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Sample records for multidimensional atomic force

  1. Systematic Multidimensional Quantification of Nanoscale Systems From Bimodal Atomic Force Microscopy Data.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chia-Yun; Santos, Sergio; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-06-28

    Here we explore the raw parameter space in air in bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to enhance resolution, provide multiparameter maps, and produce suitable transformations that lead to physically intuitive maps general enough to be recognized by the broader community, i.e., stiffness, Hamaker constant, and adhesion force. We further consider model free transforms to enhance the raw parameter space in the form of alternative and more intelligible contrast maps. We employ highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, calcite, polypropylene, and dsDNA on mica to demonstrate a systematic form of parameter expansion. The proposed methodology to enhance and interpret a larger parameter space introduces a methodology to tractable multidimensional AFM from raw bimodal AFM maps. PMID:27172380

  2. Multidimensional characterisation of biomechanical structures by combining Atomic Force Microscopy and Focused Ion Beam: A study of the rat whisker.

    PubMed

    Adineh, Vahid Reza; Liu, Boyin; Rajan, Ramesh; Yan, Wenyi; Fu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of biological structures, particularly at the micro/nano scale can offer insights valuable for multidisciplinary research in tissue engineering and biomimicry designs. Here we propose to combine nanocharacterisation tools, particularly Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for three dimensional mapping of mechanical modulus and chemical signatures. The prototype platform is applied to image and investigate the fundamental mechanics of the rat face whiskers, a high-acuity sensor used to gain detailed information about the world. Grazing angle FIB milling was first applied to expose the interior cross section of the rat whisker sample, followed by a "lift-out" method to retrieve and position the target sample for further analyses. AFM force spectroscopy measurements revealed a non-uniform pattern of elastic modulus across the cross section, with a range from 0.8GPa to 13.5GPa. The highest elastic modulus was found at the outer cuticle region of the whisker, and values gradually decreased towards the interior cortex and medulla regions. Elemental mapping with EDS confirmed that the interior of the rat whisker is dominated by C, O, N, S, Cl and K, with a significant change of elemental distribution close to the exterior cuticle region. Based on these data, a novel comprehensive three dimensional (3D) elastic modulus model was constructed, and stress distributions under realistic conditions were investigated with Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The simulations could well account for the passive whisker deflections, with calculated resonant frequency as well as force-deflection for the whiskers being in good agreement with reported experimental data. Limitations and further applications are discussed for the proposed FIB/AFM approach, which holds good promise as a unique platform to gain insights on various heterogeneous biomaterials and biomechanical systems. PMID:25839121

  3. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  4. Deep atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, H.; Drake, B.; Randall, C.; Hansma, P. K.

    2013-12-15

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) possesses several desirable imaging features including the ability to produce height profiles as well as two-dimensional images, in fluid or air, at high resolution. AFM has been used to study a vast selection of samples on the scale of angstroms to micrometers. However, current AFMs cannot access samples with vertical topography of the order of 100 μm or greater. Research efforts have produced AFM scanners capable of vertical motion greater than 100 μm, but commercially available probe tip lengths are still typically less than 10 μm high. Even the longest probe tips are below 100 μm and even at this range are problematic. In this paper, we present a method to hand-fabricate “Deep AFM” probes with tips of the order of 100 μm and longer so that AFM can be used to image samples with large scale vertical topography, such as fractured bone samples.

  5. Atomic Force Microscope Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation (large file)

    This animation is a scientific illustration of the operation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA.

    The AFM is used to image the smallest Martian particles using a very sharp tip at the end of one of eight beams.

    The beam of the AFM is set into vibration and brought up to the surface of a micromachined silicon substrate. The substrate has etched in it a series of pits, 5 micrometers deep, designed to hold the Martian dust particles.

    The microscope then maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with the tip.

    At the end of the animation is a 3D representation of the AFM image of a particle that was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress.' The sample was delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Coaxial atomic force microscope tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K. A.; Aguilar, J. A.; Westervelt, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate coaxial atomic force microscope (AFM) tweezers that can trap and place small objects using dielectrophoresis (DEP). An attractive force is generated at the tip of a coaxial AFM probe by applying a radio frequency voltage between the center conductor and a grounded shield; the origin of the force is found to be DEP by measuring the pull-off force versus applied voltage. We show that the coaxial AFM tweezers can perform three-dimensional assembly by picking up a specified silica microsphere, imaging with the microsphere at the end of the tip, and placing it at a target destination.

  7. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

    2004-11-16

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  8. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2006-08-22

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  9. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  10. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  11. Atomically resolved force microscopy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Seizo

    2014-04-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can now not only image individual atoms but also construct atom letters using atom manipulation method even at room temperature (RT). Therefore, the AFM is the second generation atomic tool following the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). However the AFM can image even insulating atoms, and also directly measure/map the atomic force and potential at the atomic scale. Noting these advantages, we have been developing a bottom-up nanostructuring system at RT based on the AFM. It can identify chemical species of individual atoms and then manipulate selected atom species to the predesigned site one-by-one to assemble complex nanostructures consisted of multi atom species at RT. Here we introduce our results toward atom-by-atom assembly of composite nanostructures based on the AFM at RT including the latest result on atom gating of nano-space for atom-by-atom creation of atom clusters at RT for semiconductor surfaces.

  12. Dynamic atomic force microscopy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Ricardo; Pérez, Rubén

    2002-09-01

    In this report we review the fundamentals, applications and future tendencies of dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. Our focus is on understanding why the changes observed in the dynamic properties of a vibrating tip that interacts with a surface make possible to obtain molecular resolution images of membrane proteins in aqueous solutions or to resolve atomic-scale surface defects in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Our description of the two major dynamic AFM modes, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) and frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) emphasises their common points without ignoring the differences in experimental set-ups and operating conditions. Those differences are introduced by the different feedback parameters, oscillation amplitude in AM-AFM and frequency shift and excitation amplitude in FM-AFM, used to track the topography and composition of a surface. The theoretical analysis of AM-AFM (also known as tapping-mode) emphasises the coexistence, in many situations of interests, of two stable oscillation states, a low and high amplitude solution. The coexistence of those oscillation states is a consequence of the presence of attractive and repulsive components in the interaction force and their non-linear dependence on the tip-surface separation. We show that key relevant experimental properties such as the lateral resolution, image contrast and sample deformation are highly dependent on the oscillation state chosen to operate the instrument. AM-AFM allows to obtain simultaneous topographic and compositional contrast in heterogeneous samples by recording the phase angle difference between the external excitation and the tip motion (phase imaging). Significant applications of AM-AFM such as high-resolution imaging of biomolecules and polymers, large-scale patterning of silicon surfaces, manipulation of single nanoparticles or the fabrication of single electron devices are also reviewed. FM-AFM (also called non

  13. Nanorheology by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Tai-De; Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Ortiz-Young, Deborah; Riedo, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    We present an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based method to investigate the rheological properties of liquids confined within a nanosize gap formed by an AFM tip apex and a solid substrate. In this method, a conventional AFM cantilever is sheared parallel to a substrate surface by means of a lock-in amplifier while it is approaching and retracting from the substrate in liquid. The normal solvation forces and lateral viscoelastic shear forces experienced by the AFM tip in liquid can be simultaneously measured as a function of the tip-substrate distance with sub-nanometer vertical resolution. A new calibration method is applied to compensate for the linear drift of the piezo transducer and substrate system, leading to a more precise determination of the tip-substrate distance. By monitoring the phase lag between the driving signal and the cantilever response in liquid, the frequency dependent viscoelastic properties of the confined liquid can also be derived. Finally, we discuss the results obtained with this technique from different liquid-solid interfaces. Namely, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and water on mica and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. PMID:25554301

  14. Nanorheology by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tai-De; Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Ortiz-Young, Deborah; Riedo, Elisa

    2014-12-15

    We present an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based method to investigate the rheological properties of liquids confined within a nanosize gap formed by an AFM tip apex and a solid substrate. In this method, a conventional AFM cantilever is sheared parallel to a substrate surface by means of a lock-in amplifier while it is approaching and retracting from the substrate in liquid. The normal solvation forces and lateral viscoelastic shear forces experienced by the AFM tip in liquid can be simultaneously measured as a function of the tip-substrate distance with sub-nanometer vertical resolution. A new calibration method is applied to compensate for the linear drift of the piezo transducer and substrate system, leading to a more precise determination of the tip-substrate distance. By monitoring the phase lag between the driving signal and the cantilever response in liquid, the frequency dependent viscoelastic properties of the confined liquid can also be derived. Finally, we discuss the results obtained with this technique from different liquid-solid interfaces. Namely, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and water on mica and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  15. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  16. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  17. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  18. Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron; Yeshua, Talia; Palchan, Mila; Lovsky, Yulia; Taha, Hesham

    2010-03-01

    Lithography based on scanning probe microscopic techniques has considerable potential for accurate & localized deposition of material on the nanometer scale. Controlled deposition of metallic features with high purity and spatial accuracy is of great interest for circuit edit applications in the semiconductor industry, for plasmonics & nanophotonics and for basic research in surface enhanced Raman scattering & nanobiophysics. Within the context of metal deposition we will review the development of fountain pen nanochemistry and its most recent emulation Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis (ACCE). Using this latter development we will demonstrate achievement of unprecedented control of nanoparticle deposition using a three-electrode geometry. Three electrodes are attached: one on the outside of a metal coated glass probe, one on the inside of a hollow probe in a solution containing Au nanoparticles in the capillary, and a third on the surface where the writing takes place. The three electrodes provide electrical pulses for accurate control of deposition and retraction of the liquid from the surface overcoming the lack of control seen in both dip pen lithography & fountain pen nanochemistry when the tip contacts the surface. With this development, we demonstrate depositing a single 1.3 nm Au nanoparticle onto surfaces such as semiconductors.

  19. Casimir-Polder forces on moving atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Scheel, Stefan; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2009-10-15

    Polarizable atoms and molecules experience the Casimir-Polder force near magnetoelectric bodies, a force that is induced by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field and the matter. Atoms and molecules in relative motion to a magnetoelectric surface experience an additional velocity-dependent force. We present a full quantum-mechanical treatment of this force and identify a generalized Doppler effect, the time delay between photon emission and reabsorption, and the Roentgen interaction as its three sources. For ground-state atoms, the force is very small and always decelerating, hence commonly known as quantum friction. For atoms and molecules in electronically excited states, on the contrary, both decelerating and accelerating forces can occur depending on the magnitude of the atomic transition frequency relative to the surface-plasmon frequency.

  20. Improving an all-atom force field.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sandipan; Hansmann, U H E

    2007-07-01

    Experimentally well-characterized proteins that are small enough to be computationally tractable provide useful information for refining existing all-atom force fields. This is used by us for reparametrizing a recently developed all-atom force field. Relying on high statistics parallel tempering simulations of a designed 20 residue beta-sheet peptide, we propose incremental changes that improve the force field's range of applicability. PMID:17677516

  1. Performing Isometric Force Control in Combination with a Cognitive Task: A Multidimensional Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Vieluf, Solveig; Bricot, Nicolas; Berton, Eric; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We used a multidimensional approach to study isometric force control in single and dual-task conditions. Methods Multiple measures of performance, efficiency, variability, and structural interference were calculated at low and higher force levels under single (force maintenance) and dual-task (force maintenance and reaction time) conditions. Results Reaction time and signal-to-noise ratio were larger in the dual-task conditions. They were also greater for the higher force condition, while sample entropy was lower. Perturbation analyses revealed smaller relative amplitude of downward perturbations for the higher force level. Discussion Attentional effort and efficiency are positively related when force level increases, and inversely related to entropy. These relations were presumably mediated by attentional investment. Behavioral perturbations show that attentional resources and structural interference models are not mutually exclusive to account for dual-task situation. Overall, the present study highlights the interest of a multidimensional assessment of force control. PMID:26571036

  2. Chemical identification of individual surface atoms by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Pou, Pablo; Abe, Masayuki; Jelinek, Pavel; Pérez, Rubén; Morita, Seizo; Custance, Oscar

    2007-03-01

    Scanning probe microscopy is a versatile and powerful method that uses sharp tips to image, measure and manipulate matter at surfaces with atomic resolution. At cryogenic temperatures, scanning probe microscopy can even provide electron tunnelling spectra that serve as fingerprints of the vibrational properties of adsorbed molecules and of the electronic properties of magnetic impurity atoms, thereby allowing chemical identification. But in many instances, and particularly for insulating systems, determining the exact chemical composition of surfaces or nanostructures remains a considerable challenge. In principle, dynamic force microscopy should make it possible to overcome this problem: it can image insulator, semiconductor and metal surfaces with true atomic resolution, by detecting and precisely measuring the short-range forces that arise with the onset of chemical bonding between the tip and surface atoms and that depend sensitively on the chemical identity of the atoms involved. Here we report precise measurements of such short-range chemical forces, and show that their dependence on the force microscope tip used can be overcome through a normalization procedure. This allows us to use the chemical force measurements as the basis for atomic recognition, even at room temperature. We illustrate the performance of this approach by imaging the surface of a particularly challenging alloy system and successfully identifying the three constituent atomic species silicon, tin and lead, even though these exhibit very similar chemical properties and identical surface position preferences that render any discrimination attempt based on topographic measurements impossible. PMID:17330040

  3. Atom inlays performed at room temperature using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Abe, Masayuki; Hirayama, Shinji; Oyabu, Noriaki; Custance, Óscar; Morita, Seizo

    2005-02-01

    The ability to manipulate single atoms and molecules laterally for creating artificial structures on surfaces is driving us closer to the ultimate limit of two-dimensional nanoengineering. However, experiments involving this level of manipulation have been performed only at cryogenic temperatures. Scanning tunnelling microscopy has proved, so far, to be a unique tool with all the necessary capabilities for laterally pushing, pulling or sliding single atoms and molecules, and arranging them on a surface at will. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to perform well-controlled lateral manipulations of single atoms using near-contact atomic force microscopy even at room temperature. We report the creation of 'atom inlays', that is, artificial atomic patterns formed from a few embedded atoms in the plane of a surface. At room temperature, such atomic structures remain stable on the surface for relatively long periods of time.

  4. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, Sayan Salapaka, Murti

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  5. Imaging cells with the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Butt, H J; Wolff, E K; Gould, S A; Dixon Northern, B; Peterson, C M; Hansma, P K

    1990-01-01

    Different types of cells have been imaged with the atomic force microscope. The morphology of the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium in its dry state was revealed. On a leaf of the small Indian tree Lagerstroemia subcostata a stoma was imaged. The lower side of a water lily leaf was imaged in water showing features down to 12 nm. Finally, fixed red and white blood cells were imaged in buffer showing features down to 8 nm. The images demonstrate that atomic force microscopy can provide high-resolution images of cell surfaces under physiological conditions. PMID:2100150

  6. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Atsushi; Scheuring, Simon

    2016-05-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed. PMID:27250433

  7. Calibration of frictional forces in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ogletree, D.F.; Carpick, R.W.; Salmeron, M.

    1996-09-01

    The atomic force microscope can provide information on the atomic-level frictional properties of surfaces, but reproducible quantitative measurements are difficult to obtain. Parameters that are either unknown or difficult to precisely measure include the normal and lateral cantilever force constants (particularly with microfabricated cantilevers), the tip height, the deflection sensor response, and the tip structure and composition at the tip-surface contact. We present an {ital in} {ital situ} experimental procedure to determine the response of a cantilever to lateral forces in terms of its normal force response. This procedure is quite general. It will work with any type of deflection sensor and does not require the knowledge or direct measurement of the lever dimensions or the tip height. In addition, the shape of the tip apex can be determined. We also discuss a number of specific issues related to force and friction measurements using optical lever deflection sensing. We present experimental results on the lateral force response of commercially available V-shaped cantilevers. Our results are consistent with estimates of lever mechanical properties using continuum elasticity theory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces

    PubMed Central

    Chang, D. E.; Sinha, K.; Taylor, J. M.; Kimble, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here we theoretically show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. Our proposed trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground-state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited-state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyse realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement. PMID:25008119

  9. Recognizing nitrogen dopant atoms in graphene using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Smith, Daniël; Calogero, Gaetano; Koster, Rik S.; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; van Huis, Marijn A.; Swart, Ingmar

    2016-06-01

    Doping graphene by heteroatoms such as nitrogen presents an attractive route to control the position of the Fermi level in the material. We prepared N-doped graphene on Cu(111) and Ir(111) surfaces via chemical vapor deposition of two different molecules. Using scanning tunneling microscopy images as a benchmark, we show that the position of the dopant atoms can be determined using atomic force microscopy. Specifically, the frequency shift-distance curves Δ f (z ) acquired above a N atom are significantly different from the curves measured over a C atom. Similar behavior was found for N-doped graphene on Cu(111) and Ir(111). The results are corroborated by density functional theory calculations employing a van der Waals functional.

  10. Neuron biomechanics probed by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Spedden, Elise; Staii, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical interactions play a key role in many processes associated with neuronal growth and development. Over the last few years there has been significant progress in our understanding of the role played by the substrate stiffness in neuronal growth, of the cell-substrate adhesion forces, of the generation of traction forces during axonal elongation, and of the relationships between the neuron soma elastic properties and its health. The particular capabilities of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), such as high spatial resolution, high degree of control over the magnitude and orientation of the applied forces, minimal sample damage, and the ability to image and interact with cells in physiologically relevant conditions make this technique particularly suitable for measuring mechanical properties of living neuronal cells. This article reviews recent advances on using the AFM for studying neuronal biomechanics, provides an overview about the state-of-the-art measurements, and suggests directions for future applications. PMID:23921683

  11. Measuring energies with an Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, J.; Díez-Pérez, I.; Sanz, F.; Fraxedas, J.

    2006-04-01

    The elastic and plastic response of ordered inorganic, organic and biological materials involving nanometer-scale volumes in the nano- and low micronewton force range can be characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) using ultrasharp cantilever tips with radius R typically below 10 nm. Because the plastic onset can be easily identified, the maximal accumulated elastic energy can be directly determined from the force curves (force F vs. penetration δ curves), thus giving a realistic estimate of the characteristic energies of the materials. We illustrate the ability of AFMs to determine such energies with the case example of the molecular organic metal TTF-TCNQ (TTF = tetrathiafulvalene, TCNQ = tetracyanoquinodimethane), where the enthalpy of sublimation is obtained.

  12. Neuron Biomechanics Probed by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Spedden, Elise; Staii, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical interactions play a key role in many processes associated with neuronal growth and development. Over the last few years there has been significant progress in our understanding of the role played by the substrate stiffness in neuronal growth, of the cell-substrate adhesion forces, of the generation of traction forces during axonal elongation, and of the relationships between the neuron soma elastic properties and its health. The particular capabilities of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), such as high spatial resolution, high degree of control over the magnitude and orientation of the applied forces, minimal sample damage, and the ability to image and interact with cells in physiologically relevant conditions make this technique particularly suitable for measuring mechanical properties of living neuronal cells. This article reviews recent advances on using the AFM for studying neuronal biomechanics, provides an overview about the state-of-the-art measurements, and suggests directions for future applications. PMID:23921683

  13. Atomic Force Microscopy of Biological Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Frederix, Patrick L.T.M.; Bosshart, Patrick D.; Engel, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an ideal method to study the surface topography of biological membranes. It allows membranes that are adsorbed to flat solid supports to be raster-scanned in physiological solutions with an atomically sharp tip. Therefore, AFM is capable of observing biological molecular machines at work. In addition, the tip can be tethered to the end of a single membrane protein, and forces acting on the tip upon its retraction indicate barriers that occur during the process of protein unfolding. Here we discuss the fundamental limitations of AFM determined by the properties of cantilevers, present aspects of sample preparation, and review results achieved on reconstituted and native biological membranes. PMID:19167286

  14. Frequency Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) using frequency modulation (FM) detection has been widely used for the atomic-scale investigations of various materials. However, high-resolution imaging in liquids by FM-AFM is severely deteriorated by the extreme reduction of the Q-factor due to the hydrodynamic interaction between the cantilever and the liquid. Recently, the use of the small amplitude mode and the large noise reduction in the cantilever deflection sensor brought great progress in FM-AFM imaging in liquids. In this chapter viscous damping of the cantilever and the electric double layer force are discussed in detail. Following the detailed analysis of the frequency noise in FM-AFM, instrumentation of the optical beam deflection sensor for FM-AFM in liquid environments is described. Finally high-resolution FM-AFM images of muscovite mica, purple membranes, and isolated protein molecules in liquids are presented.

  15. Atomic Force Microscope for Imaging and Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, W. T.; Hecht, M. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Akiyama, T.; Gautsch, S.; deRooij, N. F.; Staufer, U.; Niedermann, Ph.; Howald, L.; Mueller, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed, built, and tested an atomic force microscope (AFM) for extraterrestrial applications incorporating a micromachined tip array to allow for probe replacement. It is part of a microscopy station originally intended for NASA's 2001 Mars lander to identify the size, distribution, and shape of Martian dust and soil particles. As well as imaging topographically down to nanometer resolution, this instrument can be used to reveal chemical information and perform infrared and Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution.

  16. Energy dissipation in multifrequency atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pukhova, Valentina; Banfi, Francesco; Ferrini, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The instantaneous displacement, velocity and acceleration of a cantilever tip impacting onto a graphite surface are reconstructed. The total dissipated energy and the dissipated energy per cycle of each excited flexural mode during the tip interaction is retrieved. The tip dynamics evolution is studied by wavelet analysis techniques that have general relevance for multi-mode atomic force microscopy, in a regime where few cantilever oscillation cycles characterize the tip-sample interaction. PMID:24778976

  17. First Atomic Force Microscope Image from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This calibration image presents three-dimensional data from the atomic force microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, showing surface details of a substrate on the microscope station's sample wheel. It will be used as an aid for interpreting later images that will show shapes of minuscule Martian soil particles.

    The area imaged by the microscope is 40 microns by 40 microns, small enough to fit on an eyelash. The grooves in this substrate are 14 microns (0.00055 inch) apart, from center to center. The vertical dimension is exaggerated in the image to make surface details more visible. The grooves are 300 nanometers (0.00001 inch) deep.

    This is the first atomic force microscope image recorded on another planet. It was taken on July 9, 2008, during the 44th Martian day, or sol, of the Phoenix mission since landing.

    Phoenix's Swiss-made atomic force microscope builds an image of the surface shape of a particle by sensing it with a sharp tip at the end of a spring, all microfabricated out of a silicon wafer. A strain gauge records how far the spring flexes to follow the contour of the surface. It can provide details of soil-particle shapes smaller than one-hundredth the width of a human hair. This is about 20 times smaller than what can be resolved with Phoenix's optical microscope, which has provided much higher-magnification imaging than anything seen on Mars previously. Both microscopes are part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer.

  18. Ultrastable Atomic Force Microscopy for Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churnside, Allison B.

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a multifunctional workhorse of nanoscience and molecular biophysics, but instrumental drift remains a critical issue that limits the precision and duration of experiments. We have significantly reduced the two most important types of drift: in position and in force. The first, position drift, is defined as uncontrolled motion between the tip and the sample, which occurs in all three dimensions. By scattering a laser off the apex of a commercial AFM tip, we locally measured and thereby actively controlled its three-dimensional position above a sample surface to <0.4 A (Deltaf = 0.01--10 Hz) in air at room temperature. With this enhanced stability, we demonstrated atomic-scale (˜1 A) tip-sample stability and registration over tens of minutes with a series of AFM images. The second type of drift is force drift. We found that the primary source of force drift for a popular class of soft cantilevers is their gold coating, even though they are coated on both sides to minimize drift. When the gold coating was removed through a simple chemical etch, this drift in deflection was reduced by more than an order of magnitude over the first 2 hours after wetting the tip. Removing the gold also led to ˜ 10-fold reduction in reflected light, yet short-term (0.1--10 s) force precision improved. With both position and force drift greatly reduced, the utility of the AFM is enhanced. These improvements led to several new AFM abilities, including a five-fold increase in the image signal-to-noise ratio; tip-registered, label-free optical imaging; registered tip return to a particular point on the sample; and dual-detection force spectroscopy, which enables a new extension clamp mode. We have applied these abilities to folding of both membrane and soluble proteins. In principle, the techniques we describe can be fully incorporated into many types of scanning probe microscopy, making this work a general improvement to scanning probe techniques.

  19. Periodicity in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chia-Yun; Santos, Sergio Chiesa, Matteo; Barcons, Victor

    2015-07-28

    Periodicity is fundamental for quantification and the application of conservation principles of many important systems. Here, we discuss periodicity in the context of bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM). The relationship between the excited frequencies is shown to affect and control both experimental observables and the main expressions quantified via these observables, i.e., virial and energy transfer expressions, which form the basis of the bimodal AFM theory. The presence of a fundamental frequency further simplifies the theory and leads to close form solutions. Predictions are verified via numerical integration of the equation of motion and experimentally on a mica surface.

  20. Combined scanning electrochemical-atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, J V; Unwin, P R

    2000-01-15

    A combined scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM)-atomic force microscope (AFM) is described. The instrument permits the first simultaneous topographical and electrochemical measurements at surfaces, under fluid, with high spatial resolution. Simple probe tips suitable for SECM-AFM, have been fabricated by coating flattened and etched Pt microwires with insulating, electrophoretically deposited paint. The flattened portion of the probe provides a flexible cantilever (force sensor), while the coating insulates the probe such that only the tip end (electrode) is exposed to the solution. The SECM-AFM technique is illustrated with simultaneous electrochemical-probe deflection approach curves, simultaneous topographical and electrochemical imaging studies of track-etched polycarbonate ultrafiltration membranes, and etching studies of crystal surfaces. PMID:10658320

  1. Atomic force microscopy of hydrated phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Zasadzinski, J A; Helm, C A; Longo, M L; Weisenhorn, A L; Gould, S A; Hansma, P K

    1991-01-01

    We present images of the polar or headgroup regions of bilayers of dimyristoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition onto mica substrates at high surface pressures and imaged under water at room temperature with the optical lever atomic force microscope. The lattice structure of DMPE is visualized with sufficient resolution that the location of individual headgroups can be determined. The forces are sufficiently small that the same area can be repeatedly imaged with a minimum of damage. The DMPE molecules in the bilayer appear to have relatively good long-range orientational order, but rather short-range and poor positional order. These results are in good agreement with x-ray measurements of unsupported lipid monolayers on the water surface, and with electron diffraction of adsorbed monolayers. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:2049529

  2. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contributionmore » to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.« less

  3. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.

  4. Microfluidics, Chromatography, and Atomic-Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A Raman-and-atomic-force microscope (RAFM) has been shown to be capable of performing several liquid-transfer and sensory functions essential for the operation of a microfluidic laboratory on a chip that would be used to perform rapid, sensitive chromatographic and spectro-chemical analyses of unprecedentedly small quantities of liquids. The most novel aspect of this development lies in the exploitation of capillary and shear effects at the atomic-force-microscope (AFM) tip to produce shear-driven flow of liquids along open microchannels of a microfluidic device. The RAFM can also be used to perform such functions as imaging liquids in microchannels; removing liquid samples from channels for very sensitive, tip-localized spectrochemical analyses; measuring a quantity of liquid adhering to the tip; and dip-pen deposition from a chromatographic device. A commercial Raman-spectroscopy system and a commercial AFM were integrated to make the RAFM so as to be able to perform simultaneous topographical AFM imaging and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) at the AFM tip. The Raman-spectroscopy system includes a Raman microprobe attached to an optical microscope, the translation stage of which is modified to accommodate the AFM head. The Raman laser excitation beam, which is aimed at the AFM tip, has a wavelength of 785 nm and a diameter of about 5 m, and its power is adjustable up to 10 mW. The AFM is coated with gold to enable tip-localized SERS.

  5. Atomic force microscopy of biological samples.

    PubMed

    Allison, David P; Mortensen, Ninell P; Sullivan, Claretta J; Doktycz, Mitchel J

    2010-01-01

    The ability to evaluate structural-functional relationships in real time has allowed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to assume a prominent role in post genomic biological research. In this mini-review, we highlight the development of imaging and ancillary techniques that have allowed SPM to permeate many key areas of contemporary research. We begin by examining the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by Binnig and Rohrer in 1982 and discuss how it served to team biologists with physicists to integrate high-resolution microscopy into biological science. We point to the problems of imaging nonconductive biological samples with the STM and relate how this led to the evolution of the atomic force microscope (AFM) developed by Binnig, Quate, and Gerber, in 1986. Commercialization in the late 1980s established SPM as a powerful research tool in the biological research community. Contact mode AFM imaging was soon complemented by the development of non-contact imaging modes. These non-contact modes eventually became the primary focus for further new applications including the development of fast scanning methods. The extreme sensitivity of the AFM cantilever was recognized and has been developed into applications for measuring forces required for indenting biological surfaces and breaking bonds between biomolecules. Further functional augmentation to the cantilever tip allowed development of new and emerging techniques including scanning ion-conductance microscopy (SICM), scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM), Kelvin force microscopy (KFM) and scanning near field ultrasonic holography (SNFUH). PMID:20672388

  6. Atomic force microscopy of biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2010-01-01

    The ability to evaluate structural-functional relationships in real time has allowed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to assume a prominent role in post genomic biological research. In this mini-review, we highlight the development of imaging and ancillary techniques that have allowed SPM to permeate many key areas of contemporary research. We begin by examining the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by Binnig and Rohrer in 1982 and discuss how it served to team biologists with physicists to integrate high-resolution microscopy into biological science. We point to the problems of imaging nonconductive biological samples with the STM and relate how this led to the evolution of the atomic force microscope (AFM) developed by Binnig, Quate, and Gerber, in 1986. Commercialization in the late 1980s established SPM as a powerful research tool in the biological research community. Contact mode AFM imaging was soon complemented by the development of non-contact imaging modes. These non-contact modes eventually became the primary focus for further new applications including the development of fast scanning methods. The extreme sensitivity of the AFM cantilever was recognized and has been developed into applications for measuring forces required for indenting biological surfaces and breaking bonds between biomolecules. Further functional augmentation to the cantilever tip allowed development of new and emerging techniques including scanning ion-conductance microscopy (SICM), scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM), Kelvin force microscopy (KFM) and scanning near field ultrasonic holography (SNFUH).

  7. Atomic Force Microscopy for Soil Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gazze, andrea; doerr, stefan; dudley, ed; hallin, ingrid; matthews, peter; quinn, gerry; van keulen, geertje; francis, lewis

    2016-04-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a high-resolution surface-sensitive technique, which provides 3-dimensional topographical information and material properties of both stiff and soft samples in their natural environments. Traditionally AFM has been applied to samples with low roughness: hence its use for soil analysis has been very limited so far. Here we report the optimization settings required for a standardization of high-resolution and artefact-free analysis of natural soil with AFM: soil immobilization, AFM probe selection, artefact recognition and minimization. Beyond topography, AFM can be used in a spectroscopic mode to evaluate nanomechanical properties, such as soil viscosity, stiffness, and deformation. In this regards, Bruker PeakForce-Quantitative NanoMechanical (QNM) AFM provides a fast and convenient way to extract physical properties from AFM force curves in real-time to obtain soil nanomechanical properties. Here we show for the first time the ability of AFM to describe the topography of natural soil at nanometre resolution, with observation of micro-components, such as clays, and of nano-structures, possibly of biotic origin, the visualization of which would prove difficult with other instrumentations. Finally, nanomechanical profiling has been applied to different wettability states in soil and the respective physical patterns are discussed.

  8. Investigating cell mechanics with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Haase, Kristina; Pelling, Andrew E

    2015-03-01

    Transmission of mechanical force is crucial for normal cell development and functioning. However, the process of mechanotransduction cannot be studied in isolation from cell mechanics. Thus, in order to understand how cells 'feel', we must first understand how they deform and recover from physical perturbations. Owing to its versatility, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a popular tool to study intrinsic cellular mechanical properties. Used to directly manipulate and examine whole and subcellular reactions, AFM allows for top-down and reconstitutive approaches to mechanical characterization. These studies show that the responses of cells and their components are complex, and largely depend on the magnitude and time scale of loading. In this review, we generally describe the mechanotransductive process through discussion of well-known mechanosensors. We then focus on discussion of recent examples where AFM is used to specifically probe the elastic and inelastic responses of single cells undergoing deformation. We present a brief overview of classical and current models often used to characterize observed cellular phenomena in response to force. Both simple mechanistic models and complex nonlinear models have been used to describe the observed cellular behaviours, however a unifying description of cell mechanics has not yet been resolved. PMID:25589563

  9. Investigating cell mechanics with atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Kristina; Pelling, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Transmission of mechanical force is crucial for normal cell development and functioning. However, the process of mechanotransduction cannot be studied in isolation from cell mechanics. Thus, in order to understand how cells ‘feel’, we must first understand how they deform and recover from physical perturbations. Owing to its versatility, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a popular tool to study intrinsic cellular mechanical properties. Used to directly manipulate and examine whole and subcellular reactions, AFM allows for top-down and reconstitutive approaches to mechanical characterization. These studies show that the responses of cells and their components are complex, and largely depend on the magnitude and time scale of loading. In this review, we generally describe the mechanotransductive process through discussion of well-known mechanosensors. We then focus on discussion of recent examples where AFM is used to specifically probe the elastic and inelastic responses of single cells undergoing deformation. We present a brief overview of classical and current models often used to characterize observed cellular phenomena in response to force. Both simple mechanistic models and complex nonlinear models have been used to describe the observed cellular behaviours, however a unifying description of cell mechanics has not yet been resolved. PMID:25589563

  10. Imaging and force probing RNA by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schön, Peter

    2016-07-01

    In the past 30years, the atomic force microscope (AFM) has become a true enabling platform in the life sciences opening entire novel avenues for structural and dynamic studies of biological systems. It enables visualization, probing and manipulation across the length scales, from single molecules to living cells in buffer solution under physiological conditions without the need for labeling or staining of the specimen. In particular, for structural studies of nucleic acids and assemblies thereof, the AFM has matured into a routinely used tool providing nanometer spatial resolution. This includes ssRNA, dsRNA and nucleoprotein complexes thereof, as well as RNA aggregates and 2D RNA assemblies. By AFM unique information can be obtained on RNA based assemblies which are becoming increasingly important as novel unique building blocks in the emerging field of RNA nanotechnology. In addition, the AFM is of fundamental relevance to study biological relevant RNA interactions and dynamics. In this short review first the basic functioning principles of commonly used AFM modes including AFM based force spectroscopy will be briefly described. Next a brief overview will be given on structural studies that have been done related to AFM topographic imaging of RNA, RNA assemblies and aggregates. Finally, an overview on AFM beyond imaging will be provided. This includes force spectroscopy of RNA under physiological conditions in aqueous buffer to probe RNA interaction with proteins and ligands as well as other AFM tip based RNA probing. The main intention of this short review to give the reader a flavor of what AFM contributes to RNA research and engineering. PMID:27222101

  11. High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Toshio; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Kodera, Noriyuki

    2012-08-01

    The technology of high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) has reached maturity. HS-AFM enables us to directly visualize the structure and dynamics of biological molecules in physiological solutions at subsecond to sub-100 ms temporal resolution. By this microscopy, dynamically acting molecules such as myosin V walking on an actin filament and bacteriorhodopsin in response to light are successfully visualized. High-resolution molecular movies reveal the dynamic behavior of molecules in action in great detail. Inferences no longer have to be made from static snapshots of molecular structures and from the dynamic behavior of optical markers attached to biomolecules. In this review, we first describe theoretical considerations for the highest possible imaging rate, then summarize techniques involved in HS-AFM and highlight recent imaging studies. Finally, we briefly discuss future challenges to explore.

  12. Tip characterizer for atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Ichimura, Shingo

    2006-10-01

    A tip characterizer for atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed based on the fabrication of multilayer thin films. Comb-shaped line and space (LS) and wedge-shaped knife-edge structures were fabricated on a GaAs substrate. GaAs /InGaP superlattices were used to control the width of the structures precisely, and selective chemical etching was used to form sharp edges on the nanostructures. The minimum size of the LS structure was designed to be 10nm, and the radius of the knife edge was less than 5nm. These nanostructures were used as a well-defined tip characterizer to measure the shape of a tip on a cantilever from line profiles of AFM images.

  13. Atomic Force Microscopy for DNA SNP Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valbusa, Ugo; Ierardi, Vincenzo

    The knowledge of the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome greatly contributes to better comprehension of the relation between genetic factors and diseases. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA in different individuals reveals positions where variations that involve individual base substitutions can occur. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms are highly abundant and can have different consequences at phenotypic level. Several attempts were made to apply atomic force microscopy (AFM) to detect and map SNP sites in DNA strands. The most promising approach is the study of DNA mutations producing heteroduplex DNA strands and identifying the mismatches by means of a protein that labels the mismatches. MutS is a protein that is part of a well-known complex of mismatch repair, which initiates the process of repairing when the MutS binds to the mismatched DNA filament. The position of MutS on the DNA filament can be easily recorded by means of AFM imaging.

  14. High-frequency multimodal atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nievergelt, Adrian P; Adams, Jonathan D; Odermatt, Pascal D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Multifrequency atomic force microscopy imaging has been recently demonstrated as a powerful technique for quickly obtaining information about the mechanical properties of a sample. Combining this development with recent gains in imaging speed through small cantilevers holds the promise of a convenient, high-speed method for obtaining nanoscale topography as well as mechanical properties. Nevertheless, instrument bandwidth limitations on cantilever excitation and readout have restricted the ability of multifrequency techniques to fully benefit from small cantilevers. We present an approach for cantilever excitation and deflection readout with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, enabling multifrequency techniques extended beyond 2 MHz for obtaining materials contrast in liquid and air, as well as soft imaging of delicate biological samples. PMID:25671141

  15. Robust atomic force microscopy using multiple sensors.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Mayank; Gorugantu, Ram S; Salapaka, Srinivasa M

    2016-08-01

    Atomic force microscopy typically relies on high-resolution high-bandwidth cantilever deflection measurements based control for imaging and estimating sample topography and properties. More precisely, in amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM), the control effort that regulates deflection amplitude is used as an estimate of sample topography; similarly, contact-mode AFM uses regulation of deflection signal to generate sample topography. In this article, a control design scheme based on an additional feedback mechanism that uses vertical z-piezo motion sensor, which augments the deflection based control scheme, is proposed and evaluated. The proposed scheme exploits the fact that the piezo motion sensor, though inferior to the cantilever deflection signal in terms of resolution and bandwidth, provides information on piezo actuator dynamics that is not easily retrievable from the deflection signal. The augmented design results in significant improvements in imaging bandwidth and robustness, especially in AM-AFM, where the complicated underlying nonlinear dynamics inhibits estimating piezo motions from deflection signals. In AM-AFM experiments, the two-sensor based design demonstrates a substantial improvement in robustness to modeling uncertainties by practically eliminating the peak in the sensitivity plot without affecting the closed-loop bandwidth when compared to a design that does not use the piezo-position sensor based feedback. The contact-mode imaging results, which use proportional-integral controllers for cantilever-deflection regulation, demonstrate improvements in bandwidth and robustness to modeling uncertainties, respectively, by over 30% and 20%. The piezo-sensor based feedback is developed using H∞ control framework. PMID:27587128

  16. Stochastic noise in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Aleksander; Lysy, Martin; Paul, William; Miyahara, Yoichi; Grütter, Peter; Bennewitz, Roland; Sutton, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Having reached the quantum and thermodynamic limits of detection, atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments are routinely being performed at the fundamental limit of signal to noise. A critical understanding of the statistical properties of noise leads to more accurate interpretation of data, optimization of experimental protocols, advancements in instrumentation, and new measurement techniques. Furthermore, accurate simulation of cantilever dynamics requires knowledge of stochastic behavior of the system, as stochastic noise may exceed the deterministic signals of interest, and even dominate the outcome of an experiment. In this article, the power spectral density (PSD), used to quantify stationary stochastic processes, is introduced in the context of a thorough noise analysis of the light source used to detect cantilever deflections. The statistical properties of PSDs are then outlined for various stationary, nonstationary, and deterministic noise sources in the context of AFM experiments. Following these developments, a method for integrating PSDs to provide an accurate standard deviation of linear measurements is described. Lastly, a method for simulating stochastic Gaussian noise from any arbitrary power spectral density is presented. The result demonstrates that mechanical vibrations of the AFM can cause a logarithmic velocity dependence of friction and induce multiple slip events in the atomic stick-slip process, as well as predicts an artifactual temperature dependence of friction measured by AFM. PMID:23030863

  17. Atomic force microscopy characterization of cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Lahiji, Roya R; Xu, Xin; Reifenberger, Ronald; Raman, Arvind; Rudie, Alan; Moon, Robert J

    2010-03-16

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are gaining interest as a "green" nanomaterial with superior mechanical and chemical properties for high-performance nanocomposite materials; however, there is a lack of accurate material property characterization of individual CNCs. Here, a detailed study of the topography, elastic and adhesive properties of individual wood-derived CNCs is performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM experiments involving high-resolution dynamic mode imaging and jump-mode measurements were performed on individual CNCs under ambient conditions with 30% relative humidity (RH) and under a N(2) atmosphere with 0.1% RH. A procedure was also developed to calculate the CNC transverse elastic modulus (E(T)) by comparing the experimental force-distance curves measured on the CNCs with 3D finite element calculations of tip indentation on the CNC. The E(T) of an isolated CNC was estimated to be between 18 and 50 GPa at 0.1% RH; however, the associated crystallographic orientation of the CNC could not be determined. CNC properties were reasonably uniform along the entire CNC length, despite variations along the axis of 3-8 nm in CNC height. The range of RH used in this study was found to have a minimal effect on the CNC geometry, confirming the resistance of the cellulose crystals to water penetration. CNC flexibility was also investigated by using the AFM tip as a nanomanipulator. PMID:20055370

  18. Atomic Force Microscopy of Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushiki, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Susumu; Hitomi, Jiro; Ogura, Shigeaki; Umemoto, Takeshi; Shigeno, Masatsugu

    2000-06-01

    This paper is a review of our results of the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to the three-dimensional observation of living cells. First, we showed AFM images of living cultured cells in fluid. Contact mode AFM of living cells provided precise information on the shape of cellular processes (such as spike-like processes or lamellipodia) at the cellular margin. The contour of cytoskeletal elements just beneath the cell membrane was also clearly observable on the upper surface of the cells. Secondly, we showed the data on the discrepancy between the AFM images of living cells and fixed cells. These findings were useful for evaluating AFM images of living cells. Finally, we described the time-lapse AFM of living cells. A fluid chamber system enabled us to obtain AFM images of living cells for over 1 h at time intervals of 2-4 min. A series of these AFM images were useful for examining the movements of cellular processes in relation to subcellular cytoskeletal elements. Time-lapse movies produced by sequential AFM images also gave a realistic view of the cellular dynamics.

  19. Carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Shigenobu; Okawa, Takashi; Akita, Seiji; Nakayama, Yoshikazu

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a carbon nanotube atomic force microscope probe. Because the carbon nanotube are well known to have high aspect ratios, small tip radii and high stiffness, carbon nanotube probes have a long lifetime and can be applied for the observation deep trenches. Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by a well-controlled DC arc discharge method, because this method can make nanotubes to have straight shape and high crystalline. The nanotubes were aligned on the knife-edge using an alternating current electrophoresis technique. A commercially available Si probe was used for the base of the nanotube probe. The nanotube probe was fabricated by the SEM manipulation method. The nanotube was then attached tightly to the Si probe by deposition of amorphous carbon. We demonstrate the measurement of a fine pith grating that has vertical walls. However, a carbon nanotube has a problem that is called "Sticking". The sticking is a chatter image on vertical like region in a sample. We solved this problem by applying 2 methods, 1. a large cantilever vibration amplitude in tapping mode, 2. an attractive mode measurement. We demonstrate the non-sticking images by these methods.

  20. Investigating bioconjugation by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnological applications increasingly exploit the selectivity and processivity of biological molecules. Integration of biomolecules such as proteins or DNA into nano-systems typically requires their conjugation to surfaces, for example of carbon-nanotubes or fluorescent quantum dots. The bioconjugated nanostructures exploit the unique strengths of both their biological and nanoparticle components and are used in diverse, future oriented research areas ranging from nanoelectronics to biosensing and nanomedicine. Atomic force microscopy imaging provides valuable, direct insight for the evaluation of different conjugation approaches at the level of the individual molecules. Recent technical advances have enabled high speed imaging by AFM supporting time resolutions sufficient to follow conformational changes of intricately assembled nanostructures in solution. In addition, integration of AFM with different spectroscopic and imaging approaches provides an enhanced level of information on the investigated sample. Furthermore, the AFM itself can serve as an active tool for the assembly of nanostructures based on bioconjugation. AFM is hence a major workhorse in nanotechnology; it is a powerful tool for the structural investigation of bioconjugation and bioconjugation-induced effects as well as the simultaneous active assembly and analysis of bioconjugation-based nanostructures. PMID:23855448

  1. Atomic Force Microscopy Based Cell Shape Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adia-Nimuwa, Usienemfon; Mujdat Tiryaki, Volkan; Hartz, Steven; Xie, Kan; Ayres, Virginia

    2013-03-01

    Stellation is a measure of cell physiology and pathology for several cell groups including neural, liver and pancreatic cells. In the present work, we compare the results of a conventional two-dimensional shape index study of both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescent microscopy images with the results obtained using a new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index similar to sphericity index. The stellation of astrocytes is investigated on nanofibrillar scaffolds composed of electrospun polyamide nanofibers that has demonstrated promise for central nervous system (CNS) repair. Recent work by our group has given us the ability to clearly segment the cells from nanofibrillar scaffolds in AFM images. The clear-featured AFM images indicated that the astrocyte processes were longer than previously identified at 24h. It was furthermore shown that cell spreading could vary significantly as a function of environmental parameters, and that AFM images could record these variations. The new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index incorporates the new information: longer stellate processes and cell spreading. The support of NSF PHY-095776 is acknowledged.

  2. Sharp Tips on the Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the eight sharp tips of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA.

    The microscope maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with one of the tips at the end of a beam. For the AFM image taken, the tip at the end of the upper right beam was used. The tip pointing up in the enlarged image is the size of a smoke particle at its base, or 2 microns. This image was taken with a scanning electron microscope before Phoenix launched on August 4, 2007.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Calibration of lateral force measurements in atomic force microscopy with a piezoresistive force sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Hui; Vitard, Julien; Haliyo, Sinan; Regnier, Stephane

    2008-03-15

    We present here a method to calibrate the lateral force in the atomic force microscope. This method makes use of an accurately calibrated force sensor composed of a tipless piezoresistive cantilever and corresponding signal amplifying and processing electronics. Two ways of force loading with different loading points were compared by scanning the top and side edges of the piezoresistive cantilever. Conversion factors between the lateral force and photodiode signal using three types of atomic force microscope cantilevers with rectangular geometries (normal spring constants from 0.092 to 1.24 N/m and lateral stiffness from 10.34 to 101.06 N/m) were measured in experiments using the proposed method. When used properly, this method calibrates the conversion factors that are accurate to {+-}12.4% or better. This standard has less error than the commonly used method based on the cantilever's beam mechanics. Methods such of this allow accurate and direct conversion between lateral forces and photodiode signals without any knowledge of the cantilevers and the laser measuring system.

  4. Atomic Force Microscopy on Its Way to Adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessibl, Franz J.

    2003-12-01

    When the atomic force microscope (AFM) was introduced in 1986, its potential to resolve surfaces with true atomic resolution was already proposed. However, substantial problems had to be overcome before atomic resolution became possible by AFM. Today, true atomic resolution by AFM is standard practice. This article discusses the influence of the cantilever stiffness and — amplitude on noise and short-range force sensitivity and introduces a sensor operating at near optimal conditions (qPlus sensor). The data achieved with this optimized sensing technology show substructures within single atom images, attributed to atomic orbitals.

  5. Dielectrophoretic immobilization of proteins: Quantification by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Laux, Eva-Maria; Knigge, Xenia; Bier, Frank F; Wenger, Christian; Hölzel, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    The combination of alternating electric fields with nanometer-sized electrodes allows the permanent immobilization of proteins by dielectrophoretic force. Here, atomic force microscopy is introduced as a quantification method, and results are compared with fluorescence microscopy. Experimental parameters, for example the applied voltage and duration of field application, are varied systematically, and the influence on the amount of immobilized proteins is investigated. A linear correlation to the duration of field application was found by atomic force microscopy, and both microscopical methods yield a square dependence of the amount of immobilized proteins on the applied voltage. While fluorescence microscopy allows real-time imaging, atomic force microscopy reveals immobilized proteins obscured in fluorescence images due to low S/N. Furthermore, the higher spatial resolution of the atomic force microscope enables the visualization of the protein distribution on single nanoelectrodes. The electric field distribution is calculated and compared to experimental results with very good agreement to atomic force microscopy measurements. PMID:26010162

  6. Fast and gentle side approach for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wessels, W. A.; Broekmaat, J. J.; Koster, G.; Rijnders, G.; Beerends, R. J. L.

    2013-12-15

    Atomic force microscopy is one of the most popular imaging tools with atomic resolution in different research fields. Here, a fast and gentle side approach for atomic force microscopy is proposed to image the same surface location and to reduce the time delay between modification and imaging without significant tip degradation. This reproducible approach to image the same surface location using atomic force microscopy shortly after, for example, any biological, chemical, or physical modification on a geometrically separated position has the potential to become widely used.

  7. Electrochemical current-sensing atomic force microscopy in conductive solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pobelov, Ilya V.; Mohos, Miklós; Yoshida, Koji; Kolivoska, Viliam; Avdic, Amra; Lugstein, Alois; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Leonhardt, Kelly; Denuault, Guy; Gollas, Bernhard; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Insulated atomic force microscopy probes carrying gold conductive tips were fabricated and employed as bifunctional force and current sensors in electrolyte solutions under electrochemical potential control. The application of the probes for current-sensing imaging, force and current-distance spectroscopy as well as scanning electrochemical microscopy experiments was demonstrated.

  8. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. PMID:18511917

  9. Surface Biology of DNA by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Helen G.

    2001-10-01

    The atomic force microscope operates on surfaces. Since surfaces occupy much of the space in living organisms, surface biology is a valid and valuable form of biology that has been difficult to investigate in the past owing to a lack of good technology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of DNA has been used to investigate DNA condensation for gene therapy, DNA mapping and sizing, and a few applications to cancer research and to nanotechnology. Some of the most exciting new applications for atomic force microscopy of DNA involve pulling on single DNA molecules to obtain measurements of single-molecule mechanics and thermodynamics.

  10. Phase contrast and operation regimes in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Sergio

    2014-04-07

    In amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy the attractive and the repulsive force regimes induce phase shifts above and below 90°, respectively. In the more recent multifrequency approach, however, multiple operation regimes have been reported and the theory should be revisited. Here, a theory of phase contrast in multifrequency atomic force microscopy is developed and discussed in terms of energy transfer between modes, energy dissipation and the kinetic energy and energy transfer associated with externally driven harmonics. The single frequency virial that controls the phase shift might undergo transitions in sign while the average force (modal virial) remains positive (negative)

  11. Tracing Poly(ethylene-oxide) Crystallization using Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaldi, Xavier; Amanuel, Samuel

    The early stages of nucleation and crystallization of Poly(ethylene-oxide) have been studied using Atomic Force Microscopy equipped with a heating and cooling stage. Effects of molecular weight and sample preparation techniques were studied using amplitude and frequency modulation. Mapping the viscoelastic behavior at different temperatures and has enabled the development of a relatively new technique for following the evolution of crystallization and melting of a semi-crystalline polymer. Tracing Poly(ethylene-oxide) Crystallization using Atomic Force Microscopy.

  12. Study of adhesive forces on a silicon nanotip by atomic force microscope in contact mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agache, Vincent; Legrand, Bernard; Collard, Dominique; Buchaillot, Lionel

    2002-04-01

    Atomic Force Microscope operating in contact mode is used in this paper for probing the spatial distribution of adhesive forces versus the topography of a silicon nanotip. This nanotip consists in an ultra sha4rp silicon tip with radius less than 15 nm fabricated using a combination of high- resolution electron beam lithography and plasma dry etching. The amplitude of the forces is determined from force versus distance curve measurements. Hence, by determining the contact point and the pull-off force from the force curves, the surface topography and the adhesive forces are simultaneously obtained at various locations on the surface. This paper reports both measurements and the modeling of adhesive forces versus the contact point on the nanotip. As the nanotip is sharper and has got a smaller aperture angle than the employed Atomic Force Microscope tip, the measurements are focused on the nanotip apex.

  13. Adhesive forces investigation on a silicon tip by contact-mode atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agache, Vincent; Legrand, Bernard; Collard, Dominique; Buchaillot, Lionel

    2002-09-01

    An atomic force microscope operating in contact mode is used in this letter for probing the adhesive forces at the apex of a silicon nanotip with typical radius smaller than 15 nm, fabricated using a combination of high-resolution electron beam lithography and plasma dry etching. The amplitude of the forces is deduced from force versus distance curve measurements. By determining the contact point and the pull-off force from the force curves, the surface topography and the adhesive forces are simultaneously obtained at various locations on the surface. This letter reports both measurements and modeling of adhesive forces versus the contact point on the nanotip. As the nanotip is sharper and has a smaller aperture angle than the employed atomic force microscope tip, the measurements are focused on the nanotip apex.

  14. Submolecular Resolution Imaging of Molecules by Atomic Force Microscopy: The Influence of the Electrostatic Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lit, Joost; Di Cicco, Francesca; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel; Swart, Ingmar

    2016-03-01

    The forces governing the contrast in submolecular resolution imaging of molecules with atomic force microscopy (AFM) have recently become a topic of intense debate. Here, we show that the electrostatic force is essential to understand the contrast in atomically resolved AFM images of polar molecules. Specifically, we image strongly polarized molecules with negatively and positively charged tips. A contrast inversion is observed above the polar groups. By taking into account the electrostatic forces between tip and molecule, the observed contrast differences can be reproduced using a molecular mechanics model. In addition, we analyze the height dependence of the various force components contributing to the high-resolution AFM contrast.

  15. Atomic force microscopy combined with optical tweezers (AFM/OT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, F.; Zembrzycki, K.; Nakielski, P.; Pawłowska, S.; Kowalewski, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    The role of mechanical properties is essential to understand molecular, biological materials, and nanostructures dynamics and interaction processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the most commonly used method of direct force evaluation, but due to its technical limitations this single probe technique is unable to detect forces with femtonewton resolution. In this paper we present the development of a combined atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers (AFM/OT) instrument. The focused laser beam, on which optical tweezers are based, provides us with the ability to manipulate small dielectric objects and to use it as a high spatial and temporal resolution displacement and force sensor in the same AFM scanning zone. We demonstrate the possibility to develop a combined instrument with high potential in nanomechanics, molecules manipulation and biological studies. AFM/OT equipment is described and characterized by studying the ability to trap dielectric objects and quantifying the detectable and applicable forces. Finally, optical tweezers calibration methods and instrument applications are given.

  16. Lead zirconate titanate cantilever for noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Y.; Fujii, T.; Watanabe, S.; Tonoli, A.; Carabelli, S.; Yamada, H.; Bleuler, H.

    1999-02-01

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy with frequency modulation detection is a promising technique for surface observation with true atomic resolution. The piezoelectric material itself can be an actuator and sensor of the oscillating probe simultaneously, without the need for additional electro-mechanical transducers or other measurement systems. A vertical resolution of 0.01 nm rms has been achieved using a microfabricated cantilever with lead zirconate titanate thin film in noncontact mode frequency modulation detection. The cantilever also has a sharpened pyramidal stylus with a radius of about 10 nm for noncontact atomic force microscopy.

  17. Dressed-atom description of the bichromatic force

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsenko, Leonid; Metcalf, Harold

    2004-12-01

    We develop a dressed-atom picture of the bichromatic force in two standing waves using a Floquet approach. It is based on previous work, but the approach allows for an interpretation of the velocity range of the force. It is limited to two-level atoms and one dimension, and the Floquet frequency is the beat between the two bichromatic optical fields. The force is mediated by Landau-Zener transitions between the dressed states of the Floquet Hamiltonian. Related topics have been addressed before in the literature, but not applied to this particular case.

  18. Combined scanning electrochemical atomic force microscopy for tapping mode imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueng, A.; Kranz, C.; Mizaikoff, B.; Lugstein, A.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2003-03-01

    With the integration of submicro- and nanoelectrodes into atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips using microfabrication techniques, an elegant approach combining scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) with atomic force microscopy has recently been demonstrated. Simultaneous imaging of topography and electrochemistry at a sample surface in AFM tapping mode with integrated SECM-AFM cantilevers oscillated at or near their resonance frequency is shown. In contrast to contact mode AFM imaging frictional forces at the sample surface are minimized. Hence, topographical and electrochemical information of soft surfaces (e.g., biological species) can be obtained.

  19. Atomic micromotion and geometric forces in a triaxial magnetic trap

    PubMed

    Muller; Morsch; Ciampini; Anderlini; Mannella; Arimondo

    2000-11-20

    Nonadiabatic motion of Bose-Einstein condensates of rubidium atoms arising from the dynamical nature of a time-orbiting-potential (TOP) trap was observed experimentally. The orbital micromotion of the condensate in velocity space at the frequency of the rotating bias field of the TOP was detected by a time-of-flight method. A dependence of the equilibrium position of the atoms on the sense of rotation of the bias field was observed. We have compared our experimental findings with numerical simulations. The nonadiabatic following of the atomic spin in the trap rotating magnetic field produces geometric forces acting on the trapped atoms. PMID:11082569

  20. Microrheology of cells with magnetic force modulation atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rebêlo, L M; de Sousa, J S; Mendes Filho, J; Schäpe, J; Doschke, H; Radmacher, M

    2014-04-01

    We propose a magnetic force modulation method to measure the stiffness and viscosity of living cells using a modified AFM apparatus. An oscillating magnetic field makes a magnetic cantilever oscillate in contact with the sample, producing a small AC indentation. By comparing the amplitude of the free cantilever motion (A0) with the motion of the cantilever in contact with the sample (A1), we determine the sample stiffness and viscosity. To test the method, the frequency-dependent stiffness of 3T3 fibroblasts was determined as a power law k(s)(f) = α + β(f/f¯)(γ) (α = 7.6 × 10(-4) N m(-1), β = 1.0 × 10(-4) N m(-1), f¯ = 1 Hz, γ = 0.6), where the coefficient γ = 0.6 is in good agreement with rheological data of actin solutions with concentrations similar to those in cells. The method also allows estimation of the internal friction of the cells. In particular we found an average damping coefficient of 75.1 μN s m(-1) for indentation depths ranging between 1.0 μm and 2.0 μm. PMID:24651941

  1. Study of surface forces dependence on pH by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gavoille, J; Takadoum, J

    2002-06-01

    We used an atomic force microscope to investigate silicon nitride tip interactions with various materials (copper, nickel, silicon carbide) as a function of pH. The electrolyte used was 10(-3) M NaCl and the interactions observed through force versus distance curves (attraction or repulsion) depended on the pH value. Interaction forces calculation was derived from force versus distance curve data and the results are discussed in terms of electrostatic interactions using Zeta potential theory. PMID:16290640

  2. Theoretical Models for Surface Forces and Adhesion and Their Measurement Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fabio L.; Bueno, Carolina C.; Da Róz, Alessandra L.; Ziemath, Ervino C.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS), it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of AFS, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution. PMID:23202925

  3. Note: Artificial neural networks for the automated analysis of force map data in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Schäffer, Tilman E.

    2014-05-15

    Force curves recorded with the atomic force microscope on structured samples often show an irregular force versus indentation behavior. An analysis of such curves using standard contact models (e.g., the Sneddon model) would generate inaccurate Young's moduli. A critical inspection of the force curve shape is therefore necessary for estimating the reliability of the generated Young's modulus. We used a trained artificial neural network to automatically recognize curves of “good” and of “bad” quality. This is especially useful for improving the analysis of force maps that consist of a large number of force curves.

  4. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2014-07-01

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ≈10-100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed. PMID:25085142

  5. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E.

    2014-07-01

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ≈10-100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed.

  6. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E.

    2014-07-15

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ≈10−100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed.

  7. Sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy for lateral force gradient measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atabak, Mehrdad; Ünverdi, Özhan; Özer, H. Özgür; Oral, Ahmet

    2009-12-01

    We report the first results from novel sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy developed for lateral force gradient measurements. Quantitative lateral force gradients between a tungsten tip and Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surface can be measured using this microscope. Simultaneous lateral force gradient and scanning tunnelling microscope images of single and multi atomic steps are obtained. In our measurement, tunnel current is used as feedback. The lateral stiffness contrast has been observed to be 2.5 N/m at single atomic step, in contrast to 13 N/m at multi atomic step on Si(1 1 1) surface. We also carried out a series of lateral stiffness-distance spectroscopy. We observed lateral stiffness-distance curves exhibit sharp increase in the stiffness as the sample is approached towards the surface. We usually observed positive stiffness and sometimes going into slightly negative region.

  8. Universal aspects of adhesion and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Smith, John R.; Ferrante, John

    1990-01-01

    Adhesive energies are computed for flat and atomically sharp tips as a function of the normal distance to the substrate. The dependence of binding energies on tip shape is investigated. The magnitudes of the binding energies for the atomic force microscope are found to depend sensitively on tip material, tip shape and the sample site being probed. The form of the energy-distance curve, however, is universal and independent of these variables, including tip shape.

  9. Probe-rotating atomic force microscopy for determining material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Heon

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, we propose a probe-rotating atomic force microscope that enables scan in an arbitrary direction in the contact imaging mode, which is difficult to achieve using a conventional atomic force microscope owing to the orientation-dependent probe and the inability to rotate the probe head. To enable rotation of the probe about its vertical axis, we employed a compact and light probe head, the sensor of which is made of an optical disk drive pickup unit. Our proposed mechanical configuration, operating principle, and control system enables axial and lateral scan in various directions.

  10. Taking Nanomedicine Teaching into Practice with Atomic Force Microscopy and Force Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Filomena A.; Freitas, Teresa; Santos, Nuno C.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful and powerful tool to study molecular interactions applied to nanomedicine. The aim of the present study was to implement a hands-on atomic AFM course for graduated biosciences and medical students. The course comprises two distinct practical sessions, where students get in touch with the use of an atomic…

  11. Universal aspects of brittle fracture, adhesion, and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1989-01-01

    This universal relation between binding energy and interatomic separation was originally discovered for adhesion at bimetallic interfaces involving the simple metals Al, Zn, Mg, and Na. It is shown here that the same universal relation extends to adhesion at transition-metal interfaces. Adhesive energies have been computed for the low-index interfaces of Al, Ni, Cu, Ag, Fe, and W, using the equivalent-crystal theory (ECT) and keeping the atoms in each semiinfinite slab fixed rigidly in their equilibrium positions. These adhesive energy curves can be scaled onto each other and onto the universal adhesion curve. The effect of tip shape on the adhesive forces in the atomic-force microscope (AFM) is studied by computing energies and forces using the ECT. While the details of the energy-distance and force-distance curves are sensitive to tip shape, all of these curves can be scaled onto the universal adhesion curve.

  12. A Dressed Atom Description of the Bichromatic Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, Leonid; Metcalf, Harold

    2004-05-01

    We have elaborated on the dressed atom description of the bichromatic force initially proposed by Grimm et al(R. Grimm et al., Opt. Lett. 19), 658 (1994).^,(R. Grimm et al., Proceeding of the International School of Physics, ``Enrico Fermi", Course CXXXI, IOS Press, Amsterdam 1996.). We present two completely equivalent Floquet Hamiltonians that mimic the ``atom plus field" system of the dressed atom spectrum. One is best for high velocities and the other for small velocities (kv relative to 2δ, the bichromatic frequency difference). Then we argue that the force arises from the exchange of kinetic energy with the ``atom plus field" system. But transitions between the dressed states must occur by Landau-Zener (LZ) transitions as the atoms pass through exact or small crossings, and calculate these rates from the eigenstates of the Floquet Hamiltonian. We find that some ``anti-crossings" are passed adiabatically and some non-adiabatically, and the criterion is the atomic velocity. We find two LZ velocities that bound the range of the force, thus enabling a description of its velocity range. This is the first time that the observed capture range ± δ/2k has been calculated.

  13. Dispersion forces at arbitrary distances. [between closed-shell atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobi, N.; Csanak, G.

    1975-01-01

    The formalism of Boehm and Yaris is used to evaluate explicitly the leading term of the London dispersion force between closed-shell atoms. Instead of using the usual multipole expansion, which breaks down at intermediate internuclear distances, an analytic representation of the Born amplitude together with a general angular momentum analysis is used. As a result, expressions are obtained which reduce to the usual dispersion forces at large distances and are finite at all distances.

  14. Using Atom Interferometry to Search for New Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2009-12-11

    Atom interferometry is a rapidly advancing field and this Letter proposes an experiment based on existing technology that can search for new short distance forces. With current technology it is possible to improve the sensitivity by up to a factor of 10{sup 2} and near-future advances will be able to rewrite the limits for forces with ranges from 100 {micro}m to 1km.

  15. Conducting atomic force microscopy of alkane layers on graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D.L.; McEuen, P.L.

    1995-05-08

    We have used an atomic force microscope with a conducting tip to investigate the layering of hexadecane on graphite. Discrete jumps were observed in both the tip--sample conductance and separation as individual liquid layers are penetrated. These conductance measurements extend solvation studies to higher force scales than have been previously achieved, and can be used to determine when the tip makes contact with the substrate. The layering also enables the formation of stable tunneling junctions.

  16. Properties of Atoms in Molecules:  Caged Atoms and the Ehrenfest Force.

    PubMed

    Bader, Richard F W; Fang, De-Cai

    2005-05-01

    This paper uses the properties of atom X enclosed within an adamantane cage, denoted by X@C10H16, as a vehicle to introduce the Ehrenfest force into the discussion of bonding, the properties being determined by the physics of an open system. This is the force acting on an atom in a molecule and determining the potential energy appearing in Slater's molecular virial theorem. The Ehrenfest force acting across the interatomic surface of a bonded pair atoms [Formula: see text] atoms linked by a bond path [Formula: see text] is attractive, each atom being drawn toward the other, and the associated surface virial that measures the contribution to the energy arising from the formation of the surface is stabilizing. It is the Ehrenfest force that determines the adhesive properties of surfaces. The endothermicity of formation for X = He or Ne is not a result of instabilities incurred in the interaction of X with the four methine carbons to which it is bonded, interactions that are stabilizing both in terms of the changes in the atomic energies and in the surface virials. The exothermicity for X = Be(2+), B(3+), and Al(3+) is a consequence of the transfer of electron density from the hydrogen atoms to the carbon and X atoms, the exothermicity increasing with charge transfer despite an increase in the contained volume of X. PMID:26641507

  17. Large momentum transfer atom interferometry with Coriolis force compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Pei-Chen; Lan, Shau-Yu; Estey, Brian; Haslinger, Philipp; Mueller, Holger

    2012-06-01

    Light-pulse atom interferometers use atom-photon interactions to coherently split, guide, and recombine freely falling matter-waves. Because of Earth's rotation, however, the matter-waves do not recombine precisely, which causes severe loss of contrast in large space-time atom interferometers. I will present our recent progress in using a tip-tilt mirror to remove the influence of the Coriolis force from Earth's rotation. Therefore, we improve the contrast and suppress systematic effects, also reach what is to our knowledge the largest spacetime area.

  18. Lateral force calibration: accurate procedures for colloidal probe friction measurements in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Koo-Hyun; Pratt, Jon R; Reitsma, Mark G

    2010-01-19

    The colloidal probe technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) has allowed the investigation of an extensive range of surface force phenomena, including the measurement of frictional (lateral) forces between numerous materials. The quantitative accuracy of such friction measurements is often debated, in part due to a lack of confidence in existing calibration strategies. Here we compare three in situ AFM lateral force calibration techniques using a single colloidal probe, seeking to establish a foundation for quantitative measurement by linking these techniques to accurate force references available at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. We introduce a procedure for calibrating the AFM lateral force response to known electrostatic forces applied directly to the conductive colloidal probe. In a second procedure, we apply known force directly to the colloidal probe using a precalibrated piezo-resistive reference cantilever. We found agreement between these direct methods on the order of 2% (within random uncertainty for both measurements). In a third procedure, we performed a displacement-based calibration using the piezo-resistive reference cantilever as a stiffness reference artifact. The method demonstrated agreement on the order of 7% with the direct force methods, with the difference attributed to an expected systematic uncertainty, caused by in-plane deflection in the cantilever during loading. The comparison establishes the existing limits of instrument accuracy and sets down a basis for selection criteria for materials and methods in colloidal probe friction (lateral) force measurements via atomic force microscopy. PMID:19827782

  19. Bifurcation, chaos, and scan instability in dynamic atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamical motion at any point on the cantilever of an atomic force microscope can be expressed quite generally as a superposition of simple harmonic oscillators corresponding to the vibrational modes allowed by the cantilever shape. Central to the dynamical equations is the representation of the cantilever-sample interaction force as a polynomial expansion with coefficients that account for the interaction force "stiffness," the cantilever-to-sample energy transfer, and the displacement amplitude of cantilever oscillation. Renormalization of the cantilever beam model shows that for a given cantilever drive frequency cantilever dynamics can be accurately represented by a single nonlinear mass-spring model with frequency-dependent stiffness and damping coefficients [S. A. Cantrell and J. H. Cantrell, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094314 (2011)]. Application of the Melnikov method to the renormalized dynamical equation is shown to predict a cascade of period doubling bifurcations with increasing cantilever drive force that terminates in chaos. The threshold value of the drive force necessary to initiate bifurcation is shown to depend strongly on the cantilever setpoint and drive frequency, effective damping coefficient, nonlinearity of the cantilever-sample interaction force, and the displacement amplitude of cantilever oscillation. The model predicts the experimentally observed interruptions of the bifurcation cascade for cantilevers of sufficiently large stiffness. Operational factors leading to the loss of image quality in dynamic atomic force microscopy are addressed, and guidelines for optimizing scan stability are proposed using a quantitative analysis based on system dynamical parameters and choice of feedback loop parameter.

  20. Elasticity measurement of breast cancer cells by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chaoxian; Wang, Yuhua; Jiang, Ningcheng; Yang, Hongqin; Lin, Juqiang; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical properties of living cells play an important role in understanding various cells' function and state. Therefore cell biomechanics is expected to become a useful tool for cancer diagnosis. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) using a square pyramid probe was performed to investigate cancerous (MCF-7) and benign (MCF-10A) human breast epithelial cells. The new QITM mode was used to acquire high-resolution topographic images and elasticity of living cells. Furthermore, individual force curves were recorded at maximum loads of 0.2, 0.5 and 1 nN, and the dependence of cell's elasticity with loading force was discussed. It was showed that the cancerous cells exhibited smaller elasticity modulus in comparison to non-cancerous counterparts. The elasticity modulus increased as the loading force increased from 0.2 nN to 1 nN. This observation indicates that loading force affects the cell's apparent elasticity and it is important to choose the appropriate force applied to cells in order to distinguish normal and cancer cells. The results reveal that the mechanical properties of living cells measured by atomic force microscopy may be a useful indicator of cell type and disease.

  1. Microbially influenced corrosion visualized by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telegdi, J.; Keresztes, Z.; Pálinkás, G.; Kálmán, E.; Sand, W.

    Corrosion, biofilm formation and the adsorption of different, corrosion-enhancing microbes (such as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus intermedius, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, and mixed cultures) to different surfaces (iron, copper, pyrite) have been studied in aqueous environment by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is one of the most effective on-line techniques for imaging surfaces (bacterial, metallic, etc.) with high resolution.

  2. Resolving amorphous solid-liquid interfaces by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Gura, Leonard; Kell, Burkhard; Büchner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian L.; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Recent advancements in liquid atomic force microscopy make it an ideal technique for probing the structure of solid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present a structural study of a two-dimensional amorphous silica bilayer immersed in an aqueous solution utilizing liquid atomic force microscopy with sub-nanometer resolution. Structures show good agreement with atomically resolved ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy images obtained on the same sample system, owing to the structural stability of the silica bilayer and the imaging clarity from the two-dimensional sample system. Pair distance histograms of ring center positions are utilized to develop quantitative metrics for structural comparison, and the physical origin of pair distance histogram peaks is addressed by direct assessment of real space structures.

  3. Resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Cantrell, Sean A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope and methodology called resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope, driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by one of the contact resonance frequencies of the cantilever, engages the sample top surface. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave in the region defined by the cantilever tip-sample surface interaction force generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever contact resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create images of nanoscale near-surface and subsurface features.

  4. Dissipation and oscillatory solvation forces in confined liquids studied by small-amplitude atomic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2010-08-13

    We determine conservative and dissipative tip-sample interaction forces from the amplitude and phase response of acoustically driven atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers using a non-polar model fluid (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, which displays strong molecular layering) and atomically flat surfaces of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. Taking into account the base motion and the frequency-dependent added mass and hydrodynamic damping on the AFM cantilever, we develop a reliable force inversion procedure that allows for extracting tip-sample interaction forces for a wide range of drive frequencies. We systematically eliminate the effect of finite drive amplitudes. Dissipative tip-sample forces are consistent with the bulk viscosity down to a thickness of 2-3 nm. Dissipation measurements far below resonance, which we argue to be the most reliable, indicate the presence of peaks in the damping, corresponding to an enhanced 'effective' viscosity, upon expelling the last and second-last molecular layer. PMID:20639584

  5. Improved atomic force microscopy cantilever performance by partial reflective coating.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Zeno; Miyahara, Yoichi; Aeschimann, Laure; Grütter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Optical beam deflection systems are widely used in cantilever based atomic force microscopy (AFM). Most commercial cantilevers have a reflective metal coating on the detector side to increase the reflectivity in order to achieve a high signal on the photodiode. Although the reflective coating is usually much thinner than the cantilever, it can still significantly contribute to the damping of the cantilever, leading to a lower mechanical quality factor (Q-factor). In dynamic mode operation in high vacuum, a cantilever with a high Q-factor is desired in order to achieve a lower minimal detectable force. The reflective coating can also increase the low-frequency force noise. In contact mode and force spectroscopy, a cantilever with minimal low-frequency force noise is desirable. We present a study on cantilevers with a partial reflective coating on the detector side. For this study, soft (≈0.01 N/m) and stiff (≈28 N/m) rectangular cantilevers were used with a custom partial coating at the tip end of the cantilever. The Q-factor, the detection and the force noise of fully coated, partially coated and uncoated cantilevers are compared and force distance curves are shown. Our results show an improvement in low-frequency force noise and increased Q-factor for the partially coated cantilevers compared to fully coated ones while maintaining the same reflectivity, therefore making it possible to combine the best of both worlds. PMID:26199849

  6. The Bichromatic Optical Force on the Atomic Life- time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corder, Christopher; Arnold, Brian; Metcalf, Harold

    2013-05-01

    Our experimental and theoretical studies of the bichromatic force (BF) have shown that its strength and velocity range are very much larger than those of the usual radiative force. Since the BF relies on stimulated effects, the role of spontaneous emission in laser cooling has come into question. We drive the 23 S -->33 P transition of He at λ = 389 nm with laser frequencies ωl =ωa +/- δ , where ωa is the atomic transition frequency and δ ~ 30 MHz. Thus the velocity range of the force is Δv ~ δ / 2 k = 6 m/s. Because of the large and nearly constant strength of the BF, F ~ ℏkδ / π , all atoms can reach the velocity limit in a time <= MΔv / F = π / 4ωr = 380 ns, where ωr is the atomic recoil frequency. In our experiment a beam of He atoms crosses perpendicular through the BF laser beams in 380 ns so the relatively long lifetime of the excited state (τ = 106 ns) allows one or at most two spontaneous emission events, despite Δv of many tens of recoils. We will present our initial measurements of the BF in this new domain. Supported by ONR and Dept. of Ed. GAANN.

  7. Influence of the Coriolis Force in Atom Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Shau-Yu; Kuan, Pei-Chen; Estey, Brian; Haslinger, Philipp; Müller, Holger

    2012-03-01

    In a light-pulse atom interferometer, we use a tip-tilt mirror to remove the influence of the Coriolis force from Earth’s rotation and to characterize configuration space wave packets. For interferometers with a large momentum transfer and large pulse separation time, we improve the contrast by up to 350% and suppress systematic effects. We also reach what is to our knowledge the largest space-time area enclosed in any atom interferometer to date. We discuss implications for future high-performance instruments.

  8. Radiation force on a single atom in a cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the radiation pressure microscopically. Two perfectly conducting plates are parallelly placed in a vacuum. As the vacuum field hits the plates they get pressure from the vacuum. The excessive outside modes of the vacuum field push the plates together, which is known as the Casimer force. We investigate the quantization of the standing wave between the plates to study the interaction between this wave and the atoms on the plates or between the plates. We show that even the vacuum field pushes the atom to place it at nodes of the standing wave.

  9. Influence of the Coriolis force in atom interferometry.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shau-Yu; Kuan, Pei-Chen; Estey, Brian; Haslinger, Philipp; Müller, Holger

    2012-03-01

    In a light-pulse atom interferometer, we use a tip-tilt mirror to remove the influence of the Coriolis force from Earth's rotation and to characterize configuration space wave packets. For interferometers with a large momentum transfer and large pulse separation time, we improve the contrast by up to 350% and suppress systematic effects. We also reach what is to our knowledge the largest space-time area enclosed in any atom interferometer to date. We discuss implications for future high-performance instruments. PMID:22463619

  10. Stochastic friction force mechanism of energy dissipation in noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantorovich, L. N.

    2001-12-01

    The tip-surface interaction in noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) leads to energy dissipation, which has been used as another imaging mechanism of surface topography with atomic resolution. In this paper, using a rigorous approach based on the coarse graining method of (classical) nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, we derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the tip distribution function and then the Langevin equation (equation of motion) for the tip. We show that the latter equation contains a friction force leading to the energy dissipation. The friction force is related to the correlation function of the fluctuating tip-surface force in agreement with earlier treatments by other methods. Using a simple model of a plane surface in which only one surface atom interacts directly with the tip (it, however, interacts with other surface atoms), we calculate the friction coefficient and the corresponding dissipation energy as a function of the tip position. In our model all surface atoms are allowed to relax. Nevertheless, our calculations qualitatively agree with a previous much simpler treatment by Gauthier and Tsukada [Phys. Rev. B 60, 11 716 (1999)] that, at least for the plain terraces, the calculated dissipation energies appear to be much smaller than observed in experiments. We also demonstrate the validity of the Markovian approximation in studying the NC-AFM system.

  11. Effect of contact stiffness on wedge calibration of lateral force in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fei; Zhao Xuezeng

    2007-04-15

    Quantitative friction measurement of nanomaterials in atomic force microscope requires accurate calibration method for lateral force. The effect of contact stiffness on lateral force calibration of atomic force microscope is discussed in detail and an improved calibration method is presented. The calibration factor derived from the original method increased with the applied normal load, which indicates that separate calibration should be required for every given applied normal load to keep the accuracy of friction measurement. We improve the original method by introducing the contact factor, which is derived from the contact stiffness between the tip and the sample, to the calculation of calibration factors. The improved method makes the calculation of calibration factors under different applied normal loads possible without repeating the calibration procedure. Comparative experiments on a silicon wafer have been done by both the two methods to validate the method in this article.

  12. High Resolution Imaging by Atomic Force Microscopy: Contribution of short-range force to the imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Toyoaki; Kotone, Akiyama; Masanori, Ono; Toshio, Sakurai; Yukio, Hasegawa

    2003-03-01

    Recent developments in force detection technique have made us possible to obtain atomically resolved images of the Si(111)-(7x7) surface by AFM. Compared with STM, however, its spatial resolution remains limited. In this presentation, we demonstrate that with careful pretreatment and appropriate experimental parameters, the structure of the rest-atom layer can be imaged using AFM by detecting the short-range force due to the single chemical bonding. The detection of the short-range force is verified by analysis of the frequency-shift versus distance curve (force curve). This unprecedented high resolution is achieved by reducing background forces due to the long-range interactions with small oscillation amplitude of the cantilever and an atomically sharp tip. The high temperature annealing of the cantilever assists in obtaining a bare silicon tip on the cantilever without unwanted tip-blunting, and improving the Q-factor of the cantilever. This study implies that characterization of the AFM tip in nanometer scale, not only on the apex atoms but also its shape near the apex, is important and critical for AFM high resolution imaging.

  13. Self-oscillating tapping mode atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, L.; Rogers, B.; Jones, M.; Adams, J. D.; Fuste, J. L.; Minne, S. C.

    2003-09-01

    A piezoelectric microcantilever probe is demonstrated as a self-oscillator used for tapping mode atomic force microscopy. The integrated piezoelectric film on the cantilever serves as the frequency-determining component of an oscillator circuit; oscillation near the cantilever's resonant frequency is maintained by applying positive feedback to the film via this circuit. This new mode, which is a step towards more compact and parallel tapping mode AFM imaging, is demonstrated by imaging an evaporated gold film on a silicon substrate. A self-oscillating frequency spectrum and a force-distance curve are also presented.

  14. Surface modifications with Lissajous trajectories using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Wei; Yao, Nan

    2015-09-14

    In this paper, we report a method for atomic force microscopy surface modifications with single-tone and multiple-resolution Lissajous trajectories. The tip mechanical scratching experiments with two series of Lissajous trajectories were carried out on monolayer films. The scratching processes with two scan methods have been illustrated. As an application, the tip-based triboelectrification phenomenon on the silicon dioxide surface with Lissajous trajectories was investigated. The triboelectric charges generated within the tip rubbed area on the surface were characterized in-situ by scanning Kelvin force microscopy. This method would provide a promising and cost-effective approach for surface modifications and nanofabrication.

  15. Non-contact atomic-level interfacial force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J.E.; Fleming, J.G.

    1997-02-01

    The scanning force microscopies (notably the Atomic Force Microscope--AFM), because of their applicability to nearly all materials, are presently the most widely used of the scanning-probe techniques. However, the AFM uses a deflection sensor to measure sample/probe forces which suffers from an inherent mechanical instability that occurs when the rate of change of the force with respect to the interfacial separation becomes equal to the spring constant of the deflecting member. This instability dramatically limits the breadth of applicability of AFM-type techniques to materials problems. In the course of implementing a DOE sponsored basic research program in interfacial adhesion, a self-balancing force sensor concept has been developed and incorporated into an Interfacial Force Microscopy (IFM) system by Sandia scientists. This sensor eliminates the instability problem and greatly enhances the applicability of the scanning force-probe technique to a broader range of materials and materials parameters. The impact of this Sandia development was recognized in 1993 by a Department of Energy award for potential impact on DOE programs and by an R and D 100 award for one of the most important new products of 1994. However, in its present stage of development, the IFM is strictly a research-level tool and a CRADA was initiated in order to bring this sensor technology into wide-spread availability by making it accessible in the form of a commercial instrument. The present report described the goals, approach and results of this CRADA effort.

  16. Adhesion Forces between Lewis(X) Determinant Antigens as Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tromas, C; Rojo, J; de la Fuente, J M; Barrientos, A G; García, R; Penadés, S

    2001-01-01

    The adhesion forces between individual molecules of Lewis(X) trisaccharide antigen (Le(X) ) have been measured in water and in calcium solution by using atomic force microscopy (AFM, see graph). These results demonstrate the self-recognition capability of this antigen, and reinforce the hypothesis that carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction could be considered as the first step in the cell-adhesion process in nature. PMID:12203646

  17. A variable temperature ultrahigh vacuum atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Q.; Vollmer, R.; Carpick, R.W.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.

    1995-11-01

    A new atomic force microscope (AFM) that operates in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) is described. The sample is held fixed with spring clamps while the AMF cantilever and deflection sensor are scanned above it. Thus, the sample is easily coupled to a liquid nitrogen cooled thermal reservoir which allows AFM operation from {approx}100 K to room temperature. AFM operation above room temperature is also possible. The microscope head is capable of coarse {ital x}-{ital y} positioning over millimeter distances so that AFM images can be taken virtually anywhere upon a macroscopic sample. The optical beam deflection scheme is used for detection, allowing simultaneous normal and lateral force measurements. The sample can be transferred from the AFM stage to a low energy electron diffraction/Auger electron spectrometer stage for surface analysis. Atomic lattice resolution AFM images taken in UHV are presented at 110, 296, and 430 K. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  18. Atomic force microscopy images of lyotropic lamellar phases.

    PubMed

    Garza, C; Thieghi, L T; Castillo, R

    2007-02-01

    For the very first time, atomic force microscope images of lamellar phases were observed combined with a freeze fracture technique that does not involve the use of replicas. Samples are rapidly frozen, fractured, and scanned directly with atomic force microscopy, at liquid nitrogen temperature and in high vacuum. This procedure can be used to investigate micro-structured liquids. The lamellar phases in Sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/water and in C12E5/water systems were used to asses this new technique. Our observations were compared with x-ray diffraction measurements and with other freeze fracture methods reported in the literature. Our results show that this technique is useful to image lyotropic lamellar phases and the estimated repeat distances for lamellar periodicity are consistent with those obtained by x-ray diffraction. PMID:17302467

  19. Atomic force microscopy images of lyotropic lamellar phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, C.; Thieghi, L. T.; Castillo, R.

    2007-02-01

    For the very first time, atomic force microscope images of lamellar phases were observed combined with a freeze fracture technique that does not involve the use of replicas. Samples are rapidly frozen, fractured, and scanned directly with atomic force microscopy, at liquid nitrogen temperature and in high vacuum. This procedure can be used to investigate micro-structured liquids. The lamellar phases in Sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/water and in C12E5/water systems were used to asses this new technique. Our observations were compared with x-ray diffraction measurements and with other freeze fracture methods reported in the literature. Our results show that this technique is useful to image lyotropic lamellar phases and the estimated repeat distances for lamellar periodicity are consistent with those obtained by x-ray diffraction.

  20. Automated manipulation of carbon nanotubes using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Sen; Fu, Xing

    2013-01-01

    The manipulation of carbon nanotubes is an important and essential step for carbon-based nanodevice or nanocircuit assembly. However, the conventional push-and-image approach of manipulating carbon nanotubes using atomic force microscopy has low efficiency on account of the reduplicated scanning process during manipulation. In this article, an automated manipulation system is designed and tested. This automated manipulation system, which includes an atomic force microscope platform and a self-developed computer program for one-dimensional manipulation, is capable of automatically moving any assigned individual carbon nanotube to a defined target location without any intermediate scanning procedure. To demonstrate the high-efficiency of this automated manipulation system and its potential applications in nanoassembly, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment used this system to manipulate a carbon nanotube to a defined target location. In the second experiment, this system was used to automatically manipulate several carbon nanotubes for generating and translating a defined pattern of nanotubes. PMID:23646781

  1. Nanoindentation of gold nanorods with an atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reischl, B.; Kuronen, A.; Nordlund, K.

    2014-12-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) can be used to measure mechanical properties of nanoscale objects, which are too small to be studied using a conventional nanoindenter. The contact mechanics at such small scales, in proximity of free surfaces, deviate substantially from simple continuum models. We present results from atomistic computer simulations of the indentation of gold nanorods using a diamond AFM tip and give insight in the atomic scale processes, involving creation and migration of dislocations, leading to the plastic deformation of the sample under load, and explain the force-distance curves observed for different tip apex radii of curvature, as well as different crystallographic structure and orientation of the gold nanorod samples.

  2. Quantitative metallography of structural materials with the atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Goeken, M.; Vehoff, H.

    1996-10-15

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM) is now a well-established technique for imaging surface topography with high resolution and can be used to study the microstructure of structural materials in a nanometer range. On multiphase materials a contrast in the topographic AFM images is obtained from small height differences between the different phases. Accordingly investigations of microstructures that are prepared to have small height differences between the phases can be done. The AFM needs no vacuum, large specimen areas compared to the small areas in thinned TEM foils can be analyzed. This reduces the costs of the measurements significantly. In addition it is advantageous that all measurements are stored as data files in the computer and therefore quantitative evaluations of the topographic data can be performed directly. The microstructures of different crystalline alloys were investigated with the atomic force microscope. The examples include superalloys (Waspaloy, CMSX-6), martensitic transformed surfaces (NiAlCo), and steels (microalloyed steel, perlitic carbon steel).

  3. Quantification of dissipation and deformation in ambient atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Sergio; Gadelrab, Karim R.; Barcons, Victor; Stefancich, Marco; Chiesa, Matteo

    2012-07-01

    A formalism to extract and quantify unknown quantities such as sample deformation, the viscosity of the sample and surface energy hysteresis in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is presented. Recovering the unknowns only requires the cantilever to be accurately calibrated and the dissipative processes occurring during sample deformation to be well modeled. The theory is validated by comparison with numerical simulations and shown to be able to provide, in principle, values of sample deformation with picometer resolution.

  4. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M

    2015-04-01

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H(∞) control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments. PMID:25933864

  5. Atomic force microscope observations of otoconia in the newt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallworth, R.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Campbell, J. B.; Steyger, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    Calcitic and aragonitic otoconia from the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, were examined using an atomic force microscope. The surface structure of both otoconial polymorphs consisted of arrays of elements approximately 50 nm in diameter. Elements were generally round and were separated by shallow depressions of no more than 20 nm. The elements are suggested to be single crystals of calcium carbonate. The relationship of these observations to theories of otoconial genesis is discussed.

  6. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex. PMID:24338992

  7. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Shi, Xuetao; Ostrovidov, Serge; Wu, Hongkai; Nakajima, Ken

    2016-03-01

    A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  8. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.

    2015-04-15

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H{sub ∞} control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.

  9. Demonstration of atomic scale stick-slip events stimulated by the force versus distance mode using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Gregory S.; Dinte, Bradley P.; Blach, Jolanta A.; Myhra, Sverre

    2002-08-01

    It has been shown that longitudinal deformation of the force-sensing/imposing lever can be stimulated by the conventional force versus distance (F-d), analytical mode of a scanning force microscope. Accordingly it is possible to measure simultaneously both in-plane and out-of-plane force components acting between a tip and a surface. Discrete atomic scale stick-slip events have been observed by F-d generated friction loop analysis of cleaved WTe2, Mica and HOPG single crystals, and of a Langmuir-Blodgett film. Due to the lever geometry, the lateral resolution arising from z-stage movement is better by an order of magnitude than that obtained from translation of the x-y-stage.

  10. Atomic Force Microscopy Application in Biological Research: A Review Study

    PubMed Central

    Vahabi, Surena; Nazemi Salman, Bahareh; Javanmard, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a three-dimensional topographic technique with a high atomic resolution to measure surface roughness. AFM is a kind of scanning probe microscope, and its near-field technique is based on the interaction between a sharp tip and the atoms of the sample surface. There are several methods and many ways to modify the tip of the AFM to investigate surface properties, including measuring friction, adhesion forces and viscoelastic properties as well as determining the Young modulus and imaging magnetic or electrostatic properties. The AFM technique can analyze any kind of samples such as polymers, adsorbed molecules, films or fibers, and powders in the air whether in a controlled atmosphere or in a liquid medium. In the past decade, the AFM has emerged as a powerful tool to obtain the nanostructural details and biomechanical properties of biological samples, including biomolecules and cells. The AFM applications, techniques, and -in particular- its ability to measure forces, are not still familiar to most clinicians. This paper reviews the literature on the main principles of the AFM modality and highlights the advantages of this technique in biology, medicine, and- especially- dentistry. This literature review was performed through E-resources, including Science Direct, PubMed, Blackwell Synergy, Embase, Elsevier, and Scholar Google for the references published between 1985 and 2010. PMID:23825885

  11. Bitumen morphologies by phase-detection atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Masson, J-F; Leblond, V; Margeson, J

    2006-01-01

    Summary Bitumen is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons for which microstructural knowledge is incomplete. In an effort to detail this microstructure, 13 bitumens were analysed by phase-detection atomic force microscopy. Based on morphology, the bitumens could be classified into three distinct groups. One group showed fine domains down to 0.1 microm, another showed domains of about 1 microm, and a third group showed up to four different domains or phases of different sizes and shapes. No correlation was found between the atomic force microscopy morphology and the composition based on asphaltenes, polar aromatics, naphthene aromatics and saturates. A high correlation was found between the area of the 'bee-like' structures and the vanadium and nickel content in bitumen, and between the atomic force microscopy groups and the average size of molecular planes made of fused aromatics. The morphology and the molecular arrangements in bitumen thus appear to be partly governed by the molecular planes and the polarity defined by metallic cations. PMID:16438686

  12. Imaging stability in force-feedback high-speed atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung I; Boehm, Ryan D

    2013-02-01

    We studied the stability of force-feedback high-speed atomic force microscopy (HSAFM) by imaging soft, hard, and biological sample surfaces at various applied forces. The HSAFM images showed sudden topographic variations of streaky fringes with a negative applied force when collected on a soft hydrocarbon film grown on a grating sample, whereas they showed stable topographic features with positive applied forces. The instability of HSAFM images with the negative applied force was explained by the transition between contact and noncontact regimes in the force-distance curve. When the grating surface was cleaned, and thus hydrophilic by removing the hydrocarbon film, enhanced imaging stability was observed at both positive and negative applied forces. The higher adhesive interaction between the tip and the surface explains the improved imaging stability. The effects of imaging rate on the imaging stability were tested on an even softer adhesive Escherichia coli biofilm deposited onto the grating structure. The biofilm and planktonic cell structures in HSAFM images were reproducible within the force deviation less than ∼0.5 nN at the imaging rate up to 0.2s per frame, suggesting that the force-feedback HSAFM was stable for various imaging speeds in imaging softer adhesive biological samples. PMID:23274682

  13. From the Cover: Revealing the hidden atom in graphite by low-temperature atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hembacher, Stefan; Giessibl, Franz J.; Mannhart, Jochen; Quate, Calvin F.

    2003-10-01

    Carbon, the backbone material of life on Earth, comes in three modifications: diamond, graphite, and fullerenes. Diamond develops tetrahedral sp3 bonds, forming a cubic crystal structure, whereas graphite and fullerenes are characterized by planar sp2 bonds. Polycrystalline graphite is the basis for many products of everyday life: pencils, lubricants, batteries, arc lamps, and brushes for electric motors. In crystalline form, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is used as a diffracting element in monochromators for x-ray and neutron scattering and as a calibration standard for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The graphite surface is easily prepared as a clean atomically flat surface by cleavage. This feature is attractive and is used in many laboratories as the surface of choice for "seeing atoms." Despite the proverbial ease of imaging graphite by STM with atomic resolution, every second atom in the hexagonal surface unit cell remains hidden, and STM images show only a single atom in the unit cell. Here we present measurements with a low-temperature atomic force microscope with pico-Newton force sensitivity that reveal the hidden surface atom.

  14. Revealing the hidden atom in graphite by low-temperature atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hembacher, Stefan; Giessibl, Franz J; Mannhart, Jochen; Quate, Calvin F

    2003-10-28

    Carbon, the backbone material of life on Earth, comes in three modifications: diamond, graphite, and fullerenes. Diamond develops tetrahedral sp3 bonds, forming a cubic crystal structure, whereas graphite and fullerenes are characterized by planar sp2 bonds. Polycrystalline graphite is the basis for many products of everyday life: pencils, lubricants, batteries, arc lamps, and brushes for electric motors. In crystalline form, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is used as a diffracting element in monochromators for x-ray and neutron scattering and as a calibration standard for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The graphite surface is easily prepared as a clean atomically flat surface by cleavage. This feature is attractive and is used in many laboratories as the surface of choice for "seeing atoms." Despite the proverbial ease of imaging graphite by STM with atomic resolution, every second atom in the hexagonal surface unit cell remains hidden, and STM images show only a single atom in the unit cell. Here we present measurements with a low-temperature atomic force microscope with pico-Newton force sensitivity that reveal the hidden surface atom. PMID:14504395

  15. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J.E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J.P.; Jarvis, S.P.

    2006-01-15

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity.

  16. Friction force measurements relevant to de-inking by means of atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Theander, Katarina; Pugh, Robert J; Rutland, Mark W

    2005-11-15

    In the pulping step of the de-inking process, the ink detaches from the fibers due to shear and physical chemical interaction. In order to get a better understanding of the forces involved between cellulose and ink, the atomic force microscope and the colloidal probe technique have been used in the presence of a model chemical dispersant (hexa-ethyleneglycol mono n-dodecyl ether, C12E6). A cellulose bead was used as the colloidal probe and three different lower surfaces have been used, an alkyd resin, mica and a cellulose sphere. The normal and lateral forces have been measured at a range of nonionic concentrations. It was found that the lateral sliding friction forces deceased with increasing surfactant concentration for both the alkyd resin and mica while no differences were observed for the cellulose surface. In addition, only a very small change in normal force could be detected for the alkyd surface as the concentration changed. PMID:15961095

  17. Advances in Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Thomas Robert

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the more recently developed atomic force microscope (AFM) are high resolution scanning probe microscopes capable of three dimensional atomic-scale surface profiling. In the AFM, minute forces acting between the tip of a flexible cantilever stylus and the surface of the sample cause deflections of the cantilever which are detected by a tunneling or optical sensor with subangstrom sensitivity. The AFM work presented here involves surface profiling via repulsive contact forces between 10^{-6} and 10^{-9} N in magnitude. In this contact profiling (repulsive) mode the AFM is capable of atomic resolution on both electrically conducting and insulating surfaces (unlike the STM). AFM instrumentation for room temperature and low temperature operation is discussed. The critical component of the AFM is the cantilever stylus assembly, which should have a small mass. Several microfabrication processes have been developed to produce thin film SiO_2 and Si_3N_4 microcantilevers with integrated sharp tips. Atomic resolution has been achieved with the AFM in air on a number of samples, including graphite, MoS _2, TaSe_2, WTe_2, TaS_2, and BN (the first insulator imaged with atomic resolution by any means). Various organic and molecular samples have been imaged with nanometer resolution. The difference between STM and AFM response is shown in images of TaS _2 (a charge density wave material), and in simultaneous STM/AFM images of lattice defects and adsorbates on graphite and MoS_2. A number of artifacts make STM and AFM image interpretation subtle, such as tip shape effects, frictional effects, and tracking in atomic grooves. STM images of moire patterns near grain boundaries confirm the importance of tip shape effects. Various surface modification and lithography techniques have been demonstrated with the STM and AFM, including an STM voltage pulse technique which reproducibly creates 40 A diameter holes on the surface of graphite, and a

  18. Hierarchical atom type definitions and extensible all-atom force fields.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhao; Yang, Chunwei; Cao, Fenglei; Li, Feng; Jing, Zhifeng; Chen, Long; Shen, Zhe; Xin, Liang; Tong, Sijia; Sun, Huai

    2016-03-15

    The extensibility of force field is a key to solve the missing parameter problem commonly found in force field applications. The extensibility of conventional force fields is traditionally managed in the parameterization procedure, which becomes impractical as the coverage of the force field increases above a threshold. A hierarchical atom-type definition (HAD) scheme is proposed to make extensible atom type definitions, which ensures that the force field developed based on the definitions are extensible. To demonstrate how HAD works and to prepare a foundation for future developments, two general force fields based on AMBER and DFF functional forms are parameterized for common organic molecules. The force field parameters are derived from the same set of quantum mechanical data and experimental liquid data using an automated parameterization tool, and validated by calculating molecular and liquid properties. The hydration free energies are calculated successfully by introducing a polarization scaling factor to the dispersion term between the solvent and solute molecules. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26537332

  19. Improvements in fundamental performance of liquid-environment atomic force microscopy with true atomic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kazuki; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    Recently, there have been significant advancements in liquid-environment atomic force microscopy (AFM) with true atomic resolution. The technical advancements are followed by a rapid expansion of its application area. Examples include subnanometer-scale imaging of biological systems and three-dimensional measurements of water distributions (i.e., hydration structures) and fluctuating surface structures. However, to continue this progress, we should improve the fundamental performance of liquid-environment dynamic-mode AFM. The present AFM technique does not allow real-time imaging of atomic-scale dynamic phenomena at a solid-liquid interface. This has hindered atomic-level understanding of crystal growth and dissolution, catalytic reactions and metal corrosion processes. Improvement in force sensitivity is required not only for such a high-speed imaging but also for various surface property measurements using a high-resolution AFM technique. In this review, we summarize recent works on the improvements in the force sensitivity and operation speed of atomic-resolution dynamic-mode AFM for liquid-environment applications.

  20. Fabrication of electron beam deposited tip for atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, K; Izumi, H; Watanabe-Nakayama, T; Asakawa, H; Fukuma, T

    2015-03-13

    Recently, possibilities of improving operation speed and force sensitivity in atomic-scale atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid using a small cantilever with an electron beam deposited (EBD) tip have been intensively explored. However, the structure and properties of an EBD tip suitable for such an application have not been well-understood and hence its fabrication process has not been established. In this study, we perform atomic-scale AFM measurements with a small cantilever and clarify two major problems: contaminations from a cantilever and tip surface, and insufficient mechanical strength of an EBD tip having a high aspect ratio. To solve these problems, here we propose a fabrication process of an EBD tip, where we attach a 2 μm silica bead at the cantilever end and fabricate a 500-700 nm EBD tip on the bead. The bead height ensures sufficient cantilever-sample distance and enables to suppress long-range interaction between them even with a short EBD tip having high mechanical strength. After the tip fabrication, we coat the whole cantilever and tip surface with Si (30 nm) to prevent the generation of contamination. We perform atomic-scale AFM imaging and hydration force measurements at a mica-water interface using the fabricated tip and demonstrate its applicability to such an atomic-scale application. With a repeated use of the proposed process, we can reuse a small cantilever for atomic-scale measurements for several times. Therefore, the proposed method solves the two major problems and enables the practical use of a small cantilever in atomic-scale studies on various solid-liquid interfacial phenomena. PMID:25697199

  1. Characterization of new drug delivery nanosystems using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyratou, Ellas; Mourelatou, Elena A.; Demetzos, C.; Makropoulou, Mersini; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are the most attractive lipid vesicles for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine, behaving also as cell models in biophotonics research. The characterization of the micro-mechanical properties of drug carriers is an important issue and many analytical techniques are employed, as, for example, optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy. In this work, polyol hyperbranched polymers (HBPs) have been employed along with liposomes for the preparation of new chimeric advanced drug delivery nanosystems (Chi-aDDnSs). Aliphatic polyester HBPs with three different pseudogenerations G2, G3 and G4 with 16, 32, and 64 peripheral hydroxyl groups, respectively, have been incorporated in liposomal formulation. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique was used for the comparative study of the morphology and the mechanical properties of Chi-aDDnSs and conventional DDnS. The effects of both the HBPs architecture and the polyesters pseudogeneration number in the stability and the stiffness of chi-aDDnSs were examined. From the force-distance curves of AFM spectroscopy, the Young's modulus was calculated.

  2. Observation of Individual Fluorine Atom from Highly Oriented Poly (tetrafluoroethylene) Films by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.,; Paley, Mark S.

    1999-01-01

    Direct observation of the film thickness, molecular structure and individual fluorine atoms from highly oriented poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films were achieved using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A thin PTFE film is mechanically deposited onto a smooth glass substrate at specific temperatures by a friction transfer technique. Atomic resolution images of these films show that the chain-like helical structures of the PTFE macromolecules are aligned parallel to each other with an intermolecular spacing of 5.72 A, and individual fluorine atoms are clearly observed along these twisted molecular chains with an interatomic spacing of 2.75 A. Furthermore, the first direct AFM measurements for the radius of the fluorine-helix, and of the carbon-helix in sub-angstrom scale are reported as 1.70 A and 0.54 A respectively.

  3. Observation of Individual Fluorine Atoms from Highly Oriented Poly(Tetrafluoroethylene) Films by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Direct observation of the film thickness, molecular structure, and individual fluorine atoms from highly oriented poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films were achieved using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A thin PTFE film is mechanically deposited onto a smooth glass substrate at specific temperatures by a friction-transfer technique. Atomic resolution images of these films show that the chain-like helical structures of the PTFE macromolecules are aligned parallel to each other with an intermolecular spacing of 5.72 A, and individual fluorine atoms are clearly observed along these twisted molecular chains with an interatomic spacing of 2.75 A. Furthermore, the first direct AFM measurements for the radius of the fluorine-helix, and of the carbon-helix in sub-angstrom scale are reported as 1.7 and 0.54 A respectively.

  4. Atomic species identification at the (101) anatase surface by simultaneous scanning tunnelling and atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Todorović, Milica; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Moreno, César; Ryan, James William; León, Carmen Pérez; Sagisaka, Keisuke; Palomares, Emilio; Matolín, Vladimír; Fujita, Daisuke; Perez, Ruben; Custance, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Anatase is a pivotal material in devices for energy-harvesting applications and catalysis. Methods for the accurate characterization of this reducible oxide at the atomic scale are critical in the exploration of outstanding properties for technological developments. Here we combine atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), supported by first-principles calculations, for the simultaneous imaging and unambiguous identification of atomic species at the (101) anatase surface. We demonstrate that dynamic AFM-STM operation allows atomic resolution imaging within the material's band gap. Based on key distinguishing features extracted from calculations and experiments, we identify candidates for the most common surface defects. Our results pave the way for the understanding of surface processes, like adsorption of metal dopants and photoactive molecules, that are fundamental for the catalytic and photovoltaic applications of anatase, and demonstrate the potential of dynamic AFM-STM for the characterization of wide band gap materials. PMID:26118408

  5. Taking nanomedicine teaching into practice with atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Filomena A; Freitas, Teresa; Santos, Nuno C

    2015-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful and powerful tool to study molecular interactions applied to nanomedicine. The aim of the present study was to implement a hands-on atomic AFM course for graduated biosciences and medical students. The course comprises two distinct practical sessions, where students get in touch with the use of an atomic force microscope by performing AFM scanning images of human blood cells and force spectroscopy measurements of the fibrinogen-platelet interaction. Since the beginning of this course, in 2008, the overall rating by the students was 4.7 (out of 5), meaning a good to excellent evaluation. Students were very enthusiastic and produced high-quality AFM images and force spectroscopy data. The implementation of the hands-on AFM course was a success, giving to the students the opportunity of contact with a technique that has a wide variety of applications on the nanomedicine field. In the near future, nanomedicine will have remarkable implications in medicine regarding the definition, diagnosis, and treatment of different diseases. AFM enables students to observe single molecule interactions, enabling the understanding of molecular mechanisms of different physiological and pathological processes at the nanoscale level. Therefore, the introduction of nanomedicine courses in bioscience and medical school curricula is essential. PMID:26628660

  6. Combined atomic force microscopy and voltage pulse technique to accurately measure electrostatic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new method of extracting electrostatic force. The technique is based on frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) combined with a voltage pulse. In this method, the work that the electrostatic field does on the oscillating tip is measured through the cantilever energy dissipation. This allows us to directly extract capacitive forces including the longer range part, to which the conventional FM-AFM is insensitive. The distance-dependent contact potential difference, which is modulated by local charges distributed on the surfaces of the tip and/or sample, could also be correctly obtained. In the absence of local charges, our method can perfectly reproduce the electrostatic force as a function of the distance and the bias voltage. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the system serves as a sensitive sensor enabling us to check the existence of the local charges such as trapped charges and patch charges.

  7. Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging and Force Spectroscopy of Supported Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Unsay, Joseph D; Cosentino, Katia; García-Sáez, Ana J

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a versatile, high-resolution imaging technique that allows visualization of biological membranes. It has sufficient magnification to examine membrane substructures and even individual molecules. AFM can act as a force probe to measure interactions and mechanical properties of membranes. Supported lipid bilayers are conventionally used as membrane models in AFM studies. In this protocol, we demonstrate how to prepare supported bilayers and characterize their structure and mechanical properties using AFM. These include bilayer thickness and breakthrough force. The information provided by AFM imaging and force spectroscopy help define mechanical and chemical properties of membranes. These properties play an important role in cellular processes such as maintaining cell hemostasis from environmental stress, bringing membrane proteins together, and stabilizing protein complexes. PMID:26273958

  8. Lateral force microscope calibration using a modified atomic force microscope cantilever

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, M. G.

    2007-10-15

    A proof-of-concept study is presented for a prototype atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever and associated calibration procedure that provide a path for quantitative friction measurement using a lateral force microscope (LFM). The calibration procedure is based on the method proposed by Feiler et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2746 (2000)] but allows for calibration and friction measurements to be carried out in situ and with greater precision. The modified AFM cantilever is equipped with lateral lever arms that facilitate the application of normal and lateral forces, comparable to those acting in a typical LFM friction experiment. The technique allows the user to select acceptable precision via a potentially unlimited number of calibration measurements across the full working range of the LFM photodetector. A microfabricated version of the cantilever would be compatible with typical commercial AFM instrumentation and allow for common AFM techniques such as topography imaging and other surface force measurements to be performed.

  9. Unstable amplitude and noisy image induced by tip contamination in dynamic force mode atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, H.-Y.; McIntyre, N. S.

    2007-02-01

    Liquid 1-decanethiol was confined on an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip apex and the effect was investigated by measuring amplitude-distance curves in dynamic force mode. Within the working distance in the dynamic force mode AFM, the thiol showed strong interactions bridging between a gold-coated probe tip and a gold-coated Si substrate, resulting in unstable amplitude and noisy AFM images. We show that under such a situation, the amplitude change is dominated by the extra forces induced by the active material loaded on the tip apex, overwhelming the amplitude change caused by the geometry of the sample surface, thus resulting in noise in the image the tip collects. We also show that such a contaminant may be removed from the apex by pushing the tip into a material soft enough to avoid damage to the tip.

  10. Easy and direct method for calibrating atomic force microscopy lateral force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenhua; Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We have designed and tested a new, inexpensive, easy-to-make and easy-to-use calibration standard for atomic force microscopy (AFM) lateral force measurements. This new standard simply consists of a small glass fiber of known dimensions and Young’s modulus, which is fixed at one end to a substrate and which can be bent laterally with the AFM tip at the other end. This standard has equal or less error than the commonly used method of using beam mechanics to determine a cantilever’s lateral force constant. It is transferable, thus providing a universal tool for comparing the calibrations of different instruments. It does not require knowledge of the cantilever dimensions and composition or its tip height. This standard also allows direct conversion of the photodiode signal to force and, thus, circumvents the requirement for a sensor response (sensitivity) measurement. PMID:17614616

  11. Interactive forces between lignin and cellulase as determined by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignin is a complex polymer which inhibits the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose in lignocellulose biomass for biofuel production. Cellulase enzymes irreversibly bind to lignin, deactivating the enzyme and lowering the overall activity of the hydrolyzing reaction solution. Within this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to compare the adhesion forces between cellulase and lignin with the forces between cellulase and cellulose, and to study the moiety groups involved in binding of cellulase to lignin. Results Trichoderma reesei, ATCC 26921, a commercial cellulase system, was immobilized onto silicon wafers and used as a substrate to measure forces involved in cellulase non-productive binding to lignin. Attraction forces between cellulase and lignin, and between cellulase and cellulose were compared using kraft lignin- and hydroxypropyl cellulose-coated tips with the immobilized cellulase substrate. The measured adhesion forces between kraft lignin and cellulase were on average 45% higher than forces between hydroxypropyl cellulose and cellulase. Specialized AFM tips with hydrophobic, -OH, and -COOH chemical characteristics were used with immobilized cellulase to represent hydrophobic, H-bonding, and charge-charge interactions, respectively. Forces between hydrophobic tips and cellulase were on average 43% and 13% higher than forces between cellulase with tips exhibiting OH and COOH groups, respectively. A strong attractive force during the AFM tip approach to the immobilized cellulase was observed with the hydrophobic tip. Conclusions This work shows that there is a greater overall attraction between kraft lignin and cellulase than between hydroxypropyl cellulose and cellulase, which may have implications during the enzymatic reaction process. Furthermore, hydrophobic interactions appear to be the dominating attraction force in cellulase binding to lignin, while a number of other interactions may establish the irreversible binding

  12. Diagonal control design for atomic force microscope piezoelectric tube nanopositioners.

    PubMed

    Bhikkaji, B; Yong, Y K; Mahmood, I A; Moheimani, S O R

    2013-02-01

    Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are used for generating surface topography of samples at micro to atomic resolutions. Many commercial AFMs use piezoelectric tube nanopositioners for scanning. Scanning rates of these microscopes are hampered by the presence of low frequency resonant modes. When inadvertently excited, these modes lead to high amplitude mechanical vibrations causing the loss of accuracy, while scanning, and eventually to break down of the tube. Feedback control has been used to damp these resonant modes. Thereby, enabling higher scanning rates. Here, a multivariable controller is designed to damp the first resonant mode along both the x and y axis. Exploiting the inherent symmetry in the piezoelectric tube, the multivariable control design problem is recast as independent single-input single-output (SISO) designs. This in conjunction with integral resonant control is used for damping the first resonant mode. PMID:23464216

  13. Unraveling the Molecular Structures of Asphaltenes by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Bruno; Meyer, Gerhard; Peña, Diego; Mullins, Oliver C; Gross, Leo

    2015-08-12

    Petroleum is one of the most precious and complex molecular mixtures existing. Because of its chemical complexity, the solid component of crude oil, the asphaltenes, poses an exceptional challenge for structure analysis, with tremendous economic relevance. Here, we combine atomic-resolution imaging using atomic force microscopy and molecular orbital imaging using scanning tunnelling microscopy to study more than 100 asphaltene molecules. The complexity and range of asphaltene polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are established in detail. Identifying molecular structures provides a foundation to understand all aspects of petroleum science from colloidal structure and interfacial interactions to petroleum thermodynamics, enabling a first-principles approach to optimize resource utilization. Particularly, the findings contribute to a long-standing debate about asphaltene molecular architecture. Our technique constitutes a paradigm shift for the analysis of complex molecular mixtures, with possible applications in molecular electronics, organic light emitting diodes, and photovoltaic devices. PMID:26170086

  14. Interlaboratory comparison of traceable atomic force microscope pitch measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixson, Ronald; Chernoff, Donald A.; Wang, Shihua; Vorburger, Theodore V.; Tan, Siew Leng; Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Fu, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Advanced Surface Microscopy (ASM), and the National Metrology Centre (NMC) of the Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR) in Singapore have completed a three-way interlaboratory comparison of traceable pitch measurements using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The specimen being used for this comparison is provided by ASM and consists of SiO2 lines having a 70 nm pitch patterned on a silicon substrate. NIST has a multifaceted program in atomic force microscope (AFM) dimensional metrology. One component of this effort is a custom in-house metrology AFM, called the calibrated AFM (C-AFM). The NIST C-AFM has displacement metrology for all three axes traceable to the 633 nm wavelength of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser - a recommended wavelength for realization of the SI (Système International d'Unités, or International System of Units) meter. NIST used the C-AFM to participate in this comparison. ASM used a commercially available AFM with an open-loop scanner, calibrated by a 144 nm pitch transfer standard. In a prior collaboration with Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute, ASM's transfer standard was calibrated using PTB's traceable optical diffractometry instrument. Thus, ASM's measurements are also traceable to the SI meter. NMC/A*STAR used a large scanning range metrological atomic force microscope (LRM-AFM). The LRM-AFM integrates an AFM scanning head into a nano-stage equipped with three built-in He-Ne laser interferometers so that its measurement related to the motion on all three axes is directly traceable to the SI meter. The measurements for this interlaboratory comparison have been completed and the results are in agreement within their expanded uncertainties and at the level of a few parts in 104.

  15. High-speed atomic force microscopy coming of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) is now materialized. It allows direct visualization of dynamic structural changes and dynamic processes of functioning biological molecules in physiological solutions, at high spatiotemporal resolution. Dynamic molecular events unselectively appear in detail in an AFM movie, facilitating our understanding of how biological molecules operate to function. This review describes a historical overview of technical development towards HS-AFM, summarizes elementary devices and techniques used in the current HS-AFM, and then highlights recent imaging studies. Finally, future challenges of HS-AFM studies are briefly discussed.

  16. High-speed atomic force microscopy coming of age.

    PubMed

    Ando, Toshio

    2012-02-17

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) is now materialized. It allows direct visualization of dynamic structural changes and dynamic processes of functioning biological molecules in physiological solutions, at high spatiotemporal resolution. Dynamic molecular events unselectively appear in detail in an AFM movie, facilitating our understanding of how biological molecules operate to function. This review describes a historical overview of technical development towards HS-AFM, summarizes elementary devices and techniques used in the current HS-AFM, and then highlights recent imaging studies. Finally, future challenges of HS-AFM studies are briefly discussed. PMID:22248867

  17. Microcantilevers with embedded accelerometers for dynamic atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shaik, Nurul Huda; Raman, Arvind; Reifenberger, Ronald G.

    2014-02-24

    The measurement of the intermittent interaction between an oscillating nanotip and the sample surface is a key challenge in dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Accelerometers integrated onto AFM cantilevers can directly measure this interaction with minimal cantilever modification but have been difficult to realize. Here, we design and fabricate high frequency bandwidth accelerometers on AFM cantilevers to directly measure the tip acceleration in commercial AFM systems. We demonstrate a simple way of calibrating such accelerometers and present experiments using amplitude modulated AFM on freshly cleaved mica samples in water to study the response of the accelerometer.

  18. Nanoindentation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilm using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baniasadi, Mahmoud; Xu, Zhe; Gandee, Leah; Du, Yingjie; Lu, Hongbing; Zimmern, Philippe; Minary-Jolandan, Majid

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial biofilms are a source of many chronic infections. Biofilms and their inherent resistance to antibiotics are attributable to a range of health issues including affecting prosthetic implants, hospital-acquired infections, and wound infection. Mechanical properties of biofilm, in particular, at micro- and nano-scales, are governed by microstructures and porosity of the biofilm, which in turn may contribute to their inherent antibiotic resistance. We utilize atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation and finite element simulation to investigate the nanoscale mechanical properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilm. This biofilm was derived from human samples and represents a medically relevant model.

  19. Measuring the elasticity of plant cells with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of biological materials impact their functions. This is most evident in plants where the cell wall contains each cell's contents and connects each cell to its neighbors irreversibly. Examining the physical properties of the plant cell wall is key to understanding how plant cells, tissues, and organs grow and gain the shapes important for their respective functions. Here, we present an atomic force microscopy-based nanoindentation method for examining the elasticity of plant cells at the subcellular, cellular, and tissue level. We describe the important areas of experimental design to be considered when planning and executing these types of experiments and provide example data as illustration. PMID:25640432

  20. Nanoscale resolution microchannel flow velocimetry by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piorek, Brian; Mechler, Ádám; Lal, Ratnesh; Freudenthal, Patrick; Meinhart, Carl; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2006-10-01

    The velocity of a microchannel flow was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) using a 50nm wide "whisker," which was partially submerged and scanned transverse to the flow while drag was recorded. A peaked, near parabolic, flow velocity profile was found. Particle image velocity (PIV) measurements using 70nm diameter quantum-dot-coated polystyrene spheres confirmed the shape of the AFM-measured velocity profile. AFM-based nanometer resolution velocimetry confirms that the drag-velocity relationship for the whisker remains consistent over a wide range of shear values and appears to successfully resolve submicron scale flows, which are beyond the limits of conventional PIV measurements.

  1. CO tip functionalization in subatomic resolution atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Minjung; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2015-10-19

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) employing a CO-functionalized tip displays dramatically enhanced resolution wherein covalent bonds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon can be imaged. Employing real-space pseudopotential first-principles calculations, we examine the role of CO in functionalizing the nc-AFM tip. Our calculations allow us to simulate full AFM images and ascertain the enhancement mechanism of the CO molecule. We consider two approaches: one with an explicit inclusion of the CO molecule and one without. By comparing our simulations to existing experimental images, we ascribe the enhanced resolution of the CO functionalized tip to the special orbital characteristics of the CO molecule.

  2. Visualisation of xanthan conformation by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Jonathan; Morris, Victor J; Al-Assaf, Saphwan; Gunning, A Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Direct visual evidence obtained by atomic force microscopy demonstrates that when xanthan is adsorbed from aqueous solution onto the heterogeneously charged substrate mica, its helical conformation is distorted. Following adsorption it requires annealing for several hours to restore its ordered helical state. Once the helix state reforms, the AFM images obtained showed clear resolution of the periodicity with a value of 4.7nm consistent with the previously predicted models. In addition, the images also reveal evidence that the helix is formed by a double strand, a clarification of an ambiguity of the xanthan ultrastructure that has been outstanding for many years. PMID:27185152

  3. Thermal writing using a heated atomic force microscope tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamin, H. J.

    1996-07-01

    Resistive heating of an atomic force microscope tip was used to perform thermally induced surface modifications. Heating was achieved by dissipating power in the legs of an electrically conducting silicon cantilever. Temperatures of up to 170 °C were obtained using 40 mW of input power. Electrical measurements used to monitor the temperature showed thermal time constants of 0.35-0.45 ms, depending on whether the tip was in contact with a substrate. The heated tip was used to demonstrate thermomechanical writing on a polycarbonate substrate, as well as thermal writing of an optical phase change material.

  4. Atomic force microscopy to detect internal live processes in insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokukin, M. E.; Guz, N. V.; Vasilyev, S.; Sokolov, I.

    2010-01-01

    Here we report on the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study surface oscillations coming from internal live processes of insects. With a specially designed AFM stage to keep an insect motion partially restricted, the AFM can record internal oscillations on different parts of the insect. We demonstrate the method for a fly, mosquito, and lady beetle. We show that AFM can provide information about the spectral behavior that has not been studied so far, 10-600 Hz range, detecting amplitudes down to subnanometer level.

  5. Microstructural Characterization of Hierarchical Structured Surfaces by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, A. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Suchaneck, G.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we evaluate the hierarchical surface topography of reactively sputtered nanocrystalline Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and TiO2 thin films as well as plasma-treated antireflective PET films by means of determining the fractal dimension and power spectral density (PSD) of surface topography recorded by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Local fractal dimension was obtained using the triangulation method. The PSDs of all samples were fitted to the k-correlation model (also called ABC model) valid for a self-affine surface topography. Fractal analysis of AFM images was shown to be an appropriate and easy to use tool for the characterization of hierarchical nanostructures.

  6. Image contrast reversals in contact resonance atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Chengfu; Chen, Yuhang Wang, Tian

    2015-02-15

    Multiple image contrast inversions are observed along with the increase of modulation frequency for contact resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM) imaging of a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) specimen. Analysis of the contact vibrational spectra indicates that the inversions can be attributed to structure-induced variations of tip-sample contact mechanics. Contact stiffness and damping at HOPG step edges exhibit significant increases relative to those in the flat regions. For quantitative evaluation of mechanical properties in CR-AFM, coupling effects of the surface geometry must be considered.

  7. Enhanced functionality of nanotube modified atomic force microscopy tips.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Amol; Rinzler, Andrew G.

    2003-03-01

    Nanotube modified atomic force microscopy tips have demonstrated advantages in reduced tip wear, imaging with high resolution, and imaging of deep topographic features. We have further enhanced the utility and functionality of nanotube modified AFM tips by the application of a variety of coatings to these probes. Such coatings stabilize the nanotubes against Euler buckling and make the binding of the nanotubes to the AFM cantilevers extremely robust (even contact mode imaging becomes possible). In terms of new functionality, magnetic metal coating permits their use as improved resolution, magnetic force microscopy probes, while insulating coatings (with the coating removed from the very tip) should permit their use in scanning electrochemical microscopy (with anticipated applications in bio-electrochemistry). We will discuss the coating methods used and the tip exposure processes developed for the latter applications.

  8. Potential Role of Atomic Force Microscopy in Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Arce, Fernando Teran; Lal, Ratnesh

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a quantitative approach for understanding a biological system at its global level through systematic perturbation and integrated analysis of all its components. Simultaneous acquisition of information datasets pertaining to the system components (e.g., genome, proteome) is essential to implement this approach. There are limitations to such an approach in measuring gene expression levels and accounting for all proteins in the system. The success of genomic studies is critically dependent on PCR for its amplification, but PCR is very uneven in amplifying the samples, ineffective in scarce samples and unreliable in low copy number transcripts. On the other hand, lack of amplifying techniques for proteins critically limits their identification to only a small fraction of high concentration proteins. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), AFM cantilever sensors and AFM force spectroscopy in particular, could address these issues directly. In this article, we reviewed and assessed their potential role in systems biology. PMID:21766465

  9. Relative surface charge density mapping with the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, W F; Hoh, J H

    1999-01-01

    An experimental approach for producing relative charge density maps of biological surfaces using the atomic force microscope is presented. This approach, called D minus D (D-D) mapping, uses isoforce surfaces collected at different salt concentrations to remove topography and isolate electrostatic contributions to the tip-sample interaction force. This approach is quantitative for surface potentials below 25 mV, and does not require prior knowledge of the cantilever spring constant, tip radius, or tip charge. In addition, D-D mapping does not require tip-sample contact. The performance of D-D mapping is demonstrated on surfaces of constant charge and varying topography (mechanically roughened mica and stacked bilayers of dipalmitolphosphatidylserine), a surface of varying charge and varying topography (patches of dipalmitolphosphatidylcholine on mica), and bacteriorhopsin membranes adsorbed to mica. PMID:9876166

  10. Potential role of atomic force microscopy in systems biology.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Teran Arce, Fernando; Lal, Ratnesh

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a quantitative approach for understanding a biological system at its global level through systematic perturbation and integrated analysis of all its components. Simultaneous acquisition of information data sets pertaining to the system components (e.g., genome, proteome) is essential to implement this approach. There are limitations to such an approach in measuring gene expression levels and accounting for all proteins in the system. The success of genomic studies is critically dependent on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for its amplification, but PCR is very uneven in amplifying the samples, ineffective in scarce samples and unreliable in low copy number transcripts. On the other hand, lack of amplifying techniques for proteins critically limits their identification to only a small fraction of high concentration proteins. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), AFM cantilever sensors, and AFM force spectroscopy in particular, could address these issues directly. In this article, we reviewed and assessed their potential role in systems biology. PMID:21766465

  11. Microtensile Tests Using In Situ Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Udo; Dual, Jurg

    In recent years a new field in the micromechanical characterization of materials has emerged. Researchers started to integrate atomic force microscopes (AFM) into microtensile tests. This allowed to investigate surface deformation of layers with thicknesses in the range of micrometers. In the first part of this article experiments on organic samples are presented followed by developments on anorganic specimens. In the second part of the paper latest developments at the Center of Mechanics of ETH Zurich are presented. The setup allows to monitor crack growth with micrometer resolution. At the same time forces can be measured in the millinewton range. Specimens are made from photodefinable polyimide. The stress-crack- length diagrams of two experiments are presented which enables to identify different stages of crack growth and therefore of fracture behaviour. Finally, possible extensions of the setup employing digital image correlation (DIC) are envisioned by analyzing the displacement field around the crack tip.

  12. Mechanics of interaction and atomic-scale wear of amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy probes.

    PubMed

    Vahdat, Vahid; Grierson, David S; Turner, Kevin T; Carpick, Robert W

    2013-04-23

    Wear is one of the main factors that hinders the performance of probes for atomic force microscopy (AFM), including for the widely used amplitude modulation (AM-AFM) mode. Unfortunately, a comprehensive scientific understanding of nanoscale wear is lacking. We have developed a protocol for conducting consistent and quantitative AM-AFM wear experiments. The protocol involves controlling the tip-sample interaction regime during AM-AFM scanning, determining the tip-sample contact geometry, calculating the peak repulsive force and normal stress over the course of the wear test, and quantifying the wear volume using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. The peak repulsive tip-sample interaction force is estimated from a closed-form equation accompanied by an effective tip radius measurement procedure, which combines transmission electron microscopy and blind tip reconstruction. The contact stress is estimated by applying Derjaguin-Müller-Toporov contact mechanics model and also numerically solving a general contact mechanics model recently developed for the adhesive contact of arbitrary axisymmetric punch shapes. We discuss the important role that the assumed tip shape geometry plays in calculating both the interaction forces and the contact stresses. Contact stresses are significantly affected by the tip geometry while the peak repulsive force is mainly determined by experimentally controlled parameters, specifically, the free oscillation amplitude and amplitude ratio. The applicability of this protocol is demonstrated experimentally by assessing the performance of diamond-like carbon-coated and silicon-nitride-coated silicon probes scanned over ultrananocrystalline diamond substrates in repulsive mode AM-AFM. There is no sign of fracture or plastic deformation in the case of diamond-like carbon; wear could be characterized as a gradual atom-by-atom process. In contrast, silicon nitride wears through removal of the cluster of atoms and plastic

  13. Enhanced atomic corrugation in dynamic force microscopy—The role of repulsive forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenstein, L.; Büchner, C.; Stuckenholz, S.; Heyde, M.; Freund, H.-J.

    2012-03-01

    Full range two dimensional (2D) force mapping was performed by means of low temperature dynamic force microscopy (DFM) on a highly complex surface structure. For this purpose, we used a thin film of vitreous silica on a Ru(0001)-support, which is a 2D structural equivalent to silica glass. The 2D spectroscopy shows that the contrast generating shift in vertical distance between two sites on the surface is twice as large on the repulsive branch of the frequency shift-distance curve as compared to the attractive branch. The results give insight into the origin of the formation of atomic resolution in DFM.

  14. Complex force dynamics in atomic force microscopy resolved by wavelet transforms.

    PubMed

    Pukhova, Valentina; Banfi, Francesco; Ferrini, Gabriele

    2013-12-20

    The amplitude and phase evolution of the oscillations of a cantilever after a single tip-sample impact are investigated using a cross-correlation wavelet analysis. The excitation of multiple flexural modes is evidenced and the instantaneous amplitude and phase evolution is extracted from the experimental data at all frequencies simultaneously. The instantaneous total force acting on the tip during a single impact is reconstructed. This method has general relevance for the development of an atomic force spectroscopy of single tip-sample interactions, that develop in a few oscillation cycles of the interacting cantilever eigenmodes and their harmonics. PMID:24285087

  15. Stretching of Single Polymer Chains Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, C.; van der Vegte, E. W.; van Swieten, E.; Robillard, G. T.; Hadziioannou, G.

    1998-03-01

    A variety of macroscopic phenomenon involve "nanoscale" polymer deformation including rubber elasticity, shear yielding, strain hardening, stress relaxation, fracture, and flow. With the advent of new and improved experimental techniques, such as the atomic force microscope (AFM), the probing of physical properties of polymers has reached finer and finer scales. The development of mixed self-assembling monolayer techniques and the chemical functionalization of AFM probe tips has allowed for mechanical experiments on single polymer chains of molecular dimensions. In our experiments, mixed monolayers are prepared in which end-functionalized, flexible polymer chains of thiol-terminated poly(methacrylic acid) are covalently bonded, isolated, and randomly distributed on gold substrates. The coils are then imaged, tethered to a gold-coated AFM tip, and stretched between the tip and the substrate in a conventional force / distance experiment. An increase in the attractive force due to entropic, elastic resistance to stretching, as well as fracture of the polymer chain is observed. The effect of chain stiffness, topological constraints, strain rate, mechanical hysteresis, and stress relaxation were investigated. Force modulation techniques were also employed in order to image the viscoelastic character of the polymer chains. Parallel work includes similar studies of biological systems such as wheat gluten proteins and polypeptides.

  16. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  17. Local Force Interactions and Image Contrast Reversal on Graphite Observed with Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdeviren, Omur; Goetzen, Jan; Altman, Eric; Schwarz, Udo

    Surface interactions of graphene-based nanostructures remain a topic of considerable interest in nanotechnology. Similarly, tip-dependent imaging contrasts have attracted attention as they allow conclusions to be made about the surface's chemical structure and local reactivity. In this talk, we present noncontact atomic force microscopy data recorded in the attractive regime on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite that reveals image contrast reversal for the first time. While larger tip-sample separations feature bright spots on atomic sites, the maximum of the tip-sample interaction flips to the hollow site positions upon further approach, which represents the contrast predominantly observed in previous studies during attractive-mode imaging. This cross over of the local chemical interaction is confirmed in force spectroscopy experiments. The results will be discussed in light of recent theoretical simulations that have predicted the occurrence of such contrast reversal for specific tip terminations.

  18. Robust high-resolution imaging and quantitative force measurement with tuned-oscillator atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dagdeviren, Omur E; Götzen, Jan; Hölscher, Hendrik; Altman, Eric I; Schwarz, Udo D

    2016-02-12

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopy are based on locally detecting the interactions between a surface and a sharp probe tip. For highest resolution imaging, noncontact modes that avoid tip-sample contact are used; control of the tip's vertical position is accomplished by oscillating the tip and detecting perturbations induced by its interaction with the surface potential. Due to this potential's nonlinear nature, however, achieving reliable control of the tip-sample distance is challenging, so much so that despite its power vacuum-based noncontact AFM has remained a niche technique. Here we introduce a new pathway to distance control that prevents instabilities by externally tuning the oscillator's response characteristics. A major advantage of this operational scheme is that it delivers robust position control in both the attractive and repulsive regimes with only one feedback loop, thereby providing an easy-to-implement route to atomic resolution imaging and quantitative tip-sample interaction force measurement. PMID:26754332

  19. High resolution atomic force microscopy of double-stranded RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares, Pablo; Fuentes-Perez, Maria Eugenia; Herrero-Galán, Elías; Valpuesta, José M.; Gil, Adriana; Gomez-Herrero, Julio; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Double-stranded (ds) RNA mediates the suppression of specific gene expression, it is the genetic material of a number of viruses, and a key activator of the innate immune response against viral infections. The ever increasing list of roles played by dsRNA in the cell and its potential biotechnological applications over the last decade has raised an interest for the characterization of its mechanical properties and structure, and that includes approaches using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and other single-molecule techniques. Recent reports have resolved the structure of dsDNA with AFM at unprecedented resolution. However, an equivalent study with dsRNA is still lacking. Here, we have visualized the double helix of dsRNA under near-physiological conditions and at sufficient resolution to resolve the A-form sub-helical pitch periodicity. We have employed different high-sensitive force-detection methods and obtained images with similar spatial resolution. Therefore, we show here that the limiting factors for high-resolution AFM imaging of soft materials in liquid medium are, rather than the imaging mode, the force between the tip and the sample and the sharpness of the tip apex.Double-stranded (ds) RNA mediates the suppression of specific gene expression, it is the genetic material of a number of viruses, and a key activator of the innate immune response against viral infections. The ever increasing list of roles played by dsRNA in the cell and its potential biotechnological applications over the last decade has raised an interest for the characterization of its mechanical properties and structure, and that includes approaches using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and other single-molecule techniques. Recent reports have resolved the structure of dsDNA with AFM at unprecedented resolution. However, an equivalent study with dsRNA is still lacking. Here, we have visualized the double helix of dsRNA under near-physiological conditions and at sufficient resolution to

  20. Combined low-temperature scanning tunneling/atomic force microscope for atomic resolution imaging and site-specific force spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Udo; Albers, Boris J.; Liebmann, Marcus; Schwendemann, Todd C.; Baykara, Mehmet Z.; Heyde, Markus; Salmeron, Miquel; Altman, Eric I.; Schwarz, Udo D.

    2008-02-27

    The authors present the design and first results of a low-temperature, ultrahigh vacuum scanning probe microscope enabling atomic resolution imaging in both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) modes. A tuning-fork-based sensor provides flexibility in selecting probe tip materials, which can be either metallic or nonmetallic. When choosing a conducting tip and sample, simultaneous STM/NC-AFM data acquisition is possible. Noticeable characteristics that distinguish this setup from similar systems providing simultaneous STM/NC-AFM capabilities are its combination of relative compactness (on-top bath cryostat needs no pit), in situ exchange of tip and sample at low temperatures, short turnaround times, modest helium consumption, and unrestricted access from dedicated flanges. The latter permits not only the optical surveillance of the tip during approach but also the direct deposition of molecules or atoms on either tip or sample while they remain cold. Atomic corrugations as low as 1 pm could successfully be resolved. In addition, lateral drifts rates of below 15 pm/h allow long-term data acquisition series and the recording of site-specific spectroscopy maps. Results obtained on Cu(111) and graphite illustrate the microscope's performance.

  1. Resonance frequency-retuned quartz tuning fork as a force sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ooe, Hiroaki; Sakuishi, Tatsuya; Arai, Toyoko; Nogami, Makoto; Tomitori, Masahiko

    2014-07-28

    Based on a two-prong type quartz tuning fork, a force sensor with a high Q factor, which we call a retuned fork sensor, was developed for non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) with atomic resolution. By cutting a small notch and attaching an AFM tip to one prong, its resonance frequency can be retuned to that of the other intact prong. In balancing the two prongs in this manner, a high Q factor (>50 000 in ultrahigh vacuum) is obtained for the sensor. An atomic resolution image of the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface was demonstrated using an nc-AFM with the sensor. The dependence of the Q factor on resonance frequency of the sensor and the long-range force between tip and sample were measured and analyzed in view of the various dissipation channels. Dissipation in the signal detection circuit turned out to be mainly limited by the total Q factor of the nc-AFM system.

  2. Comparative study of clinical pulmonary surfactants using atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Fan, Qihui; Wang, Yi E.; Neal, Charles R.; Zuo, Yi Y.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical pulmonary surfactant is routinely used to treat premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome, and has shown great potential in alleviating a number of neonatal and adult respiratory diseases. Despite extensive study of chemical composition, surface activity, and clinical performance of various surfactant preparations, a direct comparison of surfactant films is still lacking. In this study, we use atomic force microscopy to characterize and compare four animal-derived clinical surfactants currently used throughout the world, i.e., Survanta, Curosurf, Infasurf and BLES. These modified-natural surfactants are further compared to dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a synthetic model surfactant of DPPC:palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) (7:3), and endogenous bovine natural surfactant. Atomic force microscopy reveals significant differences in the lateral structure and molecular organization of these surfactant preparations. These differences are discussed in terms of DPPC and cholesterol contents. We conclude that all animal-derived clinical surfactants assume a similar structure of multilayers of fluid phospholipids closely attached to an interfacial monolayer enriched in DPPC, at physiologically relevant surface pressures. This study provides the first comprehensive survey of the lateral structure of clinical surfactants at various surface pressures. It may have clinical implications on future application and development of surfactant preparations. PMID:21439262

  3. MIDAS: Lessons learned from the first spaceborne atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Mark Stephen; Arends, Herman; Butler, Bart; Gavira, Jose; Jeszenszky, Harald; Mannel, Thurid; Romstedt, Jens; Schmied, Roland; Torkar, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System (MIDAS) atomic force microscope (AFM) onboard the Rosetta orbiter was the first such instrument launched into space in 2004. Designed only a few years after the technique was invented, MIDAS is currently orbiting comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko and producing the highest resolution 3D images of cometary dust ever made in situ. After more than a year of continuous operation much experience has been gained with this novel instrument. Coupled with operations of the Flight Spare and advances in terrestrial AFM a set of "lessons learned" has been produced, cumulating in recommendations for future spaceborne atomic force microscopes. The majority of the design could be reused as-is, or with incremental upgrades to include more modern components (e.g. the processor). Key additional recommendations are to incorporate an optical microscope to aid the search for particles and image registration, to include a variety of cantilevers (with different spring constants) and a variety of tip geometries.

  4. Force interactions between magnetite, silica, and bentonite studied with atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobryden, I.; Potapova, E.; Holmgren, A.; Weber, H.; Hedlund, J.; Almqvist, N.

    2015-04-01

    Iron ore pellets consist of variety of mineral particles and are an important refined product used in steel manufacturing. Production of high-quality pellets requires good understanding of interactions between different constituents, such as magnetite, gangue residues, bentonite, and additives. Much research has been reported on magnetite, silica, and bentonite surface properties and their effect on pellet strength but more scant with a focus on a fundamental particle-particle interaction. To probe such particle interaction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) using colloidal probe technique has proven to be a suitable tool. In this work, the measurements were performed between magnetite-magnetite, bentonite-magnetite, silica-bentonite, and silica-magnetite particles in 1 mM CaCl2 solution at various pH values. The interaction character, i.e., repulsion or attraction, was determined by measuring and analyzing AFM force curves. The observed quantitative changes in interaction forces were in good agreement with the measured zeta-potentials for the particles at the same experimental conditions. Particle aggregation was studied by measuring the adhesion force. Absolute values of adhesion forces for different systems could not be compared due to the difference in particle size and contact geometry. Therefore, the relative change of adhesion force between pH 6 and 10 was used for comparison. The adhesion force decreased for the magnetite-magnetite and bentonite-silica systems and slightly increased for the magnetite-bentonite system at pH 10 as compared to pH 6, whereas a pronounced decrease in adhesion force was observed in the magnetite-silica system. Thus, the presence of silica particles on the magnetite surface could have a negative impact on the interaction between magnetite and bentonite in balling due to the reduction of the adhesion force.

  5. On averaging force curves over heterogeneous surfaces in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, I; Kalaparthi, V; Kreshchuk, M; Dokukin, M E

    2012-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to study mechanics at the nanoscale. Biological surfaces and nanocomposites have typically heterogeneous surfaces, both mechanically and chemically. When studying such surfaces with AFM, one needs to collect a large amount of data to make statistically sound conclusions. It is time- and resource-consuming to process each force curve separately. The analysis of an averaged raw force data is a simple and time saving option, which also averages out the noise and measurement artifacts of the force curves being analyzed. Moreover, some biomedical applications require just an average number per biological cell. Here we investigate such averaging, study the possible artifacts due to the averaging, and demonstrate how to minimize or even to avoid them. We analyze two ways of doing the averaging: over the force data for each particular distance (method 1, the most commonly used way), and over the distances for each particular force (method 2). We derive the errors of the methods in finding to the true average rigidity modulus. We show that both methods are accurate (the error is <2%) when the heterogeneity of the surface rigidity is small (<50%). When the heterogeneity is large (>100×), method 2 underestimates the average rigidity modulus by a factor of 2, whereas the error of method 1 is only 15%. However, when analyzing the different surface chemistry, which reveals itself in the changing long-range forces, the accuracy of the methods behave oppositely: method 1 can produce a noticeable averaging artifact in the deriving of the long-range forces; whereas method 2 can be successfully used to derive the averaged long-range force parameters without artifacts. We exemplify our conclusions by the study of human cervical cancer and normal epithelial cells, which demonstrate different degrees of heterogeneity. PMID:22917859

  6. FORCE2: A multidimensional flow program for gas solids flow user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Burge, S.W.

    1991-05-01

    This report describes the FORCE2 flow program input, output, and the graphical post-processor. The manual describes the steps for creating the model, executing the programs and processing the results into graphical form. The FORCE2 post-processor was developed as an interactive program written in FORTRAN-77. It uses the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) graphics standard recently adopted by International Organization for Standardization, ISO, and American National Standards Institute, ANSI, and, therefore, can be used with many terminals. The post-processor vas written with Calcomp subroutine calls and is compatible with Tektkonix terminals and Calcomp and Nicolet pen plotters. B&W has been developing the FORCE2 code as a general-purpose tool for flow analysis of B&W equipment. The version of FORCE2 described in this manual was developed under the sponsorship of ASEA-Babcock as part of their participation in the joint R&D venture, ``Erosion of FBC Heat Transfer Tubes,`` and is applicable to the analyses of bubbling fluid beds. This manual is the principal documentation for program usage and is segmented into several sections to facilitate usage. In Section 2.0 the program is described, including assumptions, capabilities, limitations and uses, program status and location, related programs and program hardware and software requirements. Section 3.0 is a quick user`s reference guide for preparing input, executing FORCE2, and using the post-processor. Section 4.0 is a detailed description of the FORCE2 input. In Section 5.0, FORCE2 output is summarized. Section 6.0 contains a sample application, and Section 7.0 is a detailed reference guide.

  7. Multi-dimensional modelling of electrostatic force distance curve over dielectric surface: Influence of tip geometry and correlation with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boularas, A. Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Clain, S.; Teyssedre, G.

    2014-08-28

    Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction Operator—PRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tip–sample distances (from 0 to 600 nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20 V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.

  8. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  9. Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Kammoun, Dorra; Hentati, Hajer; Janel, Sébastien; Popoff, Michka; Lafont, Frank; Aouni, Mahjoub; Mastouri, Maha

    2016-08-01

    In the oral cavity dental restorative biomaterials can act as a reservoir for infection with opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus pathogen, which can lead to the occurrence of secondary caries and treatment failures. Our aim was to evaluate the adhesion forces by S. aureus on four dental restorative biomaterials and to correlate this finding to differences in specific surface characteristics. Additionally, the influence of salivary conditioning films in exerted adhesion forces was investigated. The substrate hydrophobicity was measured by goniometer and the surface free energy was calculated using the equilibrium advancing contact angle values of water, formamide, and diiodomethane on the tested surfaces. The surface roughness was determined using atomic force microscope (AFM). Additionally, cell force spectroscopy was achieved to quantify the forces that drive cell-substrate interactions. S. aureus bacterium exerted a considerable adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials, which decreased in the presence of saliva conditioning film. The influence of the surface roughness and free energy in initial adhesion appears to be more important than the effect of hydrophobicity, either in presence or absence of saliva coating. Hence, control of surface properties of dental restorative biomaterials is of crucial importance in preventing the attachment and subsequent the biofilm formation.

  10. Scratch direction and threshold force in nanoscale scratching using atomic force microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ampere A.; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Jou, Shyankay; Nishimura, Shinya; Shirakashi, Jun-ichi

    2011-09-01

    The nanoscaled tip in an AFM (atomic force microscope) has become an effective scratching tool for material removing in nanofabrication. In this article, the characteristics of using a diamond-coated pyramidal tip to scratch Ni-Fe thin film surfaces was experimentally investigated with the focus on the evaluation of the influence of the scratch or scan direction on the final shape of the scratched geometry as well as the applied scratch force. Results indicated that both the scratched profile and the scratch force were greatly affected by the scratch direction. It has been found that, to minimize the formation of protuberances along the groove sides and to have a better control of the scratched geometry, the tip face should be perpendicular to the scratching direction, which is also known as orthogonal cutting condition. To demonstrate the present findings, three groove patterns have been scratched with the tip face perpendicular to the scratching direction and very little amount of protuberances was observed. The threshold scratch force was also predicted based on the Hertz contact theory. Without considering the surface friction and adhesive forces between the tip and substrate, the threshold force predicted was twice smaller than the measurement value. Finally, recommendations for technical improvement and research focuses are provided.

  11. Brown algal morphogenesis: atomic force microscopy as a tool to study the role of mechanical forces

    PubMed Central

    Tesson, Benoit; Charrier, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, a growing interest has been directed toward the use of macroalgae as a source of energy, food and molecules for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Besides this, macroalgal development remains poorly understood compared to other multicellular organisms. Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) form a monophyletic lineage of usually large multicellular algae which evolved independently from land plants. In their environment, they are subjected to strong mechanical forces (current, waves, and tide), in response to which they modify rapidly and reversibly their morphology. Because of their specific cellular features (cell wall composition, cytoskeleton organization), deciphering how they cope with these forces might help discover new control mechanisms of cell wall softening and cellulose synthesis. Despite the current scarcity in knowledge on brown algal cell wall dynamics and protein composition, we will illustrate, in the light of methods adapted to Ectocarpus siliculosus, to what extent atomic force microscopy can contribute to advance this field of investigation. PMID:25278949

  12. Probing physical properties at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditzler, Lindsay Rachel

    Techniques that measure physical properties at the nanoscale with high sensitivity are significantly limited considering the number of new nanomaterials being developed. The development of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has lead to significant advancements in the ability to characterize physical properties of materials in all areas of science: chemistry, physics, engineering, and biology have made great scientific strides do to the versatility of the AFM. AFM is used for quantification of many physical properties such as morphology, electrical, mechanical, magnetic, electrochemical, binding interactions, and protein folding. This work examines the electrical and mechanical properties of materials applicable to the field of nano-electronics. As electronic devices are miniaturized the demand for materials with unique electrical properties, which can be developed and exploited, has increased. For example, discussed in this work, a derivative of tetrathiafulvalene, which exhibits a unique loss of conductivity upon compression of the self-assembled monolayer could be developed into a molecular switch. This work also compares tunable organic (tetraphenylethylene tetracarboxylic acid and bis(pyridine)s assemblies) and metal-organic (Silver-stilbizole coordination compounds) crystals which show high electrical conductivity. The electrical properties of these materials vary depending on their composition allowing for the development of compositionally tunable functional materials. Additional work was done to investigate the effects of molecular environment on redox active 11-ferroceneyl-1 undecanethiol (Fc) molecules. The redox process of mixed monolayers of Fc and decanethiol was measured using conductive probe atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy. As the concentration of Fc increased large, variations in the force were observed. Using these variations the number of oxidized molecules in the monolayer was determined. AFM is additionally capable of investigating

  13. A new ion sensing deep atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Barney; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Hansma, Paul K.

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new deep atomic force microscope (AFM) capable of ion sensing. A novel probe assembly incorporates a micropipette that can be used both for sensing ion currents and as the tip for AFM imaging. The key advance of this instrument over previous ion sensing AFMs is that it uses conventional micropipettes in a novel suspension system. This paper focuses on sensing the ion current passively while using force feedback for the operation of the AFM in contact mode. Two images are obtained simultaneously: (1) an AFM topography image and (2) an ion current image. As an example, two images of a MEMS device with a microchannel show peaks in the ion current as the pipette tip goes over the edges of the channel. This ion sensing AFM can also be used in other modes including tapping mode with force feedback as well as in non-contact mode by utilizing the ion current for feedback, as in scanning ion conductance microscopy. The instrument is gentle enough to be used on some biological samples such as plant leaves.

  14. Local Mechanical Properties by Atomic Force Microscopy Nanoindentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranchida, Davide; Piccarolo, Stefano

    The analysis of mechanical properties on a nanometer scale is a useful tool for combining information concerning texture organization obtained by microscopy with the properties of individual components. Moreover, this technique promotes the understanding of the hierarchical arrangement in complex natural materials as well in the case of simpler morphologies arising from industrial processes. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can bridge morphological information, obtained with outstanding resolution, to local mechanical properties. When performing an AFM nanoindentation, the rough force curve, i.e., the plot of the voltage output from the photodiode vs. the voltage applied to the piezo-scanner, can be translated into a curve of the applied load vs. the penetration depth after a series of preliminary determinations and calibrations. However, the analysis of the unloading portion of the force curves collected for polymers does not lead to a correct evaluation of Young's modulus. The high slope of the unloading curves is not linked to an elastic behavior, as would be expected, but rather to a viscoelastic effect. This can be argued on the basis that the unloading curves are superimposed on the loading curves in the case of an ideal elastic behavior, as for rubbers, or generally in the case of materials with very short relaxation times. In contrast, when the relaxation time of the sample is close to or even much larger than the indentation time scale, very high slopes are recorded.

  15. Multifunctional hydrogel nano-probes for atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Seol; Song, Jungki; Kim, Seong Oh; Kim, Seokbeom; Lee, Wooju; Jackman, Joshua A.; Kim, Dongchoul; Cho, Nam-Joon; Lee, Jungchul

    2016-05-01

    Since the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) three decades ago, there have been numerous advances in its measurement capabilities. Curiously, throughout these developments, the fundamental nature of the force-sensing probe--the key actuating element--has remained largely unchanged. It is produced by long-established microfabrication etching strategies and typically composed of silicon-based materials. Here, we report a new class of photopolymerizable hydrogel nano-probes that are produced by bottom-up fabrication with compressible replica moulding. The hydrogel probes demonstrate excellent capabilities for AFM imaging and force measurement applications while enabling programmable, multifunctional capabilities based on compositionally adjustable mechanical properties and facile encapsulation of various nanomaterials. Taken together, the simple, fast and affordable manufacturing route and multifunctional capabilities of hydrogel AFM nano-probes highlight the potential of soft matter mechanical transducers in nanotechnology applications. The fabrication scheme can also be readily utilized to prepare hydrogel cantilevers, including in parallel arrays, for nanomechanical sensor devices.

  16. High resolution atomic force microscopy of double-stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Ares, Pablo; Fuentes-Perez, Maria Eugenia; Herrero-Galán, Elías; Valpuesta, José M; Gil, Adriana; Gomez-Herrero, Julio; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Double-stranded (ds) RNA mediates the suppression of specific gene expression, it is the genetic material of a number of viruses, and a key activator of the innate immune response against viral infections. The ever increasing list of roles played by dsRNA in the cell and its potential biotechnological applications over the last decade has raised an interest for the characterization of its mechanical properties and structure, and that includes approaches using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and other single-molecule techniques. Recent reports have resolved the structure of dsDNA with AFM at unprecedented resolution. However, an equivalent study with dsRNA is still lacking. Here, we have visualized the double helix of dsRNA under near-physiological conditions and at sufficient resolution to resolve the A-form sub-helical pitch periodicity. We have employed different high-sensitive force-detection methods and obtained images with similar spatial resolution. Therefore, we show here that the limiting factors for high-resolution AFM imaging of soft materials in liquid medium are, rather than the imaging mode, the force between the tip and the sample and the sharpness of the tip apex. PMID:26876486

  17. Atomic Force Microscopy of Asymmetric Membranes from Turtle Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yongmei; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Ding, Bohua; Hao, Xian; Jiang, Junguang; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2014-01-01

    The cell membrane provides critical cellular functions that rely on its elaborate structure and organization. The structure of turtle membranes is an important part of an ongoing study of erythrocyte membranes. Using a combination of atomic force microscopy and single-molecule force spectroscopy, we characterized the turtle erythrocyte membrane structure with molecular resolution in a quasi-native state. High-resolution images both leaflets of turtle erythrocyte membranes revealed a smooth outer membrane leaflet and a protein covered inner membrane leaflet. This asymmetry was verified by single-molecule force spectroscopy, which detects numerous exposed amino groups of membrane proteins in the inner membrane leaflet but much fewer in the outer leaflet. The asymmetric membrane structure of turtle erythrocytes is consistent with the semi-mosaic model of human, chicken and fish erythrocyte membrane structure, making the semi-mosaic model more widely applicable. From the perspective of biological evolution, this result may support the universality of the semi-mosaic model. PMID:25134535

  18. A new ion sensing deep atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Barney; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Hansma, Paul K.

    2014-08-01

    Here we describe a new deep atomic force microscope (AFM) capable of ion sensing. A novel probe assembly incorporates a micropipette that can be used both for sensing ion currents and as the tip for AFM imaging. The key advance of this instrument over previous ion sensing AFMs is that it uses conventional micropipettes in a novel suspension system. This paper focuses on sensing the ion current passively while using force feedback for the operation of the AFM in contact mode. Two images are obtained simultaneously: (1) an AFM topography image and (2) an ion current image. As an example, two images of a MEMS device with a microchannel show peaks in the ion current as the pipette tip goes over the edges of the channel. This ion sensing AFM can also be used in other modes including tapping mode with force feedback as well as in non-contact mode by utilizing the ion current for feedback, as in scanning ion conductance microscopy. The instrument is gentle enough to be used on some biological samples such as plant leaves.

  19. Multifunctional hydrogel nano-probes for atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Seol; Song, Jungki; Kim, Seong Oh; Kim, Seokbeom; Lee, Wooju; Jackman, Joshua A.; Kim, Dongchoul; Cho, Nam-Joon; Lee, Jungchul

    2016-01-01

    Since the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) three decades ago, there have been numerous advances in its measurement capabilities. Curiously, throughout these developments, the fundamental nature of the force-sensing probe—the key actuating element—has remained largely unchanged. It is produced by long-established microfabrication etching strategies and typically composed of silicon-based materials. Here, we report a new class of photopolymerizable hydrogel nano-probes that are produced by bottom-up fabrication with compressible replica moulding. The hydrogel probes demonstrate excellent capabilities for AFM imaging and force measurement applications while enabling programmable, multifunctional capabilities based on compositionally adjustable mechanical properties and facile encapsulation of various nanomaterials. Taken together, the simple, fast and affordable manufacturing route and multifunctional capabilities of hydrogel AFM nano-probes highlight the potential of soft matter mechanical transducers in nanotechnology applications. The fabrication scheme can also be readily utilized to prepare hydrogel cantilevers, including in parallel arrays, for nanomechanical sensor devices. PMID:27199165

  20. A new ion sensing deep atomic force microscope

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Barney; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Hansma, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a new deep atomic force microscope (AFM) capable of ion sensing. A novel probe assembly incorporates a micropipette that can be used both for sensing ion currents and as the tip for AFM imaging. The key advance of this instrument over previous ion sensing AFMs is that it uses conventional micropipettes in a novel suspension system. This paper focuses on sensing the ion current passively while using force feedback for the operation of the AFM in contact mode. Two images are obtained simultaneously: (1) an AFM topography image and (2) an ion current image. As an example, two images of a MEMS device with a microchannel show peaks in the ion current as the pipette tip goes over the edges of the channel. This ion sensing AFM can also be used in other modes including tapping mode with force feedback as well as in non-contact mode by utilizing the ion current for feedback, as in scanning ion conductance microscopy. The instrument is gentle enough to be used on some biological samples such as plant leaves. PMID:25173275

  1. Multifunctional hydrogel nano-probes for atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Seol; Song, Jungki; Kim, Seong Oh; Kim, Seokbeom; Lee, Wooju; Jackman, Joshua A; Kim, Dongchoul; Cho, Nam-Joon; Lee, Jungchul

    2016-01-01

    Since the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) three decades ago, there have been numerous advances in its measurement capabilities. Curiously, throughout these developments, the fundamental nature of the force-sensing probe-the key actuating element-has remained largely unchanged. It is produced by long-established microfabrication etching strategies and typically composed of silicon-based materials. Here, we report a new class of photopolymerizable hydrogel nano-probes that are produced by bottom-up fabrication with compressible replica moulding. The hydrogel probes demonstrate excellent capabilities for AFM imaging and force measurement applications while enabling programmable, multifunctional capabilities based on compositionally adjustable mechanical properties and facile encapsulation of various nanomaterials. Taken together, the simple, fast and affordable manufacturing route and multifunctional capabilities of hydrogel AFM nano-probes highlight the potential of soft matter mechanical transducers in nanotechnology applications. The fabrication scheme can also be readily utilized to prepare hydrogel cantilevers, including in parallel arrays, for nanomechanical sensor devices. PMID:27199165

  2. Atomic force microscopy-based shape analysis of heart mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become an important medical and biological tool for the noninvasive imaging of cells and biomaterials in medical, biological, and biophysical research. The major advantages of AFM over conventional optical and electron microscopes for bio-imaging include the facts that no special coating is required and that imaging can be done in all environments-air, vacuum, or aqueous conditions. In addition, it can also precisely determine pico-nano Newton force interactions between the probe tip and the sample surface from force-distance curve measurements.It is widely known that mitochondrial swelling is one of the most important indicators of the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore. As mitochondrial swelling is an ultrastructural change, quantitative analysis of this change requires high-resolution microscopic methods such as AFM. Here, we describe the use of AFM-based shape analysis for the characterization of nanostructural changes in heart mitochondria resulting from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25634291

  3. Subharmonic Oscillations and Chaos in Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of dynamic atomic force microscopy (d-AFM) for nanoscale materials characterization calls for a deeper understanding of the cantilever dynamics influencing scan stability, predictability, and image quality. Model development is critical to such understanding. Renormalization of the equations governing d- AFM provides a simple interpretation of cantilever dynamics as a single spring and mass system with frequency dependent cantilever stiffness and damping parameters. The renormalized model is sufficiently robust to predict the experimentally observed splitting of the free-space cantilever resonance into multiple resonances upon cantilever-sample contact. Central to the model is the representation of the cantilever sample interaction force as a polynomial expansion with coefficients F(sub ij) (i,j = 0, 1, 2) that account for the effective interaction stiffness parameter, the cantilever-to-sample energy transfer, and the amplitude of cantilever oscillation. Application of the Melnikov method to the model equation is shown to predict a homoclinic bifurcation of the Smale horseshoe type leading to a cascade of period doublings with increasing drive displacement amplitude culminating in chaos and loss of image quality. The threshold value of the drive displacement amplitude necessary to initiate subharmonic generation depends on the acoustic drive frequency, the effective damping coefficient, and the nonlinearity of the cantilever-sample interaction force. For parameter values leading to displacement amplitudes below threshold for homoclinic bifurcation other bifurcation scenarios can occur, some of which lead to chaos.

  4. Investigating single molecule adhesion by atomic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stetter, Frank W S; Kienle, Sandra; Krysiak, Stefanie; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force spectroscopy is an ideal tool to study molecules at surfaces and interfaces. An experimental protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. At the same time the AFM tip is passivated to prevent unspecific interactions between the tip and the substrate, which is a prerequisite to study single molecules attached to the AFM tip. Analyses to determine the adhesion force, the adhesion length, and the free energy of these molecules on solid surfaces and bio-interfaces are shortly presented and external references for further reading are provided. Example molecules are the poly(amino acid) polytyrosine, the graft polymer PI-g-PS and the phospholipid POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). These molecules are desorbed from different surfaces like CH3-SAMs, hydrogen terminated diamond and supported lipid bilayers under various solvent conditions. Finally, the advantages of force spectroscopic single molecule experiments are discussed including means to decide if truly a single molecule has been studied in the experiment. PMID:25867282

  5. Atomically-resolved surface imaging by low temperature atomic force microscopy using a quartz resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yukio; An, Toshu; Nishio, Takahiro; Eguchi, Toyoaki; Ono, M.; Akiyama, Kotone

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a frequency-modulation atomic force microscope (FM-AFM) using a length-extension quartz resonator as a force sensor. Atomically-resolved images of the Si(111) 7x7 surface were obtained with the AFM in UHV both at room temperature [1] and 5 K. The high resonance frequency (˜1 MHz) of the resonator improves the sensitivity to its deflection. Its self-sensing property eliminates the cumbersome optical alignment, which is usually required in conventional AFMs, and thus it can be easily installed into a low temperature system. The high stiffness of the resonator enables us to operate with a very small oscillation amplitude; less than 0.1nm, and thus to detect a short-range force effectively, such as a covalent bonding force, which is crucial for the highly resolved imaging. For the probe tip, a tungsten wire was attached at the end of the resonator and sharpened by focused ion beam. The native oxide layer covering the tip was removed by in-situ field ion microscopy. [1] T. An, T. Eguchi, K. Akiyama and Y. Hasegawa, APL 87, 133114 (2005).

  6. Initiating heavy-atom-based phasing by multi-dimensional molecular replacement

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Gourdon, Pontus; Liu, Xiangyu; Karlsen, Jesper Lykkegaard; Nissen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    To obtain an electron-density map from a macromolecular crystal the phase problem needs to be solved, which often involves the use of heavy-atom derivative crystals and concomitant heavy-atom substructure determination. This is typically performed by dual-space methods, direct methods or Patterson-based approaches, which however may fail when only poorly diffracting derivative crystals are available. This is often the case for, for example, membrane proteins. Here, an approach for heavy-atom site identification based on a molecular-replacement parameter matrix (MRPM) is presented. It involves an n-dimensional search to test a wide spectrum of molecular-replacement parameters, such as different data sets and search models with different conformations. Results are scored by the ability to identify heavy-atom positions from anomalous difference Fourier maps. The strategy was successfully applied in the determination of a membrane-protein structure, the copper-transporting P-type ATPase CopA, when other methods had failed to determine the heavy-atom substructure. MRPM is well suited to proteins undergoing large conformational changes where multiple search models should be considered, and it enables the identification of weak but correct molecular-replacement solutions with maximum contrast to prime experimental phasing efforts. PMID:26960131

  7. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Horng, Jim-Tong; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Tseng, You-Chen; Lin, Shiming

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  8. Quantitative assessment of sample stiffness and sliding friction from force curves in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Jon R.; Shaw, Gordon A.; Kumanchik, Lee; Burnham, Nancy A.

    2010-02-15

    It has long been recognized that the angular deflection of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever under ''normal'' loading conditions can be profoundly influenced by the friction between the tip and the surface. It is shown here that a remarkably quantifiable hysteresis occurs in the slope of loading curves whenever the normal flexural stiffness of the AFM cantilever is greater than that of the sample. This situation arises naturally in cantilever-on-cantilever calibration, but also when trying to measure the stiffness of nanomechanical devices or test structures, or when probing any type of surface or structure that is much more compliant along the surface normal than in transverse directions. Expressions and techniques for evaluating the coefficient of sliding friction between the cantilever tip and sample from normal force curves, as well as relations for determining the stiffness of a mechanically compliant specimen are presented. The model is experimentally supported by the results of cantilever-on-cantilever spring constant calibrations. The cantilever spring constants determined here agree with the values determined using the NIST electrostatic force balance within the limits of the largest uncertainty component, which had a relative value of less than 2.5%. This points the way for quantitative testing of micromechanical and nanomechanical components, more accurate calibration of AFM force, and provides nanotribologists access to information about contact friction from normal force curves.

  9. Interaction forces between silica surfaces in cationic surfactant solutions: an atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Lüderitz, Liset A C; v Klitzing, Regine

    2013-07-15

    The interaction forces between silicon oxide surfaces in the presence of surfactant solutions were studied. Based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these interaction forces the correlation with the structure of the aggregates on the surfaces is analyzed. A colloidal probe atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the forces between two colloidal silica particles and between a colloidal particle and a silicon wafer in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at concentrations between 0.005 mM and 1.2 mM. Different interaction forces were obtained for the silica particle-silica particle system when compared to those for the silica particle-silicon wafer system for the same studied concentration. This indicates that the silica particles and the silicon wafer have different aggregate morphologies on their surfaces. The point of zero charge (pzc) was obtained at 0.05 mM CTAB concentration for the silica particles and at 0.3mM for the silica particle-silicon wafer system. This indicates a higher charge at the silicon wafer than at the silica particles. The observed long range attractions are explained by nanobubbles present at the silicon oxide surfaces and/or by attractive electrostatic interactions between the surfaces, induced by oppositely charged patches at the opposing Si oxide surfaces. PMID:23647691

  10. Accurate force spectroscopy in tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Existing force spectroscopy methods in tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) such as higher harmonic inversion [M. Stark, R. W. Stark, W. M. Heckl, and R. Guckenberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 8473 (2002)] or scanning probe acceleration microscopy [J. Legleiter, M. Park, B. Cusick, and T. Kowalewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 4813 (2006)] or integral relations [M. Lee and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 036104 (2006); S. Hu and A. Raman, Nanotechnology 19, 375704 (2008); H. Hölscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123109 (2006); A. J. Katan, Nanotechnology 20, 165703 (2009)] require and assume as an observable the tip dynamics in a single eigenmode of the oscillating microcantilever. We demonstrate that this assumption can distort significantly the extracted tip-sample interaction forces when applied to tapping mode AFM with soft cantilevers in liquid environments. This exception is due to the fact that under these conditions the second eigenmode is momentarily excited and the observed tip dynamics clearly contains contributions from the fundamental and second eigenmodes. To alleviate this problem, a simple experimental method is proposed to screen the second eigenmode contributions in the observed tip deflection signal to allow accurate tip-sample force reconstruction in liquids. The method is implemented experimentally to reconstruct interaction forces on polymer, bacteriorhodopsin membrane, and mica samples in buffer solutions.

  11. Surface properties and interaction forces of biopolymer-doped conductive polypyrrole surfaces by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Jani M; Haimi, Suvi P; Siljander, Aliisa S; Miettinen, Susanna S; Tappura, Kirsi M; Higgins, Michael J; Wallace, Gordon G

    2013-05-21

    Surface properties and electrical charges are critical factors elucidating cell interactions on biomaterial surfaces. The surface potential distribution and the nanoscopic and microscopic surface elasticity of organic polypyrrole-hyaluronic acid (PPy-HA) were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in a fluid environment in order to explain the observed enhancement in the attachment of human adipose stem cells on positively charged PPy-HA films. The electrostatic force between the AFM tip and a charged PPy-HA surface, the tip-sample adhesion force, and elastic moduli were estimated from the AFM force curves, and the data were fitted to electrostatic double-layer and elastic contact models. The surface potential of the charged and dried PPy-HA films was assessed with Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), and the KPFM data were correlated to the fluid AFM data. The surface charge distribution and elasticity were both found to correlate well with the nodular morphology of PPy-HA and to be sensitive to the electrochemical charging conditions. Furthermore, a significant change in the adhesion was detected when the surface was electrochemically charged positive. The results highlight the potential of positively charged PPy-HA as a coating material to enhance the stem cell response in tissue-engineering scaffolds. PMID:23621360

  12. Numerical study of the hydrodynamic drag force in atomic force microscopy measurements undertaken in fluids.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Méndez, J V; Alonso-Rasgado, M T; Faria, E Correia; Flores-Johnson, E A; Snook, R D

    2014-11-01

    When atomic force microscopy (AFM) is employed for in vivo study of immersed biological samples, the fluid medium presents additional complexities, not least of which is the hydrodynamic drag force due to viscous friction of the cantilever with the liquid. This force should be considered when interpreting experimental results and any calculated material properties. In this paper, a numerical model is presented to study the influence of the drag force on experimental data obtained from AFM measurements using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The model provides quantification of the drag force in AFM measurements of soft specimens in fluids. The numerical predictions were compared with experimental data obtained using AFM with a V-shaped cantilever fitted with a pyramidal tip. Tip velocities ranging from 1.05 to 105 μm/s were employed in water, polyethylene glycol and glycerol with the platform approaching from a distance of 6000 nm. The model was also compared with an existing analytical model. Good agreement was observed between numerical results, experiments and analytical predictions. Accurate predictions were obtained without the need for extrapolation of experimental data. In addition, the model can be employed over the range of tip geometries and velocities typically utilized in AFM measurements. PMID:25080275

  13. Analysis of force-deconvolution methods in frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Illek, Esther; Giessibl, Franz J

    2012-01-01

    Summary In frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy the direct observable is the frequency shift of an oscillating cantilever in a force field. This frequency shift is not a direct measure of the actual force, and thus, to obtain the force, deconvolution methods are necessary. Two prominent methods proposed by Sader and Jarvis (Sader–Jarvis method) and Giessibl (matrix method) are investigated with respect to the deconvolution quality. Both methods show a nontrivial dependence of the deconvolution quality on the oscillation amplitude. The matrix method exhibits spikelike features originating from a numerical artifact. By interpolation of the data, the spikelike features can be circumvented. The Sader–Jarvis method has a continuous amplitude dependence showing two minima and one maximum, which is an inherent property of the deconvolution algorithm. The optimal deconvolution depends on the ratio of the amplitude and the characteristic decay length of the force for the Sader–Jarvis method. However, the matrix method generally provides the higher deconvolution quality. PMID:22496997

  14. Measuring viscoelasticity of soft samples using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, S; Berger, E J

    2009-09-01

    Relaxation indentation experiments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to obtain viscoelastic material properties of soft samples. The quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model formulated by Fung (1972, "Stress Strain History Relations of Soft Tissues in Simple Elongation," in Biomechanics, Its Foundation and Objectives, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 181-207) for uniaxial compression data was modified for the indentation test data in this study. Hertz contact mechanics was used for the instantaneous deformation, and a reduced relaxation function based on continuous spectrum is used for the time-dependent part in the model. The modified QLV indentation model presents a novel method to obtain viscoelastic properties from indentation data independent of relaxation times of the test. The major objective of the present study is to develop the QLV indentation model and implement the model on AFM indentation data for 1% agarose gel and a viscoelastic polymer using spherical indenter. PMID:19725704

  15. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, G. J.; Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  16. Atomic force microscopy spring constant determination in viscous liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Pirzer, Tobias; Hugel, Thorsten

    2009-03-15

    The spring constant of cantilever in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is often calibrated from thermal noise spectra. Essential for accurate implementation of this 'thermal noise method' is an appropriate fitting function and procedure. Here, we survey the commonly used fitting functions and examine their applicability in a range of environments. We find that viscous liquid environments are extremely problematic due to the frequency dependent nature of the damping coefficient. The deviations from the true spring constant were sometimes more than 100% when utilizing the fit routines built into the three investigated commercial AFM instruments; similar problems can arise with homebuilt AFMs. We discuss the reasons for this problem, especially the limits of the fitting process. Finally, we present a thermal noise based procedure and an improved fit function to determine the spring constant with AFMs in fluids of various viscosities.

  17. Atomic force microscopy spring constant determination in viscous liquids.

    PubMed

    Pirzer, Tobias; Hugel, Thorsten

    2009-03-01

    The spring constant of cantilever in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is often calibrated from thermal noise spectra. Essential for accurate implementation of this "thermal noise method" is an appropriate fitting function and procedure. Here, we survey the commonly used fitting functions and examine their applicability in a range of environments. We find that viscous liquid environments are extremely problematic due to the frequency dependent nature of the damping coefficient. The deviations from the true spring constant were sometimes more than 100% when utilizing the fit routines built into the three investigated commercial AFM instruments; similar problems can arise with homebuilt AFMs. We discuss the reasons for this problem, especially the limits of the fitting process. Finally, we present a thermal noise based procedure and an improved fit function to determine the spring constant with AFMs in fluids of various viscosities. PMID:19334955

  18. Atomic-force microscopy of submicron films of electroactive polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamov, D. D.; Kornilov, V. M.; Lachinov, A. N.; Kraikin, V. A.; Ionova, I. A.

    2016-07-01

    Atomic-force microscopy is used to study the supramolecular structure of submicron films of electroactive thermally stable polymer (polydiphenylenephthalide (PDP)). It has been demonstrated that PDP films produced using centrifuging are solid homogeneous films with thicknesses down to several nanometers, which correspond to two or three monomolecular layers. The film volume is structurized at thicknesses greater than 100 nm. The study of the rheological properties of solutions used for film production yields a crossover point that separates the domains of strongly diluted and semidiluted solutions. A transition from the globular structure to the associate structure is observed in films that are produced using solutions with a boundary concentration. A model of the formation of polymer film that involves the presence of associates in the original solution is discussed.

  19. High bandwidth deflection readout for atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Steininger, Juergen; Bibl, Matthias; Yoo, Han Woong; Schitter, Georg

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents the systematic design of a high bandwidth deflection readout mechanism for atomic force microscopes. The widely used optical beam deflection method is revised by adding a focusing lens between the cantilever and the quadrant photodetector (QPD). This allows the utilization of QPDs with a small active area resulting in an increased detection bandwidth due to the reduced junction capacitance. Furthermore the additional lens can compensate a cross talk between a compensating z-movement of the cantilever and the deflection readout. Scaling effects are analyzed to get the optimal spot size for the given geometry of the QPD. The laser power is tuned to maximize the signal to noise ratio without limiting the bandwidth by local saturation effects. The systematic approach results in a measured -3 dB detection bandwidth of 64.5 MHz at a deflection noise density of 62fm/√Hz. PMID:26520960

  20. Cross-talk correction in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, A; Jungk, T; Soergel, E

    2007-01-01

    Commercial atomic force microscopes usually use a position-sensitive photodiode to detect the motion of the cantilever via laser beam deflection. This readout technique makes it possible to measure bending and torsion of the cantilever separately. A slight angle between the orientation of the photodiode and the plane of the readout laser beam, however, causes false signals in both readout channels. This cross-talk may lead to misinterpretation of the acquired data. We demonstrate this fault with images recorded in contact mode on periodically poled ferroelectric crystals and present a simple electronic circuit to compensate for it. This circuit can correct for cross-talk with a bandwidth of approximately 1 MHz suppressing the the false signal to <1%. PMID:17503950

  1. High bandwidth deflection readout for atomic force microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steininger, Juergen; Bibl, Matthias; Yoo, Han Woong; Schitter, Georg

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents the systematic design of a high bandwidth deflection readout mechanism for atomic force microscopes. The widely used optical beam deflection method is revised by adding a focusing lens between the cantilever and the quadrant photodetector (QPD). This allows the utilization of QPDs with a small active area resulting in an increased detection bandwidth due to the reduced junction capacitance. Furthermore the additional lens can compensate a cross talk between a compensating z-movement of the cantilever and the deflection readout. Scaling effects are analyzed to get the optimal spot size for the given geometry of the QPD. The laser power is tuned to maximize the signal to noise ratio without limiting the bandwidth by local saturation effects. The systematic approach results in a measured -3 dB detection bandwidth of 64.5 MHz at a deflection noise density of 62 fm / √{ Hz } .

  2. Exploiting cantilever curvature for noise reduction in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Aleksander; Grütter, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Optical beam deflection is a widely used method for detecting the deflection of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers. This paper presents a first order derivation for the angular detection noise density which determines the lower limit for deflection sensing. Surprisingly, the cantilever radius of curvature, commonly not considered, plays a crucial role and can be exploited to decrease angular detection noise. We demonstrate a reduction in angular detection shot noise of more than an order of magnitude on a home-built AFM with a commercial 450 μm long cantilever by exploiting the optical properties of the cantilever curvature caused by the reflective gold coating. Lastly, we demonstrate how cantilever curvature can be responsible for up to 45% of the variability in the measured sensitivity of cantilevers on commercially available AFMs. PMID:21280834

  3. The Applications of Atomic Force Microscopy to Vision Science

    PubMed Central

    Last, Julie A.; Russell, Paul; Nealey, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is widely used in materials science and has found many applications in biological sciences but has been limited in use in vision science. The AFM can be used to image the topography of soft biological materials in their native environments. It can also be used to probe the mechanical properties of cells and extracellular matrices, including their intrinsic elastic modulus and receptor-ligand interactions. In this review, the operation of the AFM is described along with a review of how it has been thus far used in vision science. It is hoped that this review will serve to stimulate vision scientists to consider incorporating AFM as part of their research toolkit. PMID:21123767

  4. Nanometrology of delignified Populus using mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tetard, Laurene; Passian, Ali; Farahi, R H; Davison, Brian H; Jung, S; Ragauskas, A J; Lereu, Aude; Thundat, Thomas George

    2011-01-01

    The study of the spatially resolved physical and compositional properties of materials at the nanoscale is increasingly challenging due to the level of complexity of biological specimens such as those of interest in bioenergy production. Mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy (MSAFM) has emerged as a promising metrology tool for such studies. It is shown that, by tuning the mechanical excitation of the probe-sample system, MSAFM can be used to dynamically investigate the multifaceted complexity of plant cells. The results are argued to be of importance both for the characteristics of the invoked synthesized modes and for accessing new features of the samples. As a specific system to investigate, we present images of Populus, before and after a holopulping treatment, a crucial step in the biomass delignification process.

  5. A Novel Atomic Force Microscope with Multi-Mode Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chun; Zhang, Haijun; Xu, Rui; Han, Xu; Wang, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    A new type of atomic force microscope (AFM) with multi-mode scanner is proposed. The AFM system provides more than four scanning modes using a specially designed scanner with three tube piezoelectric ceramics and three stack piezoelectric ceramics. Sample scanning of small range with high resolution can be realized by using tube piezos, meanwhile, large range scanning can be achieved by stack piezos. Furthermore, the combination with tube piezos and stack piezos not only realizes high-resolution scanning of small samples with large- scale fluctuation structure, but also achieves small range area-selecting scanning. Corresponding experiments are carried out in terms of four different scanning modes showing that the AFM is of reliable stability, high resolution and can be widely applied in the fields of micro/nano-technology.

  6. Silicon Carbide Epitaxial Films Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) holds great potential as an electronic material because of its wide band gap energy, high breakdown electric field, thermal stability, and resistance to radiation damage. Possible aerospace applications of high-temperature, high-power, or high-radiation SiC electronic devices include sensors, control electronics, and power electronics that can operate at temperatures up to 600 C and beyond. Commercially available SiC devices now include blue light-emitting diodes (LED's) and high-voltage diodes for operation up to 350 C, with other devices under development. At present, morphological defects in epitaxially grown SiC films limit their use in device applications. Research geared toward reducing the number of structural inhomogeneities can benefit from an understanding of the type and nature of problems that cause defects. The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) has proven to be a useful tool in characterizing defects present on the surface of SiC epitaxial films. The in-house High-Temperature Integrated Electronics and Sensors (HTIES) Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center not only extended the dopant concentration range achievable in epitaxial SiC films, but it reduced the concentration of some types of defects. Advanced structural characterization using the AFM was warranted to identify the type and structure of the remaining film defects and morphological inhomogeneities. The AFM can give quantitative information on surface topography down to molecular scales. Acquired, in part, in support of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP), the AFM had been used previously to detect partial fiber debonding in composite material cross sections. Atomic force microscopy examination of epitaxial SiC film surfaces revealed molecular-scale details of some unwanted surface features. Growth pits propagating from defects in the substrate, and hillocks due, presumably, to existing screw dislocations in the substrates, were

  7. Atomic force microscopy analysis of rat pulmonary surfactant films.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiujun; Keating, Eleonora; Tadayyon, Seyed; Possmayer, Fred; Zuo, Yi Y; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2011-10-01

    Pulmonary surfactant facilitates breathing by forming a surface tension reducing film at the air-liquid interface of the alveoli. The objective was to characterize the structure of surfactant films using endogenous rat surfactant. Solid-support surfactant films, at different surface pressures, were obtained using a Langmuir balance and were analyzed using atomic force microscopy. The results showed a lipid film structure with three distinct phases: liquid expanded, liquid ordered and liquid condensed. The area covered by the liquid condensed domains increased as surface pressure increased. The presence of liquid ordered phase within these structures correlated with the cholesterol content. At a surface pressure of 50 mN/m, stacks of bilayers appeared. Several structural details of these films differ from previous observations made with goat and exogenous surfactants. Overall, the data indicate that surfactant films demonstrate phase separation at low surface pressures and multilayer formation at higher pressure, features likely important for normal surfactant function. PMID:21704443

  8. Gating mechanosensitive channels in bacteria with an atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, Renata; Miller, Samantha; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Third Institute of Physics Team; School of Medical Sciences Collaboration

    The regulation of growth and integrity of bacteria is critically linked to mechanical stress. Bacteria typically maintain a high difference of osmotic pressure (turgor pressure) with respect to the environment. This pressure difference (on the order of 1 atm) is supported by the cell envelope, a composite of lipid membranes and a rigid cell wall. Turgor pressure is controlled by the ratio of osmolytes inside and outside bacteria and thus, can abruptly increase upon osmotic downshock. For structural integrity bacteria rely on the mechanical stability of the cell wall and on the action of mechanosensitive (MS) channels: membrane proteins that release solutes in response to stress in the cell envelope. We here present experimental data on MS channels gating. We activate channels by indenting living bacteria with the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM). We compare responses of wild-type and mutant bacteria in which some or all MS channels have been eliminated.

  9. Nanolithography on thin layers of PMMA using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Cristina; Rius, Gemma; Borrisé, Xavier; Pérez-Murano, Francesc

    2005-08-01

    A new technique for producing nanometre scale patterns on thin layers (<30 nm thick) of PMMA on silicon is described. The method consists of inducing the local modification of the PMMA by applying a positive voltage between the silicon and an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. At voltages larger than 28 V, it is observed that a hole is directly produced on the PMMA. The silicon surface is simultaneously oxidized even in the case where a hole has not been created. Monitoring of the electrical current through the AFM tip during the application of the voltage allows elucidating the mechanism of the PMMA removal. The process is used to define nanometre scale electrodes by combining the AFM lithography with electron beam lithography, metal deposition and lift-off processes.

  10. The long range voice coil atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, H.; Randall, C.; Bridges, D.; Hansma, P. K.

    2012-02-15

    Most current atomic force microscopes (AFMs) use piezoelectric ceramics for scan actuation. Piezoelectric ceramics provide precision motion with fast response to applied voltage potential. A drawback to piezoelectric ceramics is their inherently limited ranges. For many samples this is a nonissue, as imaging the nanoscale details is the goal. However, a key advantage of AFM over other microscopy techniques is its ability to image biological samples in aqueous buffer. Many biological specimens have topography for which the range of piezoactuated stages is limiting, a notable example of which is bone. In this article, we present the use of voice coils in scan actuation for an actuation range in the Z-axis an order of magnitude larger than any AFM commercially available today. The increased scan size will allow for imaging an important new variety of samples, including bone fractures.

  11. Mechanical manifestations of rare atomic jumps in dynamic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, R.; Baratoff, A.; Hug, H. J.; Hidber, H. R.; Löhneysen, H. v.; Güntherodt, H.-J.

    2007-10-01

    The resonance frequency and the excitation amplitude of a silicon cantilever have been measured as a function of distance to a cleaved KBr(001) surface with a low-temperature scanning force microscope (SFM) in ultrahigh vacuum. We identify two regimes of tip-sample distances. Above a site-dependent critical tip-sample distance reproducible data with low noise and no interaction-induced energy dissipation are measured. In this regime reproducible SFM images can be recorded. At closer tip-sample distances, above two distinct atomic sites, the frequency values jump between two limiting curves on a timescale of tens of milliseconds. Furthermore, additional energy dissipation occurs wherever jumps are observed. We attribute both phenomena to rarely occurring changes in the tip apex configuration which are affected by short-range interactions with the sample. Their respective magnitudes are related to each other. A specific candidate two-level system is also proposed.

  12. Unlocking higher harmonics in atomic force microscopy with gentle interactions

    PubMed Central

    Font, Josep; Verdaguer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Summary In dynamic atomic force microscopy, nanoscale properties are encoded in the higher harmonics. Nevertheless, when gentle interactions and minimal invasiveness are required, these harmonics are typically undetectable. Here, we propose to externally drive an arbitrary number of exact higher harmonics above the noise level. In this way, multiple contrast channels that are sensitive to compositional variations are made accessible. Numerical integration of the equation of motion shows that the external introduction of exact harmonic frequencies does not compromise the fundamental frequency. Thermal fluctuations are also considered within the detection bandwidth of interest and discussed in terms of higher-harmonic phase contrast in the presence and absence of an external excitation of higher harmonics. Higher harmonic phase shifts further provide the means to directly decouple the true topography from that induced by compositional heterogeneity. PMID:24778948

  13. Unlocking higher harmonics in atomic force microscopy with gentle interactions.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sergio; Barcons, Victor; Font, Josep; Verdaguer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In dynamic atomic force microscopy, nanoscale properties are encoded in the higher harmonics. Nevertheless, when gentle interactions and minimal invasiveness are required, these harmonics are typically undetectable. Here, we propose to externally drive an arbitrary number of exact higher harmonics above the noise level. In this way, multiple contrast channels that are sensitive to compositional variations are made accessible. Numerical integration of the equation of motion shows that the external introduction of exact harmonic frequencies does not compromise the fundamental frequency. Thermal fluctuations are also considered within the detection bandwidth of interest and discussed in terms of higher-harmonic phase contrast in the presence and absence of an external excitation of higher harmonics. Higher harmonic phase shifts further provide the means to directly decouple the true topography from that induced by compositional heterogeneity. PMID:24778948

  14. Automated parallel high-speed atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minne, S. C.; Yaralioglu, G.; Manalis, S. R.; Adams, J. D.; Zesch, J.; Atalar, A.; Quate, C. F.

    1998-05-01

    An expandable system has been developed to operate multiple probes for the atomic force microscope in parallel at high speeds. The combined improvements from parallelism and enhanced tip speed in this system represent an increase in throughput by over two orders of magnitude. A modular cantilever design has been replicated to produce an array of 50 cantilevers with a 200 μm pitch. This design contains a dedicated integrated sensor and integrated actuator where the cells can be repeated indefinitely. Electrical shielding within the array virtually eliminates coupling between the actuators and sensors. The reduced coupling simplifies the control electronics, facilitating the design of a computer system to automate the parallel high-speed arrays. This automated system has been applied to four cantilevers within the array of 50 cantilevers, with a 20 kHz bandwidth and a noise level of less than 50 Å. For typical samples, this bandwidth allows us to scan the probes at 4 mm/s.

  15. Nanoscale imaging of Bacillus thuringiensis flagella using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Annika; Dupres, Vincent; Delestrait, Guillaume; Mahillon, Jacques; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2012-02-01

    Because bacterial flagella play essential roles in various processes (motility, adhesion, host interactions, secretion), studying their expression in relation to function is an important challenge. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to gain insight into the nanoscale surface properties of two wild-type and four mutant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis exhibiting various levels of flagellation. We show that, unlike AFM in liquid, AFM in air is a simple and reliable approach to observe the morphological details of the bacteria, and to quantify the density and dimensions of their flagella. We found that the amount of flagella expressed by the six strains, as observed at the nanoscale, correlates with their microscopic swarming motility. These observations provide novel information on flagella expression in Gram-positive bacteria and demonstrate the power of AFM in genetic studies for the fast assessment of the phenotypic characteristics of bacterial strains altered in cell surface appendages.Because bacterial flagella play essential roles in various processes (motility, adhesion, host interactions, secretion), studying their expression in relation to function is an important challenge. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to gain insight into the nanoscale surface properties of two wild-type and four mutant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis exhibiting various levels of flagellation. We show that, unlike AFM in liquid, AFM in air is a simple and reliable approach to observe the morphological details of the bacteria, and to quantify the density and dimensions of their flagella. We found that the amount of flagella expressed by the six strains, as observed at the nanoscale, correlates with their microscopic swarming motility. These observations provide novel information on flagella expression in Gram-positive bacteria and demonstrate the power of AFM in genetic studies for the fast assessment of the phenotypic characteristics of bacterial strains altered in

  16. Photothermal excitation setup for a modified commercial atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Holger; Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika; Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2014-02-15

    High-resolution imaging in liquids using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy is known to suffer from additional peaks in the resonance spectrum that are unrelated to the cantilever resonance. These unwanted peaks are caused by acoustic modes of the liquid and the setup arising from the indirect oscillation excitation by a piezoelectric transducer. Photothermal excitation has been identified as a suitable method for exciting the cantilever in a direct manner. Here, we present a simple design for implementing photothermal excitation in a modified Multimode scan head from Bruker. Our approach is based on adding a few components only to keep the modifications as simple as possible and to maintain the low noise level of the original setup with a typical deflection noise density of about 15 fm/√(Hz) measured in aqueous solution. The success of the modification is illustrated by a comparison of the resonance spectra obtained with piezoelectric and photothermal excitation. The performance of the systems is demonstrated by presenting high-resolution images on bare calcite in liquid as well as organic adsorbates (Alizarin Red S) on calcite with simultaneous atomic resolution of the underlying calcite substrate.

  17. Photothermal excitation setup for a modified commercial atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Holger; Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi; Kühnle, Angelika

    2014-02-01

    High-resolution imaging in liquids using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy is known to suffer from additional peaks in the resonance spectrum that are unrelated to the cantilever resonance. These unwanted peaks are caused by acoustic modes of the liquid and the setup arising from the indirect oscillation excitation by a piezoelectric transducer. Photothermal excitation has been identified as a suitable method for exciting the cantilever in a direct manner. Here, we present a simple design for implementing photothermal excitation in a modified Multimode scan head from Bruker. Our approach is based on adding a few components only to keep the modifications as simple as possible and to maintain the low noise level of the original setup with a typical deflection noise density of about 15 fm/sqrt{Hz} measured in aqueous solution. The success of the modification is illustrated by a comparison of the resonance spectra obtained with piezoelectric and photothermal excitation. The performance of the systems is demonstrated by presenting high-resolution images on bare calcite in liquid as well as organic adsorbates (Alizarin Red S) on calcite with simultaneous atomic resolution of the underlying calcite substrate.

  18. Pressure solution observed with an atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, J.; Pachon-Rodriguez, E. A.; Piednoir, A.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolution of minerals is involved in many geological and environmental processes, often with large human consequences. One can cite the durability of mineral materials, the management of nuclear wastes, the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 or the pollution of drinking water. Progresses have been made during the last decade in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of dissolution, particularly concerning the nature of the reactive surface, the role of etch pits, the influence of the mineral history, the mineral replacement processes, ... One of the remaining problems is the influence of an elastic stress on the nature and rate of dissolution. For instance a large discrepancy still exists between experimental results and modelling of pressure solution creep, a plastic strain mechanism of minerals based on the dissolution enhancement by an external stress. We present here an experimental evidence of the influence of a local stress on a molecular elementary mechanism of dissolution. This was performed by atomic force microscopy observation of the migration of a molecular step on the surface of a single crystal of gypsum during dissolution, where the AFM tip is used alternatively to apply a stress and probe the surface. The kinetics of this atomic mechanism is seen to obey the same law of pressure solution as the corresponding macroscopic phenomenon.

  19. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretationmore » of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.« less

  20. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  1. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments. PMID:26734515

  2. Jumping mode atomic force microscopy on grana membranes from spinach.

    PubMed

    Sznee, Kinga; Dekker, Jan P; Dame, Remus T; van Roon, Henny; Wuite, Gijs J L; Frese, Raoul N

    2011-11-11

    The thylakoid membrane system is a complex membrane system that organizes and reorganizes itself to provide plants optimal chemical energy from sunlight under different and varying environmental conditions. Grana membranes are part of this system and contain the light-driven water-splitting enzyme Photosystem II (PSII) and light-harvesting antenna complexes. Here, we present a direct visualization of PSII complexes within grana membranes from spinach. By means of jumping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid, minimal forces were applied between the scanning tip and membrane or protein, allowing complexes to be imaged with high detail. We observed four different packing arrangements of PSII complexes, which occur primarily as dimers: co-linear crystalline rows, nanometric domains of straight or skewed rows, and disordered domains. Upon storing surface-adhered membranes at low temperature prior to imaging, large-scale reorganizations of supercomplexes between PSII and light-harvesting complex II could be induced. The highest resolution images show the existence of membrane domains without obvious topography extending beyond supercomplexes. These observations illustrate the possibility for diffusion of proteins and smaller molecules within these densely packed membranes. PMID:21911498

  3. Introduction to Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in Biology.

    PubMed

    Kreplak, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has the unique capability of imaging biological samples with molecular resolution in buffer solution over a wide range of time scales from milliseconds to hours. In addition to providing topographical images of surfaces with nanometer- to angstrom-scale resolution, forces between single molecules and mechanical properties of biological samples can be investigated from the nano-scale to the micro-scale. Importantly, the measurements are made in buffer solutions, allowing biological samples to "stay alive" within a physiological-like environment while temporal changes in structure are measured-e.g., before and after addition of chemical reagents. These qualities distinguish AFM from conventional imaging techniques of comparable resolution, e.g., electron microscopy (EM). This unit provides an introduction to AFM on biological systems and describes specific examples of AFM on proteins, cells, and tissues. The physical principles of the technique and methodological aspects of its practical use and applications are also described. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27479503

  4. Cross-talk compensation in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, Cagdas D.; Suemer, Bilsay; Sitti, Metin

    2008-10-15

    In this work, calibration and correction of cross-talk in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is demonstrated. Several reasons and effects of this inherent problem on experimental results are discussed. We propose a general procedure that can be used on most AFM systems to compensate for cross-talk on the cantilever bending and twisting signals. The method utilizes two initial experiments on a flat surface to achieve an affine transformation between the measured signals and the actual signals. Using this transformation directly on the voltage signals allows us to remove the detrimental effects of cross-talk on AFM-based force measurement experiments. The achieved transformation matrix can be turned into a simple circuit and applied online, by users who have access to the raw signals in the AFM head. As a case study, a lateral deflection based mechanical characterization test for a poly(methyl methacrylate) microfiber that is suspended on a trench is investigated in terms of the effectiveness of the cross-talk compensation.

  5. Structural examination of lithium niobate ferroelectric crystals by combining scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, P. V.; Ped'ko, B. B.; Kuznecova, Yu. V.

    2016-02-01

    The structure of lithium niobate single crystals is studied by a complex technique that combines scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. By implementing the piezoresponse force method on an atomic force microscope, the domain structure of lithium niobate crystals, which was not revealed without electron beam irradiation, is visualized

  6. Small cantilevers for atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy of biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viani, M. B.; Schaffer, T. E.; Chand, A.; Smith, B. L.; Hansma, P. K.; Wendman, M.

    1998-03-01

    Small cantilevers offer new possibilities for high speed/low noise atomic force microscopy of soft, biological samples. We have used a novel process to fabricate metallic cantilevers that should maximize reflectivity and minimize thermal bending. We have fabricated and measured the properties of aluminum, nickel, silver, and 14-karat gold cantilevers that are 3-12 um long, 1-4 um wide, and 60-300 nm thick and have resonant frequencies of 0.5-2 MHz and spring constants of 0.1-3 N/m. We also have fabricated small cantilevers with ultra-low spring constants (1-10 mN/m) out of silicon nitride and used them for force spectroscopy of DNA. This work was supported by grant numbers NSF-DMR9622169 and NSF-DMR9632716 from the Materials Research Division of the National Science Foundation and by grant number DAAH04-96-1-004 from the Army Research Office.

  7. Nanomechanical cutting of boron nitride nanotubes by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Meng; Chen, Xiaoming; Park, Cheol; Fay, Catharine C.; Pugno, Nicola M.; Ke, Changhong

    2013-12-01

    The length of nanotubes is a critical structural parameter for the design and manufacture of nanotube-based material systems and devices. High-precision length control of nanotubes by means of mechanical cutting using a scriber has not materialized due to the lack of the knowledge of the appropriate cutting conditions and the tube failure mechanism. In this paper, we present a quantitative nanomechanical study of the cutting of individual boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes. In our nanotube cutting measurements, a nanotube standing still on a flat substrate was laterally scribed by an AFM tip. The tip-tube collision force deformed the tube, and eventually fractured the tube at the collision site by increasing the cutting load. The mechanical response of nanotubes during the tip-tube collision process and the roles of the scribing velocity and the frictional interaction on the tip-tube collision contact in cutting nanotubes were quantitatively investigated by cutting double-walled BNNTs of 2.26-4.28 nm in outer diameter. The fracture strength of BNNTs was also quantified based on the measured collision forces and their structural configurations using contact mechanics theories. Our analysis reports fracture strengths of 9.1-15.5 GPa for the tested BNNTs. The nanomechanical study presented in this paper demonstrates that the AFM-based nanomechanical cutting technique not only enables effective control of the length of nanotubes with high precision, but is also promising as a new nanomechanical testing technique for characterizing the mechanical properties of tubular nanostructures.

  8. Quantitative comparison of two independent lateral force calibration techniques for the atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, Sarice S.; Cannara, Rachel J.; Deng Zhao; Gates, Richard S.; Reitsma, Mark G.

    2012-02-15

    Two independent lateral-force calibration methods for the atomic force microscope (AFM)--the hammerhead (HH) technique and the diamagnetic lateral force calibrator (D-LFC)--are systematically compared and found to agree to within 5% or less, but with precision limited to about 15%, using four different tee-shaped HH reference probes. The limitations of each method, both of which offer independent yet feasible paths toward traceable accuracy, are discussed and investigated. We find that stiff cantilevers may produce inconsistent D-LFC values through the application of excessively high normal loads. In addition, D-LFC results vary when the method is implemented using different modes of AFM feedback control, constant height and constant force modes, where the latter is more consistent with the HH method and closer to typical experimental conditions. Specifically, for the D-LFC apparatus used here, calibration in constant height mode introduced errors up to 14 %. In constant force mode using a relatively stiff cantilever, we observed an {approx_equal} 4 % systematic error per {mu}N of applied load for loads {<=} 1 {mu}N. The issue of excessive load typically emerges for cantilevers whose flexural spring constant is large compared with the normal spring constant of the D-LFC setup (such that relatively small cantilever flexural displacements produce relatively large loads). Overall, the HH method carries a larger uncertainty, which is dominated by uncertainty in measurement of the flexural spring constant of the HH cantilever as well as in the effective length dimension of the cantilever probe. The D-LFC method relies on fewer parameters and thus has fewer uncertainties associated with it. We thus show that it is the preferred method of the two, as long as care is taken to perform the calibration in constant force mode with low applied loads.

  9. Atomic force microscopy of atomic-scale ledges and etch pits formed during dissolution of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, A. J.; Manne, S.; Hansma, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    The processes involved in the dissolution and growth of crystals are closely related. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of faceted pits (called negative crystals) formed during quartz dissolution reveals subtle details of these underlying physical mechanisms for silicates. In imaging these surfaces, the AFM detected ledges less than 1 nm high that were spaced 10 to 90 nm apart. A dislocation pit, invisible to optical and scanning electron microscopy measurements and serving as a ledge source, was also imaged. These observations confirm the applicability of ledge-motion models to dissolution and growth of silicates; coupled with measurements of dissolution rate on facets, these methods provide a powerful tool for probing mineral surface kinetics.

  10. Surface science experiments involving the atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Sean P.

    Three diverse first author surfaces science experiments conducted by Sean P. McBride1-3 will be discussed in detail and supplemented by secondary co-author projects by Sean P. McBride,4-7 all of which rely heavily on the use of an atomic force microscope (AFM). First, the slip length parameter, b of liquids is investigated using colloidal probe AFM. The slip length describes how easily a fluid flows over an interface. The slip length, with its exact origin unknown and dependencies not overwhelming decided upon by the scientific community, remains a controversial topic. Colloidal probe AFM uses a spherical probe attached to a standard AFM imaging tip driven through a liquid. With the force on this colloidal AFM probe known, and using the simplest homologous series of test liquids, many of the suspected causes and dependencies of the slip length demonstrated in the literature can be suppressed or eliminated. This leaves the measurable trends in the slip length attributed only to the systematically varying physical properties of the different liquids. When conducting these experiments, it was realized that the spring constant, k, of the system depends upon the cantilever geometry of the experiment and therefore should be measured in-situ. This means that the k calibration needs to be performed in the same viscous liquid in which the slip experiments are performed. Current in-situ calibrations in viscous fluids are very limited, thus a new in-situ k calibration method was developed for use in viscous fluids. This new method is based upon the residuals, namely, the difference between experimental force-distance data and Vinogradova slip theory. Next, the AFM's ability to acquire accurate sub nanometer height profiles of structures on interfaces was used to develop a novel experimental technique to measure the line tension parameter, tau, of isolated nanoparticles at the three phase interface in a solid-liquid-vapor system. The tau parameter is a result of excess energy