comprehension of reduction-oxidation signaling pathways and the pathophysiologic roles of reactive oxygen species, and development of new, less toxic, and more selective nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitors, to clarify both the role of each NADPH oxidase isoform and their utility in clinical practice. In this review, we analyze the value of NADPH oxidase as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease and the old and new pharmacologic agents or strategies to prevent NADPH oxidase activity. Some inhibitors and different direct or indirect approaches are available. Regarding direct NADPH oxidase inhibition, the specificity of NADPH oxidase is the focus of current investigations, whereas the chemical structure-activity relationship studies of known inhibitors have provided pharmacophore models with which to search for new molecules. From a general point of view, small-molecule inhibitors are preferred because of their hydrosolubility and oral bioavailability. However, other possibilities are not closed, with peptide inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies against NADPH oxidase isoforms continuing to be under investigation as well as the ongoing search for naturally occurring compounds. Likewise, some different approaches include inhibition of assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex, subcellular translocation, post-transductional modifications, calcium entry/release, electron transfer, and genetic expression. High-throughput screens for any of these activities could provide new inhibitors. All this knowledge and the research presently underway will likely result in development of new drugs for inhibition of NADPH oxidase and application of therapeutic approaches based on their action, for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in the next few years. PMID:23983473

  9. The catalytic behaviour of monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Tipton, K F; O'Carroll, A M; McCrodden, J M

    1987-01-01

    Evidence concerning the kinetic mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by monoamine oxidase is reviewed with particular reference to the possibility that the double-displacement mechanism followed by other substrates is not operative with benzylamine. The requirement for only one of the two products of the first half-reaction to be released in a double-displacement mechanism indicates that the available evidence does not exclude such a mechanism with benzylamine as the substrate. Cases in which substrates also act as time-dependent inhibitors are considered. The mechanism that can describe the inhibition and product formation is similar for the compounds MD 780236 and MPTP whereas that describing the effects of high concentrations of 2-phenethylamine is best described by a scheme involving inhibition occurring via an abortive complex. PMID:3295115

  10. Glucose oxidase immobilization onto carbon nanotube networking

    E-print Network

    Karachevtsev, V A; Zarudnev, E S; Karachevtsev, M V; Leontiev, V S; Linnik, A S; Lytvyn, O S; Plokhotnichenko, A M; Stepanian, S G

    2012-01-01

    When elaborating the biosensor based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), it is necessary to solve such an important problem as the immobilization of a target biomolecule on the nanotube surface. In this work, the enzyme (glucose oxidase (GOX)) was immobilized on the surface of a nanotube network, which was created by the deposition of nanotubes from their solution in 1,2-dichlorobenzene by the spray method. 1-Pyrenebutanoic acid succinimide ester (PSE) was used to form the molecular interface, the bifunctional molecule of which provides the covalent binding with the enzyme shell, and its other part (pyrene) is adsorbed onto the nanotube surface. First, the usage of such a molecular interface leaves out the direct adsorption of the enzyme (in this case, its activity decreases) onto the nanotube surface, and, second, it ensures the enzyme localization near the nanotube. The comparison of the resonance Raman (RR) spectrum of pristine nanotubes with their spectrum in the PSE environment evidences the creat...

  11. Coumarins: Auspicious Cholinesterase and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Gulcan, H Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibition is the only current validated target in clinics in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, there is continuous interest in the development and discovery of novel cholinesterase inhibitory molecules. Coumarins, beside their employment in other pharmacological groups, have also attracted attention to be utilized in cholinesterase inhibitory molecule discovery and development. Numerous studies so far indicated the natural and synthetic coumarin analogues that have the potential to inhibit acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes. Since the pathophysiology of AD is highly complex and, in particular, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are also utilized in clinic for disease symptoms, coumarin analogues, either natural or synthetic, that have the potential to inhibit cholinesterase or MAO enzymes are summarized within this review. PMID:25915613

  12. NADPH Oxidases in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Karen; Hecker, Louise; Luckhardt, Tracy R.; Cheng, Guangjie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The evolution of the lungs and circulatory systems in vertebrates ensured the availability of molecular oxygen (O2; dioxygen) for aerobic cellular metabolism of internal organs in large animals. O2 serves as the physiologic terminal acceptor of mitochondrial electron transfer and of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of oxidoreductases to generate primarily water and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Recent advances: The purposeful generation of ROS by Nox family enzymes suggests important roles in normal physiology and adaptation, most notably in host defense against invading pathogens and in cellular signaling. Critical issues: However, there is emerging evidence that, in the context of chronic stress and/or aging, Nox enzymes contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Future Directions: Here, we review evolving functions of Nox enzymes in normal lung physiology and emerging pathophysiologic roles in lung disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2838–2853. PMID:24093231

  13. Immunocytochemical localization of urate oxidase, fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, and catalase in bovine kidney peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Usuda, N; Usman, M I; Reddy, M K; Hashimoto, T; Reddy, J K; Rao, M S

    1988-03-01

    We investigated the localization of urate oxidase, peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, and catalase in bovine kidney by immunoblot analysis and protein A-gold immunocytochemistry, using the respective polyclonal monospecific antibodies raised against the enzymes purified from rat liver. By immunoblot analysis, these three proteins were detected in bovine kidney and bovine liver homogenates. Subcellular localization of these three enzymes in kidney was ascertained by protein A-gold immunocytochemical staining of Lowicryl K4M-embedded tissue. Peroxisomes in bovine kidney cortical epithelium possessed crystalloid cores or nucleoids, which were found to be the exclusive sites of urate oxidase localization. The limiting membrane, the marginal plate, and the matrix of renal peroxisomes were negative for urate oxidase staining. In contrast, catalase and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase were found in the peroxisome matrix. These results demonstrate that, unlike rat kidney peroxisomes which lack urate oxidase, peroxisomes of bovine kidney contain this enzyme as well as peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase. PMID:3343509

  14. The role of respiratory burst oxidase homologues in elicitor-induced stomatal closure and hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huajian; Fang, Qin; Zhang, Zhengguang; Wang, Yuanchao; Zheng, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    Active oxygen species (AOS) are central components of the defence reactions of plants against pathogens. Plant respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOH) of gp91phox, a plasma membrane protein of the neutrophil nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, play a prominent role in AOS production. The role of two RBOH from Nicotiana benthamiana, NbrbohA and NbrbohB that encode plant NADPH oxidase in the process of elicitor-induced stomatal closure and hypersensitive cell death is described here. NbrbohA was constitutively expressed at a low level, whereas NbrbohB was induced when protein elicitors exist (such as boehmerin, harpin, or INF1). The virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) method was used to produce single-silenced (NbrbohA or NbrbohB) and double-silenced (NbrbohA and NbrbohB) N. benthamiana plants. The hypersensitive response (HR) of cell death and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression of these gene-silenced N. benthamiana plants, induced by various elicitors, are examined. The HR cell death and transcript accumulation of genes related to the defence response (PR1) were slightly affected, suggesting that RBOH are not essential for elicitor-induced HR and activation of these genes. Interestingly, gene-silenced plants impaired elicitor-induced stomatal closure and elicitor-promoted nitric oxide (NO) production, but not elicitor-induced cytosolic calcium ion accumulation and elicitor-triggered AOS production in guard cells. These results indicate that RBOH from N. benthamiana function in elicitor-induced stomatal closure, but not in elicitor-induced HR. PMID:19454596

  15. Identification, expression, and taxonomic distribution of alternative oxidases in non-angiosperm plants.

    PubMed

    Neimanis, Karina; Staples, James F; Hüner, Norman P A; McDonald, Allison E

    2013-09-10

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal ubiquinol oxidase present in the respiratory chain of all angiosperms investigated to date, but AOX distribution in other members of the Viridiplantae is less clear. We assessed the taxonomic distribution of AOX using bioinformatics. Multiple sequence alignments compared AOX proteins and examined amino acid residues involved in AOX catalytic function and post-translational regulation. Novel AOX sequences were found in both Chlorophytes and Streptophytes and we conclude that AOX is widespread in the Viridiplantae. AOX multigene families are common in non-angiosperm plants and the appearance of AOX1 and AOX2 subtypes pre-dates the divergence of the Coniferophyta and Magnoliophyta. Residues involved in AOX catalytic function are highly conserved between Chlorophytes and Streptophytes, while AOX post-translational regulation likely differs in these two lineages. We demonstrate experimentally that an AOX gene is present in the moss Physcomitrella patens and that the gene is transcribed. Our findings suggest that AOX will likely exert an influence on plant respiration and carbon metabolism in non-angiosperms such as green algae, bryophytes, liverworts, lycopods, ferns, gnetophytes, and gymnosperms and that further research in these systems is required. PMID:23664893

  16. A molecular role for lysyl oxidase-like 2 enzyme in snail regulation and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Héctor; Del Carmen Iglesias-de la Cruz, Maria; Olmeda, David; Csiszar, Katalin; Fong, Keith S K; Vega, Sonia; Nieto, Maria Angela; Cano, Amparo; Portillo, Francisco

    2005-10-01

    The transcription factor Snail controls epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) by repressing E-cadherin expression and other epithelial genes. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of Snail function are not fully understood. Here we show that lysyl-oxidase-like 2 and 3 (LOXL2 and LOXL3), two members of the lysyl-oxidase gene family, interact and cooperate with Snail to downregulate E-cadherin expression. Snail's lysine residues 98 and 137 are essential for Snail stability, functional cooperation with LOXL2/3 and induction of EMT. Overexpression of LOXL2 or LOXL3 in epithelial cells induces an EMT process, supporting their implication in tumor progression. The biological importance of LOXL2 is further supported by RNA interference of LOXL2 in Snail-expressing metastatic carcinoma cells, which led to a strong decrease of tumor growth associated to increased apoptosis and reduced expression of mesenchymal and invasive/angiogenic markers. Taken together, these results establish a direct link between LOXL2 and Snail in carcinoma progression. PMID:16096638

  17. Bioelectrochemical characteristics of cholesterol oxidase immobilized in a polyaniline film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiyan Wang; Shaolin Mu

    1999-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase has been immobilized in polyaniline film by the electrochemical doping method. The measurements of the response current are carried out in the solutions containing cholesterol and Triton X-100 of 5% and 1%, respectively. The latter is necessary for solubilizing cholesterol. The response current of the polyaniline cholesterol oxidase electrode increases with increasing potential from 0.35 to 0.60 V

  18. COPPER AMINE OXIDASE1 (CuAO1) of Arabidopsis thaliana contributes to abscisic acid- and polyamine-induced nitric oxide biosynthesis and abscisic acid signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Wimalasekera, Rinukshi; Villar, Corina; Begum, Tahmina; Scherer, Günther F E

    2011-07-01

    Polyamines (PA), polyamine oxidases, copper amine oxidases, and nitric oxide (NO) play important roles in physiology and stress responses in plants. NO biosynthesis as a result of catabolism of PA by polyamine oxidases and copper amine oxidases may explain in part PA-mediated responses. Involvement of a copper amine oxidase gene, COPPER AMINE OXIDASE1 (CuAO1), of Arabidopsis was tested for its role in stress responses using the knockouts cuao1-1 and cuao1-2. PA-induced and ABA-induced NO production investigated by fluorometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the cuao1-1 and cuao1-2 are impaired in NO production, suggesting a function of CuAO1 in PA and ABA-mediated NO production. Furthermore, we found a PA-dependent increase in protein S-nitrosylation. The addition of PA and ABA also resulted in H(2)O(2) increases. cuao1-1 and cuao1-2 showed less sensitivity to exogenous ABA supplementation during germination, seedling establishment, and root growth inhibition as compared to wild-type. In response to ABA treatment, expression levels of the stress-responsive genes RD29A and ADH1 were significantly lower in the knockouts. These observations characterize cuao1-1 and cuao1-2 as ABA-insensitive mutants. Taken together, our findings extend the ABA signal transduction network to include CuAO1 as one potential contributor to enhanced NO production by ABA. PMID:21471330

  19. Confirmation of a blocked amino terminus of sulfhydryl oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Janolino, V.G.; Morrison-Rowe, S.J.; Swaisgood, H.E. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The isolation of sulfhydryl oxidase from bovine milk in a suitably pure form for sequencing was carried out by transient covalent affinity chromatography of diafiltered whey using cysteinylsuccinamidopropyl-glass as matrix. The glutathione-eluted proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. By radiolabeling the affinity chromatography-purified enzyme with ({sup 14}C)iodoacetate before subjecting to SDS-PAGE, the sulfhydryl oxidase band was identified, because sulfhydryl oxidase is known to be inactivated by alkylation of one sulfhydryl group per mole. The results confirmed that sulfhydryl oxidase corresponds to the 85 ({plus minus} 5)-kDa band observed on SDS-PAGE. The protein band corresponding to radiolabeled sulfhydryl oxidase was recovered from SDS-PAGE gels by electrophoretic elution and by electroblotting on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane and subjected to gas phase sequencing. Precautions were taken during electrophoretic elution to prevent reactions that result in N-terminal blocking. Both methods of protein recovery yielded negative results when subjected to sequence analysis indicating that the N-terminus of sulfhydryl oxidase is blocked.

  20. The BLI-3/TSP-15/DOXA-1 dual oxidase complex is required for iodide toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaofa; Luo, Jintao; Li, Yu; Ma, Long

    2015-02-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for life. Iodide deficiency can lead to defective biosynthesis of thyroid hormones and is a major cause of hypothyroidism and mental retardation. Excess iodide intake, however, has been linked to different thyroidal diseases. How excess iodide causes harmful effects is not well understood. Here, we found that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits developmental arrest and other pleiotropic defects when exposed to excess iodide. To identify the responsible genes, we performed a forward genetic screen and isolated 12 mutants that can survive in excess iodide. These mutants define at least four genes, two of which we identified as bli-3 and tsp-15. bli-3 encodes the C. elegans ortholog of the mammalian dual oxidase DUOX1 and tsp-15 encodes the tetraspanin protein TSP-15, which was previously shown to interact with BLI-3. The C. elegans dual oxidase maturation factor DOXA-1 is also required for the arresting effect of excess iodide. Finally, we detected a dramatically increased biogenesis of reactive oxygen species in animals treated with excess iodide, and this effect can be partially suppressed by bli-3 and tsp-15 mutations. We propose that the BLI-3/TSP-15/DOXA-1 dual oxidase complex is required for the toxic pleiotropic effects of excess iodide. PMID:25480962

  1. The IMMUTANS variegation locus of Arabidopsis defines a mitochondrial alternative oxidase homolog that functions during early chloroplast biogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, D; Wright, D A; Wetzel, C; Voytas, D F; Rodermel, S

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear gene-induced variegation mutants provide a powerful system to dissect interactions between the genetic systems of the nucleus-cytoplasm, the chloroplast, and the mitochondrion. The immutans (im) variegation mutation of Arabidopsis is nuclear and recessive and results in the production of green- and white-sectored leaves. The green sectors contain cells with normal chloroplasts, whereas the white sectors are heteroplastidic and contain cells with abnormal, pigment-deficient plastids as well as some normal chloroplasts. White sector formation can be promoted by enhanced light intensities, but sectoring becomes irreversible early in leaf development. The white sectors accumulate the carotenoid precursor phytoene. We have positionally cloned IM and found that the gene encodes a 40.5-kD protein with sequence motifs characteristic of alternative oxidase, a mitochondrial protein that functions as a terminal oxidase in the respiratory chains of all plants. However, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the IM protein is only distantly related to these other alternative oxidases, suggesting that IM is a novel member of this protein class. We sequenced three alleles of im, and all are predicted to be null. Our data suggest a model of variegation in which the IM protein functions early in chloroplast biogenesis as a component of a redox chain responsible for phytoene desaturation but that a redundant electron transfer function is capable of compensating for IM activity in some plastids and cells. PMID:9878631

  2. Purification of enzymatically active human lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like protein from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Taek Jung; Moon Suk Kim; Ji Yeon Seo; Hyung Chul Kim; Youngho Kim

    2003-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular copper dependent enzyme catalyzing lysine-derived cross-links in extracellular matrix proteins. Recent molecular cloning has revealed the existence of a LOX family consisting of LOX and four lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXLs; LOXL, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4). Each member of the LOX family contains a copper-binding domain, residues for lysyl-tyrosyl quinone, and a cytokine receptor-like domain.

  3. Covalently bound phosphate residues in bovine milk xanthine oxidase and in glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger: A reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.L.; Rajagopalan, K.V. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA)); London, R.E. (National Institute of Environmental Health Science, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The reported presence of covalently bound phosphate residues in flavoproteins has significant implications with regard to the catalytic mechanisms and structural stability of the specific enzymes themselves and in terms of general cellular metabolic regulation. These considerations have led to a reevaluation of the presence of covalently bound phosphorus in the flavoproteins xanthine oxidase and glucose oxidase. Milk xanthine oxidase purified by a procedure that includes anion-exchange chromatography is shown to contain three phosphate residues. All three are noncovalently associated with the protein, two with the FAD cofactor, and one with the molybdenum cofactor. Results of chemical analysis and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy indicate that enzyme purified by this method contains no phosphoserine residues. Xanthine oxidase preparations purified by chromatography on calcium phosphate gel in place of DEAE-Sephadex yielded higher phosphate-to-protein ratios, which could be reduced to the expected values by additional purification on a folate affinity column. Highly active, highly purified preparations of glucose oxidase are shown to contain only the two phosphate residues of the FAD cofactor. The covalently bound bridging phosphate reported by others may arise in aged or degraded preparations of the enzyme but appears not to be a constituent of functional glucose oxidase. These results suggest that the presence of covalent phosphate residues in other flavoproteins should be rigorously reevaluated as well.

  4. NADPH Oxidase and the Cardiovascular Toxicity Associated with Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mikyung; Han, Chang-ho

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most serious but preventable causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Key aspects of pathological process associated with smoking include endothelial dysfunction, a prothrombotic state, inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and hypoxia. Multiple molecular events are involved in smokinginduced CVD. However, the dysregulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and metabolism mainly contribute to the development of diverse CVDs, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been established as a source of ROS responsible for the pathogenesis of CVD. NOX activation and resultant ROS production by cigarette smoke (CS) treatment have been widely observed in isolated blood vessels and cultured vascular cells, including endothelial and smooth muscle cells. NOX-mediated oxidative stress has also been demonstrated in animal studies. Of the various NOX isoforms, NOX2 has been reported to mediate ROS generation by CS, but other isoforms were not tested thoroughly. Of the many CS constituents, nicotine, methyl vinyl ketone, and ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, such as, acrolein and crotonaldehyde, appear to be primarily responsible for NOX-mediated cytotoxicity, but additional validation will be needed. Human epidemiological studies have reported relationships between polymorphisms in the CYBA gene encoding p22phox, a catalytic subunit of NOX and susceptibility to smoking-related CVDs. In particular, G allele carriers of A640G and -930A/G polymorphisms were found to be vulnerable to smoking-induced cardiovascular toxicity, but results for C242T studies are conflicting. On the whole, evidence implicates the etiological role of NOX in smoking-induced CVD, but the clinical relevance of NOX activation by smoking and its contribution to CVD require further validation in human studies. A detailed understanding of the role of NOX would be helpful to assess the risk of smoking to human health, to define high-risk subgroups, and to develop strategies to prevent or treat smoking-induced CVD. PMID:25343008

  5. Plant sterol biosynthesis: identification of two distinct families of sterol 4alpha-methyl oxidases.

    PubMed Central

    Darnet, Sylvain; Rahier, Alain

    2004-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of cycloartenol into functional phytosterols requires the removal of the two methyl groups at C-4 by an enzymic complex including a sterol 4alpha-methyl oxidase (SMO). We report the cloning of candidate genes for SMOs in Arabidopsis thaliana, belonging to two distinct families termed SMO1 and SMO2 and containing three and two isoforms respectively. SMO1 and SMO2 shared low sequence identity with each other and were orthologous to the ERG25 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae which encodes the SMO. The plant SMO amino acid sequences possess all the three histidine-rich motifs (HX3H, HX2HH and HX2HH), characteristic of the small family of membrane-bound non-haem iron oxygenases that are involved in lipid oxidation. To elucidate the precise functions of SMO1 and SMO2 gene families, we have reduced their expression by using a VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) approach in Nicotiana benthamiana. SMO1 and SMO2 cDNA fragments were inserted into a viral vector and N. benthamiana inoculated with the viral transcripts. After silencing with SMO1, a substantial accumulation of 4,4-dimethyl-9beta,19-cyclopropylsterols (i.e. 24-methylenecycloartanol) was obtained, whereas qualitative and quantitative levels of 4alpha-methylsterols were not affected. In the case of silencing with SMO2, a large accumulation of 4alpha-methyl-Delta7-sterols (i.e. 24-ethylidenelophenol and 24-ethyllophenol) was found, with no change in the levels of 4,4-dimethylsterols. These clear and distinct biochemical phenotypes demonstrate that, in contrast with animals and fungi, in photosynthetic eukaryotes, these two novel families of cDNAs are coding two distinct types of C-4-methylsterol oxidases controlling the level of 4,4-dimethylsterol and 4alpha-methylsterol precursors respectively. PMID:14653780

  6. Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Bortolato, Marco; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C

    2008-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) A and B are mitochondrial bound isoenzymes which catalyze the oxidative deamination of dietary amines and monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, ?-phenylethylamine and other trace amines. The rapid degradation of these molecules ensures the proper functioning of synaptic neurotransmission and is critically important for the regulation of emotional behaviors and other brain functions. The byproducts of MAO-mediated reactions include several chemical species with neurotoxic potential, such as hydrogen peroxide, ammonia and aldehydes. As a consequence, it is widely speculated that prolonged excessive activity of these enzymes may be conducive to mitochondrial damages and neurodegenerative disturbances. In keeping with these premises, the development of MAO inhibitors has led to important breakthroughs in the therapy of several neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from mood disorders to Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, the characterization of MAO knockout (KO) mice has revealed that the inactivation of this enzyme produces a number of functional and behavioral alterations, some of which may be harnessed for therapeutic aims. In this article, we discuss the intriguing hypothesis that the attenuation of the oxidative stress induced by the inactivation of either MAO isoform may contribute to both antidepressant and antiparkinsonian actions of MAO inhibitors. This possibility further highlights MAO inactivation as a rich source of novel avenues in the treatment of mental disorders. PMID:18652859

  7. Monoamine oxidase: Radiotracer chemistry and human studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Shumay, Elena; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.

    2015-03-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) oxidizes amines from both endogenous and exogenous sources thereby regulating the concentration of neurotransmitter amines such as serot onin, norepinephrine and dopamine as well as many xenobiotics. MAO inhibitor drugs are used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and in depression stimulating the development of radiotracer tools to probe the role of MAO in normal human biology and in disease. Over the past 30 since the first radiotracers were developed and the first PET images of MAO in humans were carried out, PET studies of brain MAO in healthy volunteers and in patients have identified different variablesmore »which have contributed to different MAO levels in brain and in peripheral organs. MAO radiotracers and PET have also been used to study the current and developing MAO inhibitor drugs including the selection of doses for clinical trials. In this article, we describe (1) the development of MAO radiotracers; (2) human studies including the relationship of brain MAO levels to genotype, personality, neurological and psychiatric disorders; (3) examples of the use of MAO radiotracers in drug research and development. We will conclude with outstanding needs to improve the radiotracers which are currently used and possible new applications.« less

  8. Crystallization of beef heart cytochrome c oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Shinya; Shinzawa, Kyoko; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Abe, Toshio; Caughey, Winslow S.

    1991-03-01

    The three-dimensional structure of cytochrome c oxidase, a complex (multimetal, multisubunit) membrane protein is critical to elucidation of the mechanism of the enzymic reactions and their control. Our recent developments in the crystallization of the enzyme isolated from beef hearts are presented. The crystals appeared more readily at higher protein concentration, lower ionic strength, higher detergent concentration (Brij-35) and lower temperature. Large crystals were obtained by changing one of these parameters to the crystallization point as slowly as possible, keeping the other parameters constant. Increasing the detergent concentration was the most successful method, producing green crystals of the resting oxidized form as hexagonal bipyramids with typical dimensions of 0.6 mm. The usual procedures for crystallization of water soluble proteins, such as increasing ionic strength by vapor diffusion, were not applicable for this enzyme. Crystals of the resting oxidized enzyme belong to a space group of P6 2 or P6 4 with cell dimensions, a = b = 208.7 Å and c = 282.3 Å. The Patterson function shows that the crystal exhibited a non-crystallographic two-fold axis parallel to the c-axis in the asymmetric unit.

  9. Monoamine oxidase: Radiotracer chemistry and human studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fowler, Joanna S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Logan, Jean [New York Univ., Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Shumay, Elena [National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Inst. of Health, Betheseda, MD (United States); Alia-Klein, Nelly [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Wang, Gene-Jack [National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Inst. of Health, Betheseda, MD (United States); Volkow, Nora D. [National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Inst. of Health, Betheseda, MD (United States); National Inst. on Drug Abuse, National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) oxidizes amines from both endogenous and exogenous sources thereby regulating the concentration of neurotransmitter amines such as serot onin, norepinephrine and dopamine as well as many xenobiotics. MAO inhibitor drugs are used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and in depression stimulating the development of radiotracer tools to probe the role of MAO in normal human biology and in disease. Over the past 30 since the first radiotracers were developed and the first PET images of MAO in humans were carried out, PET studies of brain MAO in healthy volunteers and in patients have identified different variables which have contributed to different MAO levels in brain and in peripheral organs. MAO radiotracers and PET have also been used to study the current and developing MAO inhibitor drugs including the selection of doses for clinical trials. In this article, we describe (1) the development of MAO radiotracers; (2) human studies including the relationship of brain MAO levels to genotype, personality, neurological and psychiatric disorders; (3) examples of the use of MAO radiotracers in drug research and development. We will conclude with outstanding needs to improve the radiotracers which are currently used and possible new applications.

  10. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory lanostanoids from Ganoderma tsugae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Wei; Chen, Yen-Ting; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Wei, Bai-Luh; Hung, Chi-Feng; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2013-09-01

    Two new lanostanoids, 3?-acetoxy-22-oxo-5?-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid, named tsugaric acid D (1) and 16?-hydroxy-3-oxo-5?-lanosta-6,8,24(24(1))-trien-21-oic acid, named tsugaric acid E (2) were isolated from the fruit bodies of Ganoderma tsugae. The structures 1 and 2 were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 and known compounds 3 and 6 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity with an IC50 values of 90.2±24.2, 116.1±3.0, and 181.9±5.8 ?M, respectively. Known compound 5 was able to protect human keratinocytes against damage induced by UVB light, which showed 5 could protect keratinocytes from photodamage. The 1 and 5 ?M 1 combined with 5 ?M cisplatin, respectively, enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin. It suggested that 1 and 5 ?M 1 combined with low dose of cisplatin may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin and reduce side effect and cisplatin resistant. PMID:23769935

  11. Essential role of ATF-1 in induction of NOX1, a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase: involvement of mitochondrial respiratory chain

    PubMed Central

    Katsuyama, Masato; Fan, ChunYuan; Arakawa, Noriaki; Nishinaka, Toru; Miyagishi, Makoto; Taira, Kazunari; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro

    2004-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is the major source of superoxide production in cardiovascular tissues. We and others reported that PG (prostaglandin) F2?, PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) and angiotensin II cause hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells by induction of NOX1 (NADPH oxidase 1), a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase. We found DPI (diphenylene iodonium), an inhibitor of flavoproteins, including NADPH oxidase itself, almost completely suppressed induction of NOX1 mRNA by PGF2? or PDGF in a rat vascular smooth muscle cell line, A7r5. Exploration into the site of action of DPI using various inhibitors suggested the involvement of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in PGF2?- or PDGF-induced increase in NOX1 mRNA. In a luciferase reporter assay, activation of the CRE (cAMP-response element)-dependent gene transcription by PGF2? was attenuated by oligomycin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial FoF1-ATPase. Oligomycin and other mitochondrial inhibitors also suppressed PGF2?-induced phosphorylation of ATF (activating transcription factor)-1, a transcription factor of the CREB (CRE-binding protein)/ATF family. Silencing of the ATF-1 gene by RNA interference significantly reduced the induction of NOX1 by PGF2? or PDGF, while overexpression of ATF-1 recovered NOX1 induction suppressed by oligomycin. Taken together, ATF-1 may play a pivotal role in the up-regulation of NOX1 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:15491278

  12. Promoter trapping of a novel medium-chain acyl-CoA oxidase, which is induced transcriptionally during Arabidopsis seed germination.

    PubMed

    Eastmond, P J; Hooks, M A; Williams, D; Lange, P; Bechtold, N; Sarrobert, C; Nussaume, L; Graham, I A

    2000-11-01

    The first step of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation is catalyzed by a family of acyl-CoA oxidase isozymes with distinct fatty acyl-CoA chain-length specificities. Here we identify a new acyl-CoA oxidase gene from Arabidopsis (AtACX3) following the isolation of a promoter-trapped mutant in which beta-glucuronidase expression was initially detected in the root meristem. In acx3 mutant seedlings medium-chain acyl-CoA oxidase activity was reduced by 95%, whereas long- and short-chain activities were unchanged. Despite this reduction in activity lipid catabolism and seedling development were not perturbed. AtACX3 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme displayed medium-chain acyl-CoA substrate specificity. Analysis of beta-glucuronidase activity in acx3 revealed that, in addition to constitutive expression in the root axis, AtACX3 is also up-regulated strongly in the hypocotyl and cotyledons of germinating seedlings. This suggests that beta-oxidation is regulated predominantly at the level of transcription in germinating oilseeds. After the discovery of AtACX3, the Arabidopsis acyl-CoA oxidase gene family now comprises four isozymes with substrate specificities that encompass the full range of acyl-CoA chain lengths that exist in vivo. PMID:10918060

  13. A Highly Stable d-Amino Acid Oxidase of the Thermophilic Bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus

    PubMed Central

    Furukawara, Makoto; Omae, Keishi; Tadokoro, Namiho; Saito, Yayoi; Abe, Katsumasa; Kera, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a biotechnologically attractive enzyme that can be used in a variety of applications, but its utility is limited by its relatively poor stability. A search of a bacterial genome database revealed a gene encoding a protein homologous to DAO in the thermophilic bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus (RxDAO). The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was a monomeric protein containing noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. This protein exhibited oxidase activity against neutral and basic d-amino acids and was significantly inhibited by a DAO inhibitor, benzoate, but not by any of the tested d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) inhibitors, thus indicating that the protein is DAO. RxDAO exhibited higher activities and affinities toward branched-chain d-amino acids, with the highest specific activity toward d-valine and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward d-leucine. Substrate inhibition was observed in the case of d-tyrosine. The enzyme had an optimum pH range and temperature of pH 7.5 to 10 and 65°C, respectively, and was stable between pH 5.0 and pH 8.0, with a T50 (the temperature at which 50% of the initial enzymatic activity is lost) of 64°C. No loss of enzyme activity was observed after a 1-week incubation period at 30°C. This enzyme was markedly inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by thiol-modifying reagents and diethyl pyrocarbonate, which are known to inhibit certain DAOs. These results demonstrated that RxDAO is a highly stable DAO and suggested that this enzyme may be valuable for practical applications, such as the determination and quantification of branched-chain d-amino acids, and as a scaffold to generate a novel DAO via protein engineering. PMID:25217016

  14. NOS1 induces NADPH oxidases and impairs contraction kinetics in aged murine ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Villmow, Marten; Klöckner, Udo; Heymes, Christophe; Gekle, Michael; Rueckschloss, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) modulates calcium transients and contraction of cardiomyocytes. However, it is largely unknown whether NO contributes also to alterations in the contractile function of cardiomyocytes during aging. Therefore, we analyzed the putative role of nitric oxide synthases and NO for the age-related alterations of cardiomyocyte contraction. We used C57BL/6 mice, nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1)-deficient mice (NOS1(-/-)) and mice with cardiomyocyte-specific NOS1-overexpression to analyze contractions, calcium transients (Indo-1 fluorescence), acto-myosin ATPase activity (malachite green assay), NADPH oxidase activity (lucigenin chemiluminescence) of isolated ventricular myocytes and cardiac gene expression (Western blots, qPCR). In C57BL/6 mice, cardiac expression of NOS1 was upregulated by aging. Since we found a negative regulation of NOS1 expression by cAMP in isolated cardiomyocytes, we suggest that reduced efficacy of ?-adrenergic signaling that is evident in aged hearts promotes upregulation of NOS1. Shortening and relengthening of cardiomyocytes from aged C57BL/6 mice were decelerated, but were normalized by pharmacological inhibition of NOS1/NO. Cardiomyocytes from NOS1(-/-) mice displayed no age-related changes in contraction, calcium transients or acto-myosin ATPase activity. Aging increased cardiac expression of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX2 and NOX4 in C57BL/6 mice, but not in NOS1(-/-) mice. Similarly, cardiac expression of NOX2 and NOX4 was upregulated in a murine model with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of NOS1. We conclude that age-dependently upregulated NOS1, putatively via reduced efficacy of ?-adrenergic signaling, induces NADPH oxidases. By increasing nitrosative and oxidative stress, both enzyme systems act synergistically to decelerate contraction of aged cardiomyocytes. PMID:26173391

  15. Characterization of amine oxidases from Arthrobacter aurescens and application for determination of biogenic amines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ick; Kim, Young-Wan

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) that are produced through naturally occurring decarboxylation of amino acids have toxicological effects on humans. Bacterial amine oxidases are useful tools for the rapid quantification of BAs in foods. To develop amine oxidases for the rapid detection of BAs, the genes for amine oxidases from Arthobacter aurescens TC-1, designated AMAO1, AMAO2, and AMAO3, respectively, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. AMAO1 was catalytically inactive to BAs, and AMAO3 showed a narrow substrate spectrum. In contrast, AMAO2 exhibited activity with relative k cat/K M values of 100:49.6:7.6 for 2-phenylethylamine, tyramine, and histamine, respectively. AMAO2 also utilized putrescine and spermidine as substrates, with four or five orders of magnitude lower k cat/K M values than that of 2-phenylethylamine. AMAO2 and AMAO3 were seriously affected by substrate inhibition. Using BA mixtures (consisting of 2-phenylethylamine, tyramine, and histamine) as samples, the detection range of the enzymatic analysis of BA using AMAO2 was determined to be 2.5-120 ?M, and its detection limit was 2.3 ?M. Analysis of five commercial cheese products revealed that the BA contents determined by the enzymatic methods showed a good agreement with the sum of three monoamines and histamine by HPLC. Therefore, the enzymatic assay using AMAO2 can be used in quality control of food products through rapid, sensitive, and preliminary estimation of major BAs including the most important TyrN and HisN in foods. PMID:23225177

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 enhances renal mitochondrial transport carriers and cytochrome C oxidase activity in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Van Driesche, Sarah; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Yang, Li-Ming; Quan, Shuo; Goodman, Alvin I; Abraham, Nader G

    2006-06-01

    Up-regulation of heme oxygenase (HO-1) by either cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or human gene transfer improves vascular and renal function by several mechanisms, including increases in antioxidant levels and decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular and renal tissue. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of HO-1 overexpression on mitochondrial transporters, cytochrome c oxidase, and anti-apoptotic proteins in diabetic rats (streptozotocin, (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes). Renal mitochondrial carnitine, deoxynucleotide, and ADP/ATP carriers were significantly reduced in diabetic compared with nondiabetic rats (p < 0.05). The citrate carrier was not significantly decreased in diabetic tissue. CoPP administration produced a robust increase in carnitine, citrate, deoxynucleotide, dicarboxylate, and ADP/ATP carriers and no significant change in oxoglutarate and aspartate/glutamate carriers. The increase in mitochondrial carriers (MCs) was associated with a significant increase in cytochrome c oxidase activity. The administration of tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an inhibitor of HO-1 activity, prevented the restoration of MCs in diabetic rats. Human HO-1 cDNA transfer into diabetic rats increased both HO-1 protein and activity, and restored mitochondrial ADP/ATP and deoxynucleotide carriers. The increase in HO-1 by CoPP administration was associated with a significant increase in the phosphorylation of AKT and levels of BcL-XL proteins. These observations in experimental diabetes suggest that the cytoprotective mechanism of HO-1 against oxidative stress involves an increase in the levels of MCs and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as in cytochrome c oxidase activity. PMID:16595661

  17. Conversion of Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase to an 'alpha-ketobutyrate oxidase'.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Y Y; Cronan, J E

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase (PoxB), a lipid-activated homotetrameric enzyme, is active on both pyruvate and 2-oxobutanoate ('alpha-ketobutyrate'), although pyruvate is the favoured substrate. By localized random mutagenesis of residues chosen on the basis of a modelled active site, we obtained several PoxB enzymes that had a markedly decreased activity with the natural substrate, pyruvate, but retained full activity with 2-oxobutanoate. In each of these mutant proteins Val-380 had been replaced with a smaller residue, namely alanine, glycine or serine. One of these, PoxB V380A/L253F, was shown to lack detectable pyruvate oxidase activity in vivo; this protein was purified, studied and found to have a 6-fold increase in K(m) for pyruvate and a 10-fold lower V(max) with this substrate. In contrast, the mutant had essentially normal kinetic constants with 2-oxobutanoate. The altered substrate specificity was reflected in a decreased rate of pyruvate binding to the latent conformer of the mutant protein owing to the V380A mutation. The L253F mutation alone had no effect on PoxB activity, although it increased the activity of proteins carrying substitutions at residue 380, as it did that of the wild-type protein. The properties of the V380A/L253F protein provide new insights into the mode of substrate binding and the unusual activation properties of this enzyme. PMID:11104678

  18. Micro-RNA 21 inhibition of SMAD7 enhances fibrogenesis via leptin-mediated NADPH oxidase in experimental and human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dattaroy, Diptadip; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Das, Suvarthi; Alhasson, Firas; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2015-02-15

    Hepatic fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the common pathophysiological process resulting from chronic liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Although significant research has been carried out on the role of leptin-induced NADPH oxidase in fibrogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that connect the leptin-NADPH oxidase axis in upregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling have been unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of leptin-mediated upregulation of NADPH oxidase and its subsequent induction of micro-RNA 21 (miR21) in fibrogenesis. Human NASH livers and a high-fat (60% kcal) diet-fed chronic mouse model, where hepatotoxin bromodichloromethane was used to induce NASH, were used for this study. To prove the role of the leptin-NADPH oxidase-miR21 axis, mice deficient in genes for leptin, p47phox, and miR21 were used. Results showed that wild-type mice and human livers with NASH had increased oxidative stress, increased p47phox expression, augmented NF-?B activation, and increased miR21 levels. These mice and human livers showed increased TGF-?, SMAD2/3-SMAD4 colocalizations in the nucleus, increased immunoreactivity against Col1?, and ?-SMA with a concomitant decrease in protein levels of SMAD7. Mice that were deficient in leptin or p47phox had decreased activated NF-?B and miR21 levels, suggesting the role of leptin and NADPH oxidase in inducing NF-?B-mediated miR21 expression. Further miR21 knockout mice had decreased colocalization events of SMAD2/3-SMAD4 in the nucleus, increased SMAD7 levels, and decreased fibrogenesis. Taken together, the studies show the novel role of leptin-NADPH oxidase induction of miR21 as a key regulator of TGF-? signaling and fibrogenesis in experimental and human NASH. PMID:25501551

  19. Thylakoid Terminal Oxidases Are Essential for the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to Survive Rapidly Changing Light Intensities1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lea-Smith, David J.; Ross, Nic; Zori, Maria; Bendall, Derek S.; Dennis, John S.; Scott, Stuart A.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis and respiration in the thylakoid membrane, suggesting that the two processes are interlinked. However, the role of the respiratory electron transfer chain under natural environmental conditions has not been established. Through targeted gene disruption, mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were generated that lacked combinations of the three terminal oxidases: the thylakoid membrane-localized cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and quinol oxidase (Cyd) and the cytoplasmic membrane-localized alternative respiratory terminal oxidase. All strains demonstrated similar growth under continuous moderate or high light or 12-h moderate-light/dark square-wave cycles. However, under 12-h high-light/dark square-wave cycles, the COX/Cyd mutant displayed impaired growth and was completely photobleached after approximately 2 d. In contrast, use of sinusoidal light/dark cycles to simulate natural diurnal conditions resulted in little photobleaching, although growth was slower. Under high-light/dark square-wave cycles, the COX/Cyd mutant suffered a significant loss of photosynthetic efficiency during dark periods, a greater level of oxidative stress, and reduced glycogen degradation compared with the wild type. The mutant was susceptible to photoinhibition under pulsing but not constant light. These findings confirm a role for thylakoid-localized terminal oxidases in efficient dark respiration, reduction of oxidative stress, and accommodation of sudden light changes, demonstrating the strong selective pressure to maintain linked photosynthetic and respiratory electron chains within the thylakoid membrane. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a phenotypic difference in growth between terminal oxidase mutants and wild-type cells and highlights the need to examine mutant phenotypes under a range of conditions. PMID:23463783

  20. Ovarian Dual Oxidase (Duox) Activity Is Essential for Insect Eggshell Hardening and Waterproofing*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Felipe A.; Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Queiroz-Barros, Fernanda G.; Oliveira, Raquel L. L.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Braz, Glória R. C.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2013-01-01

    In insects, eggshell hardening involves cross-linking of chorion proteins via their tyrosine residues. This process is catalyzed by peroxidases at the expense of H2O2 and confers physical and biological protection to the developing embryo. Here, working with Rhodnius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease, we show that an ovary dual oxidase (Duox), a NADPH oxidase, is the source of the H2O2 that supports dityrosine-mediated protein cross-linking and eggshell hardening. RNAi silencing of Duox activity decreased H2O2 generation followed by a failure in embryo development caused by a reduced resistance to water loss, which, in turn, caused embryos to dry out following oviposition. Phenotypes of Duox-silenced eggs were reversed by incubation in a water-saturated atmosphere, simultaneous silencing of the Duox and catalase genes, or H2O2 injection into the female hemocoel. Taken together, our results show that Duox-generated H2O2 fuels egg chorion hardening and that this process plays an essential role during eggshell waterproofing. PMID:24174530

  1. Dithiocarbamates are teratogenic to developing zebrafish through inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Boxtel, Antonius L. van, E-mail: thijs.van.boxtel@ivm.vu.n [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kamstra, Jorke H. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fluitsma, Donna M. [VU University Medical Centre (VUMC), VU University Amsterdam (Netherlands); Legler, Juliette [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are a class of compounds that are extensively used in agriculture as pesticides. As such, humans and wildlife are undoubtedly exposed to these chemicals. Although DTCs are thought to be relatively safe due to their short half lives, it is well established that they are teratogenic to vertebrates, especially to fish. In zebrafish, these teratogenic effects are characterized by distorted notochord development and shortened anterior to posterior axis. DTCs are known copper (Cu) chelators but this does not fully explain the observed teratogenic effects. We show here that DTCs cause malformations in zebrafish that highly resemble teratogenic effects observed by direct inhibition of a group of cuproenzymes termed lysyl oxidases (LOX). Additionally, we demonstrate that partial knockdown of three LOX genes, lox, loxl1 and loxl5b, sensitizes the developing embryo to DTC exposure. Finally, we show that DTCs directly inhibit zebrafish LOX activity in an ex vivo amine oxidase assay. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that DTC induced teratogenic effects are, at least in part, caused by direct inhibition of LOX activity.

  2. ERO1: A protein disulfide oxidase and H2O2 producer.

    PubMed

    Zito, Ester

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential function of eukaryotic cells that requires the relaying of electrons between the proteinaceous components of the pathway. During this process, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) chaperones oxidatively fold their client proteins before endoplasmic reticulum oxireductin 1 (ERO1) oxidase transfers electrons from the reduced PDI to the terminal acceptor, which is usually molecular oxygen and is subsequently reduced to H2O2. ERO1 function is essential for disulfide bond formation in yeast, whereas in mammals its function is compensated for by alternative pathways. ERO1 activity is allosterically and transcriptionally regulated by the ER unfolded protein response (UPR). The ER stress-induced upregulation of ERO1 and other genes contributes to a cell's ability to cope with ER stress as a result of an adaptive homeostatic response, but the stress persists if a "maladaptive UPR" fails to reestablish ER homeostasis. As the oxidative activity of ERO1 is related to the production of H2O2 and consequently burdens cells with potentially toxic reactive oxygen species, deregulated ERO1 activity is likely to impair cell fitness under certain conditions of severe ER stress and may therefore lead to a change from an adaptive to a maladaptive UPR. This review summarizes the evidence of the double-edged sword activity of ERO1 by highlighting its role as a protein disulfide oxidase and H2O2 producer. PMID:25651816

  3. The anorexigenic effect of serotonin is mediated by the generation of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Ling; Shu, Gang; Yu, Jian-Jian; Wang, Li-Na; Yang, Jing; Zeng, Qing-Jie; Cheng, Xiao; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Xi, Qian-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Qing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a central inhibitor of food intake in mammals. Thus far, the intracellular mechanisms for the effect of serotonin on appetite regulation remain unclear. It has been recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hypothalamus are a crucial integrative target for the regulation of food intake. To investigate the role of ROS in the serotonin-induced anorexigenic effects, conscious mice were treated with 5-HT alone or combination with Trolox (a ROS scavenger) or Apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) by acute intracerebroventricular injection. Both Trolox and Apocynin reversed the anorexigenic action of 5-HT and the 5-HT-induced hypothalamic ROS elevation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were dramatically increased after ICV injection with 5-HT. The anorexigenic action of 5-HT was accompanied by markedly elevated hypothalamic MDA levels and GSH-Px activity, while the SOD activity was decreased. Moreover, 5-HT significantly increased the mRNA expression of UCP-2 but reduced the levels of UCP-3. Both Trolox and Apocynin could block the 5-HT-induced changes in UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the anorexigenic effect of 5-HT is mediated by the generation of ROS in the hypothalamus through an NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway. PMID:23326391

  4. The hemibiotrophic cacao pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa depends on a mitochondrial alternative oxidase for biotrophic development

    PubMed Central

    Thomazella, Daniela P T; Teixeira, Paulo José P L; Oliveira, Halley C; Saviani, Elzira E; Rincones, Johana; Toni, Isabella M; Reis, Osvaldo; Garcia, Odalys; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Salgado, Ione; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2012-01-01

    The tropical pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa causes witches’ broom disease in cacao. As a hemibiotrophic fungus, it initially colonizes the living host tissues (biotrophic phase), and later grows over the dead plant (necrotrophic phase). Little is known about the mechanisms that promote these distinct fungal phases or mediate the transition between them. An alternative oxidase gene (Mp-aox) was identified in the M. perniciosa genome and its expression was analyzed througout the fungal life cycle. In addition, the effects of inhibitors of the cytochrome-dependent respiratory chain (CRC) and alternative oxidase (AOX) were evaluated on the in vitro development of M. perniciosa. Larger numbers of Mp-aox transcripts were observed in the biotrophic hyphae, which accordingly showed elevated sensitivity to AOX inhibitors. More importantly, the inhibition of CRC prevented the transition from the biotrophic to the necrotrophic phase, and the combined use of a CRC and AOX inhibitor completely halted fungal growth. On the basis of these results, a novel mechanism is presented in which AOX plays a role in the biotrophic development of M. perniciosa and regulates the transition to its necrotrophic stage. Strikingly, this model correlates well with the infection strategy of animal pathogens, particularly Trypanosoma brucei, which uses AOX as a strategy for pathogenicity. PMID:22443281

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Thiol Oxidase Deficiency Leads to Ascorbic Acid Depletion and Noncanonical Scurvy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Ester; Hansen, Henning Gram; Yeo, Giles S.H.; Fujii, Junichi; Ron, David

    2012-01-01

    Summary Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) thiol oxidases initiate a disulfide relay to oxidatively fold secreted proteins. We found that combined loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding the ER thiol oxidases ERO1?, ERO1?, and PRDX4 compromised the extracellular matrix in mice and interfered with the intracellular maturation of procollagen. These severe abnormalities were associated with an unexpectedly modest delay in disulfide bond formation in secreted proteins but a profound, 5-fold lower procollagen 4-hydroxyproline content and enhanced cysteinyl sulfenic acid modification of ER proteins. Tissue ascorbic acid content was lower in mutant mice, and ascorbic acid supplementation improved procollagen maturation and lowered sulfenic acid content in vivo. In vitro, the presence of a sulfenic acid donor accelerated the oxidative inactivation of ascorbate by an H2O2-generating system. Compromised ER disulfide relay thus exposes protein thiols to competing oxidation to sulfenic acid, resulting in depletion of ascorbic acid, impaired procollagen proline 4-hydroxylation, and a noncanonical form of scurvy. PMID:22981861

  6. Renalase is a novel, soluble monoamine oxidase that regulates cardiac function and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianchao; Li, Guoyong; Wang, Peili; Velazquez, Heino; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yanyan; Wu, Yanling; Peixoto, Aldo; Crowley, Susan; Desir, Gary V.

    2005-01-01

    The kidney not only regulates fluid and electrolyte balance but also functions as an endocrine organ. For instance, it is the major source of circulating erythropoietin and renin. Despite currently available therapies, there is a marked increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. We hypothesized that the current understanding of the endocrine function of the kidney was incomplete and that the organ might secrete additional proteins with important biological roles. Here we report the identification of a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide–dependent amine oxidase (renalase) that is secreted into the blood by the kidney and metabolizes catecholamines in vitro (renalase metabolizes dopamine most efficiently, followed by epinephrine, and then norepinephrine). In humans, renalase gene expression is highest in the kidney but is also detectable in the heart, skeletal muscle, and the small intestine. The plasma concentration of renalase is markedly reduced in patients with end-stage renal disease, as compared with healthy subjects. Renalase infusion in rats caused a decrease in cardiac contractility, heart rate, and blood pressure and prevented a compensatory increase in peripheral vascular tone. These results identify renalase as what we believe to be a novel amine oxidase that is secreted by the kidney, circulates in blood, and modulates cardiac function and systemic blood pressure. PMID:15841207

  7. Phenol contents, oxidase activities, and the resistance of coffee to the leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Daniel Alves; Guerreiro-Filho, Oliveiro; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2006-09-01

    We examined the role of phenolic compounds, and the enzymes peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, in the expression of resistance of coffee plants to Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae). The concentrations of total soluble phenols and chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid), and the activities of the oxidative enzymes peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), were estimated in leaves of Coffea arabica, C. racemosa, and progenies of crosses between these species, which have different levels of resistance, before and after attack by this insect. The results indicate that phenols do not play a central role in resistance to the coffee leaf miner. Differences were detected between the parental species in terms of total soluble phenol concentrations and activities of the oxidative enzymes. However, resistant and susceptible hybrid plants did not differ in any of these characteristics. Significant induction of chlorogenic acid and PPO was only found in C. racemosa, the parental donator of the resistance genes against L. coffeella. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis also showed qualitative similarity between hybrids and the susceptible C. arabica. These results suggest that the phenolic content and activities of POD and PPO in response to the attack by the leaf miner may not be a strong evidence of their participation in direct defensive mechanisms. PMID:16906360

  8. Heredity mode of genetic polymorphism in aldehyde oxidase activity in Donryu strain rats.

    PubMed

    Adachi, M; Itoh, K; Abe, H; Tanaka, Y

    2008-01-01

    Donryu strain rats show genetic polymorphisms in the aldehyde oxidase gene, resulting in the phenotypic expression of ultrarapid metabolizers with homozygous nucleotide sequences (337G, 2604C), extensive metabolizers with heterozygous nucleotide sequences (377G/A, 2604C/T), and poor metabolizers with homozygous nucleotide sequences (377A, 2604T). In the mating experiments the ratio of the number of ultrarapid metabolizers, extensive metabolizers, and poor metabolizers rats in the F1 generation from the heterozygous F0 extensive metabolizers male and female rats was roughly 0.6 : 1.5 : 1, and the ratio converged to approximately 1 : 2 : 1 in the F2 generation from the heterozygous F1 extensive metabolizers male and female rats. On the contrary, all the F2 generation from homozygous F1 ultrarapid metabolizers male and female rats or from homozygous F1 poor metabolizers male and female rats had the ultrarapid metabolizers or the poor metabolizers genotypes and phenotypes. The genotypes completely agreed with the phenotypes in all individuals of F0, F1, and F2 generations. The results indicate that the genetic polymorphism of aldehyde oxidase in Donryu strain rats obeys Mendelian heredity. The reason for a low ratio of the ultrarapid metabolizers rats in the commercially available Donryu strain rats - not more than several per cent - compared with the ratio expected from the Mendelian rule is unknown. PMID:18098066

  9. The alternative oxidases: simple oxidoreductase proteins with complex functions.

    PubMed

    Young, Luke; Shiba, Tomoo; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi; Albury, Mary S; Moore, Anthony L

    2013-10-01

    The alternative oxidases are membrane-bound monotopic terminal electron transport proteins found in all plants and in some agrochemically important fungi and parasites including Trypansoma brucei, which is the causative agent of trypanosomiasis. They are integral membrane proteins and reduce oxygen to water in a four electron process. The recent elucidation of the crystal structure of the trypanosomal alternative oxidase at 2.85 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) has revealed salient structural features necessary for its function. In the present review we compare the primary and secondary ligation spheres of the alternative oxidases with other di-iron carboxylate proteins and propose a mechanism for the reduction of oxygen to water. PMID:24059524

  10. The mechanism of cytochrome C oxidase inhibition by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Fernando; Cadenas, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    The basic biochemistry of the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase by NO is reviewed. Three possible mechanisms that include the binding of NO to the fully reduced Fe(a3)-Cu(B) site, to the semi-reduced Fe(a3)-Cu(B) site, and to the fully oxidized Fe(a3)-Cu(B) site are confronted with the experimental data. Mathematical models are used to facilitate the analysis and to solve puzzling observations concerning the NO inhibition of cytochrome oxidase. It is concluded that the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase by NO is mixed, having both competitive and uncompetitive components, but under physiological electron flows the competitive component is largely predominant. The physiological and pathological relevance of this inhibition is briefly discussed. PMID:17127353

  11. Characterization of wheat germin (oxalate oxidase) expressed by Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Heng-Yen [Department of Environmental and Biomolecular Systems, Oregon Health and Sciences University, 20000 N.W. Walker Road, Beaverton, OR 97006-8921 (United States); Whittaker, Mei M. [Department of Environmental and Biomolecular Systems, Oregon Health and Sciences University, 20000 N.W. Walker Road, Beaverton, OR 97006-8921 (United States); Bouveret, Romaric [IBMP-Institut de Botanique, Strasbourg (France); Berna, Anne [IBMP-Institut de Botanique, Strasbourg (France); Bernier, Francois [IBMP-Institut de Botanique, Strasbourg (France); Whittaker, James W. [Department of Environmental and Biomolecular Systems, Oregon Health and Sciences University, 20000 N.W. Walker Road, Beaverton, OR 97006-8921 (United States)]. E-mail: jim@ebs.ogi.edu

    2007-05-18

    High-level secretory expression of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin/oxalate oxidase was achieved in Pichia pastoris fermentation cultures as an {alpha}-mating factor signal peptide fusion, based on the native wheat cDNA coding sequence. The oxalate oxidase activity of the recombinant enzyme is substantially increased (7-fold) by treatment with sodium periodate, followed by ascorbate reduction. Using these methods, approximately 1 g (4 x 10{sup 4} U) of purified, activated enzyme was obtained following eight days of induction of a high density Pichia fermentation culture, demonstrating suitability for large-scale production of oxalate oxidase for biotechnological applications. Characterization of the recombinant protein shows that it is glycosylated, with N-linked glycan attached at Asn47. For potential biomedical applications, a nonglycosylated (S49A) variant was also prepared which retains essentially full enzyme activity, but exhibits altered protein-protein interactions.

  12. Clinical applications of L-lactate oxidase-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Keli; Liu, Yanfan; Wang, Lei; Han, Qiao; Yin, Lizhi

    2001-09-01

    A L-lactate oxidase (LOD)-based biosensor is developed for the determination of L-lactate in blood samples. The L- lactate oxidase membrane is prepared by covalently linking LOD into a nylon set, followed by attaching the membrane onto a flow injection type of oxygen electrode. The response of the biosensor is based on the limited diffusion of L- lactate on the L-lactate oxidase membrane. No performance difference have been found between the LOD-based biosensor and regular enzyme optical determination methods for blood sample testing. It is suggested that the LOD-based biosensor may serve as an alternative for the detection of L-lactate in blood.

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of chicken sulfite oxidase crystals

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.; Kisker, C. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Pharmacological Sciences] [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Pharmacological Sciences

    1999-05-17

    Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the physiologically vital oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. Recently, the crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase has been reported at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. In contrast to the information available from previous X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies, the active site indicated by crystallography was a mono-oxo species. Because of this the possibility that the crystals did in fact contain a reduced molybdenum species was considered in the crystallographic work. The authors report herein an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of polycrystalline sulfite oxidase prepared in the same manner as the previous single-crystal samples, and compare this with data for frozen solutions of oxidized and reduced enzyme.

  14. Molecular characterization of the human peroxisomal branched-chain acyl-CoA oxidase: cDNA cloning, chromosomal assignment, tissue distribution, and evidence for the absence of the protein in Zellweger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, E; Vanhooren, J C; Fransen, M; Marynen, P; Puype, M; Vandekerckhove, J; Leunissen, J A; Fahimi, H D; Mannaerts, G P; van Veldhoven, P P

    1996-11-26

    Peroxisomes in human liver contain two distinct acyl-CoA oxidases with different substrate specificities: (i) palmitoyl-CoA oxidase, oxidizing very long straight-chain fatty acids and eicosanoids, and (ii) a branched-chain acyl-CoA oxidase (hBRCACox), involved in the degradation of long branched fatty acids and bile acid intermediates. The accumulation of branched fatty acids and bile acid intermediates leads to severe mental retardation and death of the diseased children. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of the hBRCACox, a prerequisite for studying mutations in patients with a single enzyme deficiency. The composite cDNA sequence of hBRCACox, derived from overlapping clones isolated via immunoscreening and hybridization of human liver cDNA expression libraries, consisted of 2225 bases and contained an open reading frame of 2046 bases, encoding a protein of 681 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 76,739 Da. The C-terminal tripeptide of the protein is SKL, a known peroxisome targeting signal. Sequence comparison with the other acyl-CoA oxidases and evolutionary analysis revealed that, despite its broader substrate specificity, the hBRCACox is the human homolog of rat trihydroxycoprostanoyl-CoA oxidase (rTHCCox) and that separate gene duplication events led to the occurrence in mammals of acyl-CoA oxidases with different substrate specificities. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that--in contrast to the rTHCCox gene--the hBRCACox gene is transcribed also in extrahepatic tissues such as heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The highest levels of the 2.6-kb mRNA were found in heart, followed by liver. The enzyme is encoded by a single-copy gene, which was assigned to chromosome 3p14.3 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. It was absent from livers of Zellweger patients as shown by immunoblot analysis and immunocytochemistry. PMID:8943006

  15. Calcium-dependent protein kinase/NADPH oxidase activation circuit is required for rapid defense signal propagation.

    PubMed

    Dubiella, Ullrich; Seybold, Heike; Durian, Guido; Komander, Eileen; Lassig, Roman; Witte, Claus-Peter; Schulze, Waltraud X; Romeis, Tina

    2013-05-21

    In animals and plants, pathogen recognition triggers the local activation of intracellular signaling that is prerequisite for mounting systemic defenses in the whole organism. We identified that Arabidopsis thaliana isoform CPK5 of the plant calcium-dependent protein kinase family becomes rapidly biochemically activated in response to pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) stimulation. CPK5 signaling resulted in enhanced salicylic acid-mediated resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000, differential plant defense gene expression, and synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using selected reaction monitoring MS, we identified the plant NADPH oxidase, respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (RBOHD), as an in vivo phosphorylation target of CPK5. Remarkably, CPK5-dependent in vivo phosphorylation of RBOHD occurs on both PAMP- and ROS stimulation. Furthermore, rapid CPK5-dependent biochemical and transcriptional activation of defense reactions at distal sites is compromised in cpk5 and rbohd mutants. Our data not only identify CPK5 as a key regulator of innate immune responses in plants but also support a model of ROS-mediated cell-to-cell communication, where a self-propagating mutual activation circuit consisting of the protein kinase, CPK5, and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD facilitates rapid signal propagation as a prerequisite for defense response activation at distal sites within the plant. PMID:23650383

  16. In vitro import and assembly of the nucleus-encoded mitochondrial subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase (Cox3).

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Acevedo, Miriam; Rubalcava-Gracia, Diana; González-Halphen, Diego

    2014-11-01

    The cox3 gene, encoding subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase (Cox3) is in mitochondrial genomes except in chlorophycean algae, where it is localized in the nucleus. Therefore, algae like Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Polytomella sp. and Volvox carteri, synthesize the Cox3 polypeptide in the cytosol, import it into mitochondria, and integrate it into the cytochrome c oxidase complex. In this work, we followed the in vitro internalization of the Cox3 precursor by isolated, import-competent mitochondria of Polytomella sp. In this colorless alga, the precursor Cox3 protein is synthesized with a long, cleavable, N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) of 98 residues. In an import time course, a transient Cox3 intermediate was identified, suggesting that the long MTS is processed more than once. The first processing step is sensitive to the metalo-protease inhibitor 1,10-ortophenantroline, suggesting that it is probably carried out by the matrix-located Mitochondrial Processing Protease. Cox3 is readily imported through an energy-dependent import pathway and integrated into the inner mitochondrial membrane, becoming resistant to carbonate extraction. Furthermore, the imported Cox3 protein was assembled into cytochrome c oxidase, as judged by the presence of a labeled band co-migrating with complex IV in Blue Native Electrophoresis. A model for the biogenesis of Cox3 in chlorophycean algae is proposed. This is the first time that the in vitro mitochondrial import of a cytosol-synthesized Cox3 subunit is described. PMID:24561572

  17. The conserved baculovirus protein p33 (Ac92) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C.M. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rohrmann, G.F. [Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Merrill, G.F., E-mail: merrillg@onid.orst.ed [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2009-06-05

    Open reading frame 92 of the Autographa californica baculovirus (Ac92) is one of about 30 core genes present in all sequenced baculovirus genomes. Computer analyses predicted that the Ac92 encoded protein (called p33) and several of its baculovirus orthologs were related to a family of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Alignment of these proteins indicated that, although they were highly diverse, a number of amino acids in common with the Erv1p/Alrp family of sulfhydryl oxidases are present. Some of these conserved amino acids are predicted to stack against the isoalloxazine and adenine components of FAD, whereas others are involved in electron transfer. To investigate this relationship, Ac92 was expressed in bacteria as a His-tagged fusion protein, purified, and characterized both spectrophotometrically and for its enzymatic activity. The purified protein was found to have the color (yellow) and absorption spectrum consistent with it being a FAD-containing protein. Furthermore, it was demonstrated to have sulfhydryl oxidase activity using dithiothreitol and thioredoxin as substrates.

  18. Update: Mammalian Cytochrome c Oxidase, a Molecular Monster Subdued

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shelagh Ferguson-Miller (Michigan State University; Department of Biochemistry)

    1996-05-24

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The high-resolution crystal structure of mammalian cytochrome c oxidase, a key enzyme in aerobic metabolism, was recently reported in Science by Tsukihara et al. (1), and discussed in an accompanying Perspective (2). The original paper (1), a landmark achievement in protein structure analysis, described the structure of the six metal centers (two hemes, two copper centers, Mg, and Zn), information critical to understanding the energy-transforming activity of the enzyme. In this issue, Tsukihara et al. (3) now present the complete structure of bovine cytochrome c oxidase at name 2.8 resolution.

  19. Galactose oxidase in stereospecific oxidation of primary alcohols 

    E-print Network

    Root, Robert Lee

    1985-01-01

    (23) with the loss of a superoxide radical which then immediately HN g~N Hs OH I ?, C OH HP l H ( O OH H H~ Cg(fJ) N~~NH Figure 2. The current concept of the active site of galactose oxidase (18) . reoxidizes the Cu(I) to Cu... rate sufficient to account for the change in absorbance observed in the galactose oxidase reaction. Potassium ferricyanide also oxidizes o-dianisidine, the chromagen used in the assay, but again, at the concentrations used in the assay, the increase...

  20. A Conserved Steroid Binding Site in Cytochrome c Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Ling; Mills, Denise A.; Buhrow, Leann; Hiser, Carrie; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh (Michigan)

    2010-09-02

    Micromolar concentrations of the bile salt deoxycholate are shown to rescue the activity of an inactive mutant, E101A, in the K proton pathway of Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome c oxidase. A crystal structure of the wild-type enzyme reveals, as predicted, deoxycholate bound with its carboxyl group at the entrance of the K path. Since cholate is a known potent inhibitor of bovine oxidase and is seen in a similar position in the bovine structure, the crystallographically defined, conserved steroid binding site could reveal a regulatory site for steroids or structurally related molecules that act on the essential K proton path.

  1. The biological functions of polyamine oxidation products by amine oxidases: Perspectives of clinical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Agostinelli; G. Arancia; L. Dalla Vedova; F. Belli; M. Marra; M. Salvi; A. Toninello

    2004-01-01

    Summary. The polyamines spermine, spermidine and putrescine are ubiquitous cell components. If they accumulate excessively within the cells, due either to very high extracellular concentrations or to deregulation of the systems which control polyamine homeostasis, they can induce toxic effects. These molecules are substrates of a class of enzymes that includes monoamine oxidases, diamine oxidases, polyamine oxidases and copper containing

  2. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition Attenuates Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Dopp; Nathan R. Philippi; Noah J. Marcus; E. Burt Olson; Cynthia E. Bird; John J. M. Moran; Scott W. Mueller; Barbara J. Morgan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Xanthine oxidase is a major source of superoxide in the vascular endothelium. Previous work in humans demonstrated improved conduit artery function following xanthine oxidase inhibition in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objectives: To determine whether impairments in endothelium-dependent vasodilation produced by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia are prevented by in vivo treatment with allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Methods:

  3. Determination of a Large Reorganization Energy Barrier for Hydride Abstraction by Glucose Oxidase

    E-print Network

    Roth, Justine P.

    Determination of a Large Reorganization Energy Barrier for Hydride Abstraction by Glucose Oxidase the context of Marcus theory.3 Glucose oxidase (GO) uses a noncovalently bound flavin (FAD) to oxidize sugars accelerations in a number of C-H oxidizing enzymes including glucose oxidase.7 In previous studies, it was shown

  4. Adsorption of Glucose Oxidase onto Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Its Application in

    E-print Network

    Resasco, Daniel

    Adsorption of Glucose Oxidase onto Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Its Application in Layer suspension-dialysis method to adsorb the redox enzyme glucose oxidase (GOX) onto single-walled carbon nano. To test this we used the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOX), which is * To whom correspondence should

  5. Cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis and Brassica juncea flavin-containing amine oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tze Soo Lim; Thiruvetipuram Rajam Chitra; Ping Han; Eng Chong Pua; Hao Yu

    2006-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are low molecular weight metabolites involved in various physiological and developmental processes in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The cellular PA level is regulated in part by the action of amine oxidases (AOs) including copper diamine oxi- dases (DAOs) and flavoprotein polyamine oxidases (PAOs). In this study, the isolation and characterization of flavin amine oxidases (FAOs) from Brassica juncea

  6. Free and Membrane-Bound Xanthine Oxidase in Bovine Milk During Cooling and Heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Bhavadasan; N. C. Ganguli

    1980-01-01

    The effect of cold storage (5 C, 24 h) and heat treatment (60 C, 5 rain) of milk on activities of free and membrane-bound xanthine oxidase has been studied. Both treatments enhanced total xanthine oxi- dase activity in milk. Activity of mem- brane-bound xanthine oxidase increased and free xanthine oxidase decreased in buttermilk while it increased in skim milk on

  7. Kinetics of proton pumping in cytochrome c oxidase Anatoly Yu. Smirnov,1,2,3,a

    E-print Network

    Nori, Franco

    Kinetics of proton pumping in cytochrome c oxidase Anatoly Yu. Smirnov,1,2,3,a Lev G. Mourokh,4 propose a simple model of cytochrome c oxidase, including four redox centers and four protonable sites of the respiratory chain of animal cells and bacteria, cytochrome c oxidase CcO , operates as an efficient nanoscale

  8. Forage polyphenol oxidase and ruminant livestock nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is predominately associated with the detrimental effect of browning fruit and vegetables, however, interest within PPO containing forage crops (crops to be fed to animals) has grown since the browning reaction was associated with reduced nitrogen (N) losses in silo and the rumen. The reduction in protein breakdown in silo of red clover (high PPO forage) increased the quality of protein, improving N-use efficiency [feed N into product N (e.g., Milk): NUE] when fed to ruminants. A further benefit of red clover silage feeding is a significant reduction in lipolysis (cleaving of glycerol-based lipid) in silo and an increase in the deposition of beneficial C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in animal products, which has also been linked to PPO activity. PPOs protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in silo is related to the deactivation of plant proteases and lipases. This deactivation occurs through PPO catalyzing the conversion of diphenols to quinones which bind with cellular nucleophiles such as protein reforming a protein-bound phenol (PBP). If the protein is an enzyme (e.g., protease or lipase) the complexing denatures the enzyme. However, PPO is inactive in the anaerobic rumen and therefore any subsequent protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen must be as a result of events that occurred to the forage pre-ingestion. Reduced activity of plant proteases and lipases would have little effect on NUE and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen due to the greater concentration of rumen microbial proteases and lipases. The mechanism for PPOs protection of plant protein in the rumen is a consequence of complexing plant protein, rather than protease deactivation per se. These complexed proteins reduce protein digestibility in the rumen and subsequently increase undegraded dietary protein flow to the small intestine. The mechanism for protecting glycerol-based PUFA has yet to be fully elucidated but may be associated with entrapment within PBP reducing access to microbial lipases or differences in rumen digestion kinetics of the forage and therefore not related to PPO activity. PMID:25538724

  9. Respiration of Escherichia coli can be fully uncoupled via the nonelectrogenic terminal cytochrome bd-II oxidase.

    PubMed

    Bekker, M; de Vries, S; Ter Beek, A; Hellingwerf, K J; de Mattos, M J Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    The respiratory chain of Escherichia coli is usually considered a device to conserve energy via the generation of a proton motive force, which subsequently may drive ATP synthesis by the ATP synthetase. It is known that in this system a fixed amount of ATP per oxygen molecule reduced (P/O ratio) is not synthesized due to alternative NADH dehydrogenases and terminal oxidases with different proton pumping stoichiometries. Here we show that P/O ratios can vary much more than previously thought. First, we show that in wild-type E. coli cytochrome bo, cytochrome bd-I, and cytochrome bd-II are the major terminal oxidases; deletion of all of the genes encoding these enzymes results in a fermentative phenotype in the presence of oxygen. Second, we provide evidence that the electron flux through cytochrome bd-II oxidase is significant but does not contribute to the generation of a proton motive force. The kinetics support the view that this system is as an energy-independent system gives the cell metabolic flexibility by uncoupling catabolism from ATP synthesis under non-steady-state conditions. The nonelectrogenic nature of cytochrome bd-II oxidase implies that the respiratory chain can function in a fully uncoupled mode such that ATP synthesis occurs solely by substrate level phosphorylation. As a consequence, the yield with a carbon and energy source can vary five- to sevenfold depending on the electron flux distribution in the respiratory chain. A full understanding and control of this distribution open new avenues for optimization of biotechnological processes. PMID:19542282

  10. Polyamine oxidase is one of the key elements for oxidative burst to induce programmed cell death in tobacco cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Hiroshi; Hiroi, Yoshinobu; Sano, Hiroshi

    2006-09-01

    Programmed cell death plays a critical role during the hypersensitive response in the plant defense system. One of components that triggers it is hydrogen peroxide, which is generated through multiple pathways. One example is proposed to be polyamine oxidation, but direct evidence for this has been limited. In this article, we investigated relationships among polyamine oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and programmed cell death using a model system constituted of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultured cell and its elicitor, cryptogein. When cultured cells were treated with cryptogein, programmed cell death occurred with a distinct pattern of DNA degradation. The level of hydrogen peroxide was simultaneously increased, along with polyamine oxidase activity in apoplast. With the same treatment in the presence of alpha-difluoromethyl-Orn, an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, production of hydrogen peroxide was suppressed and programmed cell death did not occur. A gene encoding a tobacco polyamine oxidase that resides in the apoplast was isolated and used to construct RNAi transgenic cell lines. When these lines were treated with cryptogein, polyamines were not degraded but secreted into culture medium and hydrogen peroxide was scarcely produced, with a concomitant suppression of cell death. Activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases (wound- and salicylic acid-induced protein kinases) were also suppressed, indicating that phosphorylation cascade is involved in polyamine oxidation-derived cell death. These results suggest that polyamine oxidase is a key element for the oxidative burst, which is essential for induction of programmed cell death, and that mitogen-activated protein kinase is one of the factors that mediate this pathway. PMID:16844838

  11. Enhanced nitrogen fixation in a Rhizobium etli ntrC mutant that overproduces the Bradyrhizobium japonicum symbiotic terminal oxidase cbb{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Soberon, M.; Lopez, O.; Morera, C.; Girard, M.L.; Tabche, M.L.; Miranda, J. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-05-01

    The ntrC gene codes for a transcriptional activator protein that modulates gene expression in response to nitrogen. The cytochrome production pattern of a Rhizobium etli ntrC mutant (CFN2012) was studied. CO difference spectral analysis of membranes showed that CFN2012 produced a terminal oxidase similar to the symbiotic terminal oxidase of bacteroids in free-living cells under aerobic conditions, with a characteristic trough at 553 nm. CFN2012 produced two c-type cytochromes with molecular masses of 27 and 32 kDa in contrast with the wild-type strain, which produced only a 32-kDa c-tye cytochrome. The expression levels of the R. etli fix/NOQP operon, which codes for terminal oxidase cbb{sub 3}, were not affected by the ntrC mutation. However, the production levels of the two c-type cytochromes (27 and 32 kDa) were enhanced at least eightfold when the Bradyrhizobium japonicum fixNOQP operon was expressed in CFN2012 from the nptII promoter (pMSfix{sup c}), suggesting that these proteins are subunits FixO (27 kDa) and FixP (32 kDa) of cbb{sub 3} and that CFN2012/pMSfix{sup c} overproduced this terminal oxidase. CFN2012/pMSfix{sup c} showed a significant increase in its symbiotic performance as judged by the determination of nitrogenase activities of plants inoculated with this strain, suggesting that the overproduction of cbb{sub 3} terminal oxidase correlates with an enhancement in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

  12. Host-Directed Evolution of a Novel Lactate Oxidase in Streptococcus iniae Isolates from Barramundi (Lates calcarifer)?

    PubMed Central

    Nawawi, Roslina A.; Baiano, Justice C. F.; Kvennefors, E. Charlotte E.; Barnes, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    In Streptococcus iniae, lactate metabolism is dependent upon two proteins, lactate permease that mediates uptake and lactate oxidase, a flavin mononucleotide-dependent enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of ?-hydroxyacids. A novel variant of the lactate oxidase gene, lctO, in Australian isolates of S. iniae from diseased barramundi was found during a diagnostic screen using LOX-1 and LOX-2 primers, yielding amplicons of 920 bp instead of the expected 869 bp. Sequencing of the novel gene variant (type 2) revealed a 51-nucleotide insertion in lctO, resulting in a 17-amino-acid repeat in the gene product, and three-dimensional modeling indicated formation of an extra loop in the monomeric protein structure. The activities of the lactate oxidase enzyme variants expressed in Escherichia coli were examined, indicating that the higher-molecular-weight type 2 enzyme exhibited higher activity. Growth rates of S. iniae expressing the novel type 2 enzyme were not reduced at lactate concentrations of 0.3% and 0.5%, whereas a strain expressing the type 1 enzyme exhibited reduced growth rates at these lactate concentrations. During a retrospective screen of 105 isolates of S. iniae from Australia, the United States, Canada, Israel, Réunion Island, and Thailand, the type 2 variant arose only in isolates from a single marine farm with unusually high tidal flow in the Northern Territory, Australia. Elevated plasma lactate levels in the fish, resulting from the effort of swimming in tidal flows of up to 3 knots, may exert sufficient selective pressure to maintain the novel, high-molecular-weight enzyme variant. PMID:19270123

  13. Association study between schizophrenia and monoamine oxidase A and B DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Coron, B; Campion, D; Thibaut, F; Dollfus, S; Preterre, P; Langlois, S; Vasse, T; Moreau, V; Martin, C; Charbonnier, F; Laurent, C; Mallet, J; Petit, M; Frebourg, T

    1996-06-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B, which are encoded by two distinct genes located on the human X chromosome, are both involved in the oxidative metabolism of dopamine. Decreased levels of platelet MAO-B activity has been reported in patients with schizophrenia and genetic variation in MAO activity had been proposed as a significant factor in the etiology of this disease. We carried out an association study using two intragenic polymorphisms within the MAO-A and MAO-B genes in 110 schizophrenic patients and 87 control subjects. For each polymorphic marker, no significant difference in allelic frequencies was observed between patients and controls. Nevertheless, a trend toward an association between allele 1 of the MAO-B gene and paranoid schizophrenia was found. Our results do not support the hypothesis that inherited variants of MAO genes might play a major role in a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. Since several previous reports found a low MAO-B platelet activity in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, the identification of polymorphisms related to enzyme activity would be useful. PMID:8804132

  14. Partial Sequence of a Sponge Mitochondrial Genome Reveals Sequence Similarity to Cnidaria in Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit II and the Large Ribosomal RNA Subunit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell F. Watkins; Andrew T. Beckenbach

    1999-01-01

    .   A 2550-bp portion of the mitochondrial genome of a Demosponge, genus Tetilla, was amplified from whole genomic DNA extract and sequenced. The sequence was found to code for the 3? end of the 16S rRNA\\u000a gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, a lysine tRNA, ATPase subunit 8, and a 5? portion of ATPase subunit 6. The Porifera cluster distinctly

  15. Functional rescue of vitamin C synthesis deficiency in human cells using adenoviral-based expression of murine l-gulono-?-lactone oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael N Ha; Frank L Graham; Chantalle K D'Souza; William J Muller; Suleiman A Igdoura; Herb E Schellhorn

    2004-01-01

    l-Gulono-?-lactone oxidase (GULO) is a critical enzyme present in most mammalian species that is required for the terminal step in vitamin C biosynthesis. Primates are absolutely dependent on exogenously supplied dietary vitamin C due to inactivation of the Gulo gene by mutation over 40 million years ago. In this study, we report the cloning and expression of the murine l-gulono-?-lactone

  16. Transcriptional regulation of NADPH oxidase isoforms, Nox1 and Nox4, by nuclear factor-?B in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Manea; Laurentia I. Tanase; Monica Raicu; Maya Simionescu

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation-induced changes in the activity and expression of NADPH oxidases (Nox) play a key role in atherogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of Nox regulation are scantily elucidated. Since nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) controls the expression of many genes associated to inflammation-related diseases, in this study we have investigated the role of NF-?B signaling in the regulation of Nox1 and Nox4 transcription in

  17. Detection of Peroxisome Proliferators Using a Reporter Construct Derived from the Rat Acyl-CoA Oxidase Promoter in the Rat Liver Cell Line H-4IIE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Lee; Pauline Gee; Shannon E. Beard

    Peroxisome proliferators are nougenotoxic carcinogens capable of causing rapid transcriptional activation of genes comprising the rodent fl-oxidation pathway. Numerous compounds, such as hypoilpidemic drugs, herbicides, plasticizers, and analgesics have been identified as peroxisome proliferators in rodents. We have developeda whole-cellin viEwassayto detect peroxisome proliferators in approximately 48 h. A promoter.:chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) fusion coastnict for rat acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX),

  18. Positive feedback regulation of maize NADPH oxidase by mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in abscisic acid signalling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Lin; Haidong Ding; Jinxiang Wang; Hong Zhang; Aying Zhang; Yun Zhang; Mingpu Tan; Wen Dong; Mingyi Jiang

    2010-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), abscisic acid (ABA)-induced H2O2 production activates a 46 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase (p46MAPK), and the activation of p46MAPK also regulates the production of H2O2. However, the mechanism for the regulation of H2O2 production by MAPK in ABA signalling remains to be elucidated. In this study, four reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase (rboh) genes (ZmrbohA-D) were

  19. Subunit change in cytochrome c oxidase: identification of the oxygen switch in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, R; Vettore, S; Aratri, E; Sandona, D

    1997-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) has a complex modular structure in eukaryotes. Depending on growth conditions, interchangeable isoforms of selected subunits are synthesized and combined to the evolutionarily conserved catalytic core of the enzyme. In Dictyostelium this structural make-up is regulated by oxygen and involves two forms of the smallest subunit, termed VIIe and VIIs. Here we show that, in spite of a considerable sequence divergency, they are encoded by adjacent genes, linked 'tail to head' by only 800 bp. Deletion analyses reveal the presence of a short intergenic segment acting as an oxygen transcriptional switch. This structural organization and the different stability of the two subunit isoforms offer a molecular explanation for the extraordinary sensitivity to oxygen of the switching mechanism. PMID:9049303

  20. Enhanced production of recombinant galactose oxidase from Fusarium graminearum in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Choosri, Withu; Paukner, Regina; Wührer, Petra; Haltrich, Dietmar; Leitner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The gene gaoA encoding the copper-dependent enzyme galactose oxidase (GAO) from Fusarium graminearum PH-1 was cloned and successfully overexpressed in E. coli. Culture conditions for cultivations in shaken flasks were optimized, and optimal conditions were found to be double-strength LB medium, 0.5% lactose as inducer, and induction at the reduced temperature of 25°C. When using these cultivation conditions ~24 mg of active GAO could be produced in shaken flasks per litre medium. Addition of copper to the fermentation medium decreased the enzyme production significantly. The His-tagged recombinant enzyme could be purified conveniently with a single affinity chromatography step. The purified enzyme showed a single band on SDS–PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 66 kDa and had kinetic properties similar to those of the fungal wild-type enzyme. PMID:25187134

  1. Chemoheterotrophic Growth of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 Dependent on a Functional Cytochrome c Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Stebegg, Ronald; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Mikulic, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium commonly used as a model organism for studying cyanobacterial cell differentiation and nitrogen fixation. For many decades, this cyanobacterium was considered an obligate photo-lithoautotroph. We now discovered that this strain is also capable of mixotrophic, photo-organoheterotrophic, and chemo-organoheterotrophic growth if high concentrations of fructose (at least 50 mM and up to 200 mM) are supplied. Glucose, a substrate used by some facultatively organoheterotrophic cyanobacteria, is not effective in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. The gtr gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 encoding a glucose carrier was introduced into Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Surprisingly, the new strain containing the gtr gene did not grow on glucose but was very sensitive to glucose, with a 5 mM concentration being lethal, whereas the wild-type strain tolerated 200 mM glucose. The Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 strain containing gtr can grow mixotrophically and photo-organoheterotrophically, but not chemo-organoheterotrophically with fructose. Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 contains five respiratory chains ending in five different respiratory terminal oxidases. One of these enzymes is a mitochondrial-type cytochrome c oxidase. As in almost all cyanobacteria, this enzyme is encoded by three adjacent genes called coxBAC1. When this locus was disrupted, the cells lost the capability for chemo-organoheterotrophic growth. PMID:22730128

  2. Inhibition of arsenic induced-rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xinjuan; Dai Yujie; Li Xing; Niu Nannan; Li Wenjie; Liu Fangli; Zhao Yang; Yu Zengli, E-mail: zly@zzu.edu.cn

    2011-08-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12 months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-{beta}1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-{beta}1-induced transactivation of the TGF-{beta}-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-{beta}1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and {alpha}-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation. - Research Highlights: > GSE attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. > GSE reduced arsenic-mediated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). > Beneficial effects of GSE on As-induced liver injury was via inhibition of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation.

  3. Pyridox(am)ine-5-Phosphate Oxidase Deficiency Treatable Cause of Neonatal Epileptic Encephalopathy With Burst Suppression: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Andrea; Aziz, Aly S; Mutch, Carly; Lewis, Jillian; Go, Cristina Y; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2014-10-01

    Pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of pyridoxine metabolism. Intractable neonatal epileptic encephalopathy is the classical presentation. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate or pyridoxine supplementation improves symptoms. We report a patient with myoclonic and tonic seizures at the age of 1 hour. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate was started on the first day of life and seizures stopped at the age of 3 days, but encephalopathy persisted for 4 weeks. She had normal neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 12 months on pyridoxal-5-phosphate monotherapy. She had novel homozygous pathogenic frameshift mutation (c.448_451del;p.Pro150Argfs*27) in the PNPO gene. Long-lasting encephalopathy despite well-controlled clinical seizures does neither confirm nor exclude pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency. Normal neurodevelopmental outcome of our patient emphasizes the importance of pyridoxal-5-phosphate treatment. Pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis of Ohtahara syndrome and neonatal myoclonic encephalopathy as a treatable underlying cause. In addition, we reviewed the literature for pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency and summarized herein all confirmed cases. PMID:25296925

  4. Relationship between Disease Resistance and Rice Oxalate Oxidases in Transgenic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian Yong; Nie, Zhuan Hua; Wang, Wen Juan; Leung, David W. M.; Xu, Da Gao; Chen, Bai Ling; Chen, Zhe; Zeng, Lie Xian; Liu, E. E.

    2013-01-01

    Differential expression of rice oxalate oxidase genes (OsOxO1-4) in rice leaves (Oryza sativa L.) in response to biotic stress was assayed using RT-PCR. OsOxO4 was induced transiently at 12 h in plants inoculated with the pathogens of bacterial blight and that of the wounding control. Inoculation with the rice blast pathogen induced OsOxO2 expression compared to the mock spray control. Overexpressing OsOxO1 or OsOxO4 in rice resulted in elevated transcript levels of the respective transgene as well as OsOxO3 in leaves compared to that in untransformed wild type (WT). In a line of RNA-i transgenic rice plants (i-12), expression of all four OsOxO genes except that of OsOxO2 was severely inhibited. Oxalate oxidase (OxO, EC 1.2.3.4) activity in plants overexpressing OsOxO1 or OsOxO4 was substantially higher than that in WT and the RNA-i lines. It was found that transgenic rice plants with substantially higher OxO activity were not more resistant to rice blast and bacterial blight than WT. In contrast, some RNA-i lines with less OxO activity seemed to be more resistant to rice blast while some overexpressing lines were more susceptible to rice blast than WT. Therefore, OxO might not be a disease resistance factor in rice. PMID:24205207

  5. WHEAT FLOUR PROTEINS AS AFFECTED BY TRANSGLUTAMINASE AND GLUCOSE OXIDASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymes are good tools to modify wheat proteins by creating new bonds between the protein chains. In this study, the effect of the addition of glucose oxidase (GO) and transglutaminase (TG) on the wheat flour proteins is presented. The modification of wheat proteins was determined by analyzing the...

  6. Demographic, Biologic, and Other Variables Affecting Monoamine Oxidase Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald S. Robinson; Alexander Nies

    1980-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity has been shown to be influenced by a variety of demographic, biologic, and other variables. Human platelet, plasma, and brain enzyme activities correlate with age and are higher in women. Brain catecholamines tend to decrease with age. The acute effects of ethanol on platelet MAO do not appear to be significant, but chronic ethanol ingestion could

  7. Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne van Diermen; Andrew Marston; Juan Bravo; Marianne Reist; Pierre-Alain Carrupt; Kurt Hostettmann

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the studyRhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is traditionally used in Eastern Europe and Asia to stimulate the nervous system, enhance physical and mental performance, treat fatigue, psychological stress and depression. In order to investigate the influence of Rhodiola rosea L. roots on mood disorders, three extracts were tested against monoamine oxidases (MAOs A and B) in a microtitre plate

  8. Decolorization of phenolic effluents by soluble and immobilized phenol oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Davis; Richard G. Burns

    1990-01-01

    Colour removal from phenplic industrial effluents by phenol oxidase enzymes and white-rot fungi was compared. Soluble laccase and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) removed colour from pulp mill (E), cotton mill hydroxide (OH) and cotton mill sulphide (S) effluents, but rapid and irreversible enzyme inactivation took place. Entrapment of laccase in alginate beads improved decolorization by factors of 3.5 (OH) and 2

  9. Studies on the mechanism of D-amino acid oxidase 

    E-print Network

    Kurtz, Kevin Anthony

    2000-01-01

    . The measured []V/K[] isotope effects decrease at higher pH and increase in D?O suggesting that the unprotonated form of the amino group is the substrate for D-amino acid oxidase. However, the results are inconclusive due to poor precision....

  10. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Because high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts were treated with each of th...

  11. Molecular dynamics in cytochrome c oxidase Moessbauer spectra deconvolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bossis, Fabrizio [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical Biology and Medical Physics (DIBIFIM), University of Bari 'Aldo Moro', Bari (Italy)] [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical Biology and Medical Physics (DIBIFIM), University of Bari 'Aldo Moro', Bari (Italy); Palese, Luigi L., E-mail: palese@biochem.uniba.it [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical Biology and Medical Physics (DIBIFIM), University of Bari 'Aldo Moro', Bari (Italy)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase molecular dynamics serve to predict Moessbauer lineshape widths. {yields} Half height widths are used in modeling of Lorentzian doublets. {yields} Such spectral deconvolutions are useful in detecting the enzyme intermediates. -- Abstract: In this work low temperature molecular dynamics simulations of cytochrome c oxidase are used to predict an experimentally observable, namely Moessbauer spectra width. Predicted lineshapes are used to model Lorentzian doublets, with which published cytochrome c oxidase Moessbauer spectra were simulated. Molecular dynamics imposed constraints to spectral lineshapes permit to obtain useful information, like the presence of multiple chemical species in the binuclear center of cytochrome c oxidase. Moreover, a benchmark of quality for molecular dynamic simulations can be obtained. Despite the overwhelming importance of dynamics in electron-proton transfer systems, limited work has been devoted to unravel how much realistic are molecular dynamics simulations results. In this work, molecular dynamics based predictions are found to be in good agreement with published experimental spectra, showing that we can confidently rely on actual simulations. Molecular dynamics based deconvolution of Moessbauer spectra will lead to a renewed interest for application of this approach in bioenergetics.

  12. Beyond brown: polyphenol oxidases as enzymes of plant specialized metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most cloned and/or characterized plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have catecholase activity (i.e., they oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones) and are localized or predicted to be localized to plastids. As a class, they have broad substrate specificity and are associated with browning of produce and oth...

  13. Redox Modifier Genes and Pathways in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Barrie J.; Anklesaria, Pervin; Choi, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Enhanced redox-stress caused by neuroinflammation, mitochondria, and NADPH oxidases has been hypothesized to play critical roles in disease progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, distinguishing whether the redox-stress observed in ALS is due to a primary defect in cellular reactive oxygen species metabolism/catabolism, or is a secondary consequence of neuroinflammation, has been difficult and the issue remains a matter of debate. Emerging evidence suggests that defects in genes that regulate NADPH oxidases may account for at least some forms of ALS. NADPH oxidases are key signaling complexes that influence cellular responses to growth factors and cytokines. In this context, NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species exert spatial control over the redox-dependent activation of certain pro-inflammatory receptors. Understanding the biology of how NADPH oxidases control cell signaling may help to clarify how genetic determinants of ALS lead to dysregulated pro-inflammatory signaling. This review provides a framework for understanding endosomal signaling through NADPH oxidases and potential mechanisms whereby gene defects in various forms of ALS may influence this cellular process and lead to motor neuron degeneration. Lastly, this review discusses past and current efforts to treat ALS using antioxidant therapies, as well as the limitations and advantages of each of these approaches. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1569–1586. PMID:19187001

  14. Inheritance of polyphenol oxidase activity in wheat breeding lines derived from matings of low polyphenol oxidase parents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in grain plays a major role in time-dependent discoloration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) products, especially fresh noodles. Breeding wheat cultivars with low or nil PPO activity can reduce the undesirable product darkening. The low PPO line PI 117635 was crossed to two...

  15. Positive feedback regulation of maize NADPH oxidase by mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in abscisic acid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fan; Ding, Haidong; Wang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Aying; Zhang, Yun; Tan, Mingpu; Dong, Wen; Jiang, Mingyi

    2009-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), abscisic acid (ABA)-induced H2O2 production activates a 46 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase (p46MAPK), and the activation of p46MAPK also regulates the production of H2O2. However, the mechanism for the regulation of H2O2 production by MAPK in ABA signalling remains to be elucidated. In this study, four reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase (rboh) genes (ZmrbohA–D) were isolated and characterized in maize leaves. ABA treatment induced a biphasic response (phase I and phase II) in the expression of ZmrbohA–D and the activity of NADPH oxidase. Phase II induced by ABA was blocked by pretreatments with two MAPK kinase (MPKKK) inhibitors and two H2O2 scavengers, but phase I was not affected by these inhibitors or scavengers. Treatment with H2O2 alone also only induced phase II, and the induction was arrested by the MAPKK inhibitors. Furthermore, the ABA-activated p46MAPK was partially purified. Using primers corresponding to the sequences of internal tryptic peptides, the p46MAPK gene was cloned. Analysis of the tryptic peptides and the p46MAPK sequence indicate it is the known ZmMPK5. Treatments with ABA and H2O2 led to a significant increase in the activity of ZmMPK5, although ABA treatment only induced a slight increase in the expression of ZmMPK5. The data indicate that H2O2-activated ZmMPK5 is involved in the activation of phase II in ABA signalling, but not in phase I. The results suggest that there is a positive feedback loop involving NADPH oxidase, H2O2, and ZmMPK5 in ABA signalling. PMID:19592501

  16. A truncating PET100 variant causing fatal infantile lactic acidosis and isolated cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oláhová, Monika; Haack, Tobias B; Alston, Charlotte L; Houghton, Jessica Ac; He, Langping; Morris, Andrew Am; Brown, Garry K; McFarland, Robert; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia Ma; Lightowlers, Robert N; Prokisch, Holger; Taylor, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    Isolated mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency is an important cause of mitochondrial disease in children and adults. It is genetically heterogeneous, given that both mtDNA-encoded and nuclear-encoded gene products contribute to structural components and assembly factors. Pathogenic variants within these proteins are associated with clinical variability ranging from isolated organ involvement to multisystem disease presentations. Defects in more than 10 complex IV assembly factors have been described including a recent Lebanese founder mutation in PET100 in patients presenting with Leigh syndrome. We report the clinical and molecular investigation of a patient with a fatal, neonatal-onset isolated complex IV deficiency associated with multiorgan involvement born to consanguineous, first-cousin British Asian parents. Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous truncating variant (c.142C>T, p.(Gln48*)) in the PET100 gene that results in a complete loss of enzyme activity and assembly of the holocomplex. Our report confirms PET100 mutation as an important cause of isolated complex IV deficiency outside of the Lebanese population, extending the phenotypic spectrum associated with abnormalities within this gene. PMID:25293719

  17. Distribution, diversity and regulation of alcohol oxidase isozymes, and phylogenetic relationships of methylotrophic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Fujimura, Shuki; Uchino, Masataka; Tanaka, Naoto; Matsufuji, Yoshimi; Miyaji, Tatsuro; Takano, Katsumi; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Tomizuka, Noboru

    2007-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to classify the methylotrophic yeasts based on diversities of alcohol oxidase (AOD), i.e. zymogram patterns and partial amino acid sequences. According to zymogram patterns for AOD, members of the methylotrophic yeasts separate into two major lineages, one group involving strains having a single AOD and the other group, including Pichia methanolica, Candida pignaliae and C. sonorensis, showing nine AOD isozymes. Based on partial amino acid sequences of AOD, the methylotrophic yeasts could be divided into five groups, and this classification agrees mostly with grouping based on 26S domain D1/D2 rDNA nucleotide sequences, except for some strains. Moreover, the strains having AOD isozymes constitute one group with P. trehalophila, P. glucozyma and Pichia sp. strain BZ159, although these strains are divided into two types, based on amino acid sequences of second AODs. On the other hand, these AOD isozymes consist of two subunits; the first subunits are induced not only by methanol but also by glycerol and pectin, although the second subunits are mainly induced by methanol. These data indicate that AOD isozymes and second AOD genes distribute widely in several methylotrophic yeasts in the natural environment, and second AOD genes may have evolved as methylotrophic genes that can adapt to the environmental conditions of higher methanol concentrations. PMID:17476699

  18. Mutations of SURF-1 in Leigh disease associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Tiranti, V; Hoertnagel, K; Carrozzo, R; Galimberti, C; Munaro, M; Granatiero, M; Zelante, L; Gasparini, P; Marzella, R; Rocchi, M; Bayona-Bafaluy, M P; Enriquez, J A; Uziel, G; Bertini, E; Dionisi-Vici, C; Franco, B; Meitinger, T; Zeviani, M

    1998-01-01

    Leigh disease associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency (LD[COX-]) is one of the most common disorders of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, in infancy and childhood. No mutations in any of the genes encoding the COX-protein subunits have been identified in LD(COX-) patients. Using complementation assays based on the fusion of LD(COX-) cell lines with several rodent/human rho0 hybrids, we demonstrated that the COX phenotype was rescued by the presence of a normal human chromosome 9. Linkage analysis restricted the disease locus to the subtelomeric region of chromosome 9q, within the 7-cM interval between markers D9S1847 and D9S1826. Candidate genes within this region include SURF-1, the yeast homologue (SHY-1) of which encodes a mitochondrial protein necessary for the maintenance of COX activity and respiration. Sequence analysis of SURF-1 revealed mutations in numerous DNA samples from LD(COX-) patients, indicating that this gene is responsible for the major complementation group in this important mitochondrial disorder. PMID:9837813

  19. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sty?a, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Pozna?, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wysko? ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at ?max=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci et al. (2000). In peat the highest activities of phenol oxidase was observed in the combinations marked as Shelterbelt and whereas the lowest - in Zbechy, Bridge and Hirudo. Activities of this enzyme in peat ranged from 15.35 to 38.33 ?mol h-1g d.m soil. Increased activities of phenol oxidase have been recorded on the depth 50-100cm - catotelm (21.74-38.33 ?mol h-1g d.m soil) in comparison with the depth 0-50cm - acrotelm (15.35-28.32 ?mol h-1g d.m soil). References Freeman, C., Ostle N.J., Fener, N., Kang H. 2004. A regulatory role for phenol oxidase during decomposition in peatlands. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 1663-1667. Matocha Ch.J., Haszler G.R., Grove J.H. 2004. Nitrogen fertilization suppresses soil phenol oxidase enzyme activity in no-tillage systems. Soil Science, 169/10, 708-714. Perucci P., Casucci C., Dumontet S. 2000. An improved method to evaluate the o-diphenol oxidase activity of soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 1927-1933. Sokolowska Z., Szajdak L., Matyka-Sarzy?ska D. 2005. Impact of the degree of secondary transformation on amid-base properties of organic compounds in mucks. Geoderma, 127, 80-90. Szajdak L., Szczepa?ski M., Bogacz A. 2007. Impact of secondary transformation of peat-moorsh soils on the decrease of nitrogen and carbon compounds in ground water. Agronomy Research, 5/2, 189-200.

  20. Eggplant polyphenol oxidase multigene family: cloning, phylogeny, expression analyses and immunolocalization in response to wounding.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Santoshkumar M; Chandrashekar, Arun; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2011-12-01

    Though polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes from tomato and potato have been extensively studied, information about PPO genes in eggplant (Solanum melongena) is lacking. The main objective of this study is to understand the structural and functional aspects of eggplant PPO genes. Six eggplant PPO genes (SmePPO1-6) cloned by RACE and genome walking were found to be intronless and correspond to eight eggplant unigenes. Comprehensive sequence analyses indicated that the eggplant PPO genes exhibit considerable variation in the transit peptide regions, copper-binding domains and UTRs, and fall into two distinct structural classes. Further, PPO gene members appear to exist in clusters on eggplant chromosome 8 as seen in the case of tomato and potato PPOs. During normal growth and development, SmePPO1 and 2 are expressed in roots, whereas the transcript levels of all the eggplant PPO genes vary considerably in leaves, flowers and fruits. SmePPO1 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST fusion protein, and immunoblot using rabbit polyclonal antiserum to GST-SmePPO1 detected a major protein band (~70 kDa) and a minor band (~67 kDa) in eggplant fruit extract. Tissue printing indicated the predominant presence of PPO in the exocarp and the areas surrounding the seeds in the mesocarp of eggplant fruits. Immunolocalization of PPOs in eggplant infested with shoot-and-fruit borer revealed localization of the PPO at the site of infection in tender shoots and fruits, and further inside the mature tissues. The upregulation of eggplant PPO gene transcripts following mechanical injury shows that all the genes except SmePPO2 are induced in the fruit over 6h. On the contrary, the transcripts of SmePPO2 and PPO3 are not detectable in the stem, and expression seems to be prominent over a 2h period for SmePPO1 and SmePPO4-6. Our results show that eggplant PPO genes are structurally different, and are differentially expressed in various tissues of eggplant indicating their functional diversity. PMID:21945722

  1. THE EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN CYTOCHROME OXIDASE AND CARBON MONOXIDE

    PubMed Central

    Wald, George; Allen, David W.

    1957-01-01

    An evolution argument which attempted to trace the development of hemoglobins from such respiratory pigments as cytochrome oxidase presupposed that the latter possesses, in addition to its high affinity for oxygen, an approximately hyperbolic equilibrium function, and little if any Bohr effect (decline in affinity for oxygen with rise in acidity). Since cytochrome oxidase, unlike hemoglobin, is irreversibly oxidized by oxygen, the present experiments examine its combination with carbon monoxide, with which, like hemoglobin, it yields a true equilibrium. In all known hemoglobins the form of the equilibrium function and the vigor of the Bohr effect are similar with carbon monoxide and with oxygen, so that observations involving the former gas are relevant to the relations of the latter. The equilibrium function of cytochrome oxidase with carbon monoxide—percentage saturation vs. partial pressure of CO—is slightly inflected (in the Hill equation n = 1.26; for a hyperbola, n = 1). No Bohr effect is present in the range of pH 7–8. The pressure of carbon monoxide at which half-saturation occurs (p50) is about 0.17 mm. at 10–13°C. The affinity for carbon monoxide is therefore higher than commonly supposed. These properties are consistent with the evolution argument. They are important also for the physiological functioning of cytochrome oxidase, the nearly hyperbolic equilibrium function facilitating a high degree of saturation, and the lack of Bohr effect making this enzyme impervious to hyperacidity. The slight inflection of the equilibrium function shows that the Fe-porphyrin units of cytochrome oxidase interact to a degree, hence that the enzyme must contain more than one such unit per molecule. It is suggested that in cytochrome oxidase two Fe-porphyrin groups may unite with one oxygen in the manner Fe++-O2-Fe++; and that the evolution of hemoglobins proceeded over a first stage in which the hemes were separated so that each combines with only one molecule of oxygen, so tending to remain reduced; to a further stage in which the separated hemes interact through the protein to facilitate one another in combining with oxygen. PMID:13416533

  2. Selection of suitably non-repressing carbon sources for expression of alcohol oxidase isozyme promoters in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia methanolica.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Wakayama, Keishi; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we aimed to select suitable non-repressing carbon sources for the expression of promoters derived from the alcohol oxidase (AOD) isozyme genes, PMOD1 and PMOD2, during the growth of Pichia methanolica. Our results revealed that xylose is the best non-repressing carbon source for heterologous gene expression using both PMOD1 and PMOD2, and that glycerol is also a suitable carbon source with by which the on/off of PMOD2 expression can be controlled. PMID:25561326

  3. Phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol directly activate NADPH oxidase by interacting with enzyme components.

    PubMed

    Palicz, A; Foubert, T R; Jesaitis, A J; Marodi, L; McPhail, L C

    2001-02-01

    The enzyme NADPH oxidase is regulated by phospholipase D in intact neutrophils and is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA) plus diacylglycerol (DG) in cell-free systems. We showed previously that cell-free NADPH oxidase activation by these lipids involves both protein kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. Here we demonstrate that only the protein kinase-independent pathway is operative in a cell-free system of purified and recombinant NADPH oxidase components. Activation by PA + DG was ATP-independent and unaffected by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, indicating the lack of protein kinase involvement. Both PA and DG were required for optimal activation to occur. The drug reduced activation of NADPH oxidase by either arachidonic acid or PA + DG, with IC(50) values of 46 and 25 microm, respectively. The optimal concentration of arachidonic acid or PA + DG for oxidase activation was shifted to the right with, indicating interference of the drug with the interaction of lipid activators and enzyme components. inhibited the lipid-induced aggregation/sedimentation of oxidase components p47(phox) and p67(phox), suggesting a disruption of the lipid-mediated assembly process. The direct effects of on NADPH oxidase activation complicate its use as a "specific" inhibitor of DG kinase. We conclude that the protein kinase-independent pathway of NADPH oxidase activation by PA and DG involves direct interaction with NADPH oxidase components. Thus, NADPH oxidase proteins are functional targets for these lipid messengers in the neutrophil. PMID:11060300

  4. Functional expression and peroxisomal targeting of rat urate oxidase in monkey kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Yeldandi, A V; Chu, R; Reddy, S K; Pan, J; Usuda, N; Lin, Y; Rao, M S; Reddy, J K

    1995-01-01

    Humans and hominoid primates lack the enzyme urate oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to allantoin. In rats and most other mammals, urate oxidase is present as a crystalloid core within the peroxisomes of liver parenchymal cells. To determine whether functionally active recombinantly expressed urate oxidase can be targeted to the peroxisome as well as display the crystalloid core-like structure, we expressed rat urate oxidase cDNA in African green monkey kidney cells (CV-1 cells) under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter. Cell lines stably expressing urate oxidase were isolated. Northern blot analysis revealed a 1.3-kb transcript and immunoblot analysis confirmed the presence of urate oxidase in the stably transfected cells. The recombinant urate oxidase expressed in CV-1 cells was functionally active. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the expressed protein was visualized as discrete granules in the cytoplasm. Electron microscopy and immunocytochemical localization studies showed that the recombinantly expressed protein formed distinct crystalloid core structures with bundles of tubules within single membrane limited cytoplasmic organelles. On cross section, the recombinant urate oxidase tubular structures are arranged as circles of 10 surrounding a slightly larger circle. This arrangement is reminiscent of urate oxidase-containing cores in rat liver peroxisomes. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed that the recombinantly expressed urate oxidase is correctly targeted to the catalase-containing peroxisomes in these CV-1 cells. PMID:8821625

  5. The polypeptides COX2A and COX2B are essential components of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Morales-Sainz, Lorena; Escobar-Ramírez, Adelma; Cruz-Torres, Valentín; Reyes-Prieto, Adrián; Vázquez-Acevedo, Miriam; Lara-Martínez, Reyna; Jiménez-García, Luis Felipe; González-Halphen, Diego

    2008-02-01

    Two genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunits, Cox2a and Cox2b, are present in the nuclear genomes of apicomplexan parasites and show sequence similarity to corresponding genes in chlorophycean algae. We explored the presence of COX2A and COX2B subunits in the cytochrome c oxidase of Toxoplasma gondii. Antibodies were raised against a synthetic peptide containing a 14-residue fragment of the COX2A polypeptide and against a hexa-histidine-tagged recombinant COX2B protein. Two distinct immunochemical stainings localized the COX2A and COX2B proteins in the parasite's mitochondria. A mitochondria-enriched fraction exhibited cyanide-sensitive oxygen uptake in the presence of succinate. T. gondii mitochondria were solubilized and subjected to Blue Native Electrophoresis followed by second dimension electrophoresis. Selected protein spots from the 2D gels were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis and polypeptides of mitochondrial complexes III, IV and V were identified. Subunits COX2A and COX2B were detected immunochemically and found to co-migrate with complex IV; therefore, they are subunits of the parasite's cytochrome c oxidase. The apparent molecular mass of the T. gondii mature COX2A subunit differs from that of the chlorophycean alga Polytomella sp. The data suggest that during its biogenesis, the mitochondrial targeting sequence of the apicomplexan COX2A precursor protein may be processed differently than the one from its algal counterpart. PMID:18036550

  6. Naphthylisopropylamine and N-benzylamphetamine derivatives as monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vilches-Herrera, Marcelo; Miranda-Sepúlveda, Juan; Rebolledo-Fuentes, Marco; Fierro, Angélica; Lühr, Susan; Iturriaga-Vasquez, Patricio; Cassels, Bruce K; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2009-03-15

    A series of naphthylisopropylamine and N-benzyl-4-methylthioamphetamine derivatives were evaluated as monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Their potencies were compared with those of a series of amphetamine derivatives, to test if the increase of electron richness of the aromatic ring and overall size of the molecule might improve their potency as enzyme inhibitors. Molecular dockings were performed to gain insight regarding the binding mode of these inhibitors and rationalize their different potencies. In the case of naphthylisopropylamine derivatives, the increased electron-donating capacity and size of the aromatic moiety resulting from replacement of the phenyl ring of amphetamine derivatives by a naphthalene system resulted in more potent compounds. In the other case, extension of the arylisopropylamine molecule by N-benzylation of the amino group led to a decrease in potency as monoamine oxidase inhibitors. PMID:19243954

  7. Cytochrome c oxidase: 25 years of the elusive proton pump.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Mårten

    2004-04-12

    Since its discovery [Nature 266 (1977) 271], the function of cytochrome c oxidase (and other haem-copper oxidases) as a redox-driven proton pump has been subject of both intense research and controversy, and is one of the key unsolved issues of bioenergetics and of biochemistry more generally. Despite the fact that the mechanism of proton translocation is not yet fully understood on the molecular level, many important details and principles have been learned. In the hope of accelerating progress, some of these will be reviewed here, together with a brief presentation of a novel proton pump mechanism, and of the emergence of a molecular basis for control of its efficiency. PMID:15100038

  8. Versatile roles of plant NADPH oxidases and emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Sharma, Ashutosh; Guruprasad, Kunchur; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a key player in the network of reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing enzymes. It catalyzes the production of superoxide (O2(-)), that in turn regulates a wide range of biological functions in a broad range of organisms. Plant Noxes are known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) and are homologs of catalytic subunit of mammalian phagocyte gp91(phox). They are unique among other ROS producing mechanisms in plants as they integrate different signal transduction pathways in plants. In recent years, there has been addition of knowledge on various aspects related to its structure, regulatory components and associated mechanisms, and its plethora of biological functions. This update highlights some of the recent developments in the field with particular reference to important members of the plant kingdom. PMID:24561450

  9. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to bovine xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Kaetzel, C S; Mather, I H; Bruder, G; Madara, P J

    1984-01-01

    The isolation of a hybridoma cell line, C-41, secreting monoclonal antibody to bovine xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2), is described. The specificity of this antibody was determined by solid-phase immunoassay, immunoblotting procedures, affinity chromatography, immunoelectrophoresis and precipitation techniques. The results are compared with those obtained in similar specificity studies on a previously described monoclonal antibody secreted by hybridoma cell line A-94 [Mather, Nace, Johnson & Goldsby (1980) Biochem. J. 188, 925-928]. This latter antibody appears to bind to xanthine oxidase only when the enzyme is immobilized on a solid support such as a plastic plate or nitrocellulose paper. Potential problems in the determination of the specificity of monoclonal antibodies, especially towards membrane proteins of unknown biological activity, are discussed. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6378181

  10. Oxygen reactivity of mammalian sulfite oxidase provides a concept for the treatment of sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Belaidi, Abdel A; Röper, Juliane; Arjune, Sita; Krizowski, Sabina; Trifunovic, Aleksandra; Schwarz, Guenter

    2015-07-15

    Mammalian sulfite oxidase (SO) is a dimeric enzyme consisting of a molybdenum cofactor- (Moco) and haem-containing domain and catalyses the oxidation of toxic sulfite to sulfate. Following sulfite oxidation, electrons are passed from Moco via the haem cofactor to cytochrome c, the terminal electron acceptor. In contrast, plant SO (PSO) lacks the haem domain and electrons shuttle from Moco to molecular oxygen. Given the high similarity between plant and mammalian SO Moco domains, factors that determine the reactivity of PSO towards oxygen, remained unknown. In the present study, we generated mammalian haem-deficient and truncated SO variants and demonstrated their oxygen reactivity by hydrogen peroxide formation and oxygen-consumption studies. We found that intramolecular electron transfer between Moco and haem showed an inverse correlation to SO oxygen reactivity. Haem-deficient SO variants exhibited oxygen-dependent sulfite oxidation similar to PSO, which was confirmed further using haem-deficient human SO in a cell-based assay. This finding suggests the possibility to use oxygen-reactive SO variants in sulfite detoxification, as the loss of SO activity is causing severe neurodegeneration. Therefore we evaluated the potential use of PEG attachment (PEGylation) as a modification method for future enzyme substitution therapies using oxygen-reactive SO variants, which might use blood-dissolved oxygen as the electron acceptor. PEGylation has been shown to increase the half-life of other therapeutic proteins. PEGylation resulted in the modification of up to eight surface-exposed lysine residues of SO, an increased conformational stability and similar kinetic properties compared with wild-type SO. PMID:26171830

  11. Evaluation of Oxalate Decarboxylase and Oxalate Oxidase for Industrial Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Cassland; Anders Sjöde; Sandra Winestrand; Leif J. Jönsson; Nils-Olof Nilvebrant

    2010-01-01

    Increased recirculation of process water has given rise to problems with formation of calcium oxalate incrusts (scaling) in\\u000a the pulp and paper industry and in forest biorefineries. The potential in using oxalate decarboxylase from Aspergillus niger for oxalic acid removal in industrial bleaching plant filtrates containing oxalic acid was examined and compared with barley\\u000a oxalate oxidase. Ten different filtrates from

  12. Comparative substrate-inhibitor analysis of mink liver monoamine oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Yagodina

    2010-01-01

    Comparative substrate-inhibitor analysis of catalytic properties of liver monoamine oxidases (MAO) was performed in the mature\\u000a males of the American mink Mustela vison and the European mink Mustela lutreola. The action on the MAO activity was studied of alkaloids of the benzo[c]phenanthridine group: sanguinarine and chelidonine,\\u000a diisoquinoline alkaloid berberine, medicinal agents “Ukrain” and “Sanguirythrin” as well as derivatives of 2-propylamine:

  13. Physiological and pathological implications of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H Yu; Shannon Wright; Ellen H Fan; Zhao-Rong Lun; Diana Gubisne-Harberle

    2003-01-01

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) catalyzes the deamination of primary amines. Such deamination has been shown capable of regulating glucose transport in adipose cells. It has been independently discovered that the primary structure of vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is identical to SSAO. VAP-1 regulates leukocyte migration and is related to inflammation. Increased serum SSAO activities have been found in patients with

  14. Characteristics and biotechnological applications of microbial cholesterol oxidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyuki Doukyu

    2009-01-01

    Microbial cholesterol oxidase is an enzyme of great commercial value, widely employed by laboratories routinely devoted to\\u000a the determination of cholesterol concentrations in serum, other clinical samples, and food. In addition, the enzyme has potential\\u000a applications as a biocatalyst which can be used as an insecticide and for the bioconversion of a number of sterols and non-steroidal\\u000a alcohols. The enzyme

  15. Subpollen particles: Carriers of allergenic proteins and oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Bacsi, Attila; Choudhury, Barun K.; Dharajiya, Nilesh; Sur, Sanjiv; Boldogh, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollen is known to induce allergic asthma in atopic individuals, although only a few inhaled pollen grains penetrate into the lower respiratory tract. Objective We sought to provide evidence that subpollen particles (SPPs) of respirable size, possessing both antigenic and redox properties, are released from weed pollen grains and to test their role in allergic airway inflammation. Methods The release of SPPs was analyzed by means of microscopic imaging and flow cytometry. The redox properties of SPPs and the SPP-mediated oxidative effect on epithelial cells were determined by using redox-sensitive probes and specific inhibitors. Western blotting and amino acid sequence analysis were used to examine the protein components of the SPP. The allergenic properties of the SPP were determined in a murine model of experimental asthma. Results Ragweed pollen grains released 0.5 to 4.5 ?m of SPPs on hydration. These contained Amb a 1, along with other allergenic proteins of ragweed pollen, and possessed nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) [NAD(P)H] oxidase activity. The SPPs significantly increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells and induced allergic airway inflammation in the experimental animals. Pretreatment of the SPPs with NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors attenuated their capacity to increase ROS levels in the airway epithelial cells and subsequent airway inflammation. Conclusions The allergenic potency of SPPs released from ragweed pollen grains is mediated in tandem by ROS generated by intrinsic NAD(P)H oxidases and antigenic proteins. Clinical implications Severe clinical symptoms associated with seasonal asthma might be explained by immune responses to inhaled SPPs carrying allergenic proteins and ROS-producing NAD(P)H oxidases. PMID:17030236

  16. Plant secondary metabolites- potent inhibitors of monoamine oxidase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Bijo; Suresh, Jerad; Mathew, Githa E; Parasuraman, Ramamoorthy; Abdulla, Nalakathu

    2014-01-01

    Target of monoamine oxidase inhibitions are considered as the treatment of depressive states and neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Many medicinal chemistry research groups are actively working in this area for the development of most promising selective MAO inhibitors. Many plant isolates also showed remarkable MAO inhibition in recent years. The objective of this review is to identify the major MAO inhibitors secondary metabolites from plants like flavonoids, alkaloids and xanthones class of compounds. PMID:25142815

  17. Testosterone induces vascular smooth muscle cell migration by NADPH oxidase and c-Src-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chignalia, Andreia Z; Schuldt, Elke Z; Camargo, Lívia L; Montezano, Augusto C; Callera, Gláucia E; Laurindo, Francisco R; Lopes, Lucia R; Avellar, Maria Christina W; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Fortes, Zuleica B; Touyz, Rhian M; Tostes, Rita C

    2012-06-01

    Testosterone has been implicated in vascular remodeling associated with hypertension. Molecular mechanisms underlying this are elusive, but oxidative stress may be important. We hypothesized that testosterone stimulates generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), with enhanced effects in cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The mechanisms (genomic and nongenomic) whereby testosterone induces ROS generation and the role of c-Src, a regulator of redox-sensitive migration, were determined. VSMCs from male Wistar-Kyoto rats and SHRs were stimulated with testosterone (10(-7) mol/L, 0-120 minutes). Testosterone increased ROS generation, assessed by dihydroethidium fluorescence and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (30 minutes [SHR] and 60 minutes [both strains]). Flutamide (androgen receptor antagonist) and actinomycin D (gene transcription inhibitor) diminished ROS production (60 minutes). Testosterone increased Nox1 and Nox4 mRNA levels and p47phox protein expression, determined by real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Flutamide, actinomycin D, and cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor) diminished testosterone effects on p47phox. c-Src phosphorylation was observed at 30 minutes (SHR) and 120 minutes (Wistar-Kyoto rat). Testosterone-induced ROS generation was repressed by 3-(4-chlorophenyl) 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-day]pyrimidin-4-amine (c-Src inhibitor) in SHRs and reduced by apocynin (antioxidant/NADPH oxidase inhibitor) in both strains. Testosterone stimulated VSMCs migration, assessed by the wound healing technique, with greater effects in SHRs. Flutamide, apocynin, and 3-(4-chlorophenyl) 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-day]pyrimidin-4-amine blocked testosterone-induced VSMCs migration in both strains. Our study demonstrates that testosterone induces VSMCs migration via NADPH oxidase-derived ROS and c-Src-dependent pathways by genomic and nongenomic mechanisms, which are differentially regulated in VSMCs from Wistar-Kyoto rats and SHRs. PMID:22566500

  18. Induction of dwarfism in transgenic Solanum dulcamara by over-expression of a gibberellin 20-oxidase cDNA from pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Curtis, I S; Ward, D A; Thomas, S G; Phillips, A L; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C; Croker, S J; Lewis, M J; Magness, S L; Hedden, P

    2000-08-01

    The gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase (CmGA20ox1) from immature pumpkin seed produces predominantly inactive tricarboxylic acid GAs. We expressed CmGA20ox1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in Solanum dulcamara to assess the usefulness of this gene for reducing GA content in transgenic plants. All transgenic plants obtained were semi-dwarfs with smaller, deep-green leaves and highly pigmented stems compared to the wild-type. Such transformants flowered earlier than the wild-type plants and produced more fruit and more seeds per fruit. The transgene was efficiently expressed, producing high levels of CmGA20ox1 transcript and protein. Furthermore, the concentration of GA(1) was reduced in leaves of the transformants to approximately 20% or less of that in the wild-type and to about 40% or less in stems. The concentrations of other 13-hydroxylated GAs were also reduced, except for the tricarboxylic acid, GA(17), which accumulated in the transformants due to 13-hydroxylation of GA(25). By contrast, the concentrations of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, GA(4) and GA(34), were not consistently reduced, indicating that the effect of expressing the pumpkin gene may not be predictable. Transcript abundance for a native GA 20-oxidase gene was higher in the leaves and stems of S. dulcamara transformed with the pumpkin gene than in wild-type, reflecting the feedback control of 20-oxidase gene expression that serves as a homeostatic mechanism for GAs. PMID:10929126

  19. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huijuan; Tian, Limei; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs, Rbohs) are key enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. Compared to non-silenced plants, the SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and displayed attenuated expression of defense genes after infection with B. cinerea. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and the altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI, and drought tolerance in tomato. PMID:26157450

  20. Inhibition of plant and mammalian diamine oxidases by hydrazine and guanidine compounds.

    PubMed

    Biega?ski, T; Osi?ska, Z; Ma?li?ski, C

    1982-01-01

    1. Pig kidney and pea seedling diamine oxidases have similar sensitivity to methylhydrazine and phenylhydrazine as inhibitors. 2. Inhibition of pig kidney and pea seedling enzymes by hydrazine and guanidine compounds is time dependent. To reveal full inhibitory potency, methylhydrazine and aminoguanidine need longer preincubation with plant diamine oxidase as compared with mammalian diamine oxidase. 3. Impromidine, a known H2 histamine receptor agonist with guanidine and imidazole structures, and aminoguanidine have higher inhibitory activity towards pig kidney enzyme in comparison with the pea seedling one. 4. Impromidine inhibits pig kidney diamine oxidase in a noncompetitive manner. The Ki value is 6.6 muM. 5. The 24 hr dialysis of rat intestinal diamine oxidase preincubated with phenylhydrazine or impromidine only partially recovered the enzymic activities. 6. Impromidine inhibits mouse intestinal diamine oxidase in vivo. PMID:6215274

  1. Cloning Gibberellin Dioxygenase Genes from Pumpkin Endosperm by Heterologous Expression of Enzyme Activities in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo Lange

    1997-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) plant hormones are biosynthesized via complex pathways, the final steps of which are catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. Here, the cloning of two such enzymes, the GA 7-oxidase and the GA 20-oxidase, is reported using a novel approach, namely, by screening for GA dioxygenase activities expressed as T7 gene 10 fusion proteins in recombinant Escherichia coli. In vitro translation

  2. Gene transfer from mitochondrion to nucleus: novel mechanisms for gene activation from Cox2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel O. Daley; Keith L. Adams; Rachel Clifton; Svenja Qualmann; A. Harvey Millar; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Elke Pratje; James Whelan

    2002-01-01

    Summary The evolutionarily recent transfer of the gene for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2) from the mitochondrion to the nucleus in legumes is shown to have involved novel gene-activation steps. The acquired mitochondrial targeting presequence is bordered by two introns. Characterization of the import of soybean Cox2 indicates that the presequence is cleaved in a three-step process which is

  3. Evolution of ecological traits and wing morphology in Hemileuca (Saturniidae) based on a two-gene phylogeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Rubinoff; Felix A. H. Sperling

    2002-01-01

    We present a molecular phylogeny for the genus Hemileuca (Saturniidae), based on 624bp of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 932bp of the nuclear gene elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1?). Combined analysis of both gene sequences increased resolution and supported most of the phylogenetic relationships suggested by separate analysis of each gene. However, a maximum parsimony (MP) model for just

  4. Crystallization of Part of the Mitochondrial Electron Transfer Chain: Cytochrome c Oxidase-Cytochrome c Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ozawa; H. Suzuki; M. Tanaka

    1980-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (ferrocytochrome c: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.9.3.1) was purified from beef heart mitochondria by affinity chromatography. Phospholipids were removed by washing the oxidase with detergent on the affinity column; 1 mole of cardiolipin remained per mole of heme a. The oxidase was mixed with excess cytochrome c in 1.5% (wt\\/vol) cholate to form a complex. Slow removal of

  5. Structures of Metal Sites of Oxidized Bovine Heart Cytochrome c Oxidase at 2.8 Å

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomitake Tsukihara; Hiroshi Aoyama; Eiki Yamashita; Takashi Tomizaki; Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Kyoko Shinzawa-Itoh; Ryosuke Nakashima; Reiko Yaono; Shinya Yoshikawa

    1995-01-01

    The high resolution three-dimensional x-ray structure of the metal sites of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase is reported. Cytochrome c oxidase is the largest membrane protein yet crystallized and analyzed at atomic resolution. Electron density distribution of the oxidized bovine cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 Å resolution indicates a dinuclear copper center with an unexpected structure similar to a [2Fe-2S]-type

  6. Subcellular localization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase in tomato cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Reinhardt; Hans Kende; Thomas Boiler

    1994-01-01

    The localization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase was examined in suspension-cultured cells of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), using cell-fractionation techniques, followed by immunoblot analysis with monospecific antibodies raised against a tomato ACC oxidase expressed in Escherichia coli. When assayed in vivo, ACC oxidase had a low activity in untreated tomato cells but was strongly induced when the cells were supplied

  7. Quantitation of rat liver xanthine oxidase by radioimmunoassay. A mechanism for sex-specific differences

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, D.E.; Levinson, D.J.

    1982-03-01

    To further delineate the mechanism responsible for the differences in xanthine oxidase activity in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the measurement of hepatic xanthine oxidase. The RIA could detect as little as 5 mg of liver enzyme. Specificity of the RIA was confirmed by 1) Ouchterlony double immuno-diffusion in which a single precipitin band exhibited xanthine oxidase activity, when crude liver homogenate and an enzyme-specific stain were used; 2) parallelism between purified 125I-labeled xanthine oxidase and serial dilutions of crude liver homogenate; 3) a linear correlation between xanthine oxidase activity and the level of enzyme protein; and 4) a single protein band coincident with purified xanthine oxidase, when an immunoprecipitate prepared from antisera and crude liver homogenate was analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels. Whether xanthine oxidase activity was assayed in the absence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) (oxidase form) or in the presence of NAD+ (dehydrogenase), male values were consistently higher, and both forms of the enzyme correlated significantly with each other. When purified to homogeneity, neither form of the enzyme was appreciably affected by 17 beta-estradiol or testosterone propionate. When the RIA was employed, levels of hepatic xanthine oxidase were significantly greater in male than in female rats. We concluded from these data that increased xanthine oxidase activity in the male corresponds to a greater quantitative complement of xanthine oxidase protein. Furthermore, lower xanthine oxidase activity in the female cannot be explained by immunologically cross-reactive material without enzyme activity nor by a direct sex-steroid enzyme interaction.

  8. Optimization of Aspergillus niger Fermentation for the Production of Glucose Oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandip B. Bankar; Mahesh V. Bule; Rekha S. Singhal; Laxmi Ananthanarayan

    2009-01-01

    A number of nutritional factors influencing glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4) production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 545 were studied. The synthesis of glucose oxidase by A. niger was investigated in two steps using submerged fermentation at 30?±?2 °C and 180 rpm for 96 h. Primarily, nutritional components\\u000a were selected by one-factor-at-a-time method, and the significance of each component with respect to glucose oxidase

  9. Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is associated with a mutation in D-amino acid oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John; Paul, Praveen; Chen, Han-Jou; Morris, Alex; Payling, Miles; Falchi, Mario; Habgood, James; Panoutsou, Stefania; Winkler, Sabine; Tisato, Veronica; Hajitou, Amin; Smith, Bradley; Vance, Caroline; Shaw, Christopher; Mazarakis, Nicholas D.; de Belleroche, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    We report a unique mutation in the D-amino acid oxidase gene (R199W DAO) associated with classical adult onset familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) in a three generational FALS kindred, after candidate gene screening in a 14.52 cM region on chromosome 12q22-23 linked to disease. Neuronal cell lines expressing R199W DAO showed decreased viability and increased ubiquitinated aggregates compared with cells expressing the wild-type protein. Similarly, lentiviral-mediated expression of R199W DAO in primary motor neuron cultures caused increased TUNEL labeling. This effect was also observed when motor neurons were cocultured on transduced astrocytes expressing R199W, indicating that the motor neuron cell death induced by this mutation is mediated by both cell autonomous and noncell autonomous processes. DAO controls the level of D-serine, which accumulates in the spinal cord in cases of sporadic ALS and in a mouse model of ALS, indicating that this abnormality may represent a fundamental component of ALS pathogenesis. PMID:20368421

  10. NNK, a Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen, Inhibits the Expression of Lysyl Oxidase, a Tumor Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guang; Li, Jianmin; Zheng, Maoguen; Zhao, Yinzhi; Zhou, Jing; Li, Wande

    2014-01-01

    A tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), is believed to contribute to the cancer burden in cigarette smokers. To evaluate NNK effects on the expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a tumor suppressor, we examined this enzyme at various levels in NNK-treated rat fetal lung fibroblasts (RFL6). Exposure of cells to NNK reduced levels of steady-states LOX mRNA and new transcript synthesis. NNK inhibited all LOX protein species in a dose-dependent manner. Although 300 µM NNK markedly decreased the level in the 46 kDa preproenzyme, under same conditions, there was no detectable amounts of the 50 kDa proenzyme and the 32 kDa mature enzyme suggesting NNK perturbing the LOX protein processing to its mature form. Moreover, NNK also suppressed LOX activities in conditioned media of treated cells. At the promoter level, NNK enhanced methylation of CpG, but decreased acetylation of histone H3 at the core promoter region of the LOX gene. These results indicated that transcriptional and translational processes of LOX are major targets for NNK. Thus, inactivation of tumor suppressor gene LOX may play a critical role in NNK carcinogenesis. PMID:25546273

  11. NNK, a tobacco-specific carcinogen, inhibits the expression of lysyl oxidase, a tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guang; Li, Jianmin; Zheng, Maoguen; Zhao, Yinzhi; Zhou, Jing; Li, Wande

    2015-01-01

    A tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), is believed to contribute to the cancer burden in cigarette smokers. To evaluate NNK effects on the expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a tumor suppressor, we examined this enzyme at various levels in NNK-treated rat fetal lung fibroblasts (RFL6). Exposure of cells to NNK reduced levels of steady-states LOX mRNA and new transcript synthesis. NNK inhibited all LOX protein species in a dose-dependent manner. Although 300 µM NNK markedly decreased the level in the 46 kDa preproenzyme, under same conditions, there was no detectable amounts of the 50 kDa proenzyme and the 32 kDa mature enzyme suggesting NNK perturbing the LOX protein processing to its mature form. Moreover, NNK also suppressed LOX activities in conditioned media of treated cells. At the promoter level, NNK enhanced methylation of CpG, but decreased acetylation of histone H3 at the core promoter region of the LOX gene. These results indicated that transcriptional and translational processes of LOX are major targets for NNK. Thus, inactivation of tumor suppressor gene LOX may play a critical role in NNK carcinogenesis. PMID:25546273

  12. Activation of defense mechanism in wheat by polyphenol oxidase from aphid saliva.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Chen, Ju-Lian; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Sun, Jing-Rui

    2010-02-24

    The saliva of two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum in third-instar nymphs, was collected after 24 h of feeding by 30 aphids, separately, on artificial diet sachets, and the salivary enzymes were determined. The result showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) existed in the saliva of both aphid species, and the enzymatic activities were 6.2 x 10(-3) U/g for S. avenae and 2.37 x 10(-1) U/g for S. graminum, revealing a 38-fold higher activity in the saliva of S. graminum than in the saliva of S. avenae. It was speculated that the higher PPO activity in S. graminum saliva was a contributing factor to the light yellow spot left on the feeding site of the wheat leaf by S. graminum; no such spot was left by S. avenae. After treatment of a wheat seedling with the saliva of S. avenae and S. graminum and PPO at the concentration of aphid saliva, transcript profiling data showed that aphid saliva and PPO significantly induced expression of the genes aos and fps. Because genes aos and fps encode the key enzymes in the defense signal pathways jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways, respectively, it was deduced that PPO from aphid saliva, as the main elicitor, triggers an appropriate defense response in wheat through jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways. PMID:20112908

  13. Biallelic inactivation of protoporphyrinogen oxidase and hydroxymethylbilane synthase is associated with liver cancer in acute porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Schneider-Yin, Xiaoye; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Anne-Moon; Siegesmund, Marko; Went, Philip; Barman-Aksözen, Jasmin; Bladergroen, Reno S; Komminoth, Paul; Cloots, Roy H E; Winnepenninckx, Véronique J; zur Hausen, Axel; Weber, Markus; Driessen, Ann; Poblete-Gutiérrez, Pamela; Bauer, Peter; Schroeder, Christopher; van Geel, Michel; Minder, Elisabeth I; Frank, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    Variegate porphyria (VP) and acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), the two most common types of acute porphyrias (AHPs), result from a partial deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) and hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), respectively. A rare but serious complication in the AHPs is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying pathomechanisms are yet unknown. We performed DNA sequence analysis in cancerous and non-cancerous liver tissue of a VP and an AIP patient, both with HCC. In samples of both cancerous and non-cancerous liver tissues from the patients, we identified the underlying PPOX and HMBS germline mutations, c.1082dupC and p.G111R, respectively. Additionally, we detected a second somatic mutation, only in the cancer tissue i.e., p.L416X in the PPOX gene of the VP patient and p.L220X in the HMBS gene of the AIP patient, both located in trans to the respective germline mutations. Both somatic mutations were not detected in 10 non-porphyria-associated HCCs. Our data demonstrate that in the hepatic cancer tissue of AHP patients, somatic second-hit mutations result in nearly complete inactivation of the enzymes catalyzing major steps in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Both PPOX and HMBS, which might act as tumor suppressors, play a crucial role in the development of HCC in these individuals. PMID:25445397

  14. A Nutritional Conditional Lethal Mutant Due to Pyridoxine 5?-Phosphate Oxidase Deficiency in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Wanhao; Zhang, Li; Du, Wei; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2014-01-01

    The concept of auxotrophic complementation has been proposed as an approach to identify genes in essential metabolic pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. However, it has achieved limited success to date, possibly due to the low probability of finding mutations fit with the chemically defined profile. Instead of using the chemically defined culture media lacking specific nutrients, we used bare minimum culture medium, i.e., 4% sucrose, for adult Drosophila. We identified a nutritional conditional lethal mutant and localized a c.95C > A mutation in the Drosophila pyridoxine 5?-phosphate oxidase gene [dPNPO or sugarlethal (sgll)] using meiotic recombination mapping, deficiency mapping, and whole genome sequencing. PNPO converts dietary vitamin B6 such as pyridoxine to its active form pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP). The missense mutation (sgll95) results in the substitution of alanine to aspartate (p.Ala32Asp). The sgll95 flies survive well on complete medium but all die within 6 d on 4% sucrose only diet, which can be rescued by pyridoxine or PLP supplement, suggesting that the mutation does not cause the complete loss of PNPO activity. The sgll knockdown further confirms its function as the Drosophila PNPO. Because better tools for positional cloning and cheaper whole genome sequencing have made the identification of point mutations much easier than before, alleviating the necessity to pinpoint specific metabolic pathways before gene identification, we propose that nutritional conditional screens based on bare minimum growth media like ours represent promising approaches for discovering important genes and mutations in metabolic pathways, thereby accelerating the establishment of in vivo models that recapitulate human metabolic diseases. PMID:24739647

  15. Pacific oyster polyamine oxidase: a protein missing link in invertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Cervelli, Manuela; Polticelli, Fabio; Angelucci, Emanuela; Di Muzio, Elena; Stano, Pasquale; Mariottini, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Polyamine oxidases catalyse the oxidation of polyamines and acetylpolyamines and are responsible for the polyamine interconversion metabolism in animal cells. Polyamine oxidases from yeast can oxidize spermine, N(1)-acetylspermine, and N(1)-acetylspermidine, while in vertebrates two different enzymes, namely spermine oxidase and acetylpolyamine oxidase, specifically catalyse the oxidation of spermine, and N(1)-acetylspermine/N(1)-acetylspermidine, respectively. In this work we proved that the specialized vertebrate spermine and acetylpolyamine oxidases have arisen from an ancestor invertebrate polyamine oxidase with lower specificity for polyamine substrates, as demonstrated by the enzymatic activity of the mollusc polyamine oxidase characterized here. This is the first report of an invertebrate polyamine oxidase, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (CgiPAO), overexpressed as a recombinant protein. This enzyme was biochemically characterized and demonstrated to be able to oxidase both N(1)-acetylspermine and spermine, albeit with different efficiency. Circular dichroism analysis gave an estimation of the secondary structure content and modelling of the three-dimensional structure of this protein and docking studies highlighted active site features. The availability of this pluripotent enzyme can have applications in crystallographic studies and pharmaceutical biotechnologies, including anticancer therapy as a source of hydrogen peroxide able to induce cancer cell death. PMID:25655384

  16. Changes in lysyl oxidase (LOX) distribution and its decreased activity in keratoconus corneas.

    PubMed

    Dudakova, Lubica; Liskova, Petra; Trojek, Tomas; Palos, Michalis; Kalasova, Sarka; Jirsova, Katerina

    2012-11-01

    Inadequate cross-linking between collagen lamellae is a characteristic feature of keratoconus corneas. The formation of covalent bonds between collagen and elastin fibrils, which maintain the biomechanical properties of the cornea, is mediated by the cuproenzyme lysyl oxidase and four lysyl oxidase-like enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of lysyl oxidase and the total lysyl oxidase activity (lysyl oxidase and the four lysyl oxidase-like enzymes) in control and keratoconic corneas. Seven control and eight keratoconic corneas were used for the imunohistochemical detection of lysyl oxidase in corneal cryosections using two different antibodies. The total lysyl oxidase activity in the culture medium of corneal fibroblasts from six explanted keratoconic and four control corneas was measured using a fluorometric assay in the presence and absence of the lysyl oxidase inhibitor beta-aminopropionitrile and determined as the production of H(2)O(2) in nM per ?g of total protein. In the control tissue, the most intense signal for lysyl oxidase was present in the corneal epithelium, in which perinuclear dots brightly projecting from more or less homogenous cytoplasmic staining may represent the lysyl oxidase propeptide. Less intense staining was present in keratocytes, the extracellular matrix and in the corneal endothelium. The epithelium of the limbus and the perilimbal conjunctiva showed intense to very intense staining. The distribution of lysyl oxidase was clearly decreased in at least five of the eight keratoconic specimens. The most marked signal reduction was observed in the stromal matrix and in keratocytes. Moreover, the signal in pathological specimens revealed a more irregular pattern, including the presence of intra- and extracellular clumps in the epithelium. Interestingly, endothelial cells showed no or very weak staining in areas just beneath negative stromal tissue. The mean activity of total lysyl oxidase in the keratoconic samples (2.60 ± 2.23 nM H(2)O(2)/?g of total protein) was more than 2.5-fold lower than in control tissue (6.83 ± 2.53 nM H(2)O(2)/?g of total protein), and the decrease was statistically significant (p = 0.0178). The location of lysyl oxidase in the healthy cornea, limbus and perilimbal conjunctiva was described. We hypothesize that the restricted lysyl oxidase distribution in keratoconic corneas, and particularly the decrease of total lysyl oxidase activity in cultured keratoconic fibroblasts, is one potential reason for the inadequate collagen cross-linking that is a hallmark of this disease. PMID:23041260

  17. Preparation and dynamic response of cationic copolymer hydrogels containing glucose oxidase

    E-print Network

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    by the copolymerization of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEM), poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate (PEGMA) and functionalized glucose oxidase (GOD) and catalase in solution. Tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (TEGDMA

  18. Genome-wide identification of gibberellins metabolic enzyme genes and expression profiling analysis during seed germination in maize.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Guo, Baojian; Song, Fangwei; Peng, Huiru; Yao, Yingyin; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2011-08-15

    Gibberellin (GA) is an essential phytohormone that controls many aspects of plant development. To enhance our understanding of GA metabolism in maize, we intensively screened and identified 27 candidate genes encoding the seven GA metabolic enzymes including ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox), using all available public maize databases. The results indicate that maize genome contains three CPS, four KS, two KO and one KAO genes, and most of them are arranged separately on the maize genome, which differs from that in rice. In addition, the enzymes catalyzing the later steps (ZmGA20ox, ZmGA3ox and ZmGA2ox) are also encoded by gene families in maize, but GA3ox enzyme is likely to be encoded by single gene. Expression profiling analysis exhibited that transcripts of 15 GA metabolic genes could be detected during maize seed germination, which provides further evidence for the notion that increased synthesis of active GA in the embryo is required for triggering germination events. Moreover, a variety of temporal genes expression patterns of GA metabolic genes were detected, which revealed the complexity of underlying mechanism for GA regulated seed germination. PMID:21640170

  19. Gibberellin homeostasis in tobacco is regulated by gibberellin metabolism genes with different gibberellin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Ubeda-Tomás, Susana; Gisbert, Carmina; García-Martínez, José L; Moritz, Thomas; López-Díaz, Isabel

    2008-05-01

    Gibberellins are phytohormones that regulate growth and development of plants. Gibberellin homeostasis is maintained by feedback regulation of gibberellin metabolism genes. To understand this regulation, we manipulated the gibberellin pathway in tobacco and studied its effects on the morphological phenotype, gibberellin levels and the expression of endogenous gibberellin metabolism genes. The overexpression of a gibberellin 3-oxidase (biosynthesis gene) in tobacco (3ox-OE) induced slight variations in phenotype and active GA(1) levels, but we also found an increase in GA(8) levels (GA(1) inactivation product) and a conspicuous induction of gibberellin 2-oxidases (catabolism genes; NtGA2ox3 and -5), suggesting an important role for these particular genes in the control of gibberellin homeostasis. The effect of simultaneous overexpression of two biosynthesis genes, a gibberellin 3-oxidase and a gibberellin 20-oxidase (20ox/3ox-OE), on phenotype and gibberellin content suggests that gibberellin 3-oxidases are non-limiting enzymes in tobacco, even in a 20ox-OE background. Moreover, the expression analysis of gibberellin metabolism genes in transgenic plants (3ox-OE, 20ox-OE and hybrid 3ox/20ox-OE), and in response to application of different GA(1) concentrations, showed genes with different gibberellin sensitivity. Gibberellin biosynthesis genes (NtGA20ox1 and NtGA3ox1) are negatively feedback regulated mainly by high gibberellin levels. In contrast, gibberellin catabolism genes which are subject to positive feedback regulation are sensitive to high (NtGA2ox1) or to low (NtGA2ox3 and -5) gibberellin concentrations. These two last GA2ox genes seem to play a predominant role in gibberellin homeostasis under mild gibberellin variations, but not under large gibberellin changes, where the biosynthesis genes GA20ox and GA3ox may be more important. PMID:18337269

  20. Licorice ?-amyrin 11-oxidase, a cytochrome P450 with a key role in the biosynthesis of the triterpene sweetener glycyrrhizin

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Hikaru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Sawai, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaharu; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Sudo, Hiroshi; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Saito, Kazuki; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2008-01-01

    Glycyrrhizin, a major bioactive compound derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza (licorice) plants, is a triterpene saponin that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties and is used worldwide as a natural sweetener. Because of its economic value, the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin has received considerable attention. Glycyrrhizin is most likely derived from the triterpene ?-amyrin, an initial product of the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene. The subsequent steps in glycyrrhizin biosynthesis are believed to involve a series of oxidative reactions at the C-11 and C-30 positions, followed by glycosyl transfers to the C-3 hydroxyl group; however, no genes encoding relevant oxidases or glycosyltransferases have been identified. Here we report the successful identification of CYP88D6, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) gene, as a glycyrrhizin-biosynthetic gene, by transcript profiling-based selection from a collection of licorice expressed sequence tags (ESTs). CYP88D6 was characterized by in vitro enzymatic activity assays and shown to catalyze the sequential two-step oxidation of ?-amyrin at C-11 to produce 11-oxo-?-amyrin, a possible biosynthetic intermediate between ?-amyrin and glycyrrhizin. CYP88D6 coexpressed with ?-amyrin synthase in yeast also catalyzed in vivo oxidation of ?-amyrin to 11-oxo-?-amyrin. CYP88D6 expression was detected in the roots and stolons by RT-PCR; however, no amplification was observed in the leaves or stems, which is consistent with the accumulation pattern of glycyrrhizin in planta. These results suggest a role for CYP88D6 as a ?-amyrin 11-oxidase in the glycyrrhizin pathway. PMID:18779566

  1. Monoamine oxidase a and catechol-o-methyltransferase functional polymorphisms and the placebo response in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Leuchter, Andrew F; McCracken, James T; Hunter, Aimee M; Cook, Ian A; Alpert, Jonathan E

    2009-08-01

    The placebo response shows pronounced interindividual variability. Placebos are postulated to act through central reward pathways that are modulated by monoamines. Because monoaminergic signaling is under strong genetic control, we hypothesized that common functional polymorphisms modulating monoaminergic tone would be related to degree of improvement during placebo treatment of subjects with major depressive disorder. We examined polymorphisms in genes encoding the catabolic enzymes catechol-O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase A. Subjects with monoamine oxidase A G/T polymorphisms (rs6323) coding for the highest activity form of the enzyme (G or G/G) had a significantly lower magnitude of placebo response than those with other genotypes. Subjects with ValMet catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphisms coding for a lower-activity form of the enzyme (2 Met alleles) showed a statistical trend toward a lower magnitude of placebo response. These findings support the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms modulating monoaminergic tone are related to degree of placebo responsiveness in major depressive disorder. PMID:19593178

  2. Recombinant expression, molecular characterization and crystal structure of antitumor enzyme, l-lysine ?-oxidase from Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Amano, Marie; Mizuguchi, Haruka; Sano, Tadahisa; Kondo, Hiroki; Shinyashiki, Kengo; Inagaki, Junko; Tamura, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Kusakabe, Hitoshi; Imada, Katsumi; Inagaki, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    L-Lysine ?-oxidase (LysOX) from Trichoderma viride is a homodimeric 112 kDa flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-lysine to form ?-keto-?-aminocaproate. LysOX severely inhibited growth of cancer cells but showed relatively low cytotoxicity for normal cells. We have determined the cDNA nucleotide sequence encoding LysOX from T. viride. The full-length cDNA consists of 2,119 bp and encodes a possible signal peptide (Met1-Arg77) and the mature protein (Ala78-Ile617). The LysOX gene have been cloned and heterologously expressed in Streptomyces lividans TK24 with the enzyme activity up to 9.8 U/ml. The enzymatic properties of the purified recombinant LysOX, such as substrate specificity and thermal stability, are same as those of native LysOX. The crystal structure of LysOX at 1.9 Å resolution revealed that the overall structure is similar to that of snake venom L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), and the residues involved in the interaction with the amino or carboxy group of the substrate are structurally conserved. However, the entrance and the inner surface structures of the funnel to the active site, as well as the residues involved in the substrate side-chain recognition, are distinct from LAAOs. These structural differences well explain the unique substrate specificity of LysOX. PMID:25648943

  3. Alternative Oxidase: A Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathway to Maintain Metabolic and Signaling Homeostasis during Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase in the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. While respiratory carbon oxidation pathways, electron transport, and ATP turnover are tightly coupled processes, AOX provides a means to relax this coupling, thus providing a degree of metabolic homeostasis to carbon and energy metabolism. Beside their role in primary metabolism, plant mitochondria also act as “signaling organelles”, able to influence processes such as nuclear gene expression. AOX activity can control the level of potential mitochondrial signaling molecules such as superoxide, nitric oxide and important redox couples. In this way, AOX also provides a degree of signaling homeostasis to the organelle. Evidence suggests that AOX function in metabolic and signaling homeostasis is particularly important during stress. These include abiotic stresses such as low temperature, drought, and nutrient deficiency, as well as biotic stresses such as bacterial infection. This review provides an introduction to the genetic and biochemical control of AOX respiration, as well as providing generalized examples of how AOX activity can provide metabolic and signaling homeostasis. This review also examines abiotic and biotic stresses in which AOX respiration has been critically evaluated, and considers the overall role of AOX in growth and stress tolerance. PMID:23531539

  4. Inactivation of a bacterial virulence pheromone by phagocyte-derived oxidants: New role for the NADPH oxidase in host defense

    PubMed Central

    Rothfork, Jacob M.; Timmins, Graham S.; Harris, Michael N.; Chen, Xian; Lusis, Aldons J.; Otto, Michael; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Gresham, Hattie D.

    2004-01-01

    Quorum sensing triggers virulence factor expression in medically important bacterial pathogens in response to a density-dependent increase in one or more autoinducing pheromones. Here, we show that phagocyte-derived oxidants target these autoinducers for inactivation as an innate defense mechanism of the host. In a skin infection model, expression of phagocyte NADPH oxidase, myeloperoxidase, or inducible nitric oxide synthase was critical for defense against a quorum-sensing pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, but not for defense against a quorum sensing-deficient mutant. A virulence-inducing peptide of S. aureus was inactivated in vitro and in vivo by reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, including HOCl and ONOO–. Inactivation of the autoinducer prevented both the up-regulation of virulence gene expression and the downstream sequelae. MS analysis of the inactivated peptide demonstrated that oxidation of the C-terminal methionine was primarily responsible for loss of activity. Treatment of WT but not NADPH oxidase-deficient mice with N-acetyl methionine to scavenge the inhibitory oxidants increased in vivo quorum sensing independently of the bacterial burden at the site of infection. Thus, oxidant-mediated inactivation of an autoinducing peptide from S. aureus is a critical innate defense mechanism against infection with this pathogen. PMID:15353593

  5. Involvement of acyl coenzyme A oxidase isozymes in biotransformation of methyl ricinoleate into gamma-decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Waché, Y; Laroche, C; Bergmark, K; Møller-Andersen, C; Aguedo, M; Le Dall, M T; Wang, H; Nicaud, J M; Belin, J M

    2000-03-01

    We reported previously on the function of acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase isozymes in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica by investigating strains disrupted in one or several acyl-CoA oxidase-encoding genes (POX1 through POX5) (H. Wang et al., J. Bacteriol. 181:5140-5148, 1999). Here, these mutants were studied for lactone production. Monodisrupted strains produced similar levels of lactone as the wild-type strain (50 mg/liter) except for Deltapox3, which produced 220 mg of gamma-decalactone per liter after 24 h. The Deltapox2 Deltapox3 double-disrupted strain, although slightly affected in growth, produced about 150 mg of lactone per liter, indicating that Aox2p was not essential for the biotransformation. The Deltapox2 Deltapox3 Deltapox5 triple-disrupted strain produced and consumed lactone very slowly. On the contrary, the Deltapox2 Deltapox3 Deltapox4 Deltapox5 multidisrupted strain did not grow or biotransform methyl ricinoleate into gamma-decalactone, demonstrating that Aox4p is essential for the biotransformation. PMID:10698800

  6. Identification of two peanut germin-like genes and the potential superoxide dismutase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germin and germin-like protein (GLP) genes are members of large multigene families. These genes have been reported to play a role directly or indirectly in plant defense response. A number of GLPs have been demonstrated to have superoxidase dismutase (SOD) or oxalate oxidase (OxO) activity, leading ...

  7. [Xanthine oxidase as an indicator of neonatal adaptation].

    PubMed

    Krupitskaia, L I; Tse?likman, V E; Popova, A S; Sinitski?, A I; Goloshchapova, T N; Dubrovskaia, V P; Guzema, I M

    2008-12-01

    The reactions reflecting adaptation may assume pathological traits under certain conditions. It is necessary to have reliable predictors that characterize adaptive processes. As this criterion, it is expedient to use the most important marker of free radical oxidation, such as xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. On the basis of the authors' findings, it can be said that it is advisable to apply this test to the screening of the course of adaptation within the first days after birth and to the detection of neonatal infants who require more scrupulous attention. PMID:19198273

  8. Biosensing approach for alcohol determination using immobilized alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir; Toppare, Levent

    2006-06-15

    Alcohol oxidase (AOD) was immobilized in polypyrrole (PPy) and a random copolymer containing 3-methylthienyl methacrylate and p-vinylbenzyloxy poly(ethyleneoxide) matrices. Immobilization of enzyme was performed via entrapment in conducting polymers during electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole through the thiophene moiety of the copolymer. Three different alcohols, namely methanol, ethanol and n-propanol, were used as substrates. Maximum reaction rates, Michaelis-Menten constants, optimum temperature and pH values, operational stabilities and shelf life of the enzyme electrodes were investigated. PMID:16352430

  9. L Amino acid oxidase from filamentous fungi: screening and optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf S. El-Sayed; Ahmed A. Shindia; Yomna Zaher

    Twenty-seven fungal isolates recovered on medium containing L-lysine were found to have the potentiality for producing extracellular L-amino acid oxidase (L-AAO). Aspergillus oryzae displayed the highest yield of enzyme (2.6 U\\/mg protein) and antioxidants (2.3 mg\\/ml) followed by Aspergillus flavipes and Trichoderma viride. Upon optimization of the fermentation medium, the maximum enzyme yield (4.6 U\\/mg protein) was obtained on a medium containing\\u000a L-lysine

  10. Kinetics of proton pumping in cytochrome c oxidase

    E-print Network

    Smirnov, Anatoly Yu; Nori, Franco

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple model of cytochrome c oxidase, including four redox centers and four protonable sites, to study the time evolution of electrostatically coupled electron and proton transfers initiated by the injection of a single electron into the enzyme. We derive a system of master equations for electron and proton state probabilities and show that an efficient pumping of protons across the membrane can be obtained for a reasonable set of parameters. All four experimentally observed kinetic phases appear naturally from our model. We also calculate the dependence of the pumping efficiency on the transmembrane voltage at different temperatures and discuss a possible mechanism of the redox-driven proton translocation.

  11. Monoamine oxidase A genotype predicts human serotonin 1A receptor availability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mickey, Brian J; Ducci, Francesca; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Langenecker, Scott A; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2008-10-29

    The serotonergic system, including the serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Current data show substantial interindividual variation in the regional concentration of this receptor site, the source of which is unclear. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism, and polymorphic variation in the X-linked MAO-A gene influences its expression. We hypothesized that polymorphism in the MAO-A gene would be associated with sex-specific variation in 5-HT(1A) receptor expression. We used positron emission tomography and [(11)C]WAY-100635 to quantify 5-HT(1A) receptors in a group of 31 healthy and unmedicated depressed individuals. The same individuals were genotyped for an upstream variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the promoter of the MAO-A gene. ANOVA of 5-HT(1A) receptor availability demonstrated a significant effect of MAO-A genotype in the raphe nuclei, medial and inferior temporal cortex, insula, medial prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate (p < 0.05). The effect persisted when age, race, body mass index, and diagnosis were included in the model. Genotypes with greater putative MAO-A activity were associated with greater 5-HT(1A) receptor availability in women, but not in men. Genotype predicted a substantial 42-74% of the variance in receptor availability in women, depending on the brain region (p < 0.05). Depression diagnosis was not associated with MAO-A genotype or 5-HT(1A) receptor availability in these regions. These results demonstrate a sex-specific interaction between two key molecules of the human serotonergic system, and suggest a neurobiological basis for sexual dimorphism in serotonin-modulated phenotypes. PMID:18971477

  12. Monoamine oxidase A inhibitor-near-infrared dye conjugate reduces prostate tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason Boyang; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Gallagher, John D; Kushal, Swati; Chung, Leland W K; Zhau, Haiyen E; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z; Shih, Jean C

    2015-02-18

    Development of anti-cancer agents with high tumor-targeting specificity and efficacy is critical for modern multidisciplinary cancer research. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a mitochondria-bound enzyme, degrades monoamine neurotransmitters and dietary monoamines. Recent evidence suggests a correlation between increased MAOA expression and prostate cancer (PCa) progression with poor outcomes for patients. MAOA induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and augments hypoxic effects by producing excess reactive oxygen species. Thus, development of MAOA inhibitors which selectively target tumors becomes an important goal in cancer pharmacology. Here we describe the design, synthesis, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of NMI, a conjugate that combines a near-infrared dye for tumor targeting with the moiety derived from the MAOA inhibitor clorgyline. NMI inhibits MAOA with low micromolar IC50, suppresses PCa cell proliferation and colony formation, and reduces migration and invasion. In mouse PCa xenografts, NMI targets tumors with no detectable accumulation in normal tissues, providing effective reduction of the tumor burden. Analysis of tumor specimens shows reduction in Ki-67(+) and CD31(+) cells, suggesting a decrease of cell proliferation and angiogenesis and an increase in M30(+) cells, indicating increased apoptosis. Gene expression profiles of tumors treated with NMI demonstrate reduced expression of oncogenes FOS, JUN, NFKB, and MYC and cell cycle regulators CCND1, CCNE1, and CDK4/6, along with increases in the levels of tumor suppressor gene TP53, cell cycle inhibitors CDKN1A and CDKN2A, and MAOA-downstream genes that promote EMT, tumor hypoxia, cancer cell migration, and invasion. These data suggest that NMI exerts its effect through tumor-targeted delivery of a MAOA-inactivating group, making NMI a valuable anti-tumor agent. PMID:25585152

  13. Role of NADPH Oxidase versus Neutrophil Proteases in Antimicrobial Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Melissa J.; Lewandowski, David C.; Pham, Christine T. N.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Petraitiene, Ruta; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Walsh, Thomas J.; Urban, Constantin F.; Segal, Brahm H.

    2011-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in mediating antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Patients with chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates (ROIs), suffer from life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. The mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase mediate host defense are unclear. In addition to ROI generation, neutrophil NADPH oxidase activation is linked to the release of sequestered proteases that are posited to be critical effectors of host defense. To definitively determine the contribution of NADPH oxidase versus neutrophil serine proteases, we evaluated susceptibility to fungal and bacterial infection in mice with engineered disruptions of these pathways. NADPH oxidase-deficient mice (p47phox?/?) were highly susceptible to pulmonary infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. In contrast, double knockout neutrophil elastase (NE)?/?×cathepsin G (CG)?/? mice and lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin C/dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI)-deficient mice that are defective in neutrophil serine protease activation demonstrated no impairment in antifungal host defense. In separate studies of systemic Burkholderia cepacia infection, uniform fatality occurred in p47phox?/? mice, whereas NE?/?×CG?/? mice cleared infection. Together, these results show a critical role for NADPH oxidase in antimicrobial host defense against A. fumigatus and B. cepacia, whereas the proteases we evaluated were dispensable. Our results indicate that NADPH oxidase dependent pathways separate from neutrophil serine protease activation are required for host defense against specific pathogens. PMID:22163282

  14. Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study G. S in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram. The results in these three species were more or less similar. Peroxidase of monoamine oxidase (MAO) has been reported in the rat testis (Bhagvat et al., 1939 ; Zeller and Joel, 1941

  15. Direct electron transfer to cytochrome c oxidase in self-assembled monolayers on gold electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinghong Li; Guangjin Cheng; Shaojun Dong

    1996-01-01

    The monolayer of cytochrome c oxidase maintaining physiological activity and attached covalently to the self-assembled monolayers of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on a gold electrode was obtained. The results of cyclic voltammetry show that direct electron transfer between cytochrome c oxidase and the electrode surface is a fast and diffusionless process. MPA has a dual role as both electrode modifier and

  16. Direct heterogeneous electron transfer reactions of bilirubin oxidase at a spectrographic graphite electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Shleev; Asma El Kasmi; Tautgirdas Ruzgas; Lo Gorton

    2004-01-01

    Mediatorless (direct) electron transfer between Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase and spectroscopic graphite electrode has been demonstrated. The electrochemical activity of the enzyme under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is clearly shown using cyclic voltammetry. It is concluded that the T1 site of the enzyme is the first electron acceptor, both in solution (homogenous case) and when the bilirubin oxidase is adsorbed

  17. Xanthine oxidase-catalyzed metabolism of 2-nitrofluorene, a carcinogenic air pollutant, in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Osamu; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Ohashi, Koji; Sugihara, Kazumi; Ohta, Shigeru

    2003-04-01

    The reductive metabolism of 2-nitrofluorene, a carcinogenic air pollutant, in rat skin microsomes and cytosol was investigated. 2-Nitrofluorene was reduced to the corresponding amine by the microsomes with NADPH and by the cytosol with 2-hydroxypyrimidine or 4-hydroxypyrimidine under anaerobic conditions. The cytosolic activity was much higher than that of skin microsomes. The 2- or 4-hydroxypyrimidine-linked nitroreductase activity was inhibited by oxypurinol and (+/-)-8-(3-methoxy-4-phenylsulfinylphenyl) pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine-4(1H)-one (BOF-4272), inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, but not by menadione, chlorpromazine and isovanillin, inhibitors of aldehyde oxidase. When skin cytosol was applied to a DEAE-cellulose column, the fractions containing xanthine oxidase exhibited a marked 2-hydroxypyrimidine-linked nitroreductase activity. In contrast, the aldehyde oxidase fraction showed little activity. Nitroreductase fractions obtained by ion exchange chromatography showed a band in Western blotting analysis using anti-rat xanthine oxidase. Moreover, the xanthine oxidase fraction exhibited a significant nitroreductase activity in the presence of 2-hydroxypyrimidine, 4-hydroxypyrimidine or hypoxanthine, and these activities were inhibited by inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. These results indicated that reduction of 2-nitrofluorene in the skin was mainly catalyzed by xanthine oxidase. PMID:12642461

  18. Fronts and pulses in an enzymatic reaction catalyzed by glucose oxidase

    E-print Network

    Epstein, Irving R.

    Fronts and pulses in an enzymatic reaction catalyzed by glucose oxidase David G. Míguez* , Vladimir as catalysts and regulators. We present a reaction­diffusion system catalyzed by the enzyme glucose oxidase previously studied the temporal dynamics of the enzymatic autocatalytic reaction between glucose and ferricya

  19. Calculated Proton Uptake on Anaerobic Reduction of Cytochrome c Oxidase: Is the Reaction Electroneutral?

    E-print Network

    Gunner, Marilyn

    Calculated Proton Uptake on Anaerobic Reduction of Cytochrome c Oxidase: Is the ReactionVised Manuscript ReceiVed April 17, 2006 ABSTRACT: Cytochrome c oxidase is a transmembrane proton pump that builds ranging from fully oxidized to fully reduced. One long-standing problem is how proton uptake is coupled

  20. Alginate\\/carbon composite beads for laccase and glucose oxidase encapsulation: application in biofuel cell technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoreh Khani; Claude Jolivalt; Marc Cretin; Sophie Tingry; Christophe Innocent

    2006-01-01

    Alginate–carbon beads were prepared in order to develop a biocompatible matrix for laccase and glucose oxidase immobilization for application in biofuel cell technology. The enzyme loading capacity was high (91%) in pure alginate beads for glucose oxidase. For laccase, the loading capacity was enhanced from 75% to 83% by introducing carbon. Desorption out of the matrix was controlled by the