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Sample records for multigroup diffusion approach

  1. Solves the Multigroup Neutron Diffusion Equation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-06-23

    GNOMER is a program which solves the multigroup neutron diffusion equation in 1D, 2D and 3D cartesian geometry. The program is designed to calculate the global core power distributions (with thermohydraulic feedbacks), as well as power distribution and homogenized cross sections over a fuel assembly.

  2. Multigroup Complex Geometry Neutron Diffusion Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-12-18

    Version 01 SNAP-3D is based on SNAP2 and is a one- two- or three-dimensional multigroup diffusion code system. It is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations, but it can also carry out gamma-ray calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP-3D can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods in (x,y,z), (r,theta,z), (TRI,z), (HEX,z) or (spherical) coordinates.more » The one-dimensional slab and cylindrical geometries and the two-dimensional (x,y), (r,z), (r,theta), (HEX) and (TRI) are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. The problem classes are: 1) eigenvalue search for critical k-effective, 2) eigenvalue search for critical buckling, 3) eigenvalue search for critical time-constant, 4) fixed source problems in which the sources are functions of regions, 5) fixed source problems in which the sources are provided, on disc, for every mesh point and group.« less

  3. 950809 Charged particle transport updated multi-group diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Corman, E.G.; Perkins, S.T.; Dairiki, N.T.

    1995-09-01

    In 1974, a charged particle transport scheme was introduced which utilized a multi-group diffusion method for the spatial transport and slowing down of energetic ions in a hot plasma. In this treatment a diffusion coefficient was used which was flux-limited to provide, hopefully, some degree of accuracy when the slowing down of an energetic charged particle is dominated by Coulomb collisions with thermal ions and electrons in a plasma medium. An advantage of this method was a very fast, memory-contained program for calculating the behavior of energetic charged particles which resulted in smoothly varying particle number densities and energy depositions. The main limitation of the original multi-group charged particle diffusion scheme is its constraint to a basic ten group structure; the same ten group structure for each of the five energetic ions tracked. This is regarded as a severe limitation, inasmuch as more groups would be desired to simulate more accurately the corresponding Monte Carlo results of energies deposited over spatial zones from a charged particle source. More generally, it seems preferable to have a different group structure for each particle type since they are created at inherently different energies. In this paper, the basic theory and multi-group description will be given. This is followed by the specific techniques that were used to solve the resultant equations. Finally, the modifications that were made to the cross section data as well as the methods used for energy and momentum deposition are described.

  4. A Bayesian Approach for Multigroup Nonlinear Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2002-01-01

    Developed a Bayesian approach for a general multigroup nonlinear factor analysis model that simultaneously obtains joint Bayesian estimates of the factor scores and the structural parameters subjected to some constraints across different groups. (SLD)

  5. Multigroup 3-Dimensional Neutron Diffusion Nodal Code System with Thermohydraulic Feedbacks.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-02-07

    Version 01 GNOMER is a program which solves the multigroup neutron diffusion equation on coarse mesh in 1D, 2D, and 3D Cartesian geometry. The program is designed to calculate the global core power distributions (with thermohydraulic feedbacks) as well as power distributions and homogenized cross sections over a fuel assembly.

  6. A multigroup radiation diffusion test problem: Comparison of code results with analytic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, A I; Harte, J A; Bolstad, J H; Offner, S R

    2006-12-21

    We consider a 1D, slab-symmetric test problem for the multigroup radiation diffusion and matter energy balance equations. The test simulates diffusion of energy from a hot central region. Opacities vary with the cube of the frequency and radiation emission is given by a Wien spectrum. We compare results from two LLNL codes, Raptor and Lasnex, with tabular data that define the analytic solution.

  7. Code System for Calculating the Radial and Axial Neutron Diffusion Coefficients in One-Group and Multigroup Theory.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1985-10-10

    MARCOPOLO calculates the radial and axial diffusion coefficients in one-group and multi-group theory for a cylinderized cell (Wigner-Seitz theory) with several concentric zones according to the isotropic shock or linear anisotropic shock hypotheses.

  8. 1,2,3-D Diffusion Depletion Multi-Group

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-04-20

    CITATION is designed to solve problems using the finite difference representation of neutron diffusion theory, treating up to three space dimensions with arbitrary group to group scattering. X-y-z, theta-r-z, hexagonal z, and triagonal z geometries may be treated. Depletion problems may be solved and fuel managed for multi-cycle analysis. Extensive first order perturbation results may be obtained given microscopic data and nuclide concentrations. Statics problems may be solved and perturbation results obtained with microscopic data.

  9. Simulate-HEX - The multi-group diffusion equation in hexagonal-z geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lindahl, S. O.

    2013-07-01

    The multigroup diffusion equation is solved for the hexagonal-z geometry by dividing each hexagon into 6 triangles. In each triangle, the Fourier solution of the wave equation is approximated by 8 plane waves to describe the intra-nodal flux accurately. In the end an efficient Finite Difference like equation is obtained. The coefficients of this equation depend on the flux solution itself and they are updated once per power/void iteration. A numerical example demonstrates the high accuracy of the method. (authors)

  10. Converged accelerated finite difference scheme for the multigroup neutron diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Terranova, N.; Mostacci, D.; Ganapol, B. D.

    2013-07-01

    Computer codes involving neutron transport theory for nuclear engineering applications always require verification to assess improvement. Generally, analytical and semi-analytical benchmarks are desirable, since they are capable of high precision solutions to provide accurate standards of comparison. However, these benchmarks often involve relatively simple problems, usually assuming a certain degree of abstract modeling. In the present work, we show how semi-analytical equivalent benchmarks can be numerically generated using convergence acceleration. Specifically, we investigate the error behavior of a 1D spatial finite difference scheme for the multigroup (MG) steady-state neutron diffusion equation in plane geometry. Since solutions depending on subsequent discretization can be envisioned as terms of an infinite sequence converging to the true solution, extrapolation methods can accelerate an iterative process to obtain the limit before numerical instability sets in. The obtained results have been compared to the analytical solution to the 1D multigroup diffusion equation when available, using FORTRAN as the computational language. Finally, a slowing down problem has been solved using a cascading source update, showing how a finite difference scheme performs for ultra-fine groups (104 groups) in a reasonable computational time using convergence acceleration. (authors)

  11. Computer program VARI-QUIR 3 provides solution of steady-state, multigroup, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, G.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program VARI-QUIR 3 provides Gauss-Seidel type of solution with inner and outer iterations for steady-state, multigroup, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equations. The program has no restrictions on any of the input parameters such as the number of groups, regions, or materials.

  12. Second order time evolution of the multigroup diffusion and P{sub 1} equations for radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2011-08-20

    Highlights: {yields} An existing multigroup transport algorithm is extended to be second-order in time. {yields} A new algorithm is presented that does not require a grey acceleration solution. {yields} The two algorithms are tested with 2D, multi-material problems. {yields} The two algorithms have comparable computational requirements. - Abstract: An existing solution method for solving the multigroup radiation equations, linear multifrequency-grey acceleration, is here extended to be second order in time. This method works for simple diffusion and for flux-limited diffusion, with or without material conduction. A new method is developed that does not require the solution of an averaged grey transport equation. It is effective solving both the diffusion and P{sub 1} forms of the transport equation. Two dimensional, multi-material test problems are used to compare the solution methods.

  13. User's manual for FENAT: a two-dimensional multigroup diffusion theory Finite Element Neutral Atom Transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, M.Z.

    1986-07-01

    FENAT solves the two-dimensional energy dependent diffusion equation in Cartesian (X-Y) and cylindrical/toroidal (R-Z) coordinates. The boundary conditions allowed are: vacuum, reflection, albedo and surface source. The energy variable is treated by multigroup method. The resulting multigroup diffusion equation is solved by finite element Galerkin's method with triangular element discretization of the spatial domain. The algebraic matrix equation is solved by the direct method of Crout variation of Gauss' elimination. Dynamic memory allocation has been used so that the maximum problem size is limited by the size of active core storage of the machine. When necessary, the global matrix is stored in a binary disk file. FENAT is particularly suitable for the transport of neutral atoms in fusion plasmas.

  14. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system. Version 3

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W.

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  15. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W. )

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  16. Nonlinear diffusion acceleration for the multigroup transport equation discretized with S{sub N} and continuous FEM with rattlesnake

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) can improve the performance of a neutron transport solver significantly especially for the multigroup eigenvalue problems. The high-order transport equation and the transport-corrected low-order diffusion equation form a nonlinear system in NDA, which can be solved via a Picard iteration. The consistency of the correction of the low-order equation is important to ensure the stabilization and effectiveness of the iteration. It also makes the low-order equation preserve the scalar flux of the high-order equation. In this paper, the consistent correction for a particular discretization scheme, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation with discrete ordinates method (S{sub N}) and continuous finite element method (CFEM) is proposed for the multigroup neutron transport equation. Equations with the anisotropic scatterings and a void treatment are included. The Picard iteration with this scheme has been implemented and tested with RattleS{sub N}ake, a MOOSE-based application at INL. Convergence results are presented. (authors)

  17. A multigroup diffusion solver using pseudo transient continuation for a radiation-hydrodynamic code with patch-based AMR

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, Aleksei I. Offner, Stella S.R.

    2008-01-10

    We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichlet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory and demonstrates

  18. A Multigroup diffusion Solver Using Pseudo Transient Continuation for a Radiaiton-Hydrodynamic Code with Patch-Based AMR

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R

    2007-03-02

    We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory and demonstrates

  19. A multigroup diffusion solver using pseudo transient continuation for a radiation-hydrodynamic code with patch-based AMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, Aleksei I.; Offner, Stella S. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate "level-solve" packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation (Ψtc). We analyze the magnitude of the Ψtc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichlet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the "partial temperature" scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of Ψtc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory and demonstrates the

  20. A Multigroup diffusion solver using pseudo transient continuation for a radiation-hydrodynamic code with patch-based AMR

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R

    2006-09-21

    We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory and demonstrates

  1. Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Multilevel, Multigroup, Multiscale Approach Exemplified by London in 2011.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelvyn; Johnston, Ron; Manley, David; Owen, Dewi; Charlton, Chris

    2015-12-01

    We develop and apply a multilevel modeling approach that is simultaneously capable of assessing multigroup and multiscale segregation in the presence of substantial stochastic variation that accompanies ethnicity rates based on small absolute counts. Bayesian MCMC estimation of a log-normal Poisson model allows the calculation of the variance estimates of the degree of segregation in a single overall model, and credible intervals are obtained to provide a measure of uncertainty around those estimates. The procedure partitions the variance at different levels and implicitly models the dependency (or autocorrelation) at each spatial scale below the topmost one. Substantively, we apply the model to 2011 census data for London, one of the world's most ethnically diverse cities. We find that the degree of segregation depends both on scale and group. PMID:26487190

  2. An Extension of Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion: Multigroup and The Difference Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, M A; Gentile, N; Palmer, T S

    2010-04-19

    Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) are approaches to the numerical solution of the equations of radiative transfer. IMD was previously derived and numerically tested on grey, or frequency-integrated problems. In this research, we extend Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) to account for frequency dependence, and we implement the difference formulation as a source manipulation variance reduction technique. We derive the relevant probability distributions and present the frequency dependent IMD algorithm, with and without the difference formulation. The IMD code with and without the difference formulation was tested using both grey and frequency dependent benchmark problems. The Su and Olson semi-analytic Marshak wave benchmark was used to demonstrate the validity of the code for grey problems. The Su and Olson semi-analytic picket fence benchmark was used for the frequency dependent problems. The frequency dependent IMD algorithm reproduces the results of both Su and Olson benchmark problems. Frequency group refinement studies indicate that the computational cost of refining the group structure is likely less than that of group refinement in deterministic solutions of the radiation diffusion methods. Our results show that applying the difference formulation to the IMD algorithm can result in an overall increase in the figure of merit for frequency dependent problems. However, the creation of negatively weighted particles from the difference formulation can cause significant numerical instabilities in regions of the problem with sharp spatial gradients in the solution. An adaptive implementation of the difference formulation may be necessary to focus its use in regions that are at or near thermal equilibrium.

  3. An extension of implicit Monte Carlo diffusion: Multigroup and the difference formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Mathew A.; Gentile, Nick A.; Palmer, Todd S.

    2010-08-01

    Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) are approaches to the numerical solution of the equations of radiative transfer. IMD was previously derived and numerically tested on grey, or frequency-integrated problems [1]. In this research, we extend Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) to account for frequency dependence, and we implement the difference formulation[2] as a source manipulation variance reduction technique. We derive the relevant probability distributions and present the frequency dependent IMD algorithm, with and without the difference formulation. The IMD code with and without the difference formulation was tested using both grey and frequency dependent benchmark problems. The Su and Olson semi-analytic Marshak wave benchmark was used to demonstrate the validity of the code for grey problems [3]. The Su and Olson semi-analytic picket fence benchmark was used for the frequency dependent problems [4]. The frequency dependent IMD algorithm reproduces the results of both Su and Olson benchmark problems. Frequency group refinement studies indicate that the computational cost of refining the group structure is likely less than that of group refinement in deterministic solutions of the radiation diffusion methods. Our results show that applying the difference formulation to the IMD algorithm can result in an overall increase in the figure of merit for frequency dependent problems. However, the creation of negatively weighted particles from the difference formulation can cause significant numerical instabilities in regions of the problem with sharp spatial gradients in the solution. An adaptive implementation of the difference formulation may be necessary to focus its use in regions that are at or near thermal equilibrium.

  4. The Suppression of Energy Discretization Errors in Multigroup Transport Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Edward

    2013-06-17

    The Objective of this project is to develop, implement, and test new deterministric methods to solve, as efficiently as possible, multigroup neutron transport problems having an extremely large number of groups. Our approach was to (i) use the standard CMFD method to "coarsen" the space-angle grid, yielding a multigroup diffusion equation, and (ii) use a new multigrid-in-space-and-energy technique to efficiently solve the multigroup diffusion problem. The overall strategy of (i) how to coarsen the spatial an energy grids, and (ii) how to navigate through the various grids, has the goal of minimizing the overall computational effort. This approach yields not only the fine-grid solution, but also coarse-group flux-weighted cross sections that can be used for other related problems.

  5. A conservative multi-group approach to the Boltzmann equations for reactive gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M.; Rossani, A.; Spiga, G.

    2015-11-01

    Starting from a simple kinetic model for a quaternary mixture of gases undergoing a bimolecular chemical reaction, multi-group integro-differential equations are derived for the particle distribution functions of all species. The procedure takes advantage of a suitable probabilistic formulation, based on the underlying collision frequencies and transition probabilities, of the relevant reactive kinetic equations of Boltzmann type. Owing to an appropriate choice of a sufficiently large number of weight functions, it is shown that the proposed multi-group equations are able to fulfil exactly, at any order of approximation, the correct conservation laws that must be inherited from the original kinetic equations, where speed was a continuous variable. Future developments are also discussed.

  6. Hybrid method of deterministic and probabilistic approaches for multigroup neutron transport problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.

    2012-07-01

    A hybrid method of deterministic and probabilistic methods is proposed to solve Boltzmann transport equation. The new method uses a deterministic method, Method of Characteristics (MOC), for the fast and thermal neutron energy ranges and a probabilistic method, Monte Carlo (MC), for the intermediate resonance energy range. The hybrid method, in case of continuous energy problem, will be able to take advantage of fast MOC calculation and accurate resonance self shielding treatment of MC method. As a proof of principle, this paper presents the hybrid methodology applied to a multigroup form of Boltzmann transport equation and confirms that the hybrid method can produce consistent results with MC and MOC methods. (authors)

  7. CASTRO: A NEW COMPRESSIBLE ASTROPHYSICAL SOLVER. III. MULTIGROUP RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Almgren, A.; Bell, J.; Howell, L.; Burrows, A.; Dolence, J.

    2013-01-15

    We present a formulation for multigroup radiation hydrodynamics that is correct to order O(v/c) using the comoving-frame approach and the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We describe a numerical algorithm for solving the system, implemented in the compressible astrophysics code, CASTRO. CASTRO uses a Eulerian grid with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement based on a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular variable-sized grids with simultaneous refinement in both space and time. In our multigroup radiation solver, the system is split into three parts: one part that couples the radiation and fluid in a hyperbolic subsystem, another part that advects the radiation in frequency space, and a parabolic part that evolves radiation diffusion and source-sink terms. The hyperbolic subsystem and the frequency space advection are solved explicitly with high-order Godunov schemes, whereas the parabolic part is solved implicitly with a first-order backward Euler method. Our multigroup radiation solver works for both neutrino and photon radiation.

  8. CASTRO: A New Compressible Astrophysical Solver. III. Multigroup Radiation Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Howell, L.; Almgren, A.; Burrows, A.; Dolence, J.; Bell, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a formulation for multigroup radiation hydrodynamics that is correct to order O(v/c) using the comoving-frame approach and the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We describe a numerical algorithm for solving the system, implemented in the compressible astrophysics code, CASTRO. CASTRO uses a Eulerian grid with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement based on a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular variable-sized grids with simultaneous refinement in both space and time. In our multigroup radiation solver, the system is split into three parts: one part that couples the radiation and fluid in a hyperbolic subsystem, another part that advects the radiation in frequency space, and a parabolic part that evolves radiation diffusion and source-sink terms. The hyperbolic subsystem and the frequency space advection are solved explicitly with high-order Godunov schemes, whereas the parabolic part is solved implicitly with a first-order backward Euler method. Our multigroup radiation solver works for both neutrino and photon radiation.

  9. MCNP: Multigroup/adjoint capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; Redmond, E.L. II; Palmtag, S.P.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses various aspects related to the use and validity of the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP for multigroup/adjoint calculations. The increased desire to perform comparisons between Monte Carlo and deterministic codes, along with the ever-present desire to increase the efficiency of large MCNP calculations has produced a greater user demand for the multigroup/adjoint capabilities. To more fully utilize these capabilities, we review the applications of the Monte Carlo multigroup/adjoint method, describe how to generate multigroup cross sections for MCNP with the auxiliary CRSRD code, describe how to use the multigroup/adjoint capability in MCNP, and provide examples and results indicating the effectiveness and validity of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint treatment. This information should assist users in taking advantage of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint capabilities.

  10. A decision theoretical approach for diffusion promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun

    2009-09-01

    In order to maximize cost efficiency from scarce marketing resources, marketers are facing the problem of which group of consumers to target for promotions. We propose to use a decision theoretical approach to model this strategic situation. According to one promotion model that we develop, marketers balance between probabilities of successful persuasion and the expected profits on a diffusion scale, before making their decisions. In the other promotion model, the cost for identifying influence information is considered, and marketers are allowed to ignore individual heterogeneity. We apply the proposed approach to two threshold influence models, evaluate the utility of each promotion action, and provide discussions about the best strategy. Our results show that efforts for targeting influentials or easily influenced people might be redundant under some conditions.

  11. A Diffusion Approach to Study Leadership Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to draw on elements of diffusion theory to understand leadership reform. Many diffusion studies examine the spread of an innovation across social units but the objective is to examine diffusion of a collective leadership model within school units. Specifically, the strength of reform diffusion is tested to account for…

  12. An approach towards a perfect thermal diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemuri, Krishna P.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2016-07-01

    A method for the most efficient removal of heat, through an anisotropic composite, is proposed. It is shown that a rational placement of constituent materials, in the radial and the azimuthal directions, at a given point in the composite yields a uniform temperature distribution in spherical diffusers. Such arrangement is accompanied by a very significant reduction of the source temperature, in principle, to infinitesimally above the ambient temperature and forms the basis for the design of a perfect thermal diffuser with maximal heat dissipation. Orders of magnitude enhanced performance, compared to that obtained through the use of a diffuser constituted from a single material with isotropic thermal conductivity has been observed and the analytical principles underlying the design were validated through extensive computational simulations.

  13. An approach towards a perfect thermal diffuser

    PubMed Central

    Vemuri, Krishna P.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2016-01-01

    A method for the most efficient removal of heat, through an anisotropic composite, is proposed. It is shown that a rational placement of constituent materials, in the radial and the azimuthal directions, at a given point in the composite yields a uniform temperature distribution in spherical diffusers. Such arrangement is accompanied by a very significant reduction of the source temperature, in principle, to infinitesimally above the ambient temperature and forms the basis for the design of a perfect thermal diffuser with maximal heat dissipation. Orders of magnitude enhanced performance, compared to that obtained through the use of a diffuser constituted from a single material with isotropic thermal conductivity has been observed and the analytical principles underlying the design were validated through extensive computational simulations. PMID:27404569

  14. An approach towards a perfect thermal diffuser.

    PubMed

    Vemuri, Krishna P; Bandaru, Prabhakar R

    2016-01-01

    A method for the most efficient removal of heat, through an anisotropic composite, is proposed. It is shown that a rational placement of constituent materials, in the radial and the azimuthal directions, at a given point in the composite yields a uniform temperature distribution in spherical diffusers. Such arrangement is accompanied by a very significant reduction of the source temperature, in principle, to infinitesimally above the ambient temperature and forms the basis for the design of a perfect thermal diffuser with maximal heat dissipation. Orders of magnitude enhanced performance, compared to that obtained through the use of a diffuser constituted from a single material with isotropic thermal conductivity has been observed and the analytical principles underlying the design were validated through extensive computational simulations. PMID:27404569

  15. Procedure to Generate the MPACT Multigroup Library

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kang Seog

    2015-12-17

    The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the light water reactor. The objective of this document is focused on reviewing the current procedure to generate the MPACT multigroup library. Detailed methodologies and procedures are included in this document for further discussion to improve the MPACT multigroup library.

  16. Application de la methode des sous-groupes au calcul Monte-Carlo multigroupe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicolas

    effects of the scattering reaction consistent with the subgroup method. In this study, we generalize the Discrete Angle Technique, already proposed for homogeneous, multigroup cross sections, to isotopic cross sections on the form of probability tables. In this technique, the angular density is discretized into probability tables. Similarly to the cross-section case, a moment approach is used to compute the probability tables for the scattering cosine. (4) The introduction of a leakage model based on the B1 fundamental mode approximation. Unlike deterministic lattice packages, most Monte Carlo-based lattice physics codes do not include leakage models. However the generation of homogenized and condensed group constants (cross sections, diffusion coefficients) require the critical flux. This project has involved the development of a program into the DRAGON framework, written in Fortran 2003 and wrapped with a driver in C, the GANLIB 5. Choosing Fortran 2003 has permitted the use of some modern features, such as the definition of objects and methods, data encapsulation and polymorphism. The validation of the proposed code has been performed by comparison with other numerical methods: (1) The continuous-energy Monte Carlo method of the SERPENT code. (2) The Collision Probability (CP) method and the discrete ordinates (SN) method of the DRAGON lattice code. (3) The multigroup Monte Carlo code MORET, coupled with the DRAGON code. Benchmarks used in this work are representative of some industrial configurations encountered in reactor and criticality-safety calculations: (1)Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) cells and assemblies. (2) Canada-Deuterium Uranium Reactors (CANDU-6) clusters. (3) Critical experiments from the ICSBEP handbook (International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Program).

  17. Multigroup Reactor Lattice Cell Calculation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-03-01

    The Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme (WIMS), is a general code for reactor lattice cell calculations on a wide range of reactor systems. In particular, the code will accept rod or plate fuel geometries in either regular arrays or in clusters, and the energy group structure has been chosen primarily for thermal calculations. The basic library has been compiled with 14 fast groups, 13 resonance groups and 42 thermal groups, but the user is offered themore » choice of accurate solutions in many groups or rapid calculations in few groups. Temperature dependent thermal scattering matrices for a variety of scattering laws are available in the library for the principal moderators which include hydrogen, deuterium, graphite, beryllium and oxygen. WIMSD5 is a succesor version of WIMS-D/4.« less

  18. A discretization of the multigroup PN radiative transfer equation on general meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermeline, F.

    2016-05-01

    We propose and study a finite volume method of discrete duality type for discretizing the multigroup PN approximation of radiative transfer equation on general meshes. This method is second order-accurate on a very large variety of meshes, stable under a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition and it preserves naturally the diffusion asymptotic limit.

  19. Asymptotic, multigroup flux reconstruction and consistent discontinuity factors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2015-05-12

    Recent theoretical work has led to an asymptotically derived expression for reconstructing the neutron flux from lattice functions and multigroup diffusion solutions. The leading-order asymptotic term is the standard expression for flux reconstruction, i.e., it is the product of a shape function, obtained through a lattice calculation, and the multigroup diffusion solution. The first-order asymptotic correction term is significant only where the gradient of the diffusion solution is not small. Inclusion of this first-order correction term can significantly improve the accuracy of the reconstructed flux. One may define discontinuity factors (DFs) to make certain angular moments of the reconstructed fluxmore » continuous across interfaces between assemblies in 1-D. Indeed, the standard assembly discontinuity factors make the zeroth moment (scalar flux) of the reconstructed flux continuous. The inclusion of the correction term in the flux reconstruction provides an additional degree of freedom that can be used to make two angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces by using current DFs in addition to flux DFs. Thus, numerical results demonstrate that using flux and current DFs together can be more accurate than using only flux DFs, and that making the second angular moment continuous can be more accurate than making the zeroth moment continuous.« less

  20. Asymptotic, multigroup flux reconstruction and consistent discontinuity factors

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2015-05-12

    Recent theoretical work has led to an asymptotically derived expression for reconstructing the neutron flux from lattice functions and multigroup diffusion solutions. The leading-order asymptotic term is the standard expression for flux reconstruction, i.e., it is the product of a shape function, obtained through a lattice calculation, and the multigroup diffusion solution. The first-order asymptotic correction term is significant only where the gradient of the diffusion solution is not small. Inclusion of this first-order correction term can significantly improve the accuracy of the reconstructed flux. One may define discontinuity factors (DFs) to make certain angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces between assemblies in 1-D. Indeed, the standard assembly discontinuity factors make the zeroth moment (scalar flux) of the reconstructed flux continuous. The inclusion of the correction term in the flux reconstruction provides an additional degree of freedom that can be used to make two angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces by using current DFs in addition to flux DFs. Thus, numerical results demonstrate that using flux and current DFs together can be more accurate than using only flux DFs, and that making the second angular moment continuous can be more accurate than making the zeroth moment continuous.

  1. Analytical approach for collective diffusion: One-dimensional heterogeneous lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Diffusion of particles adsorbed on the heterogeneous chain was investigated using a theoretical approach and Monte Carlo method. I present the derivation of the analytical expressions for the diffusion coefficients. This approach is based on the theory of the non-equilibrium statistical operator developed by Zubarev. The concentration dependencies of the center-of-mass and Fickian diffusion coefficients have been calculated for some representative values of lateral interactions between the adsorbed particles. The analytical dependencies are compared with the numerical data generated by the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The almost perfect coincidence of the data obtained by the two quite different methods clearly demonstrates the applicability of the approach for the investigations of the particle migration in the lattice gas systems.

  2. Algorithm development and verification of UASCM for multi-dimension and multi-group neutron kinetics model

    SciTech Connect

    Si, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Universal Algorithm of Stiffness Confinement Method (UASCM) for neutron kinetics model of multi-dimensional and multi-group transport equations or diffusion equations has been developed. The numerical experiments based on transport theory code MGSNM and diffusion theory code MGNEM have demonstrated that the algorithm has sufficient accuracy and stability. (authors)

  3. Mapping diffusion in a living cell via the phasor approach.

    PubMed

    Ranjit, Suman; Lanzano, Luca; Gratton, Enrico

    2014-12-16

    Diffusion of a fluorescent protein within a cell has been measured using either fluctuation-based techniques (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) or raster-scan image correlation spectroscopy) or particle tracking. However, none of these methods enables us to measure the diffusion of the fluorescent particle at each pixel of the image. Measurement using conventional single-point FCS at every individual pixel results in continuous long exposure of the cell to the laser and eventual bleaching of the sample. To overcome this limitation, we have developed what we believe to be a new method of scanning with simultaneous construction of a fluorescent image of the cell. In this believed new method of modified raster scanning, as it acquires the image, the laser scans each individual line multiple times before moving to the next line. This continues until the entire area is scanned. This is different from the original raster-scan image correlation spectroscopy approach, where data are acquired by scanning each frame once and then scanning the image multiple times. The total time of data acquisition needed for this method is much shorter than the time required for traditional FCS analysis at each pixel. However, at a single pixel, the acquired intensity time sequence is short; requiring nonconventional analysis of the correlation function to extract information about the diffusion. These correlation data have been analyzed using the phasor approach, a fit-free method that was originally developed for analysis of FLIM images. Analysis using this method results in an estimation of the average diffusion coefficient of the fluorescent species at each pixel of an image, and thus, a detailed diffusion map of the cell can be created. PMID:25517145

  4. Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) lesion analysis with complex diffusion approach.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Jeny; Kannan, K; Kesavadas, C; Thomas, Bejoy

    2009-10-01

    Identification of Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) can be difficult due to the subtle MRI changes. Though sequences like FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) can detect a large majority of these lesions, there are smaller lesions without signal changes that can easily go unnoticed by the naked eye. The aim of this study is to improve the visibility of focal cortical dysplasia lesions in the T1 weighted brain MRI images. In the proposed method, we used a complex diffusion based approach for calculating the FCD affected areas. Based on the diffused image and thickness map, a complex map is created. From this complex map; FCD areas can be easily identified. MRI brains of 48 subjects selected by neuroradiologists were given to computer scientists who developed the complex map for identifying the cortical dysplasia. The scientists were blinded to the MRI interpretation result of the neuroradiologist. The FCD could be identified in all the patients in whom surgery was done, however three patients had false positive lesions. More lesions were identified in patients in whom surgery was not performed and lesions were seen in few of the controls. These were considered as false positive. This computer aided detection technique using complex diffusion approach can help detect focal cortical dysplasia in patients with epilepsy. PMID:19560319

  5. Model-free simulation approach to molecular diffusion tensors.

    PubMed

    Chevrot, Guillaume; Hinsen, Konrad; Kneller, Gerald R

    2013-10-21

    In the present work, we propose a simple model-free approach for the computation of molecular diffusion tensors from molecular dynamics trajectories. The method uses a rigid body trajectory of the molecule under consideration, which is constructed a posteriori by an accumulation of quaternion-based superposition fits of consecutive conformations. From the rigid body trajectory, we compute the translational and angular velocities of the molecule and by integration of the latter also the corresponding angular trajectory. All quantities can be referred to the laboratory frame and a molecule-fixed frame. The 6 × 6 diffusion tensor is computed from the asymptotic slope of the tensorial mean square displacement and, for comparison, also from the Kubo integral of the velocity correlation tensor. The method is illustrated for two simple model systems - a water molecule and a lysozyme molecule in bulk water. We give estimations of the statistical accuracy of the calculations. PMID:24160503

  6. SOLVING PDES IN COMPLEX GEOMETRIES: A DIFFUSE DOMAIN APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    LI, X.; LOWENGRUB, J.; RÄTZ, A.; VOIGT, A.

    2011-01-01

    We extend previous work and present a general approach for solving partial differential equations in complex, stationary, or moving geometries with Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions. Using an implicit representation of the geometry through an auxilliary phase field function, which replaces the sharp boundary of the domain with a diffuse layer (e.g. diffuse domain), the equation is reformulated on a larger regular domain. The resulting partial differential equation is of the same order as the original equation, with additional lower order terms to approximate the boundary conditions. The reformulated equation can be solved by standard numerical techniques. We use the method of matched asymptotic expansions to show that solutions of the re-formulated equations converge to those of the original equations. We provide numerical simulations which confirm this analysis. We also present applications of the method to growing domains and complex three-dimensional structures and we discuss applications to cell biology and heteroepitaxy. PMID:21603084

  7. Signal analysis approach to ultrasonic evaluation of diffusion bond quality

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Thomas, G

    1999-06-08

    Solid state bonds like the diffusion bond are attractive techniques for joining dissimilar materials since they are not prone to the defects that occur with fusion welding. Ultrasonic methods can detect the presence of totally unbonded regions but have difficulty sensing poor bonded areas where the substrates are in intimate contact. Standard ultrasonic imaging is based on amplitude changes in the signal reflected from the bond interface. Unfortunately amplitude alone is not sensitive to bond quality. We demonstrated that there is additional information in the ultrasonic signal that correlates with bond quality. In our approach we interrogated a set of dissimilar diffusion bonded samples with broad band ultrasonic signals. The signals were digitally processed and the characteristics of the signals that corresponded to bond quality were determined. These characteristics or features were processed with pattern recognition algorithms to produce predictions of bond quality. The predicted bond quality was then compared with the destructive measurement to assess the classification capability of the ultrasonic technique

  8. Signal analysis approach to ultrasonic evaluation of diffusion bond quality

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Graham; Chinn, Diane

    1999-12-02

    Solid state bonds like the diffusion bond are attractive techniques for joining dissimilar materials since they are not prone to the defects that occur with fusion welding. Ultrasonic methods can detect the presence of totally unbonded regions but have difficulty sensing poor bonded areas where the substrates are in intimate contact. Standard ultrasonic imaging is based on amplitude changes in the signal reflected from the bond interface. Unfortunately, amplitude alone is not sensitive to bond quality. We demonstrated that there is additional information in the ultrasonic signal that correlates with bond quality. In our approach, we interrogated a set of dissimilar diffusion bonded samples with broad band ultrasonic signals. The signals were digitally processed and the characteristics of the signals that corresponded to bond quality were determined. These characteristics or features were processed with pattern recognition algorithms to produce predictions of bond quality. The predicted bond quality was then compared with the destructive measurement to assess the classification capability of the ultrasonic technique.

  9. Model-free simulation approach to molecular diffusion tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrot, Guillaume; Hinsen, Konrad; Kneller, Gerald R.

    2013-10-01

    In the present work, we propose a simple model-free approach for the computation of molecular diffusion tensors from molecular dynamics trajectories. The method uses a rigid body trajectory of the molecule under consideration, which is constructed a posteriori by an accumulation of quaternion-based superposition fits of consecutive conformations. From the rigid body trajectory, we compute the translational and angular velocities of the molecule and by integration of the latter also the corresponding angular trajectory. All quantities can be referred to the laboratory frame and a molecule-fixed frame. The 6 × 6 diffusion tensor is computed from the asymptotic slope of the tensorial mean square displacement and, for comparison, also from the Kubo integral of the velocity correlation tensor. The method is illustrated for two simple model systems - a water molecule and a lysozyme molecule in bulk water. We give estimations of the statistical accuracy of the calculations.

  10. EXTENSION OF THE 1D FOUR-GROUP ANALYTIC NODAL METHOD TO FULL MULTIGROUP

    SciTech Connect

    B. D. Ganapol; D. W. Nigg

    2008-09-01

    In the mid 80’s, a four-group/two-region, entirely analytical 1D nodal benchmark appeared. It was readily acknowledged that this special case was as far as one could go in terms of group number and still achieve an analytical solution. In this work, we show that by decomposing the solution to the multigroup diffusion equation into homogeneous and particular solutions, extension to any number of groups is a relatively straightforward exercise using the mathematics of linear algebra.

  11. Parallel computation of multigroup reactivity coefficient using iterative method

    SciTech Connect

    Susmikanti, Mike; Dewayatna, Winter

    2013-09-09

    One of the research activities to support the commercial radioisotope production program is a safety research target irradiation FPM (Fission Product Molybdenum). FPM targets form a tube made of stainless steel in which the nuclear degrees of superimposed high-enriched uranium. FPM irradiation tube is intended to obtain fission. The fission material widely used in the form of kits in the world of nuclear medicine. Irradiation FPM tube reactor core would interfere with performance. One of the disorders comes from changes in flux or reactivity. It is necessary to study a method for calculating safety terrace ongoing configuration changes during the life of the reactor, making the code faster became an absolute necessity. Neutron safety margin for the research reactor can be reused without modification to the calculation of the reactivity of the reactor, so that is an advantage of using perturbation method. The criticality and flux in multigroup diffusion model was calculate at various irradiation positions in some uranium content. This model has a complex computation. Several parallel algorithms with iterative method have been developed for the sparse and big matrix solution. The Black-Red Gauss Seidel Iteration and the power iteration parallel method can be used to solve multigroup diffusion equation system and calculated the criticality and reactivity coeficient. This research was developed code for reactivity calculation which used one of safety analysis with parallel processing. It can be done more quickly and efficiently by utilizing the parallel processing in the multicore computer. This code was applied for the safety limits calculation of irradiated targets FPM with increment Uranium.

  12. Parallel computation of multigroup reactivity coefficient using iterative method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susmikanti, Mike; Dewayatna, Winter

    2013-09-01

    One of the research activities to support the commercial radioisotope production program is a safety research target irradiation FPM (Fission Product Molybdenum). FPM targets form a tube made of stainless steel in which the nuclear degrees of superimposed high-enriched uranium. FPM irradiation tube is intended to obtain fission. The fission material widely used in the form of kits in the world of nuclear medicine. Irradiation FPM tube reactor core would interfere with performance. One of the disorders comes from changes in flux or reactivity. It is necessary to study a method for calculating safety terrace ongoing configuration changes during the life of the reactor, making the code faster became an absolute necessity. Neutron safety margin for the research reactor can be reused without modification to the calculation of the reactivity of the reactor, so that is an advantage of using perturbation method. The criticality and flux in multigroup diffusion model was calculate at various irradiation positions in some uranium content. This model has a complex computation. Several parallel algorithms with iterative method have been developed for the sparse and big matrix solution. The Black-Red Gauss Seidel Iteration and the power iteration parallel method can be used to solve multigroup diffusion equation system and calculated the criticality and reactivity coeficient. This research was developed code for reactivity calculation which used one of safety analysis with parallel processing. It can be done more quickly and efficiently by utilizing the parallel processing in the multicore computer. This code was applied for the safety limits calculation of irradiated targets FPM with increment Uranium.

  13. Density approach to ballistic anomalous diffusion: An exact analytical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, Mauro; Ascolani, Gianluca; Grigolini, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    This paper addresses the problem of deriving the probability distribution density of a diffusion process generated by a nonergodic dichotomous fluctuation using the Liouville equation (density method). The velocity of the diffusing particles fluctuates from the value of 1 to the value of -1, and back, with the distribution density of time durations τ of the two states proportional to 1/τμ in the asymptotic time limit. The adopted density method allows us to establish an exact analytical expression for the probability distribution density of the diffusion process generated by these fluctuations. Contrary to intuitive expectations, the central part of the diffusion distribution density is not left empty when moving from μ >2 (ergodic condition) to μ <2 (nonergodic condition). The intuitive expectation is realized for μ <μcr, with μcr≈1.6. For values of μ >μcr, the monomodal distribution density with a minimum at the origin is turned into a bimodal one, with a central bump whose intensity increases for μ →2. The exact theoretical treatment applies to the asymptotic time limit, which establishes for the diffusion process the ballistic scaling value δ =1. To assess the time evolution toward this asymptotic time condition, we use a numerical approach which relates the emergence of the central bump at μ =μcr with the generation of the ordinary scaling δ =0.5, which lasts for larger and larger times for μ coming closer and closer to the critical value μ =2. We assign to the waiting time distribution density two different analytical forms: one derived from the Manneville intermittence (MI) theory and one from the Mittag-Leffler (ML) survival probability. The adoption of the ML waiting time distribution density generates an exact analytical prediction, whereas the MI method allows us to get the same asymptotic time limit as the ML one for μ <2 as a result of an approximation. The joint adoption of these two waiting time distribution densities sheds

  14. The Approximate Number System Acuity Redefined: A Diffusion Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonkoo; Starns, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    While all humans are capable of non-verbally representing numerical quantity using so-called the approximate number system (ANS), there exist considerable individual differences in its acuity. For example, in a non-symbolic number comparison task, some people find it easy to discriminate brief presentations of 14 dots from 16 dots while others do not. Quantifying individual ANS acuity from such a task has become an essential practice in the field, as individual differences in such a primitive number sense is thought to provide insights into individual differences in learned symbolic math abilities. However, the dominant method of characterizing ANS acuity—computing the Weber fraction (w)—only utilizes the accuracy data while ignoring response times (RT). Here, we offer a novel approach of quantifying ANS acuity by using the diffusion model, which accounts both accuracy and RT distributions. Specifically, the drift rate in the diffusion model, which indexes the quality of the stimulus information, is used to capture the precision of the internal quantity representation. Analysis of behavioral data shows that w is contaminated by speed-accuracy tradeoff, making it problematic as a measure of ANS acuity, while drift rate provides a measure more independent from speed-accuracy criterion settings. Furthermore, drift rate is a better predictor of symbolic math ability than w, suggesting a practical utility of the measure. These findings demonstrate critical limitations of the use of w and suggest clear advantages of using drift rate as a measure of primitive numerical competence. PMID:26733929

  15. Parkinson's disease prediction using diffusion-based atlas approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Roxana O.; Racoceanu, Daniel; Smit, Nicolas; Cretu, Vladimir I.; Tan, Eng K.; Chan, Ling L.

    2010-03-01

    We study Parkinson's disease (PD) using an automatic specialized diffusion-based atlas. A total of 47 subjects, among who 22 patients diagnosed clinically with PD and 25 control cases, underwent DTI imaging. The EPIs have lower resolution but provide essential anisotropy information for the fiber tracking process. The two volumes of interest (VOI) represented by the Substantia Nigra and the Putamen are detected on the EPI and FA respectively. We use the VOIs for the geometry-based registration. We fuse the anatomical detail detected on FA image for the putamen volume with the EPI. After 3D fibers growing on the two volumes, we compute the fiber density (FD) and the fiber volume (FV). Furthermore, we compare patients based on the extracted fibers and evaluate them according to Hohen&Yahr (H&Y) scale. This paper introduces the method used for automatic volume detection and evaluates the fiber growing method on these volumes. Our approach is important from the clinical standpoint, providing a new tool for the neurologists to evaluate and predict PD evolution. From the technical point of view, the fusion approach deals with the tensor based information (EPI) and the extraction of the anatomical detail (FA and EPI).

  16. Multigroup calculations using VIM: A user's guide to ISOVIM

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, R.N.

    1992-09-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have long been used to benchmark more a mate approximate solution methods for reactor physics problems. The power of VIM (ref 1) lies partly in the detailed geometrical representations incorporating the (generally) curved surfaces of combinatorial geometry, and partly in the fine energy detail of pointwise cross sections which are independent of the neutron spectrum. When differences arise between Monte Carlo and deterministic calculations, the question arises, is the error in the multigroup cross sections, in the treatment of transport effects, or in the mesh-based treatment of space in the deterministic calculation The answers may not be obvious, but may be identified by combining the exact geometry capability of VIM with the multigroup formalism. We can now run VIM in a multigroup mode by producing special VIM Material files which contain point-wise data describing multigroup data with histograms. This forces VIM to solve the multigroup problem with only three small code modifications. P[sub N] scattering is simulated with the usual tabulated angular distributions with 20 equally-sized scattering angle cosine meshes. This document describes the VIM multigroup capability, the procedures for generating multigroup cross sections for VIM, and their use. The multigroup cross section generating code, ISOVIM, is described, and benchmark testing is documented.

  17. A Note on Multigroup Comparisons Using SAS PROC CALIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Farmer, L. Allison; Pitts, Jennifer P.; Rainer, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Although SAS PROC CALIS is not designed to perform multigroup comparisons, it is believed that SAS can be "tricked" into doing so for groups of equal size. At present, there are no comprehensive examples of the steps involved in performing a multigroup comparison in SAS. The purpose of this article is to illustrate these steps. We demonstrate…

  18. Coupled Diffusion in Lipid Bilayers upon Close Approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biomembrane interfaces create regions of slowed water dynamics in their vicinity. When two lipid bilayers come together, this effect is further accentuated, and the associated slowdown can affect the dynamics of larger-scale processes such as membrane fusion. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine how lipid and water dynamics are affected as two lipid bilayers approach each other. These two interacting fluid systems, lipid and water, both slow and become coupled when the lipid membranes are separated by a thin water layer. We show in particular that the water dynamics become glassy, and diffusion of lipids in the apposed leaflets becomes coupled across the water layer, while the “outer” leaflets remain unaffected. This dynamic coupling between bilayers appears mediated by lipid–water–lipid hydrogen bonding, as it occurs at bilayer separations where water–lipid hydrogen bonds become more common than water–water hydrogen bonds. We further show that such coupling occurs in simulations of vesicle–vesicle fusion prior to the fusion event itself. Such altered dynamics at membrane–membrane interfaces may both stabilize the interfacial contact and slow fusion stalk formation within the interface region. PMID:25535654

  19. A convergent diffusion and social marketing approach for disseminating proven approaches to physical activity promotion.

    PubMed

    Dearing, James W; Maibach, Edward W; Buller, David B

    2006-10-01

    Approaches from diffusion of innovations and social marketing are used here to propose efficient means to promote and enhance the dissemination of evidence-based physical activity programs. While both approaches have traditionally been conceptualized as top-down, center-to-periphery, centralized efforts at social change, their operational methods have usually differed. The operational methods of diffusion theory have a strong relational emphasis, while the operational methods of social marketing have a strong transactional emphasis. Here, we argue for a convergence of diffusion of innovation and social marketing principles to stimulate the efficient dissemination of proven-effective programs. In general terms, we are encouraging a focus on societal sectors as a logical and efficient means for enhancing the impact of dissemination efforts. This requires an understanding of complex organizations and the functional roles played by different individuals in such organizations. In specific terms, ten principles are provided for working effectively within societal sectors and enhancing user involvement in the processes of adoption and implementation. PMID:16979466

  20. Multigroup neutron dose calculations for proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey Iv, Charles T; Prinja, Anil K

    2009-01-01

    We have developed tools for the preparation of coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries. Our method is to use NJOY to process evaluated nuclear data files for incident particles below 150 MeV and MCNPX to produce data for higher energies. We modified the XSEX3 program of the MCNPX code system to produce Legendre expansions of scattering matrices generated by sampling the physics models that are comparable to the output of the GROUPR routine of NJOY. Our code combines the low and high energy scattering data with user input stopping powers and energy deposition cross sections that we also calculated using MCNPX. Our code also calculates momentum transfer coefficients for the library and optionally applies an energy straggling model to the scattering cross sections and stopping powers. The motivation was initially for deterministic solution of space radiation shielding calculations using Attila, but noting that proton therapy treatment planning may neglect secondary neutron dose assessments because of difficulty and expense, we have also investigated the feasibility of multi group methods for this application. We have shown that multigroup MCNPX solutions for secondary neutron dose compare well with continuous energy solutions and are obtainable with less than half computational cost. This efficiency comparison neglects the cost of preparing the library data, but this becomes negligible when distributed over many multi group calculations. Our deterministic calculations illustrate recognized obstacles that may have to be overcome before discrete ordinates methods can be efficient alternatives for proton therapy neutron dose calculations.

  1. Unified approach to the calculation of inertial corrections in diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiger, Ulrich R.

    1984-04-01

    Inertial effects in diffusion due to the nonlinear equations of motion are investigated. The starting point is a Fokker-Planck equation for a general mechanical system with Lagrange function L = {1}/{2}g ij(q 1,…,q n)q iq j - U(q 1,…,q n) under the influence of random forces. The reduction to a description in position space is achieved by using the time ordered cumulant expansion and the boson operator representation. The first term of the expansion gives the Smoluchowski type diffusion equation. The next term leads to inertial corrections. This theory can be applied, for example, to the diffusion of N asymmetric molecules immersed in a fluid undergoing coupled translational and rotational diffusion and interacting via intermolecular and hydrodynamic forces. Comparison with the literature is presented.

  2. Conservative Diffusions: a Constructive Approach to Nelson's Stochastic Mechanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlen, Eric Anders

    In Nelson's stochastic mechanics, quantum phenomena are described in terms of diffusions instead of wave functions; this thesis is a study of that description. We emphasize that we are concerned here with the possibility of describing, as opposed to explaining, quantum phenomena in terms of diffusions. In this direction, the following questions arise: "Do the diffusions of stochastic mechanics--which are formally given by stochastic differential equations with extremely singular coefficients--really exist?" Given that they exist, one can ask, "Do these diffusions have physically reasonable sample path behavior, and can we use information about sample paths to study the behavior of physical systems?" These are the questions we treat in this thesis. In Chapter I we review stochastic mechanics and diffusion theory, using the Guerra-Morato variational principle to establish the connection with the Schroedinger equation. This chapter is largely expository; however, there are some novel features and proofs. In Chapter II we settle the first of the questions raised above. Using PDE methods, we construct the diffusions of stochastic mechanics. Our result is sufficiently general to be of independent mathematical interest. In Chapter III we treat potential scattering in stochastic mechanics and discuss direct probabilistic methods of studying quantum scattering problems. Our results provide a solid "Yes" in answer to the second question raised above.

  3. Multigroup Free-atom Doppler-broadening Approximation. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark Girard

    2015-11-06

    Multigroup cross sections at a one target temperature can be Doppler-broadened to multigroup cross sections at a higher target temperature by matrix multiplication if the group structure suf- ficiently resolves the original temperature continuous energy cross section. Matrix elements are the higher temperature group weighted averages of the integral over the lower temperature group boundaries of the free-atom Doppler-broadening kernel. The results match theory for constant and 1/v multigroup cross sections at 618 lanl group structure resolution.

  4. A Multigroup Method for the Calculation of Neutron Fluence with a Source Term

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Clowdsley, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Current research on the Grant involves the development of a multigroup method for the calculation of low energy evaporation neutron fluences associated with the Boltzmann equation. This research will enable one to predict radiation exposure under a variety of circumstances. Knowledge of radiation exposure in a free-space environment is a necessity for space travel, high altitude space planes and satellite design. This is because certain radiation environments can cause damage to biological and electronic systems involving both short term and long term effects. By having apriori knowledge of the environment one can use prediction techniques to estimate radiation damage to such systems. Appropriate shielding can be designed to protect both humans and electronic systems that are exposed to a known radiation environment. This is the goal of the current research efforts involving the multi-group method and the Green's function approach.

  5. Solves Multigroup Diffusion Equations in One-Dimensional Systems.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1984-11-01

    Version 00 UNIMUG3 determines the multiplication factor, fluxes, and adjoint fluxes. It permits variation of the volume of any one of the regions for determining the critical state and performs the adjoint flux calculation and critical size search.

  6. 3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-02-14

    ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. Forwardmore » and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.« less

  7. 3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, John; Wareing, Todd; Pautz, Shawn

    2001-02-14

    ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. Forward and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.

  8. Experimental approaches to kinetics of gas diffusion in hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Fanny; Dementin, Sébastien; Burlat, Bénédicte; Cournac, Laurent; Volbeda, Anne; Champ, Stéphanie; Martin, Lydie; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Bertrand, Patrick; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan; Rousset, Marc; Léger, Christophe

    2008-08-12

    Hydrogenases, which catalyze H(2) to H(+) conversion as part of the bioenergetic metabolism of many microorganisms, are among the metalloenzymes for which a gas-substrate tunnel has been described by using crystallography and molecular dynamics. However, the correlation between protein structure and gas-diffusion kinetics is unexplored. Here, we introduce two quantitative methods for probing the rates of diffusion within hydrogenases. One uses protein film voltammetry to resolve the kinetics of binding and release of the competitive inhibitor CO; the other is based on interpreting the yield in the isotope exchange assay. We study structurally characterized mutants of a NiFe hydrogenase, and we show that two mutations, which significantly narrow the tunnel near the entrance of the catalytic center, decrease the rates of diffusion of CO and H(2) toward and from the active site by up to 2 orders of magnitude. This proves the existence of a functional channel, which matches the hydrophobic cavity found in the crystal. However, the changes in diffusion rates do not fully correlate with the obstruction induced by the mutation and deduced from the x-ray structures. Our results demonstrate the necessity of measuring diffusion rates and emphasize the role of side-chain dynamics in determining these. PMID:18685111

  9. Experimental approaches to kinetics of gas diffusion in hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Leroux, Fanny; Dementin, Sébastien; Burlat, Bénédicte; Cournac, Laurent; Volbeda, Anne; Champ, Stéphanie; Martin, Lydie; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Bertrand, Patrick; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan; Rousset, Marc; Léger, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogenases, which catalyze H2 to H+ conversion as part of the bioenergetic metabolism of many microorganisms, are among the metalloenzymes for which a gas-substrate tunnel has been described by using crystallography and molecular dynamics. However, the correlation between protein structure and gas-diffusion kinetics is unexplored. Here, we introduce two quantitative methods for probing the rates of diffusion within hydrogenases. One uses protein film voltammetry to resolve the kinetics of binding and release of the competitive inhibitor CO; the other is based on interpreting the yield in the isotope exchange assay. We study structurally characterized mutants of a NiFe hydrogenase, and we show that two mutations, which significantly narrow the tunnel near the entrance of the catalytic center, decrease the rates of diffusion of CO and H2 toward and from the active site by up to 2 orders of magnitude. This proves the existence of a functional channel, which matches the hydrophobic cavity found in the crystal. However, the changes in diffusion rates do not fully correlate with the obstruction induced by the mutation and deduced from the x-ray structures. Our results demonstrate the necessity of measuring diffusion rates and emphasize the role of side-chain dynamics in determining these. PMID:18685111

  10. Diffusion processes in tumors: A nuclear medicine approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Helman

    2016-07-01

    The number of counts used in nuclear medicine imaging techniques, only provides physical information about the desintegration of the nucleus present in the the radiotracer molecules that were uptaken in a particular anatomical region, but that information is not a real metabolic information. For this reason a mathematical method was used to find a correlation between number of counts and 18F-FDG mass concentration. This correlation allows a better interpretation of the results obtained in the study of diffusive processes in an agar phantom, and based on it, an image from the PETCETIX DICOM sample image set from OsiriX-viewer software was processed. PET-CT gradient magnitude and Laplacian images could show direct information on diffusive processes for radiopharmaceuticals that enter into the cells by simple diffusion. In the case of the radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG is necessary to include pharmacokinetic models, to make a correct interpretation of the gradient magnitude and Laplacian of counts images.

  11. Nodal Diffusion & Transport Theory

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-19

    DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality (concentration, buckling, and dimension search) problems in 1, 2, and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular, and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion theory coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and regionwise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, upscattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated.

  12. Fusion at near-barrier energies within the quantum diffusion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.; Zhang, H. Q.

    2014-04-01

    Within the quantum diffusion approach, the role of neutron transfer in fusion (capture) reactions with tightly and weakly bound nuclei is discussed. The breakup process is analyzed. New methods for the study of the breakup probability are suggested.

  13. Mean-field approach for diffusion of interacting particles.

    PubMed

    Suárez, G; Hoyuelos, M; Mártin, H

    2015-12-01

    A nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation is obtained in the continuous limit of a one-dimensional lattice with an energy landscape of wells and barriers. Interaction is possible among particles in the same energy well. A parameter γ, related to the barrier's heights, is introduced. Its value is determinant for the functional dependence of the mobility and diffusion coefficient on particle concentration, but has no influence on the equilibrium solution. A relation between the mean-field potential and the microscopic interaction energy is derived. The results are illustrated with classical particles with interactions that reproduce fermion and boson statistics. PMID:26764643

  14. Consistent Multigroup Theory Enabling Accurate Course-Group Simulation of Gen IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rahnema, Farzad; Haghighat, Alireza; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2013-11-29

    The objective of this proposal is the development of a consistent multi-group theory that accurately accounts for the energy-angle coupling associated with collapsed-group cross sections. This will allow for coarse-group transport and diffusion theory calculations that exhibit continuous energy accuracy and implicitly treat cross- section resonances. This is of particular importance when considering the highly heterogeneous and optically thin reactor designs within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) framework. In such reactors, ignoring the influence of anisotropy in the angular flux on the collapsed cross section, especially at the interface between core and reflector near which control rods are located, results in inaccurate estimates of the rod worth, a serious safety concern. The scope of this project will include the development and verification of a new multi-group theory enabling high-fidelity transport and diffusion calculations in coarse groups, as well as a methodology for the implementation of this method in existing codes. This will allow for a higher accuracy solution of reactor problems while using fewer groups and will reduce the computational expense. The proposed research represents a fundamental advancement in the understanding and improvement of multi- group theory for reactor analysis.

  15. The partially averaged field approach to cosmic ray diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C.; Birmingham, T. J.; Kaiser, T. B.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetic equation for particles interacting with turbulent fluctuations is derived by a new nonlinear technique which successfully corrects the difficulties associated with quasilinear theory. In this new method the effects of the fluctuations are evaluated along particle orbits which themselves include the effects of a statistically averaged subset of the possible configurations of the turbulence. The new method is illustrated by calculating the pitch angle diffusion coefficient D sub Mu Mu for particles interacting with slab model magnetic turbulence, i.e., magnetic fluctuations linearly polarized transverse to a mean magnetic field. Results are compared with those of quasilinear theory and also with those of Monte Carlo calculations. The major effect of the nonlinear treatment in this illustration is the determination of D sub Mu Mu in the vicinity of 90 deg pitch angles where quasilinear theory breaks down. The spatial diffusion coefficient parallel to a mean magnetic field is evaluated using D sub Mu Mu as calculated by this technique. It is argued that the partially averaged field method is not limited to small amplitude fluctuating fields and is hence not a perturbation theory.

  16. Joining of Silicon Carbide Through the Diffusion Bonding Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael .; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2009-01-01

    In order for ceramics to be fully utilized as components for high-temperature and structural applications, joining and integration methods are needed. Such methods will allow for the fabrication the complex shapes and also allow for insertion of the ceramic component into a system that may have different adjacent materials. Monolithic silicon carbide (SiC) is a ceramic material of focus due to its high temperature strength and stability. Titanium foils were used as an interlayer to form diffusion bonds between chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC ceramics with the aid of hot pressing. The influence of such variables as interlayer thickness and processing time were investigated to see which conditions contributed to bonds that were well adhered and crack free. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis were used to characterize the bonds and to identify the reaction formed phases.

  17. My treatment approach to patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James O

    2012-02-01

    My favored treatment approach for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma continues to evolve. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can now be cured in more than 50% of patients. This is a result of improved definitions of the disease, improved diagnostic capabilities, better staging and restaging techniques, a useful prognostic index to guide therapeutic decisions, and the development of increasingly effective therapies. Positron emission tomographic scans have improved the accuracy of both staging and restaging. Findings on a positron emission tomographic scan at the end of therapy are the best predictors of a good treatment outcome. Numerous subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have been identified that require specific treatment approaches. For example, plasmablastic lymphoma typically lacks CD20 and does not benefit from treatment with rituximab. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma originating in specific extranodal sites such as the central nervous system, testes, and skin presents special problems and requires specific treatment approaches. A subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a very high proliferative rate seems to have a poor outcome when treated with CHOP-R and does better with regimens used for patients with Burkitt lymphoma. New insights into the biology of these disorders are likely to further change treatment approaches. Recognition that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is not one disease, but a variety of clinicopathologic syndromes provides the opportunity to further improve our ability to benefit patients. PMID:22305028

  18. Global analysis on a class of multi-group SEIR model with latency and relapse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinliang; Shu, Hongying

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the global dynamics of a multi-group SEIR epidemic model, allowing heterogeneity of the host population, delay in latency and delay due to relapse distribution for the human population. Our results indicate that when certain restrictions on nonlinear growth rate and incidence are fulfilled, the basic reproduction number R0 plays the key role of a global threshold parameter in the sense that the long-time behaviors of the model depend only on R0. The proofs of the main results utilize the persistence theory in dynamical systems, Lyapunov functionals guided by graph-theoretical approach. PMID:26776266

  19. Validation of multigroup neutron cross sections and calculational methods for the advanced neutron source against the FOEHN critical experiments measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.A.; Gallmeier, F.X.; Gehin, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    The FOEHN critical experiment was analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections and Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutronics computer codes in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. The ANSL-V 99-group master cross section library was used for all the calculations. Three different critical configurations were evaluated using the multigroup KENO Monte Carlo transport code, the multigroup DORT discrete ordinates transport code, and the multigroup diffusion theory code VENTURE. The simple configuration consists of only the fuel and control elements with the heavy water reflector. The intermediate configuration includes boron endplates at the upper and lower edges of the fuel element. The complex configuration includes both the boron endplates and components in the reflector. Cross sections were processed using modules from the AMPX system. Both 99-group and 20-group cross sections were created and used in two-dimensional models of the FOEHN experiment. KENO calculations were performed using both 99-group and 20-group cross sections. The DORT and VENTURE calculations were performed using 20-group cross sections. Because the simple and intermediate configurations are azimuthally symmetric, these configurations can be explicitly modeled in R-Z geometry. Since the reflector components cannot be modeled explicitly using the current versions of these codes, three reflector component homogenization schemes were developed and evaluated for the complex configuration. Power density distributions were calculated with KENO using 99-group cross sections and with DORT and VENTURE using 20-group cross sections. The average differences between the measured values and the values calculated with the different computer codes range from 2.45 to 5.74%. The maximum differences between the measured and calculated thermal flux values for the simple and intermediate configurations are {approx} 13%, while the average differences are < 8%.

  20. A compressed-sensing approach for super-resolution reconstruction of diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Lipeng; Setsompop, Kawin; Michailovich, Oleg; Makris, Nikos; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Rathi, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative framework for reconstructing high-spatial-resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) from multiple low-resolution (LR) images. Our approach combines the twin concepts of compressed sensing (CS) and classical super-resolution to reduce acquisition time while increasing spatial resolution. We use sub-pixel-shifted LR images with down-sampled and non-overlapping diffusion directions to reduce acquisition time. The diffusion signal in the high resolution (HR) image is represented in a sparsifying basis of spherical ridgelets to model complex fiber orientations with reduced number of measurements. The HR image is obtained as the solution of a convex optimization problem which can be solved using the proposed algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the performance of our method on two sets of in-vivo human brain data and show its effectiveness in accurately recovering very high resolution diffusion images. PMID:26221667

  1. RZ calculations for self shielded multigroup cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Sanchez, R.; Zmijarevic, I.; Stankovski, Z.

    2006-07-01

    A collision probability method has been implemented for RZ geometries. The method accounts for white albedo, specular and translation boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the geometry and for a white albedo condition on the outer radial surface. We have applied the RZ CP method to the calculation of multigroup self shielded cross sections for Gadolinia absorbers in BWRs. (authors)

  2. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Locating the Invariant Referent Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) is a popular method for the examination of measurement invariance and specifically, factor invariance. Recent research has begun to focus on using MCFA to detect invariance for test items. MCFA requires certain parameters (e.g., factor loadings) to be constrained for model identification, which are…

  3. A Diffusion of Innovations Approach to Gerontological Curriculum Enrichment: Institutionalizing and Sustaining Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.; Murty, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a gerontological enrichment model for institutionalizing and sustaining curricular change utilizing Rogers' (1995, 2003) diffusion of innovations approach to organizational change. The goal of the project, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, is to transform the social work curriculum at a major state university so…

  4. Metal Accretion onto White Dwarfs. I. The Approximate Approach Based on Estimates of Diffusion Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Dufour, P.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2015-06-01

    The accretion-diffusion picture is the model par excellence for describing the presence of planetary debris polluting the atmospheres of relatively cool white dwarfs. Some important insights into the process may be derived using an approximate approach which combines static stellar models with estimates of diffusion timescales at the base of the outer convection zone or, in its absence, at the photosphere. Until recently, and to our knowledge, values of diffusion timescales in white dwarfs have all been obtained on the basis of the same physics as that developed initially by Paquette et al., including their diffusion coefficients and thermal diffusion coefficients. In view of the recent exciting discoveries of a plethora of metals (including some never seen before) polluting the atmospheres of an increasing number of cool white dwarfs, we felt that a new look at the estimates of settling timescales would be worthwhile. We thus provide improved estimates of diffusion timescales for all 27 elements from Li to Cu in the periodic table in a wide range of the surface gravity-effective temperature domain and for both DA and non-DA stars.

  5. Some Approaches to Modeling Diffuse Flow at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farough, A.; Lowell, R. P.; Craft, K.; Germanovich, L. N.

    2011-12-01

    To obtain a sound understanding of subsurface temperatures and the extent of the subsurface biosphere in young oceanic crust, one must understand the mechanisms of diffuse flow at oceanic spreading centers. Mathematical modeling of diffuse flow at oceanic spreading centers has received relatively little attention compared to high-temperature black smoker discharge, in part because the temperature and fluid flow data required to constrain the models are scarce. We review a number of different approaches to modelling diffuse flow: (1) The simplest method considers 1-D steady-state uniform upflow from below subject to a heat transfer boundary condition at the surface, which represents the effects of mixing of hydrothermal fluid with seawater. These models, in which the heat transfer coefficient and the velocity of the ascending fluid are constrained by observed diffuse flow vent temperature and heat flux, typically result in a steep temperature gradient near the seafloor and subsurface biological activity may be limited to the upper few cm of the crust. (2) A related method uses data on the partitioning of heat flux between focused and diffuse flow and chemical data from the focused and diffuse flow components in a two-limb single pass modeling approach to determine the fraction of high-temperature fluid that is incorporated in the diffuse flow. Using data available from EPR 950', the Main Endeavour Field, and ASHES vent field at Axial Volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in conjunction with Mg as a passive tracer, we find that the mixing ratio of high temperature in diffuse flow is <10%. The high-temperature contribution to the diffuse heat flux remains large, however, and high-temperature vent fluid ultimately contributes ~ 90% of the total heat output from the vent field. In these models mixing between high-temperature fluid and seawater may occur over a considerable depth, and the subsurface biosphere may be ~ 100 m deep beneath diffuse flow sites. (3) Finally, in

  6. On the Karlin-Kimura approaches to the Wright-Fisher diffusion with fluctuating selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huillet, Thierry

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this work is a comparative study of two Wright-Fisher-like diffusion processes on the interval, one due to Karlin and the other one due to Kimura. Each model accounts for the evolution of one two-locus colony undergoing random mating, under the additional action of selection in a random environment. In other words, we study the effect of disorder on the usual Wright-Fisher model with fixed (nonrandom) selection. There is a drastic qualitative difference between the two models and between the random and nonrandom selection hypotheses. We first present a series of elementary stochastic models and tools that are needed to conduct this study in the context of diffusion process theory, including Kolmogorov backward and forward equations, scale and speed functions, classification of boundaries, and Doob transformation of sample paths using additive functionals. In this spirit, we briefly revisit the neutral Wright-Fisher diffusion and the Wright-Fisher diffusion with nonrandom selection. With these tools at hand, we first deal with the Karlin approach to the Wright-Fisher diffusion model with randomized selection differentials. The specificity of this model is that in the large population case, the boundaries of the state space are natural and hence inaccessible, and so quasi-absorbing only. We supply some limiting properties pertaining to times of hitting of points close to the boundaries. Next, we study the Kimura approach to the Wright-Fisher model with randomized selection, which may be viewed as a modification of the Karlin model, using an appropriate Doob transform which we describe. This model also has natural boundaries, but they turn out to be much more attracting and sticky than in Karlin's version. This leads to a faster approach to the quasi-absorbing states, to a larger time needed to move from the vicinity of one boundary to the other and to a local critical behavior of the branching diffusion obtained after the relevant Doob transformation.

  7. Geospatial Data Fusion and Multigroup Decision Support for Surface Water Quality Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Osidele, O.; Green, R. T.; Xie, H.

    2010-12-01

    Social networking and social media have gained significant popularity and brought fundamental changes to many facets of our everyday life. With the ever-increasing adoption of GPS-enabled gadgets and technology, location-based content is likely to play a central role in social networking sites. While location-based content is not new to the geoscience community, where geographic information systems (GIS) are extensively used, the delivery of useful geospatial data to targeted user groups for decision support is new. Decision makers and modelers ought to make more effective use of the new web-based tools to expand the scope of environmental awareness education, public outreach, and stakeholder interaction. Environmental decision processes are often rife with uncertainty and controversy, requiring integration of multiple sources of information and compromises between diverse interests. Fusing of multisource, multiscale environmental data for multigroup decision support is a challenging task. Toward this goal, a multigroup decision support platform should strive to achieve transparency, impartiality, and timely synthesis of information. The latter criterion often constitutes a major technical bottleneck to traditional GIS-based media, featuring large file or image sizes and requiring special processing before web deployment. Many tools and design patterns have appeared in recent years to ease the situation somewhat. In this project, we explore the use of Web 2.0 technologies for “pushing” location-based content to multigroups involved in surface water quality management and decision making. In particular, our granular bottom-up approach facilitates effective delivery of information to most relevant user groups. Our location-based content includes in-situ and remotely sensed data disseminated by NASA and other national and local agencies. Our project is demonstrated for managing the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program in the Arroyo Colorado coastal river basin

  8. Development of the new approach to the diffusion-limited reaction rate theory

    SciTech Connect

    Veshchunov, M. S.

    2012-04-15

    The new approach to the diffusion-limited reaction rate theory, recently proposed by the author, is further developed on the base of a similar approach to Brownian coagulation. The traditional diffusion approach to calculation of the reaction rate is critically analyzed. In particular, it is shown that the traditional approach is applicable only in the special case of reactions with a large reaction radius and the mean inter-particle distances, and become inappropriate in calculating the reaction rate in the case of a relatively small reaction radius. In the latter case, most important for chemical reactions, particle collisions occur not in the diffusion regime but mainly in the kinetic regime characterized by homogeneous (random) spatial distribution of particles on the length scale of the mean inter-particle distance. The calculated reaction rate for a small reaction radius in three dimensions formally (and fortuitously) coincides with the expression derived in the traditional approach for reactions with a large reaction radius, but notably deviates at large times from the traditional result in the planar two-dimensional geometry. In application to reactions on discrete lattice sites, new relations for the reaction rate constants are derived for both three-dimensional and two-dimensional lattices.

  9. Diffuse globally, compute locally: a cyclist approach to modeling long time robot locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel; Cvitanović, Predrag

    2015-03-01

    To advance autonomous robots we are interested to develop a statistical/dynamical description of diffusive self-propulsion on heterogeneous terrain. We consider a minimal model for such diffusion, the 2-dimensional Lorentz gas, which abstracts the motion of a light, point-like particle bouncing within a large number of heavy scatters (e.g. small robots in a boulder field). We present a precise computation (based on exact periodic orbit theory formula for the diffusion constant) for a periodic triangular Lorentz gas with finite horizon. We formulate a new approach to tiling the plane in terms of three elementary tiling generators which, for the first time, enables use of periodic orbits computed in the fundamental domain (that is, 1 / 12 of the hexagonal elementary cell whose translations tile the entire plane). Compared with previous literature, our fundamental domain value of the diffusion constant converges quickly for inter-disk separation/disk radius > 0 . 2 , with the cycle expansion truncated to only a few hundred periodic orbits of up to 5 billiard wall bounces. For small inter-disk separations, with periodic orbits up to 6 bounces, our diffusion constants are close (< 10 %) to direct numerical simulation estimates and the recent literature probabilistic estimates.

  10. MODEL OF THE FIELD LINE RANDOM WALK EVOLUTION AND APPROACH TO ASYMPTOTIC DIFFUSION IN MAGNETIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Snodin, A. P.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H. E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th

    2013-01-01

    The turbulent random walk of magnetic field lines plays an important role in the transport of plasmas and energetic particles in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, but most theoretical work has concentrated on determination of the asymptotic field line diffusion coefficient. Here we consider the evolution with distance of the field line random walk using a general ordinary differential equation (ODE), which for most cases of interest in astrophysics describes a transition from free streaming to asymptotic diffusion. By challenging theories of asymptotic diffusion to also describe the evolution, one gains insight on how accurately they describe the random walk process. Previous theoretical work has effectively involved closure of the ODE, often by assuming Corrsin's hypothesis and a Gaussian displacement distribution. Approaches that use quasilinear theory and prescribe the mean squared displacement ({Delta}x {sup 2}) according to free streaming (random ballistic decorrelation, RBD) or asymptotic diffusion (diffusive decorrelation, DD) can match computer simulation results, but only over specific parameter ranges, with no obvious 'marker' of the range of validity. Here we make use of a unified description in which the ODE determines ({Delta}x {sup 2}) self-consistently, providing a natural transition between the assumptions of RBD and DD. We find that the minimum kurtosis of the displacement distribution provides a good indicator of whether the self-consistent ODE is applicable, i.e., inaccuracy of the self-consistent ODE is associated with non-Gaussian displacement distributions.

  11. Collision probability calculation and multigroup flux solvers using PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Qaddouri, A.; Roy, R.; Mayrand, M.; Goulard, B.

    1996-07-01

    Collision probability evaluation and flux computation are the most time-consuming aspects of applications based on the linearized time-independent transport equation. Parallelization for collision probability calculation and multigroup flux computation are investigated. Particular techniques pertinent to the two-step energy/space iterative process of solving a multigroup transport equation are described. The parallel performance is studied in cases where the cyclic tracking technique is used to integrate collision probability. Parallelization is achieved by distributing either different energy groups or different regions on a set of processors. These algorithms were tested on a four-processor IBM SP2 and an eight-processor SPARC 1000 as well as on networks of workstations using the public domain PVM library. Typical run times are provided for unit cell calculations.

  12. Peculiarities of parabolic-barrier penetrability and thermal decay rate with the quantum diffusion approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzyakin, R. A.; Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2011-06-15

    With the quantum diffusion approach, the passing probability through the parabolic barrier is examined in the limit of linear coupling in the momentum between the collective subsystem and environment. The dependencies of the penetrability on time, energy, and the coupling strength between the interacting subsystems are studied. The quasistationary thermal decay rate from a metastable state is considered in the cases of linear couplings both in the momentum and in the coordinate.

  13. Diffusion-assisted selective dynamical recoupling: A new approach to measure background gradients in magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Shemesh, Noam; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-02-28

    Dynamical decoupling, a generalization of the original NMR spin-echo sequence, is becoming increasingly relevant as a tool for reducing decoherence in quantum systems. Such sequences apply non-equidistant refocusing pulses for optimizing the coupling between systems, and environmental fluctuations characterized by a given noise spectrum. One such sequence, dubbed Selective Dynamical Recoupling (SDR) [P. E. S. Smith, G. Bensky, G. A. Álvarez, G. Kurizki, and L. Frydman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109, 5958 (2012)], allows one to coherently reintroduce diffusion decoherence effects driven by fluctuations arising from restricted molecular diffusion [G. A. Álvarez, N. Shemesh, and L. Frydman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 080404 (2013)]. The fully-refocused, constant-time, and constant-number-of-pulses nature of SDR also allows one to filter out “intrinsic” T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} weightings, as well as pulse errors acting as additional sources of decoherence. This article explores such features when the fluctuations are now driven by unrestricted molecular diffusion. In particular, we show that diffusion-driven SDR can be exploited to investigate the decoherence arising from the frequency fluctuations imposed by internal gradients. As a result, SDR presents a unique way of probing and characterizing these internal magnetic fields, given an a priori known free diffusion coefficient. This has important implications in studies of structured systems, including porous media and live tissues, where the internal gradients may serve as fingerprints for the system's composition or structure. The principles of this method, along with full analytical solutions for the unrestricted diffusion-driven modulation of the SDR signal, are presented. The potential of this approach is demonstrated with the generation of a novel source of MRI contrast, based on the background gradients active in an ex vivo mouse brain. Additional features and limitations of this new method are discussed.

  14. Diffusion-assisted selective dynamical recoupling: A new approach to measure background gradients in magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Shemesh, Noam; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-02-01

    Dynamical decoupling, a generalization of the original NMR spin-echo sequence, is becoming increasingly relevant as a tool for reducing decoherence in quantum systems. Such sequences apply non-equidistant refocusing pulses for optimizing the coupling between systems, and environmental fluctuations characterized by a given noise spectrum. One such sequence, dubbed Selective Dynamical Recoupling (SDR) [P. E. S. Smith, G. Bensky, G. A. Álvarez, G. Kurizki, and L. Frydman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109, 5958 (2012)], allows one to coherently reintroduce diffusion decoherence effects driven by fluctuations arising from restricted molecular diffusion [G. A. Álvarez, N. Shemesh, and L. Frydman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 080404 (2013)]. The fully-refocused, constant-time, and constant-number-of-pulses nature of SDR also allows one to filter out "intrinsic" T1 and T2 weightings, as well as pulse errors acting as additional sources of decoherence. This article explores such features when the fluctuations are now driven by unrestricted molecular diffusion. In particular, we show that diffusion-driven SDR can be exploited to investigate the decoherence arising from the frequency fluctuations imposed by internal gradients. As a result, SDR presents a unique way of probing and characterizing these internal magnetic fields, given an a priori known free diffusion coefficient. This has important implications in studies of structured systems, including porous media and live tissues, where the internal gradients may serve as fingerprints for the system's composition or structure. The principles of this method, along with full analytical solutions for the unrestricted diffusion-driven modulation of the SDR signal, are presented. The potential of this approach is demonstrated with the generation of a novel source of MRI contrast, based on the background gradients active in an ex vivo mouse brain. Additional features and limitations of this new method are discussed.

  15. Double obstacle phase field approach to an inverse problem for a discontinuous diffusion coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckelnick, Klaus; Elliott, Charles M.; Styles, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    We propose a double obstacle phase field approach to the recovery of piece-wise constant diffusion coefficients for elliptic partial differential equations. The approach to this inverse problem is that of optimal control in which we have a quadratic fidelity term to which we add a perimeter regularization weighted by a parameter σ. This yields a functional which is optimized over a set of diffusion coefficients subject to a state equation which is the underlying elliptic PDE. In order to derive a problem which is amenable to computation the perimeter functional is relaxed using a gradient energy functional together with an obstacle potential in which there is an interface parameter ɛ. This phase field approach is justified by proving {{Γ }}- convergence to the functional with perimeter regularization as ε \\to 0. The computational approach is based on a finite element approximation. This discretization is shown to converge in an appropriate way to the solution of the phase field problem. We derive an iterative method which is shown to yield an energy decreasing sequence converging to a discrete critical point. The efficacy of the approach is illustrated with numerical experiments.

  16. Locating a weak change using diffuse waves: Theoretical approach and inversion procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Vincent; Margerin, Ludovic; Planès, Thomas; Larose, Éric

    2011-02-01

    We describe a time-resolved monitoring technique for heterogeneous media. Our approach is based on the spatial variations of the cross-coherence of diffuse waves acquired at fixed positions but at different dates. The technique applies to all kind of waves, provided that waveforms can be acquired with a sampling frequency much larger than the wave frequency. To locate and characterize a weak change that occurred between successive acquisitions, we use a maximum likelihood approach combined with a diffusive propagation model. We characterize this technique, locating a weak change using diffuse waves, called LOCADIFF, with the aid of numerical simulations. In several illustrative examples, we show that the change can be located with a precision of a few wavelengths and that its effective scattering cross-section can be retrieved. We investigate how the accuracy and precision of the method depends on the number of source-receiver pairs, on the time window used to compute the cross-correlation and on the errors in the propagation model. Applications can be found in nondestructive testing, seismology, radar, and sonar location.

  17. A direct approach to generalised multiple mapping conditioning for selected turbulent diffusion flame cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Brruntha; Klimenko, Alexander Yuri; Cleary, Matthew John; Ge, Yipeng

    2016-07-01

    This work presents a direct and transparent interpretation of two concepts for modelling turbulent combustion: generalised Multiple Mapping Conditioning (MMC) and sparse-Lagrangian Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The MMC approach is presented as a hybrid between the Probability Density Function (PDF) method and approaches based on conditioning (e.g. Conditional Moment Closure, flamelet, etc.). The sparse-Lagrangian approach, which allows for a dramatic reduction of computational cost, is viewed as an alternative interpretation of the Filtered Density Function (FDF) methods. This work presents simulations of several turbulent diffusion flame cases and discusses the universality of the localness parameter between these cases and the universality of sparse-Lagrangian FDF methods with MMC.

  18. A Reconstruction Approach to High-Order Schemes Including Discontinuous Galerkin for Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, H. T.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to high-order accuracy for the numerical solution of diffusion problems by solving the equations in differential form using a reconstruction technique. The approach has the advantages of simplicity and economy. It results in several new high-order methods including a simplified version of discontinuous Galerkin (DG). It also leads to new definitions of common value and common gradient quantities at each interface shared by the two adjacent cells. In addition, the new approach clarifies the relations among the various choices of new and existing common quantities. Fourier stability and accuracy analyses are carried out for the resulting schemes. Extensions to the case of quadrilateral meshes are obtained via tensor products. For the two-point boundary value problem (steady state), it is shown that these schemes, which include most popular DG methods, yield exact common interface quantities as well as exact cell average solutions for nearly all cases.

  19. Analyzing average and conditional effects with multigroup multilevel structural equation models

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Axel; Nagengast, Benjamin; Fletcher, John; Steyer, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, multilevel analysis of covariance (ML-ANCOVA) has been the recommended approach for analyzing treatment effects in quasi-experimental multilevel designs with treatment application at the cluster-level. In this paper, we introduce the generalized ML-ANCOVA with linear effect functions that identifies average and conditional treatment effects in the presence of treatment-covariate interactions. We show how the generalized ML-ANCOVA model can be estimated with multigroup multilevel structural equation models that offer considerable advantages compared to traditional ML-ANCOVA. The proposed model takes into account measurement error in the covariates, sampling error in contextual covariates, treatment-covariate interactions, and stochastic predictors. We illustrate the implementation of ML-ANCOVA with an example from educational effectiveness research where we estimate average and conditional effects of early transition to secondary schooling on reading comprehension. PMID:24795668

  20. A new approach to the problem of bulk-mediated surface diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Dagdug, Leonardo; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2015-08-01

    This paper is devoted to bulk-mediated surface diffusion of a particle which can diffuse both on a flat surface and in the bulk layer above the surface. It is assumed that the particle is on the surface initially (at t = 0) and at time t, while in between it may escape from the surface and come back any number of times. We propose a new approach to the problem, which reduces its solution to that of a two-state problem of the particle transitions between the surface and the bulk layer, focusing on the cumulative residence times spent by the particle in the two states. These times are random variables, the sum of which is equal to the total observation time t. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it allows for a simple exact analytical solution for the double Laplace transform of the conditional probability density of the cumulative residence time spent on the surface by the particle observed for time t. This solution is used to find the Laplace transform of the particle mean square displacement and to analyze the peculiarities of its time behavior over the entire range of time. We also establish a relation between the double Laplace transform of the conditional probability density and the Fourier-Laplace transform of the particle propagator over the surface. The proposed approach treats the cases of both finite and infinite bulk layer thicknesses (where bulk-mediated surface diffusion is normal and anomalous at asymptotically long times, respectively) on equal footing.

  1. Modeling evaporation from spent nuclear fuel storage pools: A diffusion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Bruce Robert

    Accurate prediction of evaporative losses from light water reactor nuclear power plant (NPP) spent fuel storage pools (SFPs) is important for activities ranging from sizing of water makeup systems during NPP design to predicting the time available to supply emergency makeup water following severe accidents. Existing correlations for predicting evaporation from water surfaces are only optimized for conditions typical of swimming pools. This new approach modeling evaporation as a diffusion process has yielded an evaporation rate model that provided a better fit of published high temperature evaporation data and measurements from two SFPs than other published evaporation correlations. Insights from treating evaporation as a diffusion process include correcting for the effects of air flow and solutes on evaporation rate. An accurate modeling of the effects of air flow on evaporation rate is required to explain the observed temperature data from the Fukushima Daiichi Unit 4 SFP during the 2011 loss of cooling event; the diffusion model of evaporation provides a significantly better fit to this data than existing evaporation models.

  2. Multigroup calculations using VIM: A user`s guide to ISOVIM

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, R.N.

    1992-09-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have long been used to benchmark more a mate approximate solution methods for reactor physics problems. The power of VIM (ref 1) lies partly in the detailed geometrical representations incorporating the (generally) curved surfaces of combinatorial geometry, and partly in the fine energy detail of pointwise cross sections which are independent of the neutron spectrum. When differences arise between Monte Carlo and deterministic calculations, the question arises, is the error in the multigroup cross sections, in the treatment of transport effects, or in the mesh-based treatment of space in the deterministic calculation? The answers may not be obvious, but may be identified by combining the exact geometry capability of VIM with the multigroup formalism. We can now run VIM in a multigroup mode by producing special VIM Material files which contain point-wise data describing multigroup data with histograms. This forces VIM to solve the multigroup problem with only three small code modifications. P{sub N} scattering is simulated with the usual tabulated angular distributions with 20 equally-sized scattering angle cosine meshes. This document describes the VIM multigroup capability, the procedures for generating multigroup cross sections for VIM, and their use. The multigroup cross section generating code, ISOVIM, is described, and benchmark testing is documented.

  3. A concurrent, multigroup, discrete ordinates model of neutron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Dorr, M.R.; Still, C.H.

    1993-10-22

    The authors present an algorithm for the concurrent solution of the linear system arising from a multigroup, discrete ordinates model of neutron transport. The target architectures consist of distributed memory computers ranging from workstation clusters to massively parallel computers. Based on an analysis of the memory requirement and floating point complexity of matrix-vector multiplication in the iterative solution of the linear system, the authors propose a data layout and communication strategy designed to achieve scalability with respect to all phase space variables. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the algorithm on the nCUBE/2.

  4. Multigroup Free-atom Doppler-broadening Approximation. Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark Girard

    2015-11-06

    The multigroup energy Doppler-broadening approximation agrees with continuous energy Dopplerbroadening generally to within ten percent for the total cross sections of 1H, 56Fe, and 235U at 250 lanl. Although this is probably not good enough for broadening from room temperature through the entire temperature range in production use, it is better than any interpolation scheme between temperatures proposed to date, and may be good enough for extrapolation from high temperatures. The method deserves further study since additional improvements are possible.

  5. Limits of applicability of the “diffusion-controlled product growth” kinetic approach to modeling SHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khina, B. B.; Formanek, B.; Solpan, I.

    2005-01-01

    In modeling SHS in condensed systems, it is typically considered that a solid and a liquid reactant (a molten metal) are separated by a solid product interlayer, and diffusion in this layer is the rate-controlling stage (a “solid-solid-liquid mechanism”). However, in most cases modeling is performed not with real diffusion data (activation energy E and preexponent D0) for the product phase but with fitting parameters which are chosen to match the calculated and measured thermal characteristics of the SHS wave. In this work, a system of kinetic, thermodynamic and structural estimates is developed for evaluating the validity of this approach for particular SHS systems/conditions using available experimental data on both diffusion in the product phase and characteristics of the SHS wave. A classical Ti-C system is chosen as an example. Change in geometry of a unit reaction cell due to melting and spreading of the metallic reactant is taken into account, and different situations arising within this concept are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the “diffusion-controlled growth” kinetics is not applicable to SHS of interstitial compounds in the wave propagation regime because it cannot provide sufficient heat release for sustaining SHS and the final product structure will disagree with experimental data known in literature. As an alternative, a “solid-liquid mechanism” of phase formation during SHS is grounded, which implies a direct contact of a metallic melt with a solid reactant. A micromechanistic criterion for a changeover of these interaction routes is obtained, which is important for SHS in the thermal explosion mode.

  6. A model-based deconvolution approach to solve fiber crossing in diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Rizzo, Giovanna; Scifo, Paola; Clarke, Rafael Alonso; Scotti, Giuseppe; Fazio, Ferruccio

    2007-03-01

    A deconvolution approach is presented to solve fiber crossing in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. In order to provide a direct physical interpretation of the signal generation process, we started from the classical multicompartment model and rewrote this in terms of a convolution process, identifying a significant scalar parameter alpha to characterize the physical system response. Deconvolution is performed by a modified version of the Richardson-Lucy algorithm. Simulations show the ability of this method to correctly separate fiber crossing, even in the presence of noisy data, with lower signal-to-noise ratio, and imprecision in the impulse response function imposed during deconvolution. The in vivo data confirms the efficacy of this method to resolve fiber crossing in real complex brain structures. These results suggest the usefulness of our approach in fiber tracking or connectivity studies. PMID:17355058

  7. Development of image reconstruction algorithms for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using total light approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Miwa, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) based on the total light approach is developed. The continuous wave light is used for excitation in this system. The reconstruction algorithm is based on the total light approach that reconstructs the absorption coefficients increased by the fluorophore. Additionally we propose noise reduction using the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) incorporating the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD). Numerical and phantom experiments show that the developed system successfully reconstructs the fluorophore concentration in the biological media, and the ART with TSVD alleviates the influence of noises. In vivo experiment demonstrated that the developed FDOT system localized the fluorescent agent which was concentrated in the cancer transplanted into a kidney in a mouse.

  8. Modeling tumor growth in a complex evolving confinement using a diffuse domain approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yao-Li; Lowengrub, John; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiangrong; Frieboes, Hermann; Cristini, Vittorio

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal evolution of tumor growth represents an essential step towards engineering effective treatment for cancer patients. At the macroscopic scale, various biophysical models describing tumors as continuum fluids have been constructed, particularly on a Cartesian grid, where efficient numerical schemes are available to analyze the model for general tumor behaviors in a relatively unconfined space. For practical problems, however, tumors are often found in a confined sub-domain, which can even be dilated and distorted by the growing tumor within. To study such tumors, we adopt a novel diffuse domain approach that enables us to adapt a model to an evolving sub-domain and formulate the modified problem on a Cartesian grid to utilize existing numerical schemes. To demonstrate this approach, we adapt a diffuse-interface model presented in Wise et al. [2008, Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear tumor growth - I Model and numerical method, J. Theor. Biol. 253, 524-543] to simulate lymphoma growth in a lymph node structure. Supported by NIH-PSOC grant 1U54CA143907-01.

  9. Dynamical approach to anomalous diffusion: Response of Lévy processes to a perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefán, György; Floriani, Elena; West, Bruce J.; Grigolini, Paolo

    1994-10-01

    Lévy statistics are derived from a dynamical system, which can be either Hamiltonian or not, using a master equation approach. We compare these predictions to the random walk approach recently developed by Zumofen and Klafter for both the nonstationary [Phys. Rev. E 47, 851 (1993)] and stationary [Physica A 196, 102 (1993)] case. We study the unperturbed dynamics of the system analytically and numerically and evaluate the time evolution of the second moment of the probability distribution. We also study the response of the dynamical system undergoing anomalous diffusion to an external perturbation and show that if the slow regression to equilibrium of the variable ``velocity'' is triggered by the perturbation, the process of diffusion of the ``space'' variable takes place under nonstationary conditions and a conductivity steadily increasing with time is generated in the early part of the response process. In the regime of extremely long times the conductivity becomes constant with a value, though, that does not correspond to the prescriptions of the ordinary Green-Kubo treatments.

  10. Status of the MORSE multigroup Monte Carlo radiation transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, M.B.

    1993-06-01

    There are two versions of the MORSE multigroup Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. MORSE-CGA is the most well-known and has undergone extensive use for many years. MORSE-SGC was originally developed in about 1980 in order to restructure the cross-section handling and thereby save storage. However, with the advent of new computer systems having much larger storage capacity, that aspect of SGC has become unnecessary. Both versions use data from multigroup cross-section libraries, although in somewhat different formats. MORSE-SGC is the version of MORSE that is part of the SCALE system, but it can also be run stand-alone. Both CGA and SGC use the Multiple Array System (MARS) geometry package. In the last six months the main focus of the work on these two versions has been on making them operational on workstations, in particular, the IBM RISC 6000 family. A new version of SCALE for workstations is being released to the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). MORSE-CGA, Version 2.0, is also being released to RSIC. Both SGC and CGA have undergone other revisions recently. This paper reports on the current status of the MORSE code system.

  11. Bag-of-features approach for improvement of lung tissue classification in diffuse lung disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Noriji; Fukui, Motofumi; Isozaki, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Many automated techniques have been proposed to classify diffuse lung disease patterns. Most of the techniques utilize texture analysis approaches with second and higher order statistics, and show successful classification result among various lung tissue patterns. However, the approaches do not work well for the patterns with inhomogeneous texture distribution within a region of interest (ROI), such as reticular and honeycombing patterns, because the statistics can only capture averaged feature over the ROI. In this work, we have introduced the bag-of-features approach to overcome this difficulty. In the approach, texture images are represented as histograms or distributions of a few basic primitives, which are obtained by clustering local image features. The intensity descriptor and the Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) descriptor are utilized to extract the local features, which have significant discriminatory power due to their specificity to a particular image class. In contrast, the drawback of the local features is lack of invariance under translation and rotation. We improved the invariance by sampling many local regions so that the distribution of the local features is unchanged. We evaluated the performance of our system in the classification task with 5 image classes (ground glass, reticular, honeycombing, emphysema, and normal) using 1109 ROIs from 211 patients. Our system achieved high classification accuracy of 92.8%, which is superior to that of the conventional system with the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) feature especially for inhomogeneous texture patterns.

  12. Diffusion of a Sustainable Farming Technique in Sri Lanka: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Gilligan, J. M.; Carrico, A. R.; Truelove, H. B.; Hornberger, G.

    2012-12-01

    We live in a changing world - anthropogenic climate change is disrupting historic climate patterns and social structures are shifting as large scale population growth and massive migrations place unprecedented strain on natural and social resources. Agriculture in many countries is affected by these changes in the social and natural environments. In Sri Lanka, rice farmers in the Mahaweli River watershed have seen increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation. In addition, a government led resettlement project has altered the demographics and social practices in villages throughout the watershed. These changes have the potential to impact rice yields in a country where self-sufficiency in rice production is a point of national pride. Studies of the climate can elucidate physical effects on rice production, while research on social behaviors can illuminate the influence of community dynamics on agricultural practices. Only an integrated approach, however, can capture the combined and interactive impacts of these global changes on Sri Lankan agricultural. As part of an interdisciplinary team, we present an agent-based modeling (ABM) approach to studying the effects of physical and social changes on farmers in Sri Lanka. In our research, the diffusion of a sustainable farming technique, the system of rice intensification (SRI), throughout a farming community is modeled to identify factors that either inhibit or promote the spread of a more sustainable approach to rice farming. Inputs into the ABM are both physical and social and include temperature, precipitation, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), community trust, and social networks. Outputs from the ABM demonstrate the importance of meteorology and social structure on the diffusion of SRI throughout a farming community.

  13. An explicit approach to capture diffusive effects in finite water-content method for solving vadose zone flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianting; Ogden, Fred L.; Lai, Wencong; Chen, Xiangfeng; Talbot, Cary A.

    2016-04-01

    Vadose zone flow problems are usually solved from the Richards equation. Solution to the Richards equation is generally challenging because the hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity in the equation are strongly non-linear functions of water content. The finite water-content method was proposed as an alternative general solution method of the vadose zone flow problem for infiltration, falling slugs, and vadose zone response to water table dynamics based on discretizing the water content domain into numerous bins instead of the traditional spatial discretization. In this study, we develop an improved approach to the original finite water-content method (referred to as TO method hereinafter) that better simulates diffusive effects but retains the robustness of the TO method. The approach treats advection and diffusion separately and considers diffusion on a bin by bin basis. After discretizing into water content bins, we treat the conductivity and diffusivity in individual bins as water content dependent constant evaluated at given water content corresponding to each bin. For each bin, we can solve the flow equations analytically since the hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity can be treated as a constant. We then develop solutions for each bin to determine the diffusive water amounts at each time step. The water amount ahead of the convective front for each bin is redistributed among water content bins to account for diffusive effects. The application of developed solution is straightforward only involving algebraic manipulations at each time step. The method can mainly improve water content profiles, but has no significant difference for the total infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration compared to the TO method. Although the method separately deals with advection and diffusion, it can account for the coupling effects of advection and diffusion reasonably well.

  14. A staggered approach for the coupling of Cahn-Hilliard type diffusion and finite strain elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areias, P.; Samaniego, E.; Rabczuk, T.

    2016-02-01

    We develop an algorithm and computational implementation for simulation of problems that combine Cahn-Hilliard type diffusion with finite strain elasticity. We have in mind applications such as the electro-chemo-mechanics of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. We concentrate on basic computational aspects. A staggered algorithm is proposed for the coupled multi-field model. For the diffusion problem, the fourth order differential equation is replaced by a system of second order equations to deal with the issue of the regularity required for the approximation spaces. Low order finite elements are used for discretization in space of the involved fields (displacement, concentration, nonlocal concentration). Three (both 2D and 3D) extensively worked numerical examples show the capabilities of our approach for the representation of (i) phase separation, (ii) the effect of concentration in deformation and stress, (iii) the effect of strain in concentration, and (iv) lithiation. We analyze convergence with respect to spatial and time discretization and found that very good results are achievable using both a staggered scheme and approximated strain interpolation.

  15. Computing the blood brain barrier (BBB) diffusion coefficient: A molecular dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Pedram, Maysam Z.; Heidari, Hossein; Alasty, Aria

    2016-07-01

    Various physical and biological aspects of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) structure still remain unfolded. Therefore, among the several mechanisms of drug delivery, only a few have succeeded in breaching this barrier, one of which is the use of Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs). However, a quantitative characterization of the BBB permeability is desirable to find an optimal magnetic force-field. In the present study, a molecular model of the BBB is introduced that precisely represents the interactions between MNPs and the membranes of Endothelial Cells (ECs) that form the BBB. Steered Molecular Dynamics (SMD) simulations of the BBB crossing phenomenon have been carried out. Mathematical modeling of the BBB as an input-output system has been considered from a system dynamics modeling viewpoint, enabling us to analyze the BBB behavior based on a robust model. From this model, the force profile required to overcome the barrier has been extracted for a single NP from the SMD simulations at a range of velocities. Using this data a transfer function model has been obtained and the diffusion coefficient is evaluated. This study is a novel approach to bridge the gap between nanoscale models and microscale models of the BBB. The characteristic diffusion coefficient has the nano-scale molecular effects inherent, furthermore reducing the computational costs of a nano-scale simulation model and enabling much more complex studies to be conducted.

  16. Neutron diffusion in graphite poisoned with 1/v and non-1/v absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, U.; Kothari, L.S.; Kumar, A.

    1982-05-01

    Neutron diffusion in graphite containing 1/v and non-1/v absorbers has been studied in the diffusion theory approximation using a multigroup (30-group) approach and the neutron scattering kernel proposed earlier by the authors. It is observed that, in this case as in the case of water investigated earlier, the behavior of neutrons in graphite poisoned with gadolinium is different from that in graphite poisoned with samarium or cadmium. To explain the reason for this difference, a hypothetical model for the energy variation of the absorption cross section has been constructed that closely resembles samarium in one limit and goes over to gadolinium in the other. The effect of varying the concentration of non-1/v absorbers on the flux of sub-Bragg and epicold neutrons has been studied for this model, and some interesting results are obtained.

  17. Symbolic Computational Approach to the Marangoni Convection Problem With Soret Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skarda, J. Raymond

    1998-01-01

    A recently reported solution for stationary stability of a thermosolutal system with Soret diffusion is re-derived and examined using a symbolic computational package. Symbolic computational languages are well suited for such an analysis and facilitate a pragmatic approach that is adaptable to similar problems. Linearization of the equations, normal mode analysis, and extraction of the final solution are performed in a Mathematica notebook format. An exact solution is obtained for stationary stability in the limit of zero gravity. A closed form expression is also obtained for the location of asymptotes in relevant parameter, (Sm(sub c), Mac(sub c)), space. The stationary stability behavior is conveniently examined within the symbolic language environment. An abbreviated version of the Mathematica notebook is given in the Appendix.

  18. Data-driven approach to optimum wavelength selection for diffuse optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, Laura A.; Cooper, Robert J.; Roque, Tania; Correia, Teresa; Magee, Elliott; Powell, Samuel; Gibson, Adam P.; Hebden, Jeremy C.

    2015-01-01

    The production of accurate and independent images of the changes in concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin by diffuse optical imaging is heavily dependent on which wavelengths of near-infrared light are chosen to interrogate the target tissue. Although wavelengths can be selected by theoretical methods, in practice the accuracy of reconstructed images will be affected by wavelength-specific and system-specific factors such as laser source power and detector sensitivity. We describe the application of a data-driven approach to optimum wavelength selection for the second generation of University College London's multichannel, time-domain optical tomography system (MONSTIR II). By performing a functional activation experiment using 12 different wavelengths between 690 and 870 nm, we were able to identify the combinations of 2, 3, and 4 wavelengths which most accurately reproduced the results obtained using all 12 wavelengths via an imaging approach. Our results show that the set of 2, 3, and 4 wavelengths which produce the most accurate images of functional activation are [770, 810], [770, 790, 850], and [730, 770, 810, 850] respectively, but also that the system is relatively robust to wavelength selection within certain limits. Although these results are specific to MONSTIR II, the approach we developed can be applied to other multispectral near-infrared spectroscopy and optical imaging systems.

  19. Multi-group acculturation orientations in a changing context: Palestinian Christian Arab adolescents in Israel after the lost decade.

    PubMed

    Munayer, Salim J; Horenczyk, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    Grounded in a contextual approach to acculturation of minorities, this study examines changes in acculturation orientations among Palestinian Christian Arab adolescents in Israel following the "lost decade of Arab-Jewish coexistence." Multi-group acculturation orientations among 237 respondents were assessed vis-à-vis two majorities--Muslim Arabs and Israeli Jews--and compared to 1998 data. Separation was the strongest endorsed orientation towards both majority groups. Comparisons with the 1998 data also show a weakening of the Integration attitude towards Israeli Jews, and also distancing from Muslim Arabs. For the examination of the "Westernisation" hypothesis, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analyses of perceptions of Self and group values clearly showed that, after 10 years, Palestinian Christian Arabs perceive Israeli Jewish culture as less close to Western culture, and that Self and the Christian Arab group have become much closer, suggesting an increasing identification of Palestinian Christian Arab adolescents with their ethnoreligious culture. We discuss the value of a multi-group, multi-method, and multi-wave approach to the examination of the role of the political context in acculturation processes. PMID:25178958

  20. Fractional and fractal dynamics approach to anomalous diffusion in porous media: application to landslide behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelloni, Gianluca; Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    intense or long rain that percolates into the soil causing an increasing of the pore water pressure. In literature two type of models exist for attempting to forecast the landslides triggering: statistical or empirical modeling based on rainfall thresholds derived from the analysis of temporal series of daily rain [34] and geotechnical modeling, i.e., slope stability models that take into account water infiltration by rainfall considering classical Richardson equations [35-39]. Regarding the propagation of landslides, the models follow Eulerian (e.g., finite element methods, [40]) or Lagrangian approach (e.g., particle or molecular dynamics methods [41-46]). In a preliminary work [44], the possibility of the integration between fractional-based infiltration modeling and molecular dynamics approach, to model both the triggering and propagation, has been investigated in order to characterize the granular material varying the order of fractional derivative taking into account the equation -∂δ ∂2θ(z,t) ∂tδθ(z,t)=D ∂z2 , (6) where θ(z,t) represents the water content depending on time t and soil depth z [47], while the parameter δ, with 0.5 ≤ δ < 1, represents the fractional derivative order to consider anomalous sub-diffusion [48]; when δ = 1 we have classical derivative, i.e., normal diffusion, and when δ > 1 super-diffusion [32]. To sum up, in [44], a three-dimensional model is developed, the water content is expressed in term of pore pressure (interpreted as a scalar field acting on the particles), whose increasing induces the shear strength reduction. The latter is taking into account by means of Mohr-Coulomb criterion that represents a failure criterion based on limit equilibrium theory [49, 50]. Moreover, the fluctuations depending on positions, in term of pore pressure, are also considered. Concerning the interaction between particles, a Lennard-Jones potential is taking into account and other active forces as gravity, dynamic friction and viscosity

  1. A DIFFUSE-INTERFACE APPROACH FOR MODELING TRANSPORT, DIFFUSION AND ADSORPTION/DESORPTION OF MATERIAL QUANTITIES ON A DEFORMABLE INTERFACE.

    PubMed

    Teigen, Knut Erik; Li, Xiangrong; Lowengrub, John; Wang, Fan; Voigt, Axel

    2009-12-01

    A method is presented to solve two-phase problems involving a material quantity on an interface. The interface can be advected, stretched, and change topology, and material can be adsorbed to or desorbed from it. The method is based on the use of a diffuse interface framework, which allows a simple implementation using standard finite-difference or finite-element techniques. Here, finite-difference methods on a block-structured adaptive grid are used, and the resulting equations are solved using a non-linear multigrid method. Interfacial flow with soluble surfactants is used as an example of the application of the method, and several test cases are presented demonstrating its accuracy and convergence. PMID:21373370

  2. A DIFFUSE-INTERFACE APPROACH FOR MODELING TRANSPORT, DIFFUSION AND ADSORPTION/DESORPTION OF MATERIAL QUANTITIES ON A DEFORMABLE INTERFACE*

    PubMed Central

    Teigen, Knut Erik; Li, Xiangrong; Lowengrub, John; Wang, Fan; Voigt, Axel

    2010-01-01

    A method is presented to solve two-phase problems involving a material quantity on an interface. The interface can be advected, stretched, and change topology, and material can be adsorbed to or desorbed from it. The method is based on the use of a diffuse interface framework, which allows a simple implementation using standard finite-difference or finite-element techniques. Here, finite-difference methods on a block-structured adaptive grid are used, and the resulting equations are solved using a non-linear multigrid method. Interfacial flow with soluble surfactants is used as an example of the application of the method, and several test cases are presented demonstrating its accuracy and convergence. PMID:21373370

  3. An adaptive diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scheme using the multistation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yeji

    2016-02-01

    Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful tool in oncology, which enables fast screening of disseminated tumors, lymph nodes or abscesses in the body. Multistation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or continuously moving table (CMT) MRI can be performed to overcome the limited field of view (FOV) of the magnet bore in whole-body DWI. Although CMT-MRI is regarded as a more advanced form of whole-body MRI, it cannot be widely used because most of the available MR systems are not equipped with the required hardware/software to perform CMT. Thus, optimizing the multistation approach for whole-body DWI, which is more widely available and easier to perform with the existing MR systems, is worthwhile. To improve the quality of DW images acquired with the multistation approach, we used different combinations of the built-in body RF coil and the phased-array surface RF coils for reception of the signals in whole-body DWI in this work. If different coils are selectively used in the extended FOV and appropriate reconstruction algorithms are exploited, the screening ability of whole-body DWI can be improved while minimizing the patient's discomfort and the artifacts due to physiological motions.

  4. A CNN-based approach to integrate the 3-D turbolent diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunnari, G.

    2003-04-01

    The paper deals with the integration of the 3-D turbulent diffusion equation. This problem is relevant in several application fields including fluid dynamics, air/water pollution, volcanic ash emissions and industrial hazard assessment. As it is well known numerical solution of such a kind of equation is very time consuming even by using modern digital computers and this represents a short-coming for on-line applications. To overcome this drawback a Cellular Neural Network Approach is proposed in this paper. CNN's proposed by Chua and Yang in 1988 are massive parallel analog non-linear circuits with local interconnections between the computing elements that allow very fast distributed computations. Nowadays several producers of semiconductors such as SGS-Thomson are producing on chip CNN's so that their massive use for heavy computing applications is expected in the near future. In the paper the methodological background of the proposed approach will be outlined. Further some results both in terms of accuracy and computation time will be presented also in comparison with traditional three-dimensional computation schemes. Some results obtained to model 3-D pollution problems in the industrial area of Siracusa (Italy), characterised by a large concentration of petrol-chemical plants, will be presented.

  5. Diffuse lung disease of infancy: a pattern-based, algorithmic approach to histological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Armes, Jane E; Mifsud, William; Ashworth, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse lung disease (DLD) of infancy has multiple aetiologies and the spectrum of disease is substantially different from that seen in older children and adults. In many cases, a specific diagnosis renders a dire prognosis for the infant, with profound management implications. Two recently published series of DLD of infancy, collated from the archives of specialist centres, indicate that the majority of their cases were referred, implying that the majority of biopsies taken for DLD of infancy are first received by less experienced pathologists. The current literature describing DLD of infancy takes a predominantly aetiological approach to classification. We present an algorithmic, histological, pattern-based approach to diagnosis of DLD of infancy, which, with the aid of appropriate multidisciplinary input, including clinical and radiological expertise and ancillary diagnostic studies, may lead to an accurate and useful interim report, with timely exclusion of inappropriate diagnoses. Subsequent referral to a specialist centre for confirmatory diagnosis will be dependent on the individual case and the decision of the multidisciplinary team. PMID:25477529

  6. Diffuse lung disease of infancy: a pattern-based, algorithmic approach to histological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Armes, Jane E; Mifsud, William; Ashworth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse lung disease (DLD) of infancy has multiple aetiologies and the spectrum of disease is substantially different from that seen in older children and adults. In many cases, a specific diagnosis renders a dire prognosis for the infant, with profound management implications. Two recently published series of DLD of infancy, collated from the archives of specialist centres, indicate that the majority of their cases were referred, implying that the majority of biopsies taken for DLD of infancy are first received by less experienced pathologists. The current literature describing DLD of infancy takes a predominantly aetiological approach to classification. We present an algorithmic, histological, pattern-based approach to diagnosis of DLD of infancy, which, with the aid of appropriate multidisciplinary input, including clinical and radiological expertise and ancillary diagnostic studies, may lead to an accurate and useful interim report, with timely exclusion of inappropriate diagnoses. Subsequent referral to a specialist centre for confirmatory diagnosis will be dependent on the individual case and the decision of the multidisciplinary team. PMID:25477529

  7. Diffusion model of the formation of growth microdefects: A new approach to defect formation in crystals (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talanin, V. I.; Talanin, I. E.

    2016-03-01

    Theoretical studies of defect formation in semiconductor silicon play an important role in the creation of breakthrough ideas for next-generation technologies. A brief comparative analysis of modern theoretical approaches to the description of interaction of point defects and formation of the initial defect structure of dislocation-free silicon single crystals has been carried out. Foundations of the diffusion model of the formation of structural imperfections during the silicon growth have been presented. It has been shown that the diffusion model is based on high-temperature precipitation of impurities. The model of high-temperature precipitation of impurities describes processes of nucleation, growth, and coalescence of impurities during cooling of a crystal from 1683 to 300 K. It has been demonstrated that the diffusion model of defect formation provides a unified approach to the formation of a defect structure beginning with the crystal growth to the production of devices. The possibilities of using the diffusion model of defect formation for other semiconductor crystals and metals have been discussed. It has been shown that the diffusion model of defect formation is a platform for multifunctional solution of many key problems in modern solid state physics. Fundamentals of practical application of the diffusion model for engineering of defects in crystals with modern information technologies have been considered. An algorithm has been proposed for the calculation and analysis of a defect structure of crystals.

  8. Approaches for quantifying and managing diffuse phosphorus exports at the farm/small catchment scale.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Richard W; Nash, David; George, Anja; Wang, Q J; Duncan, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying and managing diffuse P losses from small catchments or at the farm scale requires detailed knowledge of farming practices and their interaction with catchment processes. However, detailed knowledge may not be available and hence modeling is required. This paper demonstrates two approaches to developing tools that assist P losses from New Zealand or Australian dairy farms. The first is largely empirical and separates sources of P within a paddock into soil, fertilizer, dung, and treading impacts (including damage to grazed pasture). This information is combined with expert knowledge of hydrological processes and potential point sources (e.g., stream crossings) to create a deterministic model that can be used to evaluate the most cost and labor efficient method of mitigating P losses. For instance, in one example, 45% of annual P lost was attributed to the application of superphosphate just before a runoff event for which a mitigation strategy could be to use a less water soluble P fertilizer. The second approach uses a combination of interviews, expert knowledge and relationships to develop a Bayesian Network that describes P exports. The knowledge integration process helped stakeholders develop a comprehensive understanding of the problem. The Network, presented in the form of a "cause and effect", diagram provided a simple, visual representation of current knowledge that could be easily applied to individual circumstances and isolate factors having the greatest influence on P loss. Both approaches demonstrate that modeling P losses and mitigation strategies does not have to cover every process or permutation and that a degree of uncertainty can be handled to create a working model of P losses at a farm or small catchment scale. PMID:19704140

  9. Nuclear Data Uncertainty Propagation in Depletion Calculations Using Cross Section Uncertainties in One-group or Multi-group

    SciTech Connect

    Díez, C.J.; Cabellos, O.; Martínez, J.S.

    2015-01-15

    Several approaches have been developed in last decades to tackle nuclear data uncertainty propagation problems of burn-up calculations. One approach proposed was the Hybrid Method, where uncertainties in nuclear data are propagated only on the depletion part of a burn-up problem. Because only depletion is addressed, only one-group cross sections are necessary, and hence, their collapsed one-group uncertainties. This approach has been applied successfully in several advanced reactor systems like EFIT (ADS-like reactor) or ESFR (Sodium fast reactor) to assess uncertainties on the isotopic composition. However, a comparison with using multi-group energy structures was not carried out, and has to be performed in order to analyse the limitations of using one-group uncertainties.

  10. Nuclear Data Uncertainty Propagation in Depletion Calculations Using Cross Section Uncertainties in One-group or Multi-group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díez, C. J.; Cabellos, O.; Martínez, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Several approaches have been developed in last decades to tackle nuclear data uncertainty propagation problems of burn-up calculations. One approach proposed was the Hybrid Method, where uncertainties in nuclear data are propagated only on the depletion part of a burn-up problem. Because only depletion is addressed, only one-group cross sections are necessary, and hence, their collapsed one-group uncertainties. This approach has been applied successfully in several advanced reactor systems like EFIT (ADS-like reactor) or ESFR (Sodium fast reactor) to assess uncertainties on the isotopic composition. However, a comparison with using multi-group energy structures was not carried out, and has to be performed in order to analyse the limitations of using one-group uncertainties.

  11. Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: A Multigroup Hybrid Monte Carlo Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollaeger, Ryan T.; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Graziani, Carlo; Couch, Sean M.; Jordan, George C., IV; Lamb, Donald Q.; Moses, Gregory A.

    2013-12-01

    We explore Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) for radiation transport in high-velocity outflows with structured opacity. The IMC method is a stochastic computational technique for nonlinear radiation transport. IMC is partially implicit in time and may suffer in efficiency when tracking MC particles through optically thick materials. DDMC accelerates IMC in diffusive domains. Abdikamalov extended IMC and DDMC to multigroup, velocity-dependent transport with the intent of modeling neutrino dynamics in core-collapse supernovae. Densmore has also formulated a multifrequency extension to the originally gray DDMC method. We rigorously formulate IMC and DDMC over a high-velocity Lagrangian grid for possible application to photon transport in the post-explosion phase of Type Ia supernovae. This formulation includes an analysis that yields an additional factor in the standard IMC-to-DDMC spatial interface condition. To our knowledge the new boundary condition is distinct from others presented in prior DDMC literature. The method is suitable for a variety of opacity distributions and may be applied to semi-relativistic radiation transport in simple fluids and geometries. Additionally, we test the code, called SuperNu, using an analytic solution having static material, as well as with a manufactured solution for moving material with structured opacities. Finally, we demonstrate with a simple source and 10 group logarithmic wavelength grid that IMC-DDMC performs better than pure IMC in terms of accuracy and speed when there are large disparities between the magnitudes of opacities in adjacent groups. We also present and test our implementation of the new boundary condition.

  12. A Unified Approach to Diffusion Direction Sensitive Slice Registration and 3-D DTI Reconstruction From Moving Fetal Brain Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Fogtmann, Mads; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Kroenke, Christopher; Cheng, Xi; Chapman, Teresa; Wilm, Jakob; Rousseau, François

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to 3-D diffusion tensor image (DTI) reconstruction from multi-slice diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of the moving fetal brain. Motion scatters the slice measurements in the spatial and spherical diffusion domain with respect to the underlying anatomy. Previous image registration techniques have been described to estimate the between slice fetal head motion, allowing the reconstruction of 3-D a diffusion estimate on a regular grid using interpolation. We propose Approach to Unified Diffusion Sensitive Slice Alignment and Reconstruction (AUDiSSAR) that explicitly formulates a process for diffusion direction sensitive DW-slice-to-DTI-volume alignment. This also incorporates image resolution modeling to iteratively deconvolve the effects of the imaging point spread function using the multiple views provided by thick slices acquired in different anatomical planes. The algorithm is implemented using a multi-resolution iterative scheme and multiple real and synthetic data are used to evaluate the performance of the technique. An accuracy experiment using synthetically created motion data of an adult head and a experiment using synthetic motion added to sedated fetal monkey dataset show a significant improvement in motion-trajectory estimation compared to a state-of-the-art approaches. The performance of the method is then evaluated on challenging but clinically typical in utero fetal scans of four different human cases, showing improved rendition of cortical anatomy and extraction of white matter tracts. While the experimental work focuses on DTI reconstruction (second-order tensor model), the proposed reconstruction framework can employ any 5-D diffusion volume model that can be represented by the spatial parameterizations of an orientation distribution function. PMID:24108711

  13. Toward a General Yet Effective Computational Approach for Diffusive Problems: Variable Diffusion Tensor and DVR Solution of the Smoluchowski Equation along a General One-Dimensional Coordinate.

    PubMed

    Piserchia, Andrea; Barone, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    A generalization to arbitrary large amplitude motions of a recent approach to the evaluation of diffusion tensors [ J. Comput. Chem. , 2009 , 30 , 2 - 13 ] is presented and implemented in a widely available package for electronic structure computations. A fully black-box tool is obtained, which, starting from the generation of geometric structures along different kinds of paths, proceeds toward the evaluation of an effective diffusion tensor and to the solution of one-dimensional Smoluchowski equations by a robust numerical approach rooted in the discrete variable representation (DVR). Application to a number of case studies shows that the results issuing from our approach are identical to those delivered by previous software (in particular DiTe) for rigid scans along a dihedral angle, but can be improved by employing relaxed scans (i.e., constrained geometry optimizations) or even more general large amplitude paths. The theoretical and numerical background is robust and general enough to allow quite straightforward extensions in several directions (e.g., inclusion of reactive paths, solution of Fokker-Planck or stochastic Liouville equations, multidimensional problems, free-energy rather than electronic-energy driven processes). PMID:27403666

  14. An analytical approach on effect of diffusion layer on ORR for PEMFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzazadeh, J.; Saievar-Iranizad, E.; Nahavandi, L.

    The effect of an immobilized diffusion layer on the catalyst layer and the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been studied. Since, the oxygen reduction reaction is an inhibitive reaction, much effort has been devoted to the improvement of this reaction in PEMFCs. In this work, the effect of an immobilised hydrophobe carbon layer as the diffusion layer in the gas diffusion electrode has been evaluated. The study of various electrochemical methods in this research, as well as the evaluation of cell polarisation curves showed that the efficiency of electrodes with the diffusion layer in the high current density regions is higher than the electrodes with no diffusion layer. While in the lower current density region the electrodes without the diffusion layer are more efficient than the other type.

  15. Two approaches to glassy dynamics and diffusion on actin filament networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Joseph

    In spite of mass effort to understand glasses, basic features are still not completely known. Even whether or not glasses, as in windows, bottles, etc., are solids or liquids is not settled, let alone their thermodynamics. To make some headway in understanding glasses, this dissertation will take two distinct approaches. First, a direct simulation of a glassy system will be performed and compared to experiments, and from this the thermodynamics will be found. Second, rather than looking directly at a specific system, a general energy landscape appropriate for glass will be considered, and a new numeric technique to exactly calculate thermodynamic quantities will be presented and applied. The second part of this thesis will study diffusion on actin filament networks. Intracellular molecular motor-driven transport is essential for such diverse processes as mitosis, neuronal function, and mitochondrial transport. In vitro studies clarify these motors' function at the single molecule level but fail to elucidate how effective transport emerges from the collective behavior of multiple motors on a filamentary network. We investigate how the combined system of Myosin-V (MV) motors plus actin filaments is used to transport pigment granules in Xenopus melanophores. By analyzing single particle tracking data, we construct simulations and test a hypothesis that cells regulate transport by controlling how often granules switch from one filament to another, rather than, for example, altering motor activity at the single molecule level.

  16. A volumetric approach to quantifying region-to-region white matter connectivity in diffusion tensor MRI.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, P Thomas; Tao, Ran; Jeong, Won-Ki; Whitaker, Ross T

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a volumetric approach for quantitatively studying white matter connectivity from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). The proposed method is based on a minimization of path cost between two regions, defined as the integral of local costs that are derived from the full tensor data along the path. We solve the minimal path problem using a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of the problem and a new, fast iterative method that computes updates on the propagating front of the cost function at every point. The solutions for the fronts emanating from the two initial regions are combined, giving a voxel-wise connectivity measurement of the optimal paths between the regions that pass through those voxels. The resulting high-connectivity voxels provide a volumetric representation of the white matter pathway between the terminal regions. We quantify the tensor data along these pathways using nonparametric regression of the tensors and of derived measures as a function of path length. In this way we can obtain volumetric measures on white-matter tracts between regions without any explicit integration of tracts. We demonstrate the proposed method on several fiber tracts from DT-MRI data of the normal human brain. PMID:17633712

  17. Modeling Lymphoma Growth in an Evolving Lymph Node Using a Diffuse Domain Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yao-Li; Cristini, Vittorio; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiangrong; Frieboes, Hermann; Lowengrub, John

    2012-11-01

    Tumor growth often poses as a multiphase free-boundary problem as tumor cells aggregate into distinct subdomains due to differentiated cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. In ``Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear tumor growth - I Model and numerical method'' [Wise et al., J. Theor. Biol. 253, pp. 524-543 (2008)], we have developed a multiphase Cahn-Hilliard model to study morphological patterns of tumor growth in a homogeneous open environment, and the results resembled in-vitro experiments. In living tissues, however, tumors are often confined in a closed environment of an organ, where the tissue geometry can also evolve in response to the pressure of tumor growth. Here we adapt our previous Cahn-Hilliard tumor growth model to an evolving geometry using a recently developed diffuse domain approach. We use the model to study the growth of lymphoma in a lymph node that swells during the process. An angiogenesis model for tumor-induced vasculature is also adapted to investigate substrate distribution and drug delivery within the lymph node. Supported by NIH-PSOC grant 1U54CA143907-01.

  18. Deformation of PEM fuel cell gas diffusion layers under compressive loading: An analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzifard, Vahid; Bahrami, Majid

    2014-10-01

    In the PEM fuel cell stack, the fibrous porous gas diffusion layer (GDL) provides mechanical support for the membrane assembly against the compressive loads imposed by bipolar plates. In this study, a new mechanistic model is developed using fundamental beam theory that can accurately predict the mechanical deflection of GDL under compressive loads. The present analytical model is built on a unit cell approach, which assumes a simplified geometry for the complex and random GDL microstructure. The model includes salient microstructural parameters and properties of the fibrous porous medium including: carbon fiber diameter, fiber elastic modulus, pore size distribution, and porosity. Carbon fiber bending is proved to be the main deformation mechanism at the unit cell level. A comprehensive optical measurement study with statistical analysis is performed to determine the geometrical parameters of the model for a number of commercially available GDL samples. A comparison between the present model and our experimental stress-strain data shows a good agreement for the linear deformation region, where the compressive pressure is higher than 1 MPa.

  19. Effect of temperature on fast hydrogen diffusion in iron: A path-integral quantum dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimizuka, Hajime; Mori, Hideki; Ogata, Shigenobu

    2011-03-01

    Here we explicitly present the diffusion coefficients (D) and activation energies (Ea) of interstitial H in α-Fe over a temperature range of 100 to 1000 K. These values were predicted by applying path-integral molecular dynamics modeling based on first principles. The obtained D and Ea values exhibit clear non-Arrhenius temperature dependence and a transition from quantum to classical behavior at around 500 K. Our results show that the quantum effects not only significantly lower the diffusion barrier but also change the diffusion pathway even at room temperature; thus, fast diffusion becomes possible.

  20. Self-organizing maps as an approach to exploring spatiotemporal diffusion patterns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-organizing maps (SOMs) have now been applied for a number of years to identify patterns in large datasets; yet, their application in the spatiotemporal domain has been lagging. Here, we demonstrate how spatialtemporal disease diffusion patterns can be analysed using SOMs and Sammon’s projection. Methods SOMs were applied to identify synchrony between spatial locations, to group epidemic waves based on similarity of diffusion pattern and to construct sequence of maps of synoptic states. The Sammon’s projection was used to created diffusion trajectories from the SOM output. These methods were demonstrated with a dataset that reports Measles outbreaks that took place in Iceland in the period 1946–1970. The dataset reports the number of Measles cases per month in 50 medical districts. Results Both stable and incidental synchronisation between medical districts were identified as well as two distinct groups of epidemic waves, a uniformly structured fast developing group and a multiform slow developing group. Diffusion trajectories for the fast developing group indicate a typical diffusion pattern from Reykjavik to the northern and eastern parts of the island. For the other group, diffusion trajectories are heterogeneous, deviating from the Reykjavik pattern. Conclusions This study demonstrates the applicability of SOMs (combined with Sammon’s Projection and GIS) in spatiotemporal diffusion analyses. It shows how to visualise diffusion patterns to identify (dis)similarity between individual waves and between individual waves and an overall time-series performing integrated analysis of synchrony and diffusion trajectories. PMID:24359538

  1. A new approach to evaluating the effects of pharmacologic vitreolysis on vitreous diffusion coefficients using dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Sebag, J.

    2006-02-01

    PURPOSE: Pharmacologic vitreolysis is a new approach to improve vitreo-retinal surgery. Ultimately, the development of drugs to liquefy and detach vitreous from retina should prevent disease by mitigating the contribution of vitreous to retinopathy and eliminate the need for surgery. However, the mechanism of action of pharmacologic vitreolysis remains unclear. The technique of Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to evaluate the effects of microplasmin by following the diffusion coefficients of spherical polystyrene nano-particles injected with microplasmin into the vitreous. METHODS: Diffusion coefficients in dissected (n=9) porcine eyes were measured in vitro. DLS was performed on all specimens at 37°C as often as every 10 minutes for up to 6 hours following injections of human recombinant microplasmin at doses ranging from 0.125 mg to 0.8 mg, with 20 nm diameter tracer nanospheres. RESULTS: DLS findings in untreated porcine vitreous were similar to the previously described findings in bovine and human vitreous, demonstrating a fast (early) component, resulting from the flexible hyaluronan molecules, and a slow (late) component, resulting form the stiff collagen molecules. Microplasmin increased porcine vitreous diffusion coefficients. A new approach was developed to use DLS measurements of vitreous diffusion coefficients to evaluate the effects of microplasmin in intact eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacologic vitreolysis with human recombinant microplasmin increases vitreous diffusion coefficients in vitro. The results of these studies indicate that this new approach using DLS to measure vitreous diffusion coefficients can be used to study the effects of pharmacologic vitreolysis using microplasmin and other agents in intact eyes and ultimately in vivo.

  2. Storylines of research in diffusion of innovation: a meta-narrative approach to systematic review.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Robert, Glenn; Macfarlane, Fraser; Bate, Paul; Kyriakidou, Olympia; Peacock, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Producing literature reviews of complex evidence for policymaking questions is a challenging methodological area. There are several established and emerging approaches to such reviews, but unanswered questions remain, especially around how to begin to make sense of large data sets drawn from heterogeneous sources. Drawing on Kuhn's notion of scientific paradigms, we developed a new method-meta-narrative review-for sorting and interpreting the 1024 sources identified in our exploratory searches. We took as our initial unit of analysis the unfolding 'storyline' of a research tradition over time. We mapped these storylines by using both electronic and manual tracking to trace the influence of seminal theoretical and empirical work on subsequent research within a tradition. We then drew variously on the different storylines to build up a rich picture of our field of study. We identified 13 key meta-narratives from literatures as disparate as rural sociology, clinical epidemiology, marketing and organisational studies. Researchers in different traditions had conceptualised, explained and investigated diffusion of innovations differently and had used different criteria for judging the quality of empirical work. Moreover, they told very different over-arching stories of the progress of their research. Within each tradition, accounts of research depicted human characters emplotted in a story of (in the early stages) pioneering endeavour and (later) systematic puzzle-solving, variously embellished with scientific dramas, surprises and 'twists in the plot'. By first separating out, and then drawing together, these different meta-narratives, we produced a synthesis that embraced the many complexities and ambiguities of 'diffusion of innovations' in an organisational setting. We were able to make sense of seemingly contradictory data by systematically exposing and exploring tensions between research paradigms as set out in their over-arching storylines. In some traditions

  3. Identifying diffused nitrate sources in a stream in an agricultural field using a dual isotopic approach.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingtao; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; He, Liansheng; Liu, Hongliang; Dai, Xuanli; Yu, Yijun

    2014-06-15

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) pollution is a severe problem in aquatic systems in Taihu Lake Basin in China. A dual isotope approach (δ(15)NNO3(-) and δ(18)ONO3(-)) was applied to identify diffused NO3(-) inputs in a stream in an agricultural field at the basin in 2013. The site-specific isotopic characteristics of five NO3(-) sources (atmospheric deposition, AD; NO3(-) derived from soil organic matter nitrification, NS; NO3(-) derived from chemical fertilizer nitrification, NF; groundwater, GW; and manure and sewage, M&S) were identified. NO3(-) concentrations in the stream during the rainy season [mean±standard deviation (SD)=2.5±0.4mg/L] were lower than those during the dry season (mean±SD=4.0±0.5mg/L), whereas the δ(18)ONO3(-) values during the rainy season (mean±SD=+12.3±3.6‰) were higher than those during the dry season (mean±SD=+0.9±1.9‰). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that mixing with atmospheric NO3(-) resulted in the high δ(18)O values during the rainy season, whereas NS and M&S were the dominant NO3(-) sources during the dry season. A Bayesian model was used to determine the contribution of each NO3(-) source to total stream NO3(-). Results showed that reduced N nitrification in soil zones (including soil organic matter and fertilizer) was the main NO3(-) source throughout the year. M&S contributed more NO3(-) during the dry season (22.4%) than during the rainy season (17.8%). AD generated substantial amounts of NO3(-) in May (18.4%), June (29.8%), and July (24.5%). With the assessment of temporal variation of diffused NO3(-) sources in agricultural field, improved agricultural management practices can be implemented to protect the water resource and avoid further water quality deterioration in Taihu Lake Basin. PMID:24686140

  4. A new approach to quantifying internal diffusion resistances and CO2 isotope exchange in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Jason; Ogée, Jérôme; Burlett, Régis; Gimeno, Teresa; Genty, Bernard; Jones, Samuel; Wohl, Steven; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of atmospheric CO2 can constrain the global CO2 budget at a range of scales, offering the potential to partition net CO2 exchanges into their component gross fluxes and provide insights to linkages between C and water cycles. However, there are significant limitations to utilizing the δ18O of CO2 to constrain C budgets because of uncertainties associated with the isotopic exchange of CO2 with terrestrial water pools. Leaf water in particular represents a critical pool with ongoing debates about its enrichment in heavy isotopes during transpiration and the hydration of CO2 and its oxygen isotope exchange with this pool. Isotopic heterogeneity of the leaf water, the spatial distribution and activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) within leaves, and resistance to diffusion of CO2 from the substomatal cavity to chloroplasts are all key components with important uncertainties. Better constraints on these would significantly improve our ability to understand and model the global C budget as well as yield insights to fundamental aspects of leaf physiology. We report results using a new measurement system that permits the simultaneous measurement of the 13C and 18O composition of CO2 and the 18O isotopic composition of leaf transpiration. As this new approach permits rapid alteration of the isotopic composition of gases interacting with the leaf, key model parameters can be derived directly and simultaneously. Hence, our approach dos not rely on separate measurements shifted in time from the gas exchange measurements or that may not quantify the relevant scale of heterogeneity (e.g., CA enzyme assays or bulk leaf water extraction and analysis). In particular, this new method explicitly distinguishes the leaf mesophyll resistance to CO2 transport relevant for photosynthesis from the resistance required for interpreting the δ18O of CO2 and allows us to derive other relevant parameters directly. This new measurement system and modeling

  5. A novel approach to modelling water transport and drug diffusion through the stratum corneum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The potential of using skin as an alternative path for systemically administering active drugs has attracted considerable interest, since the creation of novel drugs capable of diffusing through the skin would provide a great step towards easily applicable -and more humane- therapeutic solutions. However, for drugs to be able to diffuse, they necessarily have to cross a permeability barrier: the stratum corneum (SC), the uppermost set of skin layers. The precise mechanism by which drugs penetrate the skin is generally thought to be diffusion of molecules through this set of layers following a "tortuous pathway" around corneocytes, i.e. impermeable dead cells. Results In this work, we simulate water transport and drug diffusion using a three-dimensional porous media model. Our numerical simulations show that diffusion takes place through the SC regardless of the direction and magnitude of the fluid pressure gradient, while the magnitude of the concentrations calculated are consistent with experimental studies. Conclusions Our results support the possibility for designing arbitrary drugs capable of diffusing through the skin, the time-delivery of which is solely restricted by their diffusion and solubility properties. PMID:20716360

  6. On the Biogeography of Centipeda: A Species-Tree Diffusion Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nylinder, Stephan; Lemey, Philippe; De Bruyn, Mark; Suchard, Marc A.; Pfeil, Bernard E.; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the biogeographic history of groups present in continuous arid landscapes is challenging due to the difficulties in defining discrete areas for analyses, and even more so when species largely overlap both in terms of geography and habitat preference. In this study, we use a novel approach to estimate ancestral areas for the small plant genus Centipeda. We apply continuous diffusion of geography by a relaxed random walk where each species is sampled from its extant distribution on an empirical distribution of time-calibrated species-trees. Using a distribution of previously published substitution rates of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for Asteraceae, we show how the evolution of Centipeda correlates with the temporal increase of aridity in the arid zone since the Pliocene. Geographic estimates of ancestral species show a consistent pattern of speciation of early lineages in the Lake Eyre region, with a division in more northerly and southerly groups since ∼840 ka. Summarizing the geographic slices of species-trees at the time of the latest speciation event (∼20 ka), indicates no presence of the genus in Australia west of the combined desert belt of the Nullabor Plain, the Great Victoria Desert, the Gibson Desert, and the Great Sandy Desert, or beyond the main continental shelf of Australia. The result indicates all western occurrences of the genus to be a result of recent dispersal rather than ancient vicariance. This study contributes to our understanding of the spatiotemporal processes shaping the flora of the arid zone, and offers a significant improvement in inference of ancestral areas for any organismal group distributed where it remains difficult to describe geography in terms of discrete areas. PMID:24335493

  7. Development of a new two-dimensional Cartesian geometry nodal multigroup discrete-ordinates method

    SciTech Connect

    Pevey, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of this work is the development and testing of a new family of methods for calculating the spatial dependence of the neutron density in nuclear systems described in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. The energy and angular dependence of the neutron density is approximated using the multigroup and discrete ordinates techniques, respectively. The resulting FORTRAN computer code is designed to handle an arbitrary number of spatial, energy, and angle subdivisions. Any degree of scattering anisotropy can be handled by the code for either external source or fission systems. The basic approach is to (1) approximate the spatial variation of the neutron source across each spatial subdivision as an expansion in terms of a user-supplied set of exponential basis functions; (2) solve analytically for the resulting neutron density inside each region; and (3) approximate this density in the basis function space in order to calculate the next iteration flux-dependent source terms. In the general case the calculation is iterative due to neutron sources which depend on the neutron density itself, such as scattering interactions.

  8. Approach of the measurement of thermal diffusivity of mural paintings by front face photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candoré, Jean Charles; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, Vincent; Remy, B.; Grossel, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we present, in an experimental way, the possibilities of front face photothermal radiometry to measure, in situ, the longitudinal thermal diffusivity of mural paintings. First, we present the principle of the method of measurement. Then, we present the experimental device implemented for the study. Finally, we show, using the experimental study of a plaster sample, the photothermal method allows in a particular case, a good approximation of the parameter longitudinal thermal diffusivity.

  9. Stochastic approach to diffusion inside the chaotic layer of a resonance.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Martín F; Bazzani, Armando; Cincotta, Pablo M; Giordano, Claudia M

    2014-01-01

    We model chaotic diffusion in a symplectic four-dimensional (4D) map by using the result of a theorem that was developed for stochastically perturbed integrable Hamiltonian systems. We explicitly consider a map defined by a free rotator (FR) coupled to a standard map (SM). We focus on the diffusion process in the action I of the FR, obtaining a seminumerical method to compute the diffusion coefficient. We study two cases corresponding to a thick and a thin chaotic layer in the SM phase space and we discuss a related conjecture stated in the past. In the first case, the numerically computed probability density function for the action I is well interpolated by the solution of a Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, whereas it presents a nonconstant time shift with respect to the concomitant FP solution in the second case suggesting the presence of an anomalous diffusion time scale. The explicit calculation of a diffusion coefficient for a 4D symplectic map can be useful to understand the slow diffusion observed in celestial mechanics and accelerator physics. PMID:24580301

  10. Diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis (DSO) of the mandible in SAPHO syndrome: a novel approach with anti-TNF therapy. Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marí, Antonio; Morla, Arnaud; Melero, Mireia; Schiavone, Rocio; Rodríguez, Jesus

    2014-12-01

    Diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis of the mandible is now considered a local manifestation of SAPHO syndrome. This rare condition is thought to be of auto-inflammatory origin. The myriad of treatments shown in the literature, are basically empirical and reflect its unknown origin. We present a clinical case of refractory DSO treated with an anti-TNF drug (etanercept) with complete clinical remission. We advise against radical surgery and an interdisciplinary approach is recommended. A systematic literature review was also conducted. PMID:25441866

  11. Towards an interpretation of the scale diffusivity in liquid atomization process: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumouchel, Christophe; Ménard, Thibaut; Aniszewski, Wojciech

    2015-11-01

    Recent investigations have presented an application of the scale entropy diffusion theory to model liquid atomization process. This theory describes multi-scale behavior by a diffusion equation of the scale entropy function. In atomization, this function is related to the scale-distribution which provides a measurement of the specific-length of the eroded liquid system according to the scale of erosion. The present paper performs a detailed description of the scale diffusion mechanism for the atomization process of a liquid jet emanating from a gasoline injector with the objective of determining the scale diffusivity parameter introduced by the diffusion theory. The 2-D description of the gasoline jet as a function of the injection pressure reveals that the scale space is divided into two regions according to the sign of the scale specific-length variation rate: The small-scale region refers to the scales that undergo an elongation mechanism whereas the large-scale region concerns the scales that undergo a contraction mechanism. Furthermore, two phases of the atomization process are identified depending on whether the elongation mechanism is governed by the jet dynamics or surface tension effects. A non-dimensional number segregating these two phases is established. During the atomization process, the contraction mechanism diffuses in the small scale region. This manifests by a temporal decrease of the scale with a zero specific-length variation. It is found that the scale diffusivity parameter can be determined from the evolution of this characteristic scale in the second phase of the atomization process.

  12. On the Maxwell-Stefan approach to diffusion: a general resolution in the transient regime for one-dimensional systems.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Erminia; Angeli, Celestino

    2010-01-14

    The diffusion process in a multicomponent system can be formulated in a general form by the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations. This formulation is able to describe the diffusion process in different systems, such as, for instance, bulk diffusion (in the gas, liquid, and solid phase) and diffusion in microporous materials (membranes, zeolites, nanotubes, etc.). The Maxwell-Stefan equations can be solved analytically (only in special cases) or by numerical approaches. Different numerical strategies have been previously presented, but the number of diffusing species is normally restricted, with only few exceptions, to three in bulk diffusion and to two in microporous systems, unless simplifications of the Maxwell-Stefan equations are considered. In the literature, a large effort has been devoted to the derivation of the analytic expression of the elements of the Fick-like diffusion matrix and therefore to the symbolic inversion of a square matrix with dimensions n x n (n being the number of independent components). This step, which can be easily performed for n = 2 and remains reasonable for n = 3, becomes rapidly very complex in problems with a large number of components. This paper addresses the problem of the numerical resolution of the Maxwell-Stefan equations in the transient regime for a one-dimensional system with a generic number of components, avoiding the definition of the analytic expression of the elements of the Fick-like diffusion matrix. To this aim, two approaches have been implemented in a computational code; the first is the simple finite difference second-order accurate in time Crank-Nicolson scheme for which the full mathematical derivation and the relevant final equations are reported. The second is based on the more accurate backward differentiation formulas, BDF, or Gear's method (Shampine, L. F. ; Gear, C. W. SIAM Rev. 1979, 21, 1.), as implemented in the Livermore solver for ordinary differential equations, LSODE (Hindmarsh, A. C. Serial

  13. Metal Accretion onto White Dwarfs. III. A Still Better Approach Based on the Coupling of Diffusion with Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, Pierre; Fontaine, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    The accretion-diffusion picture is the model par excellence for describing the presence of planetary debris polluting the atmospheres of relatively cool white dwarfs. In the time-dependent approach used in Paper II of this series (Fontaine et al. 2014), the basic assumption is that the accreted metals are trace elements and do not influence the background structure, which may be considered static in time. Furthermore, the usual assumption of instantaneous mixing in the convection zone is made. As part of the continuing development of our local evolutionary code, diffusion in presence of stellar winds or accretion is now fully coupled to evolution. Convection is treated as a diffusion process, i.e., the assumption of instantaneous mixing is relaxed, and, furthermore, overshooting is included. This allows feedback on the evolving structure from the accreting metals. For instance, depending of its abundance, a given metal may contribute enough to the overall opacity (especially in a He background) to change the size of the convection zone as a function of time. Our better approach also allows to include in a natural way the mechanism of thermohaline convection, which we discuss at some length. Also, it is easy to consider sophisticated time-dependent models of accretion from circumstellar disks, such as those developed by Roman Rafikov at Princeton for instance. The current limitations of our approach are 1) the calculations are extremely computer-intensive, and 2) we have not yet developed detailed EOS megatables for metals beyond oxygen.

  14. Modular approaches to the control of diffuse agricultural pollution: buffer zones, bioreactors, ditches and ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, J. M. B.; Blackwell, M. S. A.; Granger, S.; Chadwick, D.; Haygarth, P.; Bol, R.

    2009-04-01

    Despite the abundance of literature reporting both riparian and non-riparian buffer strip performance in the control of diffuse pollutants from agriculture, the spatial and temporal mechanistics of the processes involved are poorly understood. As a result, buffer zones have often been implemented incorrectly and have failed to deliver the benefits expected of them. One of the main challenges with buffer zone effectiveness has been found to be their by-passing by the passage of polluted water through sub-surface drains which in many regions of the UK has regularly been shown to greatly limit their value with regard to nutrient control [MAFF report, Leeds-Harrison 1996]. In addition, little work has been carried out on the role of additional, complementary structural buffering methods such as managed ditches and ponds, which may provide more benefits, especially if used either alongside or instead of the more conventional use of buffer strips. This paper describes a new 5 year Defra funded project*, which is using a multi-scaled approach to understand the abiotic and biotic drivers of the short-term and ‘long-term' effectiveness of conventional grassed buffer strips. At the field scale, we are using high resolution monitoring methods to compare the effectiveness of other mitigation methods including buffer strips enhanced with subsurface bioreactors, managed ditches, and ponds, to control a range of water pollutants and hydrology. Each of the mitigation methods is being investigated both individually, and as part of a strategic modular network of mitigation methods in a purposely constructed and replicated experimental site. References Leeds-Harrison , P. B., Quinton, J. N., Walker, M., Harrison, K. S., Gowing, D. G., Tyrrel, S. F., Morris, J., Mills, J., and Harrod, T. (1996). "Buffer zones in headwater catchments ". MAFF-English Nature Buffer Zone project CSA 2285, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedford, UK. *Link to Defra website: http://randd.defra.gov.uk

  15. Random walk on lattices: Graph-theoretic approach to simulating long-range diffusion-attachment growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limkumnerd, Surachate

    2014-03-01

    Interest in thin-film fabrication for industrial applications have driven both theoretical and computational aspects of modeling its growth. One of the earliest attempts toward understanding the morphological structure of a film's surface is through a class of solid-on-solid limited-mobility growth models such as the Family, Wolf-Villain, or Das Sarma-Tamborenea models, which have produced fascinating surface roughening behaviors. These models, however, restrict the motion of an incidence atom to be within the neighborhood of its landing site, which renders them inept for simulating long-distance surface diffusion such as that observed in thin-film growth using a molecular-beam epitaxy technique. Naive extension of these models by repeatedly applying the local diffusion rules for each hop to simulate large diffusion length can be computationally very costly when certain statistical aspects are demanded. We present a graph-theoretic approach to simulating a long-range diffusion-attachment growth model. Using the Markovian assumption and given a local diffusion bias, we derive the transition probabilities for a random walker to traverse from one lattice site to the others after a large, possibly infinite, number of steps. Only computation with linear-time complexity is required for the surface morphology calculation without other probabilistic measures. The formalism is applied, as illustrations, to simulate surface growth on a two-dimensional flat substrate and around a screw dislocation under the modified Wolf-Villain diffusion rule. A rectangular spiral ridge is observed in the latter case with a smooth front feature similar to that obtained from simulations using the well-known multiple registration technique. An algorithm for computing the inverse of a class of substochastic matrices is derived as a corollary.

  16. Three-element phased-array approach to diffuse optical imaging based on postprocessing of continuous-wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning; Sassaroli, Angelo; Zucker, Max A.; Fantini, Sergio

    2005-02-01

    We present a multielement phased-array approach to diffuse optical imaging based on postprocessing of continuous-wave data for the improvement of spatial resolution. In particular, we present a theoretical and experimental analysis of the performance of a three-element source array in the study of an optically turbid medium with two embedded cylindrical inclusions. We find that the proposed phased-array approach is able to resolve two cylinders with side-to-side separation of 10 mm that are not resolved by the intensity associated with a single light source.

  17. One-Dimensional, Multigroup Cross Section and Design Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Code System - Generalized Perturbation Theory.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1981-02-02

    Version: 00 SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections (of standard multigroup cross-section sets) and for secondary energy distributions (SED's) of multigroup scattering matrices.

  18. Using SAS PROC TCALIS for multigroup structural equation modelling with mean structures.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fei; Wu, Wei

    2011-11-01

    Multigroup structural equation modelling (SEM) is a technique frequently used to evaluate measurement invariance in social and behavioural science research. Before version 9.2, SAS was incapable of handling multigroup SEM. However, this limitation is resolved in PROC TCALIS in SAS 9.2. For the purpose of illustration, this paper provides a step-by-step guide to programming the tests of measurement invariance and partial invariance using PROC TCALIS for multigroup SEM with mean structures. Fit indices and parameter estimates are validated, thus providing an alternative tool for researchers conducting both applied and simulated studies. Other new features (e.g., different types of modelling languages and estimation methods) and limitations (e.g., ordered-categorical SEM and multilevel SEM) of the TCALIS procedure are also briefly discussed. PMID:21973099

  19. Dynamics of the diffusive DM-DE interaction – Dynamical system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Zbigniew; Stachowski, Aleksander; Szydłowski, Marek

    2016-07-01

    We discuss dynamics of a model of an energy transfer between dark energy (DE) and dark matter (DM) . The energy transfer is determined by a non-conservation law resulting from a diffusion of dark matter in an environment of dark energy. The relativistic invariance defines the diffusion in a unique way. The system can contain baryonic matter and radiation which do not interact with the dark sector. We treat the Friedman equation and the conservation laws as a closed dynamical system. The dynamics of the model is examined using the dynamical systems methods for demonstration how solutions depend on initial conditions. We also fit the model parameters using astronomical observation: SNIa, H(z), BAO and Alcock-Paczynski test. We show that the model with diffuse DM-DE is consistent with the data.

  20. Carbon diffusion in bulk hcp zirconium: A multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Roques, J.; Domain, C.; Simoni, E.

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of the geological repository of the used fuel claddings of pressurized water reactor, carbon behavior in bulk zirconium is studied by periodic Density Functional Theory calculations. The C interstitial sites were investigated and it was found that there are two possible carbon interstitial sites: a distorted basal tetragonal site and an octahedral site. There are four types of possible atomic jumps between them. After calculating the migration energies, the attempt frequencies and the jump probabilities for each possible migration path, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were performed to simulate carbon diffusion at the macroscopic scale. The results show that carbon diffusion in pure Zr bulk is extremely limited at the storage temperature (50 °C). Since there are defects in Zr bulk, in a second step, the effect of atomic vacancy was studied and it was proved that vacancies cannot increase carbon diffusion.

  1. Estimating the anomalous diffusion exponent for single particle tracking data with measurement errors - An alternative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnecki, Krzysztof; Kepten, Eldad; Garini, Yuval; Sikora, Grzegorz; Weron, Aleksander

    2015-06-01

    Accurately characterizing the anomalous diffusion of a tracer particle has become a central issue in biophysics. However, measurement errors raise difficulty in the characterization of single trajectories, which is usually performed through the time-averaged mean square displacement (TAMSD). In this paper, we study a fractionally integrated moving average (FIMA) process as an appropriate model for anomalous diffusion data with measurement errors. We compare FIMA and traditional TAMSD estimators for the anomalous diffusion exponent. The ability of the FIMA framework to characterize dynamics in a wide range of anomalous exponents and noise levels through the simulation of a toy model (fractional Brownian motion disturbed by Gaussian white noise) is discussed. Comparison to the TAMSD technique, shows that FIMA estimation is superior in many scenarios. This is expected to enable new measurement regimes for single particle tracking (SPT) experiments even in the presence of high measurement errors.

  2. Estimating the anomalous diffusion exponent for single particle tracking data with measurement errors - An alternative approach

    PubMed Central

    Burnecki, Krzysztof; Kepten, Eldad; Garini, Yuval; Sikora, Grzegorz; Weron, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Accurately characterizing the anomalous diffusion of a tracer particle has become a central issue in biophysics. However, measurement errors raise difficulty in the characterization of single trajectories, which is usually performed through the time-averaged mean square displacement (TAMSD). In this paper, we study a fractionally integrated moving average (FIMA) process as an appropriate model for anomalous diffusion data with measurement errors. We compare FIMA and traditional TAMSD estimators for the anomalous diffusion exponent. The ability of the FIMA framework to characterize dynamics in a wide range of anomalous exponents and noise levels through the simulation of a toy model (fractional Brownian motion disturbed by Gaussian white noise) is discussed. Comparison to the TAMSD technique, shows that FIMA estimation is superior in many scenarios. This is expected to enable new measurement regimes for single particle tracking (SPT) experiments even in the presence of high measurement errors. PMID:26065707

  3. A Bayesian approach to distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuyang; Murano, Emi; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    2015-10-01

    The tongue is a critical organ for a variety of functions, including swallowing, respiration, and speech. It contains intrinsic and extrinsic muscles that play an important role in changing its shape and position. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to reconstruct tongue muscle fiber tracts. However, previous studies have been unable to reconstruct the crossing fibers that occur where the tongue muscles interdigitate, which is a large percentage of the tongue volume. To resolve crossing fibers, multi-tensor models on DTI and more advanced imaging modalities, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI), have been proposed. However, because of the involuntary nature of swallowing, there is insufficient time to acquire a sufficient number of diffusion gradient directions to resolve crossing fibers while the in vivo tongue is in a fixed position. In this work, we address the challenge of distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging by using a multi-tensor model with a fixed tensor basis and incorporating prior directional knowledge. The prior directional knowledge provides information on likely fiber directions at each voxel, and is computed with anatomical knowledge of tongue muscles. The fiber directions are estimated within a maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework, and the resulting objective function is solved using a noise-aware weighted ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm. Experiments were performed on a digital crossing phantom and in vivo tongue diffusion data including three control subjects and four patients with glossectomies. On the digital phantom, effects of parameters, noise, and prior direction accuracy were studied, and parameter settings for real data were determined. The results on the in vivo data demonstrate that the proposed method is able to resolve interdigitated tongue muscles with limited gradient directions. The distributions of the

  4. a Diffusive-Transport Approach to Determine the Electrical Conductance of AN Imperfect Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grado-Caffaro, Maria Angeles; Grado-Caffaro, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a diffusive-transport-based analytical formulation to calculate the linear electrical conductance through a multiwalled carbon nanotube with defects. In fact, on the one hand, by considerations on diffusive transport and, on the other hand, using the Drude model, we find out that the conductance (at Fermi energy) of an imperfect multiwalled carbon nanotube is approximately equal to the fundamental conductance quantum multiplied by the number of layers (or shells) of the tube. Our result agrees with experimental data.

  5. Estimating oxygen diffusive conductances of gas-exchange systems: A stereological approach illustrated with the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Terry M

    2014-01-01

    For many organisms, respiratory gas exchange is a vital activity and different types of gas-exchange apparatus have evolved to meet individual needs. They include not only skin, gills, tracheal systems and lungs but also transient structures such as the chorioallantois of avian eggs and the placenta of eutherian mammals. The ability of these structures to allow passage of oxygen by passive diffusion can be expressed as a diffusive conductance (units: cm(3) O2 min(-1) kPa(-1)). Occasionally, the ability to estimate diffusive conductance by physiological techniques is compromised by the difficulty of obtaining O2 partial pressures on opposite sides of the tissue interface between the delivery medium (air, water, blood) and uptake medium (usually blood). An alternative strategy is to estimate a morphometric diffusive conductance by combining stereological estimates of key structural quantities (volumes, surface areas, membrane thicknesses) with complementary physicochemical data (O2-haemoglobin chemical reaction rates and Krogh's permeability coefficients). This approach has proved valuable in a variety of comparative studies on respiratory organs from diverse species. The underlying principles were formulated in pioneering studies on the pulmonary lung but are illustrated here by taking the human placenta as the gas exchanger. PMID:23069190

  6. Improved convergence of Monte Carlo generated multi-group scattering moments

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A. G.; Martin, W. R.

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces an improved method of obtaining multi-group scattering moments from a Monte Carlo neutron transport code for use in deterministic transport solvers. The new method increases the information obtained from scattering events and therefore has more useful convergence characteristics than the currently used analog techniques. A prototype of the improved method was implemented in the OpenMC Monte Carlo transport code to compare the accuracy and convergence characteristics of the new method. The prototype showed that accuracy was retained (or improved) while increasing the figure-of-merit for the generation of multi-group scattering moments. (authors)

  7. Multigroup Constants fFle Based on ENDF/B IV.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1980-08-13

    Version 00 The multigroup constants file (JIMCOF) has been prepared based on ENDF/V-IV. JIMCOF is composed of JIMCOF/F, the file for the fast neutron energy region; JIMCOF/T, the file for the thermal neutron energy region; and PROC, the processing program. The JIMCOF file contains multigroup constants of about 100 nuclides (68 groups in the fast neutron energy region and 50 groups in the thermal neutron energy region). Selection of individual data, as well as preparationmore » of library data from the DELIGHT code series, would be possible with the use of the PROC code.« less

  8. Embracing Learners' Ideas about Diffusion and Osmosis: A Coupled-Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Ryan M.; Martin-Hansen, Lisa; Verma, Geeta; Dunkhase, John

    2009-01-01

    Learning about osmosis and diffusion is often a challenging task for middle school students. Here the authors present a lesson that was converted from a "cookbook" lab (McLaughlin and Thompson 2007) into a more inquiry-oriented lab that uses inquiry teaching strategies and hands-on investigations to teach middle-grade students about osmosis and…

  9. Competency-Based Faculty Development in Community-Engaged Scholarship: A Diffusion of Innovation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Catherine; Doherty, William J.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Cook, Nancy; Dubrow, Gail; Mendenhall, Tai J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors utilized interviews, competency surveys, and document review to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year, cohort-based faculty development pilot program, grounded in diffusion of innovations theory, and aimed at increasing competencies in community engagement and community-engaged scholarship. Five innovator participants designed the…

  10. Contrast improvement of continuous wave diffuse optical tomography reconstruction by hybrid approach using least square and genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Rusha; Dutta, Pranab K.

    2015-07-01

    Reconstruction of the absorption coefficient of tissue with good contrast is of key importance in functional diffuse optical imaging. A hybrid approach using model-based iterative image reconstruction and a genetic algorithm is proposed to enhance the contrast of the reconstructed image. The proposed method yields an observed contrast of 98.4%, mean square error of 0.638×10-3, and object centroid error of (0.001 to 0.22) mm. Experimental validation of the proposed method has also been provided with tissue-like phantoms which shows a significant improvement in image quality and thus establishes the potential of the method for functional diffuse optical tomography reconstruction with continuous wave setup. A case study of finger joint imaging is illustrated as well to show the prospect of the proposed method in clinical diagnosis. The method can also be applied to the concentration measurement of a region of interest in a turbid medium.

  11. Modelling Population Dynamics in Realistic Landscapes with Linear Elements: A Mechanistic-Statistical Reaction-Diffusion Approach.

    PubMed

    Roques, Lionel; Bonnefon, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    We propose and develop a general approach based on reaction-diffusion equations for modelling a species dynamics in a realistic two-dimensional (2D) landscape crossed by linear one-dimensional (1D) corridors, such as roads, hedgerows or rivers. Our approach is based on a hybrid "2D/1D model", i.e, a system of 2D and 1D reaction-diffusion equations with homogeneous coefficients, in which each equation describes the population dynamics in a given 2D or 1D element of the landscape. Using the example of the range expansion of the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus in France and its main highways as 1D corridors, we show that the model can be fitted to realistic observation data. We develop a mechanistic-statistical approach, based on the coupling between a model of population dynamics and a probabilistic model of the observation process. This allows us to bridge the gap between the data (3 levels of infestation, at the scale of a French department) and the output of the model (population densities at each point of the landscape), and to estimate the model parameter values using a maximum-likelihood approach. Using classical model comparison criteria, we obtain a better fit and a better predictive power with the 2D/1D model than with a standard homogeneous reaction-diffusion model. This shows the potential importance of taking into account the effect of the corridors (highways in the present case) on species dynamics. With regard to the particular case of A. albopictus, the conclusion that highways played an important role in species range expansion in mainland France is consistent with recent findings from the literature. PMID:26986201

  12. Modelling Population Dynamics in Realistic Landscapes with Linear Elements: A Mechanistic-Statistical Reaction-Diffusion Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We propose and develop a general approach based on reaction-diffusion equations for modelling a species dynamics in a realistic two-dimensional (2D) landscape crossed by linear one-dimensional (1D) corridors, such as roads, hedgerows or rivers. Our approach is based on a hybrid “2D/1D model”, i.e, a system of 2D and 1D reaction-diffusion equations with homogeneous coefficients, in which each equation describes the population dynamics in a given 2D or 1D element of the landscape. Using the example of the range expansion of the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus in France and its main highways as 1D corridors, we show that the model can be fitted to realistic observation data. We develop a mechanistic-statistical approach, based on the coupling between a model of population dynamics and a probabilistic model of the observation process. This allows us to bridge the gap between the data (3 levels of infestation, at the scale of a French department) and the output of the model (population densities at each point of the landscape), and to estimate the model parameter values using a maximum-likelihood approach. Using classical model comparison criteria, we obtain a better fit and a better predictive power with the 2D/1D model than with a standard homogeneous reaction-diffusion model. This shows the potential importance of taking into account the effect of the corridors (highways in the present case) on species dynamics. With regard to the particular case of A. albopictus, the conclusion that highways played an important role in species range expansion in mainland France is consistent with recent findings from the literature. PMID:26986201

  13. Reactor Statics Module, RS-9: Multigroup Diffusion Program Using an Exponential Acceleration Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macek, Victor C.

    The nine Reactor Statics Modules are designed to introduce students to the use of numerical methods and digital computers for calculation of neutron flux distributions in space and energy which are needed to calculate criticality, power distribution, and fuel burnup for both slow neutron and fast neutron fission reactors. The last module, RS-9,…

  14. Exploring the limits of the ``SNB'' multi-group diffusion nonlocal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodrick, Jonathan; Ridgers, Christopher; Kingham, Robert

    2014-10-01

    A correct treatment of nonlocal transport in the presence of steep temperature gradients found in laser and inertial fusion plasmas has long been highly desirable over the use of an ad-hoc flux limiter. Therefore, an implementation of the ``SNB'' nonlocal model (G P Schurtz, P D Nicolaï & M Busquet, Phys. Plas. 7, 4238 (2000)) has been benchmarked against a fully-implicit kinetic code: IMPACT. A variety of scenarios, including relaxation of temperature sinusoids and Gaussians in addition to continuous laser heating have been investigated. Results highlight the effect of neglecting electron inertia (∂f1/∂ t) as well as question the feasibility of a nonlocal model that does not continuously track the evolution of the distribution function. Deviations from the Spitzer electric fields used in the model across steep gradients are also investigated. Regimes of validity for such a model are identified and discussed, and possible improvements to the model are suggested.

  15. Reaction-diffusion-advection approach to spatially localized treadmilling aggregates of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yochelis, Arik; Bar-On, Tomer; Gov, Nir S.

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional myosins belong to a class of molecular motors that walk processively inside cellular protrusions towards the tips, on top of actin filament. Surprisingly, in addition, they also form retrograde moving self-organized aggregates. The qualitative properties of these aggregates are recapitulated by a mass conserving reaction-diffusion-advection model and admit two distinct families of modes: traveling waves and pulse trains. Unlike the traveling waves that are generated by a linear instability, pulses are nonlinear structures that propagate on top of linearly stable uniform backgrounds. Asymptotic analysis of isolated pulses via a simplified reaction-diffusion-advection variant on large periodic domains, allows to draw qualitative trends for pulse properties, such as the amplitude, width, and propagation speed. The results agree well with numerical integrations and are related to available empirical observations.

  16. An ab initio approach to the anisotropic perpendicular diffusion of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Nicholas; Richardson, John; Burger, Renier

    2016-07-01

    The assumption that cosmic-ray diffusion perpendicular to the background magnetic field is anisotropic has been made in many numerical modulation studies. This was done in order to reproduce spacecraft observations of, for example, lower than expected latitude gradients of galactic protons. This assumption is usually justified in terms of observations of non-axisymmetric turbulent magnetic fluctuations, but is often implemented in a completely ad hoc manner. This study implements anisotropic perpendicular diffusion coefficients in an ab initio cosmic ray modulation model in a self-consistent manner, employing perpendicular mean free path expressions derived for the case where transverse magnetic fluctuations are non-axisymmetric. Voyager magnetic field observations are analysed to ascertain the nature of this non-axisymmetry, and modulation model solutions for various assumptions as to the spatial dependence of this non-axisymmetry, also taking into account the Voyager observations, are presented.

  17. POZylation: a new approach to enhance nanoparticle diffusion through mucosal barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Edward D. H.; Sillence, Katy; Hole, Patrick; Williams, Adrian C.; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V.

    2015-08-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles in the pharmaceutical industry is generating concomitant interest in developing nanomaterials that can rapidly penetrate into, and permeate through, biological membranes to facilitate drug delivery and improve the bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Here, we demonstrate that the permeation of thiolated silica nanoparticles through porcine gastric mucosa can be significantly enhanced by their functionalization with either 5 kDa poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) or poly(ethylene glycol). Nanoparticle diffusion was assessed using two independent techniques; Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and fluorescence microscopy. Our results show that poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(ethylene glycol) have comparable abilities to enhance diffusion of silica nanoparticles in mucin dispersions and through the gastric mucosa. These findings provide a new strategy in the design of nanomedicines, by surface modification or nanoparticle core construction, for enhanced transmucosal drug delivery.The increasing use of nanoparticles in the pharmaceutical industry is generating concomitant interest in developing nanomaterials that can rapidly penetrate into, and permeate through, biological membranes to facilitate drug delivery and improve the bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Here, we demonstrate that the permeation of thiolated silica nanoparticles through porcine gastric mucosa can be significantly enhanced by their functionalization with either 5 kDa poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) or poly(ethylene glycol). Nanoparticle diffusion was assessed using two independent techniques; Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and fluorescence microscopy. Our results show that poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(ethylene glycol) have comparable abilities to enhance diffusion of silica nanoparticles in mucin dispersions and through the gastric mucosa. These findings provide a new strategy in the design of nanomedicines, by surface modification or

  18. Passive Effluent Diffusion in a Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer: An Airborne Approach to Locating Sources and Estimating Their Emission Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suard, Maxime

    We studied the near field dispersion of natural gas plumes leaking from transmission lines and diffusing in a convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL), with the intent of providing an aerial system of leak detection and pinpointing, as well as quantitative leak rate estimation. We used high frequency measurements of methane and ethane concentrations on a fixed wing aircraft using high rate spectroscopic gas concentration measurements. We looked for characteristics of the effluent concentration field which can be related to the distance from the effluent source, and developed an empirical approach to effluent source position estimation from airborne effluent concentration measurements. From a mass-balance approach we developed a practical method of effluent leak rate estimation based on airborne effluent concentration measurements. Since gathering experimental data was costly and time-expensive, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) results were also investigated. Results showed that analysis of effluent concentration variability is likely to provide information about the position of the effluent source. The developed leak rate estimation method provided encouraging results showing that such an approach is able to yield relatively accurate leak rate estimates. LES results proved to be very useful as they helped to provide guidelines for experiments as well as to deepen our understanding of the diffusion dynamics of turbulent effluent plumes.

  19. Testing for Two-Way Interactions in the Multigroup Common Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Smeden, Maarten; Hessen, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a 2-way multigroup common factor model (MG-CFM) is presented. The MG-CFM can be used to estimate interaction effects between 2 grouping variables on 1 or more hypothesized latent variables. For testing the significance of such interactions, a likelihood ratio test is presented. In a simulation study, the robustness of the…

  20. Multigroup Time-Independent Neutron Transport Code System for Plane or Spherical Geometry.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1986-12-01

    Version 00 PALLAS-PL/SP solves multigroup time-independent one-dimensional neutron transport problems in plane or spherical geometry. The problems solved are subject to a variety of boundary conditions or a distributed source. General anisotropic scattering problems are treated for solving deep-penetration problems in which angle-dependent neutron spectra are calculated in detail.

  1. Psychometric Properties of Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) Scores with Australian Adolescents from Diverse Ethnocultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; McEvoy, Peter; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the reliability and factor structure of scores on a 12-item version of Phinney's multigroup ethnic identity measure with an Australian sample from diverse cultural backgrounds. Participants were 485 students aged between 10 and 15 years. The results generally supported the reliability of the ethnic identity scale…

  2. Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide in Cordierite-like Structures: a FTIR Imaging Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radica, F.; Bellatreccia, F.; Della Ventura, G.; Freda, C.; Cinque, G.; Cestelli Guidi, M.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decades microporous and mesoporous minerals have been recognized to be very important materials from both a geological and a technological viewpoint. In this context, cordierite plays a key role since it represents the only case of a widespread microporous mineral able to trap significant amounts of molecular H2O and CO2 [1] under extreme geological conditions, spanning from the amphibolite facies to ultra-high temperature metamorphism to crustal anatexis [2]. The analysis of volatiles in cordierite can be a very useful tool to define the composition of coexisting fluids during its formation, thus a deeper knowledge of their diffusion mechanism through the structure is crucial in petrologic studies. However, it may have significant implications on technological issues such as the design of new strategies for the permanent sequestration of atmospheric CO2. The incorporation of CO2 into cordierite has been studied by several authors [1, 3], who pointed out the extreme difficulty to reach the sample saturation and homogenization, implying that in experimental studies knowledge of the actual distribution of the volatile molecules in the run samples is crucial to derive any scientific conclusion. In this work, we addressed this problem using FTIR imaging. Our experiments were carried out in tandem on natural cordierite and synthetic CO2-free beryl, a mineral which is isostructural with cordierite. All samples were treated in CO2-saturated atmosphere at different pressure, temperature and time conditions using a non end-load piston-cylinder apparatus at INGV. The run products were oriented using a spindle stage, cut and doubly polished, and analyzed using polarized micro-FTIR spectroscopy at INFN-LNF in order to study the distribution across the sample and quantify the CO2 content. Preliminary data show that both pressure and time play a major role on the diffusion of gaseous CO2 in both cordierite and beryl, whereas the effect of temperature is less

  3. Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction–diffusion models

    SciTech Connect

    Spill, Fabian; Guerrero, Pilar; Alarcon, Tomas; Maini, Philip K.; Byrne, Helen

    2015-10-15

    Reaction–diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction–diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid stochastic/deterministic reaction–diffusion simulation method is given. • Can massively speed up stochastic simulations while preserving stochastic effects. • Can handle multiple reacting species. • Can handle moving boundaries.

  4. Fractional and fractal dynamics approach to anomalous diffusion in porous media: application to landslide behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelloni, Gianluca; Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    In the past three decades, fractional and fractal calculus (that is, calculus of derivatives and integral of any arbitrary real or complex order) appeared to be an important tool for its applications in many fields of science and engineering. This theory allows to face, analytically and/or numerically, fractional differential equations and fractional partial differential equations. In particular, one of the several applications deals with anomalous diffusion processes. The latter phenomena can be clearly described from the statistical viewpoint. Indeed, in various complex systems, the diffusion processes usually no longer follow Gaussian statistics, and thus Fick's second law fails to describe the related transport behavior. In particular, one observes deviations from the linear time dependence of the mean squared displacement ⟨x2(t)⟩ ∝ t, (1) which is characteristic of Brownian motion, i.e., a direct consequence of the central limit theorem and the Markovian nature of the underlying stochastic process [1-17]. Instead, anomalous diffusion is found in a wide diversity of systems and its feature is the non-linear growth of the mean squared displacement over time. Especially the power-law pattern, with exponent γ different from 1 ⟨ ⟩ x2(t) ∝ tγ, (2) characterizes many systems [18, 19], but a variety of other rules, such as a logarithmic time dependence, exist [20]. The anomalous diffusion, as expressed in Eq. (2) is connected with the breakdown of the central limit theorem, caused by either broad distributions or long-range correlations, e.g., the extreme statistics and the power law distributions, typical of the self-organized criticality [42, 43]. Instead, anomalous diffusion rests on the validity of the Levy-Gnedenko generalized central limit theorem [21-23]. Particularly, broad spatial jumps or waiting time distributions lead to non-Gaussian distribution and non-Markovian time evolution of the system. Anomalous diffusion has been known since

  5. Competing computational approaches to reaction-diffusion equations in clusters of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, Sabrina; Chignola, Roberto; Milotti, Edoardo

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a numerical model that simulates the growth of small avascular solid tumors. At its core lies a set of partial differential equations that describe diffusion processes as well as transport and reaction mechanisms of a selected number of nutrients. Although the model relies on a restricted subset of molecular pathways, it compares well with experiments, and its emergent properties have recently led us to uncover a metabolic scaling law that stresses the common mechanisms that drive tumor growth. Now we plan to expand the biochemical model at the basis of the simulator to extend its reach. However, the introduction of additional molecular pathways requires an extensive revision of the reaction-diffusion part of the C++ code to make it more modular and to boost performance. To this end, we developed a novel computational abstract model where the individual molecular species represent the basic computational building blocks. Using a simple two-dimensional toy model to benchmark the new code, we find that the new implementation produces a more modular code without affecting performance. Preliminary results also show that a factor 2 speedup can be achieved with OpenMP multithreading, and other very preliminary results indicate that at least an order-of-magnitude speedup can be obtained using an NVidia Fermi GPU with CUDA code.

  6. Thin graphite films formation by carbon precipitation in metals: diffusion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvets, Petr V.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-03-01

    Thin graphite films attract significant interest due to their unique physical properties and potential applications. Chemical vapor deposition in the presence of metal catalysts is one of the most promising and widely used techniques to produce these films. There are many experimental works devoted to the material synthesis; however, the results are usually obtained by the trial-and-error method without a proper understanding of the processes behind the experiment. We theoretically analyze the carbon diffusion processes inside a metal substrate during the deposition. The theory allows interconnection of the deposition parameters with the thickness of produced graphite films. Numerically solving the diffusion equations for the real systems, we obtained a good correlation between simulations and experimental data. Based on our simulations, we made some conclusions about the formation of graphite films by the precipitation process. The numerical simulations were mostly done for the popular nickel substrates, but we also made some calculations for iron, showing that it also could be used to form thin graphite films under certain conditions.

  7. Multigrid approaches to non-linear diffusion problems on unstructured meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of three multigrid methods for solving highly non-linear diffusion problems on two-dimensional unstructured meshes is examined. The three multigrid methods differ mainly in the manner in which the nonlinearities of the governing equations are handled. These comprise a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) multigrid method which is used to solve the non-linear equations directly, a linear multigrid method which is used to solve the linear system arising from a Newton linearization of the non-linear system, and a hybrid scheme which is based on a non-linear FAS multigrid scheme, but employs a linear solver on each level as a smoother. Results indicate that all methods are equally effective at converging the non-linear residual in a given number of grid sweeps, but that the linear solver is more efficient in cpu time due to the lower cost of linear versus non-linear grid sweeps.

  8. Nonlinear Solver Approaches for the Diffusive Wave Approximation to the Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, N.; Knepley, M.

    2015-12-01

    The diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations (DSW) is a doubly-degenerate, nonlinear, parabolic partial differential equation used to model overland flows. Despite its challenges, the DSW equation has been extensively used to model the overland flow component of various integrated surface/subsurface models. The equation's complications become increasingly problematic when ponding occurs, a feature which becomes pervasive when solving on large domains with realistic terrain. In this talk I discuss the various forms and regularizations of the DSW equation and highlight their effect on the solvability of the nonlinear system. In addition to this analysis, I present results of a numerical study which tests the applicability of a class of composable nonlinear algebraic solvers recently added to the Portable, Extensible, Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc).

  9. A diffusion modelling approach to understanding contextual cueing effects in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Weigard, Alexander; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background Strong theoretical models suggest implicit learning deficits may exist among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method We examine implicit contextual cueing (CC) effects among children with ADHD (n=72) and non-ADHD Controls (n=36). Results Using Ratcliff’s drift diffusion model, we found that among Controls, the CC effect is due to improvements in attentional guidance and to reductions in response threshold. Children with ADHD did not show a CC effect; although they were able to use implicitly acquired information to deploy attentional focus, they had more difficulty adjusting their response thresholds. Conclusions Improvements in attentional guidance and reductions in response threshold together underlie the CC effect. Results are consistent with neurocognitive models of ADHD that posit sub-cortical dysfunction but intact spatial attention, and encourage the use of alternative data analytic methods when dealing with reaction time data. PMID:24798140

  10. A diffusion-based approach to obtaining the borders of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Comin, Cesar; Nascimento Silva, Filipi; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano

    2016-05-01

    The access to an ever increasing amount of information in the modern world gave rise to the development of many quantitative indicators about urban regions in the globe. Therefore, there is a growing need for a precise definition of how to delimit urban regions, so as to allow proper respective characterization and modeling. Here we present a straightforward methodology to automatically detect urban region borders around a single seed point. The method is based on a diffusion process having street crossings and terminations as source points. We exemplify the potential of the methodology by characterizing the geometry and topology of 21 urban regions obtained from 8 distinct countries. The geometry is studied by employing the lacunarity measurement, which is associated to the regularity of holes contained in a pattern. The topology is analyzed by associating the betweenness centrality of the streets with their respective class, such as motorway or residential, obtained from a database.

  11. Investigating redox processes under diffusive and advective flow conditions using a coupled omics and synchrotron approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.; Flynn, T. M.; O'Loughlin, E. J.; Antonopoulos, D. A.; Kelly, S.; Skinner, K.; Mishra, B.; Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Wu, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    FeIII- and SO42--reducing microorganisms and the mineral phases they produce have profound implications for many processes in aquatic and terrestrial systems. In addition, many of these microbially-catalysed geochemical transformations are highly dependent upon introduction of reactants via advective and diffusive hydrological transport. We have characterized microbial communities from a set of static microcosms to test the effect of ethanol diffusion and sulfate concentration on UVI-contaminated sediment. The spatial distribution, valence states, and speciation of both U and Fe were monitored in situ throughout the experiment by synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy, in parallel with solution measurements of pH and the concentrations of sulfate, ethanol, and organic acids. After reaction initiation, a ~1-cm thick layer of sediment near the sediment-water (S-W) interface became visibly dark. Fe XANES spectra of the layer were consistent with the formation of FeS. Over the 4 year duration of the experiment, U LIII-edge XANES indicated reduction of U, first in the dark layer and then throughout the sediment. Next, the microcosms were disassembled and samples were taken from the overlying water and different sediment regions. We extracted DNA and characterized the microbial community by sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons with the Illumina MiSeq platform and found that the community evolved from its originally homogeneous composition, becoming significantly spatially heterogeneous. We have also developed an x-ray accessible column to probe elemental transformations as they occur along the flow path in a porous medium with the purpose of refining reactive transport models (RTMs) that describe coupled physical and biogeochemical processes in environmental systems. The elemental distribution dynamics and the RTMs of the redox driven processes within them will be presented.

  12. Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction–diffusion models

    PubMed Central

    Spill, Fabian; Guerrero, Pilar; Alarcon, Tomas; Maini, Philip K.; Byrne, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Reaction–diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction–diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model. PMID:26478601

  13. Hybrid approaches for multiple-species stochastic reaction-diffusion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spill, Fabian; Guerrero, Pilar; Alarcon, Tomas; Maini, Philip K.; Byrne, Helen

    2015-10-01

    Reaction-diffusion models are used to describe systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, ecology and biology. The fundamental quantities in such models are individual entities such as atoms and molecules, bacteria, cells or animals, which move and/or react in a stochastic manner. If the number of entities is large, accounting for each individual is inefficient, and often partial differential equation (PDE) models are used in which the stochastic behaviour of individuals is replaced by a description of the averaged, or mean behaviour of the system. In some situations the number of individuals is large in certain regions and small in others. In such cases, a stochastic model may be inefficient in one region, and a PDE model inaccurate in another. To overcome this problem, we develop a scheme which couples a stochastic reaction-diffusion system in one part of the domain with its mean field analogue, i.e. a discretised PDE model, in the other part of the domain. The interface in between the two domains occupies exactly one lattice site and is chosen such that the mean field description is still accurate there. In this way errors due to the flux between the domains are small. Our scheme can account for multiple dynamic interfaces separating multiple stochastic and deterministic domains, and the coupling between the domains conserves the total number of particles. The method preserves stochastic features such as extinction not observable in the mean field description, and is significantly faster to simulate on a computer than the pure stochastic model.

  14. Motion blur filtering: A statistical approach for extracting confinement forces and diffusivity from a single blurred trajectory.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Christopher P

    2016-05-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) can aid in understanding a variety of complex spatiotemporal processes. However, quantifying diffusivity and confinement forces from individual live cell trajectories is complicated by inter- and intratrajectory kinetic heterogeneity, thermal fluctuations, and (experimentally resolvable) statistical temporal dependence inherent to the underlying molecule's time correlated confined dynamics experienced in the cell. The problem is further complicated by experimental artifacts such as localization uncertainty and motion blur. The latter is caused by the tagged molecule emitting photons at different spatial positions during the exposure time of a single frame. The aforementioned experimental artifacts induce spurious time correlations in measured SPT time series that obscure the information of interest (e.g., confinement forces and diffusivity). We develop a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) technique that decouples the above noise sources and systematically treats temporal correlation via time series methods. This ultimately permits a reliable algorithm for extracting diffusivity and effective forces in confined or unconfined environments. We illustrate how our approach avoids complications inherent to mean square displacement or autocorrelation techniques. Our algorithm modifies the established Kalman filter (which does not handle motion blur artifacts) to provide a likelihood based time series estimation procedure. The result extends A. J. Berglund's motion blur model [Phys. Rev. E 82, 011917 (2010)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.011917] to handle confined dynamics. The approach can also systematically utilize (possibly time dependent) localization uncertainty estimates afforded by image analysis if available. This technique, which explicitly treats confinement and motion blur within a time domain MLE framework, uses an exact likelihood (time domain methods facilitate analyzing nonstationary signals). Our estimator is demonstrated

  15. Motion blur filtering: A statistical approach for extracting confinement forces and diffusivity from a single blurred trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Christopher P.

    2016-05-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) can aid in understanding a variety of complex spatiotemporal processes. However, quantifying diffusivity and confinement forces from individual live cell trajectories is complicated by inter- and intratrajectory kinetic heterogeneity, thermal fluctuations, and (experimentally resolvable) statistical temporal dependence inherent to the underlying molecule's time correlated confined dynamics experienced in the cell. The problem is further complicated by experimental artifacts such as localization uncertainty and motion blur. The latter is caused by the tagged molecule emitting photons at different spatial positions during the exposure time of a single frame. The aforementioned experimental artifacts induce spurious time correlations in measured SPT time series that obscure the information of interest (e.g., confinement forces and diffusivity). We develop a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) technique that decouples the above noise sources and systematically treats temporal correlation via time series methods. This ultimately permits a reliable algorithm for extracting diffusivity and effective forces in confined or unconfined environments. We illustrate how our approach avoids complications inherent to mean square displacement or autocorrelation techniques. Our algorithm modifies the established Kalman filter (which does not handle motion blur artifacts) to provide a likelihood based time series estimation procedure. The result extends A. J. Berglund's motion blur model [Phys. Rev. E 82, 011917 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.011917] to handle confined dynamics. The approach can also systematically utilize (possibly time dependent) localization uncertainty estimates afforded by image analysis if available. This technique, which explicitly treats confinement and motion blur within a time domain MLE framework, uses an exact likelihood (time domain methods facilitate analyzing nonstationary signals). Our estimator is demonstrated to be

  16. Subject-Specific Planning of Femoroplasty: A Combined Evolutionary Optimization and Particle Diffusion Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Basafa, Ehsan; Armand, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    A potential effective treatment for prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures is augmentation of the mechanical properties of the femur by injecting it with agents such as (PMMA) bone cement – femoroplasty. The operation, however, is only in research stage and can benefit substantially from computer planning and optimization. We report the results of computational planning and optimization of the procedure for biomechanical evaluation. An evolutionary optimization method was used to optimally place the cement in finite element (FE) models of seven osteoporotic bone specimens. The optimization, with some inter-specimen variations, suggested that areas close to the cortex in the superior and inferior of the neck and supero-lateral aspect of the greater trochanter will benefit from augmentation. We then used a particle-based model for bone cement diffusion simulation to match the optimized pattern, taking into account the limitations of the actual surgery, including limited volume of injection to prevent thermal necrosis. Simulations showed that the yield load can be significantly increased by more than 30%, using only 9ml of bone cement. This increase is comparable to previous literature reports where gross filling of the bone was employed instead, using more than 40ml of cement. These findings, along with the differences in the optimized plans between specimens, emphasize the need for subject-specific models for effective planning of femoral augmentation. PMID:24856887

  17. A geometric approach in the study of traveling waves for some classes of non-monotone reaction-diffusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenzhang

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we further extend a recently developed method to investigate the existence of traveling waves solutions and their minimum wave speed for non-monotone reaction-diffusion systems. Our approach consists of two steps. First we develop a geometrical shooting argument, with the aid of the theorem of homotopy invariance on the fundamental group, to obtain the positive semi-traveling wave solutions for a large class of reaction-diffusion systems, including the models of predator-prey interaction (for both predator-independent/dependent functional responses), the models of combustion, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, SI-type of disease transmission, and the model of biological flow reactor in chemostat. Next, we apply the results obtained from the first step to some models, such as the Beddinton-DeAngelis model and the model of biolocal flow reactor, to show the convergence of these semi-traveling wave solutions to an interior equilibrium point by the construction of a Lyapunov-type function, or the convergence of semi-traveling waves to another boundary equilibrium point by the further analysis of the asymptotical behavior of semi-traveling wave solutions.

  18. First derivative of NIR light diffuse reflectance spectra as an approach to analyze muscle tissue chromophores and light pathlength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gussakovsky, Eugene

    2009-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance was applied to the biomedical studies (muscles, cardiac tissues etc.) in a form of either a direct pseudo-optical spectrum or its second derivative. The first derivative adopts advantages of both direct spectrum (high signal-to-noise ratio) and its second derivative (simplifying the consideration of light scattering contribution, S). In contrast to spectrophotometry of solutions, diffuse reflectance application to the analysis of turbid medium chromophores leads to non-trivial problems of contribution of light scattering, the choice of reference, and light pathlength. Under certain conditions, the first approximation of the Taylor series of S results in the known linear dependence of S on wavelength in the 650-1050 nm wavelength range. Then the light scattering contribution to the first derivative becomes a wavelength-independent offset. In contrast to the second derivative, the information on light scattering inside the tissue is not lost. Effect of reference on the measured spectra becomes negligible. Application of the first derivative allowed (i) determination of NIR light pathlength in muscle tissue, and (ii) quantification of hemoglobin + myoglobin absolute concentration (in mM) in cardiac tissue during open-heart surgery. The first derivative approach may in general be applied to any chromophores in turbid (biological) media.

  19. Coupling volume-excluding compartment-based models of diffusion at different scales: Voronoi and pseudo-compartment approaches.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P R; Baker, R E; Simpson, M J; Yates, C A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous processes across both the physical and biological sciences are driven by diffusion. Partial differential equations are a popular tool for modelling such phenomena deterministically, but it is often necessary to use stochastic models to accurately capture the behaviour of a system, especially when the number of diffusing particles is low. The stochastic models we consider in this paper are 'compartment-based': the domain is discretized into compartments, and particles can jump between these compartments. Volume-excluding effects (crowding) can be incorporated by blocking movement with some probability. Recent work has established the connection between fine- and coarse-grained models incorporating volume exclusion, but only for uniform lattices. In this paper, we consider non-uniform, hybrid lattices that incorporate both fine- and coarse-grained regions, and present two different approaches to describe the interface of the regions. We test both techniques in a range of scenarios to establish their accuracy, benchmarking against fine-grained models, and show that the hybrid models developed in this paper can be significantly faster to simulate than the fine-grained models in certain situations and are at least as fast otherwise. PMID:27383421

  20. A practical approach for uncertainty quantification of high-frequency soil respiration using Forced Diffusion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Martin; Phillips, C. L.; Risk, David

    2015-01-01

    paper examines the sources of uncertainty for the Forced Diffusion (FD) chamber soil respiration (Rs) measurement technique and demonstrates a protocol for uncertainty quantification that could be appropriate with any soil flux technique. Here we sought to quantify and compare the three primary sources of uncertainty in Rs: (1) instrumentation error; (2) scaling error, which stems from the spatial variability of Rs; and (3) random error, which arises from stochastic or unpredictable variation in environmental drivers and was quantified from repeated observations under a narrow temperature, moisture, and time range. In laboratory studies, we found that FD instrumentation error remained constant as Rs increased. In field studies from five North American ecosystems, we found that as Rs increased from winter to peak growing season, random error increased linearly with average flux by about 40% of average Rs. Random error not only scales with soil flux but scales in a consistent way (same slope) across ecosystems. Scaling error, measured at one site, similarly increased linearly with average Rs, by about 50% of average Rs. Our findings are consistent with previous findings for both soil fluxes and eddy covariance fluxes across other northern temperate ecosystems that showed random error scales linearly with flux magnitude with a slope of ~0.2. Although the mechanistic basis for this scaling of random error is unknown, it is suggestive of a broadly applicable rule for predicting flux random error. Also consistent with previous studies, we found the random error of FD follows a Laplace (double-exponential) rather than a normal (Gaussian) distribution.

  1. Use of mammography screening among older Samoan women in Los Angeles county: a diffusion network approach.

    PubMed

    Levy-Storms, Lené; Wallace, Steven P

    2003-09-01

    Minority migrant populations, such as older Samoan women, are likely to underuse preventive health services, including mammography screening. The purpose of this paper is to explore how informal (lay peers from churches) and formal (health care providers) health communication networks influence mammography screening use among older Samoan women. To do so, we apply diffusion of innovation theory and network analysis to understand how interpersonal networks may affect mammography use in this urban-dwelling, migrant population. The data come from a survey of 260 Samoan women, aged 50 years or older, who attended 39 randomly sampled Samoan churches in Los Angeles County (USA) between 1996 and 1997. Retrospective data, based over a 20-year period from this sample's year of first use of mammography screening, suggest that interpersonal networks may have accounted for the dramatic increase in the rate of adoption within the past 5 years of the survey. Using this information, we categorized women into mutually exclusive stages of mammography use and regressed these stages of mammography use on formal (had a provider referral) and informal (level of connectedness with peers in churches) health communication networks. The results indicated that being well-connected within women's informal, church-based health communication networks increased the likelihood of being in the decision (planned to have) and implementation and confirmation (had a recent mammogram) stages, but having a provider referral for a mammogram (formal networks) only increased the likelihood of being in the latter stages compared to women in the knowledge and persuasion stages. Formal and informal health communication networks influence recent use of mammography screening, but informal networks, in and of themselves, are also influential on future intention to use mammography screening. PMID:12878100

  2. On the integral-balance approach to the transient heat conduction with linearly temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, Antoine; Hristov, Jordan

    2016-04-01

    Closed form approximate solutions to nonlinear transient heat conduction with linearly temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity have been developed by the integral-balance integral method under transient conditions. The solutions uses improved direct approaches of the integral method and avoid the commonly used linearization by the Kirchhoff transformation. The main steps in the new solutions are improvements in the integration technique of the double-integration technique and the optimization of the exponent of the approximate parabolic profile with unspecified exponent. Solutions to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition problems have been developed as examples by the classical Heat-balance integral method (HBIM) and the Double-integration method (DIM). Additional examples with HBIM and DIM solutions to cases when the Kirchhoff transform is initially applied have been developed.

  3. The LAW Library -- A multigroup cross-section library for use in radioactive waste analysis calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, N.M.; Arwood, J.W.; Wright, R.Q.; Parks, C.V.

    1994-08-01

    The 238-group LAW Library is a new multigroup neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-V data, with five sets of data taken from ENDF/B-VI ({sup 14}N{sub 7}, {sup 15}N{sub 7}, {sup 16}O{sub 8}, {sup 154Eu}{sub 63}, and {sup 155}Eu{sub 63}). These five nuclides are included because the new evaluations are thought to be superior to those in Version 5. The LAW Library contains data for over 300 materials and will be distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was generated for use in neutronics calculations required in radioactive waste analyses, although it has equal utility in any study requiring multigroup neutron cross sections.

  4. NASA-Lewis experiences with multigroup cross sections and shielding calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahti, G. P.

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear reactor shield analysis procedures employed at NASA-Lewis are described. Emphasis is placed on the generation, use, and testing of multigroup cross section data. Although coupled neutron and gamma ray cross section sets are useful in two dimensional Sn transport calculations, much insight has been gained from examination of uncoupled calculations. These have led to experimental and analytic studies of areas deemed to be of first order importance to reactor shield calculations. A discussion is given of problems encountered in using multigroup cross sections in the resolved resonance energy range. The addition to ENDF files of calculated and/or measured neutron-energy-dependent capture gamma ray spectra for shielding calculations is questioned for the resonance region. Anomalies inherent in two dimensional Sn transport calculations which may overwhelm any cross section discrepancies are illustrated.

  5. Honor Thy Parents: An Ethnic Multigroup Analysis of Filial Responsibility, Health Perceptions, and Caregiving Decisions.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Maya S; Van Liew, Charles; Holloway, Breanna; McKinnon, Symone; Little, Timothy; Cronan, Terry A

    2016-08-01

    The present study explores patterns of parity and disparity in the effect of filial responsibility on health-related evaluations and caregiving decisions. Participants who identified as White, Black, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander read a vignette about an older man needing medical care. They were asked to imagine that they were the man's son and answer questions regarding their likelihood of hiring a health care advocate (HCA) for services related to the father's care. A multigroup (ethnicity) path analysis was performed, and an intercept invariant multigroup model fits the data best. Direct and indirect effect estimation showed that filial responsibility mediated the relationship between both the perceived severity of the father's medical condition and the perceived need for medical assistance and the likelihood of hiring an HCA only for White and Hispanic participants, albeit differently. The findings demonstrate that culture and ethnicity affect health evaluations and caregiving decision making. PMID:26282571

  6. Computationally efficient approach for solving time dependent diffusion equation with discrete temporal convolution applied to granular particles of battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senegačnik, Jure; Tavčar, Gregor; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a computationally efficient method for solving the time dependent diffusion equation in a granule of the Li-ion battery's granular solid electrode. The method, called Discrete Temporal Convolution method (DTC), is based on a discrete temporal convolution of the analytical solution of the step function boundary value problem. This approach enables modelling concentration distribution in the granular particles for arbitrary time dependent exchange fluxes that do not need to be known a priori. It is demonstrated in the paper that the proposed method features faster computational times than finite volume/difference methods and Padé approximation at the same accuracy of the results. It is also demonstrated that all three addressed methods feature higher accuracy compared to the quasi-steady polynomial approaches when applied to simulate the current densities variations typical for mobile/automotive applications. The proposed approach can thus be considered as one of the key innovative methods enabling real-time capability of the multi particle electrochemical battery models featuring spatial and temporal resolved particle concentration profiles.

  7. Classification of first-episode psychosis: a multi-modal multi-feature approach integrating structural and diffusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Denis; Castellani, Umberto; Perlini, Cinzia; Bellani, Marcella; Marinelli, Veronica; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Lasalvia, Antonio; Tosato, Sarah; De Santi, Katia; Murino, Vittorio; Ruggeri, Mirella; Brambilla, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    Currently, most of the classification studies of psychosis focused on chronic patients and employed single machine learning approaches. To overcome these limitations, we here compare, to our best knowledge for the first time, different classification methods of first-episode psychosis (FEP) using multi-modal imaging data exploited on several cortical and subcortical structures and white matter fiber bundles. 23 FEP patients and 23 age-, gender-, and race-matched healthy participants were included in the study. An innovative multivariate approach based on multiple kernel learning (MKL) methods was implemented on structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. MKL provides the best classification performances in comparison with the more widely used support vector machine, enabling the definition of a reliable automatic decisional system based on the integration of multi-modal imaging information. Our results show a discrimination accuracy greater than 90 % between healthy subjects and patients with FEP. Regions with an accuracy greater than 70 % on different imaging sources and measures were middle and superior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncinate fascicles, and cingulum. This study shows that multivariate machine learning approaches integrating multi-modal and multisource imaging data can classify FEP patients with high accuracy. Interestingly, specific grey matter structures and white matter bundles reach high classification reliability when using different imaging modalities and indices, potentially outlining a prefronto-limbic network impaired in FEP with particular regard to the right hemisphere. PMID:25344845

  8. White matter 'potholes' in early-onset schizophrenia: a new approach to evaluate white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    White, Tonya; Schmidt, Marcus; Karatekin, Canan

    2009-11-30

    There is considerable evidence implicating white matter abnormalities in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Many of the recent studies examining white matter have utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using either region of interest (ROI) or voxel-based approaches. Both voxel-based and ROI approaches are based on the assumption that the abnormalities in white matter overlap spatially. However, this is an assumption that has not been tested, and it is possible that aberrations in white matter occur in non-overlapping regions. In order to test for the presence of non-overlapping regions of aberrant white matter, we developed a novel image processing technique that evaluates for white matter 'potholes,' referring to within-subject clusters of white matter voxels that show a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy. We applied this algorithm to a group of children and adolescents with schizophrenia compared to controls and found an increased number of 'potholes' in the patient group. These results suggest that voxel-based and ROI approaches may be missing some white matter differences that do not overlap spatially. This algorithm may be also be well suited to detect white matter abnormalities in disorders such as substance abuse, head trauma, or specific neurological conditions affecting white matter. PMID:19853414

  9. PHISICS multi-group transport neutronic capabilities for RELAP5

    SciTech Connect

    Epiney, A.; Rabiti, C.; Alfonsi, A.; Wang, Y.; Cogliati, J.; Strydom, G.

    2012-07-01

    PHISICS is a neutronic code system currently under development at INL. Its goal is to provide state of the art simulation capability to reactor designers. This paper reports on the effort of coupling this package to the thermal hydraulic system code RELAP5. This will enable full prismatic core and system modeling and the possibility to model coupled (thermal-hydraulics and neutronics) problems with more options for 3D neutron kinetics, compared to the existing diffusion theory neutron kinetics module in RELAP5 (NESTLE). The paper describes the capabilities of the coupling and illustrates them with a set of sample problems. (authors)

  10. Comparison of Strongly Coupled Diffuse and Sharp Interface Fluid-Structure Interaction Approaches for Particle-Laden Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaghegh, Fazlolah; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to find a proper method for the simulation of blood as a particulate flow. Since the blood cell density is almost the same as plasma, the high added mass effect necessitates implementation of a strongly coupled FSI method in the numerical simulation. Therefore, three different FSI approaches are compared, two Smoothed Profile Methods (SPM) with one and two projection steps as diffuse interface approaches and the Sharp Interface Method (SIM). Stable FSI computations can be achieved by using sub-iterations within each time step, i.e. by updating the fluid and structure and their boundary conditions at each time step multiple times to reach a desired tolerance as the convergence criteria. Various cases were used to benchmark the methods, including particles motion in a channel and particles sedimentation. The results show that the number of sub-iterations plays a key role in the efficiency. While use of SPM with two projection steps has the most expensive sub-iteration process, it has the best efficiency as it requires the lowest number of sub-iterations within each time step. Moreover, the method is more stable than SIM and the SPM with one projection. SIM is faster than SPM with one projection and it has better stability. PhD Candidate-Department of Mechanical Engineering.

  11. A least-squares error minimization approach in the determination of ferric ion diffusion coefficient of Fricke-infused dosimeter gels

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Y.J.; Huang, S.-C.; Chu, W.C.

    2005-04-01

    A least-squares error minimization approach was adopted to assess ferric ion diffusion coefficient of Fricke-agarose gels. Ferric ion diffusion process was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped degradation kernel operating on an initial concentration distribution. Diffusion coefficient was iteratively determined by minimizing the error function defined as the difference between the theoretically calculated and the experimentally measured dose distributions. A rapid MR image-based differential gel dosimetry technique that time resolves the evolution of the ferric ion diffusion process minimizes smearing of the dose distribution. Our results showed that for a Fricke-agarose gel contained 1 mM ammonium ferrous sulfate, 1% agarose, 1 mM sodium chloride, and 50 mM sulfuric acid, its ferric ion diffusion coefficient is (1.59{+-}0.28)x10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} at room temperature. This value falls within the 1.00-2.00x10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} range previously reported under varying gelling ingredients and concentrations. This method allows a quick, nondestructive evaluation of the ferric ion diffusion coefficient that can be used in conjunction with the in situ gel dosimetry experiment to provide a practical diffusion characterization of the dosimeter gel.

  12. Characterizing magnetic resonance signal decay due to Gaussian diffusion: the path integral approach and a convenient computational method

    PubMed Central

    Özarslan, Evren; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Mareci, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of Gaussian diffusion on the magnetic resonance signal is determined by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and tensor (ADT) of the diffusing fluid as well as the gradient waveform applied to sensitize the signal to diffusion. Estimations of ADC and ADT from diffusion-weighted acquisitions necessitate computations of, respectively, the b-value and b-matrix associated with the employed pulse sequence. We establish the relationship between these quantities and the gradient waveform by expressing the problem as a path integral and explicitly evaluating it. Further, we show that these important quantities can be conveniently computed for any gradient waveform using a simple algorithm that requires a few lines of code. With this representation, our technique complements the multiple correlation function (MCF) method commonly used to compute the effects of restricted diffusion, and provides a consistent and convenient framework for studies that aim to infer the microstructural features of the specimen. PMID:27182208

  13. Hierarchical Statistical 3D ' Atomistic' Simulation of Decanano MOSFETs: Drift-Diffusion, Hydrodynamic and Quantum Mechanical Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Brown, A. R.; Slavcheva, G.; Davies, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    When MOSFETs are scaled to deep submicron dimensions the discreteness and randomness of the dopant charges in the channel region introduces significant fluctuations in the device characteristics. This effect, predicted 20 year ago, has been confirmed experimentally and in simulation studies. The impact of the fluctuations on the functionality, yield, and reliability of the corresponding systems shifts the paradigm of the numerical device simulation. It becomes insufficient to simulate only one device representing one macroscopical design in a continuous charge approximation. An ensemble of macroscopically identical but microscopically different devices has to be characterized by simulation of statistically significant samples. The aims of the numerical simulations shift from predicting the characteristics of a single device with continuous doping towards estimating the mean values and the standard deviations of basic design parameters such as threshold voltage, subthreshold slope, transconductance, drive current, etc. for the whole ensemble of 'atomistically' different devices in the system. It has to be pointed out that even the mean values obtained from 'atomistic' simulations are not identical to the values obtained from continuous doping simulations. In this paper we present a hierarchical approach to the 'atomistic' simulation of aggressively scaled decanano MOSFETs. A full scale 3D drift-diffusion'atomostic' simulation approach is first described and used for verification of the more economical, but also more restricted, options. To reduce the processor time and memory requirements at high drain voltage we have developed a self-consistent option based on a thin slab solution of the current continuity equation only in the channel region. This is coupled to the Poisson's equation solution in the whole simulation domain in the Gummel iteration cycles. The accuracy of this approach is investigated in comparison with the full self-consistent solution. At low drain

  14. Using Multigroup-Multiphase Latent State-Trait Models to Study Treatment-Induced Changes in Intra-Individual State Variability: An Application to Smokers' Affect

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Griffin, Daniel; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, researchers are interested in whether an intervention, experimental manipulation, or other treatment causes changes in intra-individual state variability. The authors show how multigroup-multiphase latent state-trait (MG-MP-LST) models can be used to examine treatment effects with regard to both mean differences and differences in state variability. The approach is illustrated based on a randomized controlled trial in which N = 338 smokers were randomly assigned to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs. placebo prior to quitting smoking. We found that post quitting, smokers in both the NRT and placebo group had significantly reduced intra-individual affect state variability with respect to the affect items calm and content relative to the pre-quitting phase. This reduction in state variability did not differ between the NRT and placebo groups, indicating that quitting smoking may lead to a stabilization of individuals' affect states regardless of whether or not individuals receive NRT. PMID:27499744

  15. New Methodologies for Generation of Multigroup Cross Sections for Shielding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzu Alpan, F.; Haghighat, Alireza

    2003-06-01

    Coupled neutron and gamma multigroup (broad-group) libraries used for Light Water Reactor shielding and dosimetry commonly include 47-neutron and 20-gamma groups. These libraries are derived from the 199-neutron, 42-gamma fine-group VITAMIN-B6 library. In this paper, we introduce modifications to the generation procedure of the broad-group libraries. Among these modifications, we show that the fine-group structure and collapsing technique have the largest impact. We demonstrate that a more refined fine-group library and the bi-linear adjoint weighting collapsing technique can improve the accuracy of transport calculation results.

  16. Classification of nanoparticle diffusion processes in vital cells by a multifeature random forests approach: application to simulated data, darkfield, and confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Thorsten; Kroll, Alexandra; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Darkfield and confocal laser scanning microscopy both allow for a simultaneous observation of live cells and single nanoparticles. Accordingly, a characterization of nanoparticle uptake and intracellular mobility appears possible within living cells. Single particle tracking makes it possible to characterize the particle and the surrounding cell. In case of free diffusion, the mean squared displacement for each trajectory of a nanoparticle can be measured which allows computing the corresponding diffusion coefficient and, if desired, converting it into the hydrodynamic diameter using the Stokes-Einstein equation and the viscosity of the fluid. However, within the more complex system of a cell's cytoplasm unrestrained diffusion is scarce and several other types of movements may occur. Thus, confined or anomalous diffusion (e.g. diffusion in porous media), active transport, and combinations thereof were described by several authors. To distinguish between these types of particle movement we developed an appropriate classification method, and simulated three types of particle motion in a 2D plane using a Monte Carlo approach: (1) normal diffusion, using random direction and step-length, (2) subdiffusion, using confinements like a reflective boundary with defined radius or reflective objects in the closer vicinity, and (3) superdiffusion, using a directed flow added to the normal diffusion. To simulate subdiffusion we devised a new method based on tracks of different length combined with equally probable obstacle interaction. Next we estimated the fractal dimension, elongation and the ratio of long-time / short-time diffusion coefficients. These features were used to train a random forests classification algorithm. The accuracy for simulated trajectories with 180 steps was 97% (95%-CI: 0.9481-0.9884). The balanced accuracy was 94%, 99% and 98% for normal-, sub- and superdiffusion, respectively. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was used with 100 nm polystyrene particles

  17. Practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with low-scattering regions by use of diffusion theory.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Ogoshi, Yosuke; Okada, Eiji

    2005-04-10

    A practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with a low-scattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) region by use of diffusion theory was investigated. The diffusion approximation does not hold in a nonscattering or low-scattering regions. The hybrid radiosity-diffusion method was adopted to model the light propagation in the head with a nonscattering region. In the hybrid method the geometry of the nonscattering region is acquired as a priori information. In reality, low-level scattering occurs in the CSF region and may reduce the error caused by the diffusion approximation. The partial optical path length and the spatial sensitivity profile calculated by the finite-element method agree well with those calculated by the Monte Carlo method in the case in which the transport scattering coefficient of the CSF layer is greater than 0.3 mm(-1). Because it is feasible to assume that the transport scattering coefficient of a CSF layer is 0.3 mm(-1), it is practical to adopt diffusion theory to the modeling of light propagation in an adult head as an alternative to the hybrid method. PMID:15835358

  18. Practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with low-scattering regions by use of diffusion theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Ogoshi, Yosuke; Okada, Eiji

    2005-04-01

    A practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with a low-scattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) region by use of diffusion theory was investigated. The diffusion approximation does not hold in a nonscattering or low-scattering regions. The hybrid radiosity-diffusion method was adopted to model the light propagation in the head with a nonscattering region. In the hybrid method the geometry of the nonscattering region is acquired as a priori information. In reality, low-level scattering occurs in the CSF region and may reduce the error caused by the diffusion approximation. The partial optical path length and the spatial sensitivity profile calculated by the finite-element method agree well with those calculated by the Monte Carlo method in the case in which the transport scattering coefficient of the CSF layer is greater than 0.3 mm^-1. Because it is feasible to assume that the transport scattering coefficient of a CSF layer is 0.3 mm^-1, it is practical to adopt diffusion theory to the modeling of light propagation in an adult head as an alternative to the hybrid method.

  19. The Group-Level Consequences of Sexual Conflict in Multigroup Populations

    PubMed Central

    Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    In typical sexual conflict scenarios, males best equipped to exploit females are favored locally over more prudent males, despite reducing female fitness. However, local advantage is not the only relevant form of selection. In multigroup populations, groups with less sexual conflict will contribute more offspring to the next generation than higher conflict groups, countering the local advantage of harmful males. Here, we varied male aggression within-and between-groups in a laboratory population of water striders and measured resulting differences in local population growth over a period of three weeks. The overall pool fitness (i.e., adults produced) of less aggressive pools exceeded that of high aggression pools by a factor of three, with the high aggression pools essentially experiencing no population growth over the course of the study. When comparing the fitness of individuals across groups, aggression appeared to be under stabilizing selection in the multigroup population. The use of contextual analysis revealed that overall stabilizing selection was a product of selection favoring aggression within groups, but selected against it at the group-level. Therefore, this report provides further evidence to show that what evolves in the total population is not merely an extension of within-group dynamics. PMID:22039491

  20. A stable 1D multigroup high-order low-order method

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yee, Ben Chung; Wollaber, Allan Benton; Haut, Terry Scot; Park, HyeongKae

    2016-07-13

    The high-order low-order (HOLO) method is a recently developed moment-based acceleration scheme for solving time-dependent thermal radiative transfer problems, and has been shown to exhibit orders of magnitude speedups over traditional time-stepping schemes. However, a linear stability analysis by Haut et al. (2015 Haut, T. S., Lowrie, R. B., Park, H., Rauenzahn, R. M., Wollaber, A. B. (2015). A linear stability analysis of the multigroup High-Order Low-Order (HOLO) method. In Proceedings of the Joint International Conference on Mathematics and Computation (M&C), Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications (SNA) and the Monte Carlo (MC) Method; Nashville, TN, April 19–23, 2015. American Nuclear Society.)more » revealed that the current formulation of the multigroup HOLO method was unstable in certain parameter regions. Since then, we have replaced the intensity-weighted opacity in the first angular moment equation of the low-order (LO) system with the Rosseland opacity. Furthermore, this results in a modified HOLO method (HOLO-R) that is significantly more stable.« less

  1. Ethnic Identity Assessment among Inner-City African American Children: Evaluating the Applicability of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Le'Roy E.; Vera, Elizabeth M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the reliability of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Scale (MEIM) (J. Phinney, 1992) in measuring feelings of ethnic affirmation and belongings, ethnic behaviors, and ethnic knowledge with 118 inner-city African American children aged 8 to 12 years. Results of reliability analyses are mixed and indicate that constructs of ethnic behavior and…

  2. The Power to Detect Sex Differences in IQ Test Scores Using Multi-Group Covariance and Means Structure Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; Wicherts, Jelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Research into sex differences in general intelligence, g, has resulted in two opposite views. In the first view, a g-difference is nonexistent, while in the second view, g is associated with a male advantage. Past research using Multi-Group Covariance and Mean Structure Analysis (MG-CMSA) found no sex difference in g. This failure raised the…

  3. Relativistic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  4. Relativistic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed. PMID:19391727

  5. Improved Convergence Rate of Multi-Group Scattering Moment Tallies for Monte Carlo Neutron Transport Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Adam

    Multi-group scattering moment matrices are critical to the solution of the multi-group form of the neutron transport equation, as they are responsible for describing the change in direction and energy of neutrons. These matrices, however, are difficult to correctly calculate from the measured nuclear data with both deterministic and stochastic methods. Calculating these parameters when using deterministic methods requires a set of assumptions which do not hold true in all conditions. These quantities can be calculated accurately with stochastic methods, however doing so is computationally expensive due to the poor efficiency of tallying scattering moment matrices. This work presents an improved method of obtaining multi-group scattering moment matrices from a Monte Carlo neutron transport code. This improved method of tallying the scattering moment matrices is based on recognizing that all of the outgoing particle information is known a priori and can be taken advantage of to increase the tallying efficiency (therefore reducing the uncertainty) of the stochastically integrated tallies. In this scheme, the complete outgoing probability distribution is tallied, supplying every one of the scattering moment matrices elements with its share of data. In addition to reducing the uncertainty, this method allows for the use of a track-length estimation process potentially offering even further improvement to the tallying efficiency. Unfortunately, to produce the needed distributions, the probability functions themselves must undergo an integration over the outgoing energy and scattering angle dimensions. This integration is too costly to perform during the Monte Carlo simulation itself and therefore must be performed in advance by way of a pre-processing code. The new method increases the information obtained from tally events and therefore has a significantly higher efficiency than the currently used techniques. The improved method has been implemented in a code system

  6. Improving design factors of air diffuser systems based on field conditions of dam reservoirs: CFD simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangmin; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Sangeun; Yum, Kyungtaek; Park, Heekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to improve the design factors of air diffuser systems that have been analyzed in laboratory experiments, with consideration of the field conditions of dam reservoirs. In this study, the destratification number (D(N)), destratification radius, and efficiency are considered as design factors. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation experiment is performed in diverse field conditions in order to analyze these factors. The results illustrate the wider range of D(N) values in field conditions and the relationship of the destratification radius and efficiency to D(N). The results can lead to better performance of air diffuser systems and water quality management in dam reservoir sites. PMID:22678200

  7. Effect of the 5E Model on Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Diffusion and Osmosis: A Mixed Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artun, Huseyin; Costu, Bayram

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore a group of prospective primary teachers' conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis as they implemented a 5E constructivist model and related materials in a science methods course. Fifty prospective primary teachers' ideas were elicited using a pre- and post-test and delayed post-test survey consisting…

  8. Exact travelling wave solutions of non-linear reaction-convection-diffusion equations—An Abel equation based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, T.; Mak, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    We consider quasi-stationary (travelling wave type) solutions to a general nonlinear reaction-convection-diffusion equation with arbitrary, autonomous coefficients. The second order nonlinear equation describing one dimensional travelling waves can be reduced to a first kind first order Abel equation. By using two integrability conditions for the Abel equation (the Chiellini lemma and the Lemke transformation), several classes of exact travelling wave solutions of the general reaction-convection-diffusion equation are obtained, corresponding to different functional relations imposed between the diffusion, convection and reaction functions. In particular, we obtain travelling wave solutions for two non-linear second order partial differential equations, representing generalizations of the standard diffusion equation and of the classical Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, to which they reduce for some limiting values of the model parameters. The models correspond to some specific, power law type choices of the reaction and convection functions, respectively. The travelling wave solutions of these two classes of differential equation are investigated in detail by using both numerical and semi-analytical methods.

  9. AMPX-77: A modular code system for generating coupled multigroup neutron-gamma cross-section libraries from ENDF/B-IV and/or ENDF/B-V

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, N.M.; Ford, W.E. III; Petrie, L.M.; Arwood, J.W.

    1992-10-01

    AMPX-77 is a modular system of computer programs that pertain to nuclear analyses, with a primary emphasis on tasks associated with the production and use of multigroup cross sections. AH basic cross-section data are to be input in the formats used by the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B), and output can be obtained in a variety of formats, including its own internal and very general formats, along with a variety of other useful formats used by major transport, diffusion theory, and Monte Carlo codes. Processing is provided for both neutron and gamma-my data. The present release contains codes all written in the FORTRAN-77 dialect of FORTRAN and wig process ENDF/B-V and earlier evaluations, though major modules are being upgraded in order to process ENDF/B-VI and will be released when a complete collection of usable routines is available.

  10. Recent validation experience with multigroup cross-section libraries and scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.; Wright, R.Q.; DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss the results obtained and lessons learned from an extensive validation of new ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI multigroup cross-section libraries using analyses of critical experiments. The KENO V. a Monte Carlo code in version 4.3 of the SCALE computer code system was used to perform the critical benchmark calculations via the automated SCALE sequence CSAS25. The cross-section data were processed by the SCALE automated problem-dependent resonance-processing procedure included in this sequence. Prior to calling KENO V.a, CSAS25 accesses BONAMI to perform resonance self-shielding for nuclides with Bondarenko factors and NITAWL-II to process nuclides with resonance parameter data via the Nordheim Integral Treatment.

  11. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yong-Wang; Song, Yu-Rong; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  12. Release of the mtmg01ex NDI Neutron Multigroup Data Library

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark Girard

    2013-02-04

    We have released the multi-temperature neutron multigroup transport library mtmg01ex, consisting of 181 isotope tables from mtmg01 and 18 element tables calculated from the isotope tables, all at 15 temperatures. These data, based primarily on the evaluations that produced the lanl2006 library, include gamma production and americium branching data. They were subjected to our standard production library testing. Because there are still known problems with and unanswered questions about multi-temperature data, including data size and load time issues, we do not recommend this data for general use; however, its quality is good enough for production release, and we request user help in addressing the remaining problems.

  13. Inference for low- and high-dimensional multigroup repeated measures designs with unequal covariance matrices.

    PubMed

    Happ, Martin; Harrar, Solomon W; Bathke, Arne C

    2016-07-01

    We propose tests for main and simple treatment effects, time effects, as well as treatment by time interactions in possibly high-dimensional multigroup repeated measures designs. The proposed inference procedures extend the work by Brunner et al. (2012) from two to several treatment groups and remain valid for unbalanced data and under unequal covariance matrices. In addition to showing consistency when sample size and dimension tend to infinity at the same rate, we provide finite sample approximations and evaluate their performance in a simulation study, demonstrating better maintenance of the nominal α-level than the popular Box-Greenhouse-Geisser and Huynh-Feldt methods, and a gain in power for informatively increasing dimension. Application is illustrated using electroencephalography (EEG) data from a neurological study involving patients with Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive impairments. PMID:26700536

  14. Prediction of individual subject's age across the human lifespan using diffusion tensor imaging: a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, Benson; Hasan, Khader M; Soares, Jair C

    2013-07-15

    Diffusion tensor imaging has the potential to be used as a neuroimaging marker of natural ageing and assist in elucidating trajectories of cerebral maturation and ageing. In this study, we applied a multivariate technique relevance vector regression (RVR) to predict individual subject's age using whole brain fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) from a cohort of 188 subjects aged 4-85 years. High prediction accuracy as derived from Pearson correlation coefficient of actual versus predicted age (FA - r=0.870 p<0.0001; MD - r=0.896 p<0.0001; AD - r=0.895 p<0.0001; RD - r=0.899 p<0.0001) was achieved. Cerebral white-matter regions that contributed to these predictions include; corpus callosum, cingulum bundles, posterior longitudinal fasciculus and the cerebral peduncle. A post-hoc analysis of these regions showed that FA follows a nonlinear rational-quadratic trajectory across the lifespan peaking at approximately 21.8 years. The MD, RD and AD volumes were particularly useful for making predictions using grey matter cerebral regions. These results suggest that diffusion tensor imaging measurements can reliably predict individual subject's age and demonstrate that FA cerebral maturation and ageing patterns follow a non-linear trajectory with a noteworthy peaking age. These data will contribute to the understanding of neurobiology of cerebral maturation and ageing. Most notably, from a neuropsychiatric perspective our results may allow differentiation of cerebral changes that may occur due to natural maturation and ageing, and those due to developmental or neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23501046

  15. Local Multi-Grouped Binary Descriptor With Ring-Based Pooling Configuration and Optimization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongqiang; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Local binary descriptors are attracting increasingly attention due to their great advantages in computational speed, which are able to achieve real-time performance in numerous image/vision applications. Various methods have been proposed to learn data-dependent binary descriptors. However, most existing binary descriptors aim overly at computational simplicity at the expense of significant information loss which causes ambiguity in similarity measure using Hamming distance. In this paper, by considering multiple features might share complementary information, we present a novel local binary descriptor, referred as ring-based multi-grouped descriptor (RMGD), to successfully bridge the performance gap between current binary and floated-point descriptors. Our contributions are twofold. First, we introduce a new pooling configuration based on spatial ring-region sampling, allowing for involving binary tests on the full set of pairwise regions with different shapes, scales, and distances. This leads to a more meaningful description than the existing methods which normally apply a limited set of pooling configurations. Then, an extended Adaboost is proposed for an efficient bit selection by emphasizing high variance and low correlation, achieving a highly compact representation. Second, the RMGD is computed from multiple image properties where binary strings are extracted. We cast multi-grouped features integration as rankSVM or sparse support vector machine learning problem, so that different features can compensate strongly for each other, which is the key to discriminativeness and robustness. The performance of the RMGD was evaluated on a number of publicly available benchmarks, where the RMGD outperforms the state-of-the-art binary descriptors significantly. PMID:26292340

  16. A Practical Modeling Approach for NAPL Dissolution Kinetics, Microbially-Mediated Redox Reactions and Aquifer-Aquitard Diffusion to Assess Remedial Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, J.; Kim, U.; Widdowson, M.; Chappel, F.

    2008-12-01

    Explicit modeling of contaminant dissolution from heterogeneously distributed NAPL sources, microbial growth and reaction kinetics, and diffusion into or out of low permeability layers pose significant difficulties. These include the need to estimate a large number of parameters, which may subject to great uncertainty due to inverse problem ill-posedness given limited data, and to a lesser extent, the large computational effort that may be required to solve a rigorously formulated problem. An upscaled model for NAPL dissolution kinetics is utilized in the present study based on previous work, with extentions to consider concurrent effects of residual DNAPL and pools or lenses and to consider multi-component NAPL mixtures. An approach is presented to model microbially-mediated redox reactions subject to the assumption that microbial growth and reaction rates are primarily limited by transport processes rather than by microbial kinetics at time and space scales relevant for many remediation problems. The simplified model requires only stoichiometric coefficients for electron donor and electron acceptor half-reactions and the fraction of electron donor needed for cell synthesis. Contaminant diffusion into low permeability layers and subsequent back-diffusion is approximated as a first-order mass transfer problem with an effective mass transfer coefficient computed from aquifer-aquitard properties by equating second moments of diffusion and mass transfer solutions. Accuracy of the simplified model formulation is evaluated for a hypothetical problem involving a DNAPL source consisting of a mixture of TCE and Stoddard solvent with background dissolved organic carbon, oxygen and sulfate in groundwater for 40 years followed by injection of vegetable oil as a supplemental electron donor to enhance reductive dechlorination. The simplified solution is compared to numerical results that consider multi-species Monod kinetics with explicit treatment of back-diffusion.

  17. Molecular dynamics and analytical Langevin equation approach for the self-diffusion constant of an anisotropic fluid.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, Pedro J; López, Floralba; Olivares-Rivas, Wilmer

    2009-12-01

    We carried out a molecular-dynamics (MD) study of the self-diffusion tensor of a Lennard-Jones-type fluid, confined in a slit pore with attractive walls. We developed Bayesian equations, which modify the virtual layer sampling method proposed by Liu, Harder, and Berne (LHB) [P. Liu, E. Harder, and B. J. Berne, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6595 (2004)]. Additionally, we obtained an analytical solution for the corresponding nonhomogeneous Langevin equation. The expressions found for the mean-squared displacement in the layers contain naturally a modification due to the mean force in the transverse component in terms of the anisotropic diffusion constants and mean exit time. Instead of running a time consuming dual MD-Langevin simulation dynamics, as proposed by LHB, our expression was used to fit the MD data in the entire survival time interval not only for the parallel but also for the perpendicular direction. The only fitting parameter was the diffusion constant in each layer. PMID:20365134

  18. Molecular dynamics and analytical Langevin equation approach for the self-diffusion constant of an anisotropic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenares, Pedro J.; López, Floralba; Olivares-Rivas, Wilmer

    2009-12-01

    We carried out a molecular-dynamics (MD) study of the self-diffusion tensor of a Lennard-Jones-type fluid, confined in a slit pore with attractive walls. We developed Bayesian equations, which modify the virtual layer sampling method proposed by Liu, Harder, and Berne (LHB) [P. Liu, E. Harder, and B. J. Berne, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6595 (2004)]. Additionally, we obtained an analytical solution for the corresponding nonhomogeneous Langevin equation. The expressions found for the mean-squared displacement in the layers contain naturally a modification due to the mean force in the transverse component in terms of the anisotropic diffusion constants and mean exit time. Instead of running a time consuming dual MD-Langevin simulation dynamics, as proposed by LHB, our expression was used to fit the MD data in the entire survival time interval not only for the parallel but also for the perpendicular direction. The only fitting parameter was the diffusion constant in each layer.

  19. Bounce-averaged approach to radial diffusion modeling: From a new derivation of the instantaneous rate of change of the third adiabatic invariant to the characterization of the radial diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejosne, SolèNe; Boscher, Daniel; Maget, Vincent; Rolland, Guy

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a new approach for the derivation of the instantaneous rate of change of the third adiabatic invariant is introduced. It is based on the tracking of the bounce-averaged motion of guiding centers with assumptions that are only kept to the necessary conditions for definition and conservation of the first two adiabatic invariants. The derivation is first given in the case of trapped equatorial particles drifting in a time varying magnetic field in the absence of electrostatic potential. It is then extended to more general cases including time varying electric potentials and non-equatorial particles. Finally, the general formulation of the third adiabatic invariant time derivative is related to the description of the radial diffusion process occurring in the radiation belts. It highlights the links that exist between previous theoretical works with the objective of a better understanding of the radial diffusion process. A theoretical validation in the specific case of equatorial particles drifting in a magnetic field model whose disturbed part is limited to the first terms of a spherical expansion is also presented.

  20. Predicting the diffusion coefficient of water vapor through glassy HPMC films at different environmental conditions using the free volume additivity approach.

    PubMed

    Laksmana, Fesia Lestari; Hartman Kok, Paul Jean Antoine; Vromans, Herman; Van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2009-07-12

    Prediction of diffusion coefficient of polymer materials is important in the pharmaceutical research and becomes the aim of this paper. This paper bases the prediction method on the estimation of the polymer fractional free volume at different environmental conditions. Focussing on glassy polymers, the free volumes of polymer films were estimated using the model of Vrentas et al. [J.S. Vrentas, J.L. Duda, H.-C. Ling, Antiplasticization and volumetric behavior in glassy polymers, Macromolecules 21 (1988) 1470-1475]. The required data are the moisture sorption and glass transition temperature data, which were measured on various hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (used as a model material) free films at different water activities. The temperature and molecular weight particularly determine the free volume of the polymer, while the sorbed water can either decrease or increase the specific free volume of the polymer. At high water activity, the amount of water sorbed in the film increases to such level that the direct free volume addition by water becomes proportional to the contribution of the polymer itself. This confirms the importance of considering the environmental effect on the diffusivity of polymer during coating material selection. The presented approach enables the prediction of the diffusivity at any given relevant material variable and therefore has the potency to be used as a formulation development tool. PMID:19409985

  1. Fractional Diffusion Analysis of the Electromagnetic Field In Fractured Media Part II: 2.5-D Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J.; Everett, M. E.; Weiss, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    A 2.5D finite difference (FD) frequency-domain modeling algorithm based on the theory of fractional diffusion of electromagnetic (EM) fields generated by a loop source lying above a fractured geological medium is addressed in this paper. The presence of fractures in the subsurface, usually containing highly conductive pore fluids, gives rise to spatially hierarchical flow paths of induced EM eddy currents. The diffusion of EM eddy currents in such formations is anomalous, generalizing the classical Gaussian process described by the conventional Maxwell equations. Based on the continuous time random walk (CTRW) theory, the diffusion of EM eddy currents in a rough medium is governed by the fractional Maxwell equations. Here, we model the EM response of a 2D subsurface containing fractured zones, with a 3D loop source, which results the so-called 2.5D model geometry. The governing equation in the frequency domain is converted using Fourier transform into k domain along the strike direction (along which the model conductivity doesn't vary). The resulting equation system is solved by the multifrontal massively parallel solver (MUMPS). The data obtained is then converted back to spatial domain and the time domain. We find excellent agreement between the FD and analytic solutions for a rough halfspace model. Then FD solutions are calculated for a 2D fault zone model with variable conductivity and roughness. We compare the results with responses from several classical models and explore the relationship between the roughness and the spatial density of the fracture distribution.

  2. A joint compressed-sensing and super-resolution approach for very high-resolution diffusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Ning, Lipeng; Setsompop, Kawin; Michailovich, Oleg; Makris, Nikos; Shenton, Martha E; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Rathi, Yogesh

    2016-01-15

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) can provide invaluable information about the structure of different tissue types in the brain. Standard dMRI acquisitions facilitate a proper analysis (e.g. tracing) of medium-to-large white matter bundles. However, smaller fiber bundles connecting very small cortical or sub-cortical regions cannot be traced accurately in images with large voxel sizes. Yet, the ability to trace such fiber bundles is critical for several applications such as deep brain stimulation and neurosurgery. In this work, we propose a novel acquisition and reconstruction scheme for obtaining high spatial resolution dMRI images using multiple low resolution (LR) images, which is effective in reducing acquisition time while improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The proposed method called compressed-sensing super resolution reconstruction (CS-SRR), uses multiple overlapping thick-slice dMRI volumes that are under-sampled in q-space to reconstruct diffusion signal with complex orientations. The proposed method combines the twin concepts of compressed sensing and super-resolution to model the diffusion signal (at a given b-value) in a basis of spherical ridgelets with total-variation (TV) regularization to account for signal correlation in neighboring voxels. A computationally efficient algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is introduced for solving the CS-SRR problem. The performance of the proposed method is quantitatively evaluated on several in-vivo human data sets including a true SRR scenario. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can be used for reconstructing sub-millimeter super resolution dMRI data with very good data fidelity in clinically feasible acquisition time. PMID:26505296

  3. Galactic CR in the Heliosphere according to NM data, 1. Approaches to the convection-diffusion and drift long-term modulations for high energies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L.; Dorman, I.; Iucci, N.; Parisi, M.; Villoresi, G.; Zukerman, I.

    Our studies of the neutron and muon components data from many observatories with different cut - off rigidities during solar cycles 19-22 have made possible to investigate the hysteresis character of the relationships between the variations in solar activity and in galactic cosmic ray intensity. We use here a special model described the connection between solar activity and cosmic ray (CR) convection- diffusion global modulation with taking into account time-lag of processes in the Heliosphere relative to the active processes on the Sun (Dorman et al., 1999). We supposed different dimension of the modulation region and for each dimension w as determined the correlation coefficient between variations of expected and observed CR intensities. We found that the maximum of correlation coefficient occurred for even cycles for about two-three times in the shorter time than for odd cycles. We came to conclusion that this difference is caused by CR drift effects: during even cycle drift effect from minimum to maximum of solar activity (SA) produced the small increasing of CR global modulation additional to the caused by convection- diffusion mechanism, and after maximum of SA - about the same decreasing of CR modulation. This gives sufficient decreasing of observed time lag between CR and SA in even solar cycles. For odd solar cycles we have inverse situation: drift effect from minimum to maximum of SA produced the additional decreasing of CR global modulation caused mainly by convection-diffusion mechanism, and after maximum of SA - increasing of CR modulation. This gives sufficient increasing of observed time lag between CR and SA in odd solar cycles. Observed phenomenon caused by 3-dimensional recon-structure of the CR modulation region and the Heliosphere during the solar magnetic field reversal. We consider in details the theoretical approaches for convection-diffusion modulation and drifts modulations REFERENCES: Burger, R. A., and M. S. Potgieter, Proc. 26 ICRC, 7

  4. Code System for Producing Pointwise and Multigroup Neutron and Photon Cross Sections from ENDF/B Data.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-19

    Version 03 The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a comprehensive computer code system for producing pointwise and multigroup cross sections and related quantities from ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF format, including the latest US library, ENDF/B-VI. The NJOY code works with neutrons, photons, and charged particles and produces libraries for a wide variety of particle transport and reactor analysis codes.

  5. A multi-criteria approach to Great Barrier Reef catchment (Queensland, Australia) diffuse-source pollution problem.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R; Herr, A; Brodie, J; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria based tool for assessing the relative impact of diffuse-source pollution to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) from the river basins draining into the GBR lagoon. The assessment integrates biophysical and ecological data of water quality and pollutant concentrations with socio-economic information pertaining to non-point source pollution and (potential) pollutant impact. The tool generates scores for each river basin against four criteria, thus profiling the basins and enabling prioritization of management alternatives between and within basins. The results support policy development for pollution control through community participation, scientific data integration and expert knowledge contributed by people from across the catchment. The results specifically provided support for the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan, released in October 2003. The aim of the plan is to provide a framework for reducing discharge of sediment, nutrient and other diffuse-source loads and (potential) impact of that discharge and for prioritising management actions both between and within river basins. PMID:15757715

  6. A dynamic DFT approach to generalized diffusion equations in a system with long-ranged and hydrodynamic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleibel, Johannes; Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, Martin

    2016-06-01

    We build on an existing approximation scheme to the Smoluchowski equation in order to derive a dynamic density functional theory (DDFT) including two-body hydrodynamic interactions. A generalized diffusion equation and a wavenumber-dependent diffusion coefficient D(k) are derived by linearization in the density fluctuations. The result is applied to a colloidal monolayer at a fluid interface, having bulk-like hydrodynamic interactions and/or interacting via long-ranged capillary forces. In these cases, D(k) shows characteristic singularities as k\\to 0 . The consequences of these singularities are studied by means of analytical perturbation theory, numerical solution of DDFT and simulations for an explicit example: the capillary collapse of a finite, disk-like distribution of particles. There is in general a good agreement between DDFT and simulations if the initial density distributions for the theoretical prediction correspond to the actual initial configurations of simulations, rather than to an average over them. Otherwise, discrepancies arise that are discussed in detail.

  7. A dynamic DFT approach to generalized diffusion equations in a system with long-ranged and hydrodynamic interactions.

    PubMed

    Bleibel, Johannes; Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, Martin

    2016-06-22

    We build on an existing approximation scheme to the Smoluchowski equation in order to derive a dynamic density functional theory (DDFT) including two-body hydrodynamic interactions. A generalized diffusion equation and a wavenumber-dependent diffusion coefficient D(k) are derived by linearization in the density fluctuations. The result is applied to a colloidal monolayer at a fluid interface, having bulk-like hydrodynamic interactions and/or interacting via long-ranged capillary forces. In these cases, D(k) shows characteristic singularities as [Formula: see text]. The consequences of these singularities are studied by means of analytical perturbation theory, numerical solution of DDFT and simulations for an explicit example: the capillary collapse of a finite, disk-like distribution of particles. There is in general a good agreement between DDFT and simulations if the initial density distributions for the theoretical prediction correspond to the actual initial configurations of simulations, rather than to an average over them. Otherwise, discrepancies arise that are discussed in detail. PMID:27115236

  8. Efficient high-order discontinuous Galerkin schemes with first-order hyperbolic advection-diffusion system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    We propose arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes that are designed based on a first-order hyperbolic advection-diffusion formulation of the target governing equations. We present, in details, the efficient construction of the proposed high-order schemes (called DG-H), and show that these schemes have the same number of global degrees-of-freedom as comparable conventional high-order DG schemes, produce the same or higher order of accuracy solutions and solution gradients, are exact for exact polynomial functions, and do not need a second-derivative diffusion operator. We demonstrate that the constructed high-order schemes give excellent quality solution and solution gradients on irregular triangular elements. We also construct a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) limiter for the proposed DG-H schemes and apply it to discontinuous problems. We also make some accuracy comparisons with conventional DG and interior penalty schemes. A relative qualitative cost analysis is also reported, which indicates that the high-order schemes produce orders of magnitude more accurate results than the low-order schemes for a given CPU time. Furthermore, we show that the proposed DG-H schemes are nearly as efficient as the DG and Interior-Penalty (IP) schemes as these schemes produce results that are relatively at the same error level for approximately a similar CPU time.

  9. New multigroup Monte Carlo scattering algorithm suitable for neutral- and charged-particle Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, D.P.

    1983-05-01

    Morel (1981) has developed multigroup Legendre cross sections suitable for input to standard discrete ordinates transport codes for performing charged-particle Fokker-Planck calculations in one-dimensional slab and spherical geometries. Since the Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MORSE, uses the same multigroup cross section data that discrete ordinates codes use, it was natural to consider whether Fokker-Planck calculations could be performed with MORSE. In order to extend the unique three-dimensional forward or adjoint capability of MORSE to Fokker-Planck calculations, the MORSE code was modified to correctly treat the delta-function scattering of the energy operator, and a new set of physically acceptable cross sections was derived to model the angular operator. Morel (1979) has also developed multigroup Legendre cross sections suitable for input to standard discrete ordinates codes for performing electron Boltzmann calculations. These electron cross sections may be treated in MORSE with the same methods developed to treat the Fokker-Planck cross sections. The large magnitude of the elastic scattering cross section, however, severely increases the computation or run time. It is well-known that approximate elastic cross sections are easily obtained by applying the extended transport (or delta function) correction to the Legendre coefficients of the exact cross section. An exact method for performing the extended transport cross section correction produces cross sections which are physically acceptable. Sample calculations using electron cross sections have demonstrated this new technique to be very effective in decreasing the large magnitude of the cross sections.

  10. Kinetic description of metal nanocrystal oxidation: a combined theoretical and experimental approach for determining morphology and diffusion parameters in hollow nanoparticles by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiki; Mowbray, Ryan W.; Rice, Katherine P.; Stoykovich, Mark P.

    2014-10-01

    The oxidation of colloidal metal nanocrystals to form hollow shells via the nanoscale Kirkendall effect has been investigated using a combined theoretical and experimental approach. A generalized kinetic model for the formation of hollow nanoparticles describes the phenomenon and, unlike prior models, is applicable to any material system and accounts for the effect of surface energies. Phase diagrams of the ultimate oxidized nanoparticle morphology and the time to achieve complete oxidation are calculated, and are found to depend significantly upon consideration of surface energy effects that destabilize the initial formation of small voids. For the oxidation of Cu nanocrystals to Cu2O nanoparticles, we find that the diffusion coefficients dictate the morphological outcomes: the ratio of ? to ? controls the void size, ? determines the time of oxidation and ? is largely irrelevant in the kinetics of oxidation. The kinetic model was used to fit experimental measurements of 11 nm diameter Cu nanocrystals oxidized in air from which temperature-dependent diffusivities of ? and ? for 100 ≤ T ≤ 200 °C were determined. In contrast to previous interpretations of the nanoscale Kirkendall effect in the Cu/Cu2O system, these results are obtained without any a priori assumptions about the relative magnitudes of ? and ?. The theoretical and experimental approaches presented here are broadly applicable to any nanoparticle system undergoing oxidation, and can be used to precisely control the final nanoparticle morphology for applications in catalysis or optical materials.

  11. Cellular automata approach for the dynamics of HIV infection under antiretroviral therapies: The role of the virus diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Ramón E. R.; de Figueirêdo, Pedro Hugo; Coutinho, Sérgio

    2013-10-01

    We study a cellular automata model to test the timing of antiretroviral therapy strategies for the dynamics of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We focus on the role of virus diffusion when its population is included in previous cellular automata model that describes the dynamics of the lymphocytes cells population during infection. This inclusion allows us to consider the spread of infection by the virus-cell interaction, beyond that which occurs by cell-cell contagion. The results show an acceleration of the infectious process in the absence of treatment, but show better efficiency in reducing the risk of the onset of AIDS when combined antiretroviral therapies are used even with drugs of low effectiveness. Comparison of results with clinical data supports the conclusions of this study.

  12. Dynamics of interacting qubits coupled to a common bath: Non-Markovian quantum-state-diffusion approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Xinyu; Jing Jun; Corn, Brittany; Yu Ting

    2011-09-15

    Non-Markovian dynamics is studied for two interacting qubits strongly coupled to a dissipative bosonic environment. We derive a non-Markovian quantum-state-diffusion (QSD) equation for the coupled two-qubit system without any approximations, and in particular, without the Markov approximation. As an application and illustration of our derived time-local QSD equation, we investigate the temporal behavior of quantum coherence dynamics. In particular, we find a strongly non-Markovian regime where entanglement generation is significantly modulated by the environmental memory. Additionally, we study residual entanglement in the steady state by analyzing the steady-state solution of the QSD equation. Finally, we discuss an approximate QSD equation.

  13. A New Method for the Calculation of Diffusion Coefficients with Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorval, Eric

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a new Monte Carlo-based method for the calculation of diffusion coefficients. One distinctive feature of this method is that it does not resort to the computation of transport cross sections directly, although their functional form is retained. Instead, a special type of tally derived from a deterministic estimate of Fick's Law is used for tallying the total cross section, which is then combined with a set of other standard Monte Carlo tallies. Some properties of this method are presented by means of numerical examples for a multi-group 1-D implementation. Calculated diffusion coefficients are in general good agreement with values obtained by other methods.

  14. Review of uncertainty files and improved multigroup cross section files for FENDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, S.

    1994-03-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centers and research groups, is creating an internationally available Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL), which will serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the Engineering and Development Activities (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project and other fusion-related development projects. The FENDL project of the International Atomic Energy Agency has the task of coordination with the goal of assembling, processing and testing a comprehensive, fusion-relevant Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library with unrestricted international distribution. The present report contains the summary of the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on 'Review of Uncertainty Files and Improved Multigroup Cross Section Files for FENDL', held during 8-12 November 1993 at the Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, Japan, organized in cooperation with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The report presents the current status of the FENDL activity and the future work plans in the form of conclusions and recommendations of the four Working Groups of the Advisory Group Meeting on: (1) experimental and calculational benchmarks; (2) preparation processed libraries for FENDL/ITER; (3) specifying procedures for improving FENDL; and (4) selection of activation libraries for FENDL.

  15. Performance testing of the upgraded uranium isotopics multi-group analysis code MGAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlizov, A. N.; Gunnink, R.; Zsigrai, J.; Nguyen, C. T.; Tryshyn, V. V.

    2007-06-01

    The paper describes recent developments of the MGAU (Multi-Group Analysis for Uranium) method, which resulted in the creation of an upgraded version 4.0 of the MGAU code. The major improvements concerned the procedure of the intrinsic efficiency calibration, particularly in the 120-205 keV region. The results of the tests carried out with the use of certified reference uranium isotopic materials SRM 969 and CRM 146 showed a significantly improved performance of the upgraded MGAU code for the accurate characterization of 235U and 234U abundances. The relative systematic biases of the abundances measured were evaluated not to exceed 1% and 3% over the concentration intervals 0.32-93.2 and 0.002-0.98 mass% for 235U and 234U, respectively. The influence of an up to 4-5 mm steel equivalent absorber and sample thickness on the measurement results was found to be much smaller than in previous versions of the code.

  16. Gray and multigroup radiation transport models for two-dimensional binary stochastic media using effective opacities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2015-09-24

    One-dimensional models for the transport of radiation through binary stochastic media do not work in multi-dimensions. In addition, authors have attempted to modify or extend the 1D models to work in multidimensions without success. Analytic one-dimensional models are successful in 1D only when assuming greatly simplified physics. State of the art theories for stochastic media radiation transport do not address multi-dimensions and temperature-dependent physics coefficients. Here, the concept of effective opacities and effective heat capacities is found to well represent the ensemble averaged transport solutions in cases with gray or multigroup temperature-dependent opacities and constant or temperature-dependent heat capacities. Inmore » every case analyzed here, effective physics coefficients fit the transport solutions over a useful range of parameter space. The transport equation is solved with the spherical harmonics method with angle orders of n=1 and 5. Although the details depend on what order of solution is used, the general results are similar, independent of angular order.« less

  17. Multi-Group Reductions of LTE Air Plasma Radiative Transfer in Cylindrical Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, James; Magin, Thierry Edouard Bertran; Wray, Alan; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2013-01-01

    Air plasma radiation in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) within cylindrical geometries is studied with an application towards modeling the radiative transfer inside arc-constrictors, a central component of constricted-arc arc jets. A detailed database of spectral absorption coefficients for LTE air is formulated using the NEQAIR code developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The database stores calculated absorption coefficients for 1,051,755 wavelengths between 0.04 µm and 200 µm over a wide temperature (500K to 15 000K) and pressure (0.1 atm to 10.0 atm) range. The multi-group method for spectral reduction is studied by generating a range of reductions including pure binning and banding reductions from the detailed absorption coefficient database. The accuracy of each reduction is compared to line-by-line calculations for cylindrical temperature profiles resembling typical profiles found in arc-constrictors. It is found that a reduction of only 1000 groups is sufficient to accurately model the LTE air radiation over a large temperature and pressure range. In addition to the reduction comparison, the cylindrical-slab formulation is compared with the finite-volume method for the numerical integration of the radiative flux inside cylinders with varying length. It is determined that cylindrical-slabs can be used to accurately model most arc-constrictors due to their high length to radius ratios.

  18. Stability analysis of multi-group deterministic and stochastic epidemic models with vaccination rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Rui-Mei; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Han, Qi-Xing

    2014-09-01

    We discuss in this paper a deterministic multi-group MSIR epidemic model with a vaccination rate, the basic reproduction number ℛ0, a key parameter in epidemiology, is a threshold which determines the persistence or extinction of the disease. By using Lyapunov function techniques, we show if ℛ0 is greater than 1 and the deterministic model obeys some conditions, then the disease will prevail, the infective persists and the endemic state is asymptotically stable in a feasible region. If ℛ0 is less than or equal to 1, then the infective disappear so the disease dies out. In addition, stochastic noises around the endemic equilibrium will be added to the deterministic MSIR model in order that the deterministic model is extended to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations. In the stochastic version, we carry out a detailed analysis on the asymptotic behavior of the stochastic model. In addition, regarding the value of ℛ0, when the stochastic system obeys some conditions and ℛ0 is greater than 1, we deduce the stochastic system is stochastically asymptotically stable. Finally, the deterministic and stochastic model dynamics are illustrated through computer simulations.

  19. Global dynamics of a general class of multi-group epidemic models with latency and relapse.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaomei; Teng, Zhidong; Zhang, Fengqin

    2015-02-01

    A multi-group model is proposed to describe a general relapse phenomenon of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations. In each group, the population is divided into susceptible, exposed, infectious, and recovered subclasses. A general nonlinear incidence rate is used in the model. The results show that the global dynamics are completely determined by the basic reproduction number R0. In particular, a matrix-theoretic method is used to prove the global stability of the disease-free equilibrium when R0 ≤ 1, while a new combinatorial identity (Theorem 3.3 in Shuai and van den Driessche) in graph theory is applied to prove the global stability of the endemic equilibrium when R0 > 1. We would like to mention that by applying the new combinatorial identity, a graph of 3n (or 2n+m) vertices can be converted into a graph of n vertices in order to deal with the global stability of the endemic equilibrium in this paper. PMID:25811334

  20. Gray and multigroup radiation transport models for two-dimensional binary stochastic media using effective opacities

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2015-09-24

    One-dimensional models for the transport of radiation through binary stochastic media do not work in multi-dimensions. In addition, authors have attempted to modify or extend the 1D models to work in multidimensions without success. Analytic one-dimensional models are successful in 1D only when assuming greatly simplified physics. State of the art theories for stochastic media radiation transport do not address multi-dimensions and temperature-dependent physics coefficients. Here, the concept of effective opacities and effective heat capacities is found to well represent the ensemble averaged transport solutions in cases with gray or multigroup temperature-dependent opacities and constant or temperature-dependent heat capacities. In every case analyzed here, effective physics coefficients fit the transport solutions over a useful range of parameter space. The transport equation is solved with the spherical harmonics method with angle orders of n=1 and 5. Although the details depend on what order of solution is used, the general results are similar, independent of angular order.

  1. MENDF71x. Multigroup Neutron Cross Section Data Tables Based upon ENDF/B-VII.1

    SciTech Connect

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Parsons, Donald Kent; Gardiner, Steven J.; Gray, Mark Girard; Lee, Mary Beth; White, Morgan Curtis

    2015-12-17

    A new multi-group neutron cross section library has been released along with the release of NDI version 2.0.20. The library is named MENDF71x and is based upon the evaluations released in ENDF/B-VII.1 which was made publicly available in December 2011. ENDF/B-VII.1 consists of 423 evaluations of which ten are excited states evaluations and 413 are ground state evaluations. MENDF71x was created by processing the 423 evaluations into 618-group, downscatter only NDI data tables. The ENDF/B evaluation files were processed using NJOY version 99.393 with the exception of 35Cl and 233U. Those two isotopes had unique properties that required that we process the evaluation using NJOY version 2012. The MENDF71x library was only processed to room temperature, i.e., 293.6 K. In the future, we plan on producing a multi-temperature library based on ENDF/B-VII.1 and compatible with MENDF71x.

  2. Validation of Vehicle Panel/Equipment Response from Diffuse Acoustic Field Excitation Using Spatially Correlated Transfer Function Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Fulcher, Clay; Hunt, Ron

    2012-01-01

    An approach for predicting the vibration, strain, and force responses of a flight-like vehicle panel assembly to acoustic pressures is presented. Important validation for the approach is provided by comparison to ground test measurements in a reverberant chamber. The test article and the corresponding analytical model were assembled in several configurations to demonstrate the suitability of the approach for response predictions when the vehicle panel is integrated with equipment. Critical choices in the analysis necessary for convergence of the predicted and measured responses are illustrated through sensitivity studies. The methodology includes representation of spatial correlation of the pressure field over the panel surface. Therefore, it is possible to demonstrate the effects of hydrodynamic coincidence in the response. The sensitivity to pressure patch density clearly illustrates the onset of coincidence effects on the panel response predictions.

  3. Effect of the 5E Model on Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Diffusion and Osmosis: A Mixed Method Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artun, Hüseyin; Coştu, Bayram

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore a group of prospective primary teachers' conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis as they implemented a 5E constructivist model and related materials in a science methods course. Fifty prospective primary teachers' ideas were elicited using a pre- and post-test and delayed post-test survey consisting of ten two-tier questions of which an explanatory part was integral. Individual interviews were conducted with six prospective teachers at the end of the implementation of the unit using four questions. Test scores were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Post-instructional interviews were analyzed qualitatively. Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA of student test scores pointed to statistically significant differences between pre- and post- and delayed post-test ( p < 0.05). A qualitative analysis of the prospective teachers' explanations in the two-tier questions revealed changes in their ideas overtime. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest that the teaching activities promoted students' conceptual understanding. No statistically significant differences were found between post-test and delayed post-test scores, suggesting that the teaching activities based on 5E model enabled students to retain their new conceptual understanding.

  4. An integrated approach to correction for off-resonance effects and subject movement in diffusion MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jesper L R; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N

    2016-01-15

    In this paper we describe a method for retrospective estimation and correction of eddy current (EC)-induced distortions and subject movement in diffusion imaging. In addition a susceptibility-induced field can be supplied and will be incorporated into the calculations in a way that accurately reflects that the two fields (susceptibility- and EC-induced) behave differently in the presence of subject movement. The method is based on registering the individual volumes to a model free prediction of what each volume should look like, thereby enabling its use on high b-value data where the contrast is vastly different in different volumes. In addition we show that the linear EC-model commonly used is insufficient for the data used in the present paper (high spatial and angular resolution data acquired with Stejskal-Tanner gradients on a 3T Siemens Verio, a 3T Siemens Connectome Skyra or a 7T Siemens Magnetome scanner) and that a higher order model performs significantly better. The method is already in extensive practical use and is used by four major projects (the WU-UMinn HCP, the MGH HCP, the UK Biobank and the Whitehall studies) to correct for distortions and subject movement. PMID:26481672

  5. Modeling growth and dissemination of lymphoma in a co-evolving lymph node: a diffuse-domain approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yao-Li; Cristini, Vittorio; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiangrong; Frieboes, Hermann; Lowengrub, John

    2013-03-01

    While partial differential equation models of tumor growth have successfully described various spatiotemporal phenomena observed for in-vitro tumor spheroid experiments, one challenge towards taking these models to further study in-vivo tumors is that instead of relatively static tissue culture with regular boundary conditions, in-vivo tumors are often confined in organ tissues that co-evolve with the tumor growth. Here we adopt a recently developed diffuse-domain method to account for the co-evolving domain boundaries, adapting our previous in-vitro tumor model for the development of lymphoma encapsulated in a lymph node, which may swell or shrink due to proliferation and dissemination of lymphoma cells and treatment by chemotherapy. We use the model to study the induced spatial heterogeneity, which may arise as an emerging phenomenon in experimental observations and model analysis. Spatial heterogeneity is believed to lead to tumor infiltration patterns and reduce the efficacy of chemotherapy, leaving residuals that cause cancer relapse after the treatment. Understanding the spatiotemporal evolution of in-vivo tumors can be an essential step towards more effective strategies of curing cancer. Supported by NIH-PSOC grant 1U54CA143907-01.

  6. Crystallographic Analysis of Ground and Space Thermostable T1 Lipase Crystal Obtained via Counter Diffusion Method Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Aris, Sayangku Nor Ariati; Thean Chor, Adam Leow; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Raja Abd. Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional structure of thermostable lipase is much sought after nowadays as it is important for industrial application mainly found in the food, detergent, and pharmaceutical sectors. Crystallization utilizing the counter diffusion method in space was performed with the aim to obtain high resolution diffracting crystals with better internal order to improve the accuracy of the structure. Thermostable T1 lipase enzyme has been crystallized in laboratory on earth and also under microgravity condition aboard Progress spacecraft to the ISS in collaboration with JAXA (Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency). This study is conducted with the aims of improving crystal packing and structure resolution. The diffraction data set for ground grown crystal was collected to 1.3 Å resolution and belonged to monoclinic C2 space group with unit cell parameters a = 117.40 Å, b = 80.95 Å, and c = 99.81 Å, whereas the diffraction data set for space grown crystal was collected to 1.1 Å resolution and belonged to monoclinic C2 space group with unit cell parameters a = 117.31 Å, b = 80.85 Å, and c = 99.81 Å. The major difference between the two crystal growth systems is the lack of convection and sedimentation in microgravity environment resulted in the growth of much higher quality crystals of T1 lipase. PMID:24516857

  7. Crystallographic analysis of ground and space thermostable T1 lipase crystal obtained via counter diffusion method approach.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Aris, Sayangku Nor Ariati; Thean Chor, Adam Leow; Mohamad Ali, Mohd Shukuri; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Raja Abd Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional structure of thermostable lipase is much sought after nowadays as it is important for industrial application mainly found in the food, detergent, and pharmaceutical sectors. Crystallization utilizing the counter diffusion method in space was performed with the aim to obtain high resolution diffracting crystals with better internal order to improve the accuracy of the structure. Thermostable T1 lipase enzyme has been crystallized in laboratory on earth and also under microgravity condition aboard Progress spacecraft to the ISS in collaboration with JAXA (Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency). This study is conducted with the aims of improving crystal packing and structure resolution. The diffraction data set for ground grown crystal was collected to 1.3 Å resolution and belonged to monoclinic C2 space group with unit cell parameters a = 117.40 Å, b = 80.95 Å, and c = 99.81 Å, whereas the diffraction data set for space grown crystal was collected to 1.1 Å resolution and belonged to monoclinic C2 space group with unit cell parameters a = 117.31 Å, b = 80.85 Å, and c = 99.81 Å. The major difference between the two crystal growth systems is the lack of convection and sedimentation in microgravity environment resulted in the growth of much higher quality crystals of T1 lipase. PMID:24516857

  8. An integrated approach to correction for off-resonance effects and subject movement in diffusion MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jesper L.R.; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method for retrospective estimation and correction of eddy current (EC)-induced distortions and subject movement in diffusion imaging. In addition a susceptibility-induced field can be supplied and will be incorporated into the calculations in a way that accurately reflects that the two fields (susceptibility- and EC-induced) behave differently in the presence of subject movement. The method is based on registering the individual volumes to a model free prediction of what each volume should look like, thereby enabling its use on high b-value data where the contrast is vastly different in different volumes. In addition we show that the linear EC-model commonly used is insufficient for the data used in the present paper (high spatial and angular resolution data acquired with Stejskal–Tanner gradients on a 3 T Siemens Verio, a 3 T Siemens Connectome Skyra or a 7 T Siemens Magnetome scanner) and that a higher order model performs significantly better. The method is already in extensive practical use and is used by four major projects (the WU-UMinn HCP, the MGH HCP, the UK Biobank and the Whitehall studies) to correct for distortions and subject movement. PMID:26481672

  9. Failure of fluid-saturated granular materials: a unified approach to capture diffuse and localized instability mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalache, Constance; Buscarnera, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Granular materials are susceptible to a wide variety of failure and deformation mechanisms, especially because of their interaction with the pore fluids and the surrounding environment. An adequate modeling of their mechanical response is therefore essential for understanding a number of geological processes, such as the onset of rapid landslides, hillslope denudation and sediment transport, or even the mechanics of fault gauges. Depending on the type of material, the groundwater conditions and the surrounding kinematic constraints, both diffuse and localized mechanisms are possible, and these may occur under either drained or undrained conditions. In the geomechanics literature, failure modes are usually explained and modeled with the tools of continuum mechanics, such as the mathematical theory of plasticity. Due to the complexity of granular material behavior, however, most classical models for frictional strength are unable to capture the variety of instability mechanisms observed for such class of geomaterials (e.g., liquefaction, shear banding, etc.). Sophisticated strain-hardening plasticity models are therefore required for numerical modeling purposes, thus making the evaluation of critical failure conditions less straightforward than in perfect plasticity theories. Here we propose a mathematical strategy that can be adapted to any elastoplastic model and allows the onset of failure in elastoplastic geomaterials to be expressed in a more general manner. More specifically, our theory expresses the failure conditions as a function of local kinematics and solid-fluid interactions. The stability criterion used in this study is based on the so-called stability modulus, a scalar index of failure that was formulated by linking the physical concept controllability to the mathematical notion of plastic admissibility upon an incremental loading path [Buscarnera et al, 2011]. In this contribution, different loading constraints are considered, accounting for the

  10. White Matter Abnormalities in Patients with Focal Cortical Dysplasia Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Imaging Analysis in a Voxelwise Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Viviane de Carvalho; Yasuda, Clarissa Lin; Tedeschi, Guilherme Garlipp; Betting, Luiz Eduardo; Cendes, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows the analysis of changes in microstructure, through the quantification of the spread and direction of water molecules in tissues. We used fractional anisotropy (FA) maps to compare the integrity of WM between patients and controls. The objective of the present study was to investigate WM abnormalities in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy secondary to focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Materials and Methods: We included 31 controls (12 women, 33.1 ± 9.6 years, mean ± SD) and 22 patients (11 women, 30.4 ± 10.0 years), recruited from our outpatient clinic. They had clinical and EEG diagnosis of frontal lobe epilepsy, secondary to FCD detected on MRI. Patients and controls underwent 3T MRI, including the DTI sequence, obtained in 32 directions and b value of 1000 s/mm2. To process the DTI we used the following softwares: MRIcroN and FSL/TBSS (tract-based spatial statistics). We used a threshold-free cluster enhancement with significance at p < 0.05, fully corrected for multiple comparisons across space. Results: Areas with FA reduction in patients were identified in both hemispheres, mainly in the frontal lobes, cingulum, and forceps minor (p = 0.014), caudate e anterior thalamic radiation (p = 0.034), superior longitudinal fasciculus (p = 0.044), uncinate fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (p = 0.042). Conclusion: Our results showed a widespread pattern of WM microstructural abnormalities extending beyond the main lesion seen on MRI (frontal lobe), which may be related to frequent seizures or to the extent of MRI-invisible portion of FCD. PMID:22855684

  11. Is it worth protecting groundwater from diffuse pollution with agri-environmental schemes? A hydro-economic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Hérivaux, Cécile; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge

    2013-10-15

    In Europe, 30% of groundwater bodies are considered to be at risk of not achieving the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 'good status' objective by 2015, and 45% are in doubt of doing so. Diffuse agricultural pollution is one of the main pressures affecting groundwater bodies. To tackle this problem, the WFD requires Member States to design and implement cost-effective programs of measures to achieve the 'good status' objective by 2027 at the latest. Hitherto, action plans have mainly consisted of promoting the adoption of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES). This raises a number of questions concerning the effectiveness of such schemes for improving groundwater status, and the economic implications of their implementation. We propose a hydro-economic model that combines a hydrogeological model to simulate groundwater quality evolution with agronomic and economic components to assess the expected costs, effectiveness, and benefits of AES implementation. This hydro-economic model can be used to identify cost-effective AES combinations at groundwater-body scale and to show the benefits to be expected from the resulting improvement in groundwater quality. The model is applied here to a rural area encompassing the Hesbaye aquifer, a large chalk aquifer which supplies about 230,000 inhabitants in the city of Liege (Belgium) and is severely contaminated by agricultural nitrates. We show that the time frame within which improvements in the Hesbaye groundwater quality can be expected may be much longer than that required by the WFD. Current WFD programs based on AES may be inappropriate for achieving the 'good status' objective in the most productive agricultural areas, in particular because these schemes are insufficiently attractive. Achieving 'good status' by 2027 would demand a substantial change in the design of AES, involving costs that may not be offset by benefits in the case of chalk aquifers with long renewal times. PMID:23722175

  12. White matter ‘potholes’ in early-onset schizophrenia: a new approach to evaluate white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    White, Tonya; Schmidt, Marcus; Karatekin, Canan

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence implicating white matter abnormalities in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Many of the recent studies examining white matter have utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using either region of interest (ROI) or voxel based approaches. Both voxel-based and ROI approaches are based on the assumption that the abnormalities in white matter overlap spatially. However, this is an assumption that has not been tested and it is possible that aberrations in white matter occur in non-overlapping regions. In order to test for the presence of non-overlapping regions of aberrant white matter, we developed a novel image processing technique that evaluates for white matter ‘potholes,’ referring to within-subject clusters of white matter voxels that show a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy. We applied this algorithm to a group of children and adolescents with schizophrenia compared to controls and found an increased number of ‘potholes’ in the patient group. These results suggest that voxel-based and ROI approaches may be missing some white matter differences that do not overlap spatially. This algorithm may be also be well suited to detect white matter abnormalities in disorders such as substance abuse, head trauma, or specifc neurological conditions affecting white matter. PMID:19853414

  13. Holographic diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadle, Stephen; Wuest, Daniel; Cantalupo, John; Lakes, Roderic S.

    1994-01-01

    Holographic diffusers are prepared using silver halide (Agfa 8E75 and Kodak 649F) and photopolymer (Polaroid DMP 128 and DuPont 600, 705, and 150 series) media. It is possible to control the diffusion angle in three ways: by selection of the properties of the source diffuser, by control of its subtended angle, and by selection of the holographic medium. Several conventional diffusers based on refraction or scattering of light are examined for comparison.

  14. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  15. Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen-Tao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Ping; Chen, Xing-Guang

    2012-10-01

    A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces: (i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness. Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes, i.e., a deadlock regime, a convergence regime, and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics. The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to. In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network, both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord, instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p. 125 Fig. 5), project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations, which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests, nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO. The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO. It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO.

  16. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised: Measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Susan D.; Unger Hu, Kirsten A.; Mevi, Ashley A.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one’s ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the “Gestational diabetes’ Effect on Moms” diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated two-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the two MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24188656

  17. Diffusion-Based Density-Equalizing Maps: an Interdisciplinary Approach to Visualizing Homicide Rates and Other Georeferenced Statistical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitello, Karina I.; Candia, Julián

    2012-12-01

    In every country, public and private agencies allocate extensive funding to collect large-scale statistical data, which in turn are studied and analyzed in order to determine local, regional, national, and international policies regarding all aspects relevant to the welfare of society. One important aspect of that process is the visualization of statistical data with embedded geographical information, which most often relies on archaic methods such as maps colored according to graded scales. In this work, we apply nonstandard visualization techniques based on physical principles. We illustrate the method with recent statistics on homicide rates in Brazil and their correlation to other publicly available data. This physics-based approach provides a novel tool that can be used by interdisciplinary teams investigating statistics and model projections in a variety of fields such as economics and gross domestic product research, public health and epidemiology, sociodemographics, political science, business and marketing, and many others.

  18. The spectral green's function nodal method for multigroup slab-geometry fixed-source S{sub N} problems with anisotropic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, W. A.; Filho, H. A.; Barros, R. C.

    2013-07-01

    A generalization of the spectral Green's function (SGF) method is developed for multigroup, fixed-source, slab-geometry discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) problems with anisotropic scattering. The offered SGF method with the one-node block inversion (NBI) iterative scheme converges numerical solutions that are completely free from spatial truncation errors for multigroup slab-geometry S{sub N} problems with scattering anisotropy of order L, provided L < N. As a coarse-mesh numerical method, the SGF method generates numerical solutions that generally do not give detailed information on the problem solution profile, as the grid points can be located considerably away from each other. Therefore, presented here is a technique for the spatial reconstruction of the coarse-mesh solution generated by the multigroup SGF method. Numerical results are given to illustrate the method's accuracy. (authors)

  19. A comparison study of discrete-ordinates and flux-limited diffusion methods for modeling radiation transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myra, Eric S.; Hawkins, Wm. Daryl

    2013-03-01

    The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) is investigating methods of improving the predictive capability of numerical simulations for radiative shock waves that are produced in Omega laser experiments. The laser is used to shock, ionize, and accelerate a beryllium foil into a xenon-filled shock tube. These shock waves, when driven above a threshold velocity of about 60 km/s, become strongly radiative and convert much of the incident energy flux into radiation. Radiative shocks have properties that are significantly different from purely hydrodynamic shocks and, in modeling this phenomenon numerically, it is important to compute radiative effects accurately. In this article, we examine approaches to modeling radiation transport by comparing two methods: (i) a computationally efficient, multigroup, flux-limited-diffusion approximation, currently in use in the CRASH radiation-hydrodynamics code, with (ii) a more accurate discrete-ordinates treatment that is offered by the radiation-transport code PDT. We present a selection of results from a growing suite of code-to-code comparison tests, showing both results for idealized problems and for those that are representative of conditions found in the CRASH experiment.

  20. Neutron-photon multigroup cross sections for neutron energies less than or equal to400 MeV. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Drischler, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    For a variety of applications, e.g., accelerator shielding design, neutrons in radiotherapy, radiation damage studies, etc., it is necessary to carry out transport calculations involving medium-energy (greater than or equal to20 MeV) neutrons. A previous paper described neutron-photon multigroup cross sections in the ANISN format for neutrons from thermal to 400 MeV. In the present paper the cross-section data presented previously have been revised to make them agree with available experimental data. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Mode-coupling approach to polymer diffusion in an unentangled melt. II. The effect of viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farago, J.; Meyer, H.; Baschnagel, J.; Semenov, A. N.

    2012-05-01

    A mode-coupling theory (MCT) version (called hMCT thereafter) of a recently presented theory [Farago, Meyer, and Semenov, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.178301 107, 178301 (2011)] is developed to describe the diffusional properties of a tagged polymer in a melt. The hMCT accounts for the effect of viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions (VHIs), that is, a physical mechanism distinct from the density-based MCT (dMCT) described in the first paper of this series. The two versions of the MCT yield two different contributions to the asymptotic behavior of the center-of-mass velocity autocorrelation function (c.m. VAF). We show that in most cases the VHI mechanism is dominant; for long chains and prediffusive times it yields a negative tail ∝-N-1/2t-3/2 for the c.m. VAF. The case of non-momentum-conserving dynamics (Langevin or Monte Carlo) is discussed as well. It generally displays a distinctive behavior with two successive relaxation stages: first -N-1t-5/4 (as in the dMCT approach), then -N-1/2t-3/2. Both the amplitude and the duration of the first t-5/4 stage crucially depend on the Langevin friction parameter γ. All results are also relevant for the early time regime of entangled melts. These slow relaxations of the c.m. VAF, thus account for the anomalous subdiffusive regime of the c.m. mean square displacement widely observed in numerical and experimental works.

  2. Tomographic-spectral approach for dark matter detection in the cross-correlation between cosmic shear and diffuse γ-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, S.; Fornasa, M.; Fornengo, N.; Regis, M.

    2015-06-01

    We recently proposed to cross-correlate the diffuse extragalactic γ-ray background with the gravitational lensing signal of cosmic shear. This represents a novel and promising strategy to search for annihilating or decaying particle dark matter (DM) candidates. In the present work, we demonstrate the potential of a tomographic-spectral approach: measuring the cross-correlation in separate bins of redshift and energy significantly improves the sensitivity to a DM signal. Indeed, the technique proposed here takes advantage of the different scaling of the astrophysical and DM components with redshift and, simultaneously of their different energy spectra and different angular extensions. The sensitivity to a particle DM signal is extremely promising even when the DM-induced emission is quite faint. We first quantify the prospects of detecting DM by cross-correlating the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) diffuse γ-ray background with the cosmic shear expected from the Dark Energy Survey. Under the hypothesis of a significant subhalo boost, such a measurement can deliver a 5σ detection of DM, if the DM particle is lighter than 300 GeV and has a thermal annihilation rate. We then forecast the capability of the European Space Agency Euclid satellite (whose launch is planned for 2020), in combination with an hypothetical future γ-ray detector with slightly improved specifications compared to current telescopes. We predict that the cross-correlation of their data will allow a measurement of the DM mass with an uncertainty of a factor of 1.5-2, even for moderate subhalo boosts, for DM masses up to few hundreds of GeV and thermal annihilation rates.

  3. Diffusion Approach to Long Distance Charge Migration in DNA: Time-Dependent and Steady-State Analytical Solutions for the Product Yields

    PubMed Central

    Roginskaya, Marina; Razskazovskiy, Yuriy

    2007-01-01

    In this study we report analytical solutions for both time-dependent and steady-state problems of unbiased charge transfer through a regular DNA sequence via a hopping mechanism. The phenomenon is treated as a diffusion of charge in a one-dimensional array of equally spaced and energetically equivalent temporary trapping sites. The solutions take into account the rates of charge hopping (k), side reactions (kr), and charge transfer to a terminal charge acceptor (kt). A detailed analysis of the time-dependent problem is performed for the diffusion-controlled regime, i.e., under the assumption that kt ≫ k, which is also equivalent to the fast relaxation limit of charge trapping. The analysis shows that the kinetics of charge hopping through DNA is always multiexponential, but under certain circumstances it can be asymptotically approximated by a single-exponential term. In that case, the efficiency of charge transfer can be characterized by a single rate constant kCT = 1.23kN−2 + kr, where N is the DNA length expressed in terms of the number of equidistant trapping sites and kr is the rate of competing chemical processes. The absolute yield of charge transfer under steady-state conditions in general is obtained as Y∞ = ω [α sinh(αN) + ω cosh(αN)]−1, where α = (2kr/k)1/2 and ω = 2kt/k. For the diffusion-controlled regime and small N, in particular, it turns into the known “algebraic” dependence Y∞ = [1 + (kr/k)N2]−1. At large N the solution is asymptotically exponential with the parameter α mimicking the tunneling parameter β in agreement with earlier predictions. Similar equations and distance dependencies have also been obtained for the damage ratios at the intermediate and terminal trapping sites in DNA. The nonlinear least-squares fit of one of these equations to experimental yields of guanine oxidation available from the literature returns kinetic parameters that are in reasonable agreement with those obtained by Bixon et al. [Proc. Natl

  4. Specifications for the development of BUGLE-93: An ENDF/B-VI multigroup cross section library for LWR shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.; Roussin, R.W.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses specifications which have been developed for a new multigroup cross section library based on ENDF/B-VI data for light water reactor shielding and reactor pressure vessel dosimetry applications. The resulting broad-group library and an intermediate fine-group library are defined by the specifications provided in this report. Processing ENDF/B-VI into multigroup format for use in radiation transport codes will provide radiation shielding analysts with the most currently available nuclear data. it is expected that the general nature of the specifications will be useful in other applications such as reactor physics.

  5. A Multigroup Reaction Cross-Section Collapsing Code and Library of 154-Group Fission-Product Cross Sections.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1983-03-23

    Version 01/02 The code reads multigroup cross sections from a compatible data file and collapses user-selected reaction cross sections to any few-group structure using one of a variety of user neutron flux spectrum options given below: Option Flux description 1 Built-in function including Maxwellian, fission, fusion and slowing-down regions and requiring user-specified parameters and energy-region boundaries. 2 Set of log-log flux-energy interpolation points read from input cross-section data file. 3 Set of log-log flux-energy interpolationmore » points read from user-supplied card input. 4 - 6 Histogram flux values read from user-supplied card input in arbitrary group structure in units of flux-per unit-energy, flux-per-unit lethargy, or integral group flux. LAFPX-E may be used to collapse any set of multigroup reaction cross sections furnished in the required format. However, the code was developed for, and is furnished with, a library of 154-group fission-product cross sections processed from ENDF/B-IV with a typical light water reactor (LWR) flux spectrum and temperature. Four-group radiative capture cross sections produced for LWR calculations are tabulated in the code documentation and are incorporated in the EPRI-CINDER data library, RSIC Code Package CCC-309.« less

  6. a New ENDF/B-VII.0 Based Multigroup Cross-Section Library for Reactor Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpan, F. A.; Anderson, S. L.

    2009-08-01

    The latest of the ENDF/B libraries, ENDF/B-VII.0 was released in December 2006. In this paper, the ENDF/B-VII.O evaluations were used in generating a new coupled neutron/gamma multigroup library having the same group structure of VITAMIN-B6, i.e., the 199-neutron, 42-gamma group library. The new library was generated utilizing NJOY99.259 for pre-processing and the AMPX modules for post-processing of cross sections. An ENDF/B-VI.3 based VITAMIN-B6-like library was also generated. The fine-group libraries and the ENDF/B-VI.3 based 47-neutron, 20-gamma group BUGLE-96 library were used with the discrete ordinates code DORT to obtain a three-dimensional synthesized flux distribution from r, r-θ, and r-z models for a standard Westinghouse 3-loop design reactor. Reaction rates were calculated for ex-vessel neutron dosimetry containing 63Cu(n,α)60Co, 46Ti(n,p)46Sc, 54Fe(n,P)54Mn, 58Ni(n,P)58Co, 238U(n,f)137Cs, 237Np(n,f)137Cs, and 59Co(n,γ)60Co (bare and cadmium covered) reactions. Results were compared to measurements. In comparing the 199-neutron, 42-gamma group ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII.O libraries, it was observed that the ENDF/B-VI.3 based library results were in better agreement with measurements. There is a maximum difference of 7% (for the 63Cu(n,α)60Co reaction rate calculation) between ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII.O. Differences between ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII.O libraries are due to 16O, 1H, 90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 238U, and 239Pu evaluations. Both ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII.O library calculated reaction rates are within 20% of measurement and meet the criterion specified in the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.190, "Calculational and Dosimetry Methods for Determining Pressure Vessel Neutron Fluence."

  7. PyFR: An open source framework for solving advection-diffusion type problems on streaming architectures using the flux reconstruction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherden, F. D.; Farrington, A. M.; Vincent, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    High-order numerical methods for unstructured grids combine the superior accuracy of high-order spectral or finite difference methods with the geometric flexibility of low-order finite volume or finite element schemes. The Flux Reconstruction (FR) approach unifies various high-order schemes for unstructured grids within a single framework. Additionally, the FR approach exhibits a significant degree of element locality, and is thus able to run efficiently on modern streaming architectures, such as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). The aforementioned properties of FR mean it offers a promising route to performing affordable, and hence industrially relevant, scale-resolving simulations of hitherto intractable unsteady flows within the vicinity of real-world engineering geometries. In this paper we present PyFR, an open-source Python based framework for solving advection-diffusion type problems on streaming architectures using the FR approach. The framework is designed to solve a range of governing systems on mixed unstructured grids containing various element types. It is also designed to target a range of hardware platforms via use of an in-built domain specific language based on the Mako templating engine. The current release of PyFR is able to solve the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on grids of quadrilateral and triangular elements in two dimensions, and hexahedral elements in three dimensions, targeting clusters of CPUs, and NVIDIA GPUs. Results are presented for various benchmark flow problems, single-node performance is discussed, and scalability of the code is demonstrated on up to 104 NVIDIA M2090 GPUs. The software is freely available under a 3-Clause New Style BSD license (see www.pyfr.org). Catalogue identifier: AETY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: New style BSD license No. of lines in

  8. Evolution of error diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Keith T.

    1999-10-01

    As we approach the new millennium, error diffusion is approaching the 25th anniversary of its invention. Because of its exceptionally high image quality, it continues to be a popular choice among digital halftoning algorithms. Over the last 24 years, many attempts have been made to modify and improve the algorithm--to eliminate unwanted textures and to extend it to printing media and color. Some of these modifications have been very successful and are in use today. This paper will review the history of the algorithm and its modifications. Three watershed events in the development of error diffusion will be described, together with the lessons learned along the way.

  9. Evolution of error diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Keith T.

    1998-12-01

    As we approach the new millennium, error diffusion is approaching the 25th anniversary of its invention. Because of its exceptionally high image quality, it continues to be a popular choice among digital halftoning algorithms. Over the last 24 years, many attempts have been made to modify and improve the algorithm - to eliminate unwanted textures and to extend it to printing media and color. Some of these modifications have been very successful and are in use today. This paper will review the history of the algorithm and its modifications. Three watershed events in the development of error diffusion will be described, together with the lesions learned along the way.

  10. Generalizing the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo approach to finite temperature: a path for the optimization of low-energy many-body basis expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeongnim; Reboredo, Fernando A

    2014-01-01

    The self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo method for complex functions [F. A. Reboredo J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 136}, 204101 (2012)] and some ideas of the correlation function Monte Carlo approach [D. M. Ceperley and B. Bernu, J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 89}, 6316 (1988)] are blended to obtain a method for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of many-body systems at low temperatures. In order to allow the evolution in imaginary time to describe the density matrix, we remove the fixed-node restriction using complex antisymmetric trial wave functions. A statistical method is derived for the calculation of finite temperature properties of many-body systems near the ground state. In the process we also obtain a parallel algorithm that optimizes the many-body basis of a small subspace of the many-body Hilbert space. This small subspace is optimized to have maximum overlap with the one expanded by the lower energy eigenstates of a many-body Hamiltonian. We show in a model system that the Helmholtz free energy is minimized within this subspace as the iteration number increases. We show that the subspace expanded by the small basis systematically converges towards the subspace expanded by the lowest energy eigenstates. Possible applications of this method to calculate the thermodynamic properties of many-body systems near the ground state are discussed. The resulting basis can be also used to accelerate the calculation of the ground or excited states with Quantum Monte Carlo.

  11. Generalizing the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo approach to finite temperature: A path for the optimization of low-energy many-body bases

    SciTech Connect

    Reboredo, Fernando A.; Kim, Jeongnim

    2014-02-21

    A statistical method is derived for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of many-body systems at low temperatures. This method is based on the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo method for complex functions [F. A. Reboredo, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 204101 (2012)] and some ideas of the correlation function Monte Carlo approach [D. M. Ceperley and B. Bernu, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6316 (1988)]. In order to allow the evolution in imaginary time to describe the density matrix, we remove the fixed-node restriction using complex antisymmetric guiding wave functions. In the process we obtain a parallel algorithm that optimizes a small subspace of the many-body Hilbert space to provide maximum overlap with the subspace spanned by the lowest-energy eigenstates of a many-body Hamiltonian. We show in a model system that the partition function is progressively maximized within this subspace. We show that the subspace spanned by the small basis systematically converges towards the subspace spanned by the lowest energy eigenstates. Possible applications of this method for calculating the thermodynamic properties of many-body systems near the ground state are discussed. The resulting basis can also be used to accelerate the calculation of the ground or excited states with quantum Monte Carlo.

  12. A novel approach for precisely controlled multiple cell patterning in microfluidic chips by inkjet printing and the detection of drug metabolism and diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Fengming; He, Ziyi; Ma, Yuan; Uchiyama, Katsumi; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2016-05-10

    In this work we report the use of inkjet printing as a precise and convenient means for microscale cell patterning in microfluidic chips followed by cell co-culture, stimulation and analysis. A self-made inkjet printing device was manufactured with adjustable parameters, which was capable of multiple cell printing within biocompatible materials. Sodium alginate was used as a printing matrix for cell encapsulation, and precisely distributed cell arrays on glass slides were obtained by accurate software controlled printing. By covering a PDMS layer with the corresponding microchannels onto the cell array substrate and subsequently injecting an ion cross-linking reagent, the cells containing alginate arrays gelated immediately and were immobilized on the bottom of the microchip, which could be utilized for cell culture and analysis. HepG2 cells and U251 cells were successfully co-patterned in the microchip and used for drug metabolism and diffusion experiment to imitate the in vivo situation, as a means to ascertain the capability of the system for precise microscale cell patterning in a microchip. The prodrug tegafur was metabolized by HepG2 cells into the active anticancer compound 5-fluorouracil and this produced an adverse gradient effect on U251 cells according to the distance from the HepG2 cells. The developed approach presented a feasible way to integrate inkjet cell printing and microfluidic chips for the first time, which is proved to be capable of spatially controlled printing of multiple kinds of cells into a microchip for cell culture, stimulation and analysis, which could be applied to tissue engineering, drug testing and related areas. We envision that the approach will help significantly increase the cell patterning efficacy in microfluidic chips as well as reduce the extent of laborious experimental work. PMID:27045202

  13. Multi-Population Invariance with Dichotomous Measures: Combining Multi-Group and MIMIC Methodologies in Evaluating the General Aptitude Test in the Arabic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al-harbi, Khaleel A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the model of measurement invariance by simultaneously estimating invariance across multiple populations in the dichotomous instrument case using multi-group confirmatory factor analytic and multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) methodologies. Using the Arabic version of the General Aptitude Test…

  14. A Code For Calculating Self-Shielded Multigroup Neutron Cross Sections and Self-Shielding Factors From Preprocessed ENDF/B Basic Data Files.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-11-20

    Version 00 REX2-87 is a computer code developed for the calculation of self-shielded multigroup average cross sections, and self-shielding factors for total, elastic, fission and capture processes from an ENDF/B formatted nuclear data file in which the tabulated cross sections follow linear interpolation throughout.

  15. The seismic ambient noise spectral ratio H/V under de diffuse field approach for simple layered models: Asymptotic behavior for low and high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzón, F.; García-Jerez, A.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Lunedei, E.; Albarello, D.; Santoyo, M. A.; Almendros, J.

    2013-05-01

    The possibility of retrieving the elastodynamic Green's tensor between two points within an elastic medium from time-domain correlation of ambient noise recorded at such sites was duly confirmed in the pioneering seismic experiments by Campillo and Paul (2003) and Shapiro and Campillo (2004). Afterwards, several theoretical works on this subject have been conducted for simple models showing that such a possibility implies the condition of diffuse wavefield which requires isotropy of the illumination or the fulfillment of certain relationships between the energies of different types of waves (derived from the energy equipartition principle). In this work we examine the reliability of the usual assumptions that emerge from the Diffuse Field Approach (DFA). In particular we deal with the wavefield composition in applications regarding the passive seismic prospecting. We revise briefly the more general formulation of the DFA for full wavefield (FW). In this case the contribution of each wave to the horizontal-and vertical power spectra at surface are analyzed for a simple elastic waveguide (for instance the continental crust-upper mantle interface). Special attention is paid to their compositions at low-and high-frequencies, obtaining the relative powers of each surface wave (SW) type by means of a semi-analytical analysis. We found for some simple models that if body waves are removed from the analysis, the high-frequency horizontal asymptote of the H/V spectral ratio decreases slightly (from 1.33 for FW to around 1.14 for SW) and shows dependence on both the Poisson's ratio of the crust and the S-wave velocity contrast (while FW-H/V asymptote depends on the former only). Experimental tests for a broad band network deployed at SW Pyrenees edge provide H/V curves compatible with any of these values in the band 0.2-1Hz, approximately, supporting the applicability of the DFA approximation. Coexistence of multiple SW-modes produces distortion in the amplitude of both

  16. Axial expansion methods for solution of the multi-dimensional neutron diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Beaklini Filho, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility and practical implementation of axial expansion methods for the solution of the multi-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion (MGD) equations is investigated. The theoretical examination which is applicable to the general MGD equations in arbitrary geometry includes the derivation of a new weak (reduced) form of the MGD equations by expanding the axial component of the neutron flux in a series of known trial functions and utilizing the Galerkin weighting. A general two-group albedo boundary condition is included in the weak form as a natural boundary condition. The application of different types of trial functions is presented.

  17. Mechanisms of Innovation Diffusion under Information Abundance and Information Scarcity--On the Contribution of Social Networks in Group vs. Individual Extension Approaches in Semi-Arid Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Dietrich; Pretzsch, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of innovation diffusion under group-oriented and individual-oriented extension. Current theoretical notions of innovation diffusion in social networks shall be briefly reviewed, and the concepts of "search" and "innovation" vis-a-vis "transfer" and "imitation" mechanisms (Hansen,…

  18. A Narrative Approach to Ethnic Identity in Emerging Adulthood: Bringing Life to the Identity Status Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    This study used a narrative approach to understand how emerging adults experience ethnicity in their everyday lives and to link ethnic identity processes with the content of how ethnic identity is experienced. Participants were 191 ethnically diverse emerging adults who completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and provided a written…

  19. Dimensions of Cultural Differences: Pancultural, ETIC/EMIC, and Ecological Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the factorial structure of four major domains in social psychology (personality traits, social attitudes, values, and social norms) with an emphasis on cross-cultural differences. Three distinctive approaches--pancultural, multigroup, and multilevel--were applied to the data based on 22 measures that were collected from 2029…

  20. Vaneless diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Y.

    The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.

  1. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  2. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  3. Two-Dimensional x-y and r-z Geometry Multigroup Transport Code System for Large Toroidal Reactors.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1980-06-16

    Version: 00 Although TRIDENT-CTR is a follow-on code to TRIDENT, it has incorporated several features that make it significantly different. It can handle a wide range of irregular geometric domains in both x-y and r-z geometries. However, it was principally designed to solve shielding and blanket problems for large toroidal reactors. TRIDENT-CTR is a two-dimensional, x-y and r-z geometry, multigroup, neutral particle transport code. The use of triangular finite elements gives it the geometric flexibilitymore » to cope with the nonorthogonal shapes of many toroidal designs. The code is capable of handling a wide variety of problems having irregular domains in both x-y and r-z geometries.« less

  4. BUGLE-96: A revised multigroup cross section library for LWR applications based on ENDF/B-VI Release 3

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.E.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Slater, C.O.; Roussin, R.W.

    1996-05-01

    A revised multigroup cross-section library based ON ENDF/B-VI Release 3 has been produced for light water reactor shielding and reactor pressure vessel dosimetry applications. This new broad-group library, which is designated BUGLE-96, represents an improvement over the BUGLE-93 library released in February 1994 and is expected to replace te BUGLE-93 data. The cross-section processing methodology is the same as that used for producing BUGLE-93 and is consistent with ANSI/ANS 6.1.2. As an added feature, cross-section sets having upscatter data for four thermal neutron groups are included in the BUGLE-96 package available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center. The upscattering data should improve the application of this library to the calculation of more accurate thermal fluences, although more computer time will be required. The incorporation of feedback from users has resulted in a data library that addresses a wider spectrum of user needs.

  5. Code System for Producing Pointwise and Multigroup Neutron and Photon Cross Sections from ENDF/B Data.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-06-01

    Version 04 The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a comprehensive computer code package for producing pointwise and multigroup neutron and photon cross sections from ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data. This is the last NJOY-91 series. It uses the same module structure as the earlier versions and its graphics options depend on DISSPLA. This new release, designated NJOY91.119, includes bug fixes, improvements in several modules, and some new capabilities. Information on the changes is included inmore » the README file. A new test problem was added to test some ENDF-6 features, including Reich-Moore resonance reconstruction, energy-angle matrices in GROUPR, and energy-angle distributions in ACER. The 91.119 release is basically configured for UNIX.« less

  6. Thermodynamics of diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matuszak, Daniel

    Diffusion is the migration of molecules in the reference frame of a system's center of mass and it is a physical process that occurs in all chemical and biological systems. Diffusion generally involves intermolecular interactions that lead to clustering, adsorption, and phase transitions; as such, it is difficult to describe theoretically on a molecular level in systems containing both intermolecular repulsions and attractions. This work describes a simple thermodynamic approach that accounts for intermolecular attractions and repulsions (much like how the van der Waals equation does) to model and help provide an understanding of diffusion. The approach is an extension of the equilibrium Lattice Density Functional Theory of Aranovich and Donohue; it was developed with Mason and Lonsdale's guidelines on how to construct and test a transport theory. In the framework of lattice fluids, this new approach gives (a) correct equilibrium limits, (b) Fickian behavior for non-interacting systems, (c) correct departures from Fickian behavior in non-ideal systems, (d) the correct Maxwell-Stefan formulation, (e) symmetry behavior upon re-labeling species, (f) reasonable non-equilibrium phase behavior, (g) agreement with Molecular Dynamics simulations, (h) agreement with the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, (i) a vanishing diffusive flux at the critical point, and (j) other qualitatively-correct behaviors when applied to problems in porous membranes and in packed beds.

  7. The Relationship between Receptive and Expressive Subskills of Academic L2 Proficiency in Nonnative Speakers of English: A Multigroup Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between receptive and expressive language skills characterized by the performance of nonnative speakers (NNSs) of English in the academic context. Test scores of 585 adult NNSs were selected from Form 2 of the Pearson Test of English Academic's field-test database. A correlated…

  8. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  9. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  10. Continuous fluorescence microphotolysis of anthracene-labeled phospholipids in membranes. Theoretical approach of the simultaneous determination of their photodimerization and lateral diffusion rates.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrières, X; Lopez, A; Altibelli, A; Dupou-Cezanne, L; Lagouanelle, J L; Tocanne, J F

    1989-01-01

    Anthracene is a fluorescent and photoactivatable (dimerization) group which can be used for investigating the lateral distribution and dynamics of lipids in membranes. In fluorescence recovery after photobleaching or in microphotolysis experiments, and when using this fluorophore, the bleaching (or microphotolysis) step in the illuminated part of the membrane is in fact the sum of two antagonistic processes: fluorescence decay, which is due to dimerization of anthracene residues, and fluorescence recovery, which is due to a diffusion mediated exchange of bleached and unbleached particles between the illuminated and diffusion area in the membrane. Here, we propose a new mathematical algorithm that enables such a second-order reaction-diffusion process to be analyzed. After coupling a fluorescence recovery step to a microphotolysis step, this algorithm allows us to calculate the lateral diffusion coefficient D and the photodimerization constant K of anthracene-labeled lipids in membranes, two parameters which contribute to the understanding of the fluidity of the lipid phase in membranes. This algorithm also provides us with a complete description of the anthracene-labeled molecules distribution in the illuminated and diffusion area, at any time of the experiment. The fluorescence recovery after microphotolysis procedure we propose was tested with an anthracene-labeled phosphatidylcholine inserted in egg-phosphatidylcholine multilayers, in monolayers adsorbed onto alkylated glass surfaces and in the plasma membrane of Chinese hamster ovary cells. It is shown that this procedure can also be used to evaluate the important parameters of probe mobile fraction and to determine the relative size of the illuminated and diffusion areas. This will enable membranes to be explored in terms of microdomains and/or macrodomains. PMID:2765646

  11. Status report on multigroup cross section generation code development for high-fidelity deterministic neutronics simulation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. S.; Lee, C. H.

    2008-05-16

    Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC{sup 2}-2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC{sup 2}-2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC{sup 2}-2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC{sup 2}-2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC{sup 2}-2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC{sup 2}-2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within {approx}0.25% {Delta}{rho}, except a few small LANL fast assemblies

  12. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  13. Optimal Network Modularity for Information Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Ferrara, Emilio; Flammini, Alessandro; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the impact of community structure on information diffusion with the linear threshold model. Our results demonstrate that modular structure may have counterintuitive effects on information diffusion when social reinforcement is present. We show that strong communities can facilitate global diffusion by enhancing local, intracommunity spreading. Using both analytic approaches and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal network modularity, where global diffusion requires the minimal number of early adopters.

  14. Extended source model for diffusive coupling.

    PubMed

    González-Ochoa, Héctor O; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Reyes, Luz M; Femat, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the prevailing approach to diffusion coupling phenomena which considers point-like diffusing sources, we derived an analogous expression for the concentration rate of change of diffusively coupled extended containers. The proposed equation, together with expressions based on solutions to the diffusion equation, is intended to be applied to the numerical solution of systems exclusively composed of ordinary differential equations, however is able to account for effects due the finite size of the coupled sources. PMID:26802012

  15. Kramers turnover: From energy diffusion to spatial diffusion using metadynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwary, Pratyush; Berne, B. J.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the rate of transition for a particle between two metastable states coupled to a thermal environment for various magnitudes of the coupling strength using the recently proposed infrequent metadynamics approach [P. Tiwary and M. Parrinello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230602 (2013)]. We are interested in understanding how this approach for obtaining rate constants performs as the dynamics regime changes from energy diffusion to spatial diffusion. Reassuringly, we find that the approach works remarkably well for various coupling strengths in the strong coupling regime, and to some extent even in the weak coupling regime.

  16. General Purpose Monte Carlo Codes for Neutron and Photon Transport Calculations based on Continuous Energy and Multigroup Methods.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-02-29

    Version 00 (1) Problems to be solved: MVP/GMVP II can solve eigenvalue and fixed-source problems. The multigroup code GMVP can solve forward and adjoint problems for neutron, photon and neutron-photon coupled transport. The continuous-energy code MVP can solve only the forward problems. Both codes can also perform time-dependent calculations. (2) Geometry description: MVP/GMVP employs combinatorial geometry to describe the calculation geometry. It describes spatial regions by the combination of the 3-dimensional objects (BODIes). Currently, themore » following objects (BODIes) can be used. - BODIes with linear surfaces : half space, parallelepiped, right parallelepiped, wedge, right hexagonal prism - BODIes with quadratic surface and linear surfaces : cylinder, sphere, truncated right cone, truncated elliptic cone, ellipsoid by rotation, general ellipsoid - Arbitrary quadratic surface and torus The rectangular and hexagonal lattice geometry can be used to describe the repeated geometry. Furthermore, the statistical geometry model is available to treat coated fuel particles or pebbles for high temperature reactors. (3) Particle sources: The various forms of energy-, angle-, space- and time-dependent distribution functions can be specified. See Abstract for more detail.« less

  17. Multi-Group Formulation of the Temperature-Dependent Resonance Scattering Model and its Impact on Reactor Core Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ghrayeb, Shadi Z.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Ouisloumen, Mohamed; Ivanov, Kostadin N.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-group formulation for the exact neutron elastic scattering kernel is developed. It incorporates the neutron up-scattering effects, stemming from lattice atoms thermal motion and accounts for it within the resulting effective nuclear cross-section data. The effects pertain essentially to resonant scattering off of heavy nuclei. The formulation, implemented into a standalone code, produces effective nuclear scattering data that are then supplied directly into the DRAGON lattice physics code where the effects on Doppler Reactivity and neutron flux are demonstrated. The correct accounting for the crystal lattice effects influences the estimated values for the probability of neutron absorption and scattering, which in turn affect the estimation of core reactivity and burnup characteristics. The results show an increase in values of Doppler temperature feedback coefficients up to -10% for UOX and MOX LWR fuels compared to the corresponding values derived using the traditional asymptotic elastic scattering kernel. This paper also summarizes the results done on this topic to date.

  18. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire: instrument refinement and measurement invariance across age and sex.

    PubMed

    Vestergren, Peter; Rönnlund, Michael; Nyberg, Lars; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2012-10-01

    The study adopted Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to investigate the factorial structure and reduce the number of items of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire (CDQ). The analyses were based on data for a total of 1,115 participants from population based samples (mean age: 63.0 ± 14.5 years, range: 25-95) randomly split into a refinement (N = 569) and a cross-validation (N = 546) sample. Equivalence of the measurement and structural portions of the refined model was demonstrated across the refinement and cross-validation samples. Among competing models the best fitting and parsimonious model had a hierarchical factor structure with five first-order and one second-order general factor. For the final version of the CDQ, 20 items within five domains were selected (Procedural actions, Semantic word knowledge, Face recognition, Temporal orientation, and Spatial navigation). Internal consistency reliabilities were adequate for the total scale and for the subscales. Multigroup CFAs indicated measurement invariance across age and sex up to the scalar level. Finally, higher levels of cognitive dysfunction as reflected by CDQ scores were predicted by advancing age, fewer years of education, and with deficits in general cognitive functioning as reflected by scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, the CDQ appears to be psychometrically sound and shows the expected relationships with variables known to be associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Future studies should apply it among clinical groups to further test its usefulness. PMID:22962857

  19. VELM61 and VELM22: Multigroup cross-section libraries for sodium-cooled reactor shield analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two coupled neutron and photon multigroup cross-section libraries, derived from ENDF/B-V nuclear data, are described. The energy group structures, 61n/23..gamma.. and 22n/10..gamma.., are subsets of the Vitamin-E 174n/38..gamma.. group structure, and are tailored to the iron and sodium resonances, windows, and capture gamma-ray spectra. Each of the two libraries are available in two formats, the AMPX master format and the ANISN format. Cross sections for all materials in the Vitamin-E library were collapsed using a standard energy weighting function, and in addition, several cross-section sets for each of the major constituents of commercial grade sodium, stainless steel (types 304 and 316), and carbon steel were derived using several problem-dependent weighting functions for averaging the fine groups. Effects of various group structures and weighting functions on the accuracy of the broad group libraries are studied by ANISN analysis of a typical sodium-iron shield configuration.

  20. Quantum diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, S.

    1994-10-01

    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ``quantum diffusion`` terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source.

  1. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  2. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  3. Diffuse sorption modeling.

    PubMed

    Pivovarov, Sergey

    2009-04-01

    This work presents a simple solution for the diffuse double layer model, applicable to calculation of surface speciation as well as to simulation of ionic adsorption within the diffuse layer of solution in arbitrary salt media. Based on Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the Gaines-Thomas selectivity coefficient for uni-bivalent exchange on clay, K(GT)(Me(2+)/M(+))=(Q(Me)(0.5)/Q(M)){M(+)}/{Me(2+)}(0.5), (Q is the equivalent fraction of cation in the exchange capacity, and {M(+)} and {Me(2+)} are the ionic activities in solution) may be calculated as [surface charge, mueq/m(2)]/0.61. The obtained solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation was applied to calculation of ionic exchange on clays and to simulation of the surface charge of ferrihydrite in 0.01-6 M NaCl solutions. In addition, a new model of acid-base properties was developed. This model is based on assumption that the net proton charge is not located on the mathematical surface plane but diffusely distributed within the subsurface layer of the lattice. It is shown that the obtained solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation makes such calculations possible, and that this approach is more efficient than the original diffuse double layer model. PMID:19159896

  4. Diffusion and scattering in multifractal clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Waston, B.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes investigations of radiative properties of multifractal clouds using two different approaches. In the first, diffusion is considered by examining the scaling properties of one dimensional random walks on media with multifractal diffusivities. The second approach considers the scattering statistics associated with radiative transport.

  5. Diffusion on Cu surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimi, Majid

    1993-01-01

    Understanding surface diffusion is essential in understanding surface phenomena, such as crystal growth, thin film growth, corrosion, physisorption, and chemisorption. Because of its importance, various experimental and theoretical efforts have been directed to understand this phenomena. The Field Ion Microscope (FIM) has been the major experimental tool for studying surface diffusion. FIM have been employed by various research groups to study surface diffusion of adatoms. Because of limitations of the FIM, such studies are only limited to a few surfaces: nickel, platinum, aluminum, iridium, tungsten, and rhodium. From the theoretical standpoint, various atomistic simulations are performed to study surface diffusion. In most of these calculations the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) along with the molecular static (MS) simulation are utilized. The EAM is a semi-empirical approach for modeling the interatomic interactions. The MS simulation is a technique for minimizing the total energy of a system of particles with respect to the positions of its particles. One of the objectives of this work is to develop the EAM functions for Cu and use them in conjunction with the molecular static (MS) simulation to study diffusion of a Cu atom on a perfect as well as stepped Cu(100) surfaces. This will provide a test of the validity of the EAM functions on Cu(100) surface and near the stepped environments. In particular, we construct a terrace-ledge-kink (TLK) model and calculate the migration energies of an atom on a terrace, near a ledge site, near a kink site, and going over a descending step. We have also calculated formation energies of an atom on the bare surface, a vacancy in the surface, a stepped surface, and a stepped-kink surface. Our results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical results.

  6. Nonlocal electrical diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; Olivares-Peregrino, V. H.; Benavides-Cruz, M.; Calderón-Ramón, C.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis and modeling of the electrical diffusion equation using the fractional calculus approach. This alternative representation for the current density is expressed in terms of the Caputo derivatives, the order for the space domain is 0<β≤1 and for the time domain is 0<γ≤2. We present solutions for the full fractional equation involving space and time fractional derivatives using numerical methods based on Fourier variable separation. The case with spatial fractional derivatives leads to Levy flight type phenomena, while the time fractional equation is related to sub- or super diffusion. We show that the mathematical concept of fractional derivatives can be useful to understand the behavior of semiconductors, the design of solar panels, electrochemical phenomena and the description of anomalous complex processes.

  7. Noninvasive assessment of hemodynamic and brain metabolism parameters following closed head injury in a mouse model by comparative diffuse optical reflectance approaches.

    PubMed

    Abookasis, David; Volkov, Boris; Shochat, Ariel; Kofman, Itamar

    2016-04-01

    Optical techniques have gained substantial interest over the past four decades for biomedical imaging due to their unique advantages, which may suggest their use as alternatives to conventional methodologies. Several optical techniques have been successfully adapted to clinical practice and biomedical research to monitor tissue structure and function in both humans and animal models. This paper reviews the analysis of the optical properties of brain tissue in the wavelength range between 500 and 1000 nm by three different diffuse optical reflectance methods: spatially modulated illumination, orthogonal diffuse light spectroscopy, and dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging, to monitor changes in brain tissue morphology, chromophore content, and metabolism following head injury. After induction of closed head injury upon anesthetized mice by weight-drop method, significant changes in hemoglobin oxygen saturation, blood flow, and metabolism were readily detectible by all three optical setups, up to 1 h post-trauma. Furthermore, the experimental results clearly demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the three methodologies, and the differences between the system performances and capabilities are also discussed. The long-term goal of this line of study is to combine these optical systems to study brain pathophysiology in high spatiotemporal resolution using additional models of brain trauma. Such combined use of complementary algorithms should fill the gaps in each system's capabilities, toward the development of a noninvasive, quantitative tool to expand our knowledge of the principles underlying brain function following trauma, and to monitor the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in the clinic. PMID:27175372

  8. Comparison of experimental approaches to study selective properties of thick phase-amplitude holograms recorded in materials with diffusion-based formation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Vladimir; Klepinina, Mariia; Veniaminov, Andrey; Angervaks, Aleksandr; Shcheulin, Aleksandr; Ryskin, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    Volume holographic gratings, both transmission and reflection-type, may be employed as one-dimensional pho- tonic crystals. More complex two- and three-dimensional holographic photonic-crystalline structures can be recorded using several properly organized beams. As compared to colloidal photonic crystals, their holographic counterparts let minimize distortions caused by multiple inner boundaries of the media. Unfortunately, it's still hard to analyze spectral response of holographic structures. This work presents the results of thick holographic gratings analysis based on spectral-angular selectivity contours approximation. The gratings were recorded in an additively colored fluorite crystal and a glassy polymer doped with phenanthrenequinone (PQ-PMMA). The two materials known as promising candidates for 3D diffraction optics including photonic crystals, employ diffusion-based mechanisms of grating formation. The surfaces of spectral-angular selectivity were obtained in a single scan using a white-light LED, rotable table and a matrix spectrometer. The data expressed as 3D plots make apparent visual estimation of the grating phase/amplitude nature, noninearity of recording, etc., and provide sufficient information for numerical analysis. The grating recorded in the crystal was found to be a mixed phase-amplitude one, with different contributions of refractive index and absorbance modulation at different wavelengths, and demonstrated three diffraction orders corresponding to its three spatial harmonics originating from intrinsically nonlinear diffusion-drift recording mechanism. Contrastingly, the grating in the polymeric medium appeared purely phase and linearly recorded.

  9. Optimization of the Direct Discrete Method Using the Solution of the Adjoint Equation and its Application in the Multi-Group Neutron Diffusion Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyoubzadeh, Seyed Mohsen; Vosoughi, Naser

    2011-09-14

    Obtaining the set of algebraic equations that directly correspond to a physical phenomenon has been viable in the recent direct discrete method (DDM). Although this method may find its roots in physical and geometrical considerations, there are still some degrees of freedom that one may suspect optimize-able. Here we have used the information embedded in the corresponding adjoint equation to form a local functional, which in turn by its minimization, yield suitable dual mesh positioning.

  10. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an

  11. An axisymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples.

    PubMed

    Takeda, M; Hiratsuka, T; Ito, K; Finsterle, S

    2011-04-25

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an

  12. Bayesian identification of protein differential expression in multi-group isobaric labelled mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Jow, Howsun; Boys, Richard J; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we develop a Bayesian statistical inference approach to the unified analysis of isobaric labelled MS/MS proteomic data across multiple experiments. An explicit probabilistic model of the log-intensity of the isobaric labels' reporter ions across multiple pre-defined groups and experiments is developed. This is then used to develop a full Bayesian statistical methodology for the identification of differentially expressed proteins, with respect to a control group, across multiple groups and experiments. This methodology is implemented and then evaluated on simulated data and on two model experimental datasets (for which the differentially expressed proteins are known) that use a TMT labelling protocol. PMID:25153608

  13. Dosimetric modeling of the microselectron high-dose rate 192Ir source by the multigroup discrete ordinates method.

    PubMed

    Daskalov, G M; Baker, R S; Rogers, D W; Williamson, J F

    2000-10-01

    The DANTSYS multigroup discrete ordinates computer code is applied to quantitatively estimate the absorbed dose rate distributions in the vicinity of a microSelectron 192Ir high-dose-rate (HDR) source in two-dimensional cylindrical R-Z geometry. The source is modeled in a cylindrical water phantom of diameter 20 cm and height 20 cm. The results are also used for evaluation of the Task Group 43 (TG-43) dosimetric quantities. The DANTSYS accuracy is estimated by direct comparisons with corresponding Monte Carlo results. Our 210-group photon cross section library developed previously, together with angular quadratures consisting of 36 (S16) to 210 (S40) directions and associated weights per octant, are used in the DANTSYS simulations. Strong ray effects are observed but are significantly mitigated through the use of DANTSYS's stochastic ray-tracing first collision source algorithm. The DANTSYS simulations closely approximate Monte Carlo estimates of both direct dose calculations and TG-43 dosimetric quantities. The discrepancies with S20 angular quadrature (55 directions and weights per octant) or higher are shown to be less than +/- 5% (about 2.5 standard deviations of Monte Carlo calculations) everywhere except for limited regions along the Z axis of rotational symmetry, where technical limitations in the DANTSYS first collision source implementation makes adequate suppression of ray effects difficult to achieve. The efficiency of DANTSYS simulations is compared with that of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. It is demonstrated that even with the 210-group cross section library, DANTSYS achieves two-fold efficiency gains using the the S20 quadrature set. The potential of discrete ordinates method for further efficiency improvements is also discussed. PMID:11099199

  14. Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn of inertial confinement fusion targets: A multi-scale approach

    SciTech Connect

    Peigney, B. E.; Larroche, O.

    2014-12-15

    In this article, we study the hydrodynamics and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level. The analysis is based on a two-velocity-scale Vlasov-Fokker-Planck kinetic model that is specially tailored to treat fusion products (suprathermal α-particles) in a self-consistent manner with the thermal bulk. The model assumes spherical symmetry in configuration space and axial symmetry in velocity space around the mean flow velocity. A typical hot-spot ignition design is considered. Compared with fluid simulations where a multi-group diffusion scheme is applied to model α transport, the full ion-kinetic approach reveals significant non-local effects on the transport of energetic α-particles. This has a direct impact on hydrodynamic spatial profiles during combustion: the hot spot reactivity is reduced, while the inner dense fuel layers are pre-heated by the escaping α-suprathermal particles, which are transported farther out of the hot spot. We show how the kinetic transport enhancement of fusion products leads to a significant reduction of the fusion yield.

  15. An upscaled approach for transport in media with extended tailing due to back-diffusion using analytical and numerical solutions of the advection dispersion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jack C.; Kim, Ungtae

    2015-11-01

    The mono-continuum advection-dispersion equation (mADE) is commonly regarded as unsuitable for application to media that exhibit rapid breakthrough and extended tailing associated with diffusion between high and low permeability regions. This paper demonstrates that the mADE can be successfully used to model such conditions if certain issues are addressed. First, since hydrodynamic dispersion, unlike molecular diffusion, cannot occur upstream of the contaminant source, models must be formulated to prevent "back-dispersion." Second, large variations in aquifer permeability will result in differences between volume-weighted average concentration (resident concentration) and flow-weighted average concentration (flux concentration). Water samples taken from wells may be regarded as flux concentrations, while soil samples may be analyzed to determine resident concentrations. While the mADE is usually derived in terms of resident concentration, it is known that a mADE of the same mathematical form may be written in terms of flux concentration. However, when solving the latter, the mathematical transformation of a flux boundary condition applied to the resident mADE becomes a concentration type boundary condition for the flux mADE. Initial conditions must also be consistent with the form of the mADE that is to be solved. Thus, careful attention must be given to the type of concentration data that is available, whether resident or flux concentrations are to be simulated, and to boundary and initial conditions. We present 3-D analytical solutions for resident and flux concentrations, discuss methods of solving numerical models to obtain resident and flux concentrations, and compare results for hypothetical problems. We also present an upscaling method for computing "effective" dispersivities and other mADE model parameters in terms of physically meaningful parameters in a diffusion-limited mobile-immobile model. Application of the latter to previously published studies of

  16. An upscaled approach for transport in media with extended tailing due to back-diffusion using analytical and numerical solutions of the advection dispersion equation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jack C; Kim, Ungtae

    2015-11-01

    The mono-continuum advection-dispersion equation (mADE) is commonly regarded as unsuitable for application to media that exhibit rapid breakthrough and extended tailing associated with diffusion between high and low permeability regions. This paper demonstrates that the mADE can be successfully used to model such conditions if certain issues are addressed. First, since hydrodynamic dispersion, unlike molecular diffusion, cannot occur upstream of the contaminant source, models must be formulated to prevent "back-dispersion." Second, large variations in aquifer permeability will result in differences between volume-weighted average concentration (resident concentration) and flow-weighted average concentration (flux concentration). Water samples taken from wells may be regarded as flux concentrations, while soil samples may be analyzed to determine resident concentrations. While the mADE is usually derived in terms of resident concentration, it is known that a mADE of the same mathematical form may be written in terms of flux concentration. However, when solving the latter, the mathematical transformation of a flux boundary condition applied to the resident mADE becomes a concentration type boundary condition for the flux mADE. Initial conditions must also be consistent with the form of the mADE that is to be solved. Thus, careful attention must be given to the type of concentration data that is available, whether resident or flux concentrations are to be simulated, and to boundary and initial conditions. We present 3-D analytical solutions for resident and flux concentrations, discuss methods of solving numerical models to obtain resident and flux concentrations, and compare results for hypothetical problems. We also present an upscaling method for computing "effective" dispersivities and other mADE model parameters in terms of physically meaningful parameters in a diffusion-limited mobile-immobile model. Application of the latter to previously published studies of

  17. Diffuse alterations in grey and white matter associated with cognitive impairment in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: evidence from a multimodal approach.

    PubMed

    Perobelli, Sandra; Alessandrini, Franco; Zoccatelli, Giada; Nicolis, Elena; Beltramello, Alberto; Assael, Baroukh M; Cipolli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a rare recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in SBDS gene, at chromosome 7q11. Phenotypically, the syndrome is characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, bone marrow dysfunction, skeletal dysplasia and variable cognitive impairments. Structural brain abnormalities (smaller head circumference and decreased brain volume) have also been reported. No correlation studies between brain abnormalities and neuropsychological features have yet been performed. In this study we investigate neuroanatomical findings, neurofunctional pathways and cognitive functioning of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome subjects compared with healthy controls. To be eligible for inclusion, participants were required to have known SBDS mutations on both alleles, no history of cranial trauma or any standard contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging. Appropriate tests were used to assess cognitive functions. The static images were acquired on a 3 × 0 T magnetic resonance scanner and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected both during the execution of the Stroop task and at rest. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess brain white matter. The Tract-based Spatial Statistics package and probabilistic tractography were used to characterize white matter pathways. Nine participants (5 males), half of all the subjects aged 9-19 years included in the Italian Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Registry, were evaluated and compared with nine healthy subjects, matched for sex and age. The patients performed less well than norms and controls on cognitive tasks (p = 0.0002). Overall, cortical thickness was greater in the patients, both in the left (+10%) and in the right (+15%) hemisphere, significantly differently increased in the temporal (left and right, p = 0.04), and right parietal (p = 0.03) lobes and in Brodmann area 44 (p = 0.04) of the right frontal lobe. The greatest increases were observed in the left

  18. Diffuse alterations in grey and white matter associated with cognitive impairment in Shwachman–Diamond syndrome: Evidence from a multimodal approach

    PubMed Central

    Perobelli, Sandra; Alessandrini, Franco; Zoccatelli, Giada; Nicolis, Elena; Beltramello, Alberto; Assael, Baroukh M.; Cipolli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Shwachman–Diamond syndrome is a rare recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in SBDS gene, at chromosome 7q11. Phenotypically, the syndrome is characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, bone marrow dysfunction, skeletal dysplasia and variable cognitive impairments. Structural brain abnormalities (smaller head circumference and decreased brain volume) have also been reported. No correlation studies between brain abnormalities and neuropsychological features have yet been performed. In this study we investigate neuroanatomical findings, neurofunctional pathways and cognitive functioning of Shwachman–Diamond syndrome subjects compared with healthy controls. To be eligible for inclusion, participants were required to have known SBDS mutations on both alleles, no history of cranial trauma or any standard contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging. Appropriate tests were used to assess cognitive functions. The static images were acquired on a 3 × 0 T magnetic resonance scanner and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected both during the execution of the Stroop task and at rest. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess brain white matter. The Tract-based Spatial Statistics package and probabilistic tractography were used to characterize white matter pathways. Nine participants (5 males), half of all the subjects aged 9–19 years included in the Italian Shwachman–Diamond Syndrome Registry, were evaluated and compared with nine healthy subjects, matched for sex and age. The patients performed less well than norms and controls on cognitive tasks (p = 0.0002). Overall, cortical thickness was greater in the patients, both in the left (+10%) and in the right (+15%) hemisphere, significantly differently increased in the temporal (left and right, p = 0.04), and right parietal (p = 0.03) lobes and in Brodmann area 44 (p = 0.04) of the right frontal lobe. The greatest increases were observed in

  19. Basin infilling of a schematic 1D estuary using two different approaches: an aggregate diffusive type model and a processed based model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laginha Silva, Patricia; Martins, Flávio A.; Boski, Tomász; Sampath, Dissanayake M. R.

    2010-05-01

    Fluvial sediment transport creates great challenges for river scientists and engineers. The interaction between the fluid (water) and the solid (dispersed sediment particles) phases is crucial in morphodynamics. The process of sediment transport and the resulting morphological evolution of rivers get more complex with the exposure of the fluvial systems to the natural and variable environment (climatic, geological, ecological and social, etc.). The earlier efforts in mathematical river modelling were almost exclusively built on traditional fluvial hydraulics. The last half century has seen more and more developments and applications of mathematical models for fluvial flow, sediment transport and morphological evolution. The first attempts for a quantitative description and simulation of basin filling in geological time scales started in the late 60´s of the last century (eg. Schwarzacher, 1966; Briggs & Pollack, 1967). However, the quality of this modelling practice has emerged as a crucial issue for concern, which is widely viewed as the key that could unlock the full potential of computational fluvial hydraulics. Most of the models presently used to study fluvial basin filling are of the "diffusion type" (Flemmings and Jordan, 1989). It must be noted that this type of models do not assume that the sediment transport is performed by a physical diffusive process. Rather they are synthetic models based on mass conservation. In the "synthesist" viewpoint (Tipper, 1992; Goldenfeld & Kadanoff, 1999; Werner, 1999 in Paola, 2000) the dynamics of complex systems may occur on many levels (time or space scales) and the dynamics of higher levels may be more or less independent of that at lower levels. In this type of models the low frequency dynamics is controlled by only a few important processes and the high frequency processes are not included. In opposition to this is the "reductionist" viewpoint that states that there is no objective reason to discard high frequency

  20. A Modified Version of XLACS-II for Processing ENDF Data into Multigroup Neutron Cross Sections in AMPX Master Library Format.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-05-07

    XLACS-IIA calculates fine-group averaged neutron cross sections from ENDF data. Its primary purpose is to produce full range multigroup libraries for the XSDRN-PM program. It also serves this purpose in the AMPX system. Provisions are included for treating fast, resonance, and thermal ENDF/B data. Fine-group energy structures and expansion orders used to represent differential cross sections for XSDRN can be arbitrarily specified by the user. Cross sections can be averaged over an arbitrary user-supplied weightingmore » function or by any of several built-in weighting functions.« less

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXIV - A general approach to measuring the value of aerospace information products and services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinberg, Herbert R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the various approaches to measuring the value of information, first defining the meanings of information, economics of information, and value. It concludes that no general model of measuring the value of information is possible and that the usual approaches, such as cost/benefit equations, have very limited applications. It also concludes that in specific contexts with given goals for newly developed products and services or newly acquired information, there is a basis for its objective valuation. The axioms and inputs for such a model are described and directions for further verification and analysis are proposed.

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 24: A general approach to measuring the value of aerospace information products and services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinberg, Herbert R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the various approaches to measuring the value of information, first defining the meanings of information, economics of information, and value. It concludes that no general model of measuring the value of information is possible and that the usual approaches, such as cost/benefit equations, have very limited applications. It also concludes that in specific contexts with given goals for newly developed products and services or newly acquired information there is a basis for its objective valuation. The axioms and inputs for such a model are described and directions for further verification and analysis are proposed.

  3. Visualization of Diffusion within Nanoarrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Holzinger, Angelika; Knittel, Peter; Poltorak, Lukasz; Gamero-Quijano, Alonso; Rickard, William D A; Walcarius, Alain; Herzog, Grégoire; Kranz, Christine; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2016-07-01

    The direct experimental characterization of diffusion processes at nanoscale remains a challenge that could help elucidate processes in biology, medicine and technology. In this report, two experimental approaches were employed to visualize ion diffusion profiles at the orifices of nanopores (radius (ra) of 86 ± 6 nm) in array format: (1) electrochemically assisted formation of silica deposits based on surfactant ion transfer across nanointerfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (nanoITIES); (2) combined atomic force - scanning electrochemical microscopy (AFM-SECM) imaging of topography and redox species diffusion through the nanopores. The nature of the diffusion zones formed around the pores is directly related to the interpore distance within the array. Nanopore arrays with different ratios of pore center-to-center separation (rc) to pore radius (ra) were fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) milling of silicon nitride (SiN) membranes, with 100 pores in a hexagonal arrangement. The ion diffusion profiles determined by the two visualization methods indicated the formation of overlapped or independent diffusion profiles at nanopore arrays with rc/ra ratios of 21 ± 2 and 91 ± 7, respectively. In particular, the silica deposition method resulted in formation of a single deposit encompassing the complete array with closer nanopore arrangement, whereas individual silica deposits were formed around each nanopore within the more widely spaced array. The methods reveal direct experimental evidence of diffusion zones at nanopore arrays and provide practical illustration that the pore-pore separation within such arrays has a significant impact on diffusional transport as the pore size is reduced to the nanoscale. These approaches to nanoscale diffusion zone visualization open up possibilities for better understanding of molecular transport processes within miniaturized systems. PMID:27264360

  4. Implementing quality assurance programs in multigroup practices for treating hypercholesterolemia in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gerber, J

    1997-10-30

    Healthcare reform is driving the development of specialty physician practices into larger regional and national physician networks. These networks arise from the federation of > or =2 practices that negotiate with managed-care organizations for contracts. Developing cardiovascular networks and establishing and implementing lipid management quality assurance programs into the network are presented in this article. Goals of the lipid management program include enhancing the identification, diagnosis, education, and comprehensive treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. Utilizing an integrated, coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to lipid management allows the cardiology network to improve patients' quality of life, reduce long-term costs, and gain a competitive advantage for successful contracting. A network lipid management program involves targeting eligible patients and treating them to a targeted level for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol where possible. Among cardiologists, there is a consensus that achieving an LDL cholesterol of < 100 mg/dL for patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease is desirable. Secondary lipid management program goals include: (1) collecting, storing, and analyzing patient demographics; (2) implementing programs involving lifestyle modification, smoking cessation, weight control; and (3) measuring clinical and economic outcomes. Convergence of several driving forces in managing hypercholesterolemia provides cardiologists with the ability to improve the process. These forces include: market-consolidated delivery systems, established lipid management guidelines, and employer-initiated policies requiring higher quality care within managed-care organizations. Methods to achieve enhanced treatment effectiveness, patient satisfaction, and control costs are discussed. Utilizing multidisciplinary teams including nurse case managers, clinical pharmacists, dietitians, and physician assistants to achieve lipid level

  5. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  6. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yen Vinokur, Marcel; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal

    2015-04-07

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  7. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  8. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  9. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  10. NIST Diffusion Data Center

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Diffusion Data Center (Web, free access)   The NIST Diffusion Data Center is a collection of over 14,100 international papers, theses, and government reports on diffusion published before 1980.

  11. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

  12. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations.

  13. Approach to estimation of absorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons diffusing from interior materials in an automobile cabin by inhalation toxicokinetic analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    The interior air of an automobile cabin has been demonstrated in our previous studies to be contaminated by high concentrations of a large variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons diffusing from the interior materials. In the present study, the amounts of seven selected aliphatic hydrocarbons absorbed by the car driver were estimated by evaluating their inhalation toxicokinetics in rats. Measured amounts of the substances were injected into a closed chamber system in which a rat had been placed, and the concentration changes in the chamber were examined. The toxicokinetics of the substances were evaluated based on concentration-time courses using a nonlinear compartment model. Their absorption amounts in humans at the levels of actual concentrations in the cabins without ventilation were extrapolated from the results found with the rats. The absorption amounts estimated for a driver during a 2 h drive were as follows: 6 microg/60 kg of human body weight for methylcyclopentane (interior concentration 23 microg/m(3) as median value in previous study), 5 microg for 2-methylpentane (36 microg/m(3)), 13 microg for n-hexane (65 microg/m(3)), 51 microg for n-heptane (150 microg/m(3)), 26 microg for 2,4-dimethylheptane (97 microg/m(3)), 17 microg for n-nonane (25 microg/m(3)) and 49 microg for n-decane (68 microg/m(3)). An inverse relationship was found between the exposure and absorption among the substances (e.g. between n-decane and 2,4-dimethylheptane). These findings suggest that not only the exposure concentrations but also the absorption amounts should be taken into account to evaluate the health effects of exposure to low concentrations of volatile compounds as environmental contaminants. PMID:19743389

  14. Multi-scale analysis of collective behavior in 2D self-propelled particle models of swarms: An Advection-Diffusion with Memory Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghib, Michael; Levin, Simon; Kevrekidis, Ioannis

    2010-05-01

    2. The long-time behavior of the msd of the centroid walk scales linearly with time for naïve groups (diffusion), but shows a sharp transition to quadratic scaling (advection) for informed ones. These observations suggest that the mesoscopic variables of interest are the magnitude of the drift, the diffusion coefficient and the time-scales at which the anomalous and the asymptotic behavior respectively dominate transport, the latter being linked to the time scale at which the group reaches a decision. In order to estimate these summary statistics from the msd, we assumed that the configuration centroid follows an uncoupled Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) with smooth jump and waiting time pdf's. The mesoscopic transport equation for this type of random walk corresponds to an Advection-Diffusion Equation with Memory (ADEM). The introduction of the memory, and thus non-Markovian effects, is necessary in order to correctly account for the two time scales present. Although we were not able to calculate the memory directly from the individual-level rules, we show that it can estimated from a single, relatively short, simulation run using a Mittag-Leffler function as template. With this function it is possible to predict accurately the behavior of the msd, as well as the full pdf for the position of the centroid. The resulting ADEM is self-consistent in the sense that transport parameters estimated from the memory via a Kubo relationship coincide with those estimated from the moments of the jump size pdf of the associated CTRW for a large number of group sizes, proportions of informed individuals, and degrees of bias along the preferred direction. We also discuss the phase diagrams for the transport coefficients estimated from this method, where we notice velocity-precision trade-offs, where precision is a measure of the deviation of realized group orientations with respect to the informed direction. We also note that the time scale to collective decision is invariant

  15. An Introduction to Fractional Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, B. I.; Langlands, T. A. M.; Straka, P.

    The mathematical description of diffusion has a long history with many different formulations including phenomenological models based on conservation of mass and constitutive laws; probabilistic models based on random walks and central limit theorems; microscopic stochastic models based on Brownian motion and Langevin equations; and mesoscopic stochastic models based on master equations and Fokker-Planck equations. A fundamental result common to the different approaches is that the mean square displacement of a diffusing particle scales linearly with time. However there have been numerous experimental measurements in which the mean square displacement of diffusing particles scales as a fractional order power law in time. In recent years a great deal of progress has been made in extending the different models for diffusion to incorporate this fractional diffusion. The tools of fractional calculus have proven very useful in these developments, linking together fractional constitutive laws, continuous time random walks, fractional Langevin equations and fractional Brownian motions. These notes provide a tutorial style overview of standard and fractional diffusion processes.

  16. Neoclassical diffusion in a turbulent plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yushmanov, P. |

    1991-11-01

    This work describes a new approach to plasma transport where the toroidal drift motion is considered as a perturbation to the fluctuating velocity. Percolation theory is used to determine the scaling of the diffusion coefficient. Several neoclassical phenomena should persist even when diffusion is enhanced from neoclassical predictions. Numerical simulation results support the theoretical scaling arguments.

  17. Diffusion of Super-Gaussian Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, C.-J.; Anderson, D.; Desaix, M.; Johannisson, P.; Lisak, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present analysis describes an analytically simple and systematic approximation procedure for modelling the free diffusive spreading of initially super-Gaussian profiles. The approach is based on a self-similar ansatz for the evolution of the diffusion profile, and the parameter functions involved in the modelling are determined by suitable…

  18. A New Approach to Testing the Fossorial Rodent Hypothesis of Mima Mound Formation Using Airborne-Based LIDAR and a Diffusive Sediment Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, S. E.; Amundson, R.

    2007-12-01

    Mima mounds are nearly circular soil mounds, found in grassland landscapes. In California, Mima mounds are often associated with vernal pools, seasonal wetlands that harbor rare and endemic plants and animals. The processes that form and maintain the mound-pool complexes have not yet been conclusively identified, even though such information is necessary to understand the effects that land use and climate change may have on the resilience and longevity of these landscapes. One hypothesis for the origin and persistence of Mima mound- vernal pool systems (termed the Fossorial Rodent Hypothesis) proposes that burrowing organisms such as pocket gophers (Rodentia: Geomyidae) maintain and possibly create the mounds by preferentially translocating soils towards mound centers as an adaptive response to high water tables. In order to investigate this hypothesis, the topographic characteristics and aboveground gopher activity of one of the largest remaining Mima mound-vernal pool systems in California were studied. Detailed topographic information for the mound-pool systems was obtained via an airborne-based LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) survey of a 25km2 region near Merced, CA. An object-oriented classification scheme, which combined different scale, shape, and spectral parameters, was employed in order to characterize the mounds. Based on the initial classification results, roughly 275,000 mounds were identified, indicating a mound density of 11,000km-2. Within the larger study area, gopher sediment transport was monitored on a 3507m2 site by conducting periodic surveys of sediment mounds created by gopher activity using a Global Positioning System and mass measurements. Downslope erosion rates (off Mima mounds) were estimated using a mass balance model which incorporates a diffusive sediment transport law. The median calculated net downslope erosion rate was 15 cm of soil per 1000 years, while the measured rate of aboveground gopher sediment movement was

  19. Silent cerebral infarct after cardiac catheterization as detected by diffusion weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging: a randomized comparison of radial and femoral arterial approaches

    PubMed Central

    Hamon, Michèle; Burzotta, Francesco; Oppenheim, Catherine; Morello, Rémy; Viader, Fausto; Hamon, Martial

    2007-01-01

    Background and objective Cerebral microembolism detected by transcranial Doppler (TCD) occurs systematically during cardiac catheterization, but its clinical relevance, remains unknown. Studies suggest that asymptomatic embolic cerebral infarction detectable by diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI might exist after percutaneous cardiac interventions with a frequency as high as 15 to 22% of cases. We have set up, for the first time, a prospective multicenter trial to assess the rate of silent cerebral infarction after cardiac catheterization and to compare the impact of the arterial access site, comparing radial and femoral access, on this phenomenon. Study design This prospective study will be performed in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. To assess the occurrence of cerebral infarction, all patients will undergo cerebral DW-MRI and neurological assessment within 24 hours before, and 48 hours after cardiac catheterization and retrograde catheterization of the aortic valve. Randomization for the access site will be performed before coronary angiography. A subgroup will be monitored by transcranial power M-mode Doppler during cardiac catheterization to observe cerebral blood flow and track emboli. Neuropsychological tests will also be recorded in a subgroup of patients before and after the interventional procedures to assess the impact of silent brain injury on potential cognitive decline. The primary end-point of the study is a direct comparison of ischemic cerebral lesions as detected by serial cerebral DW-MRI between patients explored by radial access and patients explored by femoral access. Secondary end-points include comparison of neuropsychological test performance and number of microembolism signals observed in the two groups. Implications Using serial DW-MRI, silent cerebral infarction rate will be defined and the potential influence of vascular access site will be evaluated. Silent cerebral infarction might be a major concern during cardiac catheterization

  20. An efficient nonlinear finite-difference approach in the computational modeling of the dynamics of a nonlinear diffusion-reaction equation in microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Macías-Díaz, J E; Macías, Siegfried; Medina-Ramírez, I E

    2013-12-01

    In this manuscript, we present a computational model to approximate the solutions of a partial differential equation which describes the growth dynamics of microbial films. The numerical technique reported in this work is an explicit, nonlinear finite-difference methodology which is computationally implemented using Newton's method. Our scheme is compared numerically against an implicit, linear finite-difference discretization of the same partial differential equation, whose computer coding requires an implementation of the stabilized bi-conjugate gradient method. Our numerical results evince that the nonlinear approach results in a more efficient approximation to the solutions of the biofilm model considered, and demands less computer memory. Moreover, the positivity of initial profiles is preserved in the practice by the nonlinear scheme proposed. PMID:23850847

  1. Diffuse Gamma Rays Galactic and Extragalactic Diffuse Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Reimer, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Diffuse gamma rays consist of several components: truly diffuse emission from the interstellar medium, the extragalactic background, whose origin is not firmly established yet, and the contribution from unresolved and faint Galactic point sources. One approach to unravel these components is to study the diffuse emission from the interstellar medium, which traces the interactions of high energy particles with interstellar gas and radiation fields. Because of its origin such emission is potentially able to reveal much about the sources and propagation of cosmic rays. The extragalactic background, if reliably determined, can be used in cosmological and blazar studies. Studying the derived average spectrum of faint Galactic sources may be able to give a clue to the nature of the emitting objects.

  2. Fluid diffusion in porous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Lowell I.

    , manufactured to create a narrow distribution of pore sizes in each sample, the normalized diffusion coefficient depends upon φ as D/Do~ (/phi - φc)1.5, as φ approaches a critical porosity φ c. Here, D o and D are the diffusion coefficients of the free fluid and the fluid within the porous sample, respectively. This result is compared with predictions of diffusion on a percolating cluster of identical pores as well as with continuum models based on networks with a distribution of pore sizes. While diffusion in these materials might be expected to behave according to a continuum model of porous networks based on the aggregation of spherical particles (the 'Swiss-cheese' model), the behavior seen agrees with the prediction for networks whose smallest bonds have a non-singular distribution of conductances. This experiment is unique in that the materials chosen appear to produce a system that is close enough to the percolation threshold to allow a measurement of the percolation exponents. The diffusion coefficient in these samples is also shown to depend on the average pore radius as D/Do ~ (Rp - Rc)0.49 a result which, while unpredicted, is shown to be consistent with a previous study of fluid diffusion in silica.

  3. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  4. Advanced diffusion studies with isotopically controlled materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Haller, Eugene E.

    2004-11-14

    The use of enriched stable isotopes combined with modern epitaxial deposition and depth profiling techniques enables the preparation of material heterostructures, highly appropriate for self- and foreign-atom diffusion experiments. Over the past decade we have performed diffusion studies with isotopically enriched elemental and compound semiconductors. In the present paper we highlight our recent results and demonstrate that the use of isotopically enriched materials ushered in a new era in the study of diffusion in solids which yields greater insight into the properties of native defects and their roles in diffusion. Our approach of studying atomic diffusion is not limited to semiconductors and can be applied also to other material systems. Current areas of our research concern the diffusion in the silicon-germanium alloys and glassy materials such as silicon dioxide and ion conducting silicate glasses.

  5. Diffusion of innovative agricultural production systems for sustainable development of small islands: A methodological approach based on the science of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Guiseppe; Butera, Federico M.

    1992-09-01

    In order to develop small islands, not only must a vital agricultural system be maintained, but the range of opportunities for tourism must be increased with respect to both the seaside and the environmental features of the rural landscape. As an alternative to the traditional and economically declining ones, many innovative production processes can be identified, but their success depends on their interaction with the physical, biological, economic and social environment. In order to identify the main nodes and the most critical interactions, so as to increase the probability of success of a new productive process, a methodological approach based on the science of complexity is proposed for the cultivation of capers ( Capparis spinosa L.) on the island of Pantelleria. The methodology encompasses the identification of actors and factors involved. the quantitative evaluation of their interactions with the different stages of the productive process, and a quasiquantitative evaluation of the probability that the particular action will be performed successfully. The study of “traditional,” “modernized,” and “modernized-sustainable” processes, shows that the modernized-sustainable process offers mutually reinforcing opportunities in terms of an integrated development of high-quality agricultural products and the enhancement of environmental features, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in a way that suits the development of Pantelleria. There is a high probability of failure, however, as a result of the large number of critical factors. Nevertheless, the present study indicates which activities will enhance the probability of successful innovation in the production process.

  6. User's manual for ONEDANT: a code package for one-dimensional, diffusion-accelerated, neutral-particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R.D.; Brinkley, F.W. Jr.; Marr, D.R.

    1982-02-01

    ONEDANT is designed for the CDC-7600, but the program has been implemented and run on the IBM-370/190 and CRAY-I computers. ONEDANT solves the one-dimensional multigroup transport equation in plane, cylindrical, spherical, and two-angle plane geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (k/sub eff/ and eigenvalue search) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, albedo, or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. ONEDANT numerically solves the one-dimensional, multigroup form of the neutral-particle, steady-state form of the Boltzmann transport equation. The discrete-ordinates approximation is used for treating the angular variation of the particle distribution and the diamond-difference scheme is used for phase space discretization. Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to-zero-and-correct algorithm. A standard inner (within-group) iteration, outer (energy-group-dependent source) iteration technique is used. Both inner and outer iterations are accelerated using the diffusion synthetic acceleration method. (WHK)

  7. General Purpose Monte Carlo Multigroup Neutron and Gamma-Ray Transport Code System. We recommend C00474/ALLCP/02 MORSE-CGA.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1991-08-01

    Version: 00 The original MORSE code was a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. It was designed as a tool for solving most shielding problems. Through the use of multigroup cross sections, the solution of neutron, gamma-ray, or coupled neutron-gamma-ray problems could be obtained in either the forward or adjoint mode. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry could be used with an albedo option available atmore » any material surface. Isotropic or anisotropic scattering up to a P16 expansion of the angular distribution was allowed. MORSE-CG incorporated the Mathematical Applications, Inc. (MAGI) combinatorial geometry routines. MORSE-B modifies the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport computer code MORSE-CG by adding routines which allow various flexible options.« less

  8. General Purpose Monte Carlo Multigroup Neutron and Gamma-Ray Transport Code System with Array Geometry Capability. We recommend C00474/ALLCP/02 MORSE-CGA.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1991-05-01

    Version 00 MORSE-CGA was developed to add the capability of modelling rectangular lattices for nuclear reactor cores or for multipartitioned structures. It thus enhances the capability of the MORSE code system. The MORSE code is a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. It has been designed as a tool for solving most shielding problems. Through the use of multigroup cross sections, the solution of neutron, gamma-ray, or coupled neutron-gamma-ray problems may be obtainedmore » in either the forward or adjoint mode. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry may be used with an albedo option available at any material surface. Isotropic or anisotropic scattering up to a P16 expansion of the angular distribution is allowed.« less

  9. Examining the psychometric validity of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) in a community sample of African American and European American adults.

    PubMed

    Chakawa, Ayanda; Butler, Robert C; Shapiro, Steven K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), focusing on a sample drawn from a geographic region in the United States that has not been included in previously published research on the MEIM-R. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 105 African American (AA) and 91 European American (EA) adults located in the state of Alabama. The MEIM-R was best represented by two constructs-exploration and commitment. AA adults reported higher levels of racial/ethnic identity exploration and commitment than EA adults. Differential item functioning was found among 1 of the exploration items. The current study provides additional support for the structural validity of the MEIM-R. Further research on the invariance of responses to the MEIM-R across a variety of sociodemographic factors is still necessary. PMID:25642783

  10. Comparison of a 3-D multi-group SN particle transport code with Monte Carlo for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Kent A; Wareing, Todd A; Failla, Gregory; Horton, John L; Eifel, Patricia J; Mourtada, Firas

    2010-01-01

    A patient dose distribution was calculated by a 3D multi-group S N particle transport code for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri and compared to previously published Monte Carlo results. A Cs-137 LDR intracavitary brachytherapy CT data set was chosen from our clinical database. MCNPX version 2.5.c, was used to calculate the dose distribution. A 3D multi-group S N particle transport code, Attila version 6.1.1 was used to simulate the same patient. Each patient applicator was built in SolidWorks, a mechanical design package, and then assembled with a coordinate transformation and rotation for the patient. The SolidWorks exported applicator geometry was imported into Attila for calculation. Dose matrices were overlaid on the patient CT data set. Dose volume histograms and point doses were compared. The MCNPX calculation required 14.8 hours, whereas the Attila calculation required 22.2 minutes on a 1.8 GHz AMD Opteron CPU. Agreement between Attila and MCNPX dose calculations at the ICRU 38 points was within +/- 3%. Calculated doses to the 2 cc and 5 cc volumes of highest dose differed by not more than +/- 1.1% between the two codes. Dose and DVH overlays agreed well qualitatively. Attila can calculate dose accurately and efficiently for this Cs-137 CT-based patient geometry. Our data showed that a three-group cross-section set is adequate for Cs-137 computations. Future work is aimed at implementing an optimized version of Attila for radiotherapy calculations. PMID:20160682

  11. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  12. Diffusion on spatial network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zi; Tang, Xiaoyue; Li, Wei; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we study the problem of diffusing a product (idea, opinion, disease etc.) among agents on spatial network. The network is constructed by random addition of nodes on the planar. The probability for a previous node to be connected to the new one is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of α. The diffusion rate between two connected nodes is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of β as well. Inspired from the Fick's first law, we introduce the diffusion coefficient to measure the diffusion ability of the spatial network. Using both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, we get the fact that the diffusion coefficient always decreases with the increasing of parameter α and β, and the diffusion sub-coefficient follows the power-law of the spatial distance with exponent equals to -α-β+2. Since both short-range diffusion and long-range diffusion exist, we use anomalous diffusion method in diffusion process. We get the fact that the slope index δ in anomalous diffusion is always smaller that 1. The diffusion process in our model is sub-diffusion.

  13. Influence Function Learning in Information Diffusion Networks

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    Can we learn the influence of a set of people in a social network from cascades of information diffusion? This question is often addressed by a two-stage approach: first learn a diffusion model, and then calculate the influence based on the learned model. Thus, the success of this approach relies heavily on the correctness of the diffusion model which is hard to verify for real world data. In this paper, we exploit the insight that the influence functions in many diffusion models are coverage functions, and propose a novel parameterization of such functions using a convex combination of random basis functions. Moreover, we propose an efficient maximum likelihood based algorithm to learn such functions directly from cascade data, and hence bypass the need to specify a particular diffusion model in advance. We provide both theoretical and empirical analysis for our approach, showing that the proposed approach can provably learn the influence function with low sample complexity, be robust to the unknown diffusion models, and significantly outperform existing approaches in both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25973445

  14. UPDATING APPLIED DIFFUSION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most diffusion models currently used in air quality applications are substantially out of date with understanding of turbulence and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency, the American Meteorological Socie...

  15. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  16. Numerical Evaluation of Lateral Diffusion Inside Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using numerical simulation of diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers, we show that the effect of lateral diffusion inside the sampler on the solute flux into the sampler is a nonlinear function of the diffusion layer thickness and the physical sampling window size. In contrast, earlier work concluded that this effect was constant irrespective of parameters of the sampler geometry. The flux increase caused by lateral diffusion inside the sampler was determined to be ∼8.8% for standard samplers, which is considerably lower than the previous estimate of ∼20%. Lateral diffusion is also propagated to the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), where it leads to a slightly stronger decrease in the mass uptake than suggested by the common 1D diffusion model that is applied for evaluating DGT results. We introduce a simple correction procedure for lateral diffusion and demonstrate how the effect of lateral diffusion on diffusion in the DBL can be accounted for. These corrections often result in better estimates of the DBL thickness (δ) and the DGT-measured concentration than earlier approaches and will contribute to more accurate concentration measurements in solute monitoring in waters. PMID:25877251

  17. Handbook on atmospheric diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)

  18. Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrank, Mary R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and…

  19. Diffusion of uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of uranium hexafluoride

  20. Diffusion Strategy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, James R.; Sanders, John R.

    A methodology is presented for planning and managing the spread of educational innovations. The first portion of the guide develops a theoretical framework for diffusion which summarizes and capitalizes on the latest marketing and on the latest marketing and diffusion research findings. Major stages in the diffusion paradigm discussed include…

  1. Adding diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy capability to extended x-ray-absorption fine structure in a new cell to study solid catalysts in combination with a modulation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarello, Gian Luca; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Marchionni, Valentina; Quaroni, Luca; Ferri, Davide

    2014-07-15

    We describe a novel cell used to combine in situ transmission X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) in a single experiment. The novelty of the cell design compared to current examples is that both radiations are passed through an X-ray and IR transparent window in direct contact with the sample. This innovative geometry also offers a wide surface for IR collection. In order to avoid interference from the crystalline IR transparent materials (e.g., CaF{sub 2}, MgF{sub 2}, diamond) a 500 μm carbon filled hole is laser drilled in the center of a CaF{sub 2} window. The cell is designed to represent a plug flow reactor, has reduced dead volume in order to allow for fast exchange of gases and is therefore suitable for experiments under fast transients, e.g., according to the concentration modulation approach. High quality time-resolved XAS and DRIFTS data of a 2 wt.% Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst are obtained in concentration modulation experiments where CO (or H{sub 2}) pulses are alternated to O{sub 2} pulses at 150 °C. We show that additional information can be obtained on the Pt redox dynamic under working conditions thanks to the improved sensitivity given by the modulation approach followed by Phase Sensitive Detection (PSD) analysis. It is anticipated that the design of the novel cell is likely suitable for a number of other in situ spectroscopic and diffraction methods.

  2. Diffusion in solid-Earth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, E. Bruce; Baxter, Ethan F.

    2007-01-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion in the acquisition and use of information on diffusive transport in phases relevant to the solid Earth (crystals, melts and fluids). Although far from complete, the data base on diffusion coefficients is now sufficiently large that broad constraints can be placed upon the length- and time scales of many natural transport phenomena in which diffusion plays a role. Conversely, observations of diffusion progress in specific natural samples can be used to extract time-temperature information for a variety of geologic and geochemical processes, ranging from sediment burial and crustal erosion to fluid-mediated reactions and biosignature retention. Despite this undeniable progress, several major challenges remain that largely define the frontiers of research in solid-Earth diffusion. Perhaps foremost among these is the need to address and understand the multi-scale, multi-path aspects of diffusion in many systems—a complication that is not limited to polyphase materials (individual mineral grains can exhibit clear indications of multi-path behavior even when visible evidence of such paths is lacking). Many other diffusion frontiers are linked in one way or another to this multi-scale issue; they include: diffusion of molecular H 2O and the effect of H species on diffusion in minerals and rocks; diffusive fractionation of multiple isotopes of a single element; diffusion at the extreme conditions of the deep Earth; reconciliation of observations from natural samples and laboratory studies; and development of theoretical approaches to 'predict' diffusion behavior in regions inaccessible to observation.

  3. An AMR capable finite element diffusion solver for ALE hydrocodes [An AMR capable diffusion solver for ALE-AMR

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A. C.; Bailey, D. S.; Kaiser, T. B.; Eder, D. C.; Gunney, B. T. N.; Masters, N. D.; Koniges, A. E.; Anderson, R. W.

    2015-02-01

    Here, we present a novel method for the solution of the diffusion equation on a composite AMR mesh. This approach is suitable for including diffusion based physics modules to hydrocodes that support ALE and AMR capabilities. To illustrate, we proffer our implementations of diffusion based radiation transport and heat conduction in a hydrocode called ALE-AMR. Numerical experiments conducted with the diffusion solver and associated physics packages yield 2nd order convergence in the L2 norm.

  4. Modal disorder and phase transition in Rb0.91Nb0.96W1.04O5.98. Interpretation of X-ray diffuse scattering using the group theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komornicka, Dorota; Wołcyrz, Marek; Pietraszko, Adam; Sikora, Wiesława; Majchrowski, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    A complex scheme of atomic displacements (modes) that break the Fd 3 bar m symmetry of the high-temperature (Tc>395 K) cubic phase of Rb0.91Nb0.96W1.04O5.98 and ultimately lead to a phase transition to the tetragonal phase was determined using the group theory approach. The resulting set of modes was used to construct a model of the disordered crystal that provides diffuse scattering (particularly characteristic extinctions) that is highly consistent with the experimental results. The resulting solution reveals a disordered structure of cubic Rb0.91Nb0.96W1.04O5.98, which is a system of intersecting {111}-type planes in which Nb/W atoms (statistically occupying the centers of oxygen octahedra) are shifted along three symmetry-equivalent <110> directions parallel to these planes. Oxygen atoms also move in a characteristic manner, but their shifts are considerably smaller and do not substantially affect the diffuse scattering pattern. The movements of Rb atoms are large but uncorrelated. The obtained picture of the local structure of cubic Rb0.91Nb0.96W1.04O5.98 makes it necessary to change the interpretation of existing physical measurements, particularly dielectric measurements. Furthermore, the determined structure of the low-temperature tetragonal phase that exists below 395 K was found to be non-polar (space group I 4 bar2d). Group theory analysis provides a coherent picture of the phase transition from the disordered cubic phase to the ordered tetragonal phase. At Tc, in a multimodal crystal of the high-temperature phase, mode symmetry breaking occurs, and each of the four displacive modes is decomposed: only 1/4 of the atoms of every mode of k=(x,x,x) retain their <110>-type in-plane displacements; the displacements of the remaining atoms undergo reorientation to fulfill the conditions imposed by the k=(0,0,0) mode. The former group of displacements defines the direction of the appearing tetragonal axis.

  5. Derivation and Solution of Multifrequency Radiation Diffusion Equations for Homogeneous Refractive Lossy Media

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, A I; Vignes, R M; Stolken, J S

    2010-01-05

    Starting from the radiation transport equation for homogeneous, refractive lossy media, we derive the corresponding time-dependent multifrequency diffusion equations. Zeroth and first moments of the transport equation couple the energy density, flux and pressure tensor. The system is closed by neglecting the temporal derivative of the flux and replacing the pressure tensor by its diagonal analogue. The system is coupled to a diffusion equation for the matter temperature. We are interested in modeling annealing of silica (SiO{sub 2}). We derive boundary conditions at a planar air-silica interface taking account of reflectivities. The spectral dimension is discretized into a finite number of intervals leading to a system of multigroup diffusion equations. Three simulations are presented. One models cooling of a silica slab, initially at 2500 K, for 10 s. The other two are 1D and 2D simulations of irradiating silica with a CO{sub 2} laser, {lambda} = 10.59 {micro}m. In 2D, we anneal a disk (radius = 0.4, thickness = 0.4 cm) with a laser, Gaussian profile (r{sub 0} = 0.5 mm for 1/e decay).

  6. In Vivo Facilitated Diffusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Maximilian; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Under dilute in vitro conditions transcription factors rapidly locate their target sequence on DNA by using the facilitated diffusion mechanism. However, whether this strategy of alternating between three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA contour is still beneficial in the crowded interior of cells is highly disputed. Here we use a simple model for the bacterial genome inside the cell and present a semi-analytical model for the in vivo target search of transcription factors within the facilitated diffusion framework. Without having to resort to extensive simulations we determine the mean search time of a lac repressor in a living E. coli cell by including parameters deduced from experimental measurements. The results agree very well with experimental findings, and thus the facilitated diffusion picture emerges as a quantitative approach to gene regulation in living bacteria cells. Furthermore we see that the search time is not very sensitive to the parameters characterizing the DNA configuration and that the cell seems to operate very close to optimal conditions for target localization. Local searches as implied by the colocalization mechanism are only found to mildly accelerate the mean search time within our model. PMID:23349772

  7. Multidimensional reaction rate theory with anisotropic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Szabo, Attila; Greives, Nicholas; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2014-11-01

    An analytical expression is derived for the rate constant that describes diffusive transitions between two deep wells of a multidimensional potential. The expression, in contrast to the Kramers-Langer formula for the rate constant, is valid even when the diffusion is highly anisotropic. Our approach is based on a variational principle for the reactive flux and uses a trial function for the splitting probability or commitor. The theoretical result is validated by Brownian dynamics simulations.

  8. The AN neutron transport by nodal diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Barbarino, A.; Tomatis, D.

    2013-07-01

    The two group diffusion model combined to a nodal approach in space is the preferred scheme for the industrial simulation of nuclear water reactors. The main selling point is the speed of computation, allowing a large number of parametric studies. Anyway, the drawbacks of the underlying diffusion equation may arise with highly heterogeneous interfaces, often encountered in modern UO{sub 2} and MO{sub x} fuel loading patterns, and boron less controlled systems. This paper aims at showing how the simplified AN transport model, equivalent to the well known SPN, can be implemented in standard diffusion codes with minor modifications. Some numerical results are illustrated. (authors)

  9. A diffuse-interface approximation for surface diffusion including adatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rätz, Andreas; Voigt, A.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a diffuse-interface approximation for solving partial differential equations on evolving surfaces. The model of interest is a fourth-order geometric evolution equation for a growing surface with an additional diffusive adatom density on the surface. Such models arise in the description of epitaxial growth, where the surface of interest is the solid-vapour interface. The model allows us to handle complex geometries in an implicit manner, by considering an evolution equation for a phase-field variable describing the surface and an evolution equation for an extended adatom concentration on a time-independent domain. Matched asymptotic analysis shows the formal convergence towards the sharp interface model and numerical results based on adaptive finite elements demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  10. Diffusion in disordered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, Shlomo; Ben-Avraham, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion in disordered systems does not follow the classical laws which describe transport in ordered crystalline media, and this leads to many anomalous physical properties. Since the application of percolation theory, the main advances in the understanding of these processes have come from fractal theory. Scaling theories and numerical simulations are important tools to describe diffusion processes (random walks: the 'ant in the labyrinth') on percolation systems and fractals. Different types of disordered systems exhibiting anomalous diffusion are presented (the incipient infinite percolation cluster, diffusion-limited aggregation clusters, lattice animals, and random combs), and scaling theories as well as numerical simulations of greater sophistication are described. Also, diffusion in the presence of singular distributions of transition rates is discussed and related to anomalous diffusion on disordered structures.

  11. Hereditary Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Schedler, Katharina J E; Traine, Peter G; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Haritoglou, Christos; Metz, Klaus A; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2016-03-01

    Retinoblastoma is one of the most common childhood cancers. The diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a rare subtype of this neoplasm. The majority of cases of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma are unilateral and occur sporadically. Herein we report on a family with three children affected by retinoblastoma, among them one girl with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. This girl was diagnosed at the age of 8 years with a unilateral diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. By contrast, the two brothers became clinically apparent in the first 2 years of life with bilateral retinoblastoma. The parents were clinically unremarkable. Genetic analysis of RB1 gene was performed. The girl with diffuse infiltrating RB was found to be heterozygous for an oncogenic mutation in the RB1 gene that was also carried by both brothers and the father of the family. These results show that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma can develop on the background of a hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma. PMID:24892564

  12. Multinomial diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-01

    We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced fluctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete particles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N→∞, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.

  13. Multinomial diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, Ariel I.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-24

    We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced uctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete par- ticles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N ! 1, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.

  14. Gaseous diffusion system

    DOEpatents

    Garrett, George A.; Shacter, John

    1978-01-01

    1. A gaseous diffusion system comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of said diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof.

  15. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy. PMID:24210813

  16. Inpainting using airy diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara

    2015-09-01

    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  17. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  18. Multidimensional flash diffusivity measurements of orthotropic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.; McDowell, D.L.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

    1999-03-01

    A generalization of the radial flash technique is presented whereby the thermal diffusivity of an orthotropic solid is measured in directions parallel and perpendicular to the flash source. The theoretical formulation is based on a Green`s function approach which assumes a general orthotropic solid with three mutually orthogonal thermal diffusivities (or conductivities). Using this approach, a solution to this problem is presented which can be used to develop solutions for arbitrary pulse waveforms and incident geometries. Analytical and numerical results are presented for two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases of finite and semiinfinite solids. Characteristic equations which describe the ratio of the temperatures at two points along a principal axis are given. The equations show excellent agreement with numerical predictions as well as experimental results. A parameter estimation approach is given which improves on the accuracy of the radial flash technique in the determination of thermal diffusivity from experimental data.

  19. Tiny Molybdenites Tell Diffusion Tales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion invokes micron-scale exchange during crystal growth and dissolution in magma chambers on short time-scales. Fundamental to interpreting such data are assumptions on magma-fluid dynamics at all scales. Nevertheless, elemental diffusion profiles are used to estimate time scales for magma storage, eruption, and recharge. An underutilized timepiece to evaluate diffusion and 3D mobility of magmatic fluids is high-precision Re-Os dating of molybdenite. With spatially unique molybdenite samples from a young ore system (e.g., 1 Ma) and a double Os spike, analytical errors of 1-3 ka unambiguously separate events in time. Re-Os ages show that hydrous shallow magma chambers locally recharge and expel Cu-Mo-Au-silica as superimposed stockwork vein networks at time scales less than a few thousand years [1]. Re-Os ages provide diffusion rates controlled by a dynamic crystal mush, accumulation and expulsion of metalliferous fluid, and magma reorganization after explosive crystallization events. Importantly, this approach has broad application far from ore deposits. Here, we use Re-Os dating of molybdenite to assess time scales for generating and diffusing metals through the deep crust. To maximize opportunity for chemical diffusion, we use a continental-scale Sveconorwegian mylonite zone for the study area. A geologically constrained suite of molybdenite samples was acquired from quarry exposures. Molybdenite, previously unreported, is extremely scarce. Tiny but telling molybdenites include samples from like occurrences to assure geologic accuracy in Re-Os ages. Ages range from mid-Mesoproterozoic to mid-Neoproterozoic, and correspond to early metamorphic dehydration of a regionally widespread biotite-rich gneiss, localized melting of gneiss to form cm-m-scale K-feldspar ± quartz pods, development of vapor-rich, vuggy mm stringers that serve as volatile collection surfaces in felsic leucosomes, and low-angle (relative to foliation) cross-cutting cm-scale quartz veins

  20. Diffusion in thorium carbide: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2015-12-01

    The prediction of the behavior of Th compounds under irradiation is an important issue for the upcoming Generation-IV nuclear reactors. The study of self-diffusion and hetero-diffusion is a central key to fulfill this goal. As a first approach, we obtained, by means of first-principles methods, migration and activation energies of Th and C atoms self-diffusion and diffusion of He atoms in ThC. We also calculate diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature.

  1. Non-linear diffusion paths in two-phase ternary diffusion couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongwei

    2005-11-01

    Prediction of diffusion paths facilitates the understanding of interdiffusion microstructure development at the vicinity of a common interface between two alloys. Understanding the influence of interdiffusion on microstructure is critically important to the design of many advanced materials systems such as high temperature coatings. The current study using DICTRA finite difference software predicts non-linear features formed on the diffusion path as the initial interface is approached. The non-linear diffusion path deviates from the linear zigzag shape predicted by an error function model for multiphase diffusion couples. The deviations appear as "horns" that protrude from the linear paths. The horns were found to be of two types. When the two outer legs of the diffusion path bend in the same direction, a "single-horn" is formed. When they bend in opposite directions a "double-horn" is formed. The formation of horns is attributed to the concentration dependence of the diffusivity. It results in a shift on the maximum of the flux profile from the initial interface, which accordingly leads to a rapid rise or decrease of the precipitate fraction as the interface is approached. It was found that the horn length is proportional to the composition vector component along the major eigenvector of the effective diffusivity matrix. Applying these results to a study on Ni-Cr-Al diffusion couples prepared from gamma + beta alloys, it also was found that the formation of single-phase beta layers could be attributed to the horns pointing away from each other, in which case the diffusion path could intersect the single phase beta region of the phase diagram. Comparison between EPMA data and DICTRA simulation shows that existence of second phase could introduce microstructure effect on diffusion. This microstructure effect may be taken into account for promoting or blocking the diffusion.

  2. Computation of diffusion function measures in q-space using magnetic resonance hybrid diffusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Chien; Field, Aaron S; Alexander, Andrew L

    2008-06-01

    The distribution of water diffusion in biological tissues may be estimated by a 3-D Fourier transform (FT) of diffusion-weighted measurements in q-space. In this study, methods for estimating diffusion spectrum measures (the zero-displacement probability, the mean-squared displacement, and the orientation distribution function) directly from the q-space signals are described. These methods were evaluated using both computer simulations and hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI) measurements on a human brain. The HYDI method obtains diffusion-weighted measurements on concentric spheres in q-space. Monte Carlo computer simulations were performed to investigate effects of noise, q-space truncation, and sampling interval on the measures. This new direct computation approach reduces HYDI data processing time and image artifacts arising from 3-D FT and regridding interpolation. In addition, it is less sensitive to the noise and q-space truncation effects than conventional approach. Although this study focused on data using the HYDI scheme, this computation approach may be applied to other diffusion sampling schemes including Cartesian diffusion spectrum imaging. PMID:18541492

  3. Multidimensional Self-Concept Structure for Preadolescents with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: A Hybrid Multigroup?MIMC Approach to Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Tracey, Danielle K.; Craven, Rhonda G.

    2006-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis of responses by 211 preadolescents (M age = 10.25 years,SD = 1.48) with mild intellectual disabilities (MIDs) to the individually administered Self Description Questionnaire I-Individual Administration (SDQI-IA) counters widely cited claims that these children cannot differentiate multiple self-concept factors. Results…

  4. Gender and Acceptance of E-Learning: A Multi-Group Analysis Based on a Structural Equation Model among College Students in Chile and Spain

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of e-learning in two universities, and in particular, the relationship between the perception of external control and perceived ease of use, is different because of gender differences. The study was carried out with participating students in two different universities, one in Chile and one in Spain. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as a theoretical framework for the study. A multi-group analysis method in partial least squares was employed to relate differences between groups. The four main conclusions of the study are: (1) a version of the Technology Acceptance Model has been successfully used to explain the process of adoption of e-learning at an undergraduate level of study; (2) the finding of a strong and significant relationship between perception of external control and perception of ease of use of the e-learning platform; (3) a significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use and between results demonstrability and perceived usefulness is found; (4) the study indicates a few statistically significant differences between males and females when adopting an e-learning platform, according to the tested model. PMID:26465895

  5. School belongingness and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary transition in a mainstream sample: multi-group cross-lagged analyses.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Parkin, Timothy; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students. PMID:24967580

  6. Gender and Acceptance of E-Learning: A Multi-Group Analysis Based on a Structural Equation Model among College Students in Chile and Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Correa, Patricio E; Arenas-Gaitán, Jorge; Rondán-Cataluña, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of e-learning in two universities, and in particular, the relationship between the perception of external control and perceived ease of use, is different because of gender differences. The study was carried out with participating students in two different universities, one in Chile and one in Spain. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as a theoretical framework for the study. A multi-group analysis method in partial least squares was employed to relate differences between groups. The four main conclusions of the study are: (1) a version of the Technology Acceptance Model has been successfully used to explain the process of adoption of e-learning at an undergraduate level of study; (2) the finding of a strong and significant relationship between perception of external control and perception of ease of use of the e-learning platform; (3) a significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use and between results demonstrability and perceived usefulness is found; (4) the study indicates a few statistically significant differences between males and females when adopting an e-learning platform, according to the tested model. PMID:26465895

  7. Optimal design of HTS magnets for a modular toroid-type 2.5 MJ SMES using multi-grouped particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Kwak, S. Y.; Seo, J. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Park, S. H.; Kim, W. S.; Lee, J. K.; Bae, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sim, K. D.; Seong, K. C.; Jung, H. K.; Choi, K.; Hahn, S.

    2009-10-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is one of the promising power system applications of superconducting technology and has been actively researched and developed worldwide. Generally, there are three types of SMES-solenoid, multiple solenoid, and toroid. Among these types, toroid type seems to require more wires than solenoid type and multiple solenoid type at the same operating current. However toroid type reduces normal field in the wire and stray field dramatically because magnetic field is confined inside the coil. So, the total length of wire in the toroid type can be reduced in comparison with that in the solenoid type by increasing operating current. In this paper, a 2.5 MJ class SMES with HTS magnets of single solenoid, multiple solenoid and modular toroid type were optimized using a recently developed multi-modal optimization technique named multi-grouped particle swarm optimization (MGPSO). The objective of the optimization was to minimize the total length of HTS superconductor wires satisfying some equality and inequality constraints. The stored energy and constraints were calculated using 3D magnetic field analysis techniques and an automatic tetrahedral mesh generator. Optimized results were verified by 3D finite element method (FEM).

  8. GPU-accelerated 3D neutron diffusion code based on finite difference method

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Q.; Yu, G.; Wang, K.

    2012-07-01

    Finite difference method, as a traditional numerical solution to neutron diffusion equation, although considered simpler and more precise than the coarse mesh nodal methods, has a bottle neck to be widely applied caused by the huge memory and unendurable computation time it requires. In recent years, the concept of General-Purpose computation on GPUs has provided us with a powerful computational engine for scientific research. In this study, a GPU-Accelerated multi-group 3D neutron diffusion code based on finite difference method was developed. First, a clean-sheet neutron diffusion code (3DFD-CPU) was written in C++ on the CPU architecture, and later ported to GPUs under NVIDIA's CUDA platform (3DFD-GPU). The IAEA 3D PWR benchmark problem was calculated in the numerical test, where three different codes, including the original CPU-based sequential code, the HYPRE (High Performance Pre-conditioners)-based diffusion code and CITATION, were used as counterpoints to test the efficiency and accuracy of the GPU-based program. The results demonstrate both high efficiency and adequate accuracy of the GPU implementation for neutron diffusion equation. A speedup factor of about 46 times was obtained, using NVIDIA's Geforce GTX470 GPU card against a 2.50 GHz Intel Quad Q9300 CPU processor. Compared with the HYPRE-based code performing in parallel on an 8-core tower server, the speedup of about 2 still could be observed. More encouragingly, without any mathematical acceleration technology, the GPU implementation ran about 5 times faster than CITATION which was speeded up by using the SOR method and Chebyshev extrapolation technique. (authors)

  9. Diffuse-Interface Methods in Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; McFadden, G. B.; Wheeler, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review the development of diffuse-interface models of hydrodynamics and their application to a wide variety of interfacial phenomena. The authors discuss the issues involved in formulating diffuse-interface models for single-component and binary fluids. Recent applications and computations using these models are discussed in each case. Further, the authors address issues including sharp-interface analyses that relate these models to the classical free-boundary problem, related computational approaches to describe interfacial phenomena, and related approaches describing fully-miscible fluids.

  10. Galactic Diffuse Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Digel, Seth W.; /SLAC

    2007-10-25

    Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar nucleons and photons make the Milky Way a bright, diffuse source of high-energy {gamma}-rays. Observationally, the results from EGRET, COMPTEL, and OSSE have now been extended to higher energies by ground-based experiments, with detections of diffuse emission in the Galactic center reported by H.E.S.S. in the range above 100 GeV and of diffuse emission in Cygnus by MILAGRO in the TeV range. In the range above 100 keV, INTEGRAL SPI has found that diffuse emission remains after point sources are accounted for. I will summarize current knowledge of diffuse {gamma}-ray emission from the Milky Way and review some open issues related to the diffuse emission -- some old, like the distribution of cosmic-ray sources and the origin of the 'excess' of GeV emission observed by EGRET, and some recently recognized, like the amount and distribution of molecular hydrogen not traced by CO emission -- and anticipate some of the advances that will be possible with the Large Area Telescope on GLAST. We plan to develop an accurate physical model for the diffuse emission, which will be useful for detecting and accurately characterizing emission from Galactic point sources as well as any Galactic diffuse emission from exotic processes, and for studying the unresolved extragalactic emission.

  11. The Diffusion of Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earabino, Gerard J.; Heyl, G. Christopher; Percorini, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    New ideas encounter obstacles on way to becoming products. Report examines process by which new ideas become products, processes, or accepted standards. Sequence of events called "the diffusion of innovation." Focuses on development of material processing in low gravity as case study in diffusion of innovation.

  12. Investigating Diffusion with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon S.; Windelborn, Augden F.

    2013-01-01

    The activities described here allow students to explore the concept of diffusion with the use of common equipment such as computers, webcams and analysis software. The procedure includes taking a series of digital pictures of a container of water with a webcam as a dye slowly diffuses. At known time points, measurements of the pixel densities…

  13. Anatomy of Particle Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringuier, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses particle diffusion from a thermodynamic standpoint. The main goal of the paper is to highlight the conceptual connection between particle diffusion, which belongs to non-equilibrium statistical physics, and mechanics, which deals with particle motion, at the level of third-year university courses. We start out from the fact…

  14. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Calogero, Simone; Velten, Hermano E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br

    2013-11-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field φ which we identify with the dark energy component of the universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter σ. The standard ΛCDM model can be recovered by setting σ = 0. If diffusion takes place (σ > 0) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the universe may serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum P(k). The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.

  15. Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.

    PubMed

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous. PMID:21867316

  16. Combustor diffuser interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Ram; Thorp, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    Advances in gas turbine engine performance are achieved by using compressor systems with high stage loading and low part count, which result in high exit Mach numbers. The diffuser and combustor systems in such engines should be optimized to reduce system pressure loss and to maximize the engine thrust-to-weight ratio and minimize length. The state-of-the-art combustor-diffuser systems do not meet these requirements. Detailed understanding of the combustor-diffuser flow field interaction is required for designing advanced gas turbine engines. An experimental study of the combustor-diffuser interaction (CDI) is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of analytical models applicable to a wide variety of diffuser designs. The CDI program consists of four technical phases: Literature Search; Baseline Configuration; Parametric Configurations; and Performance Configurations. Phase 2 of the program is in progress.

  17. Diffusion on strained surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1997-03-01

    The change of diffusion kinetics when elastic fields are present is discussed for diffusion on (001) surfaces of simple cubic, fcc and bcc lattices. All particles interact pairwise with a Lennard-Jones potential. The simple cubic lattice was stabilized by an anisotropic prefactor. It is found that generically compressive strain enhances diffusion whereas tensile strain increases the activation barrier. An approximately linear dependence of the barrier in a wide range of misfits is found. In heteroepitaxy, diffusion on top of large clusters is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. The kinetics close to edges and centers of islands are remarkably different. In many cases changes of binding energies are small compared to those of saddle point energies. Thermodynamic arguments (minimization of free energy) are not appropriate to describe diffusion on strained surfaces in these cases.

  18. Monte Carlo analysis of obstructed diffusion in three dimensions: application to molecular diffusion in organelles.

    PubMed

    Olveczky, B P; Verkman, A S

    1998-05-01

    an approach to analyzing photobleaching data in terms of microscopic diffusive properties and support the paradigm that organellar barriers must be quite severe to seriously impede solute diffusion. PMID:9591696

  19. Diffusion MRI and its role in neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain’s white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition. PMID:26255305

  20. Image-based color ink diffusion rendering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Ming; Wang, Ren-Jie

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an image-based painterly rendering algorithm for automatically synthesizing an image with color ink diffusion. We suggest a mathematical model with a physical base to simulate the phenomenon of color colloidal ink diffusing into absorbent paper. Our algorithm contains three main parts: a feature extraction phase, a Kubelka-Munk (KM) color mixing phase, and a color ink diffusion synthesis phase. In the feature extraction phase, the information of the reference image is simplified by luminance division and color segmentation. In the color mixing phase, the KM theory is employed to approximate the result when one pigment is painted upon another pigment layer. Then, in the color ink diffusion synthesis phase, the physically-based model that we propose is employed to simulate the result of color ink diffusion in absorbent paper using a texture synthesis technique. Our image-based ink diffusing rendering (IBCIDR) algorithm eliminates the drawback of conventional Chinese ink simulations, which are limited to the black ink domain, and our approach demonstrates that, without using any strokes, a color image can be automatically converted to the diffused ink style with a visually pleasing appearance. PMID:17218741

  1. Diffusion MRI and its Role in Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain's white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition. PMID:26255305

  2. Communication: Probing anomalous diffusion in frequency space

    SciTech Connect

    Stachura, Sławomir; Kneller, Gerald R.

    2015-11-21

    Anomalous diffusion processes are usually detected by analyzing the time-dependent mean square displacement of the diffusing particles. The latter evolves asymptotically as W(t) ∼ 2D{sub α}t{sup α}, where D{sub α} is the fractional diffusion constant and 0 < α < 2. In this article we show that both D{sub α} and α can also be extracted from the low-frequency Fourier spectrum of the corresponding velocity autocorrelation function. This offers a simple method for the interpretation of quasielastic neutron scattering spectra from complex (bio)molecular systems, in which subdiffusive transport is frequently encountered. The approach is illustrated and validated by analyzing molecular dynamics simulations of molecular diffusion in a lipid POPC bilayer.

  3. Thorium Diffusion in Monazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    2006-05-01

    Diffusion of thorium has been characterized in synthetic monazite under dry conditions. The synthetic monazites (either pure CePO4, NdPO4, or a mixed LREE phosphate containing Ce, Nd, and Sm) were grown via a Na2CO3-MoO3 flux method. The source of diffusant for the experiments were either synthesized ThSiO4 or CaTh(PO4)2 powders. Experiments were performed by placing source and monazite in Pt capsules and annealing capsules in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 10 days to a few hours, at temperatures from 1400 to 1550C. The Th distributions in the monazite were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation was obtained for diffusion in monazite: DSm = 7.2x103 exp(-814 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1 The diffusivity of Th was similar for monazites containing a single REE and the mixed LREE phosphates. Th diffusion was also similar for experiments run using the Th silicate and Ca-Th phosphate sources, suggesting that the substitutional mechanism for Th in monazite, i.e, Th+4 + Si+4 for REE+3 + P+5 with the ThSiO4 source, and Th+4 + Ca+2 for 2REE+3 with the CaTh(PO4)2 source, does not significantly affect Th diffusivities, and that Th is likely the rate-limiting species. Th diffusion in monazite is about 4 orders of magnitude slower than Pb diffusion (Cherniak et al., 2004). This contrasts with findings of Gardes et al. (2005) who determined that Pb, Th and REE diffusivities in monazite are similar. Th diffusion in zircon (Cherniak et al., 1997) is about an order of magnitude slower than in monazite, but with similar activation energy for diffusion. The smaller diffusivities in zircon may be a consequence of the larger disparity in size between Th and the Zr site in zircon as compared with Th and the REE site in monazite. Nonetheless, Th is essentially immobile in monazite with respect to exchange by volume diffusion under most geologic conditions; these findings may have implications for containment of high- level actinide

  4. Fokas method for a multi-domain linear reaction-diffusion equation with discontinuous diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asvestas, M.; Sifalakis, A. G.; Papadopoulou, E. P.; Saridakis, Y. G.

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by proliferation-diffusion mathematical models for studying highly diffusive brain tumors, that also take into account the heterogeneity of the brain tissue, in the present work we consider a multi-domain linear reaction-diffusion equation with a discontinuous diffusion coefficient. For the solution of the problem at hand we implement Fokas transform method by directly following, and extending in this way, our recent work for a white-gray-white matter brain model pertaining to high grade gliomas. Fokas's novel approach for the solution of linear PDE problems, yields novel integral representations of the solution in the complex plane that, for appropriately chosen integration contours, decay exponentially fast and converge uniformly at the boundaries. Combining these method-inherent advantages with simple numerical quadrature rules, we produce an efficient method, with fast decaying error properties, for the solution of the discontinuous reaction-diffusion problem.

  5. Diffusion coefficients from signal fluctuations: influence of molecular shape and rotational diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hahne, Susanne; Maass, Philipp

    2014-03-27

    Analysis of signal fluctuations of a locally fixed probe, caused by molecules diffusing under the probe, can be used to determine diffusion coefficients. Theoretical treatments so far have been limited to point-like particles or to molecules with circle-like shapes. Here we extend these treatments to molecules with rectangle-like shapes, for which also rotational diffusion needs to be taken into account. Focusing on the distribution of peak widths in the signal, we show how translational as well as rotational diffusion coefficients can be determined. We address also the question, how the distribution of interpeak time intervals and autocorrelation function can be employed for determining diffusion coefficients. Our approach is validated against kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:24640969

  6. Tungsten diffusion in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    De Luca, A.; Texier, M.; Burle, N.; Oison, V.; Pichaud, B.; Portavoce, A.; Grosjean, C.

    2014-01-07

    Two doses (10{sup 13} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}) of tungsten (W) atoms were implanted in different Si(001) wafers in order to study W diffusion in Si. The samples were annealed or oxidized at temperatures between 776 and 960 °C. The diffusion profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and defect formation was studied by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. W is shown to reduce Si recrystallization after implantation and to exhibit, in the temperature range investigated, a solubility limit close to 0.15%–0.2%, which is higher than the solubility limit of usual metallic impurities in Si. W diffusion exhibits unusual linear diffusion profiles with a maximum concentration always located at the Si surface, slower kinetics than other metals in Si, and promotes vacancy accumulation close to the Si surface, with the formation of hollow cavities in the case of the higher W dose. In addition, Si self-interstitial injection during oxidation is shown to promote W-Si clustering. Taking into account these observations, a diffusion model based on the simultaneous diffusion of interstitial W atoms and W-Si atomic pairs is proposed since usual models used to model diffusion of metallic impurities and dopants in Si cannot reproduce experimental observations.

  7. Tungsten diffusion in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Van Orman, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion of tungsten has been characterized in synthetic forsterite and natural olivine (Fo90) under dry conditions. The source of diffusant was a mixture of magnesium tungstate and olivine powders. Experiments were prepared by sealing the source material and polished olivine under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers to buffer at NNO or IW. Prepared capsules were annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 45 min to several weeks, at temperatures from 1050 to 1450 °C. Tungsten distributions in the olivine were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for W diffusion in forsterite: D=1.0×10-8exp(-365±28 kJ mol/RT) m s Diffusivities for the synthetic forsterite and natural Fe-bearing olivine are similar, and tungsten diffusion in olivine shows little dependence on crystallographic orientation or oxygen fugacity. The slow diffusivities measured for W in olivine indicate that Hf-W ages in olivine-metal systems will close to diffusive exchange at higher temperatures than other chronometers commonly used in cosmochronology, and that tungsten isotopic signatures will be less likely to be reset by subsequent thermal events.

  8. Diffusion Flame Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, V. R.

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated. A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.

  9. Diffusion Flame Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath R.

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm) (Fig. 1, left). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated (Fig. 1, right). A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.

  10. Advanced nodal neutron diffusion method with space-dependent cross sections: ILLICO-VX

    SciTech Connect

    Rajic, H.L.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced transverse integrated nodal methods for neutron diffusion developed since the 1970s require that node- or assembly-homogenized cross sections be known. The underlying structural heterogeneity can be accurately accounted for in homogenization procedures by the use of heterogeneity or discontinuity factors. Other (milder) types of heterogeneity, burnup-induced or due to thermal-hydraulic feedback, can be resolved by explicitly accounting for the spatial variations of material properties. This can be done during the nodal computations via nonlinear iterations. The new method has been implemented in the code ILLICO-VX (ILLICO variable cross-section method). Numerous numerical tests were performed. As expected, the convergence rate of ILLICO-VX is lower than that of ILLICO, requiring approx. 30% more outer iterations per k/sub eff/ computation. The methodology has also been implemented as the NOMAD-VX option of the NOMAD, multicycle, multigroup, two- and three-dimensional nodal diffusion depletion code. The burnup-induced heterogeneities (space dependence of cross sections) are calculated during the burnup steps.

  11. Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anthony B

    2014-01-01

    The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457

  12. Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457

  13. Molecular simulations of diffusion in electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Dean Richard

    This work demonstrates new methodologies for simulating multicomponent diffusion in concentrated solutions using molecular dynamics (MD). Experimental diffusion data for concentrated multicomponent solutions are often lacking, as are accurate methods of predicting diffusion for nonideal solutions. MD can be a viable means of understanding and predicting multicomponent diffusion. While there have been several prior reports of MD simulations of mutual diffusion, no satisfactory expressions for simulating Stefan-Maxwell diffusivities for an arbitrary number of species exist. The approaches developed here allow for the computation of a full diffusion matrix for any number of species in both nonequilibrium and equilibrium MD ensembles. Our nonequilibrium approach is based on the application of constant external fields to drive species diffusion. Our equilibrium approach uses a newly developed Green-Kubo formula for Stefan-Maxwell diffusivities. In addition, as part of this work, we demonstrate a widely applicable means of increasing the computational efficiency of the Ewald sum, a technique for handling long-range Coulombic interactions in simulations. The theoretical development is applicable to any solution which can be simulated using MD; nevertheless, our primary interest is in electrochemical applications. To this end, the methods are tested by simulations of aqueous salt solutions and lithium-battery electrolytes. KCl and NaCl aqueous solutions were simulated over the concentration range 1 to 4 molal. Intermolecular-potential models were parameterized for these transport-based simulations. This work is the first to simulate all three independent diffusion coefficients for aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions. The results show that the nonequilibrium and equilibrium methods are consistent with each other, and in moderate agreement with experiment. We simulate lithium-battery electrolytes containing LiPF6 in propylene carbonate and mixed ethylene carbonate

  14. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  15. Multinomial Diffusion Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, Ariel I.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a novel stochastic, space/time discrete representation of particle diffusion (e.g. Brownian motion) based on discrete probability distributions. We show that in the limit of both very small time step and large concentration, our description is equivalent to the space/time continuous stochastic diffusion equation. Being discrete in both time and space, our model can be used as an extremely accurate, efficient, and stable stochastic finite-difference diffusion algorithm when concentrations are so small that computationally expensive particle-based methods are usually needed. Through numerical simulations, we show that our method can generate realizations that capture the statistical properties of particle simulations. While our method converges converges to both the correct ensemble mean and ensemble variance very quickly with decreasing time step, but for small concentration, the stochastic diffusion PDE does not, even for very small time steps.

  16. Investigating diffusion with technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon S.; Windelborn, Augden F.

    2013-07-01

    The activities described here allow students to explore the concept of diffusion with the use of common equipment such as computers, webcams and analysis software. The procedure includes taking a series of digital pictures of a container of water with a webcam as a dye slowly diffuses. At known time points, measurements of the pixel densities (darkness) of the digital pictures are recorded and then plotted on a graph. The resulting graph of darkness versus time allows students to see the results of diffusion of the dye over time. Through modification of the basic lesson plan, students are able to investigate the influence of a variety of variables on diffusion. Furthermore, students are able to expand the boundaries of their thinking by formulating hypotheses and testing their hypotheses through experimentation. As a result, students acquire a relevant science experience through taking measurements, organizing data into tables, analysing data and drawing conclusions.

  17. Mastocytosis, diffuse cutaneous (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a picture of diffuse, cutaneous mastocytosis. Abnormal collections of cells in the skin (mast cells) produce this rash. Unlike bullous mastocytosis, rubbing will not lead to formation of blisters ( ...

  18. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This is an important part of lung testing , because ... Gender Height Hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen) level

  19. Hydrogen Diffusion in Forsterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, S.; Mackwell, S.

    2002-12-01

    Physical and chemical properties of Earth's mantle are readily modified by interaction with volatiles, such as water. Thus, characterization of solubility and kinetics of incorporation for water in nominally anhydrous minerals is important in order to understand the behavior of Earth's interior under hydrous conditions. Experimental studies on the olivine-water system indicate that significant amounts of OH can dissolve within olivine as point defects (Bell and Rossman, 1992; Kohlstedt et al. 1996). Extending Kohlstedt and Mackwell's (1998) work, our study concerns the kinetics of hydrogen transport in the iron-free olivine-water system. This study is based on hydrogenation of forsterite samples during piston-cylinder and TZM cold-seal vessel experiments. We use infrared analyses in order to constrain the speciation of the mobile water-derived defects in forsterite single-crystal sample, and the rates of diffusion of such species under uppermost mantle conditions (0.2 to 1.5 GPa, 900 to 1100° C). Hydrogen defect transport in single crystals of forsterite is investigated for diffusion parallel to each crystallographic axis. Defect diffusivities are obtained by fitting a diffusion law to the OH content as a function of position in the sample. Our current results indicate that incorporation of hydroxyl species into iron-free olivine is a one-stage process with hydrogen diffusion linked to magnesium vacancy self-diffusion DV, such that DV = D~/3 = 10-12 m2/s at 1000° C parallel to [001], where D~ represents the chemical diffusivity. Those diffusion rates are slightly lower than in iron-bearing olivine for the same incorporation mechanism. The different concentration profiles show a clear anisotropy of diffusion, with fastest diffusion parallel to [001] as in iron-bearing olivine. Thus, while hydrogen solubilities are dependent on iron content, the rate of incorporation of water-derived species in olivine is not strongly coupled to the concentration of iron. This

  20. Modelling Diffusion of a Personalized Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmeshu; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema

    2012-01-01

    A new modelling approach for diffusion of personalized learning as an educational process innovation in social group comprising adopter-teachers is proposed. An empirical analysis regarding the perception of 261 adopter-teachers from 18 schools in India about a particular personalized learning framework has been made. Based on this analysis,…

  1. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  2. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of U.S. and Italian children's performance on the PASS theory of intelligence as measured by the Cognitive Assessment System.

    PubMed

    Naglieri, Jack A; Taddei, Stefano; Williams, Kevin M

    2013-03-01

    This study examined Italian and U.S. children's performance on the English and Italian versions, respectively, of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Conway, 2009; Naglieri & Das, 1997), a test based on a neurocognitive theory of intelligence entitled PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive; Naglieri & Das, 1997; Naglieri & Otero, 2011). CAS subtest, PASS scales, and Full Scale scores for Italian (N=809) and U.S. (N=1,174) samples, matched by age and gender, were examined. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis results supported the configural invariance of the CAS factor structure between Italians and Americans for the 5- to 7-year-old (root-mean-square error of approximation [RMSEA]=.038; 90% confidence interval [CI]=.033, .043; comparative fit index [CFI]=.96) and 8- to 18-year-old (RMSEA=.036; 90% CI=.028, .043; CFI=.97) age groups. The Full Scale standard scores (using the U.S. norms) for the Italian (100.9) and U.S. (100.5) samples were nearly identical. The scores between the samples for the PASS scales were very similar, except for the Attention Scale (d=0.26), where the Italian sample's mean score was slightly higher. Negligible mean differences were found for 9 of the 13 subtest scores, 3 showed small d-ratios (2 in favor of the Italian sample), and 1 was large (in favor of the U.S. sample), but some differences in subtest variances were found. These findings suggest that the PASS theory, as measured by CAS, yields similar mean scores and showed factorial invariance for these samples of Italian and American children, who differ on cultural and linguistic characteristics. PMID:22984802

  3. Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1976-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410

  4. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  5. Cation Diffusion in Xenotime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    2004-05-01

    Xenotime is an important mineral in metamorphic paragenesis, and useful in isotopic dating, garnet-xenotime thermometry, and monazite-xenotime thermometry, so diffusion data for xenotime of cations of geochronological and geochemical importance are of some interest. We report here on diffusion of the rare earth elements Sm, Dy and Yb in synthetic xenotime under dry conditions. The synthetic xenotime was grown via a Na2}CO{3}-MoO_{3 flux method. The source of diffusant for the experiments were REE phosphate powders, with experiments run with sources containing a single REE. Experiments were performed by placing source and xenotime in Pt capsules, and annealing capsules in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from thirty minutes to a month, at temperatures from 1000 to 1400C. The REE distributions in the xenotime were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relations are obtained for diffusion in xenotime, normal to (101): DSm = 1.7x10-4 exp(-442 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1 DDy = 3.5x10-7 exp(-365 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1 DYb = 7.4x10-7 exp(-371 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1. Diffusivities of these REE do not differ greatly in xenotime, in contrast to the findings noted for the REE in zircon (Cherniak et al., 1997), where the LREE diffuse more slowly, and with higher activation energies for diffusion, than the heavier rare earths. In zircon, these differences among diffusion of the rare earths are attributed to the relatively large size of the REE with respect to Zr, for which they substitute in the zircon lattice. With the systematic increase in ionic radius from the heavy to lighter REE, this size mismatch becomes more pronounced and diffusivities of the LREE are as consequence slower. Although xenotime is isostructural with zircon, the REE are more closely matched in size to Y, so in xenotime this effect appears much smaller and the REE diffuse at similar rates. In addition, the process of diffusion in xenotime likely involves simple REE+3

  6. Ti Diffusion in Pyroxene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D.; Liang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Diffusion of titanium has been characterized in natural enstatite and diopside under buffered conditions and in air. The sources of diffusant for the enstatite experiments were mixtures of Mg, Si and Ti oxide powders, which were combined and heated at 1300°C overnight, and then thoroughly mixed with synthesized enstatite powder and heated for an additional day at 1300°C. Sources for diopside experiments were prepared similarly, using Ca, Mg, Si, and Ti oxide powders combined with synthesized diopside powder, with heating of source materials at 1200°C. Buffered experiments were prepared by enclosing source material and pyroxene (polished and pre-annealed under conditions comparable to those to be experienced in the experiment) in AgPd or platinum capsules, placing the metal capsule in a silica glass capsule with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO or IW) and sealing the assembly under vacuum. Some experiments on enstatite were run in air; sample and source were placed in Pt capsules and crimped shut. Prepared capsules were then annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 8 hours to a few months, at temperatures from 950 to 1200°C. The Ti distributions in the pyroxene were profiled with Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for Ti diffusion in a natural enstatite, for diffusion normal to the (210) cleavage face (950 - 1150°C, experiments run in air): DTi = 1.9×10-10 exp(-300 ± 44 kJ mol-1/RT) m2 sec-1. Diffusion under NNO and IW-buffered conditions is similar to that for experiments run in air, suggesting little dependence of Ti diffusion on oxygen fugacity. There is also little evidence of anisotropy, as diffusion normal to (001) does not differ significantly from diffusion for the other orientation. Preliminary findings for Ti diffusion in diopside suggest diffusivities similar to those for enstatite. Ti diffusivities in enstatite are similar to those of the trivalent REEs (Cherniak and Liang, 2007

  7. Comparison of a finite-element multigroup discrete-ordinates code with Monte Carlo for radiotherapy calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Kent A.; Horton, John L., Jr.; Wareing, Todd A.; Failla, Gregory; Mourtada, Firas

    2006-05-01

    Radiotherapy calculations often involve complex geometries such as interfaces between materials of vastly differing atomic number, such as lung, bone and/or air interfaces. Monte Carlo methods have been used to calculate accurately the perturbation effects of the interfaces. However, these methods can be computationally expensive for routine clinical calculations. An alternative approach is to solve the Boltzmann equation deterministically. We present one such deterministic code, Attila™. Further, we computed a brachytherapy example and an external beam benchmark to compare the results with data previously calculated by MCNPX and EGS4. Our data suggest that the presented deterministic code is as accurate as EGS4 and MCNPX for the transport geometries examined in this study.

  8. Back diffusion from thin low permeability zones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minjune; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W

    2015-01-01

    Aquitards can serve as long-term contaminant sources to aquifers when contaminant mass diffuses from the aquitard following aquifer source mass depletion. This study describes analytical and experimental approaches to understand reactive and nonreactive solute transport in a thin aquitard bounded by an adjacent aquifer. A series of well-controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional flow chamber to quantify solute diffusion from a high-permeability sand into and subsequently out of kaolinite clay layers of vertical thickness 15 mm, 20 mm, and 60 mm. One-dimensional analytical solutions were developed for diffusion in a finite aquitard with mass exchange with an adjacent aquifer using the method of images. The analytical solutions showed very good agreement with measured breakthrough curves and aquitard concentration distributions measured in situ by light reflection visualization. Solutes with low retardation accumulated more stored mass with greater penetration distance in the aquitard compared to high-retardation solutes. However, because the duration of aquitard mass release was much longer, high-retardation solutes have a greater long-term back diffusion risk. The error associated with applying a semi-infinite domain analytical solution to a finite diffusion domain increases as a function of the system relative diffusion length scale, suggesting that the solutions using image sources should be applied in cases with rapid solute diffusion and/or thin clay layers. The solutions presented here can be extended to multilayer aquifer/low-permeability systems to assess the significance of back diffusion from thin layers. PMID:25478850

  9. Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Koseff, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heating, surface shear and sloping boundaries. The goals of the proposed work include: quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and formulation of numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in a new experimental facility at Stanford and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular we are focusing on the following key issues. The formation and propagation of double diffusive intrusions away from a heated wall and the effects of lateral heating on the double diffusive system; The interaction between the double diffusively influenced fluxes and the turbulence induced fluxes; The formation of gravitational intrusions; and The influence of double diffusive gradients on mixed layer deepening. The goals of the project were as follows. Physical experiments: Construct experimental facility; Modify and fabricate instrument rakes; Develop sampling and calibration software; Develop stratification techniques; Conduct flow visualization studies; Qualify wind tunnel over a range of wind speeds. Numerical experiments: Adapt REMIXCS to handle turbulent flows; Investigate approaches for specifying wind field; Perform calculations for low wind speeds. With the exception of the wind tunnel qualification, all the tasks have already been completed and we are now conducting quantitative experiments. 2 figs.

  10. Counterion Diffusion in Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Russell; Winey, Karen; Kim, Joon-Seop; Composto, Russell

    2004-03-01

    Diffusion of Cs counterions to the air/ionomer film interface is followed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and results compared with the "sticky reptation" model[1]. The ionomer system is poly(styrene-ran-methacrylic acid) (Cs-SMAA) neutralized at 100% by Cs. The concentration profiles exhibit a surface excess, z*, of Cs followed by a depletion of Cs. The z* and depletion layer thickness grow as t1/2, consistent with diffusion limited growth. Annealing studies at 130 °C, 145 °C and 208 °C were used to extract the diffusion coefficient, D. In all cases, D is greater than that of the matrix chains. These results suggest that the diffusion rate is controlled by the fraction of counterions that disassociate from the acid groups and migrate through the matrix. Moreover, the "sticky reptation" model doesn't appear to predict the diffusion behavior in the Cs-SMAA system. [1] Leibler, L, Ludwick, L., Rubinstein, M., Colby, R.H., Macromolecules 24 (1991) 4701.

  11. Locally Learning Biomedical Data Using Diffusion Frames

    PubMed Central

    Filbir, F.; Mhaskar, H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Diffusion geometry techniques are useful to classify patterns and visualize high-dimensional datasets. Building upon ideas from diffusion geometry, we outline our mathematical foundations for learning a function on high-dimension biomedical data in a local fashion from training data. Our approach is based on a localized summation kernel, and we verify the computational performance by means of exact approximation rates. After these theoretical results, we apply our scheme to learn early disease stages in standard and new biomedical datasets. PMID:23101786

  12. Diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea.

    PubMed

    Haltrin, V I

    1999-02-20

    A differential equation of a Riccati type for the diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea is proposed. For a homogeneous sea with arbitrary inherent optical properties this equation is solved analytically. For an inhomogeneous sea it is solved approximately for any arbitrary stratification. The resulting equation expresses the diffuse reflection coefficient of the sea through vertical profiles of absorption and backscattering coefficients, bottom albedo, and sea depth. The results of calculations with this equation are compared with Monte Carlo computations. It was found that the precision of this approach is in the range of 15%. PMID:18305694

  13. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed. PMID:25523277

  14. Diffusing-wave polarimetry for tissue diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Callum; Doronin, Alexander; Peña, Adrian F.; Eccles, Michael; Meglinski, Igor

    2014-03-01

    We exploit the directional awareness of circularly and/or elliptically polarized light propagating within media which exhibit high numbers of scattering events. By tracking the Stokes vector of the detected light on the Poincaŕe sphere, we demonstrate its applicability for characterization of anisotropy of scattering. A phenomenological model is shown to have an excellent agreement with the experimental data and with the results obtained by the polarization tracking Monte Carlo model, developed in house. By analogy to diffusing-wave spectroscopy we call this approach diffusing-wave polarimetry, and illustrate its utility in probing cancerous and non-cancerous tissue samplesin vitro for diagnostic purposes.

  15. SURVEY AND EVALUATION OF FINE BUBBLE DOME DIFFUSER AERATION EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project was initiated with the overall objective of better defining the oxygen transfer performance, operation and maintenance (O&M) requirements, and proper design approaches for fine bubble dome diffuser aeration systems used in activated sludge wastewater treatme...

  16. Radon Diffusion Measurement in Polyethylene based on Alpha Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, Wolfgang

    2011-04-27

    We present a method to measure the diffusion of Radon in solid materials based on the alpha decay of the radon daughter products. In contrast to usual diffusion measurements which detect the radon that penetrates a thin barrier, we let the radon diffuse into the material and then measure the alpha decays of the radon daughter products in the material. We applied this method to regular and ultra high molecular weight poly ethylene and find diffusion lengths of order of mm as expected. However, the preliminary analysis shows significant differences between two different approaches we have chosen. These differences may be explained by the different experimental conditions.

  17. A quantitative framework for a multi-group model of Schistosomiasis japonicum transmission dynamics and control in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Song; Maszle, Don; Spear, Robert C

    2002-05-01

    A quantitative framework is presented for the site-specific characterization of schistosomiasis transmission with the object of developing local control strategies. Central to the framework is a worm-burden model using ordinary differential equations of disease transmission in risk groups defined by residence and occupation. The model incorporates temperature- and precipitation-dependent seasonality of infectious stages, snail population dynamics, and seasonal patterns of human water contact specific to the local agricultural setting. The model's parameters are separated into two main subsets, those associated with the general biology of the parasite and its life cycle in the human and the snail and those associated with directly measurable features of disease status in the local population or relevant aspects of the local environment. In this regard, the model is structured and parameterized to take maximum advantage of data that can be collected in rural China by conventional methods. For example, it includes a statistical model for egg excretion to the environment by each risk group which is based on local population surveys of the prevalence and intensity of infection. The second element of the framework of analysis relates to the strategy for parameter estimation and calibration to local conditions. We propose a Bayesian approach in which parameter estimates are refined over time by methods employing extensive computer simulations. An early analysis of data collected between 1987 and 1989 in endemic villages near Xichang City in southwestern Sichuan provides encouragement that parametric uncertainty can be reduced to levels adequate to explore effective control strategies. PMID:12020900

  18. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  19. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    DOEpatents

    Nierenberg, William A.; Pontius, Rex B.

    1976-08-10

    1. The method of testing the separation efficiency of porous permeable membranes which comprises causing a stream of a gaseous mixture to flow into contact with one face of a finely porous permeable membrane under such conditions that a major fraction of the mixture diffuses through the membrane, maintaining a rectangular cross section of the gaseous stream so flowing past said membrane, continuously recirculating the gas that diffuses through said membrane and continuously withdrawing the gas that does not diffuse through said membrane and maintaining the volume of said recirculating gas constant by continuously introducing into said continuously recirculating gas stream a mass of gas equivalent to that which is continuously withdrawn from said gas stream and comparing the concentrations of the light component in the entering gas, the withdrawn gas and the recirculated gas in order to determine the efficiency of said membrane.

  20. Comparison of radon diffusion coefficients measured by transient-diffusion and steady-state laboratory methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kalwarf, D.R.; Nielson, K.K.; Rich, D.C.; Rogers, V.C.

    1982-11-01

    A method was developed and used to determine radon diffusion coefficients in compacted soils by transient-diffusion measurements. A relative standard deviation of 12% was observed in repeated measurements with a dry soil by the transient-diffusion method, and a 40% uncertainty was determined for moistures exceeding 50% of saturation. Excellent agreement was also obtained between values of the diffusion coefficient for radon in air, as measured by the transient-diffusion method, and those in the published literature. Good agreement was also obtained with diffusion coefficients measured by a steady-state method on the same soils. The agreement was best at low moistures, averaging less than ten percent difference, but differences of up to a factor of two were observed at high moistures. The comparison of the transient-diffusion and steady-state methods at low moistures provides an excellent verification of the theoretical validity and technical accuracy of these approaches, which are based on completely independent experimental conditions, measurement methods and mathematical interpretations.

  1. Diffusion imaging concepts for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Neil, Jeffrey J

    2008-01-01

    This review covers the fundamentals of diffusion tensor imaging. It is written with the clinician in mind and assumes the reader has a passing familiarity with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Topics covered include comparison of diffusion MRI with conventional MRI, water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), diffusion anisotropy, tract tracing, and changes of water apparent diffusion in response to injury. The discussion centers primarily on applications to the central nervous system, but examples from other tissues are included. PMID:18050325

  2. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH‑ = U4+ + O2‑ + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  3. Radon diffusion modelling.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, P; Dimbylow, P J

    1985-10-01

    A mathematical model has been developed that examines the ingress of radon into houses, through a vertical crack in an otherwise impervious concrete floor. Initially, the model considered the diffusive flow of radon from its soil source and this simulation has highlighted the dependency of the flux of radon into the house on the magnitude of various parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of radon in soil. A preliminary investigation of the modelling of pressure-driven flow into a building is presented, and the potential of this type of analysis is discussed. PMID:4081719

  4. Mass diffusion in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, H. U.

    Dimensionless number analysis indicates that diffusion-controlled conditions with liquid samples having characteristic dimensions larger than one millimetre can only be established under microgravity conditions.Consequently, heat and mass transport properties of fluids can only be quantitatively investigated in space.Results obtained from experiments on selfdiffusion, interdiffusion and thermodiffusion carried out during the SL-1 and D-1 Spacelab missions clearly demonstrate the potential of space platforms to determine such properties with a precision unattainable on earth. These results imply also that crystal growth from solutions, vapours and melts in the diffusive regime can be realised in space only.

  5. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-01

    Rigorous numerical description of multispecies diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication in imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multispecies diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multispecies diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multispecies U(VI) diffusion under a steady state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that for multispecies U(VI) diffusion under transient chemical conditions, a fully coupled diffusion model could be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model when the diffusion coefficient for each chemical component was properly selected. The component-based diffusion model considers the difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be enforced, if necessary, by adding a secondary migration term resulting from model simplification. The effect of ion activity coefficient gradients on multispecies diffusion is also discussed. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford 300A

  6. Irradiance calibration with solar diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haring, Robert E. (Inventor); Roeder, Herbert A. (Inventor); Hartmann, Ulli G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The sun's energy is used in combination of movable and fixed diffuser plates, windows and apertures which are positioned in a series of test sequences (modes) for reflectance monitoring and calibration without the use of man-made sources. There are three embodiments, or implementations, of the invention--one embodiment uses two diffusers--a working diffuser and a secondary diffuser--the second embodiment uses three diffusers, a working diffuser, a secondary diffuser and a reference diffuser--and the third embodiment uses two diffusers--a working diffuser and a secondary diffuser, the latter also functioning as a cover for the working diffuser. The movable diffusers are mounted on rotatable cones and, in all embodiments, the sun is blocked from reaching the diffusers when not in use. Thus, the sun is used as a stable source for calibration and monitoring and the sun/diffuser combination is used in such a way that the response of all elements of the optical subsystem of the TOMS can be unambiguously and efficiently characterized with high accuracy and precision.

  7. Restoration of rhythmicity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Nagao, Raphael; Kiss, István Z.; Tang, Yang; Koseska, Aneta; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Oscillatory behaviour is essential for proper functioning of various physical and biological processes. However, diffusive coupling is capable of suppressing intrinsic oscillations due to the manifestation of the phenomena of amplitude and oscillation deaths. Here we present a scheme to revoke these quenching states in diffusively coupled dynamical networks, and demonstrate the approach in experiments with an oscillatory chemical reaction. By introducing a simple feedback factor in the diffusive coupling, we show that the stable (in)homogeneous steady states can be effectively destabilized to restore dynamic behaviours of coupled systems. Even a feeble deviation from the normal diffusive coupling drastically shrinks the death regions in the parameter space. The generality of our method is corroborated in diverse non-linear systems of diffusively coupled paradigmatic models with various death scenarios. Our study provides a general framework to strengthen the robustness of dynamic activity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks. PMID:26173555

  8. Restoration of rhythmicity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Senthilkumar, D V; Nagao, Raphael; Kiss, István Z; Tang, Yang; Koseska, Aneta; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Oscillatory behaviour is essential for proper functioning of various physical and biological processes. However, diffusive coupling is capable of suppressing intrinsic oscillations due to the manifestation of the phenomena of amplitude and oscillation deaths. Here we present a scheme to revoke these quenching states in diffusively coupled dynamical networks, and demonstrate the approach in experiments with an oscillatory chemical reaction. By introducing a simple feedback factor in the diffusive coupling, we show that the stable (in)homogeneous steady states can be effectively destabilized to restore dynamic behaviours of coupled systems. Even a feeble deviation from the normal diffusive coupling drastically shrinks the death regions in the parameter space. The generality of our method is corroborated in diverse non-linear systems of diffusively coupled paradigmatic models with various death scenarios. Our study provides a general framework to strengthen the robustness of dynamic activity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks. PMID:26173555

  9. Restoration of rhythmicity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Wei; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Nagao, Raphael; Kiss, István Z.; Tang, Yang; Koseska, Aneta; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Oscillatory behaviour is essential for proper functioning of various physical and biological processes. However, diffusive coupling is capable of suppressing intrinsic oscillations due to the manifestation of the phenomena of amplitude and oscillation deaths. Here we present a scheme to revoke these quenching states in diffusively coupled dynamical networks, and demonstrate the approach in experiments with an oscillatory chemical reaction. By introducing a simple feedback factor in the diffusive coupling, we show that the stable (in)homogeneous steady states can be effectively destabilized to restore dynamic behaviours of coupled systems. Even a feeble deviation from the normal diffusive coupling drastically shrinks the death regions in the parameter space. The generality of our method is corroborated in diverse non-linear systems of diffusively coupled paradigmatic models with various death scenarios. Our study provides a general framework to strengthen the robustness of dynamic activity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks.

  10. IMPURITY AND TRACER DIFFUSION STUDIES IN MAGNESIUM AND ITS ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Sohn, Yong Ho; Warren, Andrew; Coffey, Kevin; Klimov, Mikhail; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Todd, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) approach for optimizing processing routes for Mg-alloys requires reliable thermodynamic and diffusion databases. We are developing an impurity and tracer diffusion database using both stable and unstable isotopes for Mg and its alloys. In this study, Al impurity diffusion in pure polycrystalline Mg (99.9%) was examined using the thin film method. Approximately 500 nm thick Al films were deposited on in-situ RF plasma-cleaned polycrystalline Mg by DC magnetron sputtering from pure Al (99.9%) targets. Specimens were then diffusion annealed at 300, 350 and 400 C in quartz capsules that were evacuated to 10-8 Torr and backfilled with Ar-H2 mixtures. Concentration profile of Al diffusion profiles into single phase Mg was determined by depth-profiling technique using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The Al impurity diffusion coefficients were determined as a function of temperature

  11. The Foundations of Diffusion Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    van Milligen, B. Ph.; Carreras, Benjamin A; Sanchez, Raul

    2005-12-01

    Diffusion is essentially the macroscopic manifestation of random (Brownian) microscopic motion. This idea has been generalized in the continuous time random walk formalism, which under quite general conditions leads to a generalized master equation (GME) that provides a useful modelling framework for transport. Here we review some of the basic ideas underlying this formalism from the perspective of transport in (magnetic confinement) plasmas. Under some specific conditions, the fluid limit of the GME corresponds to the Fokker-Planck (FP) diffusion equation in inhomogeneous systems, which reduces to Fick's law when the system is homogeneous. It is suggested that the FP equation may be preferable in fusion plasmas due to the inhomogeneity of the system, which would imply that part of the observed inward convection ('pinch') can be ascribed to this inhomogeneity. The GME also permits a mathematically sound approach to more complex transport issues, such as the incorporation of critical gradients and non-local transport mechanisms. A toy model incorporating these ingredients was shown to possess behaviour that bears a striking similarity to certain unusual phenomena observed in fusion plasmas.

  12. Cosmological baryon diffusion and nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, James H.; Hogan, Craig J.; Scherrer, Robert J.

    1987-02-01

    The diffusion rate of baryons through the big-bang plasma is calculated. Fluctuations in baryon density in the early Universe lead to inhomogeneities in the neutron-proton ratio, due to the differential diffusion of these particles through the radiation plasma. For certain types of nonlinear fluctuations, some nucleosynthesis would occur in very neutron-rich regions. Nuclear products of homogeneous neutron-enriched regions are evaluated numerically using a standard reaction network and these results are used to estimate final abundances in an inhomogeneous universe. Net deuterium and lithium abundances tend to increase and the net helium abundance tends to decrease compared to an unperturbed standard model. It is suggested that pronounced nonlinear baryon-density fluctuations produced in QCD- or electroweak-epoch phase transitions could alter abundances sufficiently to make a closed baryonic universe consistent with current observations of these elements. In such a model the abundance of heavier elements (C,N,O, etc.) increases significantly and approaches observable levels. Abundances can be used to place constraints on extreme scenarios for phase transitions at these epochs.

  13. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

  14. Soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zam, Azhar; Stelzle, Florian; Nkenke, Emeka; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Schmidt, Michael; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre

    2009-07-01

    Laser surgery gives the possibility to work remotely which leads to high precision, little trauma and high level sterility. However these advantages are coming with the lack of haptic feedback during the laser ablation of tissue. Therefore additional means are required to control tissue-specific ablation during laser surgery supporting the surgeon regardless of experience and skills. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy provides a straightforward and simple approach for optical tissue differentiation. We measured diffuse reflectance from four various tissue types ex vivo. We applied Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to differentiate the four tissue types and computed the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Special emphasis was taken on the identification of nerve as the most crucial tissue for maxillofacial surgery. The results show a promise for differentiating soft tissues as guidance for tissue-specific laser surgery by means of the diffuse reflectance.

  15. Diffuse Optical Monitoring of the Neoadjuvant Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Regine; Durduran, Turgut

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the use of diffuse optical techniques for monitoring the hemodynamic, metabolic and physiological signatures of the neoadjuvant breast cancer therapy effectiveness is critically reviewed. An extensive discussion of the state-of-theart diffuse optical mammography is presented alongside a discussion of the current approaches to breast cancer therapies. Overall, the diffuse optics field is growing rapidly with a great deal of promise to fill an important niche in the current approaches to monitor, predict and personalize neoadjuvant breast cancer therapies. PMID:23243386

  16. Mathematical modelling of diffusion and reaction in blocked zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaresan, S.; Hall, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical model for diffusion and reaction in blocked zeolites is developed which takes into account nonidealities arising from interaction between sorbed molecules as well as the effect of pore and surface blocking. The model combines a microscopic approach, in which expressions for chemical potential and diffusive fluxes are calculated within the lattice-gas framework, with the more traditional continuum approach which takes into account the effect of surface blocking. The effect of pore blocking on the diffusive fluxes is accounted for through an effective medium approximation.

  17. Diffusion in random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrino, Juan C.; Zhang, Duan Z.

    2015-11-01

    The ensemble phase averaging technique is applied to model mass transport in a porous medium. The porous material is idealized as an ensemble of random networks, where each network consists of a set of junction points representing the pores and tortuous channels connecting them. Inside a channel, fluid transport is assumed to be governed by the one-dimensional diffusion equation. Mass balance leads to an integro-differential equation for the pores mass density. Instead of attempting to solve this equation, and equivalent set of partial differential equations is derived whose solution is sought numerically. As a test problem, we consider the one-dimensional diffusion of a substance from one end to the other in a bounded domain. For a statistically homogeneous and isotropic material, results show that for relatively large times the pore mass density evolution from the new theory is significantly delayed in comparison with the solution from the classical diffusion equation. In the short-time case, when the solution evolves with time as if the domain were semi-infinite, numerical results indicate that the pore mass density becomes a function of the similarity variable xt- 1 / 4 rather than xt- 1 / 2 characteristic of classical diffusion. This result was verified analytically. Possible applications of this framework include flow in gas shales. Work supported by LDRD project of LANL.

  18. Osmosis and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.

  19. Diffusion welding tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    Tool allows flat plate diffusion welding to be done in standard brazing furnace. Weld is achieved using high water pressure applied by hand-operated positive-displacement pump. Good welds have been obtained between nickel and nickel-base alloy plates at temperature of 1200 K and water pressure of 13.8 million N/sq m.

  20. Water vapor diffusion membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, F. F., Jr.; Smith, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The program is reported, which was designed to define the membrane technology of the vapor diffusion water recovery process and to test this technology using commercially available or experimental membranes. One membrane was selected, on the basis of the defined technology, and was subjected to a 30-day demonstration trial.

  1. Ti Diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2006-12-01

    Diffusion of Ti under anhydrous conditions at 1 atmosphere and under fluid-present conditions at 1.1-1.2 GPa has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was a ZrO2- TiO2-ZrSiO4 mixture, with experiments run in Pt capsules. Diffusion experiments conducted in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source of ground TiO2, ZrSiO4 and SiO2, with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 vapor and partially melt the solid source material, yielding an assemblage of rutile + zircon + melt + vapor. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the nuclear reaction ^{48}Ti(p,Γ)^{49}V was used to measure diffusion profiles for both sets of experiments. The following Arrhenius relation was obtained for Ti diffusion normal to c over the temperature range 1350-1550C at one atmosphere: DTi = 3.3x102 exp(-754 ± 56 kJ mol-1 /RT) m2sec-1 Ti diffusivities were found to be similar for experiments run under fluid-present conditions. A fit to all of the data yields the Arrhenius relation D = 1.3x103 exp(-741 ± 46 kJ mol-1 /RT) m2sec-1. These data suggest that zircon should be extremely retentive of Ti chemical signatures, indicating that the recently developed Ti-in-zircon crystallization geothermometer (Watson and Harrison, 2005; Watson et al., 2006) will be quite robust in preserving temperatures of zircon crystallization. Titanium diffuses somewhat faster in zircon than larger tetravalent cations U, Th, and Hf, but considerably more slowly than Pb, the REE, and oxygen; hence Ti crystallization temperatures may be retained under circumstances when radiometric ages or other types of geochemical information are lost. Watson EB, Harrison TM (2005) Science 308, 841-844. Watson EB, Wark DA, Thomas JB (2006) CMP(in press).

  2. Permanganate diffusion and reaction in sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Towne, Rachael M; Fischer, Timothy B; Schaefer, Charles E

    2014-04-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has frequently been used to treat chlorinated solvents in fractured bedrock aquifers. However, in systems where matrix back-diffusion is an important process, the ability of the oxidant to migrate and treat target contaminants within the rock matrix will likely determine the overall effectiveness of this remedial approach. In this study, a series of diffusion experiments were performed to measure the permanganate diffusion and reaction in four different types of sedimentary rocks (dark gray mudstone, light gray mudstone, red sandstone, and tan sandstone). Results showed that, within the experimental time frame (~2 months), oxidant migration into the rock was limited to distances less than 500 μm. The observed diffusivities for permanganate into the rock matrices ranged from 5.3 × 10(-13) to 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(2)/s. These values were reasonably predicted by accounting for both the rock oxidant demand and the effective diffusivity of the rock. Various Mn minerals formed as surface coatings from reduction of permanganate coupled with oxidation of total organic carbon (TOC), and the nature of the formed Mn minerals was dependent upon the rock type. Post-treatment tracer testing showed that these Mn mineral coatings had a negligible impact on diffusion through the rock. Overall, our results showed that the extent of permanganate diffusion and reaction depended on rock properties, including porosity, mineralogy, and organic carbon. These results have important implications for our understanding of long-term organic contaminant remediation in sedimentary rocks using permanganate. PMID:24566296

  3. Impurity Diffusion Coefficients of Al and Zn in Mg Determined from Solid-to-Solid Diffusion Couples

    SciTech Connect

    Kammerer, Catherine; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Perry, Kelly A; Belova, Irina; Murch, Prof. Graeme; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2013-08-01

    Increasing use and development of lightweight Mgalloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As property enhancing components, Al and Zn are two of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. We have investigated the concentration dependent interdiffusion of Al and Zn in Mg using diffusion couples of pure polycrystalline Mg mated to Mg solid solutions containing either <9 at.% Al or <3 at.% Zn. Concentration profiles were determined by electron micro-probe microanalysis of the diffusion zone. The interdiffusion coefficients were determined by the classical Boltzmann-Matano method within the Mg solid solution. As the concentration of Al or Zn approaches the dilute ends, we employ an analytical approach based on the Hall method to estimate the impurity diffusion coefficients. Results of Al and Zn impurity diffusion in Mg are reported and compared to published impurity diffusion coefficients typically determined by thin film techniques.

  4. Diffusive Fractionation of Lithium Isotopes in Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homolova, V.; Richter, F. M.; Watson, E. B.; Chaussidon, M.

    2014-12-01

    Systematic lithium isotope variations along concentration gradients found in olivine and pyroxene grains from terrestrial, lunar and martian rocks have been attributed to diffusive isotopic fractionation [Beck et al., 2006; Tang et al., 2007]. In some cases, these isotopic excursions are so large that a single grain may display isotopic variability that spans almost the entire range of documented terrestrial values [Jeffcoate et al., 2007]. In this study, we present the results of experiments to examine diffusive isotopic fractionation of lithium in olivine. The experiments comprised crystallographically oriented slabs of San Carlos olivine juxtaposed with either spodumene powder or a lithium rich pyroxene crystal. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa and 0.1MPa over a temperature range of 1000 to 1125⁰C. Oxygen fugacity in the 0.1MPa experiments was controlled using the wustite-magnetite and nickel-nickel oxide solid buffer assemblages. Lithium concentrations generally decrease smoothly away from the edges of the grains; however, experiments involving diffusion parallel to the a-axis consistently show peculiar wavy or segmented concentration profiles. Lithium diffusivity parallel to the c-axis is on the order of 1E-14m2/s at 1100⁰C. The diffusivity parallel to the c-axis is more than an order of magnitude faster than diffusion parallel to the b-axis and correlates positively with oxygen fugacity. The lithium isotopic composition, δ7Li = 1000‰ * ((δ7Lisample- δ7Ligrain center)/ δ7Ligrain center), shows a decrease away from the edge of the grain to a minimum value (up to 70‰ lighter) and then an abrupt increase back to the initial isotopic composition of the olivine grain. This isotopic profile is similar to those found in natural grains and an experimental study on diffusive fractionation of lithium isotopes in pyroxene [Richter et al., 2014]. Results from the present study are modeled using the approach of Dohmen et al. [2010], which assumes lithium

  5. Spatial dilemmas of diffusible public goods.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin; Gore, Jeff; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of cooperation is a central question in evolutionary biology. Microorganisms often cooperate by producing a chemical resource (a public good) that benefits other cells. The sharing of public goods depends on their diffusion through space. Previous theory suggests that spatial structure can promote evolution of cooperation, but the diffusion of public goods introduces new phenomena that must be modeled explicitly. We develop an approach where colony geometry and public good diffusion are described by graphs. We find that the success of cooperation depends on a simple relation between the benefits and costs of the public good, the amount retained by a producer, and the average amount retained by each of the producer's neighbors. These quantities are derived as analytic functions of the graph topology and diffusion rate. In general, cooperation is favored for small diffusion rates, low colony dimensionality, and small rates of decay of the public good. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01169.001. PMID:24347543

  6. Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence, and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations but share the same core physical principle – light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., the biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation, and lastly imaging contrast. PMID:24860804

  7. Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian; Jensen, R. V. Skougaard; Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    2010-10-04

    Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

  8. Monte Carlo Calculation as an Aid to Teaching Solid-State Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murch, G. E.

    1979-01-01

    A simple Monte Carlo method is used to simulate an atomistic model of solid-state diffusion. This approach illustrates some of the principles of diffusion and in particular verifies a solution to Fick's second law. The role and calculation of the diffusion correlation factor is also discussed. (Author/BB)

  9. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part II.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishant; Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-07-01

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases have a broad differential diagnosis. A wide variety of pathophysiological processes spanning the spectrum from airway obstruction to lung remodeling can lead to multifocal cyst development in the lung. Although lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are perhaps more frequently seen in the clinic, disorders such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and light-chain deposition disease are increasingly being recognized. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and management approaches are highly disease dependent. Unique imaging features, genetic tests, serum studies, and clinical features provide invaluable clues that help clinicians distinguish among the various etiologies, but biopsy is often required for definitive diagnosis. In part II of this review, we present an overview of the diffuse cystic lung diseases caused by lymphoproliferative disorders, genetic mutations, or aberrant lung development and provide an approach to aid in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25906201

  10. Color Histogram Diffusion for Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Taemin

    2011-01-01

    Various color histogram equalization (CHE) methods have been proposed to extend grayscale histogram equalization (GHE) for color images. In this paper a new method called histogram diffusion that extends the GHE method to arbitrary dimensions is proposed. Ranges in a histogram are specified as overlapping bars of uniform heights and variable widths which are proportional to their frequencies. This diagram is called the vistogram. As an alternative approach to GHE, the squared error of the vistogram from the uniform distribution is minimized. Each bar in the vistogram is approximated by a Gaussian function. Gaussian particles in the vistoram diffuse as a nonlinear autonomous system of ordinary differential equations. CHE results of color images showed that the approach is effective.

  11. [Diffuse Pulmonary Ossification].

    PubMed

    Avsar, K; Behr, J; Morresi-Hauf, A

    2016-04-01

    Diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) represents an uncommon condition usually associated with different underlying pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. In this work, we discuss eleven patients of our clinic with the diagnosis of a diffuse pulmonary ossification. We focus on histological changes in the surrounding lung tissue. Clinical and radiological findings were analysed. The aim of the study is to collect data for a better understanding of this condition, especially in association with interstitial lung disease.Three patients with interstitial lung disease had histological findings of UIP. The follow-up data of these patients showed a benign course of the disease.The analysis of the clinical data yielded a very heterogenous group. Regarding these fact we assume, that DPO is not an own entity, but a pathological epiphenomenon in the context of different conditions, possibly with pathogenetic overlap. PMID:26829606

  12. Diffusion dans les liquides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianoux, A. J.

    2003-09-01

    Après une brève introduction qui rappelle les concepts détaillés dans le cours de M. Bée, nous présentons un aperçu de trois de nos travaux sur l'étude de la diffusion. Tout d'abord la dynamique de l'eau, dans son état normal ou surfondu, révèle la complexité apportée par le réseau de liaisons hydrogène. Ensuite l'effet du confinement sur la dynamique de l'eau sera étudié dans le cas de la membrane Nafion. Enfin la diffusion dans les phases nématique et smectique A d'un cristal liquide permet d'obtenir la valeur du potentiel qui maintient les couches dans la phase smectique.

  13. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretti, Ettore

    2011-12-01

    Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission and its use to investigate magnetic fields will be reviewed along with our current understanding of the galactic magnetic field and the data sets available. We will then focus on the future perspective discussing RM-synthesis - the new powerful instrument devised to unlock the information encoded in such an emission - and the surveys currently in progress like S-PASS and GMIMS.

  14. Thermal diffusivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gfroerer, Tim; Phillips, Ryan; Rossi, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The tip of a rod is heated with a torch and brought into contact with the center of a metal sheet. A thermal camera is then used to image the temperature profile of the surface as a function of time. The infrared camera is capable of recording radiometric data with 1 mK resolution in nearly 105 pixels, so thermal diffusion can be monitored with unprecedented precision. With a frame rate of approximately 10 Hz, the pace of the data acquisition minimizes the loss of accuracy due to inevitable cooling mechanisms. We report diffusivity constants equal to 1.23 ± 0.06 cm2/s in copper and 0.70 ± 0.05 cm2/s in aluminum. The behavior is modeled with a straightforward but oddly under-utilized one-dimensional finite difference method.

  15. Turbo fluid machinery and diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, T.

    1984-01-01

    The general theory behind turbo devices and diffusers is explained. Problems and the state of research on basic equations of flow and experimental and measuring methods are discussed. Conventional centrifugation-type compressor and fan diffusers are considered in detail.

  16. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  17. Peridynamic thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oterkus, Selda; Madenci, Erdogan; Agwai, Abigail

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the derivation of ordinary state-based peridynamic heat conduction equation based on the Lagrangian formalism. The peridynamic heat conduction parameters are related to those of the classical theory. An explicit time stepping scheme is adopted for numerical solution of various benchmark problems with known solutions. It paves the way for applying the peridynamic theory to other physical fields such as neutronic diffusion and electrical potential distribution.

  18. Peridynamic thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Oterkus, Selda; Madenci, Erdogan; Agwai, Abigail

    2014-05-15

    This study presents the derivation of ordinary state-based peridynamic heat conduction equation based on the Lagrangian formalism. The peridynamic heat conduction parameters are related to those of the classical theory. An explicit time stepping scheme is adopted for numerical solution of various benchmark problems with known solutions. It paves the way for applying the peridynamic theory to other physical fields such as neutronic diffusion and electrical potential distribution.

  19. Mass transport by diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, James K.

    1987-01-01

    For the purpose of determining diffusion coefficients as required for electrodeposition studies and other applications, a diaphragm cell and an isothermal water bath were constructed. the calibration of the system is discussed. On the basis of three calibration runs on the diaphram cell, researchers concluded that the cell constant beta equals 0.12 cm -2 . Other calibration runs in progress should permit the cell constant to be determined with an accuracy of one percent.

  20. [Diffuse Lewy body disease].

    PubMed

    Kosaka, K

    1995-12-01

    Diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD), which we have proposed since 1976, has received great attention among both researchers and clinicians. Recently, it was reported by some English and American research groups that DLBD is the second most frequent dementing illness in the elderly, following Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD). Our recent research of 79 autopsied dementia cases in a hospital disclosed that DLBD (15.4%) was the second most common degenerative dementia, following ATD (43.6%). In 1980 we proposed Lewy body disease, and classified it into three types: brain stem type, transitional type, and diffuse type. Diffuse type of LBD is now called DLBD. In 1990 we divided DLBD into two forms: common form and pure form. The common form of DLBD has more or less Alzheimer pathology, and pure form has none. Very recently, we proposed the cerebral type of LBD, in which numerous Lewy bodies are found in the cerebral cortex and amygdala, but no PD pathology is present in the brain stem. Therefore, LBD is now classified as follows: [table: see text] PMID:8752428