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Sample records for multidisciplinary study design

  1. The multi-disciplinary design study. A life cycle cost algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, R. R.; Duran, J. M.; Kauffman, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) is investigated as a comprehensive design criterion for two major interrelated spacecraft subsystems, Controls and Structures. A Multi-Disciplinary Design Tool (MDDT) is developed to evaluate the sensitivity of LCC to subsystem design parameters. Major costs addressed are: non-recurring; launch; ground support; maintenance; expendables; and software. Examples and results from the MDDT are described, including a structural optimization study between different truss designs; a solar array feathering trade for a minimal drag configuration during umbra; and the cost of active control of a flexible structure is compared against the cost of passive damping using visco-elastic material.

  2. Multidisciplinary Approach to Aerospike Nozzle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Salas, A. O.; Dunn, H. J.; Alexandrov, N. M.; Follett, W. W.; Orient, G. E.; Hadid, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    A model of a linear aerospike rocket nozzle that consists of coupled aerodynamic and structural analyses has been developed. A nonlinear computational fluid dynamics code is used to calculate the aerodynamic thrust, and a three-dimensional finite-element model is used to determine the structural response and weight. The model will be used to demonstrate multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) capabilities for relevant engine concepts, assess performance of various MDO approaches, and provide a guide for future application development. In this study, the MDO problem is formulated using the multidisciplinary feasible (MDF) strategy. The results for the MDF formulation are presented with comparisons against separate aerodynamic and structural optimized designs. Significant improvements are demonstrated by using a multidisciplinary approach in comparison with the single-discipline design strategy.

  3. Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Russell M.; Freeman, H. JoAnne

    1999-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design and analysis (MDA) has become the normal mode of operation within most aerospace companies, but the impact of these changes have largely not been reflected at many universities. On an effort to determine if the emergence of multidisciplinary design concepts should influence engineering curricula, NASA has asked several universities (Virginia Tech, Georgia Tech, Clemson, BYU, and Cal Poly) to investigate the practicality of introducing MDA concepts within their undergraduate curricula. A multidisciplinary team of faculty, students, and industry partners evaluated the aeronautical engineering curriculum at Cal Poly. A variety of ways were found to introduce MDA themes into the curriculum without adding courses or units to the existing program. Both analytic and educational tools for multidisciplinary design of aircraft have been developed and implemented.

  4. Multidisciplinary Concurrent Design Optimization via the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Kelkar, Atul G.; Koganti, Gopichand

    2001-01-01

    A methodology is presented which uses commercial design and analysis software and the Internet to perform concurrent multidisciplinary optimization. The methodology provides a means to develop multidisciplinary designs without requiring that all software be accessible from the same local network. The procedures are amenable to design and development teams whose members, expertise and respective software are not geographically located together. This methodology facilitates multidisciplinary teams working concurrently on a design problem of common interest. Partition of design software to different machines allows each constituent software to be used on the machine that provides the most economy and efficiency. The methodology is demonstrated on the concurrent design of a spacecraft structure and attitude control system. Results are compared to those derived from performing the design with an autonomous FORTRAN program.

  5. The multi-disciplinary design study: A life cycle cost algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, R. R.; Pichi, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    The approach and results of a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Subsystem (SDPS) including gimbal pointing and power output performance are documented. The Multi-Discipline Design Tool (MDDT) computer program developed during the 1986 study has been modified to include the design, performance, and cost algorithms for the SDPS as described. As with the Space Station structural and control subsystems, the LCC of the SDPS can be computed within the MDDT program as a function of the engineering design variables. Two simple examples of MDDT's capability to evaluate cost sensitivity and design based on LCC are included. MDDT was designed to accept NASA's IMAT computer program data as input so that IMAT's detailed structural and controls design capability can be assessed with expected system LCC as computed by MDDT. No changes to IMAT were required. Detailed knowledge of IMAT is not required to perform the LCC analyses as the interface with IMAT is noninteractive.

  6. Initial Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozoroski, L. P.; Geiselhart, K. A.; Padula, S. L.; Li, W.; Olson, E. D.; Campbell, R. L.; Shields, E. W.; Berton, J. J.; Gray, J. S.; Jones, S. M.; Naiman, C. G.; Seidel, J. A.; Moore, K. T.; Naylor, B. A.; Townsend, S.

    2010-01-01

    Within the Supersonics (SUP) Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), an initial multidisciplinary design & analysis framework has been developed. A set of low- and intermediate-fidelity discipline design and analysis codes were integrated within a multidisciplinary design and analysis framework and demonstrated on two challenging test cases. The first test case demonstrates an initial capability to design for low boom and performance. The second test case demonstrates rapid assessment of a well-characterized design. The current system has been shown to greatly increase the design and analysis speed and capability, and many future areas for development were identified. This work has established a state-of-the-art capability for immediate use by supersonic concept designers and systems analysts at NASA, while also providing a strong base to build upon for future releases as more multifidelity capabilities are developed and integrated.

  7. Experiences of Multidisciplinary Development Team Members During User-Centered Design of Telecare Products and Services: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background User-centered design (UCD) methodologies can help take the needs and requirements of potential end-users into account during the development of innovative telecare products and services. Understanding how members of multidisciplinary development teams experience the UCD process might help to gain insight into factors that members with different backgrounds consider critical during the development of telecare products and services. Objective The primary objective of this study was to explore how members of multidisciplinary development teams experienced the UCD process of telecare products and services. The secondary objective was to identify differences and similarities in the barriers and facilitators they experienced. Methods Twenty-five members of multidisciplinary development teams of four Research and Development (R&D) projects participated in this study. The R&D projects aimed to develop telecare products and services that can support self-management in elderly people or patients with chronic conditions. Seven participants were representatives of end-users (elderly persons or patients with chronic conditions), three were professional end-users (geriatrician and nurses), five were engineers, four were managers (of R&D companies or engineering teams), and six were researchers. All participants were interviewed by a researcher who was not part of their own development team. The following topics were discussed during the interviews: (1) aim of the project, (2) role of the participant, (3) experiences during the development process, (4) points of improvement, and (5) what the project meant to the participant. Results Experiences of participants related to the following themes: (1) creating a development team, (2) expectations regarding responsibilities and roles, (3) translating user requirements into technical requirements, (4) technical challenges, (5) evaluation of developed products and services, and (6) valorization. Multidisciplinary team members

  8. Integrated, multidisciplinary care for hand eczema: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The individual and societal burden of hand eczema is high. Literature indicates that moderate to severe hand eczema is a disease with a poor prognosis. Many patients are hampered in their daily activities, including work. High costs are related to high medical consumption, productivity loss and sick leave. Usual care is suboptimal, due to a lack of optimal instruction and coordination of care, and communication with the general practitioner/occupational physician and people involved at the workplace. Therefore, an integrated, multidisciplinary intervention involving a dermatologist, a care manager, a specialized nurse and a clinical occupational physician was developed. This paper describes the design of a study to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of integrated care for hand eczema by a multidisciplinary team, coordinated by a care manager, consisting of instruction on avoiding relevant contact factors, both in the occupational and in the private environment, optimal skin care and treatment, compared to usual, dermatologist-led care. Methods The study is a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial with an economic evaluation alongside. The study population consists of patients with chronic, moderate to severe hand eczema, who visit an outpatient clinic of one of the participating 5 (three university and two general) hospitals. Integrated, multidisciplinary care, coordinated by a care manager, including allergo-dermatological evaluation by a dermatologist, occupational intervention by a clinical occupational physician, and counselling by a specialized nurse on optimizing topical treatment and skin care will be compared with usual care by a dermatologist. The primary outcome measure is the cumulative difference in reduction of the clinical severity score HECSI between the groups. Secondary outcome measures are the patient's global assessment, specific quality of life with regard to the hands, generic quality of life, sick leave and

  9. Multidisciplinary design optimization using genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Resit

    1994-12-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the conceptual design and evaluation of launch vehicles since it can have a significant impact on performance and life cycle cost. The objective is to search the system design space to determine values of design variables that optimize the performance characteristic subject to system constraints. Gradient-based optimization routines have been used extensively for aerospace design optimization. However, one limitation of gradient based optimizers is their need for gradient information. Therefore, design problems which include discrete variables can not be studied. Such problems are common in launch vehicle design. For example, the number of engines and material choices must be integer values or assume only a few discrete values. In this study, genetic algorithms are investigated as an approach to MDO problems involving discrete variables and discontinuous domains. Optimization by genetic algorithms (GA) uses a search procedure which is fundamentally different from those gradient based methods. Genetic algorithms seek to find good solutions in an efficient and timely manner rather than finding the best solution. GA are designed to mimic evolutionary selection. A population of candidate designs is evaluated at each iteration, and each individual's probability of reproduction (existence in the next generation) depends on its fitness value (related to the value of the objective function). Progress toward the optimum is achieved by the crossover and mutation operations. GA is attractive since it uses only objective function values in the search process, so gradient calculations are avoided. Hence, GA are able to deal with discrete variables. Studies report success in the use of GA for aircraft design optimization studies, trajectory analysis, space structure design and control systems design. In these studies reliable convergence was achieved, but the number of function evaluations was large compared

  10. Multidisciplinary design optimization using genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1994-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the conceptual design and evaluation of launch vehicles since it can have a significant impact on performance and life cycle cost. The objective is to search the system design space to determine values of design variables that optimize the performance characteristic subject to system constraints. Gradient-based optimization routines have been used extensively for aerospace design optimization. However, one limitation of gradient based optimizers is their need for gradient information. Therefore, design problems which include discrete variables can not be studied. Such problems are common in launch vehicle design. For example, the number of engines and material choices must be integer values or assume only a few discrete values. In this study, genetic algorithms are investigated as an approach to MDO problems involving discrete variables and discontinuous domains. Optimization by genetic algorithms (GA) uses a search procedure which is fundamentally different from those gradient based methods. Genetic algorithms seek to find good solutions in an efficient and timely manner rather than finding the best solution. GA are designed to mimic evolutionary selection. A population of candidate designs is evaluated at each iteration, and each individual's probability of reproduction (existence in the next generation) depends on its fitness value (related to the value of the objective function). Progress toward the optimum is achieved by the crossover and mutation operations. GA is attractive since it uses only objective function values in the search process, so gradient calculations are avoided. Hence, GA are able to deal with discrete variables. Studies report success in the use of GA for aircraft design optimization studies, trajectory analysis, space structure design and control systems design. In these studies reliable convergence was achieved, but the number of function evaluations was large compared

  11. Using a life-cycle-cost criterion for multi-disciplinary design studies for the Manned Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. W.; Dunning, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A life-cycle-cost measure for the Manned Space Station is suggested which considers the mass, initial cost, aerodynamic drag, electrical power, moment, required ground support, and expected life of subsystems or components. It is proposed that this life-cycle-cost measure be considered as a criterion for design trade-off studies involving controls and structures. Calculating the related sensitivities in the optimization process is discussed and then applied to specific examples. In the first example, the reaction control system is analyzed with regard to the design of its supporting structure and selection of rocket type. Values of support beam length, structural material selection, and rocket propellant selection are determined which minimize life-cycle-cost. In the second example, the alignment of solar arrays are analyzed for efficiency with regard to generating power, their drag, and their aerodynamic moment. Alignment angles are determined which again minimize life cycle cost. It seems clear from these and other examples that the proposed criterion has value for multi-disciplinary design studies for the Manned Space Station.

  12. Multidisciplinary Optimization Methods for Aircraft Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan; Altus, Steve; Braun, Robert; Gage, Peter; Sobieski, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a research program aimed at improved methods for multidisciplinary design and optimization of large-scale aeronautical systems. The research involves new approaches to system decomposition, interdisciplinary communication, and methods of exploiting coarse-grained parallelism for analysis and optimization. A new architecture, that involves a tight coupling between optimization and analysis, is intended to improve efficiency while simplifying the structure of multidisciplinary, computation-intensive design problems involving many analysis disciplines and perhaps hundreds of design variables. Work in two areas is described here: system decomposition using compatibility constraints to simplify the analysis structure and take advantage of coarse-grained parallelism; and collaborative optimization, a decomposition of the optimization process to permit parallel design and to simplify interdisciplinary communication requirements.

  13. Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization Using WAVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Keith

    2000-01-01

    The current preliminary design tools lack the product performance, quality and cost prediction fidelity required to design Six Sigma products. They are also frequently incompatible with the tools used in detailed design, leading to a great deal of rework and lost or discarded data in the transition from preliminary to detailed design. Thus, enhanced preliminary design tools are needed in order to produce adequate financial returns to the business. To achieve this goal, GEAE has focused on building the preliminary design system around the same geometric 3D solid model that will be used in detailed design. With this approach, the preliminary designer will no longer convert a flowpath sketch into an engine cross section but rather, automatically create 3D solid geometry for structural integrity, life, weight, cost, complexity, producibility, and maintainability assessments. Likewise, both the preliminary design and the detailed design can benefit from the use of the same preliminary part sizing routines. The design analysis tools will also be integrated with the 3D solid model to eliminate manual transfer of data between programs. GEAE has aggressively pursued the computerized control of engineering knowledge for many years. Through its study and validation of 3D CAD programs and processes, GEAE concluded that total system control was not feasible at that time. Prior CAD tools focused exclusively on detail part geometry and Knowledge Based Engineering systems concentrated on rules input and data output. A system was needed to bridge the gap between the two to capture the total system. With the introduction of WAVE Engineering from UGS, the possibilities of an engineering system control device began to formulate. GEAE decided to investigate the new WAVE functionality to accomplish this task. NASA joined GEAE in funding this validation project through Task Order No. 1. With the validation project complete, the second phase under Task Order No. 2 was established to

  14. Complex social intervention for multidisciplinary teams to improve patient referrals in obstetrical care: protocol for a stepped wedge study design

    PubMed Central

    Romijn, Anita; de Bruijne, Martine C; Teunissen, Pim W; de Groot, Christianne J M; Wagner, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In obstetrics, patients often experience referral situations between different care professionals. In these multidisciplinary teams, a focus on communication and interprofessional collaboration is needed to ensure care of high quality. Crew resource management team training is increasingly being applied in healthcare settings to improve team performance and coordination. Efforts to improve communication also include tools for standardisation such as SBAR (situation, background, assessment, recommendation). Despite the growing adoption of these interventions, evidence on their effectiveness is limited, especially on patient outcomes. This article describes a study protocol to examine the effectiveness of a crew resource management team training intervention aimed at implementing the SBAR tool for structured communication during patient referrals in obstetrical care. Methods and analysis The intervention is rolled out sequentially in five hospitals and surrounding primary care midwifery practices in the Netherlands, using a stepped wedge design. The intervention involves three phases over a period of 24 months: (1) preparation, (2) training and (3) follow-up with repeated measurements. The primary outcomes are perinatal and maternal outcomes calculated using the Adverse Outcome Index. The secondary outcomes are the reaction of participating professionals to the training programme, attitudes towards safety and teamwork (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire), cohesion (Interprofessional Collaboration Measurement Scale), use of the tool for structured communication (self-reported questionnaire) and patient experiences. These secondary outcomes from professional and patient level allow triangulation and an increased understanding of the effect of the intervention on patient outcomes. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of the VU University Medical Centre in the Netherlands and the protocol is in accordance with Dutch

  15. Multidisciplinary design optimization using multiobjective formulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Pagaldipti, Narayanan S.

    1995-01-01

    This report addresses the development of a multidisciplinary optimization procedure using an efficient semi-analytical sensitivity analysis technique and multilevel decomposition for the design of aerospace vehicles. A semi-analytical sensitivity analysis procedure is developed for calculating computational grid sensitivities and aerodynamic design sensitivities. Accuracy and efficiency of the sensitivity analysis procedure is established through comparison of the results with those obtained using a finite difference technique. The developed sensitivity analysis technique are then used within a multidisciplinary optimization procedure for designing aerospace vehicles. The optimization problem, with the integration of aerodynamics and structures, is decomposed into two levels. Optimization is performed for improved aerodynamic performance at the first level and improved structural performance at the second level. Aerodynamic analysis is performed by solving the three-dimensional parabolized Navier Stokes equations. A nonlinear programming technique and an approximate analysis procedure are used for optimization. The proceduredeveloped is applied to design the wing of a high speed aircraft. Results obtained show significant improvements in the aircraft aerodynamic and structural performance when compared to a reference or baseline configuration. The use of the semi-analytical sensitivity technique provides significant computational savings.

  16. Multidisciplinary Design Of Hot Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Singhal, Surendra N.

    1996-01-01

    Unified computer code developed to implement multidisciplinary approach to design and analysis of composite-material structures that must withstand high temperatures. Code modular: includes executive module communicating with and coordinating other modules performing calculations pertaining to traditionally separate disciplines like those of acoustics, structural vibrations, structural loads, and thermal effects. Essential feature, finite-element numerical simulation of relevant physical phenomena according to applicable disciplines. Same finite-element mesh used in thermal, vibrational, and structural analyses; minimizing data-preparation time and eliminating errors incurred in transforming temperatures from one finite-element mesh to another.

  17. NASA Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, D. P.; Craig, J. I.; Mavris, D. N.; Hale, M. A.; DeLaurentis, D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a multi-year training grant for the development and implementation of a Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis (MDA) Fellowship Program at Georgia Tech. The Program funded the creation of graduate MS and PhD degree programs in aerospace systems design, analysis and integration. It also provided prestigious Fellowships with associated Industry Internships for outstanding engineering students. The graduate program has become the foundation for a vigorous and productive research effort and has produced: 20 MS degrees, 7 Ph.D. degrees, and has contributed to 9 ongoing Ph.D. students. The results of the research are documented in 32 publications (23 of which are included on a companion CDROM) and 4 annual student design reports (included on a companion CDROM). The legacy of this critical funding is the Center for Aerospace Systems Analysis at Georgia Tech which is continuing the graduate program, the research, and the industry internships established by this grant.

  18. NASA Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report is a Year 1 interim report of the progress on the NASA multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Fellowship Program covering the period, January 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. It summarizes progress in establishing the MDA Fellowship Program at Georgia Tech during the initial year. Progress in the advertisement of the program, recruiting results for the 1995-96 academic year, placement of the Fellows in industry during Summer 1995, program development at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels, and collaboration and dissemination of results are summarized in this report. Further details of the first year's progress will be included in the report from the Year 1 Workshop to be held at NASA Langley on December 7-8, 1995.

  19. Design Environment for Multifidelity and Multidisciplinary Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges when developing propulsion systems is predicting the interacting effects between the fluid loads, thermal loads, and structural deflection. The interactions between technical disciplines often are not fully analyzed, and the analysis in one discipline often uses a simplified representation of other disciplines as an input or boundary condition. For example, the fluid forces in an engine generate static and dynamic rotor deflection, but the forces themselves are dependent on the rotor position and its orbit. It is important to consider the interaction between the physical phenomena where the outcome of each analysis is heavily dependent on the inputs (e.g., changes in flow due to deflection, changes in deflection due to fluid forces). A rigid design process also lacks the flexibility to employ multiple levels of fidelity in the analysis of each of the components. This project developed and validated an innovative design environment that has the flexibility to simultaneously analyze multiple disciplines and multiple components with multiple levels of model fidelity. Using NASA's open-source multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization (OpenMDAO) framework, this multifaceted system will provide substantially superior capabilities to current design tools.

  20. MDO can help resolve the designer's dilemma. [Multidisciplinary design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Sobieszczanski-sobieski, Jaroslaw; Tulinius, J.R. Rockwell International Corp., El Segundo, CA )

    1991-09-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is presented as a rapidly growing body of methods, algorithms, and techniques that will provide a quantum jump in the effectiveness and efficiency of the quantitative side of design, and will turn that side into an environment in which the qualitative side can thrive. MDO borrows from CAD/CAM for graphic visualization of geometrical and numerical data, data base technology, and in computer software and hardware. Expected benefits from this methodology are a rational, mathematically consistent approach to hypersonic aircraft designs, designs pushed closer to the optimum, and a design process either shortened or leaving time available for different concepts to be explored.

  1. MDO can help resolve the designer's dilemma. [multidisciplinary design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Tulinius, Jan R.

    1991-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is presented as a rapidly growing body of methods, algorithms, and techniques that will provide a quantum jump in the effectiveness and efficiency of the quantitative side of design, and will turn that side into an environment in which the qualitative side can thrive. MDO borrows from CAD/CAM for graphic visualization of geometrical and numerical data, data base technology, and in computer software and hardware. Expected benefits from this methodology are a rational, mathematically consistent approach to hypersonic aircraft designs, designs pushed closer to the optimum, and a design process either shortened or leaving time available for different concepts to be explored.

  2. Response Surface Model Building and Multidisciplinary Optimization Using D-Optimal Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Lepsch, Roger A.; McMillin, Mark L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses response surface methods for approximation model building and multidisciplinary design optimization. The response surface methods discussed are central composite designs, Bayesian methods and D-optimal designs. An over-determined D-optimal design is applied to a configuration design and optimization study of a wing-body, launch vehicle. Results suggest that over determined D-optimal designs may provide an efficient approach for approximation model building and for multidisciplinary design optimization.

  3. NASA Aeronautics Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Guerdal, Z.; Haftka, R. T.; Kapania, R. K.; Mason, W. H.; Mook, D. T.

    1998-01-01

    For a number of years, Virginia Tech had been on the forefront of research in the area of multidisciplinary analysis and design. In June of 1994, faculty members from aerospace and ocean engineering, engineering science and mechanics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, at Virginia Tech joined together to form the Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design (MAD) Center for Advanced Vehicles. The center was established with the single goal: to perform research that is relevant to the needs of the US industry and to foster collaboration between the university, government and industry. In October of 1994, the center was chosen by NASA headquarters as one of the five university centers to establish a fellowship program to develop a graduate program in multidisciplinary analysis and design. The fellowship program provides full stipend and tuition support for seven U. S. students per year during their graduate studies. To advise us regarding the problems faced by the industry, an industrial advisory board has been formed consisting of representatives from industry as well as government laboratories. The function of the advisory board is to channel information from its member companies to faculty members concerning problems that need research attention in the general area of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). The faculty and their graduate students make proposals to the board on how to address these problems. At the annual board meeting in Blacksburg, the board discusses the proposals and suggests which students get funded under the NASA fellowship program. All students participating in the program are required to spend 3-6 months in industry working on their research projects. We are completing the third year of the fellowship program and have had three advisory board meetings in Blacksburg.

  4. Multidisciplinary design optimization: An emerging new engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1993-01-01

    This paper defines the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) as a new field of research endeavor and as an aid in the design of engineering systems. It examines the MDO conceptual components in relation to each other and defines their functions.

  5. RoboCup: Multi-disciplinary Senior Design Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Kevin Lee

    A cross-college team of educators has developed a collaborative, multi-disciplinary senior design course at Ohio University. This course offers an attractive opportunity for students from a variety of disciplines to work together in a learning community to accomplish a challenging task. It provides a novel multi-disciplinary learning environment…

  6. Evaluation of Methods for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodiyalam, Srinivas

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Langley Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) method evaluation study seeks to arrive at a set of guidelines for using promising MDO methods by accumulating and analyzing computational data for such methods. The data are collected by conducting a series of reproducible experiments. This report documents all computational experiments conducted in Phase I of the study. This report is a companion to the paper titled Initial Results of an MDO Method Evaluation Study by N. M. Alexandrov and S. Kodiyalam (AIAA-98-4884).

  7. Chicano Studies: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E., Ed.; And Others

    One in a series on bilingual education, this book contains 15 chapters organized under the following subject headings: Chicano studies; Chicano history, social structure, and politics; literature and folklore; and education. Carlos Munoz, Jr., traces the history of Chicano studies and its impact on access to higher education. Albert Camarillo…

  8. Multidisciplinary design optimization - An emerging new engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1993-01-01

    A definition of the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is introduced, and functionality and relationship of the MDO conceptual components are examined. The latter include design-oriented analysis, approximation concepts, mathematical system modeling, design space search, an optimization procedure, and a humane interface.

  9. An information driven strategy to support multidisciplinary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rangan, Ravi M.; Fulton, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    The design of complex engineering systems such as aircraft, automobiles, and computers is primarily a cooperative multidisciplinary design process involving interactions between several design agents. The common thread underlying this multidisciplinary design activity is the information exchange between the various groups and disciplines. The integrating component in such environments is the common data and the dependencies that exist between such data. This may be contrasted to classical multidisciplinary analyses problems where there is coupling between distinct design parameters. For example, they may be expressed as mathematically coupled relationships between aerodynamic and structural interactions in aircraft structures, between thermal and structural interactions in nuclear plants, and between control considerations and structural interactions in flexible robots. These relationships provide analytical based frameworks leading to optimization problem formulations. However, in multidisciplinary design problems, information based interactions become more critical. Many times, the relationships between different design parameters are not amenable to analytical characterization. Under such circumstances, information based interactions will provide the best integration paradigm, i.e., there is a need to model the data entities and their dependencies between design parameters originating from different design agents. The modeling of such data interactions and dependencies forms the basis for integrating the various design agents.

  10. Multidisciplinary analysis and synthesis - Needs and opportunities. [for aerospace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolson, R. H.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of structural analysis and synthesis opportunities which emerge through a multidisciplinary design program approach that simultaneously and interactively encompasses, in its determination of a given aircraft design, aerodynamics, structure, structural dynamics, materials, controls, and propulsion. In this way, it becomes possible to rapidly exploit technological advances in order to yield synergistic effects among configurational subsystems. The aircraft type presently considered as recipients of this treatment are commercial transports, high performance military aircraft, rotorcraft, and large space antennas, giving attention to common features among the multidisciplinary design tasks represented.

  11. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization on Conceptual Design of Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhan-xue; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen

    2016-06-01

    In order to obtain better integrated performance of aero-engine during the conceptual design stage, multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, weight, and aircraft mission are required. Unfortunately, the couplings between these disciplines make it difficult to model or solve by conventional method. MDO (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization) methodology which can well deal with couplings of disciplines is considered to solve this coupled problem. Approximation method, optimization method, coordination method, and modeling method for MDO framework are deeply analyzed. For obtaining the more efficient MDO framework, an improved CSSO (Concurrent Subspace Optimization) strategy which is based on DOE (Design Of Experiment) and RSM (Response Surface Model) methods is proposed in this paper; and an improved DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm is recommended to solve the system-level and discipline-level optimization problems in MDO framework. The improved CSSO strategy and DE algorithm are evaluated by utilizing the numerical test problem. The result shows that the efficiency of improved methods proposed by this paper is significantly increased. The coupled problem of VCE (Variable Cycle Engine) conceptual design is solved by utilizing improved CSSO strategy, and the design parameter given by improved CSSO strategy is better than the original one. The integrated performance of VCE is significantly improved.

  12. Design of the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) to evaluate primary glomerular nephropathy by a multi-disciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Holzman, Larry; Ojo, Akinlolu O.; Song, Peter; Barisoni, Laura; Sampson, Matthew G.; Kopp, Jeffrey; Lemley, Kevin V.; Nelson, Peter; Lienczewski, Chrysta; Adler, Sharon; Appel, Gerald; Cattran, Daniel; Choi, Michael; Contreras, Gabriel; Dell, Katherine; Fervenza, Fernando C.; Gibson, Keisha; Greenbaum, Larry A.; Hernandez, Joel; Hewitt, Stephen; Hingorani, Sangeeta; Hladunewich, Michelle; Hogan, Marie; Hogan, Susan; Kaskel, Frederick; Lieske, John; Meyers, Kevin E.C.; Nachman, Patrick; Nast, Cynthia; Neu, Alicia M.; Reich, Heather; Sedor, John; Sethna, Christine; Trachtman, Howard; Tuttle, Katherine; Zhdanova, Olga; Zilleruelo, Gastòn E.; Kretzler, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) is a North American multi-center collaborative consortium established to develop a translational research infrastructure for Nephrotic Syndrome. This includes a longitudinal observational cohort study, a pilot and ancillary studies program, a training program, and a patient contact registry. NEPTUNE will enroll 450 adults and children with minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and membranous nephropathy for detailed clinical, histopathologic, and molecular phenotyping at the time of clinically-indicated renal biopsy. Initial visits will include an extensive clinical history, physical examination, collection of urine, blood and renal tissue samples, and assessments of quality of life and patient-reported outcomes. Follow-up history, physical measures, urine and blood samples, and questionnaires will be obtained every 4 months in the first year and bi-annually, thereafter. Molecular profiles and gene expression data will be linked to phenotypic, genetic, and digitalized histologic data for comprehensive analyses using systems biology approaches. Analytical strategies were designed to transform descriptive information to mechanistic disease classification for Nephrotic Syndrome and to identify clinical, histological, and genomic disease predictors. Thus, understanding the complexity of the disease pathogenesis will guide further investigation for targeted therapeutic strategies. PMID:23325076

  13. Design of the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) to evaluate primary glomerular nephropathy by a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Gipson, Debbie S; Holzman, Lawrence B; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Song, Peter X K; Barisoni, Laura; Sampson, Matthew G; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Lemley, Kevin V; Nelson, Peter J; Lienczewski, Chrysta C; Adler, Sharon G; Appel, Gerald B; Cattran, Daniel C; Choi, Michael J; Contreras, Gabriel; Dell, Katherine M; Fervenza, Fernando C; Gibson, Keisha L; Greenbaum, Larry A; Hernandez, Joel D; Hewitt, Stephen M; Hingorani, Sangeeta R; Hladunewich, Michelle; Hogan, Marie C; Hogan, Susan L; Kaskel, Frederick J; Lieske, John C; Meyers, Kevin E C; Nachman, Patrick H; Nast, Cynthia C; Neu, Alicia M; Reich, Heather N; Sedor, John R; Sethna, Christine B; Trachtman, Howard; Tuttle, Katherine R; Zhdanova, Olga; Zilleruelo, Gastòn E; Kretzler, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    The Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) is a North American multicenter collaborative consortium established to develop a translational research infrastructure for nephrotic syndrome. This includes a longitudinal observational cohort study, a pilot and ancillary study program, a training program, and a patient contact registry. NEPTUNE will enroll 450 adults and children with minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and membranous nephropathy for detailed clinical, histopathological, and molecular phenotyping at the time of clinically indicated renal biopsy. Initial visits will include an extensive clinical history, physical examination, collection of urine, blood and renal tissue samples, and assessments of quality of life and patient-reported outcomes. Follow-up history, physical measures, urine and blood samples, and questionnaires will be obtained every 4 months in the first year and biannually, thereafter. Molecular profiles and gene expression data will be linked to phenotypic, genetic, and digitalized histological data for comprehensive analyses using systems biology approaches. Analytical strategies were designed to transform descriptive information to mechanistic disease classification for nephrotic syndrome and to identify clinical, histological, and genomic disease predictors. Thus, understanding the complexity of the disease pathogenesis will guide further investigation for targeted therapeutic strategies. PMID:23325076

  14. Geometric requirements for multidisciplinary analysis of aerospace-vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Kerr, Patirca A.

    1992-01-01

    The geometric requirements for creating surfaces and grids for multidisciplinary analysis and optimization of aerospace-vehicle designs are described. Geometric surface representations are outlined and compared. Directions for future designs are proposed. High-speed civil transport aircraft configurations are targeted to demonstrate the processes.

  15. Improving spacecraft design using a multidisciplinary design optimization methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Todd Jon

    2000-10-01

    Spacecraft design has gone from maximizing performance under technology constraints to minimizing cost under performance constraints. This is characteristic of the "faster, better, cheaper" movement that has emerged within NASA. Currently spacecraft are "optimized" manually through a tool-assisted evaluation of a limited set of design alternatives. With this approach there is no guarantee that a systems-level focus will be taken and "feasibility" rather than "optimality" is commonly all that is achieved. To improve spacecraft design in the "faster, better, cheaper" era, a new approach using multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is proposed. Using MDO methods brings structure to conceptual spacecraft design by casting a spacecraft design problem into an optimization framework. Then, through the construction of a model that captures design and cost, this approach facilitates a quicker and more straightforward option synthesis. The final step is to automatically search the design space. As computer processor speed continues to increase, enumeration of all combinations, while not elegant, is one method that is straightforward to perform. As an alternative to enumeration, genetic algorithms are used and find solutions by reviewing fewer possible solutions with some limitations. Both methods increase the likelihood of finding an optimal design, or at least the most promising area of the design space. This spacecraft design methodology using MDO is demonstrated on three examples. A retrospective test for validation is performed using the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft design. For the second example, the premise that aerobraking was needed to minimize mission cost and was mission enabling for the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission is challenged. While one might expect no feasible design space for an MGS without aerobraking mission, a counterintuitive result is discovered. Several design options that don't use aerobraking are feasible and cost

  16. NASA Aeronautics Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Gurdal, Z.; Kapania, R. K.; Mason, W. H.; Schetz, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    This program began as a grant from NASA Headquarters, NGT-10025, which was in effect from 10/l/93 until 10/31/96. The remaining funding for this effort was transferred from NASA Headquarters to NASA Langley and a new grant NGT-1-52155 was issued covering the period II/l/96 to 5/15/99. This report serves as the final report of NGT-1-52155. For a number of years, Virginia Tech had been on the forefront of research in the area of multidisciplinary analysis and design. In June of 1994, faculty members from aerospace and ocean engineering, engineering science and mechanics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, at Virginia Tech joined together to form the Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design (MAD) Center for Advanced Vehicles. The center was established with the single goal: to perform research that is relevant to the needs of the US industry and to foster collaboration between the university, government and industry. In October of 1994, the center was chosen by NASA headquarters as one of the five university centers to establish a fellowship program to develop a graduate program in multidisciplinary analysis and design. The fellowship program provides full stipend and tuition support for seven U. S. students per year during their graduate studies. The grant is currently being administered by the NMO Branch of NASA Langley. To advise us regarding the problems faced by the industry, an industrial advisory board has been formed consisting of representatives from industry as well as government laboratories. The present membership includes major aerospace companies: Aurora Flight Sciences, Boeing: Philadelphia, Boeing: Long Beach, Boeing: Seattle, Boeing: St. Louis, Cessna, Ford, General Electric, Hughes, Lockheed-Martin: Palo Alto, Northrop-Grumman, Sikorsky, smaller, aerospace software companies: Aerosoft, Phoenix Integration and Proteus Engineering, along with representatives from government agencies, including: NASA Ames

  17. Hypersonic drone vehicle design: A multidisciplinary experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    UCLA's Advanced Aeronautic Design group focussed their efforts on design problems of an unmanned hypersonic vehicle. It is felt that a scaled hypersonic drone is necesary to bridge the gap between present theory on hypersonics and the future reality of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) for two reasons: (1) to fulfill a need for experimental data in the hypersonic regime, and (2) to provide a testbed for the scramjet engine which is to be the primary mode of propulsion for the NASP. The group concentrated on three areas of great concern to NASP design: propulsion, thermal management, and flight systems. Problem solving in these areas was directed toward design of the drone with the idea that the same design techniques could be applied to the NASP. A 70 deg swept double-delta wing configuration, developed in the 70's at the NASA Langley, was chosen as the aerodynamic and geometric model for the drone. This vehicle would be air launched from a B-1 at Mach 0.8 and 48,000 feet, rocket boosted by two internal engines to Mach 10 and 100,000 feet, and allowed to cruise under power of the scramjet engine until burnout. It would then return to base for an unpowered landing. Preliminary energy calculations based on flight requirements give the drone a gross launch weight of 134,000 pounds and an overall length of 85 feet.

  18. Integrating principles and multidisciplinary projects in design education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The critical need to improve engineering design education in the U.S. is presented and a number of actions to achieve that end are discussed. The importance of teaching undergraduates the latest methods and principles through the means of team design in multidisciplinary projects leading to a testable product is emphasized. Desirable training for design instructors is described and techniques for selecting and managing projects that teach effectively are discussed.

  19. Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The optimization formulation is described in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.

  20. Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The paper describes the optimization formulation in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor aerodynamic performance optimization for minimum hover horsepower, rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.

  1. Multi-disciplinary coupling for integrated design of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effective computational simulation procedures are described for modeling the inherent multi-disciplinary interactions for determining the true response of propulsion systems. Results are presented for propulsion system responses including multi-discipline coupling effects via (1) coupled multi-discipline tailoring, (2) an integrated system of multidisciplinary simulators, (3) coupled material-behavior/fabrication-process tailoring, (4) sensitivities using a probabilistic simulator, and (5) coupled materials/structures/fracture/probabilistic behavior simulator. The results show that the best designs can be determined if the analysis/tailoring methods account for the multi-disciplinary coupling effects. The coupling across disciplines can be used to develop an integrated interactive multi-discipline numerical propulsion system simulator.

  2. Hypersonic drone design: A multidisciplinary experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Efforts were focused on design problems of an unmanned hypersonic vehicle. It is felt that a scaled hypersonic drone is necessary to bridge the gap between present theory on hypersonics and the future reality of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) for two reasons: to fulfill a need for experimental data in the hypersonic regime, and to provide a testbed for the scramjet engine which is to be the primary mode of propulsion for the NASP. Three areas of great concern to NASP design were examined: propulsion, thermal management, and flight systems. Problem solving in these areas was directed towards design of the drone with the idea that the same design techniques could be applied to the NASP. A seventy degree swept double delta wing configuration, developed in the 70's at NASA Langley, was chosen as the aerodynamic and geometric model for the drone. This vehicle would be air-launched from a B-1 at Mach 0.8 and 48,000 feet, rocket boosted by two internal engines to Mach 10 and 100,000 feet, and allowed to cruise under power of the scramjet engine until burnout. It would then return to base for an unpowered landing. Preliminary energy calculations based upon the flight requirements give the drone a gross launch weight of 134,000 lb. and an overall length of 85 feet.

  3. Multidisciplinary design optimization for sonic boom mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcer, Isik A.

    product design. The simulation tools are used to optimize three geometries for sonic boom mitigation. The first is a simple axisymmetric shape to be used as a generic nose component, the second is a delta wing with lift, and the third is a real aircraft with nose and wing optimization. The objectives are to minimize the pressure impulse or the peak pressure in the sonic boom signal, while keeping the drag penalty under feasible limits. The design parameters for the meridian profile of the nose shape are the lengths and the half-cone angles of the linear segments that make up the profile. The design parameters for the lifting wing are the dihedral angle, angle of attack, non-linear span-wise twist and camber distribution. The test-bed aircraft is the modified F-5E aircraft built by Northrop Grumman, designated the Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstrator. This aircraft is fitted with an optimized axisymmetric nose, and the wings are optimized to demonstrate optimization for sonic boom mitigation for a real aircraft. The final results predict 42% reduction in bow shock strength, 17% reduction in peak Deltap, 22% reduction in pressure impulse, 10% reduction in foot print size, 24% reduction in inviscid drag, and no loss in lift for the optimized aircraft. Optimization is carried out using response surface methodology, and the design matrices are determined using standard DoE techniques for quadratic response modeling.

  4. A Web-Based Monitoring System for Multidisciplinary Design Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.; Salas, Andrea O.; Weston, Robert P.

    1998-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, both industry and government agencies are under pressure to reduce the time and cost of multidisciplinary design projects. New tools have been introduced to assist in this process by facilitating the integration of and communication among diverse disciplinary codes. One such tool, a framework for multidisciplinary computational environments, is defined as a hardware and software architecture that enables integration, execution, and communication among diverse disciplinary processes. An examination of current frameworks reveals weaknesses in various areas, such as sequencing, displaying, monitoring, and controlling the design process. The objective of this research is to explore how Web technology, integrated with an existing framework, can improve these areas of weakness. This paper describes a Web-based system that optimizes and controls the execution sequence of design processes; and monitors the project status and results. The three-stage evolution of the system with increasingly complex problems demonstrates the feasibility of this approach.

  5. Multidisciplinary design optimization of low-noise transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifsson, Leifur Thor

    The objective of this research is to examine how to design low-noise transport aircraft using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). The subject is approached by designing for low-noise both implicitly and explicitly. The explicit design approach involves optimizing an aircraft while explicitly constraining the noise level. An MDO framework capable of optimizing both a cantilever wing and a Strut-Braced-Wing (SBW) aircraft was developed. The objective is to design aircraft for low-airframe-noise at the approach conditions and quantify the change in weight and performance with respect to a traditionally designed aircraft. The results show that reducing airframe noise by reducing approach speed alone, will not provide significant noise reduction without a large performance and weight penalty. Therefore, more dramatic changes to the aircraft design are needed to achieve a significant airframe noise reduction. Another study showed that the trailing-edge flap can be eliminated, as well as all the noise associated with that device, without incurring a significant weight and performance penalty. Lastly, an airframe noise analysis showed that a SBW aircraft with short fuselage-mounted landing gear could have a similar or potentially a lower airframe noise level than a comparable cantilever wing aircraft. The implicit design approach involves selecting a configuration that supports a low-noise operation, and optimizing for performance. In this study a Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) transport aircraft, with a conventional and a distributed propulsion system, was optimized for minimum take-off gross weight. The effects of distributed propulsion were studied using an MDO framework previously developed at Virginia Tech. The results show that more than two thirds of the theoretical savings of distributed propulsion are required for the BWB designs with a distributed propulsion system to have comparable gross weight as those with a conventional propulsion system. Therefore

  6. Clean wing airframe noise modeling for multidisciplinary design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosder, Serhat

    transport wing at realistic approach conditions. The twist distribution of the baseline wing was changed to obtain a modified wing which was used to investigate the effect of the twist on the trailing edge noise. An example study with NACA 0012 and NACA 0009 airfoils demonstrated a reduction in the trailing edge noise by decreasing the thickness ratio and the lift coefficient, while increasing the chord length to keep the same lift at a constant speed. Both two- and three-dimensional studies demonstrated that the trailing edge noise remains almost constant at low lift coefficients and gets larger at higher lift values. The increase in the noise metric can be dramatic when there is separation on the wing. Three-dimensional effects observed in the wing cases indicate the importance of calculating the noise metric with a characteristic velocity and length scale that vary along the span. The twist change does not have a significant effect on the noise at low lift coefficients, however it may give significant noise reduction at higher lift values. The results obtained in this study show the importance of the lift coefficient, CL, on the airframe noise of a clean wing and favors having a larger wing area to reduce the CL for minimizing the noise. The results also point to the fact that the noise reduction studies should be performed in a multidisciplinary design and optimization framework, since many of the parameters that change the trailing edge noise also affect the other aircraft design requirements. It's hoped that the noise metric developed here can aid in such multidisciplinary design and optimization studies.

  7. Integrating Multibody Simulation and CFD: toward Complex Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, Stefano; Poloni, Carlo; Mühlmeier, Martin

    This paper describes the use of integrated multidisciplinary analysis and optimization of a race car model on a predefined circuit. The objective is the definition of the most efficient geometric configuration that can guarantee the lowest lap time. In order to carry out this study it has been necessary to interface the design optimization software modeFRONTIER with the following softwares: CATIA v5, a three dimensional CAD software, used for the definition of the parametric geometry; A.D.A.M.S./Motorsport, a multi-body dynamic simulation software; IcemCFD, a mesh generator, for the automatic generation of the CFD grid; CFX, a Navier-Stokes code, for the fluid-dynamic forces prediction. The process integration gives the possibility to compute, for each geometrical configuration, a set of aerodynamic coefficients that are then used in the multiboby simulation for the computation of the lap time. Finally an automatic optimization procedure is started and the lap-time minimized. The whole process is executed on a Linux cluster running CFD simulations in parallel.

  8. New Approaches to HSCT Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, D. P.; Craig, J. I.; Fulton, R. E.; Mistree, F.

    1996-01-01

    The successful development of a capable and economically viable high speed civil transport (HSCT) is perhaps one of the most challenging tasks in aeronautics for the next two decades. At its heart it is fundamentally the design of a complex engineered system that has significant societal, environmental and political impacts. As such it presents a formidable challenge to all areas of aeronautics, and it is therefore a particularly appropriate subject for research in multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO). In fact, it is starkly clear that without the availability of powerful and versatile multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization methods, the design, construction and operation of im HSCT simply cannot be achieved. The present research project is focused on the development and evaluation of MDO methods that, while broader and more general in scope, are particularly appropriate to the HSCT design problem. The research aims to not only develop the basic methods but also to apply them to relevant examples from the NASA HSCT R&D effort. The research involves a three year effort aimed first at the HSCT MDO problem description, next the development of the problem, and finally a solution to a significant portion of the problem.

  9. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Mixer-Ejector Analysis and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Eric, S.; Seidel, Jonathan, A.

    2012-01-01

    The design of an engine for a civil supersonic aircraft presents a difficult multidisciplinary problem to propulsion system engineers. There are numerous competing requirements for the engine, such as to be efficient during cruise while yet quiet enough at takeoff to meet airport noise regulations. The use of mixer-ejector nozzles presents one possible solution to this challenge. However, designing a mixer-ejector which will successfully address both of these concerns is a difficult proposition. Presented in this paper is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the analysis and design of these systems. A process that uses several low-fidelity tools to evaluate both the performance and acoustics of mixer-ejectors nozzles is described. This process is further expanded to include system-level modeling of engines and aircraft to determine the effects on mission performance and noise near airports. The overall process is developed in the OpenMDAO framework currently being developed by NASA. From the developed process, sample results are given for a notional mixer-ejector design, thereby demonstrating the capabilities of the method.

  10. A Matrix-Free Algorithm for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambe, Andrew Borean

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an approach to engineering design that exploits the coupling between components or knowledge disciplines in a complex system to improve the final product. In aircraft design, MDO methods can be used to simultaneously design the outer shape of the aircraft and the internal structure, taking into account the complex interaction between the aerodynamic forces and the structural flexibility. Efficient strategies are needed to solve such design optimization problems and guarantee convergence to an optimal design. This work begins with a comprehensive review of MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms. First, a fundamental MDO problem formulation is defined from which other formulations may be obtained through simple transformations. Using these fundamental problem formulations, decomposition methods from the literature are reviewed and classified. All MDO methods are presented in a unified mathematical notation to facilitate greater understanding. In addition, a novel set of diagrams, called extended design structure matrices, are used to simultaneously visualize both data communication and process flow between the many software components of each method. For aerostructural design optimization, modern decomposition-based MDO methods cannot efficiently handle the tight coupling between the aerodynamic and structural states. This fact motivates the exploration of methods that can reduce the computational cost. A particular structure in the direct and adjoint methods for gradient computation motivates the idea of a matrix-free optimization method. A simple matrix-free optimizer is developed based on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. This new matrix-free optimizer is tested on two structural optimization problems and one aerostructural optimization problem. The results indicate that the matrix-free optimizer is able to efficiently solve structural and multidisciplinary design problems with thousands of variables and

  11. A Matrix-Free Algorithm for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambe, Andrew Borean

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an approach to engineering design that exploits the coupling between components or knowledge disciplines in a complex system to improve the final product. In aircraft design, MDO methods can be used to simultaneously design the outer shape of the aircraft and the internal structure, taking into account the complex interaction between the aerodynamic forces and the structural flexibility. Efficient strategies are needed to solve such design optimization problems and guarantee convergence to an optimal design. This work begins with a comprehensive review of MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms. First, a fundamental MDO problem formulation is defined from which other formulations may be obtained through simple transformations. Using these fundamental problem formulations, decomposition methods from the literature are reviewed and classified. All MDO methods are presented in a unified mathematical notation to facilitate greater understanding. In addition, a novel set of diagrams, called extended design structure matrices, are used to simultaneously visualize both data communication and process flow between the many software components of each method. For aerostructural design optimization, modern decomposition-based MDO methods cannot efficiently handle the tight coupling between the aerodynamic and structural states. This fact motivates the exploration of methods that can reduce the computational cost. A particular structure in the direct and adjoint methods for gradient computation. motivates the idea of a matrix-free optimization method. A simple matrix-free optimizer is developed based on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. This new matrix-free optimizer is tested on two structural optimization problems and one aerostructural optimization problem. The results indicate that the matrix-free optimizer is able to efficiently solve structural and multidisciplinary design problems with thousands of variables and

  12. Execution of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Approaches on Common Test Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balling, R. J.; Wilkinson, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    A class of synthetic problems for testing multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) approaches is presented. These test problems are easy to reproduce because all functions are given as closed-form mathematical expressions. They are constructed in such a way that the optimal value of all variables and the objective is unity. The test problems involve three disciplines and allow the user to specify the number of design variables, state variables, coupling functions, design constraints, controlling design constraints, and the strength of coupling. Several MDO approaches were executed on two sample synthetic test problems. These approaches included single-level optimization approaches, collaborative optimization approaches, and concurrent subspace optimization approaches. Execution results are presented, and the robustness and efficiency of these approaches an evaluated for these sample problems.

  13. Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

  14. Multidisciplinary Multiobjective Optimal Design for Turbomachinery Using Evolutionary Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes Dr. Lian s efforts toward developing a robust and efficient tool for multidisciplinary and multi-objective optimal design for turbomachinery using evolutionary algorithms. This work consisted of two stages. The first stage (from July 2003 to June 2004) Dr. Lian focused on building essential capabilities required for the project. More specifically, Dr. Lian worked on two subjects: an enhanced genetic algorithm (GA) and an integrated optimization system with a GA and a surrogate model. The second stage (from July 2004 to February 2005) Dr. Lian formulated aerodynamic optimization and structural optimization into a multi-objective optimization problem and performed multidisciplinary and multi-objective optimizations on a transonic compressor blade based on the proposed model. Dr. Lian s numerical results showed that the proposed approach can effectively reduce the blade weight and increase the stage pressure ratio in an efficient manner. In addition, the new design was structurally safer than the original design. Five conference papers and three journal papers were published on this topic by Dr. Lian.

  15. National Combustion Code: A Multidisciplinary Combustor Design System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, Robert M.; Liu, Nan-Suey

    1997-01-01

    The Internal Fluid Mechanics Division conducts both basic research and technology, and system technology research for aerospace propulsion systems components. The research within the division, which is both computational and experimental, is aimed at improving fundamental understanding of flow physics in inlets, ducts, nozzles, turbomachinery, and combustors. This article and the following three articles highlight some of the work accomplished in 1996. A multidisciplinary combustor design system is critical for optimizing the combustor design process. Such a system should include sophisticated computer-aided design (CAD) tools for geometry creation, advanced mesh generators for creating solid model representations, a common framework for fluid flow and structural analyses, modern postprocessing tools, and parallel processing. The goal of the present effort is to develop some of the enabling technologies and to demonstrate their overall performance in an integrated system called the National Combustion Code.

  16. A grid generation system for multi-disciplinary design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William T.; Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

    1995-01-01

    A general multi-block three-dimensional volume grid generator is presented which is suitable for Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization. The code is timely, robust, highly automated, and written in ANSI 'C' for platform independence. Algebraic techniques are used to generate and/or modify block face and volume grids to reflect geometric changes resulting from design optimization. Volume grids are generated/modified in a batch environment and controlled via an ASCII user input deck. This allows the code to be incorporated directly into the design loop. Generated volume grids are presented for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Wing/Body geometry as well a complex HSCT configuration including horizontal and vertical tails, engine nacelles and pylons, and canard surfaces.

  17. New Approaches to HSCT Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Daniel P.; Craig, James I.; Fulton, Robert E.; Mistree, Farrokh

    1999-01-01

    New approaches to MDO have been developed and demonstrated during this project on a particularly challenging aeronautics problem- HSCT Aeroelastic Wing Design. To tackle this problem required the integration of resources and collaboration from three Georgia Tech laboratories: ASDL, SDL, and PPRL, along with close coordination and participation from industry. Its success can also be contributed to the close interaction and involvement of fellows from the NASA Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MAO) program, which was going on in parallel, and provided additional resources to work the very complex, multidisciplinary problem, along with the methods being developed. The development of the Integrated Design Engineering Simulator (IDES) and its initial demonstration is a necessary first step in transitioning the methods and tools developed to larger industrial sized problems of interest. It also provides a framework for the implementation and demonstration of the methodology. Attachment: Appendix A - List of publications. Appendix B - Year 1 report. Appendix C - Year 2 report. Appendix D - Year 3 report. Appendix E - accompanying CDROM.

  18. Lessons Learned During Solutions of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Suna N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Optimization research at NASA Glenn Research Center has addressed the design of structures, aircraft and airbreathing propulsion engines. During solution of the multidisciplinary problems several issues were encountered. This paper lists four issues and discusses the strategies adapted for their resolution: (1) The optimization process can lead to an inefficient local solution. This deficiency was encountered during design of an engine component. The limitation was overcome through an augmentation of animation into optimization. (2) Optimum solutions obtained were infeasible for aircraft and air-breathing propulsion engine problems. Alleviation of this deficiency required a cascading of multiple algorithms. (3) Profile optimization of a beam produced an irregular shape. Engineering intuition restored the regular shape for the beam. (4) The solution obtained for a cylindrical shell by a subproblem strategy converged to a design that can be difficult to manufacture. Resolution of this issue remains a challenge. The issues and resolutions are illustrated through six problems: (1) design of an engine component, (2) synthesis of a subsonic aircraft, (3) operation optimization of a supersonic engine, (4) design of a wave-rotor-topping device, (5) profile optimization of a cantilever beam, and (6) design of a cvlindrical shell. The combined effort of designers and researchers can bring the optimization method from academia to industry.

  19. An Extensible, Interchangeable and Sharable Database Model for Improving Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Risheng; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2003-01-01

    Crucial to an efficient aircraft simulation-based design is a robust data modeling methodology for both recording the information and providing data transfer readily and reliably. To meet this goal, data modeling issues involved in the aircraft multidisciplinary design are first analyzed in this study. Next, an XML-based. extensible data object model for multidisciplinary aircraft design is constructed and implemented. The implementation of the model through aircraft databinding allows the design applications to access and manipulate any disciplinary data with a lightweight and easy-to-use API. In addition, language independent representation of aircraft disciplinary data in the model fosters interoperability amongst heterogeneous systems thereby facilitating data sharing and exchange between various design tools and systems.

  20. Multidisciplinary aerospace design optimization: Survey of recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing complexity of engineering systems has sparked increasing interest in multidisciplinary optimization (MDO). This paper presents a survey of recent publications in the field of aerospace where interest in MDO has been particularly intense. The two main challenges of MDO are computational expense and organizational complexity. Accordingly the survey is focussed on various ways different researchers use to deal with these challenges. The survey is organized by a breakdown of MDO into its conceptual components. Accordingly, the survey includes sections on Mathematical Modeling, Design-oriented Analysis, Approximation Concepts, Optimization Procedures, System Sensitivity, and Human Interface. With the authors' main expertise being in the structures area, the bulk of the references focus on the interaction of the structures discipline with other disciplines. In particular, two sections at the end focus on two such interactions that have recently been pursued with a particular vigor: Simultaneous Optimization of Structures and Aerodynamics, and Simultaneous Optimization of Structures Combined With Active Control.

  1. PAYCOS: A new multidisciplinary analysis program for hypersonic vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbe, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Payload Conceptual Sizing Code (PAYCOS), a new multidisciplinary computer program for use in the conceptual development phase of hypersonic lifting vehicles (HV's), is described. The program allows engineers to rapidly determine the feasibility of an HV concept and then improve upon the concept by means of optimization theory. The code contains analysis modules for aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mass properties, flight stability, controls, loads, structures, and packaging. Motivation for the code lies with the increased complexity of HV's over their body-of-revolution ballistic predecessors. With these new shapes, the need to rapidly screen out poor concepts and actively develop new and better concepts is an even more crucial part of the early design process. Preliminary results are given which demonstrate the optimization capabilities of the code.

  2. Evaluation of Methods for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodiyalam, Srinivas; Yuan, Charles; Sobieski, Jaroslaw (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A new MDO method, BLISS, and two different variants of the method, BLISS/RS and BLISS/S, have been implemented using iSIGHT's scripting language and evaluated in this report on multidisciplinary problems. All of these methods are based on decomposing a modular system optimization system into several subtasks optimization, that may be executed concurrently, and the system optimization that coordinates the subtasks optimization. The BLISS method and its variants are well suited for exploiting the concurrent processing capabilities in a multiprocessor machine. Several steps, including the local sensitivity analysis, local optimization, response surfaces construction and updates are all ideally suited for concurrent processing. Needless to mention, such algorithms that can effectively exploit the concurrent processing capabilities of the compute servers will be a key requirement for solving large-scale industrial design problems, such as the automotive vehicle problem detailed in Section 3.4.

  3. Multidisciplinary Expert-aided Analysis and Design (MEAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, Thomas C.; Taylor, James

    1989-01-01

    The MEAD Computer Program (MCP) is being developed under the Multidisciplinary Expert-Aided Analysis and Design (MEAD) Project as a CAD environment in which integrated flight, propulsion, and structural control systems can be designed and analyzed. The MCP has several embedded computer-aided control engineering (CACE) packages, a user interface (UI), a supervisor, a data-base manager (DBM), and an expert system (ES). The supervisor monitors and coordinates the operation of the CACE packages, the DBM; the ES, and the UI. The DBM tracks the control design process. Models created or installed by the MCP are tracked by date and version, and results are associated with the specific model version with which they were generated. The ES is used to relieve the control engineer from tedious and cumbersome tasks in the iterative design process. The UI provides the capability for a novice as well as an expert to utilize the MCP easily and effectively. The MCP version 2(MCP-2.0) is fully developed for flight control system design and analysis. Propulsion system modeling, analysis, and simulation is also supported; the same is true for structural models represented in state-space form. The ultimate goal is to cover the integration of flight, propulsion, and structural control engineering, including all discipline-specific functionality and interfaces. The current MCP-2.0 components and functionality are discussed.

  4. NCC: A Multidisciplinary Design/Analysis Tool for Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Quealy, Angela

    1999-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary design/analysis tool for combustion systems is critical for optimizing the low-emission, high-performance combustor design process. Based on discussions between NASA Lewis Research Center and the jet engine companies, an industry-government team was formed in early 1995 to develop the National Combustion Code (NCC), which is an integrated system of computer codes for the design and analysis of combustion systems. NCC has advanced features that address the need to meet designer's requirements such as "assured accuracy", "fast turnaround", and "acceptable cost". The NCC development team is comprised of Allison Engine Company (Allison), CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC), GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This development team operates under the guidance of the NCC steering committee. The "unstructured mesh" capability and "parallel computing" are fundamental features of NCC from its inception. The NCC system is composed of a set of "elements" which includes grid generator, main flow solver, turbulence module, turbulence and chemistry interaction module, chemistry module, spray module, radiation heat transfer module, data visualization module, and a post-processor for evaluating engine performance parameters. Each element may have contributions from several team members. Such a multi-source multi-element system needs to be integrated in a way that facilitates inter-module data communication, flexibility in module selection, and ease of integration.

  5. A multidisciplinary optimization method for designing boundary layer ingesting inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, David Leonard

    2001-07-01

    The Blended-Wing-Body is a conceptual aircraft design with rear-mounted, over-wing engines. Two types of engine installations have been considered for this aircraft. One installation is quite conventional with podded engines mounted on pylons. The other installation has partially buried engines with boundary layer ingesting inlets. Although ingesting the low-momentum flow in a boundary layer can improve propulsive efficiency, poor inlet performance can offset and even overwhelm this potential advantage. For both designs, the tight coupling between the aircraft aerodynamics and the propulsion system poses a difficult design integration problem. This dissertation presents a design method that solves the problem using multidisciplinary optimization. A Navier-Stokes flow solver, an engine analysis method, and a nonlinear optimizer are combined into a design tool that correctly addresses the tight coupling of the problem. The method is first applied to a model 2D problem to expedite development and thoroughly test the scheme. The low computational cost of the 2D method allows for several inlet installations to be optimized and analyzed. The method is then upgraded by using a validated 3D Navier-Stokes solver. The two candidate engine installations are analyzed and optimized using this inlet design method. The method is shown to be quite effective at integrating the propulsion and aerodynamic systems of the Blend-Wing-Body for both engine installations by improving overall performance and satisfying any specified design constraints. By comparing the two optimized designs, the potential advantages of ingesting boundary layer flow for this aircraft are demonstrated.

  6. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Green, L.; Griewank, A.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P.

    1992-01-01

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that by using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g., O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  7. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A. ); Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P. . Langley Research Center)

    1992-01-01

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  8. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A.; Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P.

    1992-12-31

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  9. Discovering a one-dimensional active subspace to quantify multidisciplinary uncertainty in satellite system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xingzhi; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Chen, Xiaoqian; Seshadri, Pranay

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification has recently been receiving much attention from aerospace engineering community. With ever-increasing requirements for robustness and reliability, it is crucial to quantify multidisciplinary uncertainty in satellite system design which dominates overall design direction and cost. However, coupled multi-disciplines and cross propagation hamper the efficiency and accuracy of high-dimensional uncertainty analysis. In this study, an uncertainty quantification methodology based on active subspaces is established for satellite conceptual design. The active subspace effectively reduces the dimension and measures the contributions of input uncertainties. A comprehensive characterization of associated uncertain factors is made and all subsystem models are built for uncertainty propagation. By integrating a system decoupling strategy, the multidisciplinary uncertainty effect is efficiently represented by a one-dimensional active subspace for each design. The identified active subspace is checked by bootstrap resampling for confidence intervals and verified by Monte Carlo propagation for the accuracy. To show the performance of active subspaces, 18 uncertainty parameters of an Earth observation small satellite are exemplified and then another 5 design uncertainties are incorporated. The uncertainties that contribute the most to satellite mass and total cost are ranked, and the quantification of high-dimensional uncertainty is achieved by a relatively small number of support samples. The methodology with considerably less cost exhibits high accuracy and strong adaptability, which provides a potential template to tackle multidisciplinary uncertainty in practical satellite systems.

  10. Collaborative Design Processes: An Active and Reflective Learning Course in Multidisciplinary Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, William J.; Soibelman, Lucio; Elvin, George

    2003-01-01

    In a capstone course, graduate students from two universities participated in collaborative design in the architectural, engineering, and construction industries in multidisciplinary teams via the Internet. Students also developed process designs to integrate technology into multidisciplinary teamwork, combining active and reflective learning.…

  11. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of A Highly Flexible Aeroservoelastic Wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighat, Sohrab

    A multidisciplinary design optimization framework is developed that integrates control system design with aerostructural design for a highly-deformable wing. The objective of this framework is to surpass the existing aircraft endurance limits through the use of an active load alleviation system designed concurrently with the rest of the aircraft. The novelty of this work is two fold. First, a unified dynamics framework is developed to represent the full six-degree-of-freedom rigid-body along with the structural dynamics. It allows for an integrated control design to account for both manoeuvrability (flying quality) and aeroelasticity criteria simultaneously. Secondly, by synthesizing the aircraft control system along with the structural sizing and aerodynamic shape design, the final design has the potential to exploit synergies among the three disciplines and yield higher performing aircraft. A co-rotational structural framework featuring Euler--Bernoulli beam elements is developed to capture the wing's nonlinear deformations under the effect of aerodynamic and inertial loadings. In this work, a three-dimensional aerodynamic panel code, capable of calculating both steady and unsteady loadings is used. Two different control methods, a model predictive controller (MPC) and a 2-DOF mixed-norm robust controller, are considered in this work to control a highly flexible aircraft. Both control techniques offer unique advantages that make them promising for controlling a highly flexible aircraft. The control system works towards executing time-dependent manoeuvres along with performing gust/manoeuvre load alleviation. The developed framework is investigated for demonstration in two design cases: one in which the control system simply worked towards achieving or maintaining a target altitude, and another where the control system is also performing load alleviation. The use of the active load alleviation system results in a significant improvement in the aircraft performance

  12. Multidisciplinary design of a rocket-based combined cycle SSTO launch vehicle using Taguchi methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olds, John R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-02-01

    Results are presented from the optimization process of a winged-cone configuration SSTO launch vehicle that employs a rocket-based ejector/ramjet/scramjet/rocket operational mode variable-cycle engine. The Taguchi multidisciplinary parametric-design method was used to evaluate the effects of simultaneously changing a total of eight design variables, rather than changing them one at a time as in conventional tradeoff studies. A combination of design variables was in this way identified which yields very attractive vehicle dry and gross weights.

  13. Multidisciplinary design of a rocket-based combined cycle SSTO launch vehicle using Taguchi methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from the optimization process of a winged-cone configuration SSTO launch vehicle that employs a rocket-based ejector/ramjet/scramjet/rocket operational mode variable-cycle engine. The Taguchi multidisciplinary parametric-design method was used to evaluate the effects of simultaneously changing a total of eight design variables, rather than changing them one at a time as in conventional tradeoff studies. A combination of design variables was in this way identified which yields very attractive vehicle dry and gross weights.

  14. Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool Development Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization using a genetic algorithm is being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to automate analysis and design process by leveraging existing tools to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the preliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. This is a promising technology, but faces many challenges in large-scale, real-world application. This report describes current approaches, recent results, and challenges for multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization as demonstrated by experience with the Ikhana fire pod design.!

  15. Multidisciplinary Design Techniques Applied to Conceptual Aerospace Vehicle Design. Ph.D. Thesis Final Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John Robert; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an emerging discipline within aerospace engineering. Its goal is to bring structure and efficiency to the complex design process associated with advanced aerospace launch vehicles. Aerospace vehicles generally require input from a variety of traditional aerospace disciplines - aerodynamics, structures, performance, etc. As such, traditional optimization methods cannot always be applied. Several multidisciplinary techniques and methods were proposed as potentially applicable to this class of design problem. Among the candidate options are calculus-based (or gradient-based) optimization schemes and parametric schemes based on design of experiments theory. A brief overview of several applicable multidisciplinary design optimization methods is included. Methods from the calculus-based class and the parametric class are reviewed, but the research application reported focuses on methods from the parametric class. A vehicle of current interest was chosen as a test application for this research. The rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle combines elements of rocket and airbreathing propulsion in an attempt to produce an attractive option for launching medium sized payloads into low earth orbit. The RBCC SSTO presents a particularly difficult problem for traditional one-variable-at-a-time optimization methods because of the lack of an adequate experience base and the highly coupled nature of the design variables. MDO, however, with it's structured approach to design, is well suited to this problem. The result of the application of Taguchi methods, central composite designs, and response surface methods to the design optimization of the RBCC SSTO are presented. Attention is given to the aspect of Taguchi methods that attempts to locate a 'robust' design - that is, a design that is least sensitive to uncontrollable influences on the design. Near-optimum minimum dry weight solutions are

  16. Taking ergonomics to the bedside--a multi-disciplinary approach to designing safer healthcare.

    PubMed

    Norris, Beverley; West, Jonathan; Anderson, Oliver; Davey, Grace; Brodie, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    A multi-disciplinary approach to designing safer healthcare was utilised to investigate risks in the bed-space in elective surgical wards. The Designing Out Medical Error (DOME) project brought together clinicians, designers, psychologists, human factors and business expertise to develop solutions for the highest risk healthcare processes. System mapping and risk assessment techniques identified nearly 200 potential failure modes in hand hygiene, isolation of infection, vital signs monitoring, medication delivery and handover of information. Solutions addressed issues such as the design of equipment, reminders, monitoring, feedback and standardisation. Some of the solutions, such as the CareCentre™, which brings many of the processes and equipment together into one easy to access workstation at the foot of the bed, have been taken forward to clinical trials and manufacture. The project showed the value of the multi-disciplinary and formal human factors approaches to healthcare design for patient safety. In particular, it demonstrates the application of human factors to a complete design cycle and provides a case study for the activities required to reach a safe, marketable product. PMID:24135560

  17. Development and implementation of rotorcraft preliminary design methodology using multidisciplinary design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Adeel Syed

    Rotorcraft's evolution has lagged behind that of fixed-wing aircraft. One of the reasons for this gap is the absence of a formal methodology to accomplish a complete conceptual and preliminary design. Traditional rotorcraft methodologies are not only time consuming and expensive but also yield sub-optimal designs. Rotorcraft design is an excellent example of a multidisciplinary complex environment where several interdependent disciplines are involved. A formal framework is developed and implemented in this research for preliminary rotorcraft design using IPPD methodology. The design methodology consists of the product and process development cycles. In the product development loop, all the technical aspects of design are considered including the vehicle engineering, dynamic analysis, stability and control, aerodynamic performance, propulsion, transmission design, weight and balance, noise analysis and economic analysis. The design loop starts with a detailed analysis of requirements. A baseline is selected and upgrade targets are identified depending on the mission requirements. An Overall Evaluation Criterion (OEC) is developed that is used to measure the goodness of the design or to compare the design with competitors. The requirements analysis and baseline upgrade targets lead to the initial sizing and performance estimation of the new design. The digital information is then passed to disciplinary experts. This is where the detailed disciplinary analyses are performed. Information is transferred from one discipline to another as the design loop is iterated. To coordinate all the disciplines in the product development cycle, Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) techniques e.g. All At Once (AAO) and Collaborative Optimization (CO) are suggested. The methodology is implemented on a Light Turbine Training Helicopter (LTTH) design. Detailed disciplinary analyses are integrated through a common platform for efficient and centralized transfer of design

  18. Multidisciplinary study on anthropogenic landslides in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglia, Christopher; Derron, Marc-Henri; Nicolet, Pierrick; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Devkota, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Nepal is a country in which shallow landslide is a frequent phenomenon. Monsoon is the main triggering factor but anthropogenic influence is often significant too. Indeed, many infrastructures, such as roads or water pipes, are not built in a rigorous way because of a lack of funds and knowledge. In the present study we examine the technical, social and economic issues of landslide management for two sites in Nepal. The first site is located in Sanusiruwari VDC (Sindhupalchock district, central Nepal) and the second one in Namadi VDC (Ramecchap district, central Nepal). Both sites are affected by landslides induced by the construction of hydropower plants. These landslides may threaten the viability of the hydropower plants. At both sites the problems are quite similar, but the first site project is a private one and the second one is a public one implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). For both sites, bioengineering methods using Vetiver (Vetyveria zizanioides) plantations is the main stabilization measure. To follow the progression of both landslides, fieldwork observations were conducted before and after the 2012 rainy season, including photogrammetric and distancemeter acquisitions. Main issues were discussed with communities and stakeholders of the hydropower projects through interviews and participatory risk mapping. Main issues include: lack of communication between the project managers and communities leading to conflict and the lack of maintenance of the bio-engineering sites, leading to less effective Vetiver growth and slope stabilization. Comparing the landslide management (technical, social and economic) of the two projects allows to point out some specific issues within an integrated risk perspective.

  19. The LUSI LAB project: a platform for multidisciplinary experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, Adriano; Svensen, Henrik; Hensen, Christian; Scholz, Florian; Romeo, Giovanni; Hadi, Soffian; Husein, Alwi; Planke, Sverre; Akhmanov, Grigorii; Krueger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Lusi is a spectacular mud eruption that started in northeast Java the 29 of May 2006 following a 6.3 M earthquake. Nearly eight years later Lusi is still active. The Lusi Lab is an ERC-funded project to perform multidisciplinary studies using Lusi as a natural laboratory. This represents an unprecedented opportunity to study an ongoing active high-temperature mud eruption and to evaluate the role of seismicity, local faulting and the neighbouring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex on the long-lasting mud eruption. A multipurpose hexacopter has been designed and constructed to access and monitor the otherwise inaccessible Lusi crater and its mud-filled outskirts. The "Lusi drone" showed to be a powerful monitoring and sampling tool duringteh fieldwork in Dec. 2013. Videos and photogrammetry were acquired with various cameras. Designed tools allow the drone to measure and log temperature and to complete remote-controlled sampling of mud, water and gas from the erupting crater. A collection of evenly spaced mud samples has been taken along a transect that extends for 1100 m outside the crater. The incubation of these will be used for geomicrobiological studies and will help to shed light on the type of the ongoing hydrocarbon generation and degradation. A network of temperature loggers deployed around the crater aims to investigate a correlation between seismic activity and temperature variation of the erupted mud. Geochemical analyses indicate that the geochemistry of the crater water represents a geochemical anomaly when comparing with both basinal brines and volcano-hosted hot springs. A combination of high temperatures in the source region and fluid-rock interactions with silicates and carbonate-rich lithologies can explain the geochemistry. This is consistent with the result of gas analyses and with a deep-seated (>4 km) source region, possibly related to the presence of hot igneous intrusions from the volcanic arc.

  20. Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool Development using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization using a genetic algorithm is being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space A dministration Dryden Flight Research Center to automate analysis and design process by leveraging existing tools such as NASTRAN, ZAERO a nd CFD codes to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the pr eliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypers onic aircraft. This is a promising technology, but faces many challe nges in large-scale, real-world application. This paper describes cur rent approaches, recent results, and challenges for MDAO as demonstr ated by our experience with the Ikhana fire pod design.

  1. Framework for Multidisciplinary Analysis, Design, and Optimization with High-Fidelity Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Stanley A.; Narducci, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    A plan is presented for the development of a high fidelity multidisciplinary optimization process for rotorcraft. The plan formulates individual disciplinary design problems, identifies practical high-fidelity tools and processes that can be incorporated in an automated optimization environment, and establishes statements of the multidisciplinary design problem including objectives, constraints, design variables, and cross-disciplinary dependencies. Five key disciplinary areas are selected in the development plan. These are rotor aerodynamics, rotor structures and dynamics, fuselage aerodynamics, fuselage structures, and propulsion / drive system. Flying qualities and noise are included as ancillary areas. Consistency across engineering disciplines is maintained with a central geometry engine that supports all multidisciplinary analysis. The multidisciplinary optimization process targets the preliminary design cycle where gross elements of the helicopter have been defined. These might include number of rotors and rotor configuration (tandem, coaxial, etc.). It is at this stage that sufficient configuration information is defined to perform high-fidelity analysis. At the same time there is enough design freedom to influence a design. The rotorcraft multidisciplinary optimization tool is built and substantiated throughout its development cycle in a staged approach by incorporating disciplines sequentially.

  2. Multi-disciplinary coupling effects for integrated design of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effective computational simulation procedures are described for modeling the inherent multi-disciplinary interactions which govern the accurate response of propulsion systems. Results are presented for propulsion system responses including multi-disciplinary coupling effects using coupled multi-discipline thermal, structural, and acoustic tailoring; an integrated system of multi-disciplinary simulators; coupled material behavior/fabrication process tailoring; sensitivities using a probabilistic simulator; and coupled materials, structures, fracture, and probabilistic behavior simulator. The results demonstrate that superior designs can be achieved if the analysis/tailoring methods account for the multi-disciplinary coupling effects. The coupling across disciplines can be used to develop an integrated coupled multi-discipline numerical propulsion system simulator.

  3. Application of advanced multidisciplinary analysis and optimization methods to vehicle design synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consoli, Robert David; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1990-01-01

    Advanced multidisciplinary analysis and optimization methods, namely system sensitivity analysis and non-hierarchical system decomposition, are applied to reduce the cost and improve the visibility of an automated vehicle design synthesis process. This process is inherently complex due to the large number of functional disciplines and associated interdisciplinary couplings. Recent developments in system sensitivity analysis as applied to complex non-hierarchic multidisciplinary design optimization problems enable the decomposition of these complex interactions into sub-processes that can be evaluated in parallel. The application of these techniques results in significant cost, accuracy, and visibility benefits for the entire design synthesis process.

  4. OpenMDAO: Framework for Flexible Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis and Optimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Gray, Justin S.

    2012-01-01

    The OpenMDAO project is underway at NASA to develop a framework which simplifies the implementation of state-of-the-art tools and methods for multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization. Foremost, OpenMDAO has been designed to handle variable problem formulations, encourage reconfigurability, and promote model reuse. This work demonstrates the concept of iteration hierarchies in OpenMDAO to achieve a flexible environment for supporting advanced optimization methods which include adaptive sampling and surrogate modeling techniques. In this effort, two efficient global optimization methods were applied to solve a constrained, single-objective and constrained, multiobjective version of a joint aircraft/engine sizing problem. The aircraft model, NASA's nextgeneration advanced single-aisle civil transport, is being studied as part of the Subsonic Fixed Wing project to help meet simultaneous program goals for reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise. This analysis serves as a realistic test problem to demonstrate the flexibility and reconfigurability offered by OpenMDAO.

  5. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Techniques: Implications and Opportunities for Fluid Dynamics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Green, Lawrence L.

    1999-01-01

    A challenge for the fluid dynamics community is to adapt to and exploit the trend towards greater multidisciplinary focus in research and technology. The past decade has witnessed substantial growth in the research field of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). MDO is a methodology for the design of complex engineering systems and subsystems that coherently exploits the synergism of mutually interacting phenomena. As evidenced by the papers, which appear in the biannual AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposia on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, the MDO technical community focuses on vehicle and system design issues. This paper provides an overview of the MDO technology field from a fluid dynamics perspective, giving emphasis to suggestions of specific applications of recent MDO technologies that can enhance fluid dynamics research itself across the spectrum, from basic flow physics to full configuration aerodynamics.

  6. Development and Application of the Collaborative Optimization Architecture in a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, R. D.; Kroo, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    Collaborative optimization is a design architecture applicable in any multidisciplinary analysis environment but specifically intended for large-scale distributed analysis applications. In this approach, a complex problem is hierarchically de- composed along disciplinary boundaries into a number of subproblems which are brought into multidisciplinary agreement by a system-level coordination process. When applied to problems in a multidisciplinary design environment, this scheme has several advantages over traditional solution strategies. These advantageous features include reducing the amount of information transferred between disciplines, the removal of large iteration-loops, allowing the use of different subspace optimizers among the various analysis groups, an analysis framework which is easily parallelized and can operate on heterogenous equipment, and a structural framework that is well-suited for conventional disciplinary organizations. In this article, the collaborative architecture is developed and its mathematical foundation is presented. An example application is also presented which highlights the potential of this method for use in large-scale design applications.

  7. Baseball Stadium Design: Teaching Engineering Economics and Technical Communication in a Multi-Disciplinary Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Kevin; Newell, James

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a course at Rowan University, based on the economic design of a baseball stadium, that offers an introduction to multidisciplinary engineering design linked with formal training in technical communication. Addresses four pedagogical goals: (1) developing public speaking skills in a realistic, business setting; (2) giving students…

  8. Development and Testing of Assessment Instruments for Multidisciplinary Engineering Capstone Design Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlick, Robert Edward

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this manuscript was focused on the development of assessments for engineering design outcomes. The primary goal was to support efforts by the Transferrable Integrated Design Engineering Education (TIDEE) consortium in developing assessment instruments for multidisciplinary engineering capstone courses. Research conducted…

  9. Development and Evaluation of an Undergraduate Multidisciplinary Project Activity in Engineering and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; Cole, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The School of Engineering and Design Multidisciplinary Project (MDP) at Brunel University is a one week long project based activity involving first year undergraduate students from across the School subject areas of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering and Design. This paper describes the main aims of the…

  10. A Web Centric Architecture for Deploying Multi-Disciplinary Engineering Design Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woyak, Scott; Kim, Hongman; Mullins, James; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2004-01-01

    There are continuous needs for engineering organizations to improve their design process. Current state of the art techniques use computational simulations to predict design performance, and optimize it through advanced design methods. These tools have been used mostly by individual engineers. This paper presents an architecture for achieving results at an organization level beyond individual level. The next set of gains in process improvement will come from improving the effective use of computers and software within a whole organization, not just for an individual. The architecture takes advantage of state of the art capabilities to produce a Web based system to carry engineering design into the future. To illustrate deployment of the architecture, a case study for implementing advanced multidisciplinary design optimization processes such as Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis is discussed. Another example for rolling-out a design process for Design for Six Sigma is also described. Each example explains how an organization can effectively infuse engineering practice with new design methods and retain the knowledge over time.

  11. The art of spacecraft design: A multidisciplinary challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdi, F.; Ide, H.; Levine, M.; Austel, L.

    1989-01-01

    Actual design turn-around time has become shorter due to the use of optimization techniques which have been introduced into the design process. It seems that what, how and when to use these optimization techniques may be the key factor for future aircraft engineering operations. Another important aspect of this technique is that complex physical phenomena can be modeled by a simple mathematical equation. The new powerful multilevel methodology reduces time-consuming analysis significantly while maintaining the coupling effects. This simultaneous analysis method stems from the implicit function theorem and system sensitivity derivatives of input variables. Use of the Taylor's series expansion and finite differencing technique for sensitivity derivatives in each discipline makes this approach unique for screening dominant variables from nondominant variables. In this study, the current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aerodynamic and sensitivity derivative/optimization techniques are applied for a simple cone-type forebody of a high-speed vehicle configuration to understand basic aerodynamic/structure interaction in a hypersonic flight condition.

  12. Knowledge Discovery in Multidisciplinary Design Space for Regional-Jet Wings Using Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Kazuhisa; Jeong, Shinkyu; Obayashi, Shigeru

    Data mining is an important facet of solving multi-objective optimization problems. In the present study, two data mining techniques were applied to a large-scale, real-world multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) problem to provide knowledge regarding the design space. The use of MDO in the aerodynamics, structure, and aeroelasticity of a regional-jet wing was carried out using high-fidelity evaluation models with an adaptive range multi-objective genetic algorithm. As a result, nine non-dominated solutions were generated and used for tradeoff analysis of three objectives. All solutions evaluated during the evolution were analyzed for the influence of design variables using a self-organizing map (SOM) and a functional analysis of variance (ANOVA) to extract key features of the design space. As SOM and ANOVA compensate for respective disadvantages, the design knowledge could be obtained more clearly by combinating them. Although the MDO results showed inverted gull-wings as non-dominated solutions, one of the key features found by data mining was a non-gull wing geometry. When this knowledge was applied to one optimum solution, the resulting design was found to have better performance compared with the original geometry designed in the conventional manner.

  13. Knowledge Discovery for Transonic Regional-Jet Wing through Multidisciplinary Design Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Kazuhisa; Obayashi, Shigeru; Morino, Hiroyuki

    Data mining is an important facet of solving multi-objective optimization problem. Because it is one of the effective manner to discover the design knowledge in the multi-objective optimization problem which obtains large data. In the present study, data mining has been performed for a large-scale and real-world multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) to provide knowledge regarding the design space. The MDO among aerodynamics, structures, and aeroelasticity of the regional-jet wing was carried out using high-fidelity evaluation models on the adaptive range multi-objective genetic algorithm. As a result, nine non-dominated solutions were generated and used for tradeoff analysis among three objectives. All solutions evaluated during the evolution were analyzed for the tradeoffs and influence of design variables using a self-organizing map to extract key features of the design space. Although the MDO results showed the inverted gull-wings as non-dominated solutions, one of the key features found by data mining was the non-gull wing geometry. When this knowledge was applied to one optimum solution, the resulting design was found to have better performance compared with the original geometry designed in the conventional manner.

  14. [Psychic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus: a multidisciplinary prospective study].

    PubMed

    Miguel Filho, E C; Pereira, R M; Busatto Filho, G; Shavitt, R G; Hirsch, R; de Sá, L C; de Arruda, P C

    1990-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of psychic symptoms in lupus patients, there are few systematic studies in this area. Through a multidisciplinary approach, the authors developed a prospective study to characterize and correlate psychopathological aspects with clinical and laboratory data concerning neural manifestations of the disease. Out of 23 patients studied, 12 showed psychic alterations, which were interpreted as primary manifestations of the disease. All of them presented organic mental syndromes (DSM-III-R) in which cognitive symptoms were the most prominent, followed by affective, catatonic and hallucinatory features. The neurologic findings (seizure, migraine and muscular atrophy), as well as the ophthalmologic alterations (hemorrhage and soft exudates) were frequent and concomitant with the psychic features. The laboratory findings were: LE cells 50%; anti-Sm: 16%; anti-U1 RNP: 50%; anti-Ro/SS-A: 50%; anti-nDNA: 58%; decreased CH50 or fractions (C3, C4): 67%; anti-P: 18%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 78%. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed: increased cellularity: 18%; elevated protein: 36%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 33%; immunocomplexes: 36%. In spite of the absence of an adequate control group and of the small number of patients, the multidisciplinary approach leads to a better characterization of the nervous system involvement in this disease. PMID:1965671

  15. Multidisciplinary approach to the design of high pressure oxygen systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Several examples of spacecraft systems fires are examined. Much of the design, manufacture, inspection, test, and operation of current high pressure oxygen components and systems has been driven by weight, cost, functional, and schedule requirements. As a result, little coordination has been expended on design for safe operation. While the number of oxygen related fires has not been large, their cost, including program losses and delays, has been very large. Most of these failures need not have occurred.

  16. Interaction Prediction Optimization in Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Wang, Zhonglai; Xu, Huanwei

    2014-01-01

    The distributed strategy of Collaborative Optimization (CO) is suitable for large-scale engineering systems. However, it is hard for CO to converge when there is a high level coupled dimension. Furthermore, the discipline objectives cannot be considered in each discipline optimization problem. In this paper, one large-scale systems control strategy, the interaction prediction method (IPM), is introduced to enhance CO. IPM is utilized for controlling subsystems and coordinating the produce process in large-scale systems originally. We combine the strategy of IPM with CO and propose the Interaction Prediction Optimization (IPO) method to solve MDO problems. As a hierarchical strategy, there are a system level and a subsystem level in IPO. The interaction design variables (including shared design variables and linking design variables) are operated at the system level and assigned to the subsystem level as design parameters. Each discipline objective is considered and optimized at the subsystem level simultaneously. The values of design variables are transported between system level and subsystem level. The compatibility constraints are replaced with the enhanced compatibility constraints to reduce the dimension of design variables in compatibility constraints. Two examples are presented to show the potential application of IPO for MDO. PMID:24744685

  17. Development of Response Surface Models for Rapid Analysis and Multidisciplinary Optimization of Launch Vehicle Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1999-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the design and evaluation of launch vehicles, since it has a significant impact on performance and lifecycle cost. The objective in MDO is to search the design space to determine the values of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics subject to system constraints. Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) at NASA Langley Research Center has computerized analysis tools in many of the disciplines required for the design and analysis of launch vehicles. Vehicle performance characteristics can be determined by the use of these computerized analysis tools. The next step is to optimize the system performance characteristics subject to multidisciplinary constraints. However, most of the complex sizing and performance evaluation codes used for launch vehicle design are stand-alone tools, operated by disciplinary experts. They are, in general, difficult to integrate and use directly for MDO.

  18. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1999-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to a sensitivity based Concurrent Subspace Optimization (CSSO) NMO algorithm; the development of a neural network response surface based CSSO-MDO algorithm; and the integration of distributed computing and process scheduling into the MDO environment. This report overviews research efforts in each of these focus. A complete bibliography of research produced with support of this grant is attached.

  19. The potential application of the blackboard model of problem solving to multidisciplinary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1989-01-01

    The potential application of the blackboard model of problem solving to multidisciplinary design is discussed. Multidisciplinary design problems are complex, poorly structured, and lack a predetermined decision path from the initial starting point to the final solution. The final solution is achieved using data from different engineering disciplines. Ideally, for the final solution to be the optimum solution, there must be a significant amount of communication among the different disciplines plus intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary optimization. In reality, this is not what happens in today's sequential approach to multidisciplinary design. Therefore it is highly unlikely that the final solution is the true optimum solution from an interdisciplinary optimization standpoint. A multilevel decomposition approach is suggested as a technique to overcome the problems associated with the sequential approach, but no tool currently exists with which to fully implement this technique. A system based on the blackboard model of problem solving appears to be an ideal tool for implementing this technique because it offers an incremental problem solving approach that requires no a priori determined reasoning path. Thus it has the potential of finding a more optimum solution for the multidisciplinary design problems found in today's aerospace industries.

  20. Grid Generation for Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization of an Aerospace Vehicle: Issues and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss grid generation issues and to challenge the grid generation community to develop tools suitable for automated multidisciplinary analysis and design optimization of aerospace vehicles. Special attention is given to the grid generation issues of computational fluid dynamics and computational structural mechanics disciplines.

  1. National Combustion Code, a Multidisciplinary Combustor Design System, Will Be Transferred to the Commercial Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and Flow Parametrics will enter into an agreement to commercialize the National Combustion Code (NCC). This multidisciplinary combustor design system utilizes computer-aided design (CAD) tools for geometry creation, advanced mesh generators for creating solid model representations, a common framework for fluid flow and structural analyses, modern postprocessing tools, and parallel processing. This integrated system can facilitate and enhance various phases of the design and analysis process.

  2. Designing a Multi-Disciplinary Geriatrics Health Professional Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, J. James; Coogle, Constance L.; Parham, Iris A.; Head, Colleen; Fulton, LaQuana; Watson, Kathleen; Curtis, Angela

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a Geriatric Health Professionals Mentoring Program designed to address recruitment and retention of health professionals in geriatrics and gerontology. The training provided information on the mentoring process, negotiating mentoring agreements, and coaching mentees. The evaluative framework described examines: (a) the effects…

  3. Toward a More Flexible Web-Based Framework for Multidisciplinary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.; Salas, A. O.

    1999-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, both industry and government agencies are under pressure to reduce the time and cost of multidisciplinary design projects. New tools have been introduced to assist in this process by facilitating the integration of and communication among diverse disciplinary codes. One such tool, a framework for multidisciplinary design, is defined as a hardware-software architecture that enables integration, execution, and communication among diverse disciplinary processes. An examination of current frameworks reveals weaknesses in various areas, such as sequencing, monitoring, controlling, and displaying the design process. The objective of this research is to explore how Web technology can improve these areas of weakness and lead toward a more flexible framework. This article describes a Web-based system that optimizes and controls the execution sequence of design processes in addition to monitoring the project status and displaying the design results.

  4. Process Cost Modeling for Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Freeman, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This report outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are costed according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this report is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool. In successive sections, the report addresses the issues of cost modeling as follows. First, an introduction is presented to provide the background for the research work. Next, a quick review of cost estimation techniques is made with the intention to

  5. Multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO) methodology for the aircraft conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Liaquat Ullah

    achieving better designs with reduced risk in lesser time and cost. The approach is shown to eliminate the traditional boundary between the conceptual and the preliminary design stages, combining the two into one consolidated preliminary design phase. Several examples for the validation and utilization of the Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) Tool are presented using missions for the Medium and High Altitude Long Range/Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).

  6. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  7. Multidisciplinary study of Hewett Field, Zechstein Kalk Formation

    SciTech Connect

    West, K.L. )

    1994-04-01

    New technology and a multidisciplinary team approach were effectively used by Phillips Petroleum for optimum reservoir development in the Hewett field, North Sea. Near-horizontal drilling technology and depositional environment and fracture studies were used by engineering and geology. Geophysics contributed structure and porosity trend maps and used new technology developed by Phillips called Incremental Pay Thickness modeling. IPT modeling enhances the integration of well-log data and seismic wiggle traces so porosity and pay thickness can be estimated directly from seismic data. Seismic amplitude values were mapped and processed into estimated porosity thickness using the IPT mathematical relationship. This interpretation aided in locating three successful development wells in areas of predicted high porosity, which increased production by 67 MMCF/D and optimized recovery.

  8. Multidisciplinary design optimization of vehicle instrument panel based on multi-objective genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Wu, Guangqiang

    2013-03-01

    Typical multidisciplinary design optimization(MDO) has gradually been proposed to balance performances of lightweight, noise, vibration and harshness(NVH) and safety for instrument panel(IP) structure in the automotive development. Nevertheless, plastic constitutive relation of Polypropylene(PP) under different strain rates, has not been taken into consideration in current reliability-based and collaborative IP MDO design. In this paper, based on tensile test under different strain rates, the constitutive relation of Polypropylene material is studied. Impact simulation tests for head and knee bolster are carried out to meet the regulation of FMVSS 201 and FMVSS 208, respectively. NVH analysis is performed to obtain mainly the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes, while the crashworthiness analysis is employed to examine the crash behavior of IP structure. With the consideration of lightweight, NVH, head and knee bolster impact performance, design of experiment(DOE), response surface model(RSM), and collaborative optimization(CO) are applied to realize the determined and reliability-based optimizations, respectively. Furthermore, based on multi-objective genetic algorithm(MOGA), the optimal Pareto sets are completed to solve the multi-objective optimization(MOO) problem. The proposed research ensures the smoothness of Pareto set, enhances the ability of engineers to make a comprehensive decision about multi-objectives and choose the optimal design, and improves the quality and efficiency of MDO.

  9. Hospital without dyspnea: rationale and design of a multidisciplinary intervention.

    PubMed

    Vicent, Lourdes; Olarte, Juan Manuel Nuñez; Puente-Maestu, Luis; Artajona, Esther; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Martínez-Sellés, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Dyspnea is a common and disabling symptom of respiratory and heart diseases, which is growing in incidence. During hospital admission, breathlessness is under-diagnosed and under-treated, although there are treatments available for controlling the symptom. We have developed a tailored implementation strategy directed to medical staff to promote the application of these pharmacological and non-pharmacological tools in dealing with dyspnea. The primary aim is to decrease the rate of patients that do not receive an adequate relief of dyspnea. This is a four-stage quasi-experimental study. The intervention consists in two teaching talks that will be taught in Cardiology and Respiratory Medicine Departments. The contents will be prepared by Palliative Care specialists, based on available tools for management of dyspnea and patients' needs. A cross-sectional study of dyspnea in hospitalized patients will be performed before and after the intervention to ascertain an improvement in dyspnea intensity due to changes in medical practices. The last phase consists in the creation of consensus protocols for dyspnea management based in our experience. The results of this study are expected to be of great value and may change clinical practice in the near future and promote a changing for the better of dyspnea care. PMID:27605944

  10. Hospital without dyspnea: rationale and design of a multidisciplinary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vicent, Lourdes; Olarte, Juan Manuel Nuñez; Puente-Maestu, Luis; Artajona, Esther; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Martínez-Sellés, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Dyspnea is a common and disabling symptom of respiratory and heart diseases, which is growing in incidence. During hospital admission, breathlessness is under-diagnosed and under-treated, although there are treatments available for controlling the symptom. We have developed a tailored implementation strategy directed to medical staff to promote the application of these pharmacological and non-pharmacological tools in dealing with dyspnea. The primary aim is to decrease the rate of patients that do not receive an adequate relief of dyspnea. This is a four-stage quasi-experimental study. The intervention consists in two teaching talks that will be taught in Cardiology and Respiratory Medicine Departments. The contents will be prepared by Palliative Care specialists, based on available tools for management of dyspnea and patients' needs. A cross-sectional study of dyspnea in hospitalized patients will be performed before and after the intervention to ascertain an improvement in dyspnea intensity due to changes in medical practices. The last phase consists in the creation of consensus protocols for dyspnea management based in our experience. The results of this study are expected to be of great value and may change clinical practice in the near future and promote a changing for the better of dyspnea care. PMID:27605944

  11. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1998-01-01

    The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate a radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behavior by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms, the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should be now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

  12. Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in the Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1999-01-01

    The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate. A radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behaviour by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms; the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should begin now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

  13. Distributed Parallel Processing and Dynamic Load Balancing Techniques for Multidisciplinary High Speed Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasteva, Denitza T.

    1998-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) for large-scale engineering problems poses many challenges (e.g., the design of an efficient concurrent paradigm for global optimization based on disciplinary analyses, expensive computations over vast data sets, etc.) This work focuses on the application of distributed schemes for massively parallel architectures to MDO problems, as a tool for reducing computation time and solving larger problems. The specific problem considered here is configuration optimization of a high speed civil transport (HSCT), and the efficient parallelization of the embedded paradigm for reasonable design space identification. Two distributed dynamic load balancing techniques (random polling and global round robin with message combining) and two necessary termination detection schemes (global task count and token passing) were implemented and evaluated in terms of effectiveness and scalability to large problem sizes and a thousand processors. The effect of certain parameters on execution time was also inspected. Empirical results demonstrated stable performance and effectiveness for all schemes, and the parametric study showed that the selected algorithmic parameters have a negligible effect on performance.

  14. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1998-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. Three Principal Investigators; Drs. Renaud, Brockman and Batill directed this effort. During the four and a half year grant period, six Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student received full or partial support, while four Computer Science and Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student were supported. During each of the summers up to four undergraduate students were involved in related research activities. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (N4DO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to

  15. Recent experience with multidisciplinary analysis and optimization in advanced aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1990-01-01

    The task of modern aircraft design has always been complicated due to the number of intertwined technical factors from the various engineering disciplines. Furthermore, this complexity has been rapidly increasing by the development of such technologies as aeroelasticity tailored materials and structures, active control systems, integrated propulsion/airframe controls, thrust vectoring, and so on. Successful designs that achieve maximum advantage from these new technologies require a thorough understanding of the physical phenomena and the interactions among these phenomena. A study commissioned by the Aeronautical Sciences and Evaluation Board of the National Research Council has gone so far as to identify technology integration as a new discipline from which many future aeronautical advancements will arise. Regardless of whether one considers integration as a new discipline or not, it is clear to all engineers involved in aircraft design and analysis that better methods are required. In the past, designers conducted parametric studies in which a relatively small number of principal characteristics were varied to determine the effect on design requirements which were themselves often diverse and contradictory. Once a design was chosen, it then passed through the various engineers' disciplines whose principal task was to make the chosen design workable. Working in a limited design space, the discipline expert sometimes improved the concept, but more often than not, the result was in the form of a penalty to make the original concept workable. If an insurmountable problem was encountered, the process began over. Most design systems that attempt to account for disciplinary interactions have large empirical elements and reliance on past experience is a poor guide in obtaining maximum utilizations of new technologies. Further compounding the difficulty of design is that as the aeronautical sciences have matured, the discipline specialist's area of research has generally

  16. The Other Side of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: Accommodating a Multiobjective, Uncertain and Non-Deterministic World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Kemper; Mistree, Farrokh

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) over the past several years has been one of rapid expansion and development. In this paper, the evolution of MDO as a field is investigated as well as the evolution of its individual linguistic components: multidisciplinary, design, and optimization. The theory and application of each component have indeed evolved on their own, but the true net gain for MDO is how these piecewise evolutions coalesce to form the basis for MDO, present and future. Originating in structural applications, MDO technology has also branched out into diverse fields and application arenas. The evolution and diversification of MDO as a discipline is explored but details are left to the references cited.

  17. Selection of a turbine cooling system applying multi-disciplinary design considerations.

    PubMed

    Glezer, B

    2001-05-01

    The presented paper describes a multi-disciplinary cooling selection approach applied to major gas turbine engine hot section components, including turbine nozzles, blades, discs, combustors and support structures, which maintain blade tip clearances. The paper demonstrates benefits of close interaction between participating disciplines starting from early phases of the hot section development. The approach targets advancements in engine performance and cost by optimizing the design process, often requiring compromises within individual disciplines. PMID:11460630

  18. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  19. The potential application of the blackboard model of problem solving to multidisciplinary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Problems associated with the sequential approach to multidisciplinary design are discussed. A blackboard model is suggested as a potential tool for implementing the multilevel decomposition approach to overcome these problems. The blackboard model serves as a global database for the solution with each discipline acting as a knowledge source for updating the solution. With this approach, it is possible for engineers to improve the coordination, communication, and cooperation in the conceptual design process, allowing them to achieve a more optimal design from an interdisciplinary standpoint.

  20. Needs and Opportunities for Uncertainty-Based Multidisciplinary Design Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Kenny, Sean P; Luckring, James M.; Maghami, Peiman; Padula, Sharon L.; Stroud, W. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    This report consists of a survey of the state of the art in uncertainty-based design together with recommendations for a Base research activity in this area for the NASA Langley Research Center. This report identifies the needs and opportunities for computational and experimental methods that provide accurate, efficient solutions to nondeterministic multidisciplinary aerospace vehicle design problems. Barriers to the adoption of uncertainty-based design methods are identified. and the benefits of the use of such methods are explained. Particular research needs are listed.

  1. Bearberry identification by a multidisciplinary study on commercial raw materials.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Francesca Romana; Multari, Giuseppina; Pagliuca, Giordana; Panusa, Alessia; Palazzino, Giovanna; Giambenedetti, Massimo; Petitto, Valentina; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2013-04-01

    Herbal species different from the official bearberry, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, are sold through conventional markets and also through non-controlled Internet websites, putting consumer safety at risk owing to the lack of quality control. Recently, Arctostaphylos pungens has become one of the most used species as a raw material for herbal medicines and dietary supplements in the place of official bearberry, a plant used for the treatment of various urinary disorders. A fingerprint identification based on an integrated application of different analytical techniques (HPTLC, NMR, HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS) is here described to distinguish A. uva-ursi from A. pungens. The HPTLC and HPLC-DAD fingerprints resulted the simplest methods to differentiate the two species, whereas LC-ESI-MS was more useful to quantify arbutin, the main component of bearberry, and to evaluate its different content in the two species. This multidisciplinary study showed for the first time a specific phytochemical fingerprint of the new species A. pungens. PMID:22712621

  2. Dependency-tracking object-oriented multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) formulation on a large-scale system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlqvist, Maria Alexandra

    2001-12-01

    Advances in computer technology and analysis software are making optimization of engineering systems more attractive and affordable than ever before. Optimization is becoming a necessary tool in order for companies to stay competitive. While the concept of optimization has been known almost as long as mankind, specific procedures on how to optimize engineering systems are younger. Currently, efforts are being made to reduce the computational time and simplify the organizational complexity involved with solving multidisciplinary systems. The work presented in this dissertation deals with how an object-oriented, dependency-tracking, demand-driven language can be used in reducing the computational time in performing multidisciplinary design optimizations. The work also discusses how the object-oriented language was used in integrating optimization functionality with a missile design system. The object-oriented dependency-tracking demand-driven language is applied to a large-scale multidisciplinary missile system involving disciplines such as a geometry engine, weight analysis, propulsion, aerodynamics, trajectory analysis, and cost analysis. Also discussed is the need for using approximations in optimizing a large-scale system. Designed experiments and response surface techniques were employed in creating approximation models for the problem at hand. Using these approximations to evaluate the responses was found to be useful at points in the design space where one or more responses could not otherwise be evaluated. Different optimization schemes were studied including response surface analysis of different resolutions in conjunction with higher fidelity optimization and higher fidelity optimization without approximation models. The contributions of this work are the application of MDO capabilities to a large-scale missile design system modeled in an object-oriented dependency-tracking environment, the use of response surface approximations to fit areas in the design

  3. Development of multidisciplinary design optimization procedures for smart composite wings and turbomachinery blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Ratneshwar

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) procedures have been developed for smart composite wings and turbomachinery blades. The analysis and optimization methods used are computationally efficient and sufficiently rigorous. Therefore, the developed MDO procedures are well suited for actual design applications. The optimization procedure for the conceptual design of composite aircraft wings with surface bonded piezoelectric actuators involves the coupling of structural mechanics, aeroelasticity, aerodynamics and controls. The load carrying member of the wing is represented as a single-celled composite box beam. Each wall of the box beam is analyzed as a composite laminate using a refined higher-order displacement field to account for the variations in transverse shear stresses through the thickness. Therefore, the model is applicable for the analysis of composite wings of arbitrary thickness. Detailed structural modeling issues associated with piezoelectric actuation of composite structures are considered. The governing equations of motion are solved using the finite element method to analyze practical wing geometries. Three-dimensional aerodynamic computations are performed using a panel code based on the constant-pressure lifting surface method to obtain steady and unsteady forces. The Laplace domain method of aeroelastic analysis produces root-loci of the system which gives an insight into the physical phenomena leading to flutter/divergence and can be efficiently integrated within an optimization procedure. The significance of the refined higher-order displacement field on the aeroelastic stability of composite wings has been established. The effect of composite ply orientations on flutter and divergence speeds has been studied. The Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser (K-S) function approach is used to efficiently integrate the objective functions and constraints into a single envelope function. The resulting unconstrained optimization problem is solved using the

  4. Multidisciplinary optimization of a controlled space structure using 150 design variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Benjamin B.

    1993-01-01

    A controls-structures interaction design method is presented. The method coordinates standard finite-element structural analysis, multivariable controls, and nonlinear programming codes and allows simultaneous optimization of the structure and control system of a spacecraft. Global sensitivity equations are used to account for coupling between the disciplines. Use of global sensitivity equations helps solve optimization problems that have a large number of design variables and a high degree of coupling between disciplines. The preliminary design of a generic geostationary platform is used to demonstrate the multidisciplinary optimization method. Design problems using 15, 63, and 150 design variables to optimize truss member sizes and feedback gain values are solved and the results are presented. The goal is to reduce the total mass of the structure and the vibration control system while satisfying constraints on vibration decay rate. Incorporation of the nonnegligible mass of actuators causes an essential coupling between structural design variables and control design variables.

  5. An efficient and flexible web services-based multidisciplinary design optimisation framework for complex engineering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liansheng; Liu, Jihong

    2012-08-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) involves multiple disciplines, multiple coupled relationships and multiple processes, which is implemented by different specialists dispersed geographically on heterogeneous platforms with different analysis and optimisation tools. The product design data integration and data sharing among the participants hampers the development and applications of MDO in enterprises seriously. Therefore, a multi-hierarchical integrated product design data model (MH-iPDM) supporting the MDO in the web environment and a web services-based multidisciplinary design optimisation (Web-MDO) framework are proposed in this article. Based on the enabling technologies including web services, ontology, workflow, agent, XML and evidence theory, the proposed framework enables the designers geographically dispersed to work collaboratively in the MDO environment. The ontology-based workflow enables the logical reasoning of MDO to be processed dynamically. The evidence theory-based uncertainty reasoning and analysis supports the quantification, aggregation and analysis of the conflicting epistemic uncertainty from multiple sources, which improves the quality of product. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype system is developed using J2EE and an example of supersonic business jet is demonstrated to verify the autonomous execution of MDO strategies and the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. The multidisciplinary design optimization of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yan-Yee Andy

    The purpose of this study is to examine the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft. The BWB is a hybrid shape resembling a flying wing, placing the payload in the inboard sections of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept involves replacing a small number of large engines with many smaller engines. The distributed propulsion concept considered here ducts part of the engine exhaust to exit out along the trailing edge of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept affects almost every aspect of the BWB design. Methods to model these effects and integrate them into an MDO framework were developed. The most important effect modeled is the impact on the propulsive efficiency. There has been conjecture that there will be an increase in propulsive efficiency when there is blowing out of the trailing edge of a wing. A mathematical formulation was derived to explain this. The formulation showed that the jet 'fills in' the wake behind the body, improving the overall aerodynamic/propulsion system, resulting in an increased propulsive efficiency. The distributed propulsion concept also replaces the conventional elevons with a vectored thrust system for longitudinal control. An extension of Spence's Jet Flap theory was developed to estimate the effects of this vectored thrust system on the aircraft longitudinal control. It was found to provide a reasonable estimate of the control capability of the aircraft. An MDO framework was developed, integrating all the distributed propulsion effects modeled. Using a gradient based optimization algorithm, the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft was optimized and compared with a similarly optimized conventional BWB design. Both designs are for an 800 passenger, 0.85 cruise Mach number and 7000 nmi mission. The MDO results found that the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft has a 4% takeoff gross weight and a 2% fuel weight. Both designs have similar planform shapes

  7. On Developing a Taxonomy for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: A Decision-Based Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Kemper; Mistree, Farrokh

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we approach MDO from a Decision-Based Design (DBD) perspective and explore classification schemes for designing complex systems and processes. Specifically, we focus on decisions, which are only a small portion of the Decision Support Problem (DSP) Technique, our implementation of DBD. We map coupled nonhierarchical and hierarchical representations from the DSP Technique into the Balling-Sobieski (B-S) framework (Balling and Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, 1994), and integrate domain-independent linguistic terms to complete our taxonomy. Application of DSPs to the design of complex, multidisciplinary systems include passenger aircraft, ships, damage tolerant structural and mechanical systems, and thermal energy systems. In this paper we show that Balling-Sobieski framework is consistent with that of the Decision Support Problem Technique through the use of linguistic entities to describe the same type of formulations. We show that the underlying linguistics of the solution approaches are the same and can be coalesced into a homogeneous framework with which to base the research, application, and technology MDO upon. We introduce, in the Balling-Sobieski framework, examples of multidisciplinary design, namely, aircraft, damage tolerant structural and mechanical systems, and thermal energy systems.

  8. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    surrogate model, which captures the relationships between input variables and responses into regression equations. Depending on the dimensionality of the problem and the fidelity of the code for which a surrogate model is being created, the initial DOE can itself be computationally prohibitive to run. Cokriging, a modeling approach from the field of geostatistics, provides a desirable compromise between computational expense and fidelity. To do this, cokriging leverages a large body of data generated by a low fidelity analysis, combines it with a smaller set of data from a higher fidelity analysis, and creates a kriging surrogate model with prediction fidelity approaching that of the higher fidelity analysis. When integrated into a multidisciplinary environment, a disciplinary analysis module employing cokriging can raise the analysis fidelity without drastically impacting the expense of design iterations. This is demonstrated through the creation of an aerodynamics analysis module in NASA s OpenMDAO framework. Aerodynamic analyses including Missile DATCOM, APAS, and USM3D are leveraged to create high fidelity aerodynamics decks for parametric vehicle geometries, which are created in NASA s Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). Several trade studies are performed to examine the achieved level of model fidelity, and the overall impact to vehicle design is quantified.

  9. A General-Purpose Optimization Engine for Multi-Disciplinary Design Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Berke, Laszlo

    1996-01-01

    A general purpose optimization tool for multidisciplinary applications, which in the literature is known as COMETBOARDS, is being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. The modular organization of COMETBOARDS includes several analyzers and state-of-the-art optimization algorithms along with their cascading strategy. The code structure allows quick integration of new analyzers and optimizers. The COMETBOARDS code reads input information from a number of data files, formulates a design as a set of multidisciplinary nonlinear programming problems, and then solves the resulting problems. COMETBOARDS can be used to solve a large problem which can be defined through multiple disciplines, each of which can be further broken down into several subproblems. Alternatively, a small portion of a large problem can be optimized in an effort to improve an existing system. Some of the other unique features of COMETBOARDS include design variable formulation, constraint formulation, subproblem coupling strategy, global scaling technique, analysis approximation, use of either sequential or parallel computational modes, and so forth. The special features and unique strengths of COMETBOARDS assist convergence and reduce the amount of CPU time used to solve the difficult optimization problems of aerospace industries. COMETBOARDS has been successfully used to solve a number of problems, including structural design of space station components, design of nozzle components of an air-breathing engine, configuration design of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, mixed flow turbofan engines, wave rotor topped engines, and so forth. This paper introduces the COMETBOARDS design tool and its versatility, which is illustrated by citing examples from structures, aircraft design, and air-breathing propulsion engine design.

  10. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Full Vehicle with High Performance Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, R. J.; Gu, L.; Tho, C. H.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2001-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of a full vehicle under the constraints of crashworthiness, NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and other performance attributes is one of the imperative goals for automotive industry. However, it is often infeasible due to the lack of computational resources, robust simulation capabilities, and efficient optimization methodologies. This paper intends to move closer towards that goal by using parallel computers for the intensive computation and combining different approximations for dissimilar analyses in the MDO process. The MDO process presented in this paper is an extension of the previous work reported by Sobieski et al. In addition to the roof crush, two full vehicle crash modes are added: full frontal impact and 50% frontal offset crash. Instead of using an adaptive polynomial response surface method, this paper employs a DOE/RSM method for exploring the design space and constructing highly nonlinear crash functions. Two NMO strategies are used and results are compared. This paper demonstrates that with high performance computing, a conventionally intractable real world full vehicle multidisciplinary optimization problem considering all performance attributes with large number of design variables become feasible.

  11. Comparison of Two Multidisciplinary Optimization Strategies for Launch-Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, R. D.; Powell, R. W.; Lepsch, R. A.; Stanley, D. O.; Kroo, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation focuses on development of a rapid multidisciplinary analysis and optimization capability for launch-vehicle design. Two multidisciplinary optimization strategies in which the analyses are integrated in different manners are implemented and evaluated for solution of a single-stage-to-orbit launch-vehicle design problem. Weights and sizing, propulsion, and trajectory issues are directly addressed in each optimization process. Additionally, the need to maintain a consistent vehicle model across the disciplines is discussed. Both solution strategies were shown to obtain similar solutions from two different starting points. These solutions suggests that a dual-fuel, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle with a dry weight of approximately 1.927 x 10(exp 5)lb, gross liftoff weight of 2.165 x 10(exp 6)lb, and length of 181 ft is attainable. A comparison of the two approaches demonstrates that treatment or disciplinary coupling has a direct effect on optimization convergence and the required computational effort. In comparison with the first solution strategy, which is of the general form typically used within the launch vehicle design community at present, the second optimization approach is shown to he 3-4 times more computationally efficient.

  12. A Web-Based System for Monitoring and Controlling Multidisciplinary Design Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Andrea O.; Rogers, James L.

    1997-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, both industry and government agencies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of multidisciplinary design projects. A number of frameworks have been introduced to assist in this process by facilitating the integration of and communication among diverse disciplinary codes. An examination of current frameworks reveals weaknesses in various areas such as sequencing, displaying, monitoring, and controlling the design process. The objective of this research is to explore how Web technology, in conjunction with an existing framework, can improve these areas of weakness. This paper describes a system that executes a sequence of programs, monitors and controls the design process through a Web-based interface, and visualizes intermediate and final results through the use of Java(Tm) applets. A small sample problem, which includes nine processes with two analysis programs that are coupled to an optimizer, is used to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  13. A methodology towards virtualisation-based high performance simulation platform supporting multidisciplinary design of complex products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Lei; Zhang, Lin; Tao, Fei; (Luke) Zhang, Xiaolong; Luo, Yongliang; Zhang, Yabin

    2012-08-01

    Multidisciplinary design of complex products leads to an increasing demand for high performance simulation (HPS) platforms. One great challenge is how to achieve high efficient utilisation of large-scale simulation resources in distributed and heterogeneous environments. This article reports a virtualisation-based methodology to realise a HPS platform. This research is driven by the issues concerning large-scale simulation resources deployment and complex simulation environment construction, efficient and transparent utilisation of fine-grained simulation resources and high reliable simulation with fault tolerance. A framework of virtualisation-based simulation platform (VSIM) is first proposed. Then the article investigates and discusses key approaches in VSIM, including simulation resources modelling, a method to automatically deploying simulation resources for dynamic construction of system environment, and a live migration mechanism in case of faults in run-time simulation. Furthermore, the proposed methodology is applied to a multidisciplinary design system for aircraft virtual prototyping and some experiments are conducted. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology can (1) significantly improve the utilisation of fine-grained simulation resources, (2) result in a great reduction in deployment time and an increased flexibility for simulation environment construction and (3)achieve fault tolerant simulation.

  14. The Component Packaging Problem: A Vehicle for the Development of Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadel, Georges; Bridgewood, Michael; Figliola, Richard; Greenstein, Joel; Kostreva, Michael; Nowaczyk, Ronald; Stevenson, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes academic research which has resulted in an increased appreciation for multidisciplinary efforts among our students, colleagues and administrators. It has also generated a number of research ideas that emerged from the interaction between disciplines. Overall, 17 undergraduate students and 16 graduate students benefited directly from the NASA grant: an additional 11 graduate students were impacted and participated without financial support from NASA. The work resulted in 16 theses (with 7 to be completed in the near future), 67 papers or reports mostly published in 8 journals and/or presented at various conferences (a total of 83 papers, presentations and reports published based on NASA inspired or supported work). In addition, the faculty and students presented related work at many meetings, and continuing work has been proposed to NSF, the Army, Industry and other state and federal institutions to continue efforts in the direction of multidisciplinary and recently multi-objective design and analysis. The specific problem addressed is component packing which was solved as a multi-objective problem using iterative genetic algorithms and decomposition. Further testing and refinement of the methodology developed is presently under investigation. Teaming issues research and classes resulted in the publication of a web site, (http://design.eng.clemson.edu/psych4991) which provides pointers and techniques to interested parties. Specific advantages of using iterative genetic algorithms, hurdles faced and resolved, and institutional difficulties associated with multi-discipline teaming are described in some detail.

  15. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  16. A Multidisciplinary Osteoporosis Service-Based Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Dean; Keast, John; Montgomery, Val; Hayman, Sue

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate an existing Trust-based osteoporosis service's preventative activity, determine any issues and problems and use this data to reorganise the service, as part of a National Health Service Executive/Regional Office-commissioned and funded study. Setting: A UK Hospital Trust's Osteoporosis Service. Design & Method: A…

  17. Development of Response Surface Models for Rapid Analysis & Multidisciplinary Optimization of Launch Vehicle Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1999-01-01

    Multdisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the design and evaluation of launch vehicles, since it has a significant impact on performance and lifecycle cost. The objective in MDO is to search the design space to determine the values of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics subject to system constraints. Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) at NASA Langley Research Center has computerized analysis tools in many of the disciplines required for the design and analysis of launch vehicles. Vehicle performance characteristics can be determined by the use of these computerized analysis tools. The next step is to optimize the system performance characteristics subject to multidisciplinary constraints. However, most of the complex sizing and performance evaluation codes used for launch vehicle design are stand-alone tools, operated by disciplinary experts. They are, in general, difficult to integrate and use directly for MDO. An alternative has been to utilize response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain polynomial models that approximate the functional relationships between performance characteristics and design variables. These approximation models, called response surface models, are then used to integrate the disciplines using mathematical programming methods for efficient system level design analysis, MDO and fast sensitivity simulations. A second-order response surface model of the form given has been commonly used in RSM since in many cases it can provide an adequate approximation especially if the region of interest is sufficiently limited.

  18. Comparison of Response Surface and Kriging Models for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Timothy W.; Korte, John J.; Mauery, Timothy M.; Mistree, Farrokh

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we compare and contrast the use of second-order response surface models and kriging models for approximating non-random, deterministic computer analyses. After reviewing the response surface method for constructing polynomial approximations, kriging is presented as an alternative approximation method for the design and analysis of computer experiments. Both methods are applied to the multidisciplinary design of an aerospike nozzle which consists of a computational fluid dynamics model and a finite-element model. Error analysis of the response surface and kriging models is performed along with a graphical comparison of the approximations, and four optimization problems m formulated and solved using both sets of approximation models. The second-order response surface models and kriging models-using a constant underlying global model and a Gaussian correlation function-yield comparable results.

  19. Structural Model Tuning Capability in an Object-Oriented Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Shun-fat; Pak, Chan-gi

    2008-01-01

    Updating the finite element model using measured data is a challenging problem in the area of structural dynamics. The model updating process requires not only satisfactory correlations between analytical and experimental results, but also the retention of dynamic properties of structures. Accurate rigid body dynamics are important for flight control system design and aeroelastic trim analysis. Minimizing the difference between analytical and experimental results is a type of optimization problem. In this research, a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool is introduced to optimize the objective function and constraints such that the mass properties, the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes are matched to the target data as well as the mass matrix being orthogonalized.

  20. Structural Model Tuning Capability in an Object-Oriented Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Shun-fat; Pak, Chan-gi

    2008-01-01

    Updating the finite element model using measured data is a challenging problem in the area of structural dynamics. The model updating process requires not only satisfactory correlations between analytical and experimental results, but also the retention of dynamic properties of structures. Accurate rigid body dynamics are important for flight control system design and aeroelastic trim analysis. Minimizing the difference between analytical and experimental results is a type of optimization problem. In this research, a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization (MDAO) tool is introduced to optimize the objective function and constraints such that the mass properties, the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes are matched to the target data as well as the mass matrix being orthogonalized.

  1. Comparison of Response Surface and Kriging Models in the Multidisciplinary Design of an Aerospike Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Timothy W.

    1998-01-01

    The use of response surface models and kriging models are compared for approximating non-random, deterministic computer analyses. After discussing the traditional response surface approach for constructing polynomial models for approximation, kriging is presented as an alternative statistical-based approximation method for the design and analysis of computer experiments. Both approximation methods are applied to the multidisciplinary design and analysis of an aerospike nozzle which consists of a computational fluid dynamics model and a finite element analysis model. Error analysis of the response surface and kriging models is performed along with a graphical comparison of the approximations. Four optimization problems are formulated and solved using both approximation models. While neither approximation technique consistently outperforms the other in this example, the kriging models using only a constant for the underlying global model and a Gaussian correlation function perform as well as the second order polynomial response surface models.

  2. Multi-disciplinary competence assessment: a case study in consensus and culture.

    PubMed

    Landry, L Y

    1999-09-01

    The case of May Redwing, an American Indian woman assessed for competence is examined in detail. The case highlights the interconnections between the cultures of medicine and law and notes the importance of criteria of competence assessment, but also underscores the necessity of attention to the patient's cultural background in a multi-disciplinary competence assessment team process. Three interrelated areas of inquiry are explored: (1) Can we expect a morally and politically justifiable assessment of competence from a multi-disciplinary approach? (2) What pitfalls threaten a multi-disciplinary approach? and (3) How are the patient's cultural background and values relevant to a proper assessment of competence? These questions are investigated in the context of analyzing and evaluating a particularly difficult case. Although focused on a specific case, the study is instructive and cautionary for any group undertaking the challenges of multi-disciplinary competence assessment. PMID:10616320

  3. In Absentia: An Exploratory Study of How Patients Are Considered in Multidisciplinary Cancer Team Meetings

    PubMed Central

    Hahlweg, Pola; Hoffmann, Jana; Härter, Martin; Frosch, Dominick L; Elwyn, Glyn; Scholl, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary team meetings and shared decision-making are potential means of delivering patient-centred care. Not much is known about how those two paradigms fit together in cancer care. This study aimed to investigate how decisions are made in multidisciplinary team meetings and whether patient perspectives are incorporated in these decisions. Materials and Methods A qualitative study was conducted using non-participant observation at multidisciplinary team meetings (also called tumor boards) at the University Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. Two researchers recorded structured field notes from a total of N = 15 multidisciplinary team meetings. Data were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics. Results Physicians mainly exchanged medical information and based their decision-making on this information. Individual patient characteristics or their treatment preferences were rarely considered or discussed. In the few cases where patient preferences were raised as a topic, this information did not seem to be taken into account in decision-making processes about treatment recommendations. Conclusion The processes in multidisciplinary team meetings we observed did not exhibit shared decision-making. Patient perspectives were absent. If multidisciplinary team meetings wish to become more patient-centred they will have to modify their processes and find a way to include patient preferences into the decision-making process. PMID:26441328

  4. Multidisciplinary design optimisation of a recurve bow based on applications of the autogenetic design theory and distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Matthias; Kittel, Konstantin; Blankenburg, Alexander; Vajna, Sándor

    2012-08-01

    The focus of this paper is to present a method of multidisciplinary design optimisation based on the autogenetic design theory (ADT) that provides methods, which are partially implemented in the optimisation software described here. The main thesis of the ADT is that biological evolution and the process of developing products are mainly similar, i.e. procedures from biological evolution can be transferred into product development. In order to fulfil requirements and boundary conditions of any kind (that may change at any time), both biological evolution and product development look for appropriate solution possibilities in a certain area, and try to optimise those that are actually promising by varying parameters and combinations of these solutions. As the time necessary for multidisciplinary design optimisations is a critical aspect in product development, ways to distribute the optimisation process with the effective use of unused calculating capacity, can reduce the optimisation time drastically. Finally, a practical example shows how ADT methods and distributed optimising are applied to improve a product.

  5. Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization using discrete sensitivity analysis for geometrically complex aeroelastic configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, James Charles, III

    1997-10-01

    The first two steps in the development of an integrated multidisciplinary design optimization procedure capable of analyzing the nonlinear fluid flow about geometrically complex aeroelastic configurations have been accomplished in the present work. For the first step, a three-dimensional unstructured grid approach to aerodynamic shape sensitivity analysis and design optimization has been developed. The advantage of unstructured grids, when compared with a structured-grid approach, is their inherent ability to discretize irregularly shaped domains with greater efficiency and less effort. Hence, this approach is ideally suited for geometrically complex configurations of practical interest. In this work the time-dependent, nonlinear Euler equations are solved using an upwind, cell-centered, finite-volume scheme. The discrete, linearized systems which result from this scheme are solved iteratively by a preconditioned conjugate-gradient-like algorithm known as GMRES for the two-dimensional cases and a Gauss-Seidel algorithm for the three-dimensional; at steady-state, similar procedures are used to solve the accompanying linear aerodynamic sensitivity equations in incremental iterative form. As shown, this particular form of the sensitivity equation makes large-scale gradient-based aerodynamic optimization possible by taking advantage of memory efficient methods to construct exact Jacobian matrix-vector products. Various surface parameterization techniques have been employed in the current study to control the shape of the design surface. Once this surface has been deformed, the interior volume of the unstructured grid is adapted by considering the mesh as a system of interconnected tension springs. Grid sensitivities are obtained by differentiating the surface parameterization and the grid adaptation algorithms with ADIFOR, an advanced automatic-differentiation software tool. To demonstrate the ability of this procedure to analyze and design complex configurations of

  6. Designing eHealth that Matters via a Multidisciplinary Requirements Development Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wentzel, Jobke; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia EWC

    2013-01-01

    Background Requirements development is a crucial part of eHealth design. It entails all the activities devoted to requirements identification, the communication of requirements to other developers, and their evaluation. Currently, a requirements development approach geared towards the specifics of the eHealth domain is lacking. This is likely to result in a mismatch between the developed technology and end user characteristics, physical surroundings, and the organizational context of use. It also makes it hard to judge the quality of eHealth design, since it makes it difficult to gear evaluations of eHealth to the main goals it is supposed to serve. Objective In order to facilitate the creation of eHealth that matters, we present a practical, multidisciplinary requirements development approach which is embedded in a holistic design approach for eHealth (the Center for eHealth Research roadmap) that incorporates both human-centered design and business modeling. Methods Our requirements development approach consists of five phases. In the first, preparatory, phase the project team is composed and the overall goal(s) of the eHealth intervention are decided upon. Second, primary end users and other stakeholders are identified by means of audience segmentation techniques and our stakeholder identification method. Third, the designated context of use is mapped and end users are profiled by means of requirements elicitation methods (eg, interviews, focus groups, or observations). Fourth, stakeholder values and eHealth intervention requirements are distilled from data transcripts, which leads to phase five, in which requirements are communicated to other developers using a requirements notation template we developed specifically for the context of eHealth technologies. Results The end result of our requirements development approach for eHealth interventions is a design document which includes functional and non-functional requirements, a list of stakeholder values, and end

  7. Product Design Engineering--A Global Education Trend in Multidisciplinary Training for Creative Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering…

  8. The impact on sleep of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain management programme: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduced sleep quality is a common complaint among patients with chronic pain, with 50-80% of patients reporting sleep disturbance. Improvements in pain and quality of life measures have been achieved using a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programme (CBT-PMP) that aims to recondition attitudes to pain, and improve patients' self-management of their condition. Despite its high prevalence in patients with chronic pain, there is very limited objective evidence for the effect of this intervention on sleep quality. The primary research objective is to investigate the short-term effect of a multidisciplinary CBT-PMP on subjective (measured by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep quality (measured by Actigraphy) in patients with chronic pain by comparison with a control group. The secondary objectives will investigate changes in function and mood, and then explore the relationship between objective and subjective sleep quality and physical and psychological outcome measures. Methods/Design Patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria for attendance on the multidisciplinary CBT-PMP in the Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin and are currently listed on the PMP waiting list will be invited to participate in this pilot study. Potential patients will be screened for sleep disturbance [determined by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Those patients with a sleep disturbance (PSQI >5) will be assigned to either the intervention group (immediate treatment), or control group (deferred treatment, i.e. the PMP they are listed for is more than six months away) based on where they appear on the waiting list. Baseline measures of sleep, function, and mood will be obtained using a combination of self-report questionnaires (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form 36 health survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia), and functional outcome measures. Sleep will be

  9. Multidisciplinary design optimization of a human occupied vehicle based on Bi-Level integrated system collaborative optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Min; Cui, Wei-cheng; Li, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    The design of Human Occupied Vehicle (HOV) is a typical multidisciplinary problem, but heavily dependent on the experience of naval architects at present engineering design. In order to relieve the experience dependence and improve the design, a new Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) method "Bi-Level Integrated System Collaborative Optimization (BLISCO)" is applied to the conceptual design of an HOV, which consists of hull module, resistance module, energy module, structure module, weight module, and the stability module. This design problem is defined by 21 design variables and 23 constraints, and its objective is to maximize the ratio of payload to weight. The results show that the general performance of the HOV can be greatly improved by BLISCO.

  10. Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS), A database-driven multidisciplinary design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Bolukbasi, A. O.

    1989-01-01

    The Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS) system under development at McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company (MDHC) is targeted to make revolutionary improvements in both response time and resource efficiency in the conceptual and preliminary design of rotorcraft systems. It makes the accumulated design database and supporting technology analysis results readily available to designers and analysts of technology, systems, and production, and makes powerful design synthesis software available in a user friendly format.

  11. Computer-automated multi-disciplinary analysis and design optimization of internally cooled turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas Joseph

    This dissertation presents the theoretical methodology, organizational strategy, conceptual demonstration and validation of a fully automated computer program for the multi-disciplinary analysis, inverse design and optimization of convectively cooled axial gas turbine blades and vanes. Parametric computer models of the three-dimensional cooled turbine blades and vanes were developed, including the automatic generation of discretized computational grids. Several new analysis programs were written and incorporated with existing computational tools to provide computer models of the engine cycle, aero-thermodynamics, heat conduction and thermofluid physics of the internally cooled turbine blades and vanes. A generalized information transfer protocol was developed to provide the automatic mapping of geometric and boundary condition data between the parametric design tool and the numerical analysis programs. A constrained hybrid optimization algorithm controlled the overall operation of the system and guided the multi-disciplinary internal turbine cooling design process towards the objectives and constraints of engine cycle performance, aerodynamic efficiency, cooling effectiveness and turbine blade and vane durability. Several boundary element computer programs were written to solve the steady-state non-linear heat conduction equation inside the internally cooled and thermal barrier-coated turbine blades and vanes. The boundary element method (BEM) did not require grid generation inside the internally cooled turbine blades and vanes, so the parametric model was very robust. Implicit differentiations of the BEM thermal and thereto-elastic analyses were done to compute design sensitivity derivatives faster and more accurately than via explicit finite differencing. A factor of three savings of computer processing time was realized for two-dimensional thermal optimization problems, and a factor of twenty was obtained for three-dimensional thermal optimization problems

  12. Object-Oriented Multi-Disciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi

    2011-01-01

    An Object-Oriented Optimization (O3) tool was developed that leverages existing tools and practices, and allows the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. At the heart of the O3 tool is the Central Executive Module (CEM), which can integrate disparate software packages in a cross platform network environment so as to quickly perform optimization and design tasks in a cohesive, streamlined manner. This object-oriented framework can integrate the analysis codes for multiple disciplines instead of relying on one code to perform the analysis for all disciplines. The CEM was written in FORTRAN and the script commands for each performance index were submitted through the use of the FORTRAN Call System command. In this CEM, the user chooses an optimization methodology, defines objective and constraint functions from performance indices, and provides starting and side constraints for continuous as well as discrete design variables. The structural analysis modules such as computations of the structural weight, stress, deflection, buckling, and flutter and divergence speeds have been developed and incorporated into the O3 tool to build an object-oriented Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization (MDAO) tool.

  13. Design of a Model for a Professional Development Programme for a Multidisciplinary Science Subject in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Talitha C.; Coenders, Fer G. M.; Terlouw, Cees; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly integrating multidisciplinary education into their programmes. The Minister of Education, Culture and Science has introduced a new, integrated science subject in secondary education in the Netherlands, called Nature, Life and Technology (NLT). This research note describes the design of a generic model for a professional…

  14. Evolutionary methods for multidisciplinary optimization applied to the design of UAV systems†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, L. F.; Periaux, J.; Damp, L.; Srinivas, K.

    2007-10-01

    The implementation and use of a framework in which engineering optimization problems can be analysed are described. In the first part, the foundations of the framework and the hierarchical asynchronous parallel multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (HAPMOEAs) are presented. These are based upon evolution strategies and incorporate the concepts of multi-objective optimization, hierarchical topology, asynchronous evaluation of candidate solutions, and parallel computing. The methodology is presented first and the potential of HAPMOEAs for solving multi-criteria optimization problems is demonstrated on test case problems of increasing difficulty. In the second part of the article several recent applications of multi-objective and multidisciplinary optimization (MO) are described. These illustrate the capabilities of the framework and methodology for the design of UAV and UCAV systems. The application presented deals with a two-objective (drag and weight) UAV wing plan-form optimization. The basic concepts are refined and more sophisticated software and design tools with low- and high-fidelity CFD and FEA models are introduced. Various features described in the text are used to meet the challenge in optimization presented by these test cases.

  15. A Systematic Approach for Quantitative Analysis of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangho; Park, Jungkeun; Lee, Jeong-Oog; Lee, Jae-Woo

    An efficient Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) framework for an aerospace engineering system should use and integrate distributed resources such as various analysis codes, optimization codes, Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools, Data Base Management Systems (DBMS), etc. in a heterogeneous environment, and need to provide user-friendly graphical user interfaces. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach for determining a reference MDO framework and for evaluating MDO frameworks. The proposed approach incorporates two well-known methods, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD), in order to provide a quantitative analysis of the qualitative criteria of MDO frameworks. Identification and hierarchy of the framework requirements and the corresponding solutions for the reference MDO frameworks, the general one and the aircraft oriented one were carefully investigated. The reference frameworks were also quantitatively identified using AHP and QFD. An assessment of three in-house frameworks was then performed. The results produced clear and useful guidelines for improvement of the in-house MDO frameworks and showed the feasibility of the proposed approach for evaluating an MDO framework without a human interference.

  16. Multidisciplinary Modeling Software for Analysis, Design, and Optimization of HRRLS Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, Lawrence W.; Lohner, Rainald; Hunt, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The concept for Highly Reliable Reusable Launch Systems (HRRLS) under the NASA Hypersonics project is a two-stage-to-orbit, horizontal-take-off / horizontal-landing, (HTHL) architecture with an air-breathing first stage. The first stage vehicle is a slender body with an air-breathing propulsion system that is highly integrated with the airframe. The light weight slender body will deflect significantly during flight. This global deflection affects the flow over the vehicle and into the engine and thus the loads and moments on the vehicle. High-fidelity multi-disciplinary analyses that accounts for these fluid-structures-thermal interactions are required to accurately predict the vehicle loads and resultant response. These predictions of vehicle response to multi physics loads, calculated with fluid-structural-thermal interaction, are required in order to optimize the vehicle design over its full operating range. This contract with ResearchSouth addresses one of the primary objectives of the Vehicle Technology Integration (VTI) discipline: the development of high-fidelity multi-disciplinary analysis and optimization methods and tools for HRRLS vehicles. The primary goal of this effort is the development of an integrated software system that can be used for full-vehicle optimization. This goal was accomplished by: 1) integrating the master code, FEMAP, into the multidiscipline software network to direct the coupling to assure accurate fluid-structure-thermal interaction solutions; 2) loosely-coupling the Euler flow solver FEFLO to the available and proven aeroelasticity and large deformation (FEAP) code; 3) providing a coupled Euler-boundary layer capability for rapid viscous flow simulation; 4) developing and implementing improved Euler/RANS algorithms into the FEFLO CFD code to provide accurate shock capturing, skin friction, and heat-transfer predictions for HRRLS vehicles in hypersonic flow, 5) performing a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computation on an HRRLS

  17. Engineering Overview of a Multidisciplinary HSCT Design Framework Using Medium-Fidelity Analysis Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, R. P.; Green, L. L.; Salas, A. O.; Samareh, J. A.; Townsend, J. C.; Walsh, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    An objective of the HPCC Program at NASA Langley has been to promote the use of advanced computing techniques to more rapidly solve the problem of multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic transport configuration. As a result, a software system has been designed and is being implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them CPU-intensive, into a distributed computational framework for the design of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration. The proposed paper will describe the engineering aspects of integrating these analysis codes and additional interface codes into an automated design system. The objective of the design problem is to optimize the aircraft weight for given mission conditions, range, and payload requirements, subject to aerodynamic, structural, and performance constraints. The design variables include both thicknesses of structural elements and geometric parameters that define the external aircraft shape. An optimization model has been adopted that uses the multidisciplinary analysis results and the derivatives of the solution with respect to the design variables to formulate a linearized model that provides input to the CONMIN optimization code, which outputs new values for the design variables. The analysis process begins by deriving the updated geometries and grids from the baseline geometries and grids using the new values for the design variables. This free-form deformation approach provides internal FEM (finite element method) grids that are consistent with aerodynamic surface grids. The next step involves using the derived FEM and section properties in a weights process to calculate detailed weights and the center of gravity location for specified flight conditions. The weights process computes the as-built weight, weight distribution, and weight sensitivities for given aircraft configurations at various mass cases. Currently, two mass cases are considered: cruise and gross take-off weight (GTOW

  18. Proposal of a model for multidisciplinary treatment program of chronic migraine with medication overuse: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Grazzi, L; Prunesti, A; Bussone, G

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of patients with chronic migraine associated with medication overuse is challenging in clinical practice; different strategies of treatment have been recently developed, multidisciplinary treatment approaches have been developed in academic headache centers. Education and support of patients are necessary to improve patients' adherence to pharmacological treatments as well as to non-pharmacological therapies. This study reports a clinical experience conducted at our Headache center with a group of female patients, suffering from chronic migraine complicated by medication overuse, treated by a multidisciplinary approach and followed for a period of 1 year after withdrawal. Results confirm the efficacy of a multifaceted treatment to manage this problematic category of patients. PMID:26017536

  19. The suitability of selected multidisciplinary design and optimization techniques to conceptual aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Four methods for preliminary aerospace vehicle design are reviewed. The first three methods (classical optimization, system decomposition, and system sensitivity analysis (SSA)) employ numerical optimization techniques and numerical gradients to feed back changes in the design variables. The optimum solution is determined by stepping through a series of designs toward a final solution. Of these three, SSA is argued to be the most applicable to a large-scale highly coupled vehicle design where an accurate minimum of an objective function is required. With SSA, several tasks can be performed in parallel. The techniques of classical optimization and decomposition can be included in SSA, resulting in a very powerful design method. The Taguchi method is more of a 'smart' parametric design method that analyzes variable trends and interactions over designer specified ranges with a minimum of experimental analysis runs. Its advantages are its relative ease of use, ability to handle discrete variables, and ability to characterize the entire design space with a minimum of analysis runs.

  20. A Day at the Beach: A Multidisciplinary Business Law Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymsza, Leonard; Saunders, Kurt; Baum, Paul; Tontz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This case study, written for use in a multidisciplinary course, exposes students to concepts in business law, economics, and statistics. The case is based upon a hypothetical scenario involving a young woman who, having spent a relaxing day at the beach, heads for home. On the drive home, a flip-flop she is wearing becomes lodged under the gas…

  1. Multidisciplinary Case Study on Higher Education: An Innovative Experience in the Business Management Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Cañas, Ricardo; del Pozo-Rubio, Raúl; Mondéjar-Jiménez, José; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is constantly changing and looking for innovative educational solutions in order to increase the level of the student's knowledge and skills. As an important part of this set of educational policies, a new process is emerging for the ideation, planning and implementation of multidisciplinary case studies for students with the aim…

  2. Efficient Multidisciplinary Analysis Approach for Conceptual Design of Aircraft with Large Shape Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chwalowski, Pawel; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Horta, Lucas G.; Piatak, David J.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.

    2009-01-01

    The conceptual and preliminary design processes for aircraft with large shape changes are generally difficult and time-consuming, and the processes are often customized for a specific shape change concept to streamline the vehicle design effort. Accordingly, several existing reports show excellent results of assessing a particular shape change concept or perturbations of a concept. The goal of the current effort was to develop a multidisciplinary analysis tool and process that would enable an aircraft designer to assess several very different morphing concepts early in the design phase and yet obtain second-order performance results so that design decisions can be made with better confidence. The approach uses an efficient parametric model formulation that allows automatic model generation for systems undergoing radical shape changes as a function of aerodynamic parameters, geometry parameters, and shape change parameters. In contrast to other more self-contained approaches, the approach utilizes off-the-shelf analysis modules to reduce development time and to make it accessible to many users. Because the analysis is loosely coupled, discipline modules like a multibody code can be easily swapped for other modules with similar capabilities. One of the advantages of this loosely coupled system is the ability to use the medium- to high-fidelity tools early in the design stages when the information can significantly influence and improve overall vehicle design. Data transfer among the analysis modules are based on an accurate and automated general purpose data transfer tool. In general, setup time for the integrated system presented in this paper is 2-4 days for simple shape change concepts and 1-2 weeks for more mechanically complicated concepts. Some of the key elements briefly described in the paper include parametric model development, aerodynamic database generation, multibody analysis, and the required software modules as well as examples for a telescoping wing

  3. Barriers and facilitators to implement shared decision making in multidisciplinary sciatica care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dutch multidisciplinary sciatica guideline recommends that the team of professionals involved in sciatica care and the patient together decide on surgical or prolonged conservative treatment (shared decision making [SDM]). Despite this recommendation, SDM is not yet integrated in sciatica care. Existing literature concerning barriers and facilitators to SDM implementation mainly focuses on one discipline only, whereas multidisciplinary care may involve other barriers and facilitators, or make these more complex for both professionals and patients. Therefore, this qualitative study aims to identify barriers and facilitators perceived by patients and professionals for SDM implementation in multidisciplinary sciatica care. Methods We conducted 40 semi-structured interviews with professionals involved in sciatica care (general practitioners, physical therapists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and orthopedic surgeons) and three focus groups among patients (six to eight per group). The interviews and focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed in full. Reported barriers and facilitators were classified according to the framework of Grol and Wensing. The software package Atlas.ti 7.0 was used for analysis. Results Professionals reported 53 barriers and 5 facilitators, and patients 35 barriers and 18 facilitators for SDM in sciatica care. Professionals perceived most barriers at the level of the organizational context, and facilitators at the level of the individual professional. Patients reported most barriers and facilitators at the level of the individual professional. Several barriers and facilitators correspond with barriers and facilitators found in the literature (e.g., lack of time, motivation) but also new barriers and facilitators were identified. Many of these new barriers mentioned by both professionals and patients were related to the multidisciplinary setting, such as lack of visibility, lack of trust in expertise of other disciplines, and lack

  4. Multidisciplinary cancer care in Spain, or when the function creates the organ: qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Spanish National Health System recognised multidisciplinary care as a health priority in 2006, when a national strategy for promoting quality in cancer care was first published. This institutional effort is being implemented on a co-operative basis within the context of Spain's decentralised health care system, so a high degree of variability is to be expected. This study was aimed to explore the views of professionals working with multidisciplinary cancer teams and identify which barriers to effective team work should be considered to ensure implementation of health policy. Methods Qualitative interview study with semi-structured, one-to-one interviews. Data were examined inductively, using content analysis to generate categories and an explanatory framework. 39 professionals performing their tasks, wholly or in part, in different multidisciplinary cancer teams were interviewed. The breakdown of participants' medical specialisations was as follows: medical oncologists (n = 10); radiation oncologists (n = 8); surgeons (n = 7); pathologists or radiologists (n = 6); oncology nurses (n = 5); and others (n = 3). Results Teams could be classified into three models of professional co-operation in multidisciplinary cancer care, namely, advisory committee, formal co-adaptation and integrated care process. The following barriers to implementation were posed: existence of different gateways for the same patient profile; variability in development and use of clinical protocols and guidelines; role of the hospital executive board; outcomes assessment; and the recording and documenting of clinical decisions in a multidisciplinary team setting. All these play a key role in the development of cancer teams and their ability to improve quality of care. Conclusion Cancer team development results from an specific adaptation to the hospital environment. Nevertheless, health policy plays an important role in promoting an organisational approach that changes the way in

  5. The effect of multidisciplinary rehabilitation on brain structure and cognition in Huntington's disease: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, Travis M; Thompson, Jennifer A; Domínguez D, Juan F; Reyes, Alvaro P; Bynevelt, Mike; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Barker, Roger A; Ziman, Mel R

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a wealth of evidence detailing gray matter degeneration and loss of cognitive function over time in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). Efforts to attenuate disease-related brain and cognitive changes have been unsuccessful to date. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation, comprising motor and cognitive intervention, has been shown to positively impact on functional capacity, depression, quality of life and some aspects of cognition in individuals with HD. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate, for the first time, whether multidisciplinary rehabilitation can slow further deterioration of disease-related brain changes and related cognitive deficits in individuals with manifest HD. Methods Fifteen participants who manifest HD undertook a multidisciplinary rehabilitation intervention spanning 9 months. The intervention consisted of once-weekly supervised clinical exercise, thrice-weekly self-directed home based exercise and fortnightly occupational therapy. Participants were assessed using MR imaging and validated cognitive measures at baseline and after 9 months. Results Participants displayed significantly increased gray matter volume in the right caudate and bilaterally in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after 9 months of multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Volumetric increases in gray matter were accompanied by significant improvements in verbal learning and memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning-Test). A significant association was found between gray matter volume increases in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and performance on verbal learning and memory. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that multidisciplinary rehabilitation positively impacts on gray matter changes and cognitive functions relating to verbal learning and memory in individuals with manifest HD. Larger controlled trials are required to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:25642394

  6. Predictors of outcome of multidisciplinary treatment in chronic widespread pain: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of multidisciplinary treatment in chronic widespread pain (CWP) is limited. The considerable heterogeneity among patients is a likely explanation. Knowledge on predictors of the outcome of multidisciplinary treatment can help to optimize treatment effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of multidisciplinary treatment outcome in patients with CWP. Methods Data were used from baseline and 6 months follow-up measurements of a prospective cohort study of 120 CWP. Regression models were used to assess whether baseline variables predicted treatment outcome. Outcome domains included: pain, pain interference, depression, and global perceived effect (GPE). Potential predictors included: psychological distress, illness and self-efficacy beliefs, fear-avoidance beliefs and behaviour, symptoms, disability, and socio-demographic factors. Results Greater improvement in pain was predicted by more pain at baseline and male gender. Greater improvement in interference of pain in daily life was predicted by more interference of pain in daily life at baseline, lower levels of anxiety, a stronger belief in personal control, less belief in consequences, male gender, and a higher level of education. Greater improvement in depression was predicted by higher baseline values of depression, stronger beliefs in personal control, and a higher level of education. Better outcome on GPE was predicted by less pain, less fatigue, and a higher level of education. Conclusion Less anxiety, stronger beliefs in personal control, less belief in consequences, less pain, less fatigue, higher level of education, and male gender are predictors of better outcome of multidisciplinary treatment in CWP. Tailoring treatment to these specific patient characteristics or selecting eligible patients for multidisciplinary treatment may further improve treatment outcome. PMID:23577981

  7. Collaboration in a Multidisciplinary, Distributed Research Organization: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duysburgh, Pieter; Naessens, Kris; Konings, Wim; Jacobs, An

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration has become a main characteristic of academic research today. New forms of research organizations, colaboratories, have come to the fore, with distributed research centres as their most complex example. In this study, we aim to provide some insight into the collaboration strategies of researchers in their daily researching activities…

  8. Multidisciplinary Procedures for Designing Housing Adaptations for People with Mobility Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sukkay, Sasicha

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 2013 statistic published by Thai with Disability foundation, five percent of Thailand's population are disabled people. Six hundred thousand of them have mobility disability, and the number is increasing every year. To support them, the Thai government has implemented a number of disability laws and policies. One of the policies is to better disabled people's quality of life by adapting their houses to facilitate their activities. However, the policy has not been fully realized yet-there is still no specific guideline for housing adaptation for people with disabilities. This study is an attempt to address the lack of standardized criteria for such adaptation by developing a number of effective ones. Our development had 3 objectives: first, to identify the body functioning of a group of people with mobility disability according to the international classification functioning concept (ICF); second, to perform post-occupancy evaluation of this group and their houses; and third, with the collected data, to have a group of multidisciplinary experts cooperatively develop criteria for housing adaptation. The major findings were that room dimensions and furniture materials really had an impact on accessibility and toilet as well as bed room were the most difficult areas to access. PMID:27534326

  9. A multidisciplinary study on Palaeozoic rocks of southern Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, G.; Howard, J.; Le Heron, D. P.; Morton, A.; Abutarruma, Y.; Elgadry, M.; Phillips, R. J.; Strogen, D.; Thusu, B.; Whitham, A.

    2009-04-01

    Southern Libya is dominated by the intracratonic Murzuq and Kufra basins, separated by the Tibesti Massif. The Murzuq Basin, located in southwest Libya, extends into northwestern Chad, northern Niger and eastern Algeria and has been the focus of great interest for gas and oil exploration in recent years since the discovery of the El Sharara and the NC-174 (Elephant) fields in the western Murzuq Basin. Based on these discoveries, recent focus has shifted to the Kufra Basin, in southeast Libya, which extends into northern Chad, northwestern Sudan and straddles the border with Egypt. Although, the centre of the Murzuq Basin has been relatively well investigated by drilling and seismic profiles, the basin margins, however, lack a detailed geological investigation. In comparison, the Kufra Basin is underexplored with few boreholes drilled. Our studies focus on the eastern margin of the Murzuq Basin and the northern, eastern and western flanks of the Kufra Basin. Siliciclastic sediments of Infracambrian to Carboniferous age dominate the studied areas. Our objectives were to characterise the Infracambrian-Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy, deduce the structural evolution of each study area, and to collect samples for follow-up analyses including provenance studies and biostratigraphy. In addition to outcrop-based fieldwork shallow boreholes up to 50 m depth were successfully drilled in the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation: a major hydrocarbon source rock unit in North Africa. The unweathered mudstones retrieved from one of the boreholes are rich in organic matter and have been used for biostratigraphical and geochemical investigations. The provenance study of the sandstone succession with heavy mineral analysis together with U-Pb zircon dating provides, for the first time, an understanding of the ancient source areas. Moreover, it is a useful test of the stratigraphic framework where biostratigraphic data are scarce. New data from this study are expected to lead to new

  10. Web Search Studies: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Web Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Michael

    Perhaps the most significant tool of our internet age is the web search engine, providing a powerful interface for accessing the vast amount of information available on the world wide web and beyond. While still in its infancy compared to the knowledge tools that precede it - such as the dictionary or encyclopedia - the impact of web search engines on society and culture has already received considerable attention from a variety of academic disciplines and perspectives. This article aims to organize a meta-discipline of “web search studies,” centered around a nucleus of major research on web search engines from five key perspectives: technical foundations and evaluations; transaction log analyses; user studies; political, ethical, and cultural critiques; and legal and policy analyses.

  11. Multidisciplinary benefits from biomonitoring studies of cooling reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.; Gladden, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Therefore, biomonitoring studies of once-through cooling reservoirs for nuclear reactors not only provide field and laboratory information for environmental compliance, but also offer results which benefit lake and reservoir management constructs and limnetic community ecology. Biomonitoring programs have been performed at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site to provide information fro compliance with Section 316a of the Clean Water Act. On Par Pond and Pond B comprehensive field efforts monitored nutrient chemistry, plankton populations, fisheries, benthic assemblages, and littoral zone biota from 1983 through 1985. A similar effort, begun in 1985 and continuing through 1992, is in progress on L Lake. Results have indicated that nonplanned whole-basin manipulations and the comprehensive intensity of monitoring studies offer new insights into how limnetic communities function.

  12. Multidisciplinary benefits from biomonitoring studies of cooling reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.; Gladden, J.B.

    1990-12-31

    Therefore, biomonitoring studies of once-through cooling reservoirs for nuclear reactors not only provide field and laboratory information for environmental compliance, but also offer results which benefit lake and reservoir management constructs and limnetic community ecology. Biomonitoring programs have been performed at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site to provide information fro compliance with Section 316a of the Clean Water Act. On Par Pond and Pond B comprehensive field efforts monitored nutrient chemistry, plankton populations, fisheries, benthic assemblages, and littoral zone biota from 1983 through 1985. A similar effort, begun in 1985 and continuing through 1992, is in progress on L Lake. Results have indicated that nonplanned whole-basin manipulations and the comprehensive intensity of monitoring studies offer new insights into how limnetic communities function.

  13. Ecological and sociological considerations of wind energy: A multidisciplinary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicknell, Lucas John

    Wind energy is quickly becoming a critical technology for providing Americans with renewable energy, and rapid construction of wind facilities may have impacts on both wildlife and human communities. Understanding both the social and ecological issues related to wind energy development could provide a framework for effectively meeting human energy needs while conserving species biodiversity. In this research I looked at two aspects of wind energy development: public attitudes toward wind energy development and wind facility impacts on local bat populations. These papers present aspects of wind energy development that have been the subject of increasing study. This preliminary research is intended to demonstrate the responsibility we have to making well-informed decisions as we continue to expand wind energy development. Additionally, I hope to generate interest in interdisciplinary study as a means to broaden the scope of research by making use of the diverse tools available within different disciplines.

  14. The Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research. Final Report, Part IV; The Utilization of Sociological Ideas in Organizational Planning: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Ed.

    This document, the fourth in the final report on the Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research, is a qualitative case study designed to show the form of sociological contributions to and the role of sociologists in policy formulation at an American Educational Research Association (AERA) colloquium. Discussions at the conference…

  15. A Multidisciplinary Study of the DPRK Nuclear Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carluccio, R.; Giuntini, A.; Materni, V.; Chiappini, S.; Bignami, C.; D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Pignatelli, A.; Stramondo, S.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.

    2014-03-01

    The Democratic People Republic of Korea announced two underground nuclear tests carried out in their territory respectively on October 9th, 2006 and May 25th, 2009. The scarce information on the precise location and the size of those explosions has stimulated various kinds of studies, mostly based on seismological observations, by several national agencies concerned with the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification. We analysed the available seismological data collected through a global high-quality network for the two tests. After picking up the arrival times at the various stations, a standard location program has been applied to the observed data. If we use all the available data for each single event, due to the different magnitude and different number of available stations, the locations appear quite different. On the contrary, if we use only the common stations, they happen to be only few km apart from each other and within their respective error ellipses. A more accurate relative location has been carried out by the application of algorithms such as double difference joint hypocenter determination (DDJHD) and waveform alignment. The epicentral distance between the two events obtained by these methods is 2 km, with the 2006 event shifted to the ESE with respect to that of 2009. We then used a dataset of VHR TerraSAR-X satellite images to detect possible surface effects of the underground tests. This is the first ever case where these highly performing SAR data have been used to such aim. We applied InSAR processing technique to fully exploit the capabilities of SAR data to measure very short displacements over large areas. Two interferograms have been computed, one co-event and one post-event, to remove possible residual topographic signals. A clear displacement pattern has been highlighted over a mountainous area within the investigated region, measuring a maximum displacement of about 45 mm overall the relief. Hypothesizing that the 2009 nuclear test had been

  16. Multidisciplinary team decision-making in cancer and the absent patient: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D W; Heaven, B; Thomson, R G; Wilson, J A; Exley, C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To critically examine the process of multidisciplinary team (MDT) decision-making with a particular focus on patient involvement. Design Ethnographic study using direct non-participant observation of 35 MDT meetings and 37 MDT clinics, informal interviews and formal, semistructured interviews with 20 patients and 9 MDT staff members. Setting Three head and neck cancer centres in the north of England. Participants Patients with a diagnosis of new or recurrent head and neck cancer and staff members who attend the head and neck cancer MDT. Results Individual members of the MDT often have a clear view of which treatment they consider to be ‘best’ in any clinical situation. When disagreement occurs, the MDT has to manage how it presents this difference of opinion to the patient. First, this is because the MDT members recognise that the clinician selected to present the treatment choice to the patient may ‘frame’ their description of the treatment options to fit their own view of best. Second, many MDT members feel that any disagreement and difference of opinion in the MDT meeting should be concealed from the patient. This leads to much of the work of decision-making occurring in the MDT meeting, thus excluding the patient. MDT members seek to counteract this by introducing increasing amounts of information about the patient into the MDT meeting, thus creating an ‘evidential patient’. Often, only highly selected or very limited information of this type can be available or known and it can easily be selectively reported in order to steer the discussion in a particular direction. Conclusions The process of MDT decision-making presents significant barriers to effective patient involvement. If patients are to be effectively involved in cancer decision-making, the process of MDT decision-making needs substantial review. PMID:27443554

  17. A preliminary study of the effectiveness of an otolaryngology-based multidisciplinary falls prevention clinic.

    PubMed

    Alvord, Lynn S; Benninger, Michael S; Stach, Brad A

    2008-09-01

    Because the cause of falls is often multifactorial, efforts to identify risk factors and promote prevention would benefit from a multidisciplinary approach in which the contributions of a broad range of body systems are considered. We describe the practices and procedures followed at the otolaryngology-based multidisciplinary Falls Prevention Clinic at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. Our team is made up of an otolaryngologist, an audiologist, an internist, and a physical therapist. Our multidisciplinary approach involves evaluations of vestibular and balance function, cardiovascular function, and visual function; lower-extremity strength and sensation; cognition and mood; and medication use. We also assess a number of nonmedical risk factors. Evaluations are made over the course of two clinic visits. To assess the effectiveness of our approach, we conducted a preliminary study based on chart reviews and telephone interviews of 52 patients who had been referred to our clinic for evaluation and counseling. The basis of our study was a comparison of the number of falls that patients had experienced during the 6 months prior to their first visit to our clinic and the number of falls they experienced during the 6 months after their second visit. We found that among "true fallers" (i.e., those who had actually experienced a fall at some point during the study), 64.7% reported that they had experienced fewer falls after their clinic visits than before (p < 0.001). Also, 59.1% of patients who had been "frequent fallers" prior to their clinic evaluation (i.e., >or=3 falls during the previous 6 mo) reported that they had not fallen at all during the 6 months following their last visit. Finally, our evaluations identified a substantial number of risk factors in individual patients that had been missed previously, including many nonvestibular factors that might not have been detected without a multidisciplinary approach. We conclude that the results of this preliminary study

  18. Effectiveness of a multidisciplinary care program on recovery and return to work of patients after gynaecological surgery; design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Return to work after gynaecological surgery takes much longer than expected, irrespective of the level of invasiveness. In order to empower patients in recovery and return to work, a multidisciplinary care program consisting of an e-health intervention and integrated care management including participatory workplace intervention was developed. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of the multidisciplinary care program on full sustainable return to work in patients after gynaecological surgery, compared to usual clinical care. Two hundred twelve women (18-65 years old) undergoing hysterectomy and/or laparoscopic adnexal surgery on benign indication in one of the 7 participating (university) hospitals in the Netherlands are expected to take part in this study at baseline. The primary outcome measure is sick leave duration until full sustainable return to work and is measured by a monthly calendar of sickness absence during 26 weeks after surgery. Secondary outcome measures are the effect of the care program on general recovery, quality of life, pain intensity and complications, and are assessed using questionnaires at baseline, 2, 6, 12 and 26 weeks after surgery. Discussion The discrepancy between expected physical recovery and actual return to work after gynaecological surgery contributes to the relevance of this study. There is strong evidence that long periods of sick leave can result in work disability, poorer general health and increased risk of mental health problems. We expect that this multidisciplinary care program will improve peri-operative care, contribute to a faster return to work of patients after gynaecological surgery and, as a consequence, will reduce societal costs considerably. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2087 PMID:22296950

  19. Multidisciplinary team malfunctioning on a state hospital unit: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E A; Ruiz, P; Langrod, J

    1980-01-01

    The use of multidisciplinary teams in the care of psychiatric patients can be countertherapeutic unless attention is paid to the dynamics of team functioning. The authors present a case study of team malfunctioning on an inpatient unit in a state hospital that resulted from staff's role confusion and insecurity. Patient care was relegated to second place as major interpersonal conflicts among the staff were played out along ethnic and cultural lines. Resolution of the conflicts required identifying their source, clarifying staff roles, and initiating a special inservice training program focused primarily on the needs of paraprofessional staff. PMID:7353821

  20. Effect of a Multidisciplinary Outpatient Model of Care on Health Outcomes in Older Patients with Multimorbidity: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shakib, Sepehr; Dundon, Benjamin K.; Maddison, John; Thomas, Josephine; Stanners, Melinda; Caughey, Gillian E.; Clark, Robyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a holistic multidisciplinary outpatient model of care on hospital readmission, length of stay and mortality in older patients with multimorbidity following discharge from hospital. Design and Participants A pilot case-control study between March 2006 and June 2009 of patients referred on discharge to a multidisciplinary, integrated outpatient model of care that includes outpatient follow-up, timely GP communication and dial-in service compared with usual care following discharge, within a metropolitan, tertiary referral, public teaching hospital. Controls were matched in a 4:1 ratio with cases for age, gender, index admission diagnosis and length of stay. Main outcome measures Non-elective readmission rates, total readmission length of stay and overall survival. Results A total of 252 cases and 1008 control patients were included in the study. Despite the patients referred to the multidisciplinary model of care had slightly more comorbid conditions, significantly higher total length of hospital stay in the previous 12 months and increased prevalence of diabetes and heart failure by comparison to those who received usual care, they had significantly improved survival (adjusted hazard ratio 0.70 95% CI 0.51–0.96, p = 0.029) and no excess in the number of hospitalisations observed. Conclusion Following discharge from hospital, holistic multidisciplinary outpatient management is associated with improved survival in older patients with multimorbidity. The findings of this study warrant further examination in randomised and cost-effectiveness trials. PMID:27537395

  1. Effects of a One Year Intensive Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Huntington’s Disease: a Prospective Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Piira, Anu; van Walsem, Marleen R.; Mikalsen, Geir; Nilsen, Kjell Haavik; Knutsen, Synnove; Frich, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of an intensive, multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for patients with early to mid-stage Huntington’s disease. Design: A prospective intervention study. Setting: Two Norwegian inpatient rehabilitation centers. Subjects: 37 patients, with early- to midstage Huntington’s disease Interventions: A one year rehabilitation program, consisting of three admissions of three weeks each, and a five-day evaluation stay approximately 3 months after the last rehabilitation admission. Focus was on physical exercise, social activities, and group/teaching sessions. There was also emphasis to implement of coordinated health care and social services for the patients. Main outcome measures: standard measures for motor function, including gait and balance, cognitive function, including MMSE and UHDRS cognitive assessment, anxiety and depression, activities of daily living (ADL), health related quality of life and Body Mass Index (BMI). Results: Significant improvements were observed in gait function, balance, in physical quality of life, anxiety and depression, as well as in BMI. ADL-function remained stable with no significant decline. Only one cognitive measure (SDMT) showed significant decline, while no decline was observed for the remaining cognitive measures. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation program in patients with early and mid stage HD is associated with improved balance, gait function, physical quality of life and with reduced depressive and anxiety symptoms. Longer follow-up is needed to assess if these positive effects are sustained. There should be emphasis to establishment of long term and coordinated health care services for the HD patient PMID:24459605

  2. Multidisciplinary Care.

    PubMed

    Daly, Megan E; Riess, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Optimal multidisciplinary care of the lung cancer patient at all stages should encompass integration of the key relevant medical specialties, including not only medical, surgical, and radiation oncology, but also pulmonology, interventional and diagnostic radiology, pathology, palliative care, and supportive services such as physical therapy, case management, smoking cessation, and nutrition. Multidisciplinary management starts at staging and tissue diagnosis with pathologic and molecular phenotyping, extends through selection of a treatment modality or modalities, management of treatment and cancer-related symptoms, and to survivorship and end-of-life care. Well-integrated multidisciplinary care may reduce treatment delays, improve cancer-specific outcomes, and enhance quality of life. We address key topics and areas of ongoing investigation in multidisciplinary decision making at each stage of the lung cancer treatment course for early-stage, locally advanced, and metastatic lung cancer patients. PMID:27535399

  3. Unstructured Finite Volume Computational Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Method for Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Schallhorn, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a finite volume computational thermo-fluid dynamics method to solve for Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with energy equation and thermodynamic equation of state in an unstructured coordinate system. The system of equations have been solved by a simultaneous Newton-Raphson method and compared with several benchmark solutions. Excellent agreements have been obtained in each case and the method has been found to be significantly faster than conventional Computational Fluid Dynamic(CFD) methods and therefore has the potential for implementation in Multi-Disciplinary analysis and design optimization in fluid and thermal systems. The paper also describes an algorithm of design optimization based on Newton-Raphson method which has been recently tested in a turbomachinery application.

  4. Observations on computational methodologies for use in large-scale, gradient-based, multidisciplinary design incorporating advanced CFD codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Hou, G. J.-W.; Jones, H. E.; Taylor, A. C., III; Korivi, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    How a combination of various computational methodologies could reduce the enormous computational costs envisioned in using advanced CFD codes in gradient based optimized multidisciplinary design (MdD) procedures is briefly outlined. Implications of these MdD requirements upon advanced CFD codes are somewhat different than those imposed by a single discipline design. A means for satisfying these MdD requirements for gradient information is presented which appear to permit: (1) some leeway in the CFD solution algorithms which can be used; (2) an extension to 3-D problems; and (3) straightforward use of other computational methodologies. Many of these observations have previously been discussed as possibilities for doing parts of the problem more efficiently; the contribution here is observing how they fit together in a mutually beneficial way.

  5. A Simple Tool for the Design and Analysis of Multiple-Reflector Antennas in a Multi-Disciplinary Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.; Borgioli, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    The process of designing and analyzing a multiple-reflector system has traditionally been time-intensive, requiring large amounts of both computational and human time. At many frequencies, a discrete approximation of the radiation integral may be used to model the system. The code which implements this physical optics (PO) algorithm was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It analyzes systems of antennas in pairs, and for each pair, the analysis can be computationally time-consuming. Additionally, the antennas must be described using a local coordinate system for each antenna, which makes it difficult to integrate the design into a multi-disciplinary framework in which there is traditionally one global coordinate system, even before considering deforming the antenna as prescribed by external structural and/or thermal factors. Finally, setting up the code to correctly analyze all the antenna pairs in the system can take a fair amount of time, and introduces possible human error. The use of parallel computing to reduce the computational time required for the analysis of a given pair of antennas has been previously discussed. This paper focuses on the other problems mentioned above. It will present a methodology and examples of use of an automated tool that performs the analysis of a complete multiple-reflector system in an integrated multi-disciplinary environment (including CAD modeling, and structural and thermal analysis) at the click of a button. This tool, named MOD Tool (Millimeter-wave Optics Design Tool), has been designed and implemented as a distributed tool, with a client that runs almost identically on Unix, Mac, and Windows platforms, and a server that runs primarily on a Unix workstation and can interact with parallel supercomputers with simple instruction from the user interacting with the client.

  6. Assessing Students' Understanding of Human Behavior: A Multidisciplinary Outcomes Based Approach for the Design and Assessment of an Academic Program Goal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Bruce; Meese, Michael J.; Efflandt, Scott; Malinowski, Jon C.; LeBoeuf, Joseph; Gallagher, Martha; Hurley, John; Green, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Presents a strategy for the curricular design and assessment of one multidisciplinary program goal: understanding human behavior. Discusses how to assess a desired outcome based on four specific areas: (1) organizational context; (2) articulation of a learning model; (3) program design and implementation; and (4) outcomes assessment. (Author/KDR)

  7. Multidisciplinary optimization for the design and control of uncertain dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Srikanth

    This dissertation considers an integrated approach to system design and controller design based on analyzing limits of system performance. Historically, plant design methodologies have not incorporated control relevant considerations. Such an approach could result in a system that might not meet its specifications (or one that requires a complex control architecture to do so). System and controller designers often go through several iterations in order to converge to an acceptable plant and controller design. The focus of this dissertation is on the design and control an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle using such an integrated system-control design framework. The goal is to reduce the number of system-control design iterations (by explicitly incorporate control considerations in the system design process), as well as to influence the guidance/trajectory specifications for the system. Due to the high computational costs associated with obtaining a dynamic model for each plant configuration considered, approximations to the system dynamics are used in the control design process. By formulating the control design problem using bilinear and polynomial matrix inequalities, several common control and system design constraints can be simultaneously incorporated into a vehicle design optimization. Several design problems are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach (and to compare the computational burden of this methodology against more traditional approaches).

  8. A Case Study of a Co-Instructed Multidisciplinary Senior Capstone Project in Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jinny; Oyamot, Clifton; Parent, David; Speer, Leslie; Basu, Anuradha; Gerston, Larry

    2014-01-01

    As societal challenges involving sustainable development increase, the need to effectively integrate this inherently multidisciplinary topic into existing curricula becomes more pressing. Multidisciplinary, team-taught, project-based instruction has shown effectiveness in teaching teamwork, communication, and life-long learning skills, and…

  9. Familial testicular germ cell tumors (FTGCT) - overview of a multidisciplinary etiologic study.

    PubMed

    Greene, M H; Mai, P L; Loud, J T; Pathak, A; Peters, J A; Mirabello, L; McMaster, M L; Rosenberg, P; Stewart, D R

    2015-01-01

    This Review summarizes the cumulative results of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Genetics Branch Multidisciplinary Etiologic Study of Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumors (FTGCT). Initiated 12 years ago, this protocol enrolled 724 subjects from 147 unrelated families with either ≥2 affected men (n = 90) with TGCT or a proband with bilateral TGCT and a negative family history for this cancer (n = 57). Data were collected directly from 162 subjects evaluated at the NIH Clinical Center, and 562 subjects provided information from their home communities (Field Cohort). The primary study aims included (i) ascertaining, enrolling eligible FTGCT kindred, (ii) characterizing the clinical phenotype of multiple-case families, (iii) identifying the underlying genetic mechanism for TGCT susceptibility in families, (iv) evaluating counseling, psychosocial, and behavioral issues resulting from membership in an FTGCT family, and (v) creating an annotated biospecimen repository to permit subsequent translational research studies. Noteworthy findings include (i) documenting the epidemiologic similarities between familial and sporadic TGCT, (ii) demonstrating significantly younger age-at-diagnosis for familial vs. sporadic TGCT, (iii) absence of a dysmorphic phenotype in affected family members, (iv) shifting the focus of gene discovery from a search for rare, highly penetrant susceptibility variants to the hypothesis that multiple, more common, lower penetrance genes underlie TGCT genetic risk, (v) implicating testicular microlithiasis in FTGCT risk, and (vi) observing that aberrant methylation may contribute to FTGCT risk. A clinically based, biospecimen-intensive, multidisciplinary research strategy has provided novel, valuable insights into the etiology of FTGCT, and created a research resource which will support FTGCT clinical and laboratory studies for years to come. PMID:25303766

  10. Methodology for Sensitivity Analysis, Approximate Analysis, and Design Optimization in CFD for Multidisciplinary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.

    1996-01-01

    An incremental iterative formulation together with the well-known spatially split approximate-factorization algorithm, is presented for solving the large, sparse systems of linear equations that are associated with aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. This formulation is also known as the 'delta' or 'correction' form. For the smaller two dimensional problems, a direct method can be applied to solve these linear equations in either the standard or the incremental form, in which case the two are equivalent. However, iterative methods are needed for larger two-dimensional and three dimensional applications because direct methods require more computer memory than is currently available. Iterative methods for solving these equations in the standard form are generally unsatisfactory due to an ill-conditioned coefficient matrix; this problem is overcome when these equations are cast in the incremental form. The methodology is successfully implemented and tested using an upwind cell-centered finite-volume formulation applied in two dimensions to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations for external flow over an airfoil. In three dimensions this methodology is demonstrated with a marching-solution algorithm for the Euler equations to calculate supersonic flow over the High-Speed Civil Transport configuration (HSCT 24E). The sensitivity derivatives obtained with the incremental iterative method from a marching Euler code are used in a design-improvement study of the HSCT configuration that involves thickness. camber, and planform design variables.

  11. Historical desertification of the Mu Us Desert, Northern China: A multidisciplinary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yinzhou; Wang, Nai-ang; He, Tonghui; Chen, Hongyi; Zhao, Liqiang

    2009-09-01

    The problem of historical desertification of the Mu Us desert, northern China has been paid considerable attention during the past several decades. Through the analysis of stratigraphic evidence, historical records and archaeological discoveries, this paper studied the problem using a multidisciplinary approach. The results show that two phases of serious desertification occurred during the last two millennia, one is during the mid-to-late Tang dynasty (about A.D. 800) and the other during the late Ming dynasty (about A.D. 1500-1600). Further investigation of the cause of each phase of desertification demonstrates that the former phase of desertification is closely related to abrupt climate change occurring in the mid-eighth century, but the latter, which started during the Ming dynasty and stopped at late 1980s, is not consistent with climatic causation. Therefore, we suggest that human activities contributed to the development of the latter phase of desertification.

  12. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Aeropropulsion Engines and Solid Modeling/Animation via the Integrated Forced Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grant closure report is organized in the following four chapters: Chapter describes the two research areas Design optimization and Solid mechanics. Ten journal publications are listed in the second chapter. Five highlights is the subject matter of chapter three. CHAPTER 1. The Design Optimization Test Bed CometBoards. CHAPTER 2. Solid Mechanics: Integrated Force Method of Analysis. CHAPTER 3. Five Highlights: Neural Network and Regression Methods Demonstrated in the Design Optimization of a Subsonic Aircraft. Neural Network and Regression Soft Model Extended for PX-300 Aircraft Engine. Engine with Regression and Neural Network Approximators Designed. Cascade Optimization Strategy with Neural network and Regression Approximations Demonstrated on a Preliminary Aircraft Engine Design. Neural Network and Regression Approximations Used in Aircraft Design.

  13. Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem; Mehr, Ali Farhang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a two-level multidisciplinary design approach is described to optimize the effectiveness of ISHM s. At the top level, the overall safety of the mission consists of system-level variables, parameters, objectives, and constraints that are shared throughout the system and by all subsystems. Each subsystem level will then comprise of these shared values in addition to subsystem-specific variables, parameters, objectives and constraints. A hierarchical structure will be established to pass up or down shared values between the two levels with system-level and subsystem-level optimization routines.

  14. Multi-fidelity and multi-disciplinary design optimization of supersonic business jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seongim

    Supersonic jets have been drawing great attention after the end of service for the Concorde was announced on April of 2003. It is believed, however, that civilian supersonic aircraft may make a viable return in the business jet market. This thesis focuses on the design optimization of feasible supersonic business jet configurations. Preliminary design techniques for mitigation of ground sonic boom are investigated while ensuring that all relevant disciplinary constraints are satisfied (including aerodynamic performance, propulsion, stability & control and structures.) In order to achieve reasonable confidence in the resulting designs, high-fidelity simulations are required, making the entire design process both expensive and complex. In order to minimize the computational cost, surrogate/approximate models are constructed using a hierarchy of different fidelity analysis tools including PASS, A502/Panair and Euler/NS codes. Direct search methods such as Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and a nonlinear SIMPLEX are employed to designs in searches of large and noisy design spaces. A local gradient-based search method can be combined with these global search methods for small modifications of candidate optimum designs. The Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) method can also be used to explore the design space using a solution-adaptive grid refinement approach. These hybrid approaches, both in search methodology and surrogate model construction, are shown to result in designs with reductions in sonic boom and improved aerodynamic performance.

  15. Application of multidisciplinary optimization methods to the design of a supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, J.-F. M.; Coen, P. G.; Wrenn, Gregory A.; Riley, M. F.; Dovi, Augustine R.; Hall, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    An optimization design method is discussed. This method is based on integrating existing disciplinary analysis and sensitivity analysis techniques by means of generalized sensitivity equations. A generic design system implementing this method is described. The system is being used to design the configuration and internal structure of a supersonic transport wing for optimum performance. This problem combines the disciplines of linear aerodynamics, structures, and performance. Initial results which include the disciplines of aerodynamics and structures in a conventional minimum weight design under static aeroelastic constraints are presented.

  16. The PreCardio-study protocol – a randomized clinical trial of a multidisciplinary electronic cardiovascular prevention programme

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Neree; Jacobs, Nele

    2007-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death and the third cause of disability in Europe. Prevention programmes should include interventions aimed at a reduction of medical risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterol, hyperglycemia, overweight and obesity) as well as behavioural risk factors (sedentary lifestyle, high fat intake and low fruit and vegetable intake, smoking). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a multifaceted, multidisciplinary electronic prevention programme on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled trial, one group will receive a maximal intervention (= intervention group). The intervention group will be compared to the control group receiving a minimal intervention. An inclusion of 350 patients in total, with a follow-up of 3 years is foreseen. The inclusion criteria are age between 25–65 and insured by the Onderlinge Ziekenkas, insuring for guaranteed income in case of illness for self-employed. The maximal intervention group receives several prevention consultations by their general practitioner (GP) using a new type of cardiovascular risk calculator with personalised feedback on behavioural risk factors. These patients receive a follow-up with intensive support of health behaviour change via different methods, i.e. a tailored website and personal advice of a multidisciplinary team (psychologist, physiotherapist and dietician). The aim of this strategy is to reduce cardiovascular risk factors according to the guidelines. The primary outcome measures will be cardiovascular risk factors. The secondary outcome measures are cardiovascular events, quality of life, costs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios. The control group receives prevention consultations using a new type of cardiovascular risk calculator and general feedback. Discussion This trial incorporates interventions by GPs and other health professionals aiming at a reduction of medical and behavioural

  17. Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, Klaus; Rex, Markus; Shupe, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) is an international initiative under the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) umbrella that aims to improve numerical model representations of sea ice, weather, and climate processes through coupled system observations and modeling activities that link the central Arctic atmosphere, sea ice, ocean, and the ecosystem. Observations of many critical parameters such as cloud properties, surface energy fluxes, atmospheric aerosols, small-scale sea-ice and oceanic processes, biological feedbacks with the sea-ice ice and ocean, and others have never been made in the central Arctic in all seasons, and certainly not in a coupled system fashion. The primary objective of MOSAiC is to develop a better understanding of these important coupled-system processes so they can be more accurately represented in regional- and global-scale weather- and climate models. Such enhancements will contribute to improved modeling of global climate and weather, and Arctic sea-ice predictive capabilities. The MOSAiC observations are an important opportunity to gather the high quality and comprehensive observations needed to improve numerical modeling of critical, scale-dependent processes impacting Arctic predictability given diminished sea ice coverage and increased model complexity. Model improvements are needed to understand the effects of a changing Arctic on mid-latitude weather and climate. MOSAiC is specifically designed to provide the multi-parameter, coordinated observations needed to improve sub-grid scale model parameterizations especially with respect to thinner ice conditions. To facilitate, evaluate, and develop the needed model improvements, MOSAiC will employ a hierarchy of modeling approaches ranging from process model studies, to regional climate model intercomparisons, to operational forecasts and assimilation of real-time observations. Model evaluations prior to the field program will

  18. Multidisciplinary Approaches to Educational Research: Case Studies from Europe and the Developing World. Routledge Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Sadaf, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an original perspective on a range of controversial issues in educational and social research through case studies of multi-disciplinary and mixed-method research involving children, teachers, schools and communities in Europe and the developing world. These case studies from researchers "across continents" and "across…

  19. Program design by a multidisciplinary team. [for structural finite element analysis on STAR-100 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S.

    1975-01-01

    The use of software engineering aids in the design of a structural finite-element analysis computer program for the STAR-100 computer is described. Nested functional diagrams to aid in communication among design team members were used, and a standardized specification format to describe modules designed by various members was adopted. This is a report of current work in which use of the functional diagrams provided continuity and helped resolve some of the problems arising in this long-running part-time project.

  20. A General Multidisciplinary Turbomachinery Design Optimization system Applied to a Transonic Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemnem, Ahmed Mohamed Farid

    The blade geometry design process is integral to the development and advancement of compressors and turbines in gas generators or aeroengines. A new airfoil section design capability has been added to an open source parametric 3D blade design tool. Curvature of the meanline is controlled using B-splines to create the airfoils. The curvature is analytically integrated to derive the angles and the meanline is obtained by integrating the angles. A smooth thickness distribution is then added to the airfoil to guarantee a smooth shape while maintaining a prescribed thickness distribution. A leading edge B-spline definition has also been implemented to achieve customized airfoil leading edges which guarantees smoothness with parametric eccentricity and droop. An automated turbomachinery design and optimization system has been created. An existing splittered transonic fan is used as a test and reference case. This design was more general than a conventional design to have access to the other design methodology. The whole mechanical and aerodynamic design loops are automated for the optimization process. The flow path and the geometrical properties of the rotor are initially created using the axi-symmetric design and analysis code (T-AXI). The main and splitter blades are parametrically designed with the created geometry builder (3DBGB) using the new added features (curvature technique). The solid model creation of the rotor sector with a periodic boundaries combining the main blade and splitter is done using MATLAB code directly connected to SolidWorks including the hub, fillets and tip clearance. A mechanical optimization is performed with DAKOTA (developed by DOE) to reduce the mass of the blades while keeping maximum stress as a constraint with a safety factor. A Genetic algorithm followed by Numerical Gradient optimization strategies are used in the mechanical optimization. The splittered transonic fan blades mass is reduced by 2.6% while constraining the maximum

  1. Manufacturing and Cost Considerations in Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design (Research on Mathematical Modeling of Manufacturability Factors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1996-01-01

    The identification of airframe Manufacturability Factors/Cost Drivers (MFCD) and the method by which the relationships between MFCD and designer-controlled parameters could be properly modeled are described.

  2. Integration of Multifidelity Multidisciplinary Computer Codes for Design and Analysis of Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A.; Ozoroski, Lori P.; Fenbert, James W.; Shields, Elwood W.; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents the development of a conceptual level integrated process for design and analysis of efficient and environmentally acceptable supersonic aircraft. To overcome the technical challenges to achieve this goal, a conceptual design capability which provides users with the ability to examine the integrated solution between all disciplines and facilitates the application of multidiscipline design, analysis, and optimization on a scale greater than previously achieved, is needed. The described capability is both an interactive design environment as well as a high powered optimization system with a unique blend of low, mixed and high-fidelity engineering tools combined together in the software integration framework, ModelCenter. The various modules are described and capabilities of the system are demonstrated. The current limitations and proposed future enhancements are also discussed.

  3. Sensitivity analysis and multidisciplinary optimization for aircraft design - Recent advances and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1988-01-01

    Optimization by decomposition, complex system sensitivity analysis, and a rapid growth of disciplinary sensitivity analysis are some of the recent developments that hold promise of a quantum jump in the support engineers receive from computers in the quantitative aspects of design. Review of the salient points of these techniques is given and illustrated by examples from aircraft design as a process that combines the best of human intellect and computer power to manipulate data.

  4. Sensitivity analysis and multidisciplinary optimization for aircraft design: Recent advances and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1988-01-01

    Optimization by decomposition, complex system sensitivity analysis, and a rapid growth of disciplinary sensitivity analysis are some of the recent developments that hold promise of a quantum jump in the support engineers receive from computers in the quantitative aspects of design. Review of the salient points of these techniques is given and illustrated by examples from aircraft design as a process that combines the best of human intellect and computer power to manipulate data.

  5. Multidisciplinary Approach to Linear Aerospike Nozzle Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Salas, A. O.; Dunn, H. J.; Alexandrov, N. M.; Follett, W. W.; Orient, G. E.; Hadid, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    A model of a linear aerospike rocket nozzle that consists of coupled aerodynamic and structural analyses has been developed. A nonlinear computational fluid dynamics code is used to calculate the aerodynamic thrust, and a three-dimensional fink-element model is used to determine the structural response and weight. The model will be used to demonstrate multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) capabilities for relevant engine concepts, assess performance of various MDO approaches, and provide a guide for future application development. In this study, the MDO problem is formulated using the multidisciplinary feasible (MDF) strategy. The results for the MDF formulation are presented with comparisons against sequential aerodynamic and structural optimized designs. Significant improvements are demonstrated by using a multidisciplinary approach in comparison with the single- discipline design strategy.

  6. Pan-Britain, mixed-methods study of multidisciplinary teams teaching parents to manage children's long-term kidney conditions at home: Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Care of children and young people (children) with long-term kidney conditions is usually managed by multidisciplinary teams. Published guidance recommends that whenever possible children with long-term conditions remain at home, meaning parents may be responsible for performing the majority of clinical care-giving. Multidisciplinary team members, therefore, spend considerable time promoting parents' learning about care-delivery and monitoring care-giving. However, this parent-educative aspect of clinicians' role is rarely articulated in the literature so little evidence exists to inform professionals' parent-teaching interventions. Methods/Design This ongoing study addresses this issue using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods involving the twelve children's kidney units in England, Scotland and Wales. Phase I involves a survey of multidisciplinary team members' parent-teaching interventions using: i) A telephone-administered questionnaire to determine: the numbers of professionals from different disciplines in each team, the information/skills individual professionals relay to parents and the teaching strategies/interventions they use. Data will be managed using SPSS to produce descriptive statistics ii) Digitally-recorded, qualitative group or individual interviews with multidisciplinary team members to explore their accounts of the parent-teaching component of their role. Interviews will be transcribed anonymously and analysed using Framework Technique. Sampling criteria will be derived from analysis to identify one/two unit(s) for subsequent in-depth study Phase II involves six prospective, ethnographic case-studies of professional-parent interactions during parent-teaching encounters. Parents of six children with a long-term kidney condition will be purposively sampled according to their child's age, diagnosis, ethnicity and the clinical care-giving required; snowball sampling will identify the professionals involved in each case-study

  7. Multidisciplinary Approach to Rehabilitation. Report from the Study Group. Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (13th, Little Rock, Arkansas, October 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Robert; And Others

    This manual is the response of a National Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (IRI) Prime Study Group to charges given to the group by the National IRI Planning Committee to develop a meaningful training and resource document on the multidisciplinary approach to vocational rehabilitation. The guide is organized in seven chapters that cover the…

  8. Participatory Concepts of Multidisciplinary/Professional Working on an Early Childhood Studies Degree Course in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to explore democratic values in higher education pedagogies, as related to an Early Childhood Studies (ECS) degree course in an English university. It seeks to find out what constitutes a multi-disciplinary course from both student and tutor perspectives. It is contextualised by the concepts of participation embedded in the idea of…

  9. Implementing Entrepreneurial Assignments in a Multidisciplinary, Sophomore-Level Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Kevin; Riddell, William; Merrill, Thomas; Harvey, Roberta; Weiss, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Many engineering programs stress the importance of technological innovation by offering entrepreneurship electives and programs. Integration of entrepreneurship into the required engineering curriculum has predominantly focused on senior capstone design courses. This paper describes a strategy for integrating entrepreneurship into a…

  10. Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization of Hypersonic Air-Breathing Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Tang, Zhili; Sheng, Jianda

    2016-06-01

    A 2D hypersonic vehicle shape with an idealized scramjet is designed at a cruise regime: Mach number (Ma) = 8.0, Angle of attack (AOA) = 0 deg and altitude (H) = 30kms. Then a multi-objective design optimization of the 2D vehicle is carried out by using a Pareto Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). In the optimization process, the flow around the air-breathing vehicle is simulated by inviscid Euler equations using FLUENT software and the combustion in the combustor is modeled by a methodology based on the well known combination effects of area-varying pipe flow and heat transfer pipe flow. Optimization results reveal tradeoffs among total pressure recovery coefficient of forebody, lift to drag ratio of vehicle, specific impulse of scramjet engine and the maximum temperature on the surface of vehicle.

  11. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  12. History and future of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS).

    PubMed

    Emerson, Amy; Ponté, Linnae; Jerome, Lisa; Doblin, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the teenage vision of the founder of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) that humanity's future would be aided by the therapeutic and spiritual potential of psychedelic substances. The article traces the trajectory of MAPS from inception in 1986 to its present, noting future goals with respect to research, outreach, and harm reduction. MAPS was created as a non-profit psychedelic pharmaceutical company in response to the 1985 scheduling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Overcoming many hurdles, MAPS developed the first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and plans for FDA prescription approval in 2021. MAPS' program of research expanded to include a trial of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety when facing life-threatening illness, observational studies of ibogaine in the treatment of addiction, and studies of MDMA for social anxiety in people with autism spectrum disorders. MAPS meets the challenges of drug development through a clinical research team led by a former Novartis drug development professional experienced in the conduct, monitoring, and analysis of clinical trials. MAPS' harm-reduction efforts are intended to avoid backlash and build a post-prohibition world by assisting non-medical users to transform difficult psychedelic experiences into opportunities for growth. PMID:24830183

  13. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Glass-Fiber Epoxy-Matrix Composite 5 MW Horizontal-Axis Wind-Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Pandurangan, B.; Sellappan, V.; Vallejo, A.; Ozen, M.

    2010-11-01

    A multi-disciplinary design-optimization procedure has been introduced and used for the development of cost-effective glass-fiber reinforced epoxy-matrix composite 5 MW horizontal-axis wind-turbine (HAWT) blades. The turbine-blade cost-effectiveness has been defined using the cost of energy (CoE), i.e., a ratio of the three-blade HAWT rotor development/fabrication cost and the associated annual energy production. To assess the annual energy production as a function of the blade design and operating conditions, an aerodynamics-based computational analysis had to be employed. As far as the turbine blade cost is concerned, it is assessed for a given aerodynamic design by separately computing the blade mass and the associated blade-mass/size-dependent production cost. For each aerodynamic design analyzed, a structural finite element-based and a post-processing life-cycle assessment analyses were employed in order to determine a minimal blade mass which ensures that the functional requirements pertaining to the quasi-static strength of the blade, fatigue-controlled blade durability and blade stiffness are satisfied. To determine the turbine-blade production cost (for the currently prevailing fabrication process, the wet lay-up) available data regarding the industry manufacturing experience were combined with the attendant blade mass, surface area, and the duration of the assumed production run. The work clearly revealed the challenges associated with simultaneously satisfying the strength, durability and stiffness requirements while maintaining a high level of wind-energy capture efficiency and a lower production cost.

  14. Integrating Multidisciplinary Engineering Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Karin; Luckett, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to design two distinct engineering qualification levels for an existing University of Technology programme, empirical evidence based on the current diploma is necessary to illuminate the nature of and the relationship between the "contextual" and "conceptual" elements underpinning a multidisciplinary engineering…

  15. Multidisciplinary control design for a two-dimensional airfoil with jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Packard, Andy; Holt, Maurice

    Numerical simulation of a two-dimensional airfoil controlled by jets near the trailing edge is investigated. This simulation couples the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations with Euler's equations of rigid-body motion and an active control system. Robust control design techniques were used to develop a controller for tracking altitude commands. Simulation of the controller with the coupled system showed good tracking performance for a step input command in altitude. However, the linear model was unable to capture the nonlinear nature of this system producing mild oscillations in the attitude, pitch rate, and vertical velocity of the airfoil.

  16. Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem; Barszcz, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (ISHM) systems are used to detect, assess, and isolate functional failures in order to improve safety of space systems such as Orbital Space Planes (OSPs). An ISHM system, as a whole, consists of several subsystems that monitor different components of an OSP including: Spacecraft, Launch Vehicle, Ground Control, and the International Space Station. In this research, therefore, we propose a new methodology to design and optimize ISHM as a distributed system with multiple disciplines (that correspond to different subsystems of OSP safety). A paramount amount of interest has been given in the literature to the multidisciplinary design optimization of problems with such architecture (as will be reviewed in the full paper).

  17. Flexible Wing Model for Structural Sizing and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Strut-Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank H.; Naghshineh, Amir H.; Sulaeman, Erwin; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a structural and aeroelastic model for wing sizing and weight calculation of a strut-braced wing. The wing weight is calculated using a newly developed structural weight analysis module considering the special nature of strut-braced wings. A specially developed aeroelastic model enables one to consider wing flexibility and spanload redistribution during in-flight maneuvers. The structural model uses a hexagonal wing-box featuring skin panels, stringers, and spar caps, whereas the aerodynamics part employs a linearized transonic vortex lattice method. Thus, the wing weight may be calculated from the rigid or flexible wing spanload. The calculations reveal the significant influence of the strut on the bending material weight of the wing. The use of a strut enables one to design a wing with thin airfoils without weight penalty. The strut also influences wing spanload and deformations. Weight savings are not only possible by calculation and iterative resizing of the wing structure according to the actual design loads. Moreover, as an advantage over the cantilever wing, employment of the strut twist moment for further load alleviation leads to increased savings in structural weight.

  18. A Cascade Optimization Strategy for Solution of Difficult Multidisciplinary Design Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Berke, Laszlo

    1996-01-01

    A research project to comparatively evaluate 10 nonlinear optimization algorithms was recently completed. A conclusion was that no single optimizer could successfully solve all 40 problems in the test bed, even though most optimizers successfully solved at least one-third of the problems. We realized that improved search directions and step lengths, available in the 10 optimizers compared, were not likely to alleviate the convergence difficulties. For the solution of those difficult problems we have devised an alternative approach called cascade optimization strategy. The cascade strategy uses several optimizers, one followed by another in a specified sequence, to solve a problem. A pseudorandom scheme perturbs design variables between the optimizers. The cascade strategy has been tested successfully in the design of supersonic and subsonic aircraft configurations and air-breathing engines for high-speed civil transport applications. These problems could not be successfully solved by an individual optimizer. The cascade optimization strategy, however, generated feasible optimum solutions for both aircraft and engine problems. This paper presents the cascade strategy and solutions to a number of these problems.

  19. Multi-disciplinary clinical study of Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion 17p11.2)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, F.; Lewis, R.A.; Potocki, L.

    1996-03-29

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly, mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. As part of a multi-disciplinary clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular approach to SMS, detailed clinical studies including radiographic neurologic, developmental, ophthalmologic, otolaryngologic, and audiologic evaluations were performed on 27 SMS patients. Significant findings include otolaryngologic abnormalities in 94%, eye abnormalities in 85%, sleep abnormalities (especially reduced REM sleep) in 75%, hearing impairment in 68% (approximately 65% conductive and 35% sensorineural), scoliosis in 65% brain abnormalities (predominantly ventriculomegaly) in 52%, cardiac abnormalities in at least 37%, renal anomalies (especially duplication of the collecting system) in 35%, low thyroxine levels in 29%, low immunoglobulin levels in 23%, and forearm abnormalities in 16%. The measured IQ ranged between 20-78, most patients falling in the moderate range of mental retardation at 40-54, although several patients scored in the mild or borderline range. The frequency of these many abnormalities in SMS suggests that patients should be evaluated thoroughly for associated complications both at the time of diagnosis and at least annually thereafter. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Understanding the physico-chemical properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes: a variable temperature multidisciplinary study.

    PubMed

    Croce, Gianluca; Carniato, Fabio; Milanesio, Marco; Boccaleri, Enrico; Paul, Geo; van Beek, Wouter; Marchese, Leonardo

    2009-11-21

    This work is focused on a multidisciplinary study of a completely condensed octaisobutyl-silsesquioxane (IBUPOSS) as a model of the alkyl POSS family. IBUPOSS is characterized by the presence of eight isobutyl groups bonded to the corners of the siliceous framework. Differential scanning calorimetric measurements and an innovative simultaneous in situ Raman/XRPD experiment suggested that IBUPOSS undergoes a solid phase transition around 330 K, and indicated that this transition is related to a change in the conformational freedom of the isobutyl chains. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) pattern of the high temperature phase was indexed in the high symmetry [R3m] space group. The Raman data indicated a larger mobility of the aliphatic side chains at high temperature, thus inducing a disorder in the IBUPOSS moiety. Multidimensional heteronuclear solid-state NMR experiments were employed to probe the structural and motional features of the observed phase transition. The various conformations can be accounted for by a pseudo-D(3h) symmetry able to obey to the [R3m] space group. Simulations on molecular mechanics and dynamics, together with quantum-chemical calculations, confirmed this hypothesis and gave some hints on the conformational mobility and the energetic features of IBUPOSS, a base material with relevant applications in catalysis and polymer science. PMID:19865764

  1. Methodology for sensitivity analysis, approximate analysis, and design optimization in CFD for multidisciplinary applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.

    1994-01-01

    The straightforward automatic-differentiation and the hand-differentiated incremental iterative methods are interwoven to produce a hybrid scheme that captures some of the strengths of each strategy. With this compromise, discrete aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives are calculated with the efficient incremental iterative solution algorithm of the original flow code. Moreover, the principal advantage of automatic differentiation is retained (i.e., all complicated source code for the derivative calculations is constructed quickly with accuracy). The basic equations for second-order sensitivity derivatives are presented; four methods are compared. Each scheme requires that large systems are solved first for the first-order derivatives and, in all but one method, for the first-order adjoint variables. Of these latter three schemes, two require no solutions of large systems thereafter. For the other two for which additional systems are solved, the equations and solution procedures are analogous to those for the first order derivatives. From a practical viewpoint, implementation of the second-order methods is feasible only with software tools such as automatic differentiation, because of the extreme complexity and large number of terms. First- and second-order sensitivities are calculated accurately for two airfoil problems, including a turbulent flow example; both geometric-shape and flow-condition design variables are considered. Several methods are tested; results are compared on the basis of accuracy, computational time, and computer memory. For first-order derivatives, the hybrid incremental iterative scheme obtained with automatic differentiation is competitive with the best hand-differentiated method; for six independent variables, it is at least two to four times faster than central finite differences and requires only 60 percent more memory than the original code; the performance is expected to improve further in the future.

  2. Engaging Students in Climate Change Science and Communication through a Multi-disciplinary Study Abroad Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, L. A.; Polk, J.; Strenecky, B.

    2014-12-01

    The implications of the climate change phenomenon are far-reaching, and will impact every person on Earth. These problems will be complex, and will require leaders well-versed in interdisciplinary learning and international understanding. To employ a multi-disciplinary approach to studying the impact climate change is having in the world in which we live, a team of 57 Western Kentucky University (WKU) faculty, staff, and students participated in a study abroad program to seven ports in the North Sea and North Atlantic, including three ports in Iceland, onboard the Semester at Sea ship, MV Explorer. This program combined interdisciplinary learning, service learning, and international understanding toward the goal of preparing the leaders of tomorrow with the skills to address climate change challenges. Together, the group learned how climate change affects the world from varied academic perspectives, and how more often than not these perspectives are closely interrelated. Courses taught during the experience related to climate change science and communication, economics, future trends, and K-12 education. Each student also participated in a The $100 Solution™ service-learning course. While in port, each class engaged in a discipline-specific activities related to the climate change topic, while at sea students participated in class lectures, engaged in shipboard lectures by international experts in their respective fields, and participated in conversations with lifelong learners onboard the ship. A culminating point of the study abroad experience was a presentation by the WKU students to over 100 persons from the University of Akureyri in Akureyri, Iceland, representatives of neighboring Icelandic communities, environmental agencies, and tourism bureaus about what they had learned about climate change during their travels. By forging this relationship, students were able to share their knowledge, which in turn gave them a deeper understanding of the issues they

  3. Multidisciplinary studies of the diversity and evolution in river-weeds.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    The moss-like river-weeds or Podostemaceae offer a special opportunity to study the diversity and evolution of plants that are adapted to extreme environments. This paper reviews multidisciplinary studies on this subject. Based on field work in the four continents, we discovered many species and several genera that are new components of biodiversity, and revealed the Podostemaceae floras of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia. The historical biogeography of the family, i.e., the change in distribution in space and time, is characterized by a few dispersals between continents, followed by diversification within each continent. Local species may be derived from parts of separated populations of parental species, which consequently are paraphyletic. The remarkable morphological adaptations of Podostemaceae include the development of the horizontal axis in plant body, with which the plants adhere to rock surfaces under violent current. The vertical axis is reduced or lost and the horizontal axis develops in the embryo and seedling. We also found saltational organ-level variation, such as presence or absence of shoot, shoot apical meristem, root, and root cap; the form of shoot and root; the mode of root branching and leaf production; and the number of cotyledons. Morphological evolution may not be always adaptive to the habitats, which are rocks periodically submerged across the distribution range. Analyses of shoot regulatory gene expression found that, in contrast to the expression pattern in primitive species with ordinary shoots, which is comparable with Arabidopsis, the unique pattern in derived species may result in 'fuzzy' morphology of the shoot and leaf. Finally, problems for future study are pointed out. PMID:26883535

  4. Methodology for sensitivity analysis, approximate analysis, and design optimization in CFD for multidisciplinary applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.

    1993-01-01

    In this study involving advanced fluid flow codes, an incremental iterative formulation (also known as the delta or correction form) together with the well-known spatially-split approximate factorization algorithm, is presented for solving the very large sparse systems of linear equations which are associated with aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. For smaller 2D problems, a direct method can be applied to solve these linear equations in either the standard or the incremental form, in which case the two are equivalent. Iterative methods are needed for larger 2D and future 3D applications, however, because direct methods require much more computer memory than is currently available. Iterative methods for solving these equations in the standard form are generally unsatisfactory due to an ill-conditioning of the coefficient matrix; this problem can be overcome when these equations are cast in the incremental form. These and other benefits are discussed. The methodology is successfully implemented and tested in 2D using an upwind, cell-centered, finite volume formulation applied to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented for two sample airfoil problems: (1) subsonic low Reynolds number laminar flow; and (2) transonic high Reynolds number turbulent flow.

  5. Multidisciplinary co-operation in building design according to urbanistic zoning and seismic microzonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2005-05-01

    Research and practice in seismology and urban planning interfere concerning the impact of earthquakes on urban areas. The roles of sub-area wide or typological divisions of the town were investigated with the methodology of regression, regarding their contribution to urban earthquake risk management. The inductive data set comprised recovery, preparedness, mitigation and resilience planning. All timely constituted planning types are refound today as layers, as the zoning results are used by differently backgrounded actors: local authorities, civil protection, urban planners, civil engineers. In resilience planning, the urban system is complexly theoretised, then integratedly approached. The steady restructuring process of the urban organism is evident in a dynamic analysis. Although expressed materially, the "urban-frame" is realised spiritually, space adaptation being also social. A retrospective investigation of the role of resilient individual buildings within the urban system of Bucharest, Romania, was undertaken, in order to learn systemic lessons considering the street, an educational environment. (In)formation in the study and decision making process stay in a reciprocal relationship, both being obliged in the (in)formation of the public opinion. For a complete view on resilience, both zoning types, seismic and urbanistic, must be considered and through their superposition new sub-area wide divisions of the town appear, making recommendations according to the vulnerability of the building type.

  6. Whale Multi-Disciplinary Studies: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit deals with whales, whaling lore and history, and the interaction of the whale with the complex marine ecosystem. It seeks to teach adaptation of marine organisms. It portrays the concept that man is part of the marine ecosystem and man's activities can deplete and degrade marine ecosystems, endangering the survival of…

  7. Methane seepage and gas hydrates: The need for multidisciplinary and long-term methane flux studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greinert, J.

    2012-12-01

    Methane seepage and gas hydrates started to receive more interest in the marine science community in the early 80s; exploratory studies followed, which were often hampered by the limited technical capabilities when compared to modern technologies that are available today (e.g. ROVs, high resolution 3D seismic, pressurized coring). General research topics have changed from curiosity-driven 'what is out there' towards gaining a detailed understanding of microbial processes in the sediment and geophysical quantifications of gas hydrates in their different locations around the world. Environmental questions fueled by the 'clathrate gun hypothesis' and the possible future impact of decomposing gas hydrates on atmospheric methane concentrations became research topics for a number of scientists, whereas others are researching gas hydrates and its potential use as an energy resource coupled with CO2-sequestering. Today the general phenomenon of gas hydrate related seepage and the biogeochemical processes involved are well understood. Large uncertainties still exist with regard to large-scale methane flux extrapolations from the seafloor through the water column and into the atmosphere, mainly due to lack of multidisciplinary and long-term observations . Studying the temporal variability of fluid and bubble release from the seafloor in high spatial and temporal resolution still does not do away with the problem of how to extrapolate such local flux measurements, considering tidal, seasonal changes, let alone changes on a longer time scale (glacial/interglacial). Examples provided from studies in the Pacific, the Black Sea and North Sea as well as from offshore Svalbard will highlight the temporal variability of bubble release, the impact of environmental parameters on this release and biogeochemical processes related to methane oxidation and production in the water column. Although the assumption is true that bubble release from deeper than 100m water depth will not

  8. Alcohol brief interventions practice following training for multidisciplinary health and social care teams: A qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Niamh; Molloy, Heather; MacDonald, Fiona; McCambridge, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Few studies of the implementation of alcohol brief interventions (ABI) have been conducted in community settings such as mental health, social work and criminal justice teams. This qualitative interview study sought to explore the impact of training on ABI delivery by staff from a variety of such teams. Design and Methods Fifteen semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with trained practitioners and with managers to explore the use of, perceived need for and approaches to ABI delivery and recording with clients, and compatibility of ABIs with current practice. Interviews were analysed thematically using an inductive approach. Results Very few practitioners reported delivery of any ABIs following training primarily because they felt ABIs to be inappropriate for their clients. According to practitioners, this was either because they drank too much or too little to benefit. Practitioners reported a range of current activities relating to alcohol, and some felt that their knowledge and confidence were improved following training. One practitioner reported ABI delivery and was considered a training success, while expectations of ABIs did not fit with current practice including assessment procedures for the remainder. Discussion and Conclusions Identified barriers to ABI delivery included issues relating to individual practitioners, their teams, current practice and the ABI model. They are likely to be best addressed by strategic team- and setting-specific approaches to implementation, of which training is only one part. [Fitzgerald N, Molloy H, MacDonald F, McCambridge J. Alcohol brief interventions practice following training for multidisciplinary health and social care teams: A qualitative interview study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015;34:185–93] PMID:25196713

  9. [Multidisciplinary approach to postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Arranz Lara, Lilia Cristina; Aguirre Rivera, Wilfrido; Ruiz Ornelas, Jaime; Gaviño Ambriz, Salvador; Cervantes Chávez, José Francisco; Carsi Bocanegra, Eduardo; Camacho Díaz, Margarita; Ochoa Madrigal, Martha Georgina

    2008-06-01

    Postpartum depression is a multifactorial condition suffered by 15% of women after delivery. We report a clinical case of a 32 years old female admitted at Postpartum depression clinic of gyneco-obstetric coordination at Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, ISSTE, Mexico City. Patient was evaluated by psychiatric and psychological service personnel and diagnosed as with postpartum depression. She was admitted with her child during two weeks to be studied and treated. Several evaluation tests were applied and specific interventions by multidisciplinary team were designed. PMID:18800591

  10. Multidisciplinary studies of the social, economic and political impact resulting from recent advances in satellite meteorology, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The multidisciplinary studies explore and evaluate the impact of the meteorological satellite and the concomitant impact of the data derived from it on various user groups. As expected, the primary impact related to those who would use satellite data for weather prediction and related purposes. A secondary impact was in the area of international concerns where GARP and other international meteorological activities were affected and international law was developed. A tertiary impact was exemplified by satellite photographs utilized in advertisements and related materials. The case studies, supporting studies, and independent studies all emphasize the potential of the meteorological satellite.

  11. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  12. Fibromyalgia with severe forms of progression in a multidisciplinary therapy setting with emphasis on hyperthermia therapy – a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Romeyke, Tobias; Scheuer, Hans Christoph; Stummer, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a multi-factorial disease involving physiological as well as psychological factors. The aim of the study was to investigate a multidisciplinary inpatient treatment with emphasis on hyperthermia therapy by patients with widespread pain. Materials and methods The study involved 104 patients suffering from severely progressive FMS. A convenience sample and a prospective cohort design were used. The patients were treated in an acute hospital focusing on rheumatologic pain therapy and multidisciplinary complementary medicine. One patient group was treated with inclusion of hyperthermia therapy and the other group without. The therapy density (number of performed therapies per patient) was determined for every patient. Functional capacity measured by the Hannover functional status questionnaire (Funktionsfragebogen Hannover) and symptoms (von Zerssen complaint list) were analyzed for both groups on admission and on discharge. Results On admission, no significant difference could be established between control group (CG; multimodal without hyperthermia) and hyperthermia group (HG; multimodal with hyperthermia) (functional capacity, P=0.936). Functional capacity improved for the CG and the HG. On discharge, there was a significant difference between the two groups (functional capacity, P=0.039). There were no significant differences in fibromyalgia symptoms between CG (mean 41.8) and HG (mean 41.8) on their admission to hospital (P=0.988). On discharge, there was a significant difference (P=0.024) between the two groups (HG, mean 30.6; CG, mean 36.6). The inpatient therapy of patients with severely progressive fibromyalgia is characterized by a high frequency of therapy input. Conclusion FMS, especially with severe progression and a high degree of chronification, demands a multidisciplinary approach. In addition to the use of complementary medical procedures, integration of hyperthermia in the treatment process is a useful option

  13. Imaging in thoracic oncology: case studies from Multidisciplinary Thoracic Tumor Board

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rishindra M.; Lin, Jules; Arenberg, Douglas A.; Speers, Corey; Hayman, James A.; Kong, Fengming P.; Orringer, Mark B.; Kalemkerian, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multidisciplinary tumor board conferences foster collaboration among health care providers from a variety of specialties and help to facilitate optimal patient care. Generally, the clinical questions revolve around the best options for establishing a diagnosis, staging the disease and directing treatment. This article describes and illustrates the clinical scenarios of three patients who were presented at our thoracic Tumor Board, focusing on management issues and the role of imaging. These patients had invasive thymoma; concurrent small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer; and esophageal cancer with celiac lymph node metastases, respectively. PMID:24325879

  14. The LUSI LAB project: a multidisciplinary study of focussed fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.

    2012-12-01

    The 29th of May 2006 several gas and mud eruption sites suddenly appeared along a fault in the NE of Java, Indonesia. Within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. To date Lusi is still active. This disaster has forced 50.000 people to be evacuated and an area of more than 7 km2 is covered by mud. The social impact of the eruption and its spectacular dimensions still attract the attention of international media reporting on the "largest mud eruption site on Earth". Our investigations revealed that the Watukosek fault system reactivated after the 27-05-2006 Yogyakarta earthquake allowing the release of overpressured fluids along the fault planes. Sampling results indicate that the main source of clay and fluids was traced from the overpressured units located at ~1500 m depth. Further, analyses and modelling indicate that Lusi gas was generated at high temperatures (>220°C) with maturity and isotopic characteristics corresponding to the oil-prone Eocene, Ngimbang shales situated at 4,400 m. Hydrocarbon, CO2 and helium analyses are consistent with a scenario of deep sited (>4000 m) magmatic intrusions and hydrothermal fluids responsible for the enhanced heat that altered source rocks and/or gas reservoirs. The neighbouring magmatic Arjuno complex and its fluid-pressure system combined with high seismic activity could have played a key role in the Lusi genesis and evolution. Despite the work done, still many unanswered questions remain. What lies beneath Lusi? If Lusi is not a mud volcano, how large is the connected hydrothermal system? How do the frequent seismic activity and the neighbouring Arjuno Welirang volcanic complex effect pulsating Lusi behaviour? What are the mechanisms triggering the eruption? How long will the eruption last? Are more eruptions like this one likely to occur? LUSI LAB is an ambitious project that aims to answer these questions and to perform a multidisciplinary study using

  15. A qualitative study of physicians' and nurses' experiences of multidisciplinary collaboration with pharmacists participating at case conferences.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Kjell H; Stensland, Per; Granas, Anne Gerd

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVES  Previous studies have revealed a range of drug-related problems for nursing home and hospital patients. Different attempts to reduce drug-related problems have been tested. Medication reviews performed by pharmacists and subsequent presentation of findings at case conferences is one of these methods. Physicians' and nurses' experiences from multidisciplinary collaboration with pharmacists have to a lesser degree been investigated. This study aims to describe how Norwegian physicians and nurses experience collaborating with pharmacists at case conferences to reduce drug-related problems in elderly patients. METHODS  This was a qualitative interview study using systematic text condensation. The setting was nursing homes (long-term care) and hospital wards (gerontology and rheumatology). Four physicians and eight nurses participated and the main outcome was physicians' and nurses' experiences of multidisciplinary collaboration with pharmacists. KEY FINDINGS  Organizational problems were experienced including, among others, what professional contribution team members could expect from pharmacists and what professional role the pharmacist should have in the multidisciplinary team. Both professions reported that ambiguities as to when and if the pharmacist was supposed to attend their regular meetings resulted in some aggravation. On the other hand, the participants valued contributions from pharmacists with regard to pharmaceutical skills, and felt that this raised awareness on prescribing quality. CONCLUSIONS  Physicians and nurses valued the pharmacists' services and reported that this collaboration improved patients' drug therapy. However, before implementing this service in nursing homes there is a need to make an organizational framework for this collaboration to support the professional role of the pharmacist. PMID:21899615

  16. Multidisciplinary Team Contributions Within a Dedicated Outpatient Palliative Radiotherapy Clinic: A Prospective Descriptive Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pituskin, Edith; Fairchild, Alysa; Dutka, Jennifer; Gagnon, Lori; Driga, Amy; Tachynski, Patty; Borschneck, Jo-Ann; Ghosh, Sunita

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with bone metastases may experience pain, fatigue, and decreased mobility. Multiple medications for analgesia are often required, each with attendant side effects. Although palliative-intent radiotherapy (RT) is effective in decreasing pain, additional supportive care interventions may be overlooked. Our objective was to describe the feasibility of multidisciplinary assessment of patients with symptomatic bone metastases attending a dedicated outpatient palliative RT clinic. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients referred for RT for painful bone metastases were screened for symptoms and needs relevant to their medications, nutritional intake, activities of daily living, and psychosocial and spiritual concerns from January 1 to December 31, 2007. Consultations by appropriate team members and resulting recommendations were collected prospectively. Patients who received RT were contacted by telephone 4 weeks later to assess symptom outcomes. Results: A total of 106 clinic visits by 82 individual patients occurred. As determined by screening form responses, the clinical Pharmacist, Occupational Therapist, Registered Dietician and Social Worker were consulted to provide assessments and recommendations within the time constraints presented by 1-day palliative RT delivery. In addition to pain relief, significant improvements in tiredness, depression, anxiety, drowsiness and overall well-being were reported at 4 weeks. Conclusions: Systematic screening of this population revealed previously unmet needs, addressed in the form of custom verbal and written recommendations. Multidisciplinary assessment is associated with a high number of recommendations and decreased symptom distress. Our findings lend strong support to the routine assessment by multiple supportive care professionals for patients with advanced cancer being considered for palliative RT.

  17. Multidisciplinary care in pediatric oncology

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Mary Ann; Ruble, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the significant advances in the treatment of childhood cancer and supportive care that have occurred over the last several decades and details how these advances have led to improved survival and quality of life (QOL) for children with cancer through a multidisciplinary approach to care. Advances in the basic sciences, general medicine, cooperative research protocols, and policy guidelines have influenced and guided the multidisciplinary approach in pediatric oncology care across the spectrum from diagnosis through long-term survival. Two case studies are provided to highlight the nature and scope of multidisciplinary care in pediatric oncology care. PMID:21811384

  18. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Research in Small-Scale Societies: Studying Emotions and Facial Expressions in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Crivelli, Carlos; Jarillo, Sergio; Fridlund, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Although cognitive science was multidisciplinary from the start, an under-emphasis on anthropology has left the field with limited research in small scale, indigenous societies. Neglecting the anthropological perspective is risky, given that once-canonical cognitive science findings have often been shown to be artifacts of enculturation rather than cognitive universals. This imbalance has become more problematic as the increased use of Western theory-driven approaches, many of which assume human uniformity (“universality”), confronts the absence of a robust descriptive base that might provide clarifying or even contrary evidence. We highlight the need for remedies to such shortcomings by suggesting a two-fold methodological shift. First, studies conducted in indigenous societies can benefit by relying on multidisciplinary research groups to diminish ethnocentrism and enhance the quality of the data. Second, studies devised for Western societies can readily be adapted to the changing settings encountered in the field. Here, we provide examples, drawn from the areas of emotion and facial expressions, to illustrate potential solutions to recurrent problems in enhancing the quality of data collection, hypothesis testing, and the interpretation of results. PMID:27486420

  19. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Research in Small-Scale Societies: Studying Emotions and Facial Expressions in the Field.

    PubMed

    Crivelli, Carlos; Jarillo, Sergio; Fridlund, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Although cognitive science was multidisciplinary from the start, an under-emphasis on anthropology has left the field with limited research in small scale, indigenous societies. Neglecting the anthropological perspective is risky, given that once-canonical cognitive science findings have often been shown to be artifacts of enculturation rather than cognitive universals. This imbalance has become more problematic as the increased use of Western theory-driven approaches, many of which assume human uniformity ("universality"), confronts the absence of a robust descriptive base that might provide clarifying or even contrary evidence. We highlight the need for remedies to such shortcomings by suggesting a two-fold methodological shift. First, studies conducted in indigenous societies can benefit by relying on multidisciplinary research groups to diminish ethnocentrism and enhance the quality of the data. Second, studies devised for Western societies can readily be adapted to the changing settings encountered in the field. Here, we provide examples, drawn from the areas of emotion and facial expressions, to illustrate potential solutions to recurrent problems in enhancing the quality of data collection, hypothesis testing, and the interpretation of results. PMID:27486420

  20. Nanovehicles as a novel target strategy for hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: a multidisciplinary study of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, Maciej; Wisniewski, Marek; Werengowska-Ciecwierz, Karolina; Roszek, Katarzyna; Czarnecka, Joanna; Łakomska, I.; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Tyloch, Dominik; Debski, Robert; Pietkun, Katarzyna; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Grzanka, Dariusz; Czajkowski, Rafał; Drewa, Gerard; Jundziłł, A.; Agyin, Joseph K.; Habib, Samy L.; Terzyk, Artur P.; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    In general, detection of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) occurs at the late stage when there is no treatment option. In the present study, we designed novel drug delivery systems that are functionalized with anti-CD133 antibodies. The C1, C2 and C3 complexes with cisplatin were introduced into nanotubes, either physically or chemically. The complexes were reacted with anti-CD133 antibody to form the labeled product of A0-o-CX-chem-CD133. Cytotoxicity screening of all the complexes was performed on CHO cells. Data showed that both C2 and C3 Pt-complexes are more cytotoxic than C1. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that nanotubes conjugated to CD133 antibody have the ability to target cells expressing the CD133 antigen which is responsible for the emergence of resistance to chemotherapy and disease recurrence. The shortest survival rate was observed in the control mice group (K3) where no hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy procedures were used. On the other hand, the longest median survival rate was observed in the group treated with A0-o-C1-chem-CD133. In summary, we designed a novel drug delivery system based on carbon nanotubes loaded with Pt-prodrugs and functionalized with anti-CD133 antibodies. Our data demonstrates the effectiveness of the new drug delivery system and provides a novel therapeutic modality in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:26254295

  1. Lexical entries and rules of language: a multidisciplinary study of German inflection.

    PubMed

    Clahsen, H

    1999-12-01

    Following much work in linguistic theory, it is hypothesized that the language faculty has a modular structure and consists of two basic components, a lexicon of (structured) entries and a computational system of combinatorial operations to form larger linguistic expressions from lexical entries. This target article provides evidence for the dual nature of the language faculty by describing recent results of a multidisciplinary investigation of German inflection. We have examined: (1) its linguistic representation, focussing on noun plurals and verb inflection (participles), (2) processes involved in the way adults produce and comprehend inflected words, (3) brain potentials generated during the processing of inflected words, and (4) the way children acquire and use inflection. It will be shown that the evidence from all these sources converges and supports the distinction between lexical entries and combinatorial operations. Our experimental results indicate that adults have access to two distinct processing routes, one accessing (irregularly) inflected entries from the mental lexicon and another involving morphological decomposition of (regularly) inflected words into stem + affix representations. These two processing routes correspond to the dual structure of the linguistic system. Results from event-related potentials confirm this linguistic distinction at the level of brain structures. In children's language, we have also found these two processes to be clearly dissociated; regular and irregular inflection are used under different circumstances, and the constraints under which children apply them are identical to those of the adult linguistic system. Our findings will be explained in terms of a linguistic model that maintains the distinction between the lexicon and the computational system but replaces the traditional view of the lexicon as a simple list of idiosyncrasies with the notion of internally structured lexical representations. PMID:11301574

  2. Methodology for sensitivity analysis, approximate analysis, and design optimization in CFD for multidisciplinary applications. [computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.

    1992-01-01

    Fundamental equations of aerodynamic sensitivity analysis and approximate analysis for the two dimensional thin layer Navier-Stokes equations are reviewed, and special boundary condition considerations necessary to apply these equations to isolated lifting airfoils on 'C' and 'O' meshes are discussed in detail. An efficient strategy which is based on the finite element method and an elastic membrane representation of the computational domain is successfully tested, which circumvents the costly 'brute force' method of obtaining grid sensitivity derivatives, and is also useful in mesh regeneration. The issue of turbulence modeling is addressed in a preliminary study. Aerodynamic shape sensitivity derivatives are efficiently calculated, and their accuracy is validated on two viscous test problems, including: (1) internal flow through a double throat nozzle, and (2) external flow over a NACA 4-digit airfoil. An automated aerodynamic design optimization strategy is outlined which includes the use of a design optimization program, an aerodynamic flow analysis code, an aerodynamic sensitivity and approximate analysis code, and a mesh regeneration and grid sensitivity analysis code. Application of the optimization methodology to the two test problems in each case resulted in a new design having a significantly improved performance in the aerodynamic response of interest.

  3. A multi-stakeholder framework for sustainable energy behavior: A multidisciplinary systems study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khansari, Nasrin

    Growth of population and moving towards over-consumption and over-pollution are significant threats to the environment and therefore necessitate moving towards sustainability approaches. CO2 emissions are considered to be the main basis of the incredible increase in the earth's surface temperature in recent years. Most emissions result from human activities. Thus, developing a detailed framework representing the parameters affecting individuals' energy behaviors is required. This dissertation offers an integrated conceptual framework to increase the efficiency of energy systems under complex and uncertainty conditions, facilitate energy consumption problem solving, and support the development of capacities at the individual, social, and technical levels to improve managing energy consumptions in the future. This research presents a conceptual soft systems model to explore the process of individuals' energy behavior change based on socio-structural and techno-structural contexts. In addition, a comprehensive model based on systems dynamics principles is presented to address the issue of CO2 emissions related to the households' energy consumption behavior. The proposed systems dynamics model provides a broad overview of the key agents affecting energy consumption, including government/public sector, households, and power industry. The model is created based on the research in the literature discussing the causal relations between various variables. The proposed systems dynamics model is verified by simulating different scenarios. In this research a survey is designed and conducted to investigate the role of individual, social and technical behaviors in reducing energy consumption, energy costs and carbon footprints based on the energy use profile. In sum, this study investigates the process of energy behavior change based on socio-structural and techno-structural contexts.

  4. New Approach to Concept Feasibility and Design Studies for Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M. J.; McLaughlin, W.; Nichols, J.

    1998-01-01

    JPL has assembled a team of multidisciplinary experts with corporate knowledge of space mission and instrument development. The advanced Concept Design Team, known as Team X, provides interactive design trades including cost as a design parameter, and advanced visualization for pre-Phase A Studies.

  5. User's guide for ENSAERO: A multidisciplinary program for fluid/structural/control interaction studies of aircraft (release 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1994-01-01

    Strong interactions can occur between the flow about an aerospace vehicle and its structural components resulting in several important aeroelastic phenomena. These aeroelastic phenomena can significantly influence the performance of the vehicle. At present, closed-form solutions are available for aeroelastic computations when flows are in either the linear subsonic or supersonic range. However, for aeroelasticity involving complex nonlinear flows with shock waves, vortices, flow separations, and aerodynamic heating, computational methods are still under development. These complex aeroelastic interactions can be dangerous and limit the performance of aircraft. Examples of these detrimental effects are aircraft with highly swept wings experiencing vortex-induced aeroelastic oscillations, transonic regime at which the flutter speed is low, aerothermoelastic loads that play a critical role in the design of high-speed vehicles, and flow separations that often lead to buffeting with undesirable structural oscillations. The simulation of these complex aeroelastic phenomena requires an integrated analysis of fluids and structures. This report presents a summary of the development, applications, and procedures to use the multidisciplinary computer code ENSAERO. This code is based on the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations and modal/finite-element structural equations.

  6. LOXT mirror design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanspeybroeck, L.; Antrim, W.; Boyd, D.; Giacconi, R.; Sinnamon, G.; Stille, F.

    1972-01-01

    The final report for the large orbiting X-ray telescope (LOXT) high resolution mirror design study is presented. The following tasks were performed: (1) Generation of a reference and alternate preliminary design for the LOXT high resolution mirror assembly, which will meet the LOXT scientific requirements, and are within the present state of the art of materials and fabrication techniques. (2) Measurement, in X-rays, of the scattering properties of a variety of optical flats, embodying materials, coatings, and polishing techniques which might be applicable to the flight configuration LOXT high resolution mirror. (3) Preparation of a procurement specification for a paraboloid test mirror of the size of the innermost paraboloid of the high resolution mirror assembly, including the design requirements for the reference design evolved from this preliminary design study. The results of the engineering and scientific analysis and the conclusions drawn are presented. The procurement specification for the test mirror is included.

  7. Design Thinking: Employing an Effective Multidisciplinary Pedagogical Framework to Foster Creativity and Innovation in Rural and Remote Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a project to develop and track "design thinking" skills within groups of students in late primary and early secondary years of schooling in order to strengthen their creative skills and innovative mindsets. The outcome of the research will be the development of a model for the broad-based implementation of design thinking in…

  8. Effectiveness of three treatment strategies on occupational limitations and quality of life for patients with non-specific chronic low back pain: Is a multidisciplinary approach the key feature to success: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain (cLBP) is a significant public health problem, being the primary cause of work absenteeism, as well as affecting sufferers’ quality of life, in industrialized society. International guidelines recommend intensive multidisciplinary approaches for patients with cLBP. However, these costly and time-consuming programs can only be offered to a minority of the most heavily affected patients and therefore do not seem likely to respond to public health requirements. Lighter programs may be an alternative to full time hospital-based programs with valuable results in terms of disability and occupational activity for cLBP patients. It is therefore important to define both what the determining components of management to improve activity restriction are and how to treat a larger number of patients more effectively at a lower cost. The aim of this study is to compare three programs with various levels of intensity and multidisciplinary. Methods/Design This paper describes the protocol for a prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trial in working aged patients with cLBP. Three treatment strategies are compared: (1) intensive and multidisciplinary program conducted in a rehabilitation center; (2) less intensive outpatient program conducted by a private physiotherapist; (3) mixed strategy combining the same out program with a multidisciplinary intervention. The primary outcome of the trial is the impact of the mixed strategy on being able to work compared to hospital centered-program and out program. The secondary outcome is the impact of the mixed strategy on quality of life and social ability compared to the two others programs. The intervention part of the trial programs will take 5 weeks and observational follow-up will take 12 months. The sample size will be 180 participants (60 for each arm). The project has been approved by the Ethical Committee of Angers Hospital, France. Discussion On the hypothesis that a multidisciplinary

  9. Environmental transformations and cultural changes: A multidisciplinary case study for the Late Glacial and Final Palaeolithic from Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, F.; Tolksdorf, J. F.; Viehberg, F.; Schwarz, A.; von Bramann, U.; Bittmann, F.; Kaiser, K.; Schwalb, A.; Staesche, U.; Breest, K.; Pott, R.; Veil, S.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to younger periods, studies integrating archaeological and environmental records for the Palaeolithic are still rare. Especially our knowledge about interactions between the drastic climatic/environmental changes and cultural developments during the Late Glacial is very limited. This multidisciplinary case study from river Jeetzel, a western Elbe tributary in Northern Germany, combines high resolution palaeoenvironmental investigations with fine-scaled archaeological research on stratified and surface sites. Various dating methods (palynostratigraphy, radiocarbon- and OSL-dating) and analyses of environmental and climatological proxies (pollen and plant macro-remains, ostracods, diatoms and green algae) on river palaeochannel sediments allow detailed reconstruction of interactions between Late Glacial climate, vegetation and fluvial developments. Biostratigraphical analyses on stratified archaeological sites and dating of charcoal / bone fragments from artefact scatters place the Late Palaeolithic occupation of Early Federmesser groups in an environmental context. Thus the former production of hitherto unknown amber art (amongst others a figurine representing a moose) can be ascribed to the Older Dryas and Early Allerød, which are the periods of main Late Glacial afforestation. Therewith our investigations suggest that Final Palaeolithic cultural changes may have been triggered by climatic and environmental transformations.

  10. Integrated multidisciplinary biostratigraphic and paleoecologic study of southern California Neogene coastal sections

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, G.H.; Arends, R.G.; Filewicz, M.V.; Thornton, M.L.C.; Vork, D.R.

    1988-03-01

    This integrated biostratigraphic and paleoecologic study of several Neogene sections of coastal southern California is based on the use of diatoms, calcareous nannofossils, palynology, and benthic foraminifera. The study included the Naples Bluff, Topanga Canyon, and Newport Bay sections, and DSDP Site 468.

  11. Multidisciplinary design optimization of a fighter aircraft with damage tolerance constraints and a probabilistic model of the fatigue environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Albert Joseph

    2001-07-01

    Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) was considered in the global design optimization of an aircraft wing structure. Residual strength and fatigue life requirements, based on the damage tolerance philosophy, were investigated as new design constraints. In general, accurate fatigue prediction is difficult if the load environment is not known with a high degree of certainty. To address this issue, a probabilistic approach was used to describe the uncertain load environment. Probabilistic load spectra models were developed from flight recorder data. The global/local finite element approach allowed local fatigue requirements to be considered in the global design optimization. AFGROW fatigue crack growth analysis provided a new strength criterion for satisfying damage tolerance requirements within a global optimization environment. Initial research with the ASTROS program used the probabilistic load model and this damage tolerance constraint to optimize cracked skin panels on the lower wing of a fighter/attack aircraft. For an aerodynamic and structural model similar to an F-16, ASTROS simulated symmetric and asymmetric maneuvers during the optimization. Symmetric maneuvers, without underwing stores, produced the highest stresses and drove the optimization of the inboard lower wing skin. Asymmetric maneuvers, with underwing stores, affected the optimum thickness of the outboard hard points. Subsequent design optimizations included von Mises stress, aileron effectiveness, and lift effectiveness constraints simultaneously. This optimization was driven by the DTA and von Mises stress constraints and, therefore, DTA requirements can have an active role to play in preliminary aircraft design.

  12. Discourse as Social Interaction. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Teun A., Ed.

    The collection of essays on discourse as a form of social interaction includes: "Discourse as Interaction in Society" (Teun A. van Dijk); "Discourse Pragmatics" (Shoshana Blum-Kulka); "Conversation Analysis: An Approach to the Study of Social Action as Sense Making Practices" (Anita Pomerantz, B. J. Fehr); "Institutional Dialogue" (Paul Drew,…

  13. The Carbon Cycle and the Earth Systems--Studying the Carbon Cycle in Multidisciplinary Environmental Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudovitch, Yossi; Orion, Nir

    This paper describes a method that attempts to confront the challenges of developing an environmentally-based earth sciences program. The research scheme includes five stages: (1) predevelopment study; (2) curriculum development; (3) implementation; (4) formative evaluation; and (5) curriculum modification. The research results indicate that the…

  14. Integrating Augmented Reality in Higher Education: A Multidisciplinary Study of Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delello, Julie A.; McWhorter, Rochell R.; Camp, Kerri M.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is an emerging technology that blends physical objects with virtual reality. Through the integration of digital and print media, a gap between the "on and offline" worlds are merged, radically shifting student-computer interaction in the classroom. This research examined the results of a multiple case study on the…

  15. Studying Computer Science in a Multidisciplinary Degree Programme: Freshman Students' Orientation, Knowledge, and Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kautz, Karlheinz; Kofoed, Uffe

    2004-01-01

    Teachers at universities are facing an increasing disparity in students' prior IT knowledge and, at the same time, experience a growing disengagement of the students with regard to involvement in study activities. As computer science teachers in a joint programme in computer science and business administration, we made a number of similar…

  16. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Sustainable Management of Watershed Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lack of integration in the study and management of water resource problems suggests the need for a multidisciplinary approach. As practiced in the Shepherd Creek stormwater management study (Cincinnati OH), we envision a multidisciplinary approach involving economic incentive...

  17. Multidisciplinary mental health teams.

    PubMed

    Slade, M; Rosen, A; Shankar, R

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed current practice amongst 91 Indian and Australian staff working within multidisciplinary mental health teams, looking at leadership skills, conflict resolution and therapeutic abilities. Length of training was associated with management skills, though these skill were more developed by psychiatric nurses and occupational therapists working in community settings. Hospital settings involved less consensual decision-making than community teams. Psychiatric nurses spent most time in clinical work, and occupational therapists were rated as less skilled in the therapeutic activities assessed than any other profession. Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists undertook most research. The activities assessed in this study could be undertaken by a team comprising psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses and social workers, with clinical psychologists employed where possible, especially for research or service evaluation. PMID:8847199

  18. A multidisciplinary study on lavaka (gully erosion) formation in Central Highlands, Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveloson, A.; Visnovitz, F.; Székely, B.; Molnár, G.; Udvardi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Madagascar is a very important place to study erosion. Due to some forms of gully erosion called lavaka the country is among the first regarding its erosion rate. Lavakas are very abundant in the highlands of Madagascar (they can reach up to 30/km2). Therefore they have been subject of many studies in the past 60 years. Lavaka formation seems to be triggered by many regional effects (thin laterite layer on thick saprolite layer, smoothly convex hills, climate) and local causes (rain attack, earth falls, lack of vegetation) both natural and anthropogenic (deforestation, roads, paths) but the real nature of these erosion features are not fully understood. Based on field surveys, photogrammetrical, geomorphological and lithological-sedimentological methods two different kinds of lavaka (toe-slope and mid-slope) were studied in Tsiafahy, Central Highlands. Our main goal was to understand the formation of lavakas in order to prevent their consequences such as the degradation of agricultural lands, villages and nearby roads. For this purpose we digitalized geological and hydrological maps of the country and compared them with maps showing the occurrence of lavakas in Madagascar. 3D (three-dimensional) modeling of the actual eroding surface was achieved with photogrammetric methods applying the few hundred photos we made during the field surveys. We tested several 3D modeling software and used the best ones (with higher accuracy and resolution) to model a toe-slope lavaka. In order to model a more complex mid-slope lavaka a new program has been developed in MATLAB as well. Such photogrammetric evaluation and 3D modeling of lavakas were achieved for the first time and therefore the results are yet preliminary. Sedimentological features (grain size distribution and mineral composition) of an active mid-slope lavaka were also investigated to define the difference between the lateritic and saprolitic layers of the lavaka. Preliminary results show that the most important

  19. Multidisciplinary approach in a water salinity study of the southern San Pitch drainage, Sanpete County, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, C.

    2015-12-01

    Geologic mapping and geophysical techniques corroborate surface water surveys to identify regions in the subsurface that likely influence San Pitch River salinity in central Utah. Geologic mapping reveals that two members of the Arapien Shale are likely present in the subsurface beneath the areas where saline springs are found. Previous studies specified halite deposits in one member, and indicated the other member is known to contain halite in the general region. A total of 49 unique Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM) stations were measured in the study area using a ground loop layout. Modeling of TEM data reveals one very shallow conductive body (1 to 10 ohm.m) between desilting basins and the San Pitch River that we interpret to be saline groundwater. A larger, deeper, and more continuous conductive body, observed in the northeast part of the study area, is interpreted as a geologic feature, most likely Arapien Shale. We measured or estimated discharge (flow) at 53 unique locations within streams and from seeps and springs, and estimated water quality (field parameters) at 172 different sites within the flow regime, measuring some sites multiple times during different seasons. Our results show that a 1.6 mile reach of the San Pitch River between the Highway 89 bridge and the confluence with Twelvemile Creek is a major source of salt loading; salt load increases from mostly less than 50 g/s above the bridge to nearly 300 g/s above the confluence. An addition of 80 to 90 g/s salt load from Twelvemile Creek, which carries salt from a 10-acre saline marsh, combines to bring the overall salt load carried by the San Pitch River at a point of irrigation use 3 miles downstream to between approximately 400 g/s in the spring to approximately 650 g/s in autumn. Our combined geologic, geophysical, and hydrologic assessment indicates that the source of salinity in the San Pitch River and Twelvemile Creek is dissolution of salt from the Arapien Shale and its erosional

  20. X-traktor: A Rookie Robot, Simple, Yet Complex, Impeccably Designed, a Very Innovative Multidisciplinary Engineering Masterpiece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, A. J., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    FIRST is the acronym of For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology. FIRST is a 501.C.3 non-profit organization whose mission is to generate an interest in science and engineering among today's young adults and youth. This mission is accomplished through a robot competition held annually in the spring of each year. NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center, Education Programs Department, awarded a grant to Lee High School, the sole engineering magnet school in Huntsville, Alabama. MSFC awarded the grant in hopes of fulfilling its goal of giving back invaluable resources to its community and engineers, as well as educating tomorrow's work force in the high-tech area of science and technology. Marshall engineers, Lee High School students and teachers, and a host of other volunteers and parents officially initiated this robot design process and competitive strategic game plan. The FIRST Robotics Competition is a national engineering contest, which immerses high school students in the exciting world of science and engineering. Teaming with engineers from government agencies, businesses, and universities enables the students to learn about the engineering profession. The students and engineers have six weeks to work together to brainstorm, design, procure, construct, and test their robot. The team then competes in a spirited, 'no-holds barred' tournament, complete with referees, other FIRST-designed robots, cheerleaders, and time clocks. The partnerships developed between schools, government agencies, businesses, and universities provide an exchange of resources and talent that build cooperation and expose students to new and rewarding career options. The result is a fun, exciting, and stimulating environment in which all participants discover the important connections between classroom experiences and real-world applications. This paper will highlight the story, engineering development, and evolutionary design of Xtraktor, the rookie robot, a manufacturing

  1. Rational design on controlled release ion-exchange polymeric microspheres and polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles for the delivery of water-soluble drugs through a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongqiang

    surfactants applied. A three-factor spherical composite experimental design was used to map the cause-and-effect relationship. PLN with high drug loading efficiency (92%) and small particle size (100 nm) were predicted by ANN and confirmed by experiment. The roles of various factors on the properties of PLN were also investigated. In summary, this thesis demonstrates that an integrated multidisciplinary strategy ranging from preformulation to formulation to optimization is suitable for the rational design of SP-DS microspheres and PLN with desired properties.

  2. An overview of the Guangzhou biobank cohort study-cardiovascular disease subcohort (GBCS-CVD): a platform for multidisciplinary collaboration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, C Q; Lam, T H; Lin, J M; Liu, B; Yue, X J; Cheng, K K; Tomlinson, B; Wong, K S; Cheung, B M Y; Thomas, G N

    2010-02-01

    The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS, n=30 519, age >or=50 years) was established to examine the effects of genetic and environmental influences on health problems and chronic disease development. Guangzhou is undergoing massive economic development, but from a baseline that had remained unchanged for millennia. The Cardiovascular Disease Subcohort (GBCS-CVD) consists of 2000 participants who have been intensively phenotyped including a range of surrogate markers of vascular disease, including carotid artery intima-media thickness, cerebral artery stenoses, arterial stiffness, ankle-to-brachial blood pressure index and albuminuria, as well as coagulatory and inflammatory markers. Plasma and leukocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for future studies. Preliminary demographic data show the female volunteers are younger than the male ones, but present with greater levels of adiposity including central obesity (31 vs 16%). Women had more body fat (33 vs 24%) and associated levels of adipokines. Despite this, body mass index and hip circumferences were similar, which contrasts with Caucasian populations. Men had more physician-diagnosed vascular disease (6.1 vs 2.5%), hypertension (42 vs 34%) and hyperglycaemia (36.6 vs 29.6%) than the women, but were less insulin resistant. In men, smoking (40 vs 2%) and drinking alcohol (67 vs 50%) was more common and they also had lower energy expenditures. The genotype distributions of the 15 typed single nucleotide polymorphisms were all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This article describes the rationale and methodology for the study. Given the comprehensive characterization of demographic and psychosocial determinants and biochemistry, the study provides a unique platform for multidisciplinary collaboration in a highly dynamic setting. PMID:19587700

  3. Multidisciplinary study of phase separation in a supersaturated Ni-Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haydn . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Epperson, J.E. )

    1990-07-01

    The subject of {gamma}{prime} precipitation in a Ni-12.5 at. % Si alloy has been studied by modern diffraction and scattering techniques in the small-angle and large angle regimes, and by transmission electron microscopy. Special attention is placed upon the mechanism and kinetic evolution of {gamma}{prime} precipitates as a function of ageing conditions. Methods are shown for the determination of interdiffusion coefficient, the interfacial energy and the coherent solubility. The strain effect, due to lattice mismatch, on the spatial correlation and preferred alignment of precipitates is addressed. Scaling law for the particle growth has been tested against the current theories. Results obtained from the three mutually beneficial techniques are shown to be consistent, thereby allowing an integral view of the phase separation process in this system. 29 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Multidisciplinary geophysical study of the NE sector of the unstable flank of Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Cocina, Ornella; Siniscalchi, Agata; Barberi, Graziella; Guglielmino, Francesco; Romano, Gerardo; Sicali, Simona; Tripaldi, Simona

    2015-04-01

    On volcanic areas, usually characterized by complex structural environments, a lot of independent geophysical studies are usually performed. The non-uniqueness of the geophysical inverse models, the different level of resolution and sensitivity of the results spurred us to integrate independent geophysical datasets and results collected on Mt. Etna volcano, in order to obtain more accurate and reliable model interpretation. Mt. Etna volcano is located along the eastern coast of Sicily and it is characterized by a complex structural setting. In this region, the general N-S compressive regime related to the Africa - Europe collision interacts with the WNW-ESE extensional regime associated to the Malta Escarpment dynamics, observable along the eastern coast of Sicily. At Mt Etna, a great number of studies concerns the existence of instability phenomena; a general eastward motion of the eastern flank of the volcano has been measured with always increasing detail and its relationship with the eruptive and magmatic activity is being investigated. The unstable flank appears bounded to the north by the E-W-trending Provenzana - Pernicana Fault System and to the SW by the NS Ragalna Fault system. Eastwards, this area is divided by several NW-SE trending faults. Recent studies consider this area as divided into several blocks characterized by different shape and kinematics. Ground deformation studies (GPS and InSAR) define the NE portion of the unstable flank as the most mobile one. In the frame of the MEDiterranean Supersites Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project, ground deformation data (GPS and INSAR), 3D seismicity, seismic tomography and two resistivity model profiles, have been analyzed together, in order to put some constraints on the deep structure of the NE sector of the unstable flank. Seismic data come from the permanent network run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) - Sezione di Catania, Osservatorio Etneo. Ground deformation data comes from In

  5. Pediatric pain management: the multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Odell, Shannon; Logan, Deirdre E

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents is a growing problem and one that is increasingly being addressed with multidisciplinary treatment teams. This review summarizes different multidisciplinary clinics, focusing specifically on intensive pediatric pain rehabilitation centers. This review offers a summary of the challenges faced by these programs and areas for future study. PMID:24250232

  6. Methane seepage along the Hikurangi Margin offshore New Zealand: 6 years of multidisciplinary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greinert, J.; Bialas, J.; Klaucke, I.; Crutchley, G.; Dale, A.; Linke, P.; Sommer, S.; Bowden, D.; Rowden, A.; de Haas, H.; de Stigter, H.; Faure, K.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed studies in 2006, 2007 and 2011 along the east coast of New Zealand's North Island highlighted the close link of sub-bottom fluid pathways and seafloor expressions of methane seepage such as clam fields, carbonate build-ups, tubeworms, bacterial mats and methane release (Marine Geology 272). Prior to our studies, only accidental observations of hydroacoustic anomalies, recoveries of calyptogena shells and methane-derived carbonate chimneys indicated active seepage. Wide areas of the sub-seafloor show BSR structures, gas migration pathways, gas chimneys and blanking zones, which are closely linked to actual seep sites. Sidescan surveys showed four prominent seep areas at Omakere Ridge in 1120m water depth, three of them perfectly matching the shapes and locations of faults seen in high resolution 3D-seismic surveys. The fourth seep, Bear's Paw, on its western side represents an old seep which developed into a cold water coral habitat. At the actively seeping eastern part, gas hydrates could be retrieved and bubble release was observed hydroacoustically and confirmed by high dissolved methane values (380nM). No strong microbial oxidation effects could be found in δ13C values plotting along a mixing curve between pure seep (-70 ‰PDB) and atmospheric methane (-47 ‰PDB). Lander deployments show a tide-influenced gas discharge with sometimes eruptive bubble release with possible plume development transporting methane-charged water higher up into the water column. Rock Garden, with just above 600m water depth at its top outside the gas hydrate stability zone, hosts two main seep areas. ROV observations at Faure Site document eruptive releases of free gas from decimeter-wide craters at the seafloor. Flux estimates show peak releases of 420ml/min with bubbles up to 9mm in diameter. Concentrations of dissolved methane reach up to 3500nM close to the bottom, but higher concentrations are limited to below 400m of water depth; here, methane is transported towards

  7. Behavioral predictors of attrition in adolescents participating in a multidisciplinary obesity treatment program: EVASYON study.

    PubMed

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Muro, C; Santabárbara, J; López-Antón, R; Morandé, G; Martín-Matillas, M; Azcona-San Julián, M C; Martí, A; Campoy, C; Marcos, A; Moreno, L A; Garagorri, J M

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the cognitive and behavioral predictors of dropping out and to estimate the attrition rate during different phases of an intervention program to treat overweight and obesity in adolescents. Overweight/obese adolescents (n=156, aged: 13-16 years; 71 male and 85 female subjects) were included in a multicomponent (diet, physical activity and psychological support) family-based group treatment program. At baseline and after 2 months (intensive phase) and 13 months (extensive phase) of follow-up, we measured adolescents' cognitive and behavioral dimensions, together with the parents' perception of their child's behavior. Of the 156 adolescents selected, 112 completed the full program (drop-out rate of 28.2%). The risk of dropping out during the extensive phase increased by 20% for each unit increase in the adolescent's social insecurity score (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.34, P=0.002). The adolescents who had a high interoceptive awareness showed a significant decrease of 13.0% in the probability of dropping out (odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval=0.77-0.99, P=0.040). Adolescents' social insecurity was the main predictor of drop-out in a multicomponent family-group-based obesity treatment program. To reduce attrition rates in these programs, the individual's social insecurity level needs to be reduced, whereas the family's awareness of eating-related behavior needs adjustment. PMID:26381348

  8. Using Student-Generated Analogies to Investigate Conceptions of Energy: A multidisciplinary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderman Lancor, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The concept of energy is widely employed in introductory science courses. However, the term energy is defined and utilized in different ways depending on the context, even within a given discipline. Through the lens of metaphor theory, these various definitions of energy are seen as metaphors that highlight and obscure characteristics of energy. Working under this framework, undergraduate students in introductory biology, chemistry, and physics courses were asked to write analogies that reflect their understanding of the role of energy in the context of ecosystems (n = 49), chemical reactions (n = 36), mechanical systems (n = 65), and electrical circuits (n = 44). These analogies were analyzed qualitatively using metaphor theory to gain understanding of how students conceptualize energy in these different contexts. The results of this study indicate that students use seven different conceptual metaphors to explain the role of energy in various scientific contexts: energy as a substance that can be accounted for, energy as a substance that can flow, can change forms, can be carried, can be lost, can be an ingredient or a product, and energy as a process or interaction. This result gives teachers a framework to use in evaluating student ideas about energy.

  9. A Multidisciplinary Approach for Estimation of Seismic Losses: A Case Study in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askan, A.; Erberik, M.; Un, E.

    2012-12-01

    Estimation of seismic losses including the physical, economic and social losses as well as casualties concern a wide range of authorities varying from geophysical and earthquake engineers, physical and economic planners to insurance companies. Due to the inherent uncertainties involved at each component, a probabilistic framework is required to estimate seismic losses. This study aims to propose an integrated method for predicting the potential seismic loss for a selected urban region. The main components of the proposed loss model are the seismic hazard estimation tool, building vulnerability functions, human losses and economic losses as functions of damage states of buildings. The input data for risk calculations involves regional seismicity and building fragility information. The casualty model for a given damage level considers the occupancy type, population of the building, occupancy at the time of earthquake occurrence, number of trapped occupants in the collapse, injury distribution at collapse and mortality post collapse. The economic loss module involves direct economic loss to buildings in terms of replacement, structural repair, non-structural repair costs and contents losses. Finally, the proposed loss model combines the input components within a conditional probability approach. The results are expressed in terms of expected loss. We calibrate the method with loss data from the 12 November 1999 Düzce earthquake and then predict losses for another city in Turkey (Bursa) with high seismic hazard.

  10. Multidisciplinary population monitoring when demographic data are sparse: a case study of remote trout populations

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J; Calvert, Anna M; Bernatchez, Louis; Coon, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetic, genomic, and phenotypic metrics for monitoring population trends may be especially high in isolated regions, where traditional demographic monitoring is logistically difficult and only sporadic sampling is possible. This potential, however, is relatively underexplored empirically. Over eleven years, we assessed several such metrics along with traditional ecological knowledge and catch data in a socioeconomically important trout species occupying a large, remote lake. The data revealed largely stable characteristics in two populations over 2–3 generations, but possible contemporary changes in a third population. These potential shifts were suggested by reduced catch rates, reduced body size, and changes in selection implied at one gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphism. A demographic decline in this population, however, was ambiguously supported, based on the apparent lack of temporal change in effective population size, and corresponding traditional knowledge suggesting little change in catch. We illustrate how the pluralistic approach employed has practicality for setting future monitoring efforts of these populations, by guiding monitoring priorities according to the relative merits of different metrics and availability of resources. Our study also considers some advantages and disadvantages to adopting a pluralistic approach to population monitoring where demographic data are not easily obtained. PMID:24455128

  11. A multidisciplinary study on the crustal nature of volcanic conduits and magma reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, Ashton F.

    Volcanic settings vary widely not only in their eruptive style and products, but in the manner magma travels from deep sources to individual eruptive centers. Imaging these pathways, and their associated crustal reservoirs, provides unique and unprecedented views into these environments. Imaging techniques are varied with the strength of the technique often based on data availability. As such, we focus on two methods---gravity and seismic---in two different settings, each with its own unique volcanic environments, crustal structures, and associated data resources. The first, the Hawaiian Islands, are the most geologically studied hot-spot islands in the world, yet the only large-scale compilation of marine and land gravity data is more than 45 years old. We present a new chain-wide gravity compilation allowing us to locate current and former volcanic centers, major rift zones, a previously suggested volcano, and show that volcanoes along the chain are composed of a small proportion of intrusive material (<30% by volume). At the second area, the arc-volcanism of southern Washington, we used ambient seismic noise methods to constrain the crustal pathways of deep-sourced melt to the surface. We image two zones of reduced velocity, one of which correlates with a proposed extensive zone of mid-crustal partial melt which likely supplies evolved magmas to the surrounding volcanoes and vents, including Mounts St. Helens and Adams.

  12. Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis in the Era of a Multi-Disciplinary Approach Based on Biocompatible Solutions: the NEXT-PD Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Masanobu; Honda, Kazuho; Kasai, Kenji; Tomo, Tadashi; Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Kawanishi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Introduction: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Over the past decade in Japan, a multidisciplinary approach has been adopted to minimize the incidence and improve outcomes of EPS. This strategy includes planned PD discontinuation for high-risk patients and the introduction of biocompatible solutions. This study examined the current clinical status of EPS in representative PD centers in Japan. ♦ Design, setting, participants and measurements: Patients (n = 1,338) from 55 PD centers in Japan who were using neutral-pH solutions from the initiation of therapy (mean age, 62 years; median PD duration, 32 months; concomitant use of icodextrin, 35.2%; PD and hemodialysis combination therapy, 12.2%) were assessed every 6 months to ascertain the reasons for PD discontinuation and the development of EPS development. Outcomes were also recorded. The study period was from November 2008 to March 2012. ♦ Results: There were 727 patients who discontinued PD, including 163 deaths. Among all causes of PD withdrawal except for death, planned PD discontinuation to avoid EPS was utilized in 58 cases (7.1% in total). The strategy was increasingly utilized in proportion to the duration of PD: 0.5% for patients undergoing PD for < 3 years, 0.6% for patients undergoing PD for 5 years, 14.7% for patients undergoing PD for 8 years, and 35.5% for patients undergoing PD for > 8 years. Fourteen patients developed EPS (three cases after PD), which corresponded with an overall incidence of 1.0%. The incidence according to the duration of PD was 0.3% for PD < 3 years, 0.6% for PD = 5 years, 2.3% for PD = 8 years, and 1.2% for PD > 8 years. In terms of therapy, 11 patients were treated with prednisolone (PSL), and surgical enterolysis was utilized in two cases. Complete remission of abdominal symptoms was achieved in twelve patients (85.7%), and three died due to EPS (mortality rate of 21.4%). ♦ Conclusions: Use of the

  13. Giant Serpentine Aneurysms: Multidisciplinary Management

    PubMed Central

    Anshun, W.; Feng, L.; Daming, W.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Sixty-five cases of intracranial giant serpentine aneurysms (GSΛs), including 61 cases reported in the literature and four additional cases presented in this study were reviewed. The clinical presentation, possible causes, natural history, and especially management of GSAs are discussed with emphasis on the need for aggressive intervention and multidisciplinary management. PMID:20667180

  14. CATALISE: A Multinational and Multidisciplinary Delphi Consensus Study. Identifying Language Impairments in Children

    PubMed Central

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul A.; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2016-01-01

    Delayed or impaired language development is a common developmental concern, yet there is little agreement about the criteria used to identify and classify language impairments in children. Children's language difficulties are at the interface between education, medicine and the allied professions, who may all adopt different approaches to conceptualising them. Our goal in this study was to use an online Delphi technique to see whether it was possible to achieve consensus among professionals on appropriate criteria for identifying children who might benefit from specialist services. We recruited a panel of 59 experts representing ten disciplines (including education, psychology, speech-language therapy/pathology, paediatrics and child psychiatry) from English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, United Kingdom and USA). The starting point for round 1 was a set of 46 statements based on articles and commentaries in a special issue of a journal focusing on this topic. Panel members rated each statement for both relevance and validity on a seven-point scale, and added free text comments. These responses were synthesised by the first two authors, who then removed, combined or modified items with a view to improving consensus. The resulting set of statements was returned to the panel for a second evaluation (round 2). Consensus (percentage reporting 'agree' or 'strongly agree') was at least 80 percent for 24 of 27 round 2 statements, though many respondents qualified their response with written comments. These were again synthesised by the first two authors. The resulting consensus statement is reported here, with additional summary of relevant evidence, and a concluding commentary on residual disagreements and gaps in the evidence base. PMID:27392128

  15. Prediction of function in daily life following multidisciplinary rehabilitation for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain; a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lillefjell, Monica; Krokstad, Steinar; Espnes, Geir Arild

    2007-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain is high, with widespread negative economic, psychological, and social consequences for the individual. It is therefore important to find ways to predict the outcome of rehabilitation programmes in terms of function in daily life. The aims of this study were to investigate the improvements over time from multidisciplinary rehabilitation in terms of pain and function, and analyse the relative impact of individual and psychosocial factors as predictors of function in daily life in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods A prospective study was conducted among one hundred and forty three (N = 143) musculoskeletal pain patients. Measures of pain, function, and functional health status were obtained at baseline, after 5 weeks of intensive training, at the end of the 57-week rehabilitation programme, and at a 1 year follow-up, using validated self-administrated measures. Linear regression analysis was applied to investigate the relative impact of musculoskeletal pain, individual-, and psychosocial factors in function. Results The participants studied showed a significant increase in function during the 57 weeks rehabilitation period. There was also a significant increase in function from the end of the rehabilitation period (57th week) to the one year follow-up measures. Pain intensity associated significantly with pain experience over all measurement periods. High levels of pain intensity (β = .42**) and pain experience (β = .37*), and poor psychological capacity (β = -.68*) at baseline, as well as poor physiological capacity (β = -.44**) and high levels of anxiety (β = .48**) and depression (β = .58***) at the end of the rehabilitation program were the most important prognostic factors of variance in functioning over the 4 measurement periods. Conclusion The data suggest that physical capacity, emotional distress and coping skills should be priority areas in rehabilitation programmes to

  16. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/Dysplasia, Clinical Presentation and Diagnostic Evaluation: Results from the North American Multidisciplinary Study

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Frank I; Zareba, Wojciech; Calkins, Hugh; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Basso, Cristina; Bluemke, David A; Estes, N. A. Mark; Picard, Michael H; Sanborn, Danita; Thiene, Gaetano; Wichter, Thomas; Cannom, David; Wilber, David J; Scheinman, Melvin; Duff, Henry; Daubert, James; Talajic, Mario; Krahn, Andrew; Sweeney, Michael; Garan, Hasan; Sakaguchi, Scott; Lerman, Bruce; Kerr, Charles; Kron, Jack; Steinberg, Jonathan; Sherrill, Duane; Gear, Kathleen; Brown, Mary; Severski, Patricia; Polonsky, Slava; McNitt, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior reports on patients with ARVC/D focused on individuals with advanced forms of the disease. There are limited data regarding diagnostic performance of various testing modalities in newly identified individuals suspected of having ARVC/D. Objectives The Multidisciplinary Study of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/Dysplasia (ARVC/D) was initiated to study the clinical characteristics and the diagnostic evaluation of a large group of newly identified patients with ARVC/D. Methods A total of 108 newly diagnosed patients with suspected ARVC/D were prospectively enrolled in the United States and Canada. The patients underwent noninvasive and invasive tests using standardized protocols that were initially interpreted by the enrolling center and adjudicated by blind analysis in six core laboratories. The patients were followed for a mean of 27 ± 16 months (0.2 – 63 months). Results The clinical profile of these newly diagnosed patients differs from those reported with more advanced disease. There was considerable difference in the initial and final classification of the presence of ARVC/D after the diagnostic tests were evaluated by the core laboratories. Final clinical diagnosis was 73 affected, 28 borderline, and 7 unaffected. Individual tests agreed with final diagnosis in 50% to 70% of the 73 who had final classification as affected. Conclusions The clinical profile of 108 newly diagnosed probands with suspected ARVC/D indicates that a combination of diagnostic tests is needed to evaluate the presence of right ventricular structural, functional and electrical abnormalities. Echocardiography, RV angiography, SAECG and Holter monitoring provide optimal clinical evaluation of patients suspected of ARVC/D. PMID:19560088

  17. Study Design for Sequencing Studies.

    PubMed

    Honaas, Loren A; Altman, Naomi S; Krzywinski, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Once a biochemical method has been devised to sample RNA or DNA of interest, sequencing can be used to identify the sampled molecules with high fidelity and low bias. High-throughput sequencing has therefore become the primary data acquisition method for many genomics studies and is being used more and more to address molecular biology questions. By applying principles of statistical experimental design, sequencing experiments can be made more sensitive to the effects under study as well as more biologically sound, hence more replicable. PMID:27008009

  18. Determinants of treatment plan implementation in multidisciplinary team meetings for patients with chronic diseases: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Rosalind; Xanthopoulou, Penny; Wallace, Isla; Nic a’ Bháird, Caoimhe; Lanceley, Anne; Clarke, Alex; Livingston, Gill; Prentice, Archie; Ardron, Dave; Harris, Miriam; King, Michael; Michie, Susan; Blazeby, Jane M; Austin-Parsons, Natalie; Gibbs, Simon; Barber, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings are assumed to produce better decisions and are extensively used to manage chronic disease in the National Health Service (NHS). However, evidence for their effectiveness is mixed. Our objective was to investigate determinants of MDT effectiveness by examining factors influencing the implementation of MDT treatment plans. This is a proxy measure of effectiveness, because it lies on the pathway to improvements in health, and reflects team decision making which has taken account of clinical and non-clinical information. Additionally, this measure can be compared across MDTs for different conditions. Methods We undertook a prospective mixed-methods study of 12 MDTs in London and North Thames. Data were collected by observation of 370 MDT meetings, interviews with 53 MDT members, and from 2654 patient medical records. We examined the influence of patient-related factors (disease, age, sex, deprivation, whether their preferences and other clinical/health behaviours were mentioned) and MDT features (as measured using the ‘Team Climate Inventory’ and skill mix) on the implementation of MDT treatment plans. Results The adjusted odds (or likelihood) of implementation was reduced by 25% for each additional professional group represented at the MDT meeting. Implementation was more likely in MDTs with clear goals and processes and a good ‘Team Climate’ (adjusted OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.31 for a unit increase in Team Climate Inventory (TCI) score). Implementation varied by disease category, with the lowest adjusted odds of implementation in mental health teams. Implementation was also lower for patients living in more deprived areas (adjusted odds of implementation for patients in the most compared with least deprived areas was 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.91). Conclusions Greater multidisciplinarity is not necessarily associated with more effective decision making. Explicit goals and procedures are also crucial. Decision

  19. Multidisciplinary Cancer Conferences for Gastrointestinal Malignancies Result in Measureable Treatment Changes: A Prospective Study of 149 Consecutive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Oxenberg, Jacqueline; Papenfuss, Wesley; Esemuede, Iyare; Attwood, Kristopher; Simunovic, Marko; Kuvshinoff, Boris; Francescutti, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background In most jurisdictions, a minority of patients are discussed at multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC) despite recommendations for such reviews. We assessed the impact of MCC review of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers at a stand-alone cancer center. Methods Patient data were prospectively collected on consecutive cases presented at a GI MCC during a 6-month period. Original treatment plans were collected confidentially before presentation and compared to post-MCC treatment plans. We defined changes in management plans as major (change in treatment modality) or minor (testing prior to original plan). Results A total of 149 cases were evaluated: 115 upper GI (gastric/small bowel—10 %, liver—32 %, pancreaticobiliary— 36 %), and 34 lower GI (23 %). Reasons for presentation were: questions regarding progression/metastases (44 %), management (26 %), diagnosis (21 %), pathology (15 %), and resectability (7 %). Physicians were certain of their original plans being the final recommendations in 84 % (n = 125). Change in management was recommended in 36 %; 72 % were major and 28 % were minor. Patients underwent all recommended treatments at our institution in 77 % of cases, a portion in 5 %, and no recommended treatments in 18 %. On multivariate analysis, physician degree of certainty for original management plan was not predictive of a change in management plan (p = 0.61). Conclusions Although certainty of prediscussion treatment plan is high, changes in treatment recommendations occurred in more than one-third of patients after GI MCC. This prospective study demonstrates the value of MCC in GI cancer sites, even at a stand-alone cancer center. PMID:25323473

  20. Multi-disciplinary data organization and visualization models for clinical and pre-clinical studies: A case study in the application of proton beam radiosurgery for treating spinal cord injury related pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sneha K.; Liu, Brent J.

    2016-03-01

    An increasing adoption of electronic medical records has made information more accessible to clinicians and researchers through dedicated systems such as HIS, RIS and PACS. The speed and the amount at which information are generated in a multi-institutional clinical study make the problem complicated compared to day-to-day hospital workflow. Often, increased access to the information does not translate into the efficient use of that information. Therefore, it becomes crucial to establish models which can be used to organize and visualize multi-disciplinary data. Good visualization in turn makes it easy for clinical decision-makers to reach a conclusion within a small span of time. In a clinical study involving multi-disciplinary data and multiple user groups who need access to the same data and presentation states based on the stage of the clinical trial or the task are crucial within the workflow. Therefore, in order to demonstrate the conceptual system design and system workflow, we will be presenting a clinical trial based on application of proton beam for radiosurgery which will utilize our proposed system. For demonstrating user role and visualization design purposes, we will be focusing on three different user groups which are researchers involved in patient enrollment and recruitment, clinicians involved in treatment and imaging review and lastly the principle investigators involved in monitoring progress of clinical study. Also datasets for each phase of the clinical study including preclinical and clinical data as it related to subject enrollment, subject recruitment (classifier), treatment (DICOM), imaging, and pathological analysis (protein staining) of outcomes.

  1. The anatomy of clinical decision-making in multidisciplinary cancer meetings: A cross-sectional observational study of teams in a natural context.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Tayana; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Lamb, Benjamin W; Sarkar, Somita; Arora, Sonal; Shah, Sujay; Darzi, Ara; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick

    2016-06-01

    In the UK, treatment recommendations for patients with cancer are routinely made by multidisciplinary teams in weekly meetings. However, their performance is variable.The aim of this study was to explore the underlying structure of multidisciplinary decision-making process, and examine how it relates to team ability to reach a decision.This is a cross-sectional observational study consisting of 1045 patient reviews across 4 multidisciplinary cancer teams from teaching and community hospitals in London, UK, from 2010 to 2014. Meetings were chaired by surgeons.We used a validated observational instrument (Metric for the Observation of Decision-making in Cancer Multidisciplinary Meetings) consisting of 13 items to assess the decision-making process of each patient discussion. Rated on a 5-point scale, the items measured quality of presented patient information, and contributions to review by individual disciplines. A dichotomous outcome (yes/no) measured team ability to reach a decision. Ratings were submitted to Exploratory Factor Analysis and regression analysis.The exploratory factor analysis produced 4 factors, labeled "Holistic and Clinical inputs" (patient views, psychosocial aspects, patient history, comorbidities, oncologists', nurses', and surgeons' inputs), "Radiology" (radiology results, radiologists' inputs), "Pathology" (pathology results, pathologists' inputs), and "Meeting Management" (meeting chairs' and coordinators' inputs). A negative cross-loading was observed from surgeons' input on the fourth factor with a follow-up analysis showing negative correlation (r = -0.19, P < 0.001). In logistic regression, all 4 factors predicted team ability to reach a decision (P < 0.001).Hawthorne effect is the main limitation of the study.The decision-making process in cancer meetings is driven by 4 underlying factors representing the complete patient profile and contributions to case review by all core disciplines. Evidence of dual-task interference was

  2. A multi-disciplinary approach to study coastal complex landslides: the case of Torino di Sangro (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, Marco; Carabba, Luigi; Urbano, Tullio; Calista, Monia

    2016-04-01

    This work illustrates the studies carried out on a complex landslide phenomenon between the Sangro and Osento River's mouths, near Torino di Sangro village in Southern Abruzzo Region (Italy). Historical activity of this landslide is well-documented since 1916; the activation/reactivation of the movements caused several interruptions of a national railway and the damage of few houses. The Torino di Sangro case study can be regarded as representative of many large landslides distributed along the central Adriatic coast (e.g., Ancona, Ortona, Vasto and Petacciato Landslides) that affect densely populated urban areas with a large amount of man-made infrastructure. The main controlling factors of these large and deep-seated landslides are still debated. From the geological and geomorphological viewpoint, the central Adriatic coast is characterized by a low-relief landscape (mesa) carved on clay-sandstone-conglomerate bedrock belonging to the Upper Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene marine deposits and locally to the Middle Pleistocene marine to continental transitional deposits. This high coast is widely affected by slope instability (rock falls, rotational, complex and shallow landslides) on both active and inactive sea cliffs, the first being mainly affected by wave-cut erosion and the latter influenced by heavy rainfall and changes of pore pressure. The main landslide has the typical characteristics of a deep-seated gravitation deformation. The landslide study was based on a multidisciplinary approach including: 1) definition and GIS mapping of geology and geomorphology factors (slope, aspect, topographic curvature, bedrock lithology, near-surface deposits, deposit thickness and land use), by means of DTM processing, multi-temporal analysis, and large-scale geomorphological field survey; 2) monitoring system in the landslide; 3) application of empiric models for the analysis of unstable sandstone-conglomerate escarpments; 4) slope stability analysis performed using a

  3. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  5. Shuttle communications design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of a space shuttle communication system are discussed. The subjects considered include the following: (1) Ku-band satellite relay to shuttle, (2) phased arrays, (3) PN acquisition, (4) quadriplexing of direct link ranging and telemetry, (5) communications blackout on launch and reentry, (6) acquisition after blackout on reentry, (7) wideband communications interface with the Ku-Band rendezvous radar, (8) aeroflight capabilities of the space shuttle, (9) a triple multiplexing scheme equivalent to interplex, and (10) a study of staggered quadriphase for use on the space shuttle.

  6. Effects of a Two-Year Intensive Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Huntington’s Disease: a Prospective Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Piira, Anu; van Walsem, Marleen R.; Mikalsen, Geir; Øie, Lars; Frich, Jan C.; Knutsen, Synnove

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess effects of a two year intensive, multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for patients with early- to mid-stage Huntington’s disease. Design: A prospective intervention study. Setting: One inpatient rehabilitation center in Norway. Subjects: 10 patients, with early- to mid-stage Huntington’s disease. Interventions: A two year rehabilitation program, consisting of six admissions of three weeks each, and two evaluation stays approximately three months after the third and sixth rehabilitation admission. The program focused on physical exercise, social activities, and group/teaching sessions. Main outcome measures: Standard measures for motor function, including gait and balance, cognitive function, including MMSE and UHDRS cognitive assessment, anxiety and depression, activities of daily living (ADL), health related quality of life (QoL) and Body Mass Index (BMI). Results: Six out of ten patients completed the full program. Slight, but non-significant, decline was observed for gait and balance from baseline to the evaluation stay after two years. Non-significant improvements were observed in physical QoL, anxiety and depression, and BMI. ADL-function remained stable with no significant decline. None of the cognitive measures showed a significant decline. An analysis of individual cases revealed that four out of the six participants who completed the program sustained or improved their motor function, while motor function declined in two participants. All the six patients who completed the program reported improved or stable QoL throughout the study period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that participation in an intensive rehabilitation program is well tolerated among motivated patients with early to mid-stage HD. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size in this study. PMID:25642382

  7. Early coordinated multidisciplinary intervention to prevent sickness absence and labour market exclusion in patients with low back pain: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders account for one third of the long-term absenteeism in Denmark and the number of individuals sick listed for more than four weeks is increasing. Compared to other diagnoses, patients with musculoskeletal diseases, including low back pain, are less likely to return to work after a period of sick leave. It seems that a multidisciplinary intervention, including cooperation between the health sector, the social sector and in the work place, has a positive effect on days off work due to musculoskeletal disorders and particularly low back pain. It is a challenge to coordinate this type of intervention, and the implementation of a return-to-work (RTW)-coordinator is suggested as an effective strategy in this process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study protocol and present a new type of intervention, where the physiotherapist both has the role as RTW-coordinator and treating the patient. Methods/design A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is currently on-going. The RCT includes 770 patients with low back pain of minimum four weeks who are referred to an outpatient back centre. The study population consists of patients, who are sick-listed or at risk of sick-leave due to LBP. The control group is treated with usual care in a team of a physiotherapist, a chiropractor, a rheumatologist and a social worker employed at the centre. The Intervention group is treated with usual care and in addition intervention of a psychologist, an occupational physician, an ergonomist, a case manager from the municipal sickness benefit office, who has the authority in the actual case concerning sickness benefit payment and contact to the patients employer/work place. The treating physiotherapist is the RTW-coordinator. Outcome will be reported at the end of treatment as well as 6 and 12 months follow up. The primary outcome is number of days off work. Secondary outcomes are disability, pain, and quality of life. The study will follow the

  8. A pilot study: reports of benefits from a 6-month, multidisciplinary, shared medical appointment approach for heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Andrew; Cavendish, Jeffrey; Boren, Denise; Ofstad, Trish; Seidensticker, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    ABSTRACT Heart failure continues to be the leading cause of hospitalization among older adults. Noncompliance with medications, dietary indiscretion, failure to recognize symptoms, and failed social support systems contribute to increased morbidity. Multidisciplinary medical approaches have proven successful for heart failure. In 2004, the Naval Medical Center San Diego started a multidisciplinary shared medical appointment for patients with complicated cases of heart failure. Patients enrolled in the heart failure clinic were monitored prospectively for 6 months. Validated questionnaires concerning satisfaction with care, self-care management, depression, and quality-of-life measures were administered at baseline and 6 months after enrollment. Thirty-nine individuals were enrolled in the clinic, with 33 completing 6 months of follow-up monitoring to date. Hospital admissions for any cause decreased from 11 to eight, whereas congestive heart failure-related admissions decreased from four to two. There was a total of six deaths. During the 6 months of enrollment, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-receptor blockers had absolute increases of 20% and 19%, respectively. Statistically significant improvements were seen in the Beck Depression Inventory and Self-Care Management Index results. A multidisciplinary approach to heart failure patients using the shared medical appointment model can improve patient satisfaction, enhance quality of life, and help reduce hospitalizations while improving provider efficiency. PMID:19149341

  9. Distributed expertise: qualitative study of a British network of multidisciplinary teams supporting parents of children with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Swallow, V; Smith, T; Webb, N J A; Wirz, L; Qizalbash, L; Brennan, E; Birch, A; Sinha, M D; Krischock, L; van der Voort, J; King, D; Lambert, H; Milford, D V; Crowther, L; Saleem, M; Lunn, A; Williams, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term childhood conditions are often managed by hospital-based multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) of professionals with discipline specific expertise of a condition, in partnership with parents. However, little evidence exists on professional–parent interactions in this context. An exploration of professionals' accounts of the way they individually and collectively teach parents to manage their child's clinical care at home is, therefore, important for meeting parents' needs, informing policy and educating novice professionals. Using chronic kidney disease as an exemplar this paper reports on one aspect of a study of interactions between professionals and parents in a network of 12 children's kidney units in Britain. Methods We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 112 professionals (clinical-psychologists, dietitians, doctors, nurses, pharmacists, play-workers, therapists and social workers), exploring accounts of their parent-educative activity. We analysed data using framework and the concept of distributed expertise. Results Four themes emerged that related to the way expertise was distributed within and across teams: (i) recognizing each other's' expertise, (ii) sharing expertise within the MDT, (iii) language interpretation, and (iv) acting as brokers. Two different professional identifications were also seen to co-exist within MDTs, with participants using the term ‘we’ both as the intra-professional ‘we’ (relating to the professional identity) when describing expertise within a disciplinary group (for example: ‘As dietitians we aim to give tailored advice to optimize children's growth’), and the inter-professional ‘we’ (a ‘team-identification’), when discussing expertise within the team (for example: ‘We work as a team and make sure we're all happy with every aspect of their training before they go home’). Conclusions This study highlights the dual identifications implicit in

  10. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  11. Dynamically Reconfigurable Approach to Multidisciplinary Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalie M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2003-01-01

    The complexity and autonomy of the constituent disciplines and the diversity of the disciplinary data formats make the task of integrating simulations into a multidisciplinary design optimization problem extremely time-consuming and difficult. We propose a dynamically reconfigurable approach to MDO problem formulation wherein an appropriate implementation of the disciplinary information results in basic computational components that can be combined into different MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms, including hybrid strategies, with relative ease. The ability to re-use the computational components is due to the special structure of the MDO problem. We believe that this structure can and should be used to formulate and solve optimization problems in the multidisciplinary context. The present work identifies the basic computational components in several MDO problem formulations and examines the dynamically reconfigurable approach in the context of a popular class of optimization methods. We show that if the disciplinary sensitivity information is implemented in a modular fashion, the transfer of sensitivity information among the formulations under study is straightforward. This enables not only experimentation with a variety of problem formations in a research environment, but also the flexible use of formulations in a production design environment.

  12. BWID System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  13. BWID System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  14. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    -Biosphere Program: integrated regional study of contemporary natural and climatic changes' is one of several funded interdisciplinary projects, and it serves to unite regional studies from 14 RAS and SB RAS institutes and 5 universities. In the course of this and similar national1 and international projects, ENVIROMIS and ENVIROMIS-2 (Environmental Observations, Modelling and Information Systems) was formed, which is the SIRS professional community comprising regional, national and international specialists dealing with Siberian environmental dynamics studies. Results of those and parallel projects were analyzed in by coordinated activities: 'Enviro-RISKS-Man-induced Environmental Risks: monitoring, management and remediation of man-made changes in Siberia' [12]. Currently, a new set of SB RAS integrated2 and international projects within the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Study (APN) and ISTC are under way. While a number of projects have been initiated and clustered under the SIRS umbrella and their results and data are distributed through the SIRS web portal (http://sirs.scert.ru/), the organizational SIRS infrastructure is inadequate. SIRS has neither SB RAS stable funding nor a dedicated Project Office. Both obstacles are a major concern for the SIRS governing body. Information-computational infrastructure development The SIRS informational-computational infrastructure, which is currently under extensive development, is designed to stimulate national and international cooperative Earth science investigations, easily exchange data and knowledge, coordinate activities, and optimize the usage of resources, services and applications [13]. The infrastructure is organized as a set of thematic, bilingual (Russian and English), internet-accessible informational-computational systems, the first of which is the scientific web portal ATMOS (http://atmos.iao.ru/). ATMOS is an integrated set of distributed topical websites, combining standard multimedia information with research

  15. Conceptual design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollowell, S. J.; Beeman, E. R., II; Hiyama, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying multilevel functional decomposition and optimization techniques to conceptual design of advanced fighter aircraft was investigated. Applying the functional decomposition techniques to the conceptual design phase appears to be feasible. The initial implementation of the modified design process will optimize wing design variables. A hybrid approach, combining functional decomposition techniques for generation of aerodynamic and mass properties linear sensitivity derivatives with existing techniques for sizing mission performance and optimization, is proposed.

  16. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full

  17. Impact of a multidisciplinary pain program for the management of chronic low back pain in patients undergoing spine surgery and primary total hip replacement: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain is a very common disorder. In this field chronic low back pain represents a special challenge. The management of chronic low back pain consists of a range of different intervention strategies. Usually operative intervention should be avoided if possible. However, there are constellations were surgical therapy in patients with chronic low back pain seems to be meaningful. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes after spine surgery and hip replacement in patients with chronic low back pain after undergoing a structured rehabilitation program including cognitive – behavioral therapy. Methods From January 1, 2007 to January 1, 2010 patients were indicated for total hip replacement (THA) or spine surgery after receiving inpatient multidisciplinary pain programs including cognitive – behavioral therapy at our orthopedic institute with a specialized unit for the rehabilitation of chronic pain patients. Indications for surgery were based on the synopsis of clinical and imaging findings and on positive effects after local injections during the multidisciplinary pain program. The tools for assessment included follow-up at 6 and 12 months and analyses of pain, chronicity, physical functioning and depression. Results Of the 256 patients admitted for multidisciplinary pain program, fifteen were indicated to benefit from a surgical intervention during multidisciplinary pain program. Ten patients received spine surgery. THA was indicated in five patients. In all cases, the peri- and postoperative clinical courses were uneventful. Only two of the patients subjected to spine surgery and three patients who had THA were improved after 12 months. One patient reported a worsened condition. All patients presented with good functional outcomes and normal radiological findings. Conclusions The indication for surgical intervention in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative diseases must be critically assessed. THA in this

  18. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning. Discussion Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle. Moreover recent studies showed that breakfast improves cognitive function, intuitive perception and academic performance. Research demonstrates the importance of providing breakfast not only to children but in adults and elderly too. Although the important role breakfast plays in maintaining the health, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. Summary The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Efforts should be done to promote this practice for the individual health and well-being. PMID:23842429

  19. An Implementation Study of a TPACK-Based Instructional Design Model in a Technology Integration Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Kim, ChanMin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to develop an instructional design model for preservice teachers' learning of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in multidisciplinary technology integration courses and (b) to apply the model to investigate its effects when used in a preservice teacher education setting. The model was applied…

  20. Modular antenna design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribble, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

  1. Study protocol of effectiveness of a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary intervention in the evolution of non-speficic sub-acute low back pain in the working population: cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-specific low back pain is a common cause for consultation with the general practitioner, generating increased health and social costs. This study will analyse the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary intervention to reduce disability, severity of pain, anxiety and depression, to improve quality of life and to reduce the incidence of chronic low back pain in the working population with non-specific low back pain, compared to usual clinical care. Methods/Design A Cluster randomised clinical trial will be conducted in 38 Primary Health Care Centres located in Barcelona, Spain and its surrounding areas. The centres are randomly allocated to the multidisciplinary intervention or to usual clinical care. Patients between 18 and 65 years old (n = 932; 466 per arm) and with a diagnostic of a non-specific sub-acute low back pain are included. Patients in the intervention group are receiving the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines, in addition to a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary intervention consisting of group educational sessions lasting a total of 10 hours. The main outcome is change in the score in the Roland Morris disability questionnaire at three months after onset of pain. Other outcomes are severity of pain, quality of life, duration of current non-specific low back pain episode, work sick leave and duration, Fear Avoidance Beliefs and Goldberg Questionnaires. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Analysis will be by intention to treat. The intervention effect will be assessed through the standard error of measurement and the effect-size. Responsiveness of each scale will be evaluated by standardised response mean and receiver-operating characteristic method. Recovery according to the patient will be used as an external criterion. A multilevel regression will be performed on repeated measures. The time until the current episode of low back pain takes to subside will be analysed by Cox regression. Discussion We hope

  2. Multidisciplinary management: why me?

    PubMed

    Wetenkamp, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory professionals are being asked more and more frequently to spread their wings and take on additional responsibilities in the form of multidisciplinary management. Multidisciplinary management can be described as the management of multiple departments with one or more being outside of the traditional laboratory department, such as respiratory care, pharmacy, radiology, or cardiodiagnostics. Reasons behind the trend in multidisciplinary management and why laboratory professionals often are asked to assume these roles will be explored. This column will cover how laboratory managers can prepare for the challenges of multidisciplinary management, what skills are necessary for these new roles, and how to prepare yourself to be the candidate of choice for these positions when they develop. Challenges often encountered will be discussed, including suggestions on how to turn potential difficulties into positive growth experiences. Hopefully, at the conclusion, you will be able to answer the question "Why me?"--either in the form of "Why have I been asked to take on this role?" or "Why might I want to pursue such a role with enthusiasm?" PMID:12046275

  3. The Pilot Restoration Yard of the Church of San Frediano in Pisa: Results of a Multidisciplinary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baracchini, C.; Pini, R.; Fabiani, F.; Ciafaloni, M.; Siano, S.; Salimbeni, R.; Sabatini, G.; Giamello, M.; Franzini, M.; Lezzerini, M.; Spampinato, M.; Gravina, F.; Andreazzoli, F.

    In the frame of the EC Project "RIS+ Tuscany: Transfer of innovative technologies for Cultural Heritage" we carried out a pilot restoration yard to apply and evaluate laser cleaning procedures in the conservation of stones and decorations on the façade of the church of S. Frediano (XI-XII Cent.) in Pisa. A multidisciplinary scientific committee was established, formed by art historians, architects, physicists, geologists, and conservators. Italian firms involved in conservation services and in laser technology participated in the project. The conservation has been recently completed after two years of work, providing a critical evaluation on the effectiveness and safety of optimized laser cleaning operations, the definition of an integrated conservation protocol which included the laser technique, as well as other conventional cleaning techniques, and the evaluation of time productivity and operative costs of laser operations.

  4. The City: A Multidisciplinary Unit Exercising the Higher Level Thinking Skills of Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Celia R.

    Designed for use with sixth grade students, this multidisciplinary unit combines independent study of urban areas with activities to develop students' higher level thinking skills. Following suggestions to teachers on strategies for introducing the unit, four options for independent study are described. The first is a study of a topic related to…

  5. Localized Pancreatic Cancer: Multidisciplinary Management.

    PubMed

    Coveler, Andrew L; Herman, Joseph M; Simeone, Diane M; Chiorean, E Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive cancer that continues to have single-digit 5-year mortality rates despite advancements in the field. Surgery remains the only curative treatment; however, most patients present with late-stage disease deemed unresectable, either due to extensive local vascular involvement or the presence of distant metastasis. Resection guidelines that include a borderline resectable group, as well as advancements in neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation that improve resectability of locally advanced disease, may improve outcomes for patients with more invasive disease. Multi-agent chemotherapy regimens fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and nab-paclitaxel with gemcitabine improved response rates and survival in metastatic pancreatic cancer and are now being used in earlier stages for patients with localized potentially resectable and unresectable disease, with goals of downstaging tumors to allow margin-negative resection and reducing systemic recurrence. Chemoradiotherapy, although still controversial for both resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer, is being used in the context of contemporary chemotherapy backbone regimens, and novel radiation techniques such as stereotactic body frame radiation therapy (SBRT) are studied on the premise of maintaining or improving efficacy and reducing treatment duration. Patient selection for optimal treatment designation is currently provided by multidisciplinary tumor boards, but biomarker discovery, in blood, tumors, or through novel imaging, is an area of intense research. Results to date suggest that some patients with unresectable disease at the outset have survival rates as good as those with initially resectable disease if able to undergo surgical resection. Long-term follow-up and improved clinical trials options are needed to determine optimal treatment modalities for patients with localized pancreatic cancer. PMID:27249726

  6. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  7. How teams use indicators for quality improvement - a multiple-case study on the use of multiple indicators in multidisciplinary breast cancer teams.

    PubMed

    Gort, Marjan; Broekhuis, Manda; Regts, Gerdien

    2013-11-01

    A crucial issue in healthcare is how multidisciplinary teams can use indicators for quality improvement. Such teams have increasingly become the core component in both care delivery and in many quality improvement methods. This study aims to investigate the relationships between (1) team factors and the way multidisciplinary teams use indicators for quality improvement, and (2) both team and process factors and the intended results. An in-depth, multiple-case study was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008 involving four breast cancer teams using six structure, process and outcome indicators. The results indicated that the process of using indicators involves several stages and activities. Two teams applied a more intensive, active and interactive approach as they passed through these stages. These teams were perceived to have achieved good results through indicator use compared to the other two teams who applied a simple control approach. All teams experienced some difficulty in integrating the new formal control structure, i.e. measuring and managing performance, in their operational task, and in using their 'new' managerial task to decide as a team what and how to improve. Our findings indicate the presence of a network of relationships between team factors, the controllability and actionability of indicators, the indicator-use process, and the intended results. PMID:24034953

  8. The effect of family-based multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral treatment in children with obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last three decades in the Netherlands. It is assumed that mainly environmental factors have contributed to this trend. Parental overweight and low social economic status are risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood obesity affects self-esteem and has negative consequences on cognitive and social development. Obese children tend to become obese adults, which increases the risk for developing cardiovascular complications, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and psychosocial problems. Additionally, the secretion of several gastrointestinal hormones, responsible for appetite and food intake, is impaired in obese subjects. Weight reduction through lifestyle changes in order to change health risks is, until now, suggested as the preferred treatment for childhood obesity. The objective of this study is the effect evaluation of a family-based cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary lifestyle treatment. The intervention aims to establish long-term weight reduction and stabilization, reduction of obesity-related health consequences and improvement of self-image by change of lifestyle and learning cognitive behavioral techniques. Study design/Methods In this randomized clinical trial newly presented children with obesity (8-17 years old) are divided, by randomization, in an intervention and control group, both consisting of 40 obese children. The intervention is carried out in groups of 8-11 children, and consists of respectively 7 and 5 separate group meetings for the children and their parents and 1 joint group meeting of 2 ½ hours. Main topics are education on nutrition, self-control techniques, social skills, physical activity and improvement of self-esteem. The control group is given advice on physical activity and nutrition. For normal data comparison, data were collected of 40 normal-weight children, 8-17 years old. Discussion Because of the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and the

  9. Breaking Down the Siloes: Developing Effective Multidisciplinary HIV Research Teams.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Manya; Castel, Amanda

    2016-09-01

    As the HIV epidemic passes its 35 years mark, the role of multidisciplinary approaches to HIV research has become increasingly important. Development of diverse, cross-cutting research teams has been found to be key to engaging and retaining participants in population-based studies; it is also a crucial component of designing studies capable of examining the sensitive and nuanced issues that surround HIV related risk and adherence behavior. Expanding our understanding of these issues is central to being able to overcome them and ultimately to the development of best practices for translation of research discovery into improvements in prevention and care. The objectives of this paper are to characterize the importance of multidisciplinary teams in HIV research where they are critical to gaining information that can have a positive impact on the epidemic and to propose specific methods for creating teams to conduct research with optimal public health impact. PMID:27435076

  10. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  11. Multidisciplinary computational aerosciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul

    1992-01-01

    As the challenges of single disciplinary computational physics are met, such as computational fluid dynamics, computational structural mechanics, computational propulsion, computational aeroacoustics, computational electromagnetics, etc., scientists have begun investigating the combination of these single disciplines into what is being called multidisciplinary computational aerosciences (MCAS). The combination of several disciplines not only offers simulation realism but also formidable computational challenges. The solution of such problems will require computers orders of magnitude larger than those currently available. Such computer power can only be supplied by massively parallel machines because of the current speed-of-light limitation of conventional serial systems. Even with such machines, MCAS problems will require hundreds of hours for their solution. To efficiently utilize such a machine, research is required in three areas that include parallel architectures, systems software, and applications software. The main emphasis of this paper is the applications software element. Examples that demonstrate application software for multidisciplinary problems currently being solved at NASA Ames Research Center are presented. Pacing items for MCAS are discussed such as solution methodology, physical modeling, computer power, and multidisciplinary validation experiments.

  12. Directions in Environmental Gerontology: A Multidisciplinary Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendig, Hal

    2003-01-01

    This article considers developments and directions for environmental gerontology drawing on the three papers in this Forum. The multidisciplinary field came of age during the 1960s with Powell Lawton's powerful environmental press paradigm and its applications to empirical research and building design. Recent theoretical developments in Europe and…

  13. INTRODUCTION AND STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the sponsorship of the UNEP/ILO/IPCS, 17 laboratories from diverse regions of the world participated in evaluating the utility of four plant bioassays for detecting genetic hazards of environmental chemicals. he bioassays included in this collaborative study were Arabidopsi...

  14. Effectiveness of a multidisciplinary critical pathway based on a computerised physician order entry system for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction management in the emergency department: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoo Seok; Chung, Sung Phil; You, Je Sung; Kim, Min Joung; Chung, Hyun Soo; Hong, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Wang, Jinwon; Park, Incheol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a multidisciplinary organised critical pathway (CP) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) management can significantly attenuate differences in the duration from emergency department (ED) arrival to evaluation and treatment, regardless of the arrival time, by eliminating off-hour and weekend effects. Design Retrospective observational cohort study. Setting 2 tertiary academic hospitals. Participants Consecutive patients in the Fast Interrogation Rule for STEMI (FIRST) program. Interventions A study was conducted on patients in the FIRST program, which uses a computerised physician order entry (CPOE) system. The patient demographics, time intervals and clinical outcomes were analysed based on the arrival time at the ED: group 1, normal working hours on weekdays; group 2, off-hours on weekdays; group 3, normal working hours on weekends; and group 4, off-hours on weekends. Primary and secondary outcome measures Clinical outcomes categorised according to 30-day mortality, in-hospital mortality and the length of stay. Results The duration from door-to-data or FIRST activation did not differ significantly among the 4 groups. The median duration between arrival and balloon placement during percutaneous coronary intervention did not significantly exceed 90 min, and the proportions (89.6–95.1%) of patients with door-to-balloon times within 90 min did not significantly differ among the 4 groups, regardless of the ED arrival time (p=0.147). Moreover, no differences in the 30-day (p=0.8173) and in-hospital mortality (p=0.9107) were observed in patients with STEMI. Conclusions A multidisciplinary CP for STEMI based on a CPOE system can effectively decrease disparities in the door-to-data duration and proportions of patients with door-to-balloon times within 90 min, regardless of the ED arrival time. The application of a multidisciplinary CP may also help attenuate off-hour and weekend

  15. Grip on challenging behaviour: a multidisciplinary care programme for managing behavioural problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems will be evaluated. Methods/Design The care programme is based on Dutch national guidelines. It will consist of four steps: detection, analysis, treatment and evaluation. A stepped wedge design will be used. A total of 14 dementia special care units will implement the care programme. The primary outcome is behavioural problems. Secondary outcomes will include quality of life, prescription rate of antipsychotics, use of physical restraints and workload and job satisfaction of nursing staff. The effect of the care programme will be estimated using multilevel linear regression analysis. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective will also be carried out. Discussion The care programme is expected to be cost-effective and effective in decreasing behavioural problems, workload of nursing staff and in increasing quality of life of residents. Trial registration The Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR). Trial number: NTR 2141 PMID:21338502

  16. A multidisciplinary approach to the study of cultural heritage environments: Experience at the Palatina Library in Parma.

    PubMed

    Pasquarella, C; Balocco, C; Pasquariello, G; Petrone, G; Saccani, E; Manotti, P; Ugolotti, M; Palla, F; Maggi, O; Albertini, R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a multidisciplinary approach including biological and particle monitoring, and microclimate analysis associated with the application of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). This approach was applied at the Palatina historical library in Parma. Monitoring was performed both in July and in December, in the absence of visitors and operators. Air microbial monitoring was performed with active and passive methods. Airborne particles with a diameter of ≥0.3, ≥0.5, ≥1 and ≥5 μm/m3, were counted by a laser particle counter. The surface contamination of shelves and manuscripts was assessed with nitrocellulose membranes. A spore trap sampler was used to identify both viable and non-viable fungal spores by optical microscope. Microbiological contaminants were analyzed through cultural and molecular biology techniques. Microclimatic parameters were also recorded. An infrared thermal camera provided information on the surface temperature of the different building materials, objects and components. Transient simulation models, for coupled heat and mass-moisture transfer, taking into account archivist and general public movements, combined with the related sensible and latent heat released into the environment, were carried out applying the CFD-FE (Finite Elements) method. Simulations of particle tracing were carried out. A wide variability in environmental microbial contamination, both for air and surfaces, was observed. Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp. were the most frequently found microfungi. Bacteria such as Streptomyces spp., Bacillus spp., Sphingomonas spp., and Pseudoclavibacter as well as unculturable colonies were characterized by molecular investigation. CFD simulation results obtained were consistent with the experimental data on microclimatic conditions. The tracing and distribution of particles showed the different slice planes of diffusion mostly influenced by the convective

  17. Advances in Multi-disciplinary Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, J.; Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Huerta, J.; Rubio-Iglesias, J. M.; Serrano, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    The challenge for addressing issues such as climate change, food security or ecosystem sustainability is that they require multi-disciplinary collaboration and the ability to integrate information across scientific domains. Multidisciplinary collaborations are difficult because each discipline has its own "language", protocols and formats for communicating within its community and handling data and information. EuroGEOSS demonstrates the added value to the scientific community and to society of making existing systems and applications interoperable and useful within the GEOSS and INSPIRE frameworks. In 2010, the project built an initial operating capacity of a multi-disciplinary Information System addressing three areas: drought, forestry and biodiversity. It is now furthering this development into an advanced operating capacity (http://www.eurogeoss.eu). The key to this capability is the creation of a broker that supports access to multiple resources through a common user interface and the automation of data search and access using state of the art information technology. EuroGEOSS hosted a conference on information systems and multi-disciplinary applications of science and technology. "EuroGEOSS: advancing the vision of GEOSS" provided a forum for developers, users and decision-makers working with advanced multi-disciplinary information systems to improve science and decisions for complex societal issues. In particular, the Conference addressed: Information systems for supporting multi-disciplinary research; Information systems and modeling for biodiversity, drought, forestry and related societal benefit areas; and Case studies of multi-disciplinary applications and outcomes. This paper will discuss the major finding of the conference and the directions for future development.

  18. Scripting for Construction of a Transactive Memory System in Multidisciplinary CSCL Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noroozi, Omid; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Weinberger, Armin; Mulder, Martin; Chizari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a Transactive Memory System (TMS) is essential for groups of learners, when they are multidisciplinary and collaborate online. Environments for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) could be designed to facilitate the TMS. This study investigates how various aspects of a TMS (i.e., specialization, coordination, and trust)…

  19. Multidisciplinary teams, and parents, negotiating common ground in shared-care of children with long-term conditions: A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited negotiation around care decisions is believed to undermine collaborative working between parents of children with long-term conditions and professionals, but there is little evidence of how they actually negotiate their respective roles. Using chronic kidney disease as an exemplar this paper reports on a multi-method study of social interaction between multidisciplinary teams and parents as they shared clinical care. Methods Phases 1 and 2: a telephone survey mapping multidisciplinary teams’ parent-educative activities, and qualitative interviews with 112 professionals (Clinical-psychologists, Dietitians, Doctors, Nurses, Play-specialists, Pharmacists, Therapists and Social-workers) exploring their accounts of parent-teaching in the 12 British children’s kidney units. Phase 3: six ethnographic case studies in two units involving observations of professional/parent interactions during shared-care, and individual interviews. We used an analytical framework based on concepts drawn from Communities of Practice and Activity Theory. Results Professionals spoke of the challenge of explaining to each other how they are aware of parents’ understanding of clinical knowledge, and described three patterns of parent-educative activity that were common across MDTs: Engaging parents in shared practice; Knowledge exchange and role negotiation, and Promoting common ground. Over time, professionals had developed a shared repertoire of tools to support their negotiations with parents that helped them accomplish common ground during the practice of shared-care. We observed mutual engagement between professionals and parents where a common understanding of the joint enterprise of clinical caring was negotiated. Conclusions For professionals, making implicit knowledge explicit is important as it can provide them with a language through which to articulate more clearly to each other what is the basis of their intuition-based hunches about parents’ support needs

  20. Detecting young, slow-slipping active faults by geologic and multidisciplinary high-resolution geophysical investigations: A case study from the Apennine seismic belt, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Improta, L.; Ferranti, L.; de Martini, P. M.; Piscitelli, S.; Bruno, P. P.; Burrato, P.; Civico, R.; Giocoli, A.; Iorio, M.; D'Addezio, G.; Maschio, L.

    2010-11-01

    The Southern Apennines range of Italy presents significant challenges for active fault detection due to the complex structural setting inherited from previous contractional tectonics, coupled to very recent (Middle Pleistocene) onset and slow slip rates of active normal faults. As shown by the Irpinia Fault, source of a M6.9 earthquake in 1980, major faults might have small cumulative deformation and subtle geomorphic expression. A multidisciplinary study including morphological-tectonic, paleoseismological, and geophysical investigations has been carried out across the extensional Monte Aquila Fault, a poorly known structure that, similarly to the Irpinia Fault, runs across a ridge and is weakly expressed at the surface by small scarps/warps. The joint application of shallow reflection profiling, seismic and electrical resistivity tomography, and physical logging of cored sediments has proved crucial for proper fault detection because performance of each technique was markedly different and very dependent on local geologic conditions. Geophysical data clearly (1) image a fault zone beneath suspected warps, (2) constrain the cumulative vertical slip to only 25-30 m, (3) delineate colluvial packages suggesting coseismic surface faulting episodes. Paleoseismological investigations document at least three deformation events during the very Late Pleistocene (<20 ka) and Holocene. The clue to surface-rupturing episodes, together with the fault dimension inferred by geological mapping and microseismicity distribution, suggest a seismogenic potential of M6.3. Our study provides the second documentation of a major active fault in southern Italy that, as the Irpinia Fault, does not bound a large intermontane basin, but it is nested within the mountain range, weakly modifying the landscape. This demonstrates that standard geomorphological approaches are insufficient to define a proper framework of active faults in this region. More in general, our applications have wide

  1. Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Curd ML; Beikler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover, halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear–nose–throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear–nose–throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo. Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins. PMID:22722640

  2. Stronger Disciplinary Identities in Multidisciplinary Research Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geschwind, Lars; Melin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two multidisciplinary Social Sciences and Humanities research schools in Sweden have been investigated regarding disciplinary identity-making. This study investigates the meetings between different disciplines around a common thematic area of study for Ph.D. students. The Ph.D. students navigate through a complex social and…

  3. GRC RBCC Concept Multidisciplinary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suresh, Ambady

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the GRC RBCC Concept for Multidisciplinary Analysis. The multidisciplinary coupling procedure is presented, along with technique validations and axisymmetric multidisciplinary inlet and structural results. The NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) test bed developments and code parallelization are also presented. These include milestones and accomplishments, a discussion of running R4 fan application on the PII cluster as compared to other platforms, and the National Combustor Code speedup.

  4. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo; Partnership, Emso

    2010-05-01

    EEMSO, an ESFRI Research Infrastructure, is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO infrastructure will extend the coverage to the sea of the monitoring, integrating the land-based networks with multidisciplinary seafloor measurements. With this aim the two European research infrastructures EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and EMSO can operate in coordination in order to increase the mutual benefits. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase, funded in the EC FP7. The EMSO status, the perspectives and relations with other existing or incoming sensor networks and data infrastructures are outlined.

  5. RAD hard PROM design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of a preliminary study on the design of a radiation hardened fusible link programmable read-only memory (PROM) are presented. Various fuse technologies and the effects of radiation on MOS integrated circuits are surveyed. A set of design rules allowing the fabrication of a radiation hardened PROM using a Si-gate CMOS process is defined. A preliminary cell layout was completed and the programming concept defined. A block diagram is used to describe the circuit components required for a 4 K design. A design goal data sheet giving target values for the AC, DC, and radiation parameters of the circuit is presented.

  6. A Case Study on the Design of Learning Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gabriela Trindade; Schnaid, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The design of educational software interfaces is a complex task, given its high domain dependency and multidisciplinary nature. It requires that teachers' knowledge and pedagogical beliefs be incorporated into the interface, posing a challenge to both teachers and designers, as they have to act as partners from the earliest phases of the process,…

  7. Designing case-control studies.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, T

    1979-01-01

    Identification of confounding factors, evaluation of their influence on cause-effect associations, and the introduction of appropriate ways to account for these factors are important considerations in designing case-control studies. This paper presents designs useful for these purposes, after first providing a statistical definition of a confounding factor. Differences in the ability to identify and evaluate confounding factors and estimate disease risk between designs employing stratification (matching) and designs randomly sampling cases and controls are noted. Linear logistic models for the analysis of data from such designs are described and are shown to liberalize design requirements and to increase relative risk estimation efficiency. The methods are applied to data from a multiple factor investigation of lung cancer patients and controls. PMID:540588

  8. Gamified physical activation of young men – a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Methods/design Conscription-aged men (18 years) attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500) will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640) or a control group (n = 640) during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. Discussion The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service for activating young men

  9. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Education in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Wilson, Valerie; Elsegood, John; Hall, John; Hamilton, Sheila; Harden, Ronald; Lee, Diana; Stead, Joan

    A 2-year study evaluated students' and course organizers' perceptions of the effectiveness of multidisciplinary education (ME) in health care and factors that facilitate or inhibit its development. The study had three phases: a survey of ME provision in the United Kingdom; 42 qualitative interviews and focus groups in 14 sites; and data feedback.…

  10. Bio-hybrid interfaces to study neuromorphic functionalities: New multidisciplinary evidences of cell viability on poly(anyline) (PANI), a semiconductor polymer with memristive properties.

    PubMed

    Juarez-Hernandez, Leon J; Cornella, Nicola; Pasquardini, Laura; Battistoni, Silvia; Vidalino, Laura; Vanzetti, Lia; Caponi, Silvia; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Iannotta, Salvatore; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Macchi, Paolo; Musio, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The interfacing of artificial devices with biological systems is a challenging field that crosses several disciplines ranging from fundamental research (biophysical chemistry, neurobiology, material and surface science) to frontier technological application (nanotechnology, bioelectronics). The memristor is the fourth fundamental circuit element, whose electrical properties favor applications in signal processing, neural networks, and brain-computer interactions and it represents a new frontier for technological applications in many fields including the nanotechnologies, bioelectronics and the biosensors. Using multidisciplinary approaches, covering surface science, cell biology and electrophysiology, we successfully implemented a living bio-hybrid system constituted by cells adhering to films of poly(aniline) (PANI), a semiconductor polymer having memristive properties assembled with polyelectrolytes. Here we tested whether the PANI devices could support survivor, adhesion and differentiation of several cell lines, including the neuron-like SHSY5Y cells. Moreover, we performed electrophysiology on these cells showing that the biophysical properties are retained with differences occurring in the recorded ion currents. Taken together, the cell viability here reported is the key requirement to design and develop a reliable functional memristor-based bio-hybrid able to mimic neuronal activity and plasticity. PMID:26263829

  11. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shapechange devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  12. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  13. Effects of Multidisciplinary Team Care on the Survival of Patients with Different Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chien-Chou; Wang, Yueh-Hsin; Chang, Yu-Chia; Wang, Shih-Ting

    2015-01-01

    In Taiwan, cancer is the top cause of death, and the mortality rate of lung cancer is the highest of all cancers. Some studies have demonstrated that multidisciplinary team (MDT) care can improve survival rates of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, no study has discussed the effect of MDT care on different stages of NSCLC. The target population for this study consisted of patients with NSCLC newly diagnosed in the 2005–2010 Cancer Registry. The data was linked with the 2002–2011 National Health Insurance Research Database and the 2005–2011 Cause of Death Statistics Database. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore whether the involvement of MDT care had an effect on survival. This study applied the propensity score as a control variable to reduce selection bias between patients with and without involvement of MDT care. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of death of MDT participants with stage III & IV NSCLC was significantly lower than that of MDT non-participants (adjusted HR = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = 0.84-0.90). This study revealed that MDT care are significantly associated with higher survival rate of patients with stage III and IV NSCLC, and thus MDT care should be used in the treatment of these patients. PMID:25966317

  14. Optical Telescope Design Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, J.; Sankar, S.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the results of a study conducted from Nov 2012-Apr 2013 to develop a telescope design for a space-based gravitational wave detector. The telescope is needed for efficient power delivery but since it is directly in the beam path, the design is driven by the requirements for the overall displacement sensitivity of the gravitational wave observatory. Two requirements in particular, optical pathlength stability and scattered light performance, are beyond the usual specifications for good image quality encountered in traditional telescopic systems. An important element of the study was to tap industrial expertise to develop an optimized design that can be reliably manufactured. Key engineering and design trade-offs and the sometimes surprising results will be presented.

  15. Equilibrium Studies of Designed Metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Gibney, B R

    2016-01-01

    Complete thermodynamic descriptions of the interactions of cofactors with proteins via equilibrium studies are challenging, but are essential to the evaluation of designed metalloproteins. While decades of studies on protein-protein interaction thermodynamics provide a strong underpinning to the successful computational design of novel protein folds and de novo proteins with enzymatic activity, the corresponding paucity of data on metal-protein interaction thermodynamics limits the success of computational metalloprotein design efforts. By evaluating the thermodynamics of metal-protein interactions via equilibrium binding studies, protein unfolding free energy determinations, proton competition equilibria, and electrochemistry, a more robust basis for the computational design of metalloproteins may be provided. Our laboratory has shown that such studies provide detailed insight into the assembly and stability of designed metalloproteins, allow for parsing apart the free energy contributions of metal-ligand interactions from those of porphyrin-protein interactions in hemeproteins, and even reveal their mechanisms of proton-coupled electron transfer. Here, we highlight studies that reveal the complex interplay between the various equilibria that underlie metalloprotein assembly and stability and the utility of making these detailed measurements. PMID:27586343

  16. Multidisciplinary Studies of the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Ground Water at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program Research Site, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Smith, R. L.; Kent, D. B.; Barber, L. B.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts multidisciplinary research on the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes affecting ground-water contaminants of global concern at its Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program site in Massachusetts, USA. The work centers on a 6-kilometer-long plume of treated wastewater in a glacial sand and gravel aquifer. The plume is characterized by distinct geochemical zones caused by the biodegradation of organic materials in treated wastewater that was disposed to the aquifer by rapid infiltration during the period 1936-95. A core group of hydrogeologists, geochemists, microbiologists, and geophysicists has been involved in the research effort for more than two decades. The effort has been enhanced by stable funding, a readily accessible site, a relatively simple hydrologic setting, and logistical support from an adjacent military base. The research team uses a three-part approach to plan and conduct research at the site. First, detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of the plume since the late 1970s provides field evidence of important contaminant-transport processes and provides the basis for multidisciplinary, process-oriented studies. Second, ground-water tracer experiments are conducted in various geochemical zones in the plume to study factors that control the rate and extent of contaminant transport. Several arrays of multilevel sampling devices, including an array with more than 15,000 individual sampling points, are used to conduct these experiments. Plume-scale (kilometers) and tracer-test-scale (1- 100 meters) studies are complemented by laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling of flow and reactive transport. Third, results are applied to the treated-wastewater plume, other contaminant plumes at the military base, and other sites nationally to evaluate the applicability of the findings and to point toward further research. Examples of findings to date include that (1) macrodispersivity can be related to

  17. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  18. Combining performance and outcome indicators can be used in a standardized way: a pilot study of two multidisciplinary, full-scale major aircraft exercises

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Disaster medicine is a fairly young scientific discipline and there is a need for the development of new methods for evaluation and research. This includes full-scale disaster exercisers. A standardized concept on how to evaluate these exercises, could lead to easier identification of pitfalls caused by system-errors in the organization. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a combination of performance and outcome indicators so that results can be compared in standardized full-scale exercises. Methods Two multidisciplinary, full-scale exercises were studied in 2008 and 2010. The panorama had the same setup. Sets of performance indicators combined with indicators for unfavorable patient outcome were recorded in predesigned templates. Evaluators, all trained in a standardized way at a national disaster medicine centre, scored the results on predetermined locations; at the scene, at hospital and at the regional command and control. Results All data regarding the performance indicators of the participants during the exercises were obtained as well as all data regarding indicators for patient outcome. Both exercises could therefore be compared regarding performance (processes) as well as outcome indicators. The data from the performance indicators during the exercises showed higher scores for the prehospital command in the second exercise 15 points and 3 points respectively. Results from the outcome indicators, patient survival and patient complications, demonstrated a higher number of preventable deaths and a lower number of preventable complications in the exercise 2010. In the exercise 2008 the number of preventable deaths was lower and the number of preventable complications was higher. Conclusions Standardized multidisciplinary, full-scale exercises in different settings can be conducted and evaluated with performance indicators combined with outcome indicators enabling results from exercises to be compared. If exercises are

  19. COMPARISON OF BASELINE UROLOGIC SYMPTOMS IN MEN AND WOMEN IN THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN (MAPP) RESEARCH COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, J. Quentin; Clauw, Daniel J.; Kreder, Karl; Krieger, John N.; Kusek, John W.; Lai, H. Henry; Rodriguez, Larissa; Williams, David A.; Hou, Xiaoling; Stephens, Alisa; Landis, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The clinical features of interstitial cystitis/ bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) are similar to those of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have directly compared the characteristics of these syndromes in men and women. METHODS The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) research network recruited 191 men and 233 women with IC/BPS or CP/CPPS. Baseline data included demographics, the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (ICSI) and Problem Index (ICPI), the Genitourinary Pain Index (GUPI), the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI), Likert scales to assess urinary urgency, frequency, pain and overall symptom severity, and a single question about the most bothersome pelvic symptom. RESULTS After adjustment for age, income and symptom duration, measures of pain severity were similar across genders. Mean scores for the ICSI, ICPI and AUASI were significantly higher in women than men, reflecting more bladder-focused symptoms in women. The most bothersome single symptom in both men and women was pain in the pubic/bladder area (34% of men, 58% of women). The characteristics of the men and women in the MAPP cohort were similar to those reported in other research cohorts of IC/BPS and CP/CPPS. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that pain severity is similar in both sexes, and that bladder-focused symptoms (urgency, suprapubic pain, frequency) are more common in women. However, a substantial proportion of men also report these types of bladder symptoms. PMID:25463989

  20. Exploring Flexible and Multidisciplinary Approaches to Applied Science Research Project Assessments: Case Studies from the NASA DEVELOP National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepps, G.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Favors, J. E.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Within the NASA DEVELOP National Program, teams conduct rapid prototype and feasibility projects, applying NASA Earth Observations to a broad range of problems in diverse focus areas, including water resources, agriculture, disaster management, and ecological forecasting, with the goal of assisting partner organizations in their decision making processes. Projects vary in scope, design, and satellite data utilized. As a result, there is no "fixed" set of indicators that encompasses all relevant impacts of all projects. Rather, a flexible toolkit of both shared indicators and individualized approaches is needed to capture the diverse outcomes of these projects, while still allowing for comparability of the projects. This has been done through the creation of pre- and post-project partner assessments that capture partner needs, capabilities, and expectations. This provides both baseline data and an overview of project impacts on partners. Selected projects are then individually assessed in greater detail through partner follow-ups and research into the quantification of project impacts utilizing interdisciplinary approaches to fit each project. This process is discussed through three examples of project impact assessments that draw from varied discipline approaches including cost benefit analysis and ecosystem services.

  1. Integrated Multidisciplinary Assessment of Environmentally Realistic Complex Mixtures of Drinking Water Disinfection ByProducts (DBPs) (The 4Lab Study)

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 600 DBPs have been identified; yet ~50% of the total organic halide from chlorination is unidentified. Epidemiology studies suggest associations between human use of chlorinated water and reproductive/developmental effects (pregnancy loss, low birth weight), that are un...

  2. Liquid belt radiator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Fitzgerald, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Belt Radiator (LBR) is an advanced concept developed to meet the needs of anticipated future space missions. A previous study documented the advantages of this concept as a lightweight, easily deployable alternative to present day space heat rejection systems. The technical efforts associated with this study concentrate on refining the concept of the LBR as well as examining the issues of belt dynamics and potential application of the LBR to intermediate and high temperature heat rejection applications. A low temperature point design developed in previous work is updated assuming the use of diffusion pump oil, Santovac-6, as the heat transfer media. Additional analytical and design effort is directed toward determining the impact of interface heat exchanger, fluid bath sealing, and belt drive mechanism designs on system performance and mass. The updated design supports the earlier result by indicating a significant reduction in system specific system mass as compared to heat pipe or pumped fluid radiator concepts currently under consideration (1.3 kg/sq m versus 5 kg/sq m).

  3. Multidisciplinary experiment on studying short-period variability of the sedimentary process in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Ostrovskii, A. G.; Novigatskii, A. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The principal aim of this work is to reveal the regularities of short-period synoptic variability of vertical flows and the composition of settling sedimentary material, to obtain information on the quantitative characteristics of the processes that influence sound-scattering layers in the water layer above the continental slope behind the shelf edge in the northeastern part of the Black Sea. The results were obtained due to improvement of the equipment and the procedures for performing sea experiments on studying physicogeological, biological, and hydrophysical processes in the upper illuminated layer of phytoplankton development.

  4. Core outcome measures for exercise studies in people with multiple sclerosis: recommendations from a multidisciplinary consensus meeting.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lorna; Coote, Susan; Crosbie, Jean; Dixon, Diane; Hale, Leigh; Holloway, Ed; McCrone, Paul; Miller, Linda; Saxton, John; Sincock, Caroline; White, Lesley

    2014-10-01

    Evidence shows that exercise is beneficial for people with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, statistical pooling of data is difficult because of the diversity of outcome measures used. The objective of this review is to report the recommendations of an International Consensus Meeting for a core set of outcome measures for use in exercise studies in MS. From the 100 categories of the International Classification of Function Core Sets for MS, 57 categories were considered as likely/potentially likely to be affected by exercise and were clustered into seven core groups. Outcome measures to address each group were evaluated regarding, for example, psychometric properties. The following are recommended: Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) or Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) for energy and drive, 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) for exercise tolerance, Timed Up and Go (TUG) for muscle function and moving around, Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) or Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL54) for quality of life and body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) for the health risks associated with excess body fat. A cost effectiveness analysis and qualitative evaluation should be included where possible. Using these core measures ensures that future meta-analyses of exercise studies in MS are more robust and thus more effectively inform practice. PMID:24639480

  5. Atypical iron storage in marine brown algae: a multidisciplinary study of iron transport and storage in Ectocarpus siliculosus

    PubMed Central

    Matzanke, Berthold F.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carrano, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for all living organisms due to its ubiquitous role in redox and other enzymes, especially in the context of respiration and photosynthesis. The iron uptake and storage systems of terrestrial/higher plants are now reasonably well understood, with two basic strategies for iron uptake being distinguished: strategy I plants use a mechanism involving induction of Fe(III)-chelate reductase (ferrireductase) and Fe(II) transporter proteins, while strategy II plants utilize high-affinity, iron-specific, binding compounds called phytosiderophores. In contrast, little is known about the corresponding systems in marine, plant-like lineages, particularly those of multicellular algae (seaweeds). Herein the first study of the iron uptake and storage mechanisms in the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus is reported. Genomic data suggest that Ectocarpus may use a strategy I approach. Short-term radio-iron uptake studies verified that iron is taken up by Ectocarpus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner consistent with an active transport process. Upon long-term exposure to 57Fe, two metabolites have been identified using a combination of Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These include an iron–sulphur cluster accounting for ~26% of the total intracellular iron pool and a second component with spectra typical of a polymeric (Fe3+O6) system with parameters similar to the amorphous phosphorus-rich mineral core of bacterial and plant ferritins. This iron metabolite accounts for ~74% of the cellular iron pool and suggests that Ectocarpus contains a non-ferritin but mineral-based iron storage pool. PMID:22945940

  6. A multidisciplinary study on the Xiangshan uranium-bearing caldera structure: evidences from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangrong; Guo, Fusheng; Wu, Changzhi

    2016-04-01

    As the world's third largest volcanic type uranium ore field, Xiangshan volcanic basin attracted scientific research as well as large amount of industry investment. Gradually, it came to reach a consensus that a "three-storeyed type" model: under the uranium mineralized volcanic rocks, there were still Pb-Zn and Ag. However, these research results and drill cores also brought hot debates which focus on the locations of volcanic calderas because researchers believed it related to the pathways of U-Pb-Zn-Ag-bearing fluid. Here we report the first systematic study of paleoflow of the two main uranium-bearing wall rocks, aiming to find the volcanic vents. This study integrates results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and magnetotelluric sounding (MT) in addition field geological observation. It shows that (1) rhyodacite and porphyritic lava are the main wall rock of uranium ore, which outcrop about 350km2 covering 80% of the Xiangshan basin; (2) magnetite and hematite are the main magnetic minerals; (3) the rhyodacite developed in the North-West-most of Xiangshan basin illustrated North-East magnetic lineation with low-angle-foliation, and those rhyodacite located a few kilometers to the East of the previews one displayed progressively North-West magnetic foliation with barely horizontal foliation. It indicated probably all these rhyodacite flowed from the South; (4) whereas to the porphyritic lava, it shows variable magnetic lineation around the basin, which may suggest five volcanic calderas. It is noteworthy that the AMS results are consistent with fielded lineation observation and MT; (4) finally, a gravity modeling has been conducted and the result shows that the bodies of rhyodacite and porphyritic lava are laccolithic with relative thick center that may interpret as feeder of magma.

  7. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  8. Multi-disciplinary study for the exploration of deep low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs, Neuchâtel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, G.; Abdelfettah, Y.; Negro, F.; Schill, E.; Vuataz, F.

    2011-12-01

    The authorities of the canton of Neuchâtel, in the Western part of Switzerland, are willing to develop geothermal energy for district heating in the two main cities of the canton: Neuchâtel, located along the Lake of Neuchâtel, and La Chaux-de-Fonds situated in a high valley of the Jura Massif. The geology of both areas is linked to the Jura Range and present complex structures, where the landscape is composed of anticlines associated with overthrust faults, which are overcut by strike-slip fault and secondary faulting events. The rock formations go from the Trias, which forms the detachment layer, up to the Quaternary rock. Bedrocks are mainly composed of limestones and marls, which can reach a thickness of several hundreds meters. The three main deep aquifers investigated in this area, from the shallowest (≤ 400 m below surface) to deepest (< 2000 m), are the Malm, the Dogger and the Muschelkalk. The estimated temperatures, based on previous studies, should range between 20 to 65 oC, which are function of depth, elevation and groundwater velocity. The expected low temperature is mainly due to the presence of karstic systems, which drains the heat towards the low elevation of the basin. The present study is based on gravimetry surveys, 3D geological models and 3D gravimetry models to best characterize the underground structures and to find areas where the rock properties would be favourable to geothermal exploitation. This means targets where permeability and porosity are high in the potential aquifers, allowing a significant flow at the future production wells. The results indicate that gravity anomalies are associated with both shallow and deep geological structures in the two exploration sites and that high resolution of dense grid gravity measurements combined with realistic 3D models of the geological structures allow to characterize interesting features for deep geothermal exploration. Gravity corrections were carried out with a computing code using

  9. A Review of Multidisciplinary Interventions in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Sara C.; LeBovidge, Jennifer S.; Timmons, Karol G.; Schneider, Lynda C.

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary interventions have been developed for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and their families, with the aim of improving outcomes such as disease control, adherence, and quality of life. We reviewed the content of different multidisciplinary approaches to intervention for AD and evidence for their impact on key outcome measures. We also provided data from our multidisciplinary outpatient program for pediatric AD. Studies included in the review suggest benefits of multidisciplinary interventions as models of treatment or adjuncts to standard medical care, with a positive impact on outcomes including disease severity and itching/scratching. There were limitations to existing studies, including heterogeneous methods used to assess quality of life outcomes across studies and lack of controlled studies assessing the outcome of clinical care programs. Further research will be useful in assessing the impact of multidisciplinary interventions on important outcomes such as treatment adherence and sleep, identifying the elements of multidisciplinary interventions that are most critical for improved outcomes, and identifying the best candidates for multidisciplinary intervention approaches. PMID:26239470

  10. Challenges of Trainees in a Multidisciplinary Research Program: Nano-Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriegel, Christina; Koehne, Jessica; Tinkle, Sally; Maynard, Andrew D.; Hill, Rodney A.

    2011-01-01

    The breadth of knowledge required for the multidisciplinary field of nanotechnology challenges and extends traditional concepts of multidisciplinary graduate education. There is a paucity of information, both general reporting and peer-reviewed studies, on the challenges for graduate students working in this multidisciplinary paradigm, from the…

  11. A multidisciplinary approach to unravel hydrothermal explosions: a case-study from Gengissig lake (Kverkfjöll volcano, Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Reynolds, Hannah I.; Dürig, Tobias; Strehlow, Karen; Rott, Stefanie; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    On August 15, 2013, a small jökulhlaup occurred when the Gengissig ice-dammed lake drained at Kverkfjöll, a central volcano with an active geothermal area located at the northern edge of Vatnajökull. The lake level dropped by approximately 30 m, decreasing pressure on the lake bed and triggering several steam-driven explosions. The explosions involved the surficial part of a hydrothermally altered glacio-lacustrine deposit mainly composed of pyroclasts, lava fragments and volcanic bombs, interbedded with clay-rich layers. Small fans of ejecta were formed, reaching a distance of 1 km north of the lake covering an area of approximately 0.3 km2, with a maximum thickness of 40 cm at the crater walls. The explosions, triggered by the rapid boiling in the surficial geothermal reservoir which followed the abrupt decrease in confining pressure, ejected approximately 104 m3 of mostly loose material. The thermal and craterization energy, calculated for the explosion areas, are on the order of 10^11 and 10^10J, respectively. Comparison of the calculated energies with those estimated by the volume of the ejecta and the crater sizes, yields a good agreement between models and field data. Morphological analyses (SEM) were used for a qualitative estimation of amount of freshly-fragmented clasts in the ejected material revealing that a low but significant energy consumption by fragmentation occurred. Decompression experiments were performed in the lab mimicking the conditions due to the drainage of the lake. A large amount of fine material was produced in these experiments possibly indicating active fragmentation. Furthermore, ejection velocities of the particles of 40-50 m/s, measured via high-speed videos, are consistent with those estimated from the field. This study demonstrates how the effective combination of field and lab data together with theoretical modeling can provide robust constraints on energy release and partitioning for such low-magnitude yet hazardous, steam

  12. Work domain analysis for enhancing collaborations: a study of the management of microsystems design.

    PubMed

    Durugbo, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is an important process that enables organisations to achieve goals or solve problems and, in design processes, is an important factor for accomplishing interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary tasks. An understanding of the functional configuration of organisations could therefore offer a useful insight into collaborations of designers. This study makes use of work domain analysis (WDA) to analyse the management of design by organisations within the microsystems technology (MST) domain. The WDA considers the functional configuration of MST companies in terms of management constraints and boundaries. This study also makes use of the WDA to suggest ways of establishing collaborative design and enhancing collaboration between organisations. Practitioner Summary: The results of this methodical analysis offer useful insights for managing design functions. This study also presents recommendations for enhancing collaboration in organisations. The ability to manage and collaborate in design functions is valuable for improving the productivity, cost-effectiveness and time-to-market systems. PMID:22506645

  13. On the Origin of the High Lava Plains Volcanic Track: A Detailed Tomographic Study and Multidisciplinary Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, D. E.; Fouch, M. J.; Wagner, L. S.; Carlson, R. W.; Eagar, K. C.; Roth, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    , submitted, 2011). We interpret the new body wave tomography in relationship to both crustal structure and recently published regional 3-D surface wave inversions of the crust and uppermost mantle (e.g., Wagner et al., EPSL, vol. 299, 273-284, 2010): The crustal studies reveal zones of abnormally high Poisson's ratios and low seismic velocities in the crust beneath northcentral and southern Oregon, marking the likely presence of partial melt adjacent to, but not within, the main HLP lineament. The surface wave results likewise show an apparent lack of correlation between low S-wave velocities in the uppermost mantle and the track of the HLP lineament itself. We will present detailed cross-sectional and map images that help better define the relationship between uppermost mantle structure and the on-going HLP volcanism. Finally, we will present and assess arguments as to subduction vs. plume origins of the HLP and the surrounding tectonic terranes.

  14. Multidisciplinary management of advanced lung neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ferolla, Piero; Guerrera, Francesco; Ruffini, Enrico; Travis, William D.; Rossi, Giulio; Lausi, Paolo Olivo; Oliaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The optimal clinical management of aggressive/advanced lung neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is still debated, due to their rarity and the lack of prospective randomized studies. Results derive from retrospective mono-Institutional series, and few dedicated prospective trials, recently designed, are still ongoing. In low-grade tumors [bronchial carcinoids (BCs)] surgery, whenever feasible, remains the mainstay of treatment, and chemo/radiotherapy (RT) should be reserved to progressive diseases (PD). In case of resected N1-N2 BCs, a “watch and see” policy associated with a close clinical/radiological follow-up is recommended. Somatostatin analogs (SSA) seem to be effective in controlling BCs associated endocrine syndromes, while SSA antiproliferative effect has also been reported in the past. Targeted therapy with new drugs (Everolimus) seems to be very promising, but further trials are needed. Surgery alone is not sufficient to treat high-grade NETs: adjuvant CT is required also in early stages. Platinum-Etoposide regimen demonstrated to be the most effective; irinotecan and other biological drugs are considered very promising. In conclusion, the management of advanced lung NETs should be individualized by multidisciplinary teams which include Medical and Radiation Oncologists, Surgeons, Pathologists, Pulmonologists, Endocrinologists, Interventional Radiologists, and the prognosis is mainly dependent on tumor grade and its anatomical extent. PMID:25984363

  15. The OpenForest Portal as an Open Learning Ecosystem: Co-Developing in the Study of a Multidisciplinary Phenomenon in a Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljeström, Anu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Vanninen, Petteri; Vartiainen, Henriikka; Pöllänen, Sinikka

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the OpenForest portal and its related multidisciplinary learning project. The OpenForest portal is an open learning environment and ecosystem, in which students can participate in co-developing and co-creating practices. The aim of the OpenForest ecosystem is to create an extensive interactive network of diverse learning…

  16. N-ICE2015: Multi-disciplinary study of the young sea ice system north of Svalbard from winter to summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats; Assmy, Philipp; Duarte, Pedro; Hudson, Stephen; Gerland, Sebastian; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is shifting to a new regime with a thinner and smaller sea-ice area cover. Until now, winter sea ice extent has changed less than during summer, as the heat loss to the atmosphere during autumn and winter is large enough form an ice cover in most regions. The insulating snow cover also heavily influences the winter ice growth. Consequently, the older, thicker multi-year sea ice has been replace by a younger and thinner sea. These large changes in the sea ice cover may have dramatic consequences for ecosystems, energy fluxes and ultimately atmospheric circulation and the Northern Hemisphere climate. To study the effects of the changing Arctic the Norwegian Polar Institute, together with national and international partners, launched from January 11 to June 24, 2015 the Norwegian Young Sea ICE cruise 2015 (N-ICE2015). N-ICE2015 was a multi-disciplinary cruise aimed at simultaneously studying the effect of the Arctic Ocean changes in the sea ice, the atmosphere, in radiation, in ecosystems. as well as water chemistry. R/V Lance was frozen into the drift ice north of Svalbard at about N83 E25 and drifted passively southwards with the ice until she was broken loose. When she was loose, R/V Lance was brought back north to a similar starting position. While fast in the ice, she served as a living and working platform for 100 scientist and engineers from 11 countries. One aim of N-ICE2015 is to present a comprehensive data-set on the first year ice dominated system available for the scientific community describing the state and changes of the Arctic sea ice system from freezing to melt. Analyzing the data is progressing and some first results will be presented.

  17. Warm gas TVC design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, S. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A warm gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a warm gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.

  18. Supersonic airplane study and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    1993-01-01

    A supersonic airplane creates shocks which coalesce and form a classical N-wave on the ground, forming a double bang noise termed sonic boom. A recent supersonic commercial transport (the Concorde) has a loud sonic boom (over 100 PLdB) and low aerodynamic performance (cruise lift-drag ratio 7). To enhance the U.S. market share in supersonic transport, an airframer's market risk for a low-boom airplane has to be reduced. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to design airplanes to meet the dual constraints of low sonic boom and high aerodynamic performance. During the past year, a research effort was focused on three main topics. The first was to use the existing design tools, developed in past years, to design one of the low-boom wind-tunnel configurations (Ames Model 3) for testing at Ames Research Center in April 1993. The second was to use a Navier-Stokes code (Overflow) to support the Oblique-All-Wing (OAW) study at Ames. The third was to study an optimization technique applied on a Haack-Adams body to reduce aerodynamic drag.

  19. Pleistocene soil development and paleoenvironmental dynamics in East Africa: a multidisciplinary study of the Homo-bearing Aalat succession, Dandiero Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Mercatante, Giuseppe; Donato, Paola; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Carnevale, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Oms, Oriol; Papini, Mauro; Pavia, Marco; Sani, Federico; Rook, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Pleistocene environmental changes in East Africa, largely documented by deep marine or lacustrine records correlated with inland high-resolution, Homo-bearing stratigraphic successions, have been so far interpreted as a major cause of faunal dispersal and human evolution. However, only few studies focused on reconstruction of paleoenvironmental dynamics from continental successions, given the usually poor continuity and extension of stratigraphic records. In this work we report on a multidisciplinary study of the Early to Middle Pleistocene sedimentary fill of the Dandiero Basin (Eritrean Danakil), a morpho-tectonic depression in the East African Rift System, which represents the only continental stratigraphy including human remains of Homo erectus/ergaster and abundant fossil vertebrates in the northernmost sector of this region. Sedimentological, pedological, volcanological and paleontological investigations were performed on the Aalat section, located in the northern part of the Dandiero Basin, as tools for an integrated reconstruction of the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition in East Africa. This section is almost 300 m thick and records repeated shifts from fluvial to deltaic and lacustrine depositional environments, as a response to local tectonic activity and climate changes. Sedimentary facies distribution and paleocurrent data show that sedimentation was controlled by a NS-trending axial drainage. Some tephra layers were identified both at the bottom and the top of the section, whereas two main fossiliferous layers were detected in its lower part. Terrestrial vertebrate faunas include a typical Early to Middle Pleistocene East African mammalian assemblage, where taxa characterized by strong water dependence prevail. Also the ichthyofauna is consistent with the shallow water fluvio-lacustrine paleobiotopes. High-quality paleomagnetic analyses, integrated with radiometric dating and vertebrate paleontology, allowed to substantiate the chronological

  20. Multidisciplinary systems optimization by linear decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieski, J.

    1984-01-01

    In a typical design process major decisions are made sequentially. An illustrated example is given for an aircraft design in which the aerodynamic shape is usually decided first, then the airframe is sized for strength and so forth. An analogous sequence could be laid out for any other major industrial product, for instance, a ship. The loops in the discipline boxes symbolize iterative design improvements carried out within the confines of a single engineering discipline, or subsystem. The loops spanning several boxes depict multidisciplinary design improvement iterations. Omitted for graphical simplicity is parallelism of the disciplinary subtasks. The parallelism is important in order to develop a broad workfront necessary to shorten the design time. If all the intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary iterations were carried out to convergence, the process could yield a numerically optimal design. However, it usually stops short of that because of time and money limitations. This is especially true for the interdisciplinary iterations.

  1. Multidisciplinary tailoring of hot composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Surendra N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1993-01-01

    A computational simulation procedure is described for multidisciplinary analysis and tailoring of layered multi-material hot composite engine structural components subjected to simultaneous multiple discipline-specific thermal, structural, vibration, and acoustic loads. The effect of aggressive environments is also simulated. The simulation is based on a three-dimensional finite element analysis technique in conjunction with structural mechanics codes, thermal/acoustic analysis methods, and tailoring procedures. The integrated multidisciplinary simulation procedure is general-purpose including the coupled effects of nonlinearities in structure geometry, material, loading, and environmental complexities. The composite material behavior is assessed at all composite scales, i.e., laminate/ply/constituents (fiber/matrix), via a nonlinear material characterization hygro-thermo-mechanical model. Sample tailoring cases exhibiting nonlinear material/loading/environmental behavior of aircraft engine fan blades, are presented. The various multidisciplinary loads lead to different tailored designs, even those competing with each other, as in the case of minimum material cost versus minimum structure weight and in the case of minimum vibration frequency versus minimum acoustic noise.

  2. Multidisciplinary tailoring of hot composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Surendra N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1992-01-01

    A computational simulation procedure is described for multidisciplinary analysis and tailoring of multilayered multimaterial hot composite engine structural components subjected to simultaneous multiple discipline-specific thermal, structural, vibration, and acoustic loadings including the effect of aggressive environments. The simulation is based on a 3D finite element analysis technique in conjunction with structural mechanics codes, thermal/acoustic analysis methods, and tailoring procedures. The integrated multidisciplinary simulation procedure is general-purpose including the coupled effects of nonlinearities in structure geometry, material, loading, and environmental complexities. The composite material behavior is assessed at all composite scales, i.e., the laminate/ply/constituents (fiber/matrix), via a nonlinear material characterization hygro-thermomechanical model. Sample tailoring cases exhibiting nonlinear material/loading/environmental behavior of aircraft engine fan blades, are presented. The various multidisciplinary loadings lead to different tailored designs, even those opposite of each other, as in the case of minimum material cost versus minimum structure weight and in the case of minimum vibration frequency versus minimum acoustic noise.

  3. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  4. Reflections on the Role of the "Users": Challenges in a Multi-Disciplinary Context of Learner-Centred Design for Children on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah; Cobb, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Technology design in the field of human-computer interaction has developed a continuum of participatory research methods, closely mirroring methodological approaches and epistemological discussions in other fields. This paper positions such approaches as examples of inclusive research (to varying degrees) within education, and illustrates the…

  5. Multidisciplinary approach to constrain kinematics of fault zones at shallow depths: a case study from the Cameros-Demanda thrust (North Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Román-Berdiel, T.; Oliva-Urcia, B.; García-Lasanta, C.; Villalaín, J. J.; Aldega, L.; Corrado, S.; Caricchi, C.; Invernizzi, C.; Osácar, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Thrusting at shallow depths often precludes analysis by means of structural indicators effective in other geological contexts (e.g., mylonites, sheath folds, shear bands). In this paper, a combination of techniques (including structural analysis, magnetic methods, as anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and paleomagnetism, and paleothermometry) is used to define thrusting conditions, deformation, and transport directions in the Cameros-Demanda thrust (North Spain). Three outcrops were analyzed along this intraplate, large-scale major structure having 150 km of outcropping length, 30 km of maximum horizontal displacement, and 5 km of vertical throw. Results obtained by means of the different techniques are compared with data derived from cross sections and stratigraphic analysis. Mixed-layer illite-smectite and vitrinite reflectance indicating deep diagenetic conditions and mature stage of hydrocarbon generation suggests shallow depths during deformation, thus confirming that the protolith for most of the fault rocks is the footwall of the main thrust. Kinematic indicators (foliation, S/C structures, and slickenside striations) indicate altogether a dominant NNW movement of the hanging wall in the western zone and NE in the eastern zone of the thrust, thus implying strain partitioning between different branches of the main thrust. The study of AMS in fault rocks (nearly 400 samples of fault gouge, breccia, and microbreccia) indicates that the strike of magnetic foliation is oblique to the transport direction and that the magnetic lineation parallelizes the projection of the transport direction onto the k max/k int plane in sites with strong shear deformation. Paleomagnetism applied to fault rocks indicates the existence of remagnetizations linked to thrusting, in spite of the shallow depth for deformation, and a strong deformation or scattering of the magnetic remanence vectors in the fault zone. The application of the described techniques and consistency of

  6. Multidisciplinary approaches to solar hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Bren, Kara L.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes three different approaches to engineering systems for the solar-driven evolution of hydrogen fuel from water: molecular, nanomaterials and biomolecular. Molecular systems have the advantage of being highly amenable to modification and detailed study and have provided great insight into photophysics, electron transfer and catalytic mechanism. However, they tend to display poor stability. Systems based on nanomaterials are more robust but also are more difficult to synthesize in a controlled manner and to modify and study in detail. Biomolecular systems share many properties with molecular systems and have the advantage of displaying inherently high efficiencies for light absorption, electron–hole separation and catalysis. However, biological systems must be engineered to couple modules that capture and convert solar photons to modules that produce hydrogen fuel. Furthermore, biological systems are prone to degradation when employed in vitro. Advances that use combinations of these three tactics also are described. Multidisciplinary approaches to this problem allow scientists to take advantage of the best features of biological, molecular and nanomaterials systems provided that the components can be coupled for efficient function. PMID:26052425

  7. Multidisciplinary approaches to solar hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Bren, Kara L

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes three different approaches to engineering systems for the solar-driven evolution of hydrogen fuel from water: molecular, nanomaterials and biomolecular. Molecular systems have the advantage of being highly amenable to modification and detailed study and have provided great insight into photophysics, electron transfer and catalytic mechanism. However, they tend to display poor stability. Systems based on nanomaterials are more robust but also are more difficult to synthesize in a controlled manner and to modify and study in detail. Biomolecular systems share many properties with molecular systems and have the advantage of displaying inherently high efficiencies for light absorption, electron-hole separation and catalysis. However, biological systems must be engineered to couple modules that capture and convert solar photons to modules that produce hydrogen fuel. Furthermore, biological systems are prone to degradation when employed in vitro. Advances that use combinations of these three tactics also are described. Multidisciplinary approaches to this problem allow scientists to take advantage of the best features of biological, molecular and nanomaterials systems provided that the components can be coupled for efficient function. PMID:26052425

  8. Study protocol of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary intervention in the evolution of non-specific sub-acute low back pain in the working population: cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP), with high incidence and prevalence rate, is one of the most common reasons to consult the health system and is responsible for a significant amount of sick leave, leading to high health and social costs. The objective of the study is to assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of a multidisciplinary biopsychosocial educational group intervention (MBEGI) of non-specific sub-acute LBP in comparison with the usual care in the working population recruited in primary healthcare centres. Methods/design The study design is a cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of a MBEGI in comparison with the usual care of non-specific sub-acute LBP. Measures on effectiveness and costs of both interventions will be obtained from a cluster randomised controlled clinical trial carried out in 38 Catalan primary health care centres, enrolling 932 patients between 18 and 65 years old with a diagnosis of non-specific sub-acute LBP. Effectiveness measures are: pharmaceutical treatments, work sick leave (% and duration in days), Roland Morris disability, McGill pain intensity, Fear Avoidance Beliefs (FAB) and Golberg Questionnaires. Utility measures will be calculated from the SF-12. The analysis will be performed from a social perspective. The temporal horizon is at 3 months (change to chronic LBP) and 12 months (evaluate the outcomes at long term). Assessment of outcomes will be blinded and will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion We hope to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of MBEGI, see an improvement in the patients' quality of life, achieve a reduction in the duration of episodes and the chronicity of non-specific low back pain, and be able to report a decrease in the social costs. If the intervention is cost-effectiveness and cost-utility, it could be applied to Primary Health Care Centres. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN58719694 PMID:21859489

  9. Design Issues in Transgender Studies

    PubMed Central

    Emel, Lynda; Hanscom, Brett; Zangeneh, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Transgender individuals constitute an important focus for HIV prevention, but studies in this population present some unique methodologic and operational challenges. We consider issues related to sampling, sample size, number of sites, and trial cost. We discuss relevant design issues for evaluating interventions in both HIV-negative and HIV-infected transgender populations, as well as a method for assessing the impact of an intervention on population HIV incidence. We find that HIV-endpoint studies of transgender individuals will likely require fewer participants but more sites and have higher operational costs than HIV prevention trials in other populations. Because any intervention targeted to transgender individuals will likely include antiretroviral drugs, small scale studies looking at potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy and hormone therapy are recommended. Finally, assessing the impact of an intervention targeted to transgender individuals will require better information on the contribution of such individuals to the population HIV incidence. PMID:27429191

  10. Design Issues in Transgender Studies.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James P; Emel, Lynda; Hanscom, Brett; Zangeneh, Sahar

    2016-08-15

    Transgender individuals constitute an important focus for HIV prevention, but studies in this population present some unique methodologic and operational challenges. We consider issues related to sampling, sample size, number of sites, and trial cost. We discuss relevant design issues for evaluating interventions in both HIV-negative and HIV-infected transgender populations, as well as a method for assessing the impact of an intervention on population HIV incidence. We find that HIV-endpoint studies of transgender individuals will likely require fewer participants but more sites and have higher operational costs than HIV prevention trials in other populations. Because any intervention targeted to transgender individuals will likely include antiretroviral drugs, small scale studies looking at potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy and hormone therapy are recommended. Finally, assessing the impact of an intervention targeted to transgender individuals will require better information on the contribution of such individuals to the population HIV incidence. PMID:27429191

  11. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  12. Study designs for dependent happenings.

    PubMed

    Halloran, M E; Struchiner, C J

    1991-09-01

    In 1916, Sir Ronald Ross defined "dependent happenings" as events where the number affected in a unit of time depends on the number already affected. That is, the incidence depends on the prevalence, a characteristic of many infectious diseases. Because of this dependence, interventions against infectious diseases can have not only direct protective effects for the person receiving an intervention, but also indirect effects resulting from changes in the intensity of transmission in the population. This paper develops the conceptual framework for four types of study designs that differentiate and account for direct and indirect effects of intervention programs in dependent happenings. PMID:1742381

  13. EMSO: European multidisciplinary seafloor observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura

    2009-04-01

    EMSO has been identified by the ESFRI Report 2006 as one of the Research Infrastructures that European members and associated states are asked to develop in the next decades. It will be based on a European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the aim of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes, providing long time series data for the different phenomenon scales which constitute the new frontier for study of Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry, and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on past EU projects and is supported by several EU initiatives, such as the on-going ESONET-NoE, aimed at strengthening the ocean observatories' scientific and technological community. The EMSO development relies on the synergy between the scientific community and industry to improve European competitiveness with respect to countries such as USA, Canada and Japan. Within the FP7 Programme launched in 2006, a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) was issued in order to support the foundation of the legal and organisational entity in charge of building up and managing the infrastructure, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. The EMSO-PP project, coordinated by the Italian INGV with participation by 11 institutions from as many European countries, started in April 2008 and will last four years.

  14. Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, William M. Mancuso, Anthony A.; Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Werning, John W.; Amdur, Robert J.; Villaret, Douglas B.

    2007-10-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

  15. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Yoo, Stella K.; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  16. MIUS community conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulbright, B. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and applicability of the modular integrated utility systems (MIUS) concept to a satellite new-community development with a population of approximately 100,000 were analyzed. Two MIUS design options, the 29-MIUS-unit (option 1) and the 8-MIUS-unit (option 2) facilities were considered. Each resulted in considerable resource savings when compared to a conventional utility system. Economic analyses indicated that the total cash outlay and operations and maintenance costs for these two options were considerably less than for a conventional system. Computer analyses performed in support of this study provided corroborative data for the study group. An environmental impact assessment was performed to determine whether the MIUS meets or will meet necessary environmental standards. The MIUS can provide improved efficiency in the conservation of natural resources while not adversely affecting the physical environment.

  17. Multidisciplinary teamwork in US primary health care.

    PubMed

    Solheim, Karen; McElmurry, Beverly J; Kim, Mi Ja

    2007-08-01

    Primary health care (PHC) is a systems perspective for examining the provision of essential health care for all. A multidisciplinary collaborative approach to health care delivery is associated with effective delivery and care providers' enrichment. Yet data regarding multidisciplinary practice within PHC are limited. The purpose of this exploratory qualitative descriptive study was to better understand team-based PHC practice in the US. Aims included (a) describing nursing faculty involvement in PHC, (b) analyzing ways that multidisciplinary work was enacted, and (c) recommending strategies for multidisciplinary PHC practice. After institutional review board (IRB) protocol approval, data collection occurred by: (a) surveying faculty/staff in a Midwestern nursing college (N=94) about their PHC practice, and (b) interviewing a purposive sample of nursing faculty/staff identified with PHC (n=10) and their health professional collaborators (n=10). Survey results (28% return rate) were summarized, interview notes were transcribed, and a systematic process of content analysis applied. Study findings show team practice is valued because health issues are complex, requiring different types of expertise; and because teams foster comprehensive care and improved resource use. Mission, membership attributes, and leadership influence teamwork. Though PHC is not a common term, nurses and their collaborators readily associated their practice with a PHC ethos. PHC practice requires understanding community complexity and engaging with community, family, and individual viewpoints. Though supports exist for PHC in the US, participants identified discord between their view of population needs and the health care system. The following interpretations arise from this study: PHC does not explicitly frame health care activity in the US, though some practitioners are committed to its ethics; and, teamwork within PHC is associated with better health care and rewarding professional

  18. Integrated Multidisciplinary Optimization Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    OpenMDAO is an open-source MDAO framework. It is used to develop an integrated analysis and design environment for engineering challenges. This Phase II project integrated additional modules and design tools into OpenMDAO to perform discipline-specific analysis across multiple flight regimes at varying levels of fidelity. It also showcased a refined system architecture that allows the system to be less customized to a specific configuration (i.e., system and configuration separation). By delivering a capable and validated MDAO system along with a set of example applications to be used as a template for future users, this work greatly expands NASA's high-fidelity, physics-based MDAO capabilities and enables the design of revolutionary vehicles in a cost-effective manner. This proposed work complements M4 Engineering's expertise in developing modeling and simulation toolsets that solve relevant subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic demonstration applications.

  19. An overview of prechronic and chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity experimental study designs and criteria used by the National Toxicology Program.

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, R S; Huff, J E; Schwetz, B S; Selkirk, J

    1990-01-01

    Since the establishment of the National Toxicology Program (NTP), there have been gradual changes in strategies to evaluate the overall toxicity of chemicals as well as their carcinogenic potential. The spectrum of toxicologic information sought on selected chemicals has been broadened by the multidisciplinary approach to evaluating chemicals. This paper describes the scientific rationale and experimental processes used by NTP in designing studies. Also, an outline of current NTP protocols are given for prechronic and chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies. PMID:2205492

  20. “Partners rather than just providers…”: A qualitative study on health care professionals’ views on implementation of multidisciplinary group meetings in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Kassianos, Angelos P.; Ignatowicz, Agnieszka; Greenfield, Geva; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Pappas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Multidisciplinary group meetings are one of the key drivers of facilitating integrated care. Health care professionals attending such groups have a key role in the success of these discussions and hence, in the forming of multi-professional integrated care. The study aimed to explore the professionals’ experiences and views of participating and implementing the groups in integrated care context. Methods A qualitative study including 25 semi-structured interviews with professionals participating in the Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot analysed using thematic content analysis. Results Participants mentioned a number of benefits of participating in the meetings, including shared learning and shared decision-making between different services and specialties. Yet, they perceived barriers that diminish the efficiency of the groups, such as time constraints, group dynamics and technicalities. The participants felt that the quality of discussions and facilitation could be improved, as well as technical arrangements that would make them easier to participate. Most of the participants perceived the groups to be beneficial for providers mostly questioning the benefits for patient care. Conclusion Findings provide an insight into how health professionals’ views of their participation to the multidisciplinary group meetings can be more effectively translated into more tangible benefits to the patients. To benefit patient care, the multidisciplinary groups need to be more patient-oriented rather than provider-oriented, while overcoming professional boundaries for participating. PMID:26351410

  1. The Safe Passage Study: Design, Methods, Recruitment, and Follow-Up Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, Kimberly A.; Burd, Larry; Elliott, Amy J.; Fifer, William P.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Hereld, Dale; Hoffman, Howard J.; Myers, Michael M.; Odendaal, Hein J.; Signore, Caroline; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Willinger, Marian; Wright, Colleen; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Safe Passage Study is a large, prospective, multidisciplinary study designed to (1) investigate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and stillbirth, and (2) determine the biological basis of the spectrum of phenotypic outcomes from exposure, as modified by environmental and genetic factors that increase the risk of stillbirth, SIDS, and in surviving children, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Methods The results provided are based on an interim assessment of 6004 women enrolled, out of the 12 000 projected, from the Northern Plains, US, and Cape Town, South Africa, areas known to be of high risk for maternal drinking during pregnancy. Research objectives, study design, and descriptive statistics, including consent, recruitment, and retention information, are provided. Results Overall visit compliance is 87%, and includes prenatal, delivery/newborn, and postnatal contacts through 1 year post-delivery. Pregnancy outcome ascertainment is 98% prior to medical chart review; less than 2% of women withdraw. Consent for the use of DNA and placental tissue exceed 94%, and consent to participate in the autopsy portion of the study is 71%. Conclusions The Safe Passage Study is the first multi-site study of SIDS and stillbirth to integrate prospectively collected exposure information with multidisciplinary biological information in the same maternal and fetal/ infant dyad using a common protocol. Essential components of the study design and its success are close ties to the community and rigorous systems and processes to ensure compliance with the study protocol and procedures. PMID:25131605

  2. A Multidisciplinary Core Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Trace

    2002-01-01

    Describes New York University's commitment to general mathematics and science education for undergraduate students, embodied in the College of Arts and Science's core curriculum, the Morse Academic Plan, which includes a three-course sequence, Foundations of Scientific Inquiry, specifically designed for non-majors. (EV)

  3. The Third Air Force/NASA Symposium on Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The third Air Force/NASA Symposium on Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization was held on 24-26 Sept. 1990. Sessions were on the following topics: dynamics and controls; multilevel optimization; sensitivity analysis; aerodynamic design software systems; optimization theory; analysis and design; shape optimization; vehicle components; structural optimization; aeroelasticity; artificial intelligence; multidisciplinary optimization; and composites.

  4. Integrated technology wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, A. P.; Beck, W. E.; Morita, W. H.; Penrose, B. J.; Skarshaug, R. E.; Wainfan, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development costs and associated benefits in applying advanced technology associated with the design of a new wing for a new or derivative trijet with a capacity for 350 passengers and maximum range of 8519 km, entering service in 1990 were studied. The areas of technology are: (1) airfoil technology; (2) planform parameters; (3) high lift; (4) pitch active control system; (5) all electric systems; (6) E to 3rd power propulsion; (7) airframe/propulsion integration; (8) graphite/epoxy composites; (9) advanced aluminum alloys; (10) titanium alloys; and (11) silicon carbide/aluminum composites. These technologies were applied to the reference aircraft configuration. Payoffs were determined for block fuel reductions and net value of technology. These technologies are ranked for the ratio of net value of technology (NVT) to technology development costs.

  5. Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization Frameworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia Gutierrez

    2009-01-01

    Since July 2008, the Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization Working Group (MDAO WG) of the Systems Analysis Design & Optimization (SAD&O) discipline in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project completed one major milestone, Define Architecture & Interfaces for Next Generation Open Source MDAO Framework Milestone (9/30/08), and is completing the Generation 1 Framework validation milestone, which is due December 2008. Included in the presentation are: details of progress on developing the Open MDAO framework, modeling and testing the Generation 1 Framework, progress toward establishing partnerships with external parties, and discussion of additional potential collaborations

  6. Malignancies in transplanted patients: Multidisciplinary evaluation and switch to mTOR inhibitors after kidney transplantation - experiences from a prospective, clinical, observational study.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Vivan C; Enström, Ylva; von Zur-Mühlen, Bengt; Hagberg, Hans; Laurell, Anna; Nyberg, Filippa; Bäckman, Lars; Opelz, Gerhard; Döhler, Bernd; Holmberg, Lars; Tufveson, Gunnar; Enblad, Gunilla; Lorant, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    Background Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing malignancies. The objective of this prospective, observational, one-armed study was to study the feasibility to add a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor to the immunosuppressive regimen in transplanted patients with post-transplant malignancies. During the trial the need to improve identification of post-transplant malignancies and to reassure adequate oncological treatment of these patients became evident. Multidisciplinary team (MDT) evaluation of oncological and immunosuppressive treatments was implemented for all patients with malignancies after renal or combined renal and pancreas transplantation because of the trial. Material and methods At Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, a MDT consisting of transplant surgeons, nephrologists, oncologists and dermatologists evaluated 120 renal or combined renal and pancreas-transplanted recipients diagnosed with malignancies from September 2006 to July 2012. To identify all malignancies, the population was linked to the Regional Tumor Registry (RTR). We recorded to which extent a switch to mTOR inhibitors was possible and how often the originally planned oncological managements were adjusted. All patients were followed for three years. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02241564). Results In 76 of 120 patients (63%) a switch to mTOR inhibitors was possible. Immunosuppression was interrupted in seven patients (6%), reduced in three patients (2%) and remained unchanged in 34 of 120 patients (28%). Identification of post-transplant malignancies increased significantly after linkage to RTR (p = 0.015). The initially recommended oncological treatment was adjusted in 23 of 44 patients (52%) with solid or hematological malignancies; 36 of these patients (82%) were treated according to national guidelines. Conclusion In two thirds of the patients the immunosuppressive treatment could be changed to an mTOR inhibitor with anti-tumor effects in

  7. A multidisciplinary study on the emplacement mechanism of the Qingyang-Jiuhua Massif in Southeast China and its tectonic bearings. Part I: Structural geology, AMS and paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, W.; Chen, Y.; Faure, M.; Shi, Y. H.; Martelet, G.; Hou, Q. L.; Lin, W.; Le Breton, N.; Wang, Q. C.

    2014-06-01

    During the Cretaceous, the South China Block (SCB) experienced a widely distributed extensional event including numerous plutons emplacement and basin opening. Investigations on the tectonic regime coeval with pluton emplacement, and emplacement mechanism of the pluton remain relatively rare in the SCB. In order to address these questions, a multidisciplinary approach, including field structural and petrographic observations, anisotropy magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetic analyses, was carried out on the Qingyang-Jiuhua granitic massif which intrudes into the Lower Yangtze fold belt in the northeastern part of the SCB. The Qingyang-Jiuhua massif is composed of the granodioritic Qingyang and monzogranitic Jiuhua plutons dated by zircon U-Pb method at ca. 142 Ma, and ca. 131 Ma, respectively. Our structural observations show that the intrusion of the Qingyang-Jiuhua massif does not modify the fold strike. A weak ductile deformation of the country rocks and granitoid can be only observed in the boundary zone with limited contact metamorphism. In the contact aureole of the massif, the foliation follows the pluton contour, and the mineral lineation is rare. When present, it exhibits a down-dip attitude. Field and microstructural observations indicate isotropic magmatic textures in most parts of the massif. The AMS analysis of 93 sites reveals weak values for the anisotropy degree (PJ < 1.2) and oblate magnetic fabric dominance (T > 0) for most of the measured samples. Two principal foliation patterns are identified: horizontal foliations in the center of the plutons, and vertical foliations on the boundaries. Magnetic lineation strike is largely scattered, and weakly inclined at the scale of the entire massif. The paleomagnetic investigations indicate that (a) the younger Jiuhua pluton did not produce a remagnetization in the older Qingyang pluton, (b) no relative movement can be observed between these two plutons, (c) the entire massif did not experience

  8. Stress-induced comenditic trachyte effusion triggered by trachybasalt intrusion: multidisciplinary study of the AD 1761 eruption at Terceira Island (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, A.; Zanon, V.; de Groot, L. V.; Hipólito, A.; Di Chiara, A.; Self, S.

    2016-03-01

    The AD 1761 eruption on Terceira was the only historical subaerial event on the island and one of the last recorded in the Azores. The eruption occurred along the fissure zone that crosses the island and produced a trachybasalt lava flow and scoria cones. Small comenditic trachyte lava domes (known as Mistérios Negros) were also thought by some to have formed simultaneously on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano. Following a multidisciplinary approach, we combined geological mapping, paleomagnetic, petrographic, mineral and whole-rock geochemical and structural analyses to study this eruption. The paleomagnetic dating method compared geomagnetic vectors (directions and intensities) recorded by both the AD 1761 lava flow and Mistérios Negros domes and revealed that the two events were indeed coeval. Based on new data and interpretation of historical records, we have accordingly reconstructed the AD 1761 eruptive dynamics and distinguished three phases: (1) a precursory phase characterized by decreased degassing in the fumarolic field of Pico Alto Volcano and a gradual increase of seismic activity, which marked the intrusion of trachybasalt magma; (2) a first eruptive phase that started with phreatic explosions on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano, followed by the inconspicuous effusion of comenditic trachyte (66 wt% SiO2), forming a WNW-ESE-oriented chain of lava domes; and (3) a second eruptive phase on the central part of the fissure zone, where a Hawaiian to Strombolian-style eruption formed small scoria cones (E-W to ENE-WSW-oriented) and a trachybasalt lava flow (50 wt% SiO2) which buried 27 houses in Biscoitos village. Petrological analyses show that the two batches of magma were emitted independently without evidence of interaction. We envisage that the dome-forming event was triggered by local stress changes induced by intrusion of the trachybasalt dyke along the fissure zone, which created tensile stress conditions that promoted ascent

  9. Novel Compressor Blade Design Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Abhay

    Jet engine efficiency goals are driving compressors to higher pressure ratios and engines to higher bypass ratios, each one driving to smaller cores. This is leading to larger tip gaps relative to the blade height. These larger relative tip clearances would negate some of the cycle improvements, and ways to mitigate this effect must be found. A novel split tip blade geometry has been created which helps improve the efficiency at large clearances while also improving operating range. Two identical blades are leaned in opposite directions starting at 85% span. They are cut at mid chord and the 2 halves then merged together so a split tip is created. The result is similar to the alula feathers on a soaring bird. The concept is that the split tip will energize the tip flow and increase range. For higher relative tip clearance, this will also improve efficiency. The 6th rotor of a highly loaded 10 stage machine was chosen as the baseline for this study. Three dimensional CFD simulations were performed using CD Adapco's Star-CCM+ at 5 clearances for the baseline and split tip geometry. The choking flow and stall margin of the split tip blade was higher than that of the baseline blade for all tip clearances. The pressure ratio of the novel blade was higher than that of the baseline blade near choke, but closer to stall it decreased. The sensitivity of peak efficiency to clearance was improved. At tight clearances of 0.62% of blade height, the maximum efficiency of the new design was less than the baseline blade, but as the tip clearance was increased above 2.5%, the maximum efficiency increased. Structural analysis was also performed to ascertain the feasibility of the design.

  10. Optimal design for epidemiological studies subject to designed missingness.

    PubMed

    Morara, Michele; Ryan, Louise; Houseman, Andres; Strauss, Warren

    2007-12-01

    In large epidemiological studies, budgetary or logistical constraints will typically preclude study investigators from measuring all exposures, covariates and outcomes of interest on all study subjects. We develop a flexible theoretical framework that incorporates a number of familiar designs such as case control and cohort studies, as well as multistage sampling designs. Our framework also allows for designed missingness and includes the option for outcome dependent designs. Our formulation is based on maximum likelihood and generalizes well known results for inference with missing data to the multistage setting. A variety of techniques are applied to streamline the computation of the Hessian matrix for these designs, facilitating the development of an efficient software tool to implement a wide variety of designs. PMID:18080755

  11. Managing Complexity in Multidisciplinary Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miceli, Kristina D.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    As high performance computing technology progresses, computational simulations are becoming more advanced in their capabilities. In the computational aerosciences domain, single discipline steady-state simulations computed on a single grid are far from the state-of-the-art. In their place are complex, time-dependent multidisciplinary simulations that attempt to model a given geometry more realistically. The product of these multidisciplinary simulations is a massive amount of data stored in different formats, grid topologies, units of measure, etc., as a result of the differences in the simulated physical domains. In addition to the challenges posed by setting up and performing the simulation, additional challenges exist in analyzing computational results. Visualization plays an important role in the advancement of multidisciplinary simulations. To date, visualization has been used to aid in the interpretation of large amounts of simulation data. Because the human visual system is effective in digesting a large amount of information presented graphically, visualization has helped simulation scientists to understand complex simulation results. As these simulations become even more complex, integrating several different physical domains, visualization will be critical to digest the massive amount of information. Another important role for visualization is to provide a common communication medium from which the domain scientists can use to develop, debug, and analyze their work. Multidisciplinary analyses are the next step in simulation technology, not only in computational aerosciences, but in many other areas such as global climate modeling. Visualization researchers must understand and work towards the challenges posed by multidisciplinary simulation scenarios. This paper addresses some of these challenges, describing technologies that must be investigated to create a useful visualization analysis tool for domain scientists.

  12. A Multidisciplinary Optimization Platform Applied to Steel Constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benanane, Abdelkader; Caperaa, Serge; Said Bekkouche, M.; Kerdal, Djamel

    The design of the complex objects such as the buildings was always organized in levels of design since the preliminary phases to the final phases. If the approach by levels allows the designers to practise a precise and progressive definition to objects, it does not allow leading nevertheless to an optimal design of the projects. Consequently, we propose in this study, an original modelling allowing representing effectively all the process of the multidisciplinary design by the exchange of textual files (technical data and knowledge) between the different disciplines of the civil engineering (geotechnical studies, reinforced concrete and structural studies). We use for the loops of optimization the Monte-Carlo method because of its great robustness since it is based on the use of random numbers and the statistical tools, because it also puts up with any form of a function objective and allows to hold account easily constraints of optimization. The studies of test cases carried out on simple structures emphasize very significant and very promising variations as well as the dimensioning that the global cost.

  13. Rapid Geometry Creation for Computer-Aided Engineering Parametric Analyses: A Case Study Using ComGeom2 for Launch Abort System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, Veronica; Gage, Peter; Manning, Ted

    2007-01-01

    ComGeom2, a tool developed to generate Common Geometry representation for multidisciplinary analysis, has been used to create a large set of geometries for use in a design study requiring analysis by two computational codes. This paper describes the process used to generate the large number of configurations and suggests ways to further automate the process and make it more efficient for future studies. The design geometry for this study is the launch abort system of the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle.

  14. Implementation of generalized optimality criteria in a multidisciplinary environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, R. A.; Venkayya, V. B.

    1989-01-01

    A generalized optimality criterion method consisting of a dual problem solver combined with a compound scaling algorithm was implemented in the multidisciplinary design tool, ASTROS. This method enables, for the first time in a production design tool, the determination of a minimum weight design using thousands of independent structural design variables while simultaneously considering constraints on response quantities in several disciplines. Even for moderately large examples, the computational efficiency is improved significantly relative to the conventional approach.

  15. Information Management for a Large Multidisciplinary Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Randall, Donald P.; Cronin, Catherine K.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) initiated the High-Speed Airframe Integration Research (HiSAIR) Program to develop and demonstrate an integrated environment for high-speed aircraft design using advanced multidisciplinary analysis and optimization procedures. The major goals of this program were to evolve the interactions among disciplines and promote sharing of information, to provide a timely exchange of information among aeronautical disciplines, and to increase the awareness of the effects each discipline has upon other disciplines. LaRC historically has emphasized the advancement of analysis techniques. HiSAIR was founded to synthesize these advanced methods into a multidisciplinary design process emphasizing information feedback among disciplines and optimization. Crucial to the development of such an environment are the definition of the required data exchanges and the methodology for both recording the information and providing the exchanges in a timely manner. These requirements demand extensive use of data management techniques, graphic visualization, and interactive computing. HiSAIR represents the first attempt at LaRC to promote interdisciplinary information exchange on a large scale using advanced data management methodologies combined with state-of-the-art, scientific visualization techniques on graphics workstations in a distributed computing environment. The subject of this paper is the development of the data management system for HiSAIR.

  16. Concentrator enhanced solar arrays design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lott, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of a 25 kW concentrator enhanced lightweight flexible solar array are presented. The study was organized into five major tasks: (1) assessment and specification of design requirements; (2) mechanical design; (3) electric design; (4) concentrator design; and (5) cost projection. The tasks were conducted in an iterative manner so as to best derive a baseline design selection. The objectives of the study are discussed and comparative configurations and mass data on the SEP (Solar Electric Propulsion) array design, concentrator design options and configuration/mass data on the selected concentrator enhanced solar array baseline design are presented. Design requirements supporting design analysis and detailed baseline design data are discussed. The results of the cost projection analysis and new technology are also discussed.

  17. Student-Designed River Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkall, Sheila Florian

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated student-designed investigation in which students explore different aspects of the Chagrin River including the river ecosystem, velocity and average depth, river flooding, water quality, and economic and political factors. (JRH)

  18. Recommending Research Profiles for Multidisciplinary Academic Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawardena, Sidath Deepal

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates how data on multidisciplinary collaborative experiences can be used to solve a novel problem: recommending research profiles of potential collaborators to academic researchers seeking to engage in multidisciplinary research collaboration. As the current domain theories of multidisciplinary collaboration are insufficient…

  19. Multidisciplinary task force for controlling drug expenses.

    PubMed

    Hayman, J N; Crane, V S

    1993-11-01

    The establishment of a multidisciplinary task force to control increasing drug costs is described. From 1986 to 1992, dollars spent on drugs at a 964-bed teaching hospital increased from $9.8 million to $26.8 million, despite a tightly controlled formulary, prudent purchasing practices, prescribing restrictions, an antimicrobial order form program, a target-drug program, and an active pharmacy-run cost intervention program. These increases occurred as a result of changes in the mix of drugs prescribed, increases in outpatient volume, inflation, and price increases resulting from the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990. A multidisciplinary task force composed of seven teams--AIDS and related issues, ambulatory care, medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, surgery, and systems and procedures--was formed to identify ways to reduce drug expenses and enhance revenue. Each team made recommendations designed to reduce the rate of growth of pharmaceutical expenses. To implement these recommendations, the task force used a variety of verbal and written strategies to educate and communicate with physicians, pharmacists, nurses, pharmaceutical company representatives, and patients. A system was developed so that goal achievement could be monitored. The program, which was implemented on September 16, 1991, and continued through September 30, 1992, reduced the growth in drug expense by $2.33 million. As a result of the program, control of the drug expenses became an institutional priority, not merely a pharmacy department priority. By establishing a multidisciplinary team approach involving physicians, administrators, nurses, and pharmacists, a substantial reduction in the growth of drug expenses can be achieved. PMID:8266959

  20. New Approaches to Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, D. P.; Craig, J. I.; Fulton, R. E.; Mistree, F.

    1995-01-01

    Research under the subject grant is being carried out in a jointly coordinated effort within three laboratories in the School of Aerospace Engineering and the George Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering. The objectives and results for Year 2 of the research program are summarized. The "Objectives" and "Expected Significance" are taken directly from the Year 2 Proposal presented in October 1994, and "Results" summarize the what has been accomplished this year. A discussion of these results is provided in the following sections. A listing of papers, presentations and reports that acknowledge grant support, either in part or in whole, and that were prepared during this period is provided in an attachment.

  1. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Wyatt, R. D.; Griswold, D. A.; Hammer, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems of commuter airplane configuration design were studied to affect a minimization of direct operating costs. Factors considered were the minimization of fuselage drag, methods of wing design, and the estimated drag of an airplane submerged in a propellor slipstream; all design criteria were studied under a set of fixed performance, mission, and stability constraints. Configuration design data were assembled for application by a computerized design methodology program similar to the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program.

  2. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Don

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  3. Structure and hydrogeochemical functioning of a sparkling natural mineral water system determined using a multidisciplinary approach: a case study from southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, J. C.; Lachassagne, P.; Ladouche, B.; Dewandel, B.; Lanini, S.; Le Strat, P.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2013-12-01

    Natural mineral waters (NMW), often used to produce bottled water, are of high socio-economic interest and need appropriate management to ensure the sustainability of the resource. A complex sparkling NMW system at La Salvetat, southern France, was investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Geological and geophysical investigations, pumping test analyses, time-series signal processing, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data (both stable and radiogenic), and numerical modelling provided complementary information on the geometry, hydrodynamic characteristics and functioning of this mineral system. The conceptual model consists of a compartmentalized reservoir characterized by two subvertical, parallel deeply rooted hydraulically independent permeable structures that are fed by deep CO2-rich crustal fluids. The non-mineralized shallow aquifer system corresponds to a fissured layer within the weathered zone that is recharged by leakage from the overlying saprolite. This surficial aquifer responds rapidly to recharge (40-80 days), whereas the deep system's response to recharge is much longer (up to 120 days). This research demonstrates the need for multidisciplinary approaches and modelling (quantity, hydrochemistry) for understanding complex NMW systems. This knowledge is already being applied by the bottling company that manages the resource at La Salvetat, and would be useful for conceptualising other NMW sites.

  4. A channel simulator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devito, D. M.; Goutmann, M. M.; Harper, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    A propagation path simulator was designed for the channel between a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite in geostationary orbit and a user spacecraft orbiting the earth at an altitude between 200 and 4000 kilometers. The simulator is required to duplicate the time varying parameters of the propagation channel.

  5. Preliminary aerosol generator design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stampfer, J. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The design and construction of a prototype vaporization generator for highly dispersed sodium chloride aerosols is described. The aerosol generating system is to be used in the Science Simulator of the Cloud Physics Laboratory Project and as part of the Cloud Physics Laboratory payload to be flown on the shuttle/spacelab.

  6. Establishing a framework for building multidisciplinary programs

    PubMed Central

    Meguid, Cheryl; Ryan, Carrie E; Edil, Barish H; Schulick, Richard D; Gajdos, Csaba; Boniface, Megan; Schefter, Tracey E; Purcell, W Thomas; McCarter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    While most providers support the concept of a multidisciplinary approach to patient care, challenges exist to the implementation of successful multidisciplinary clinical programs. As patients become more knowledgeable about their disease through research on the Internet, they seek hospital programs that offer multidisciplinary care. At the University of Colorado Hospital, we utilize a formal multidisciplinary approach across a variety of clinical settings, which has been beneficial to patients, providers, and the hospital. We present a reproducible framework to be used as a guide to develop a successful multidisciplinary program. PMID:26664132

  7. A Unified Approach to Modeling Multidisciplinary Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Bhatia, Kumar G.

    2000-01-01

    There are a number of existing methods to transfer information among various disciplines. For a multidisciplinary application with n disciplines, the traditional methods may be required to model (n(exp 2) - n) interactions. This paper presents a unified three-dimensional approach that reduces the number of interactions from (n(exp 2) - n) to 2n by using a computer-aided design model. The proposed modeling approach unifies the interactions among various disciplines. The approach is independent of specific discipline implementation, and a number of existing methods can be reformulated in the context of the proposed unified approach. This paper provides an overview of the proposed unified approach and reformulations for two existing methods. The unified approach is specially tailored for application environments where the geometry is created and managed through a computer-aided design system. Results are presented for a blended-wing body and a high-speed civil transport.

  8. Implementing effective and sustainable multidisciplinary clinical thoracic oncology programs

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Richard K.; Krasna, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Three models of care are described, including two models of multidisciplinary care for thoracic malignancies. The pros and cons of each model are discussed, the evidence supporting each is reviewed, and the need for more (and better) research into care delivery models is highlighted. Key stakeholders in thoracic oncology care delivery outcomes are identified, and the need to consider stakeholder perspectives in designing, validating and implementing multidisciplinary programs as a vehicle for quality improvement in thoracic oncology is emphasized. The importance of reconciling stakeholder perspectives, and identify meaningful stakeholder-relevant benchmarks is also emphasized. Metrics for measuring program implementation and overall success are proposed. PMID:26380186

  9. Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Generation 1 and Next Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia Gutierrez

    2008-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization Working Group (MDAO WG) of the Systems Analysis Design & Optimization (SAD&O) discipline in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project completed three major milestones during Fiscal Year (FY)08: "Requirements Definition" Milestone (1/31/08); "GEN 1 Integrated Multi-disciplinary Toolset" (Annual Performance Goal) (6/30/08); and "Define Architecture & Interfaces for Next Generation Open Source MDAO Framework" Milestone (9/30/08). Details of all three milestones are explained including documentation available, potential partner collaborations, and next steps in FY09.

  10. High School Bridge Program: A Multidisciplinary STEM Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhe, Jiang; Doverspike, Dennis; Zhao, Julie; Lam, Paul; Menzemer, Craig

    2010-01-01

    A Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) summer Bridge Program was developed for high school students. The program was designed to encourage students to consider choosing an engineering major in college and to explore STEM as a future career. This was accomplished through a 10-week program involving multidisciplinary research activities.…

  11. Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This three-part document contains a collection of technical papers presented at the Second NASA/Air Force Symposium on Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, held September 28-30, 1988 in Hampton, Virginia. The topics covered include: aircraft design, aeroelastic tailoring, control of aeroelastic structures, dynamics and control of flexible structures, structural design, design of large engineering systems, application of artificial intelligence, shape optimization, software development and implementation, and sensitivity analysis.

  12. Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This three-part document contains a collection of technical papers presented at the Second NASA/Air Force Symposium on Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, held September 28-30, 1988 in Hampton, Virginia. The topics covered include: helicopter design, aeroelastic tailoring, control of aeroelastic structures, dynamics and control of flexible structures, structural design, design of large engineering systems, application of artificial intelligence, shape optimization, software development and implementation, and sensitivity analysis.

  13. Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This three-part document contains a collection of technical papers presented at the Second NASA/Air Force Symposium on Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, held September 28-30, 1988 in Hampton, Virginia. The topics covered include: helicopter design, aeroelastic tailoring, control of aeroelastic structures, dynamics and control of flexible structures, structural design, design of large engineering systems, application of artificial intelligence, shape optimization, software development and implementation, and sensitivity analysis.

  14. Opus: A Coordination Language for Multidisciplinary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Barbara; Haines, Matthew; Mehrotra, Piyush; Zima, Hans; vanRosendale, John

    1997-01-01

    Data parallel languages, such as High Performance fortran, can be successfully applied to a wide range of numerical applications. However, many advanced scientific and engineering applications are multidisciplinary and heterogeneous in nature, and thus do not fit well into the data parallel paradigm. In this paper we present Opus, a language designed to fill this gap. The central concept of Opus is a mechanism called ShareD Abstractions (SDA). An SDA can be used as a computation server, i.e., a locus of computational activity, or as a data repository for sharing data between asynchronous tasks. SDAs can be internally data parallel, providing support for the integration of data and task parallelism as well as nested task parallelism. They can thus be used to express multidisciplinary applications in a natural and efficient way. In this paper we describe the features of the language through a series of examples and give an overview of the runtime support required to implement these concepts in parallel and distributed environments.

  15. An innovative, multidisciplinary strategy to improve retention of nursing students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Igbo, Immaculata N; Straker, Kathleen C; Landson, Margie J; Symes, Lene; Bernard, Lillian F; Hughes, Lisa A; Carroll, Theresa L

    2011-01-01

    Nursing students from disadvantaged backgrounds must overcome many barriers in order to succeed. This article will focus on how a multidisciplinary team helped 76 percent of these high-risk students persist in their nursing programs by addressing some of these barriers. Three baccalaureate nursing schools in the Texas Medical Center embarked on a three-year retention program designed to enhance the success of students identified by federal criteria as being at risk. Multidisciplinary teams led various activities, including a study skills component, which included preparing for lectures, taking notes, critical thinking, and test-taking strategies. Also addressed were written and oral communication skills, medical terminology, critical thinking, career coaching, and socialization activities. Collaboration among faculty and students at the three schools was key to the success of the program. PMID:22235693

  16. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  17. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  18. The importance of multidisciplinary teamwork and team climate for relational coordination among teams delivering care to older patients

    PubMed Central

    Hartgerink, JM; Cramm, JM; Bakker, TJEM; van Eijsden, AM; Mackenbach, JP; Nieboer, AP

    2014-01-01

    Aim To identify predictors of relational coordination among professionals delivering care to older patients. Background Relational coordination is known to enhance quality of care in hospitals. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Design This cross-sectional study was part of a larger evaluation study examining the opportunity to prevent loss of function in older patients due to hospitalization in the Netherlands. Methods This study was performed in spring 2010 among team members delivering care to older hospitalized patients (192 respondents; 44% response rate) in one hospital. Relational coordination was measured by the Relational Coordination survey; team climate by the Team Climate Inventory and questions were asked about participation in multidisciplinary team meetings and disciplines represented in these meetings. To account for the hierarchical structure, a multilevel analysis was performed. Results Correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship among being female, being a nurse and relational coordination; medical specialists showed a negative relationship. The number of disciplines represented during multidisciplinary team meetings and team climate were positively related with relational coordination. The multilevel analysis showed a positive relationship between the number of disciplines represented during multidisciplinary team meetings and team climate with relational coordination. Conclusions The enhancement of team climate and attendance of diverse professionals during multidisciplinary team meetings are expected to improve relational coordination. Furthermore, this study underscores the importance of enhancing relational coordination between medical specialists and other professionals. PMID:23980594

  19. Multidisciplinary approaches to the pressure ulcer problem.

    PubMed

    Bogie, Kath M; Ho, Chester H

    2007-10-01

    Multiple factors affect the specific condition and overall clinical profile of individuals at risk for chronic wounds. The complexity of the pressure ulcer problem lends itself to the application of the National Institute of Health Roadmap Initiative that encourages interdisciplinary research and new organizational models. An overview of research studies relevant to telemedicine and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the care and prevention of pressure ulcers as well as preliminary results of an innovative multidisciplinary skin care team approach to the primary and tertiary prevention of pressure ulcers are encouraging. The team's pilot study results indicate that patients are satisfied with telehealth provision of care; however, literature and experience also suggest that discrepancies in the inter-rater assessment of wounds using digital photography remain, particularly with regard to wound dimension variables assessed (P<0.01). In another endeavor, the skin care team developed a Longitudinal Analysis with Self-Registration statistical algorithm to assess the effects of electrical stimulation; in a preliminary study, this tool documented improvement in gluteus maximus health and resultant ability to withstand pressure. As the number of groups pursuing multidisciplinary research and care increases, so, too, will the evidence base required to address these common, and complex, chronic wounds. PMID:17978412

  20. How Multidisciplinary Are the Multidisciplinary Journals Science and Nature?

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Gregg E. A.; Carley, Stephen; Porter, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in cross-disciplinary research knowledge interchange runs high. Review processes at funding agencies, such as the U.S. National Science Foundation, consider plans to disseminate research across disciplinary bounds. Publication in the leading multidisciplinary journals, Nature and Science, may signify the epitome of successful interdisciplinary integration of research knowledge and cross-disciplinary dissemination of findings. But how interdisciplinary are they? The journals are multidisciplinary, but do the individual articles themselves draw upon multiple fields of knowledge and does their influence span disciplines? This research compares articles in three fields (Cell Biology, Physical Chemistry, and Cognitive Science) published in a leading disciplinary journal in each field to those published in Nature and Science. We find comparable degrees of interdisciplinary integration and only modest differences in cross-disciplinary diffusion. That said, though the rate of out-of-field diffusion might be comparable, the sheer reach of Nature and Science, indicated by their potent Journal Impact Factors, means that the diffusion of knowledge therein can far exceed that of leading disciplinary journals in some fields (such as Physical Chemistry and Cognitive Science in our samples). PMID:27043924

  1. Multidisciplinary Optimization of a Transport Aircraft Wing using Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Venter, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of particle swarm optimization to a realistic multidisciplinary optimization test problem. The paper's new contributions to multidisciplinary optimization is the application of a new algorithm for dealing with the unique challenges associated with multidisciplinary optimization problems, and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm in future multidisciplinary optimization applications. The selected example is a bi-level optimization problem that demonstrates severe numerical noise and has a combination of continuous and truly discrete design variables. The use of traditional gradient-based optimization algorithms is thus not practical. The numerical results presented indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm is able to reliably find the optimum design for the problem presented here. The algorithm is capable of dealing with the unique challenges posed by multidisciplinary optimization as well as the numerical noise and truly discrete variables present in the current example problem.

  2. Boundaries, gaps, and overlaps: defining roles in a multidisciplinary nephrology clinic

    PubMed Central

    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Kang, Helen H

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore how health care professionals in a multidisciplinary chronic kidney disease clinic interact with one another, patients, families, and caregivers to expand understanding of how this increasingly common form of chronic disease management functions in situ. Nonparticipatory observations were conducted of 64 consultations between patients and health care professionals and end-of-day rounds at a multidisciplinary chronic kidney disease clinic. Key themes in our findings revolved around the question of boundaries between the health professions that were expected to work cooperatively within the clinic, between medical specialties in the management of complex patients, and between caregivers and patients. Understanding the importance of various professional roles and how they are allocated, either formally as part of care design or organically as a clinical routine, may help us understand how multidisciplinary care teams function in real life and help us identify gaps in practice. This study highlights two areas for further study and reflection: the effect of discrepancies in health information and the role of caregivers in patient care. PMID:25336966

  3. Multidisciplinary Care of Laryngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Coloma, Carmen; Cohen, Ezra

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of larynx cancer has changed dramatically over the past several years. Novel modalities of treatment have been introduced as organ preservation has been developed. In addition, new targeted therapies have appeared, and improvements in radiotherapeutic and surgical techniques have been introduced. Thus, a large variety of treatment options is increasing local control rates and overall survival; however, selecting the most appropriate treatment remains a challenging decision. This article focuses on the multidisciplinary care of early-stage and locally advanced larynx cancer and attempts to sum up different approaches. Moreover, it reviews state-of-the-art treatment in larynx preservation, which has been consolidated in recent years. PMID:27511718

  4. Multidisciplinary treatment of disability in ehlers-danlos syndrome hypermobility type/hypermobility syndrome: A pilot study using a combination of physical and cognitive-behavioral therapy on 12 women.

    PubMed

    Bathen, Trine; Hångmann, Anett Bjørnødegård; Hoff, Marie; Andersen, Liv Øinaes; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend

    2013-12-01

    Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT) and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) are two overlapping heritable connective tissue disorders. Patients with these conditions have many and various complaints; limitations in performing daily activities, reduced muscle strength and proprioception, kinesiophobia, and pain. There is a lack of evidence-based treatment approaches; a few studies have shown effect of physiotherapy. Many authors propose multidisciplinary treatment, but this has neither been described nor evaluated for this patient group. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program combining physical and cognitive-behavioral therapy was feasible, safe and effective for 12 women with EDS-HT/JHS. Intervention was offered as a group program and consisted of three parts: (1) Two and a half week in a rehabilitation unit with testing, physical training, group discussions and lectures. (2) Individual home exercises for three months with weekly guidance by local physiotherapist. (3) Readmission four days for retesting and further training advice. All participants completed the intervention. We found significant changes in perceived performance of daily activities, significant increase of muscle strength and endurance and a significant reduction of kinesiophobia. There were smaller changes in self-perceived pain. The participants also reported increased participation in daily life. PMID:23913726

  5. Critical Studies in Art and Design Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistlewood, David, Ed.

    This book brings together British and U.S. contributions to the debate of a critical studies approach to art and design education. The approach links practice and appreciation. But critical differences exist in definitions of the term design, with the U.S. recognition of design as the use of principles and elements of art in works and a British…

  6. Professional development for design-based learning in engineering education: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Puente, Sonia M.; van Eijck, Michiel; Jochems, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Design-based learning (DBL) is an educational approach in which students gather and apply theoretical knowledge to solve design problems. In this study, we examined how critical DBL dimensions (project characteristics, design elements, the teacher's role, assessment, and social context) are applied by teachers in the redesign of DBL projects. We conducted an intervention for the professional development of the DBL teachers in the Mechanical Engineering and the Electrical Engineering departments. We used the Experiential Learning Cycle as an educational model for the professionalisation programme. The findings show that the programme encouraged teachers to apply the DBL theoretical framework. However, there are some limitations with regard to specific project characteristics. Further research into supporting teachers to develop open-ended and multidisciplinary activities in the projects that support learning is recommended.

  7. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  8. Recycler ring conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.

    1995-07-18

    The Tevatron Collider provides the highest center of mass energy collisions in the world. To fully exploit this unique tool, Fermilab is committed to a program of accelerator upgrades for the purpose of increasing the Collider luminosity. Over the past 7 years the luminosity has been increased from a peak of 1.6{times}10{sup 30}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} in 1989 to over 3{times}10{sup 31}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} during 1995. The Main Injector will supply a larger flux of protons for antiproton production and more intense proton bunches for use in the Collider, and this is expected to increase the peak luminosity to close to 1{times}10{sup 32}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}. Further increases in luminosity will require additional upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex. This report documents the design of a new fixed-energy storage ring to be placed in the Main Injector tunnel which will provide an initial factor of 2 increase to 2{times}10{sup 32}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and ultimately provide the basis for an additional order of magnitude luminosity increase up to 1{times}10{sup 33}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}.

  9. Directions in environmental gerontology: a multidisciplinary field.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal

    2003-10-01

    This article considers developments and directions for environmental gerontology drawing on the three papers in this Forum. The multidisciplinary field came of age during the 1960s with Powell Lawton's powerful environmental press paradigm and its applications to empirical research and building design. Recent theoretical developments in Europe and America have advanced and integrated concepts in psychology, geography, and related disciplines. Time dimensions and active use of space are essential for understanding aging individuals and microenvironments as well as changing populations and macroenvironments. Research on residential environments by health professions is informing community care that is enhancing the independence and well-being of older people. With its proven responsiveness to social and policy priorities, environmental gerontology is now providing strong conceptual and empirical bases for advancing healthy aging and age-friendly societies. PMID:14570957

  10. Interval Management Display Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Beyer, Timothy M.; Cooke, Stuart D.; Grant, Karlus A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight delays will increase, particularly at those airports already operating near or at capacity. Therefore it is critical to create new and improved technologies, communications, and procedures to be used by air traffic controllers and pilots. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the FAA, and the aviation industry are working together to improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System and the cost to operate in it in several ways, one of which is through the creation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is intended to provide airspace users with more precise information about traffic, routing, and weather, as well as improve the control mechanisms within the air traffic system. NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) Project is designed to contribute to the goals of NextGen, and accomplishes this by integrating three NASA technologies to enable fuel-efficient arrival operations into high-density airports. The three NASA technologies and procedures combined in the ATD-1 concept are advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted and fuel efficient arrival streams in high-density terminal airspace.

  11. Learning geomicrobiology as a team using microbial mats, a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Rios-Velazquez, Carlos; Casillas-Martinez, Lilliam; Visscher, Pieter T

    2007-01-01

    Microbial mats are one of the best suited laminar organo-sedimentary ecosystems for students from different educational backgrounds to visualize the direct relationship between microbes and minerals. We have used tropical hypersaline microbial mats from Puerto Rico as educational tools to promote active learning of geomicrobiology introductory concepts for undergraduate students organized in multidisciplinary teams with biological and geological backgrounds. Besides field trips and independent research projects focused on microbial mats, four intensive workshops and one capstone activity were designed to expose students to the different geomicrobiology subdisciplines (microbiology, molecular biology, geology, and geochemistry). The teaching-learning process was assessed using pre- and posttests, group discussions, activities including Gallery Walks and exquisite cadaver's, case studies, and focal interviews. While the posttest showed a significant difference in conceptual understanding, the Gallery Walk and the capstone activities demonstrated increase in the depth, coherence, and thoughtfulness in answering questions, including a clear integration of the different subdisciplines during their presentations. Finally, the main themes described by the students as important outcomes of their participation in the Research at Undergraduate Institutions: Microbial Observatory (RUI-MO) program were: (i) the opportunity to study and learn new and different science disciplines, (ii) the microbial mats were excellent tools to learn from and integrate different science disciplines, and (iii) working in multidisciplinary teams gave them the opportunity to learn from their peers' discipline backgrounds. To our knowledge this is the first educational initiative that uses tropical hypersaline microbial mats to teach geomicrobiology in a multidisciplinary fashion. PMID:23653817

  12. Principles of study design in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, H; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of study design and related methodologic issues in environmental epidemiology. Emphasis is given to studies aimed at evaluating causal hypotheses regarding exposures to suspected health hazards. Following background sections on the quantitative objectives and methods of population-based research, we present the major types of observational designs used in environmental epidemiology: first, the three basic designs involving the individual as the unit of analysis (i.e., cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies) and a brief discussion of genetic studies for assessing gene-environment interactions; second, various ecologic designs involving the group or region as the unit of analysis. Ecologic designs are given special emphasis in this paper because of our lack of resources or inability to accurately measure environmental exposures in large numbers of individuals. The paper concludes with a section highlighting current design issues in environmental epidemiology and several recommendations for future work. PMID:8206038

  13. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Improving SCIP Compliance.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Ciara R; Strayer, Melissa; Huynh, Toan; Green, John M

    2015-07-01

    The Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) is a national program aimed at reducing perioperative complications and is a quality benchmark metric for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. This study evaluates whether a multidisciplinary program improved an institution's compliance with SCIP measures. Analysis of the facility's performance data identified three key areas of SCIP noncompliance: 1) timely discontinuation of perioperative antibiotics and urinary catheters, 2) initiation of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, and 3) perioperative beta blocker administration. Multidisciplinary teams collaborated with providers and department chairs in reviewing and enable SCIP compliance. Anesthesia staff managed preoperative antibiotics. SCIP-compliant order sets, venous thromboembolism pop-up alerts, and progress note templates were added to the electronic medical record. Standardized education was provided to explain SCIP requirements, review noncompliant cases, and update teams on SCIP performance. Data were captured from January 2009 to March 2014. Ten SCIP fallouts were reported for general surgery specialties in January 2013, when the SCIP compliance project launched. Specifically, colon-related surgery achieved 100 per cent compliance. Six months after implementation, overall SCIP compliance at our institution improved by 65 per cent (from 90.7-98.6% compliance). PMID:26140888

  14. Lunar NTR vehicle design and operations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John

    1993-01-01

    The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lunar Outpost) mission profiles for piloted and cargo lunar missions, and to assess the applicability of utilizing lunar vehicle design concepts for Mars missions.

  15. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  16. On the Science of Education Design Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; Phillips, D. C.; Towne, Lisa; Feuer, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that design studies, like all scientific work, must comport with guiding scientific principles and provide adequate warrants for their knowledge claims. Provides a framework that links design study research questions as they evolve over time with corresponding research methods, thus allowing an integration of research methods focused on…

  17. Recent advances in multidisciplinary optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Walsh, Joanne L.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.

    1992-01-01

    A joint activity involving NASA and Army researchers at NASA LaRC to develop optimization procedures to improve the rotor blade design process by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for all of the important interactions among the disciplines is described. The disciplines involved include rotor aerodynamics, rotor dynamics, rotor structures, airframe dynamics, and acoustics. The work is focused on combining these five key disciplines in an optimization procedure capable of designing a rotor system to satisfy multidisciplinary design requirements. Fundamental to the plan is a three-phased approach. In phase 1, the disciplines of blade dynamics, blade aerodynamics, and blade structure are closely coupled while acoustics and airframe dynamics are decoupled and are accounted for as effective constraints on the design for the first three disciplines. In phase 2, acoustics is integrated with the first three disciplines. Finally, in phase 3, airframe dynamics is integrated with the other four disciplines. Representative results from work performed to date are described. These include optimal placement of tuning masses for reduction of blade vibratory shear forces, integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization, and integrated aerodynamic/dynamic/structural optimization. Examples of validating procedures are described.

  18. An initiative in multidisciplinary optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1988-01-01

    Described is a joint NASA/Army initiative at the Langley Research Center to develop optimization procedures aimed at improving the rotor blade design process by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines. The activity is being guided by a Steering Committee made up of key NASA and Army researchers and managers. The committee, which has been named IRASC (Integrated Rotorcraft Analysis Steering Committee), has defined two principal foci for the activity: a white paper which sets forth the goals and plans of the effort; and a rotor design project which will validate the basic constituents, as well as the overall design methodology for multidisciplinary optimization. The paper describes the optimization formulation in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. Additionally, some of the analysis aspects are discussed and an initial attempt at defining the interdisciplinary couplings is summarized. At this writing, some significant progress has been made, principally in the areas of single discipline optimization. Results are given which represent accomplishments in rotor aerodynamic performance optimization for minimum hover horsepower, rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, and rotor structural optimization for minimum weight.

  19. An initiative in multidisciplinary optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a joint NASA/Army initiative at the Langley Research Center to develop optimization procedures aimed at improving the rotor blade design process by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines. The activity is being guided by a Steering Committee made up of key NASA and Army researchers and managers. The committee, which has been named IRASC (Integrated Rotorcraft Analysis Steering Committee), has defined two principal foci for the activity: a white paper which sets forth the goals and plans of the effort; and a rotor design project which will validate the basic constituents, as well as the overall design methodology for multidisciplinary optimization. The optimization formulation is described in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. Additionally, some of the analysis aspects are discussed and an initial attempt at defining the interdisciplinary couplings is summarized. At this writing, some significant progress has been made, principally in the areas of single discipline optimization. Results are given which represent accomplishments in rotor aerodynamic performance optimization for minimum hover horsepower, rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, and rotor structural optimization for minimum weight.

  20. [Choosing study design in urologic research].

    PubMed

    Barreales Tolosa, Laura; Mato Chaín, Gloria; Mariano Lázaro, Alberto; Fernández Pérez, Cristina; Rodríguez Caravaca, Gil; Fereres Castiel, José

    2003-01-01

    The design of an epidemiological study includes the procedures, methods and techniques by which the researcher tries to obtain valid (avoiding systematic errors or bias) and precise (avoiding random errors) answers to the research question posed. This principal question aimed to be answered is the specific objective of the study, which guides the election of an adequate type of design. The objective of this article is to describe the classification criteria (finality, temporal sequence, directionality, and control of the assignation of different study factors) of the different types of epidemiological studies (experimental, almost-experimental, and observational) and the main advantages, disadvantages, utilities and objectives of each investigation design. PMID:12958995

  1. [Multidisciplinary tailoring of therapy of metastatic colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Österlund, Pia; Isoniemi, Helena; Scheinin, Tom; Ristimäki, Ari; Lantto, Eila

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of colon cancer requires multidisciplinary team work. The multitude of therapies in metastatic colon cancer have led to longer overall survival with fewer symptoms. Median survival has increased from 5 months with the best supportive care to 30-40 months in randomized studies, even with curative treatment in some patients. Tailoring of the treatment is best done by a multidisciplinary team considering radiotherapy and operation of the primary tumor, resection of liver, lung and peritoneal metastases, medical treatment alternatives, palliative care, ablative methods etc. Without skillful surgeons, oncologists, pathologists, geneticists, radiologists etc. the best treatment opportunities may be missed. PMID:27483635

  2. Efficient Multidisciplinary Analysis Procedure Using Multi-Level Parallelization Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byun, Chansup; Hatay, Ferhat; Farhangnia, Mehrdad; Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Multidisciplinary applications are suitable for parallel computing environment by adopting the domain decomposition method. Immediately, a multidisciplinary application can be parallelized by solving each discipline separately. In order to perform coupled multidisciplinary analysis, coupling of each discipline can be accomplished by exchanging boundary data at the interfaces. This is regarded as discipline-level parallelization. Next level could be a "coarse-grain" parallelization of each discipline, which mainly depends on the physical geometry and nature of each discipline. For example, it is almost impossible for structured-grid based computational fluid dynamics codes to do flow analysis of an aircraft by using a single grid because of the complexity of its configuration. Thus, multi-block grid is commonly used to describe the details of complex geometry. Similarly, in structural analysis, the structure is frequently subdivided into substructures. Thus, the computation of each subdomain can be easily parallelized since each subdomain is solved separately independent of other domains. The parallelization is accomplished by solving each subdomain separately on a separate processor and exchanging the boundary conditions at domain interfaces periodically. However, the physical decomposition of the domain introduces explicit boundary conditions at the domain interfaces. This is not desirable for critical areas such as those containing shock waves or flow separations. Thus, a "fine-grain" parallelization is introduced to overcome this problem. The "fine-grain" parallelization is one that solves exactly the same system of equations of a subdomain by using more than one processors without introducing any explicit boundary conditions. An efficient multidisciplinary analysis procedure can be accomplished by successfully combining the above multi-level parallelism. A multidisciplinary analysis code, ENSAERO developed at NASA Ames Research Center is used in this study to

  3. [Anorexia nervosa: a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Bastidas, A; Cantó, T; Font, E

    2000-06-01

    The childhood-adolescent psychiatrics field has, for various years, been confronted by a very significant increase in cases of nervous anorexia, a serious eating disorder characterized by a noticeable loss of weight. At the bottom of this situation lie complex biological, psychological and social-cultural problems, which demand an interdisciplinary approach to solve them. This article presents the predisposing factors, the initial factors, the factors which maintain this disorder...; what behaviors are considered to be normal; what the physical and psychological manifestations are; as well as what the medical evaluation carried out is ... to finalize with an explanation of the different functions to be performed by each member of a multidisciplinary team. PMID:10983149

  4. NPSS Multidisciplinary Integration and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward J.; Rasche, Joseph; Simons, Todd A.; Hoyniak, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this task was to enhance the capability of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) by expanding its reach into the high-fidelity multidisciplinary analysis area. This task investigated numerical techniques to convert between cold static to hot running geometry of compressor blades. Numerical calculations of blade deformations were iteratively done with high fidelity flow simulations together with high fidelity structural analysis of the compressor blade. The flow simulations were performed with the Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis (ADPAC) code, while structural analyses were performed with the ANSYS code. High fidelity analyses were used to evaluate the effects on performance of: variations in tip clearance, uncertainty in manufacturing tolerance, variable inlet guide vane scheduling, and the effects of rotational speed on the hot running geometry of the compressor blades.

  5. A multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate vulnerability and risks of pluvial floods under changing climate: the case study of the municipality of Venice (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperotto, Anna; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Coppola, Erika; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect the intensity and frequency of extreme events (e.g. heat waves, drought, heavy precipitations events) leading to increasing natural disasters and damaging events (e.g. storms, pluvial floods and coastal flooding) worldwide. Especially in urban areas, disasters risks can be exacerbated by changes in exposure and vulnerability patterns (i.e. urbanization, population growth) and should be addressed by adopting a multi-disciplinary approach. A Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrating climate and environmental sciences with bottom-up participative processes was developed and applied to the urban territory of the municipality of Venice in order to evaluate the potential consequences of climate change on pluvial flood risk in urban areas. Based on the consecutive analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risks, the RRA methodology is a screening risk tool to identify and prioritize major elements at risk (e.g. residential, commercial areas and infrastructures) and to localize sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by flood risk due to heavy precipitation events, in the future scenario (2041-2050). From the early stages of its development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach to select and score site-specific vulnerability factors (e.g. slope, permeability of the soil, past flooded areas) and to consider the requests and perspectives of local stakeholders of the North Adriatic region, by means of interactive workshops, surveys and discussions. The main outputs of the assessment are risk and vulnerability maps and statistics aimed at increasing awareness about the potential effect of climate change on pluvial flood risks and at identifying hot-spot areas where future adaptation actions should be required to decrease physical-environmental vulnerabilities or building resilience and coping capacity of human society to climate change. The overall risk assessment methodology and the results

  6. Evaluating the impact of an integrated multidisciplinary head & neck competency-based anatomy & radiology teaching approach in radiation oncology: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern radiation oncology demands a thorough understanding of gross and cross-sectional anatomy for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Complex anatomic sites present challenges for learners and are not well-addressed in traditional postgraduate curricula. A multidisciplinary team (MDT) based head-and-neck gross and radiologic anatomy program for radiation oncology trainees was developed, piloted, and empirically assessed for efficacy and learning outcomes. Methods Four site-specific MDT head-and-neck seminars were implemented, each involving a MDT delivering didactic and case-based instruction, supplemented by cadaveric presentations. There was no dedicated contouring instruction. Pre- and post-testing were performed to assess knowledge, and ability to apply knowledge to the clinical setting as defined by accuracy of contouring. Paired analyses of knowledge pretests and posttests were performed by Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test. Results Fifteen post-graduate trainees participated. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) mean absolute improvement of 4.6 points (17.03%) was observed between knowledge pretest and posttest scores. Contouring accuracy was analyzed quantitatively by comparing spatial overlap of participants’ pretest and posttest contours with a gold standard through the dice similarity coefficient. A statistically significant improvement in contouring accuracy was observed for 3 out of 20 anatomical structures. Qualitative and quantitative feedback revealed that participants were more confident at contouring and were enthusiastic towards the seminars. Conclusions MDT seminars were associated with improved knowledge scores and resident satisfaction; however, increased gross and cross-sectional anatomic knowledge did not translate into improvements in contouring accuracy. Further research should evaluate the impact of hands-on contouring sessions in addition to dedicated instructional sessions to develop competencies. PMID

  7. Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT): Preparing Students for the Twenty-First Century Work Force via a Multidisciplinary and Collaborative Learning Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot, R. M.; Jordan, T. H.; Benthien, M. L.; Ihrig, M.; Berti, R.

    2009-12-01

    UseIT is one of the three undergraduate research programs sponsored by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The program allows students to work in multi-disciplinary collaborative teams to tackle a scientific “Grand Challenge.” The topic varies each year but it always entails performing computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists, educators, and other target audiences. The program allows undergraduates to use the advanced tools of information technology to solve important problems in interdisciplinary earthquake research. Since the program began in 2002, 145 students have participated in UseIT. The program stresses problem solving and interdisciplinary cross training. A key aspect of the UseIT program is its flexible, yet structured, team approach. Students share their diverse skills and interests, creating a powerful synergy through this peer mentoring. The majority of UseIT interns have considerable computer science skill or aptitude, but successful UseIT interns have hailed from nearly three-dozen disciplines, all class levels, and all skill levels. Successful UseIT interns have in common a willingness to step outside their comfort zones and try new things. During the 2009 internship the focus of the program was to deliver SCEC Virtual Display of Objects (VDO) images and animations of faults and earthquake sequences to SCEC, the Earthquake Country Alliance, and other virtual organizations via a content management system that captures the metadata and guides the user. SCEC-VDO is the SCEC intern-developed visualization software that allows the user to see earthquake related phenomena in three and four dimensions. The 2009 Grand Challenge had special relevance for the interns because the products they created were used for The Great California ShakeOut. This talk will discuss lessons learned from this program, how it addresses the needs of the 21st century STEM work force, and highlights of the 2009 internship.

  8. ACSYNT inner loop flight control design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortins, Richard; Sorensen, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed the Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer program to synthesize conceptual future aircraft designs and to evaluate critical performance metrics early in the design process before significant resources are committed and cost decisions made. ACSYNT uses steady-state performance metrics, such as aircraft range, payload, and fuel consumption, and static performance metrics, such as the control authority required for the takeoff rotation and for landing with an engine out, to evaluate conceptual aircraft designs. It can also optimize designs with respect to selected criteria and constraints. Many modern aircraft have stability provided by the flight control system rather than by the airframe. This may allow the aircraft designer to increase combat agility, or decrease trim drag, for increased range and payload. This strategy requires concurrent design of the airframe and the flight control system, making trade-offs of performance and dynamics during the earliest stages of design. ACSYNT presently lacks means to implement flight control system designs but research is being done to add methods for predicting rotational degrees of freedom and control effector performance. A software module to compute and analyze the dynamics of the aircraft and to compute feedback gains and analyze closed loop dynamics is required. The data gained from these analyses can then be fed back to the aircraft design process so that the effects of the flight control system and the airframe on aircraft performance can be included as design metrics. This report presents results of a feasibility study and the initial design work to add an inner loop flight control system (ILFCS) design capability to the stability and control module in ACSYNT. The overall objective is to provide a capability for concurrent design of the aircraft and its flight control system, and enable concept designers to improve performance by exploiting the interrelationships between

  9. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  10. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  11. Multidisciplinary Optimization for Aerospace Using Genetic Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Hahn, Edward E.; Herrera, Claudia Y.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the ARMD guidelines NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a multidisciplinary design and optimization tool This tool will leverage existing tools and practices, and allow the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. Optimization has made its way into many mainstream applications. For example NASTRAN(TradeMark) has its solution sequence 200 for Design Optimization, and MATLAB(TradeMark) has an Optimization Tool box. Other packages, such as ZAERO(TradeMark) aeroelastic panel code and the CFL3D(TradeMark) Navier-Stokes solver have no built in optimizer. The goal of the tool development is to generate a central executive capable of using disparate software packages ina cross platform network environment so as to quickly perform optimization and design tasks in a cohesive streamlined manner. A provided figure (Figure 1) shows a typical set of tools and their relation to the central executive. Optimization can take place within each individual too, or in a loop between the executive and the tool, or both.

  12. Multi-Disciplinary Consumer Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sie, Maureen A.; And Others

    Two activities are described in this report, both of which focus on the multi-disciplinary approach in the development of a consumer education curriculum for high school students. The first activity, which demonstrated the feasibility of a multi-disciplinary approach using local school personnel and resources and university faculty in curriculum…

  13. A Case Study in Acoustical Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Bruce R.; Brown, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses concerns of both facilities planners and instructional designers in planning for the audio component of group presentations. Factors in the architectural design of enclosures for the reproduction of sound are described, including frequency, amplitude, and reverberation; and a case study for creating an acceptable enclosure is presented.…

  14. Multidisciplinary Optimization Branch Experience Using iSIGHT Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Korte, J. J.; Dunn, H. J.; Salas, A. O.

    1999-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) Branch at NASA Langley Research Center is investigating frameworks for supporting multidisciplinary analysis and optimization research. An optimization framework call improve the design process while reducing time and costs. A framework provides software and system services to integrate computational tasks and allows the researcher to concentrate more on the application and less on the programming details. A framework also provides a common working environment and a full range of optimization tools, and so increases the productivity of multidisciplinary research teams. Finally, a framework enables staff members to develop applications for use by disciplinary experts in other organizations. Since the release of version 4.0, the MDO Branch has gained experience with the iSIGHT framework developed by Engineous Software, Inc. This paper describes experiences with four aerospace applications: (1) reusable launch vehicle sizing, (2) aerospike nozzle design, (3) low-noise rotorcraft trajectories, and (4) acoustic liner design. All applications have been successfully tested using the iSIGHT framework, except for the aerospike nozzle problem, which is in progress. Brief overviews of each problem are provided. The problem descriptions include the number and type of disciplinary codes, as well as all estimate of the multidisciplinary analysis execution time. In addition, the optimization methods, objective functions, design variables, and design constraints are described for each problem. Discussions on the experience gained and lessons learned are provided for each problem. These discussions include the advantages and disadvantages of using the iSIGHT framework for each case as well as the ease of use of various advanced features. Potential areas of improvement are identified.

  15. Cost studies for commercial fuselage crown designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Smith, P. J.; Truslove, G.; Willden, K. S.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and weight potential of advanced composite design concepts in the crown region of a commercial transport. Two designs from each of three design families were developed using an integrated design-build team. A range of design concepts and manufacturing processes were included to allow isolation and comparison of cost centers. Detailed manufacturing/assembly plans were developed as the basis for cost estimates. Each of the six designs was found to have advantages over the 1995 aluminum benchmark in cost and weight trade studies. Large quadrant panels and cobonded frames were found to save significant assembly labor costs. Comparisons of high- and intermediate-performance fiber systems were made for skin and stringer applications. Advanced tow placement was found to be an efficient process for skin lay up. Further analysis revealed attractive processes for stringers and frames. Optimized designs were informally developed for each design family, combining the most attractive concepts and processes within that family. A single optimized design was selected as the most promising, and the potential for further optimization was estimated. Technical issues and barriers were identified.

  16. Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections from a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiainen, Tarja; Koivunen, Emma-Reetta

    2006-01-01

    This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting,…

  17. E-Learning and Development: Lessons from Multi-Disciplinary Capacity Strengthening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu, Suresh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents the experience and lessons from implementing an e-learning program aimed at creating multidisciplinary research capacity. It presents a case study of bringing together a multidisciplinary group of professionals on-line to learn the skills needed to be a successful researcher in the context of HIV/AIDS and food security…

  18. A Multidisciplinary Engineering Summer School in an Industrial Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Peter Gorm; Fernandes, Joao M.; Habel, Jacek; Lehrskov, Hanne; Vos, Richard J. C.; Wallington, Oliver; Zidek, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Most university-level engineering studies produce technically skilled engineers. However, typically students face several difficulties when working in multidisciplinary teams when they initiate their industrial careers. In a globalised world, it becomes increasingly important that engineers are capable of collaborating across disciplinary…

  19. Multi-Disciplinary Learning through a Database Development Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Vincent; Lau, Chloe; Shum, Pearl

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there are many good examples of how multi-disciplinary learning can support students to learn collaboratively and not solely focus on a single professional sector. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2012 semesters, we have attempted to gather students studying different professional domains together. Students from the Department of…

  20. The Interplay of Conflict and Analogy in Multidisciplinary Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paletz, Susannah B. F.; Schunn, Christian D.; Kim, Kevin H.

    2013-01-01

    Creative teamwork in multidisciplinary teams is a topic of interest to cognitive psychologists on the one hand, and to both social and organizational psychologists on the other. However, the interconnections between cognitive and social layers have been rarely explored. Drawing on mental models and dissonance theories, the current study takes a…

  1. A multidisciplinary study in the geodynamic active western Eger rift (Central Europe): The Quaternary volcanic complex Mytina and the recent CO2-degassing zone Hartousov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flechsig, C.; Heinicke, J.; Kaempf, H. W.; Nickschick, T.; Mrlina, J.

    2013-12-01

    , shallow seismics, gravity and CO2-soil gas measurements, petrographic/petrophysical and remote sensing data. The results will be serve as for better understanding of geologic, volcanic and tectonic settings of the two regions as well as for the preparation of the ICDP drilling project 'Drilling the Eger rift' with a multidisciplinary approach consisting of geophysical, geochemical and other disciplines to understand the role of crustal fluid activity for swarm earthquake generation.

  2. Assessing and Evaluating Multidisciplinary Translational Teams: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Rose, Robert M.; Ostir, Glenn V.; Calhoun, William J.; Ameredes, Bill T.; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    A case report illustrates how multidisciplinary translational teams can be assessed using outcome, process, and developmental types of evaluation using a mixed methods approach. Types of evaluation appropriate for teams are considered in relation to relevant research questions and assessment methods. Logic models are applied to scientific projects and team development to inform choices between methods within a mixed methods design. Use of an expert panel is reviewed, culminating in consensus ratings of 11 multidisciplinary teams and a final evaluation within a team type taxonomy. Based on team maturation and scientific progress, teams were designated as: a) early in development, b) traditional, c) process focused, or d) exemplary. Lessons learned from data reduction, use of mixed methods, and use of expert panels are explored. PMID:24064432

  3. Multidisciplinary approach in natural hazards: avoiding misunderstandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angignard, M.

    2009-04-01

    It is today widely recognised that a multidisciplinary approach is worthwhile when it comes to natural hazards. While the knowledge of scientists from different fields about those problematic is getting deeper everyday, the need for a brighter understanding of natural hazards and the risk they induce becomes more and more obvious. A risk situation cannot be limited to a single scientific field. It involves many components, each of them studied by a specific science. The understanding of the whole question of risk requires a dialogue between those sciences. The large amount of research projects based on a multidisciplinary approach shows that this need for dialogue is known and accepted. However, the participants of such projects encounter a problem in communication: they do not speak the same language. Even though scientists are willing to share with colleagues from other fields, they are facing the hinder of the specific terminology they use in their work. Social scientists, natural scientists and engineering scientists do not speak the same language, although they might use the same words. For instance, basic terms like "risk", "vulnerability", or concepts like "risk management" or "governance" might have very different meanings according to the scientists involved. The approach of risk situation itself is specific to each science. How can this hindrance be avoided? The first step of every research project (and further, every work in group on a risk related situation) could be a framing about terminology. It is necessary that all partners acknowledge the different vocabularies involved, and understand that their background and professional context influences their understanding of terms and concepts. The aim is not to negate those vocabularies, nor to define a new one that would fit to all sciences. It is to ensure that all partners are aware of the possible misunderstandings and accept that others might use other terminologies. Thus, major misunderstandings

  4. Relating clinical study design to basic research.

    PubMed

    Choh, V; Priolo, S

    1999-07-01

    Devising any research study involves careful attention to its design, as well as the development of an appropriate research question and hypothesis. Together, these attributes ensure the validity of the study in question. In most clinical or epidemiological studies, the types of research designs are often explicitly noted, whereas in papers describing basic or biological research, they are couched in different terms or, more often, are ignored, thus potentially hindering communication between basic and clinical researchers. However, given that the framework for all valid scientific research is based on sound logic, it is proposed that for each study design, a direct homology exists between clinical and basic research paradigms, despite the problem of relating epidemiological vernacular to basic research. By applying examples of basic research protocols to traditional clinical study designs, this paper shows that parallels can be drawn between the two strategies, suggesting that in the absence of a conventional nomenclature to describe basic research study designs, the use of traditional clinical design jargon is valid in describing basic research protocols. PMID:10445637

  5. A multi-disciplinary education process related to the discharging of children from hospital when the child has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Worldwide, insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes is one of the most frequently diagnosed long-term endocrine disorders found in children and the incidences of this diseased is still increasing. In Sweden the routines are, according to national guidelines, when the child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, the child and its family remains at the hospital for about two weeks. There is limited knowledge about how a diabetes team handles a child and its family from admission to discharge, therefore the purpose of this study was to seek a deeper understanding of how the diabetes team's parent/child education process works, from admission to discharge, among families with a child newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Methods Qualitative data collection was used. Four focus-group interviews, with a sample of three diabetes teams from different paediatric hospitals in the south western part of Sweden, were conducted and the data recorded on tape and then analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The results indicate that achieving a status of self-care on the part of the patient is the goal of the diabetes education programme. Part of the programme is aimed at guiding the child and its parents towards self-help through the means of providing them with knowledge of the disease and its treatment to enable the whole family to understand the need for cooperation in the process. To do this requires an understanding, by the diabetes team, of the individualities of the family in order to gain an overall picture. Conclusion The results of this study show that the diabetes education programme is specifically designed for each family using the internationally recommended clinical practice guidelines with its specific aims and objectives. Achieving the families' willingness to assist in the self-care of the child care is the goal of the parent education process. To achieve this, the paediatric diabetes specialist nurse and the diabetes specialist paediatrician

  6. Multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Ing. Ulvi Arslan, Univ., ., Dr. _., Prof.; Heiko Huber, Dipl.-Ing.

    2010-05-01

    KEYWORDS Geothermal sciences, geothermics, research, theory and application, numerical calculation, geothermal modeling, Technical University Darmstadt, Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) INTRODUCTION In times of global warming renewable, green energies are getting more and more important. The development of application of geothermal energy as a part of renewable energies in Germany is a multidisciplinary process of fast growing research and improvements. Geothermal energy is the energy, which is stored below earth's surface. The word geothermal derives from the Greek words geo (earth) and thermos (heat), so geothermal is a synonym to earth heat. Geothermal energy is one of the auspicious renewable energies. In average the temperature increases 3°C every 100 m of depth, which is termed as geothermal gradient. Therefore 99 percent of our planet is hotter than 1.000°C, while 99 percent of that last percent is even hotter than 100°C. Already in a depth of about 1 kilometer temperatures of 35 - 40°C can be achieved. While other renewable energies arise less or more from the sun, geothermal energy sources its heat from the earth's interior, which is caused mostly by radioactive decay of persistent isotopes. This means a possibility of a base-loadable form of energy supply. Especially efficient is the use of deep geothermal energy of high-enthalpie reservoirs, which means a high energy potential in low depths. In Germany no high-enthalpie reservoirs are given. To use the given low-enthalpie potential and to generate geothermal power efficiently inventions and improvements need to be performed. An important part of geothermal progresses is performed by universities with multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling. Especially in deep geothermal systems numerical calculations are essential for a correct dimensioning of the geothermal system. Therefore German universities and state aided organizations are developing numerical programs for a detailed use of

  7. [Irritable Bowel Syndrome treatment: a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Shani-Zur, Dana; Wolkomir, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome affects 9-23% of the general population. This diagnosis contributes to more frequent doctor visits and multiple consultations by patients. The current approach to treating IBS is symptomatic and consists of a regimen of first line pharmacological treatment options; the use of anti-depressant drugs is also common. The efficiency of complementary medicine in the treatment of IBS has been studied in the last few years. Qualitative multidisciplinary approach studies, using personalized medicines with complementary therapies are needed. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman with a diagnosis of IBS since 2009, who complained about gastrointestinal symptoms since the age of 13 and severe episodes of spasmodic stomach aches in the last year self-ranked as 10, on a 0-10 scale; 3-4 episodes a month, which last for 5 days, accompanied by severe flatulence and bloating. In addition, she has constipation (one bowel movement every 10 days), alternating with multiple diarrheic bowel movements (6 times a day). Using a multidisciplinary approach, including medicinal care, Chinese medicine, reflexology and naturopathy resulted in significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life, as well as gradual reduction of drugs, approved by her physician. Stomach ache self-ranked now as 1, on a 0-10 scale; and flatulence and bloating self-ranked as mild. Bowel movement frequency increased and is now every other day. She no longer has diarrheic and/or multiple bowel movements. This case report emphasizes the importance of integrative treatment in IBS and its benefit in improving patients' quality of life. PMID:25796677

  8. Fitting Information Systems to Collaborating Design Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citera, Maryalice; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study of U.S. Air Force design professionals that examined aspects of collaboration in multidisciplinary design teams and identified design experts' information needs that could be supported by information technology. Highlights include concurrent engineering, electronically networked communication, internal process in information…

  9. Systematic Review of Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Treatment Facilities.

    PubMed

    Fashler, Samantha R; Cooper, Lynn K; Oosenbrug, Eric D; Burns, Lindsay C; Razavi, Shima; Goldberg, Lauren; Katz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This study reviewed the published literature evaluating multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment facilities to provide an overview of their availability, caseload, wait times, and facility characteristics. A systematic literature review was conducted using PRISMA guidelines following a search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Inclusion criteria stipulated that studies be original research, survey more than one pain treatment facility directly, and describe a range of available treatments. Fourteen articles satisfied inclusion criteria. Results showed little consistency in the research design used to describe pain treatment facilities. Availability of pain treatment facilities was scarce and the reported caseloads and wait times were generally high. A wide range of medical, physical, and psychological pain treatments were available. Most studies reported findings on the percentage of practitioners in different health care professions employed. Future studies should consider using more comprehensive search strategies to survey facilities, improving clarity on what is considered to be a pain treatment facility, and reporting on a consistent set of variables to provide a clear summary of the status of pain treatment facilities. This review highlights important information for policymakers on the scope, demand, and accessibility of pain treatment facilities. PMID:27445618

  10. Systematic Review of Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Treatment Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Fashler, Samantha R.; Cooper, Lynn K.; Oosenbrug, Eric D.; Burns, Lindsay C.; Razavi, Shima; Goldberg, Lauren; Katz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This study reviewed the published literature evaluating multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment facilities to provide an overview of their availability, caseload, wait times, and facility characteristics. A systematic literature review was conducted using PRISMA guidelines following a search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Inclusion criteria stipulated that studies be original research, survey more than one pain treatment facility directly, and describe a range of available treatments. Fourteen articles satisfied inclusion criteria. Results showed little consistency in the research design used to describe pain treatment facilities. Availability of pain treatment facilities was scarce and the reported caseloads and wait times were generally high. A wide range of medical, physical, and psychological pain treatments were available. Most studies reported findings on the percentage of practitioners in different health care professions employed. Future studies should consider using more comprehensive search strategies to survey facilities, improving clarity on what is considered to be a pain treatment facility, and reporting on a consistent set of variables to provide a clear summary of the status of pain treatment facilities. This review highlights important information for policymakers on the scope, demand, and accessibility of pain treatment facilities. PMID:27445618

  11. Multidisciplinary Optimization Branch Experience Using iSIGHT Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Korte, J. J.; Dunn, H. J.; Salas, A. O.

    1999-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) Branch at NASA Langley is investigating frameworks for supporting multidisciplinary analysis and optimization research. A framework provides software and system services to integrate computational tasks and allows the researcher to concentrate more on the application and less on the programming details. A framework also provides a common working environment and a full range of optimization tools, and so increases the productivity of multidisciplinary research teams. Finally, a framework enables staff members to develop applications for use by disciplinary experts in other organizations. This year, the MDO Branch has gained experience with the iSIGHT framework. This paper describes experiences with four aerospace applications, including: (1) reusable launch vehicle sizing, (2) aerospike nozzle design, (3) low-noise rotorcraft trajectories, and (4) acoustic liner design. Brief overviews of each problem are provided, including the number and type of disciplinary codes and computation time estimates. In addition, the optimization methods, objective functions, design variables, and constraints are described for each problem. For each case, discussions on the advantages and disadvantages of using the iSIGHT framework are provided as well as notes on the ease of use of various advanced features and suggestions for areas of improvement.

  12. High-frequency study of epibenthic megafaunal community dynamics in Barkley Canyon: A multi-disciplinary approach using the NEPTUNE Canada network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matabos, Marjolaine; Bui, Alice O. V.; Mihály, Steven; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Juniper, S. Kim; Ajayamohan, R. S.

    2014-02-01

    the importance of continuous sampling at high-frequency over long durations by enhancing our ability to detect species activity patterns and will contribute to the design of studies and experiments to understand the interaction of factors acting at multiple temporal scales in submarine canyons.

  13. Design optimization studies using COSMIC NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Bharatram, G.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create, test and document a procedure to integrate mathematical optimization algorithms with COSMIC NASTRAN. This procedure is very important to structural design engineers who wish to capitalize on optimization methods to ensure that their design is optimized for its intended application. The OPTNAST computer program was created to link NASTRAN and design optimization codes into one package. This implementation was tested using two truss structure models and optimizing their designs for minimum weight, subject to multiple loading conditions and displacement and stress constraints. However, the process is generalized so that an engineer could design other types of elements by adding to or modifying some parts of the code.

  14. Design Considerations for Artificial Pancreas Pivotal Studies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Steven J; Beck, Roy W

    2016-07-01

    The development of artificial pancreas systems has evolved to the point that pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety are in progress or soon to be initiated. These pivotal studies are intended to provide the necessary data to gain clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, coverage by payers, and adoption by patients and clinicians. Although there will not be one design that is appropriate for every system, there are certain aspects of protocol design that will be considerations in all pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety. One key aspect of study design is the intervention to be used by the control group. A case can be made that the control group should use the currently available best technology, which is sensor-augmented pump therapy. However, an equally, if not more, compelling case can be made that the control intervention should be usual care. In this Perspective, we elaborate on this issue and provide a pragmatic approach to the design of clinical trials of artificial pancreas systems. PMID:27330125

  15. Temporomandibular joint multidisciplinary team clinic.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nabeela; Poate, Tim; Nacher-Garcia, Cristina; Pugh, Nicola; Cowgill, Helen; Page, Lisa; Matthews, N Shaun

    2014-11-01

    Patients with dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) commonly present to oral and maxillofacial departments and are increasingly being managed by a subspecialist group of surgeons. We review the outcomes of patients attending a specialist TMJ multidisciplinary team (MDT) clinic. All patients are simultaneously reviewed by a consultant oral and maxillofacial surgeon, consultant in oral medicine, specialist physiotherapist, and maxillofacial prosthetist, and they can also see a consultant liaison psychiatrist. They are referred from primary, secondary, and tertiary care when medical and surgical treatment in the routine TMJ clinic has failed, and are triaged by the attending maxillofacial surgeon. On discharge they are returned to the care of the referring practitioner. We review the outcomes of patients attending this clinic over a 2-year period and show improvements in pain scores and maximal incisal opening, as well as quality of life outcome measures. All units in the UK with an interest in the management of diseases of the TMJ should consider establishing this type of clinic and should use available resources and expertise to maximise outcomes. PMID:25179688

  16. Pineal lesions: a multidisciplinary challenge.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Manfred; Emami, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. In addition, lesions such as tectal gliomas, tentorial meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas arise from the surrounding structures, occupying that regions. Furthermore, the area has an affinity for metastatic lesions. Vascular lesions complete the spectrum mainly as small tectal arteriovenous malformations or cavernous haemangiomas.Taken together, there is a wide spectrum of lesions, many unique to that region, which call for a multidisciplinary approach. The limited access and anatomical complexity have generated a spectrum of anatomical approaches and raised the interest for neuroendoscopic approaches. Equally complex is the spectrum of treatment modalities such as microsurgery as the main option but stereotactic radiosurgery as an alternative or adjuvant to surgery for selected cases, radiation as for germinoma (see below) and or combinatorial chemotherapy, which may need to precede any other ablative technique as constituents.In this context, we review the current literature and our own series to obtain a snapshot sentiment of how to approach pineal lesions, how to interrelate alternative/competing concepts and review the recent technological advances. PMID:25411146

  17. Teams: communication in multidisciplinary care.

    PubMed

    Penson, Richard T; Kyriakou, Helena; Zuckerman, Dan; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J

    2006-05-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery that provides hope to the patient and support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The Center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. The evolving field of oncology increasingly requires a team of medical specialists working in unison to deliver optimal medical care. While this coordination may maximize the technical synergy of care, it can challenge interprofessional and interdisciplinary connections. Poor and miscommunication and conflicts between staff and between the family and providers adversely affect patient care and quality of life. Furthermore, lack of communication leaves a vacuum that sucks in fear. A recent Newsweek article highlighted the challenges of practicing in the age of high-tech medicine. The author had to beg for a prognosis for her critically ill and dying husband, with unhelpful subspecialists failing to communicate the bigger picture. This article explores the tough issue of how teams handle uncertainty and bad news and how patients and families can be better supported in the multifaceted paradigm of modern care. PMID:16720852

  18. Gas burst vs. gas-rich magma recharge: A multidisciplinary study to reveal factors controlling triggering of the recent paroxysmal eruptions at Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viccaro, Marco; Garozzo, Ileana; Cannata, Andrea; Di Grazia, Giuseppe; Gresta, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Since January 2011, Mt. Etna volcano has been affected by more than forty paroxysmal eruptions at the summit (New South East Crater; NSEC). On the basis of their very variable duration, seven eruptions have been selected among the twenty-five of 2011-2012 in order to decipher potential differences in their triggering mechanism. Paroxysms have been investigated through a multidisciplinary approach that integrates data from volcanic tremor and petrology (textures and micro-analysis on plagioclase crystals). Our results lead to the conclusion that close relationships exist between the duration of the eruptions and the temporal evolution of the volcanic tremor amplitude, especially during the Strombolian phase preceding the paroxysmal activity. In this regard, we distinguished: 1) paroxysms preceded by long-lasting initial Strombolian phases, characterized by low rate of volcanic tremor amplitude increase; and 2) eruptions preceded by short initial Strombolian phases, showing high rate of volcanic tremor amplitude increase. Based on the pattern of volcanic tremor amplitude increase, the former mainly showed a ramp-shaped morphology, while the latter a bell-shaped trend. Location of the volcanic tremor centroid during the quiescent intervals between the paroxysmal eruptions has highlighted the presence of a magmatic volume at 1-2 km a.s.l. beneath the North East Crater (NEC). During the syn-eruptive Strombolian and lava fountaining phases, the centroid of volcanic tremor migrates below the NSEC. This leads to the consideration that the magma batch residing beneath NEC played an important role in the volcanic activity at NSEC during the considered period. Also the textures and compositional zoning (anorthite and iron variations) in selected plagioclase crystals of the analyzed lavas suggest relations between duration of the paroxysms and dynamics of pre-eruptive magmatic processes at depth. Particularly, two mechanisms have been accounted for triggering of eruptions at

  19. Generic turbine design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of Task 12, Generic Turbine Design Study was to develop a conceptual design of a combustion turbine system that would perform in a pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) application. A single inlet/outlet casing design that modifies the W251B12 combustion turbine to provide compressed air to the PFBC and accept clean hot air from the PFBC was developed. Performance calculations show that the net power output expected, at an inlet temperature of 59{degrees}F, is 20,250 kW.

  20. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1997-01-31

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  1. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  2. Office Design: A Study of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Peter, Ed.

    Reporting upon a study of environment which was based on the design of office buildings and office space, the study forms part of a continuing program of environmental research sponsored by Pilkington Brothers Limited of St. Helens, England. In this report the word 'environment' is used in the sense of the sum of the physical and emotional…

  3. Influence of an infectious diseases specialist on ICU multidisciplinary rounds.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, David N

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To ascertain the influence of a physician infectious diseases specialist (IDS) on antibiotic use in a medical/surgical intensive care unit. Method. Over a 5-month period, the antibiotic regimens ordered by the ICU multidisciplinary team were studied. The days of antibiotic therapy (DOT) when management decisions included an IDS were compared to DOT in the absence of an IDS. The associated treatment expense was calculated. Results. Prior to multidisciplinary rounds (MDRs), 79-80% of the patients were receiving one or more antibiotic. IDS participation occurred in 61 multidisciplinary rounding sessions. There were 384 patients who before MDRs had orders for 669 days of antimicrobial therapy (DOT). After MDRs, the antimicrobial DOT were reduced to 511 with a concomitant cost saving of $3772. There were 51 MDR sessions that occurred in the absence of the IDS. There were 352 patients who before MDRs had orders for 593 DOT. After MDRs, the DOT were reduced to 572 with a cost savings of $727. The results were normalized by number of patients evaluated with statistically greater reductions when MDRs included the IDS. In addition, the number of rounding sessions with a reduction in DOT was greater with the participation of the IDS. Conclusion. The addition of an IDS to multidisciplinary ICU patient rounds resulted in a reduction in antibiotic DOT and attendant drug expense. PMID:24860663

  4. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150{degrees}C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases.

  5. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 1: Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study and selection of practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for two specific future cryogenic space vehicles, an advanced cryogenic space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system and an advanced space propulsion module is reported. A supporting laboratory scale experimental program was also conducted to provide design information critical to concept finalization and selection. Designs using localized pressure isolated surface tension screen devices were selected for each application and preliminary designs were generated. Based on these designs, large scale acquisition prototype hardware was designed and fabricated to be compatible with available NASA-MSFC feed system hardware.

  6. Phenotypic extremes in rare variant study designs.

    PubMed

    Peloso, Gina M; Rader, Daniel J; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M

    2016-06-01

    Currently, next-generation sequencing studies aim to identify rare and low-frequency variation that may contribute to disease. For a given effect size, as the allele frequency decreases, the power to detect genes or variants of interest also decreases. Although many methods have been proposed for the analysis of such data, study design and analytic issues still persist in data interpretation. In this study we present sequencing data for ABCA1 that has known rare variants associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We contrast empirical findings from two study designs: a phenotypic extreme sample and a population-based random sample. We found differing strengths of association with HDL-C across the two study designs (P=0.0006 with n=701 phenotypic extremes vs P=0.03 with n=1600 randomly sampled individuals). To explore this apparent difference in evidence for association, we performed a simulation study focused on the impact of phenotypic selection on power. We demonstrate that the power gain for an extreme phenotypic selection study design is much greater in rare variant studies than for studies of common variants. Our study confirms that studying phenotypic extremes is critical in rare variant studies because it boosts power in two ways: the typical increases from extreme sampling and increasing the proportion of relevant functional variants ascertained and thereby tested for association. Furthermore, we show that when combining statistical evidence through meta-analysis from an extreme-selected sample and a second separate population-based random sample, power is lower when a traditional sample size weighting is used compared with weighting by the noncentrality parameter. PMID:26350511

  7. Defining and Designing Mixed Research Synthesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Barroso, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Mixed research synthesis is the latest addition to the repertoires of mixed methods research and systematic review. Mixed research synthesis requires that the problems generated by the methodological diversity within and between qualitative and quantitative studies be resolved. Three basic research designs accommodate this diversity, including the segregated, integrated, and contingent designs. Much work remains to be done before mixed research synthesis can secure its place in the repertoires of mixed methods research and systematic review, but the effort is well worth it as it has the potential to enhance both the significance and utility for practice of the many qualitative and quantitative studies constituting shared domains of research. PMID:20098638

  8. Multidisciplinary Environments: A History of Engineering Framework Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Gillian, Ronnie E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the history of engineering frameworks and their use by Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) practitioners. The approach is to reference papers that have been presented at one of the ten previous Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MA&O) conferences. By limiting the search to MA&O papers, the authors can (1) identify the key ideas that led to general purpose MDO frameworks and (2) uncover roadblocks that delayed the development of these ideas. The authors make no attempt to assign credit for revolutionary ideas or to assign blame for missed opportunities. Rather, the goal is to trace the various threads of computer architecture and software framework research and to observe how these threads contributed to the commercial framework products available today.

  9. A Collaborative, Multidisciplinary Environment for Coastal Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, S. J.; Harper, S.; Maskey, M.; Twilley, R.; McAnally, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Northern Gulf Coastal Hazards Collaboratory (NG-CHC); a collaborative environment for the coastal hazards research community in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama; is being developed to advance the science and engineering of coastal hazards across the tri-state region and address problems of major national importance, including engineering design, coastal system response, and risk management of coastal hazards. NG-CHC aims to accelerate the research process by providing cyberinfrastructure for simulating coastal hazards in a multidisciplinary environment, enhancing the linkages between modeling and observations and allowing researchers to find and share data and information. In addition to serving as a community portal, the extensible environment allows researchers to organize, discover, share and reuse information about data, models, tools and other resources; manage project activities; discuss results with collaborators; view publications, presentations and other documents; and track the history of project activities. The environment also provides an education and outreach area for increasing public knowledge and understanding, with project information, educational tools, and learning modules. Since communication is at the heart of science, these technologies provide researchers with easy mechanisms to share ideas, data, and findings. By enabling the close interaction among scientists and enhancing productivity with tools and services, the collaboration environment frees the researcher from the complexities of sharing and using information, allowing him to concentrate on science. This cyberinfrastructure can be applied in many domains to stimulate knowledge discovery and breakthroughs in a range of fields.

  10. Learning Designs: Study, Learn, Design; Repeat as Necessary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce R.; Calhoun, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    Designers reside mostly in school districts and schools and can have primary assignments of all sorts. In many districts, central office personnel are most visible on design committees, but teachers, principals, and superintendents are included. Members of professional learning communities can design their own processes, and individual teachers…

  11. Instructional Design by Novice Designers: Two Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Danielle; Barnard, Yvonne; Pilot, Albert

    2008-01-01

    In many cases advanced instructional products, such as computer-based training, e-learning programs, simulations, and simulators are not designed by experienced instructional designers, but by novices: subject matter experts, teachers, instructors, or inexperienced designers. The literature indicates that these novices do not always have the…

  12. Lowering Entry Barriers for Multidisciplinary Cyber(e)-Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    Multidisciplinarity is more and more important to study the Earth System and address Global Changes. To achieve that, multidisciplinary cyber(e)-infrastructures are an important instrument. In the last years, several European, US and international initiatives have been started to carry out multidisciplinary infrastructures, including: the Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE), the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), the Data Observation Network for Earth (DataOne), and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The majority of these initiatives are developing service-based digital infrastructures asking scientific Communities (i.e. disciplinary Users and data Producers) to implement a set of standards for information interoperability. For scientific Communities, this has represented an entry barrier which has proved to be high, in several cases. In fact, both data Producers and Users do not seem to be willing to invest precious resources to become expert on interoperability solutions -on the contrary, they are focused on developing disciplinary and thematic capacities. Therefore, an important research topic is lowering entry barriers for joining multidisciplinary cyber(e)-Infrastructures. This presentation will introduce a new approach to achieve multidisciplinary interoperability underpinning multidisciplinary infrastructures and lowering the present entry barriers for both Users and data Producers. This is called the Brokering approach: it extends the service-based paradigm by introducing a new a Brokering layer or cloud which is in charge of managing all the interoperability complexity (e.g. data discovery, access, and use) thus easing Users' and Producers' burden. This approach was successfully experimented in the framework of several European FP7 Projects and in GEOSS.

  13. Improved survival in a multidisciplinary short bowel syndrome program

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Biren P.; Langer, Monica; Ching, Y. Avery; Valim, Clarissa; Waterford, Stephen D.; Iglesias, Julie; Duro, Debora; Lo, Clifford; Jaksic, Tom; Duggan, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS) remains a management challenge with significant mortality. In 1999, we initiated a multidisciplinary pediatric intestinal rehabilitation program. The purpose of this study was to determine if the multidisciplinary approach was associated with improved survival in this patient population. Methods The Center for Advanced Intestinal Rehabilitation includes dedicated staff in surgery, gastroenterology, nutrition, pharmacy, nursing, and social work. We reviewed the medical records of all inpatients and outpatients with severe SBS treated from 1999 to 2006. These patients were compared to a historical control group of 30 consecutive patients with severe SBS who were treated between 1986 and 1998. Results Fifty-four patients with severe SBS managed by the multidisciplinary program were identified. Median follow-up was 403 days. The mean residual small intestinal length was 70 ± 36 vs 83 ± 67 cm in the historical controls (P = NS). Mean peak direct bilirubin was 8.1 ± 7.9 vs 9.0 ± 7.4 mg/dL in controls (P = NS). Full enteral nutrition was achieved in 36 (67%) of 54 patients with severe SBS vs 20 (67%) of 30 patients in the control group (P = NS). The overall survival rate, however, was 89% (48/54), which is significantly higher than in the historical controls (70%, 21/30; P < .05). Conclusions A multidisciplinary approach to intestinal rehabilitation allows for fully integrated care of inpatients and outpatients with SBS by fostering coordination of surgical, medical, and nutritional management. Our experience with 2 comparable cohorts demonstrates that this multidisciplinary approach is associated with improved survival. PMID:18206449

  14. Designing a Futuristic Business Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Chiew Wye; Siraj, Saedah

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a discourse on the theoretical aspects underpinning the design of the Business Studies curriculum domain. It draws on recent shifts in the business and educational environment of Malaysia, and maps out the methodology and method for expanding and revamping the core ground of the discipline. Using the pragmatic worldview stance, this…

  15. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  16. Overall Rationale and Design of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegsted, D. Mark

    This paper outlines research designed to establish dietary correlates of malnutrition, and questions the common assumption that high protein foods should be used as dietary supplements in humans. Because thorough investigation of dietary needs in children is ethically unfeasible, squirrel monkeys were used in the research to study the biological…

  17. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  18. LST phase A design update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An update is presented of the Phase A study of the Large Space Telescope (LST), based on changes in guidelines and new data developed subsequent to the Phase A study. The study defines an LST concept based on the broad mission guidelines provided by the Office of Space Science (OSS), the scientific requirements developed by OSS with the scientific community, and an understanding of long range NASA planning current at the time the study was performed. A low cost design approach was followed. This resulted in the use of standard spacecraft hardware, the provision for maintenance at the black box level, growth potential in systems designs, and sharing of shuttle maintenance flights with other payloads (See N73-18449 through N73-18453)

  19. Strengthening Multidisciplinary Research on Climate and Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Tom; Li, Jianping; Alverson, Keith

    2014-08-01

    The difficulty with multidisciplinary research is finding common ground for scientists, whose approach to a particular scientific problem can differ radically. For example, there is agreement between the geophysical community and the food science and technology community that food security is an important issue. However, the climate change community sees possible solutions coming from more detailed studies on the links between climate change and agriculture, whereas the food science community sees possible solutions emerging from studies of food logistics and supply chains.

  20. An empirical study of software design practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

    1986-01-01

    Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.