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1

Multilateral Developments Banks: Profiles of Selected Multilateral Development Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multilateral Development Banks (MDB) were established to provide financial support for projects and programs designed to promote social and economic progress in developing countries. Under the Fiscal Year 2001 Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Rel...

2001-01-01

2

United States Participation in the Multilateral Development Banks in the 1980s.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study focuses on four institutions--the World Bank Group, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the African Development Bank. The first part of the assessment discusses the role of the MDBs in the international economic ...

1982-01-01

3

Multilateral Development Bank Operations Briefing Book. Asian Development Bank and World Bank. The 1997 Asian Development Bank Export Assistance Tour. Held in San Jose, California, Cleveland, Ohio, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and New Orleans, Louisiana on March 20-April 1, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This briefing book on Asian Development Bank (ADB), and World Bank opportunities was prepared by Chemonics International, Inc. and was funded by the U.S Trade and Development Agency. The report provides an initial guide to U.S. businesses interested in en...

1997-01-01

4

Mobilizing IMF Gold for Multilateral Debt Cancellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sony Kapoor examines how using IMF gold sales to fund multilateral debt cancellation could release much needed resources for meeting the millennium development goals (MDGs). He shows why multilateral debt cancellation is so critical and how the sale of IMF gold could finance it for the IMF as well as the World Bank. He addresses the concerns of the gold-producing

Sony Kapoor

2005-01-01

5

Asian Development Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1966, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) is headquartered in Manila. Their operations extend across 67 countries, and their primary mission is "to help its developing member countries reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people." In order to achieve this goal, ADB offers loans, technical assistance, grants, advice, and knowledge. Along the top of their homepage, visitors can make their way through the following sections: "Projects", "Countries", "News & Events", "Topics", and "Publications". The "Topics" area is a good place to start, as it contains information about some of their signature programs, which range from work on preventing bird flu outbreaks to law and policy reform throughout the region. Moving on, the "Publications" area is a real treat for policy types, and visitors can look at recent documents like "Revitalization of Historic Inner-City Areas in Asia".

6

Will Debt Relief Make a Difference? Impact and Expectations of the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) is the latest phase of debt reduction for poor countries from the World Bank, the IMF, and the African Development Bank. The MDRI, which will come close to full debt reduction for at least 19 (and perhaps as many as 40) qualifying countries, is being presented as a momentous leap forward in the battle

Todd Moss

2006-01-01

7

The Southeast Asian Influenza Clinical Research Network: development and challenges for a new multilateral research endeavor.  

PubMed

The Southeast Asia Influenza Clinical Research Network (SEA ICRN) (www.seaclinicalresearch.org) is a recently developed multilateral, collaborative partnership that aims to advance scientific knowledge and management of human influenza through integrated clinical investigation. The partnership of hospitals and institutions in Indonesia, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Viet Nam was established in late 2005 after agreement on the general principles and mission of the initiative and after securing initial financial support. The establishment of the SEA ICRN was both a response to the re-emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in Southeast Asia in late 2003 and an acknowledgment that clinical trials on emerging infectious diseases require prepared and coordinated research capacity. The objectives of the Network also include building sustainable research capacity in the region, compliance with international standards, and prompt dissemination of information and sharing of samples. The scope of research includes diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of human influenza due to seasonal or novel viruses. The Network has overcome numerous logistical and scientific challenges but has now successfully initiated several clinical trials. The establishment of a clinical research network is a vital part of preparedness and an important element during an initial response phase to a pandemic. PMID:18295355

Higgs, Elizabeth S; Hayden, Frederick G; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Whitworth, Jimmy; Farrar, Jeremy

2007-11-20

8

The Problem of Multilateral Debt: Politics and Implications for Advocacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

“The Problem of Multilateral Debt: Politics and Implications for Advocacy” focuses on recent changes in policy in regard to multilateral debt. The Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative (HIPC Initiative), approved at the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) board meetings in October of 1996, is unprecedented in several aspects: never before have the World Bank and IMF provided relief

Amy Jersild

1998-01-01

9

Multilateral Agencies in the Construction of the Global Agenda on Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the construction of the educational dimension of the global development agenda over the period 1990 to 2006. It argues that the multilateral agencies, and notably the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO and UNDP, played vital roles in designing the architecture of this world agenda, supported at a key stage by the Development Assistance…

King, Kenneth

2007-01-01

10

Apps for Development: World Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank is stepping up to the new media plate by asking concerned app developers to bring out their innovative software applications that "move us a step closer toward solving some of the world's most pressing problems." On the site, visitors can look over all of the apps that have been submitted as part of this initiative, and they are all quite interesting. They include "Food Factor", which gives users a quick visual reference of global food security, and "Forecasting the MDGs", which lets users learn which countries are likely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals established by the World Bank. Visitors can view all of the submissions and sort them out by topic, region of the world and title.

11

The role of multilateral institutions.  

PubMed

In line with its mission of alleviating poverty through support for environmentally and socially sustainable economic development, The World Bank (along with some other multilateral development banks) is working to help developing countries capture a share of the emerging global market in greenhouse-gas-emissions reductions ('carbon trading'). Under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Joint Implementation instrument and the Clean Development Mechanism now provide an opening for substantial international resource transfers and potential for supporting sustainable development through the transfer of cleaner technologies or sustainable forestry and agro-forestry practices. For example, carbon sequestration represents a non-extractive non-consumptive sustainable use of living natural resources that can be incorporated within a multiple-use 'integrated ecosystem management' approach. The World Bank initiated the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) in April 2000, to help spur the development of a global carbon market and to 'learn by doing' how to use carbon-purchase transactions across a range of energy-sector technologies (and some forestry applications) to achieve environmentally credible and cost-effective emissions reductions that benefit developing countries and economies in transition. Building on the success of the PCF ($145 million raised from public and private-sector investors), The World Bank expects to launch two new funds in 2002: the Biocarbon Fund and the Community Development Carbon Fund. These funds will target synergies between carbon markets and objectives such as biodiversity conservation, combating desertification and small-scale community-driven development. Experience from the PCF shows that developing countries can have a comparative advantage in supplying this global market, as emissions reductions can be achieved in developing countries in the range of $3-$5 per ton of CO(2) equivalent, compared with a marginal abatement cost of $10-$15 per ton of CO(2) equivalent in most countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. However, realizing this economic potential over the next decade, and targeting the market to the rural poor, will require substantial assistance with project development and government legal and institutional capacity building. Specific needs include raising awareness of the potential of carbon markets at all levels (particularly in energy and land-use sectors), clarifying property rights, particularly in the case of communally held land and resources, ensuring the existence of an attractive investment climate, eliminating policies that create perverse incentives and constraints, and mitigating logistical, political and 'reputational' risks that could deter private-sector investors. It will also be necessary to find ways to reconcile the short-term needs of the rural poor and the typically long-term revenue stream associated with carbon sequestration. PMID:12460489

Kiss, Agi; Castro, Gonzalo; Newcombe, Kenneth

2002-08-15

12

Which Lessons Are Learned? Best Practices and World Bank Rural Telecommunications Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Bank has been the largest multilateral source of rural telecommunications financing in developing countries since the mid-1960s. This article analyzes World Bank-sponsored studies of rural telecommunications initiatives in Chile, Peru, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Malaysia to identify which lessons the bank draws from them and recommends for other countries. The World Bank's preference for a “best practice” approach in

Christina Courtright

2004-01-01

13

Bank managers on developing customer relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks are known to have stable and long lasting relations with their customers, which is why development of customer relations is a crucial strategic issue in banking. However, a basic problem in banking is that the customer base is heterogeneous, ranging from homogenous segments of customers with the same preferences to customers with individual demands for customized services. A key

Kent Eriksson; Jan Mattsson

1998-01-01

14

Multilateral Aid Agencies and Strategic Donor Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper builds on recent empirical evidence on the importance of strategic donor behaviour in aid allocation in order to develop a theoretical model where donor pressure on a recipient for influencing the aid disbursement of a multilateral institution is endogenously determined. Our game-theoretic, multi-agent model with one aid recipient, two bilateral donors and one multilateral institution illustrates the advantage

George Mavrotas; Espen Villanger

2006-01-01

15

For several years Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, has been left out of the World Bank's "Heavily Indebted Poor Country" (HIPC) debt relief initiative. At last, Haiti may soon see some of its IMF and World Bank debt cancelled. (1) (Haiti also has $550 million in Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) debt ? 13% of its GDP - and this too is expected to be cancelled)  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Representative Maxine Waters hopes to fast track Haiti's debt relief process with legislation she recently introduced that would instruct the U.S. Treasury to push for full cancellation of Haiti's debt without conditions at the Multilateral Development Banks. The Bush Administration and some Latin American countries (including Chile as well as debtors like Bolivia) have encouraged the IDB to be

Dan Beeton

16

Bank Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank Information Center (BIC) is a nonprofit, independent, non-governmental organization that "provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)." The organization's Website contains information about BIC's ongoing activities and offers useful publications and toolkits for those interested in and involved with MDBs. The Toolkits for Activists section includes fact sheets that explain the inner workings of the World Bank, covering topics such as basic information about the World Bank, the Country Assistance Strategy, World Bank policy framework, and information on World Bank's lending. Each fact sheet is available in both .pdf and HTML formats. The publications section offers a variety of resources including papers, case studies, and meeting reports, many of which are available online. Also provided are links to other monitoring organizations around the world and several online forums. An information services page will be added soon.

17

Contingent Liability in Banking: Useful Policy for Developing Countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 1995Could contingent liability systems play an important role in developing countries' banking systems?Bank owner contingent liability has been important in the development of many industrial countries. Unlimited liability on bank owners was an important element in the success of Scottish banking, for example, and lasted until 1862, when banks were allowed to adopt a limited liability designation. As a

Anthony Saunders; Berry Wilson

1999-01-01

18

Independent Review and Evaluation at the Asian Development Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the progress made at the Asian Development Bank toward establishing an effective review system. An expansion of Bank activities and the need for more current and independent reviews of Bank procedures call for more independent evaluat...

1978-01-01

19

Arab-related Bilateral and Multilateral Sources of Development Finance: Issues, Trends, and the Way Forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the organisational structure as well as the characteristics of development finance provided by Arab donor countries. This is done with a comparative view in relation to western donors and with the aim to develop recommendations as to how Arab development finance can be strengthened and rendered more effective for the new millennium. In the 1960s and 1970s

Eric Neumayer

2004-01-01

20

Educational Development in Thailand: The Role of World Bank Lending. A World Bank Operations Evaluation Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The World Bank's Operation Evaluation Department (OED) evaluates educational development in Thailand and assesses the cumulative impact of the Bank's projects on development in that country. From 1966 to date, the Bank supported six education projects with an estimated cost of a half billion dollars. The report covers: (1) economic and…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

21

Transfer of technology to developing countries: Unilateral and multilateral policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes national and international policy options to encourage the international transfer of technology, distinguishing between four major channels of such transfer: trade in products, trade in knowledge, direct foreign investment and intra- national and international movement of people. A typology of country 'types' and appropriate policy rules of thumb is developed as a guide to both national policymakers

Kamal Saggi; Keith E. Maskus

2005-01-01

22

Development and prospects of internet banking in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The goal of this paper is to examine the development and prospects of internet banking in Bangladesh, which found that lack of infrastructure is the major issues for internet banking. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An overview of newspaper reports, journal articles, workshops and presentations at the conference. Findings – Bangladesh banks are still reluctant to use full internet base banking

Syed Shah Alam; Ali Khatibi; A. Solucis Santhapparaj; Mohammad Talha

2007-01-01

23

The Asian Development Bank`s role in promoting cleaner production in the People`s Republic of China  

SciTech Connect

The People`s Republic of China (PRC) has the fastest growing economy in the world and is the third largest producer and consumer of energy. At the same time, the PRC`s industrial sector contributes heavily to air and water pollution. Because of the linkages between the production and use of energy and environmental degradation, the PRC, with the active support of bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, including the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is adopting measures that link economic growth to improvements in the environment. The PRC is pursuing a two-pronged strategy that involves implementing priority investment programs and promoting economic reforms. The ADB`s experience shows that the concept of cleaner production (CP) has been widely accepted, but the widespread adoption of CP requires a new way of thinking and new management capacities. In this regard, the PRC is at an early stage of promoting CP, and inadequacies in coordination among relevant agencies remain a key obstacle. To support CP activities, the ADB is participating in a cluster of activities within China that include policy development, capacity building, and financing environmental investments. This article describes the ADB`s current efforts to promote CP in PRC and analyzes the effectiveness of those efforts.

Huq, A.; Lohani, B.N.; Jalal, K.F.; Ouano, E.A.R. [Asian Development Bank, Metro Manila (Philippines)

1999-09-01

24

World Bank Group: Important Steps Taken on International Control but Additional Assessments Should Be Made.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Congress passed Public Law 106-429 because it was concerned about the sufficiency of external audits of the financial operations of the World Bank Group, a set of multilateral development banks. This law provides that GAO report on the sufficiency of ...

2003-01-01

25

Learning to Play the Game: Bulgaria's Relations with Multilateral Organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to examine the extent to which Bulgarian governments after the fall of communism have succeeded in mastering the challenge of developing constructive and sustainable relations with multilateral organisations. The article focuses on Bulgaria's relations with the EU, the central multilateral organisation in post-Cold War Europe and the overriding target of Bulgarian foreign policy. Achieving integration with the

VESSELIN DIMITROV

26

Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1958, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) funds cooperative efforts "to promote the economic and social development of Latin America." Current data on the economies, political systems, and cultures of the Americas is available from the IDB's economic, trade, and social databases with estimates of balance of payments, income distribution, and non-financial public sector statistics in comma-delimited format for downloading. Recent working paper series on sectral topics (1996-present) are also available, as well as IDB country reports with statistical tables and graphs.

1999-01-01

27

Employee development through self-development in three retail banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The employee development initiatives in three retail banks are the focus of this paper. The discussion draws on recent empirical findings to examine the motives and expectations that underpin employee development initiatives, and the underlying assumptions which shape how such initiatives are implemented in practice. The perspective of the organisation in relation to employee development is further enhanced with findings

Elena P. Antonacopoulou

2000-01-01

28

Evaluating electronic banking systems in developing nations through Analytic Hierarchy Process model: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of the late 1970s an impressive number of innovative electronic banking systems have been developed and tested commercially. One of the most important issues with respect to these innovations is the choosing best electronic banking method. The aim of this paper is to rank five electronic banking methods comprising ATM banking, Phone banking, Internet banking, Mobile banking

Ehsan Rasolinezhad

2009-01-01

29

Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory  

PubMed Central

The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes.

2013-01-01

30

Guidelines for Development of Biology Data Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Laboratory Animal Data Bank (LADB) is a computerized resource of comparative baseline data and reference information on various species and serve as a workable and valuable resource for biologists in many areas of basic and applied research. This repo...

P. L. Altman K. D. Fisher

1981-01-01

31

OCR Multilateral Export Controls (MEC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This unofficial book was prepared for information and guidance to exporters. It consists of lists and guidelines which reflect agreements reached in multilateral organizations in order to coordinate controls on exports of commodities, software, and techno...

2004-01-01

32

THE SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF FOREIGN BANK ENTRY ON DOMESTIC BANK BEHAVIOUR: DOES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT MATTER?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper investigates the short-term effects of foreign bank entry on the behaviour of the domestic banking sector. We hypothesise that these effects are dependent on the level of economic development,of the host country. Our investigation shows that at lower levels of economic development,foreign bank entry is generally associated with higher costs and margins for domestic banks. At higher

Robert Lensink; Niels Hermes

2003-01-01

33

Leveraging World Bank Resources for the Poorest: IDA Blended Financing Facility Proposal - Working Paper 214  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the Millennium Development Goals deadline only five years away, the international donor community faces significant challenges due to the global economic crisis, record government deficits, and simultaneous funding requests from nearly every multilateral development institution. This paper proposes a new World Bank financing model for creditworthy emerging economies, such as India and Vietnam, which currently receive billions of dollars

Benjamin Leo

2010-01-01

34

Monetary Policy Instruments for Developing Countries: A World Bank Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The Use of Market Instruments for Monetary Policy; Central Bank Liquidity Management and the Money Market; The Use of Monetary Policy Instruments by Developing Countries; Building Financial Institutions for a Market-Based Monetary Policy; Moneta...

G. Caprio P. Honohan

1991-01-01

35

The impact of financial development and bank characteristics on the operational performance of commercial banks in the Chinese transitional economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper attempts to empirically examine the impact of financial development and bank characteristics on the operational performance of commercial banks in the Chinese transitional economy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Pooled cross-section (banks) and time-series data are employed in the empirical estimation, with the sample comprising a total of 14 Chinese banks. The period under consideration extends from 1996-2004. Fixed

Hsiu-Ling Wu; Chien-Hsun Chen; Fang-Ying Shiu

2007-01-01

36

Mentoring for enhancing females' career development: the bank job  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how formal mentoring programmes may enhance female mentees' career development, particularly in a case study of a major high street bank. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Empirical case study work, from mentees' and mentors' points of view, on the evaluation of a pilot formal mentoring programme for the career development of females is

Gillian Maxwell

2009-01-01

37

Challenges of regionalism: Development and spatial structure of the hungarian banking system section: Financial issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEY WORDS: Hungarian banking system, transitional financial markets, banking network, global-local dichotomy, and uneven regional development. ABSTRACT: The growing literature on regional finance suggests that credit allocation in regional banking system and the different national banking systems are different according to their stage of development, and frictions also exist across regions within national economies, resulting in different availability of capital.

Zoltán Gál

2001-01-01

38

Recent trends and developments in e-banking in an underdeveloped nation -- an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a case study about the major issues and challenges in the development of the electronic banking (e-banking) industry of a relatively underdeveloped nation. This research shows that even in many less developed nations, the application of e-banking can help their local banks reduce operating costs and provide a better and fast service to their customers. The research

Jiaqin Yang; Kh Tanveer Ahmed

2009-01-01

39

Will World Bank and IMF Lending Lead to HIPC IV? Debt Déjà-Vu All Over Again  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four years ago, the G-7 pushed through an unprecedented initiative forcing the international financial institutions to cancel 100 percent of their outstanding debt claims on the world’s poorest countries. Through the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI), these heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) stand to receive up to $60 billion in debt relief over time. Moreover, the World Bank, African Development

Benjamin Leo

2009-01-01

40

Financial deregulation, banking development, and the likelihood of banking fragility: the case of Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this thesis is to examine the relationship between interest rates, saving through the banking sector, credit from banks, and private investment using the financial deregulation hypothesis and the determinants of the probability of banking fragility for the Indonesian case. Some of the financial deregulation hypothesis related to those variables and the determinants of the likelihood of banking

Siti Astiyah

2001-01-01

41

Resource Management through Multilateral Matchmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Federated distributed systems present new challenges to resource management, which cannot be met by conventional systems that employ,relatively static resource models,and centralized allocators. We previously argued,that Match- making,provides an elegant and robust resource manage- ment solution for these highly dynamic,environments,[5]. Although powerful and flexible, multiparty policies (e.g., co-allocation) cannot,be accomodated,by Matchmaking. In this paper we present Gang-Matching, a multilateral

Rajesh Raman; Miron Livny; Marvin H. Solomon

2000-01-01

42

International Multilateral Educational Aid Received by China: History, Characteristics, and Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirty years have passed since China began its reform and opening up, to formally accept multilateral educational aid from international organizations, and multilateral educational assistance has made contributions that cannot be overlooked to the reform and development of China's education. This article reviews the history of China's acceptance…

Yuchi, Zhao

2012-01-01

43

Foreign Bank Entry: Experience, Implications for Developing Economies, and Agenda for Further Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years foreign banks have expanded their presence significantly in several developing economies. In Argentina and Chile in Latin America and in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland in Eastern Europe, foreign-controlled banks now hold more than half of total banking assets. In other regions the trend is similar, though foreign bank entry has been slower. Despite the growing

G. Clarke; Maria Soledad; Martinez PeriaSusana; M. Sánchez

2003-01-01

44

The Development of a Scale Measuring Consumers' Selection of Retail Banks in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana, one of the fastest growing liberalized developing economies in Africa, has, in recent years, established a nationwide rural bank system and has witnessed an increase in the entry of foreign retail banks. Although there are increased activities and interest about bank offerings and bank–customer relationships in Ghana (Dadzie, Akaah, and Dunson, 1989), to date, researchers have overlooked the factors

Charles Blankson; Chris H. N. Mbah; Lambert Yaw Owusu-Frempong

2009-01-01

45

China Development Forum 2002 Minister's Speech: Developing China's Capital Market and Speeding Up Banking Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this ministerial speech to the China Development Forum in Beijing, March 2002, I emphasise the importance of the People's Bank of China in implementing sound monetary policy and strengthening financial support for economic development. For these purposes China's capital market needs to be further developed to increase the share of direct financing, and state-owned commercial banks need to be

Dai Xianglong

2003-01-01

46

The Multilateral Ozone Fund : A case study on institutional learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer” obliges industrial countries to reimburse developing countries - through new and additional resources - all agreed incremental costs incurred by them in their efforts to save the ozone layer. To this end, a multilateral fund was established in 1990. The fund’s decision-making procedures grant developing countries the same voting powers

Frank Biermann; Udo E. Simonis

1999-01-01

47

Multilateral drilling, seismic acquisition top upstream technology needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-impact technology needs for the US upstream oil industry include advanced seismic acquisition, high-resolution depth imaging, cementing, and multilateral drilling. The Department of Energy and the national labs have shown a definite willingness to work on oil and gas research projects, providing the research and development could not be accomplished by private industry alone. Advanced seismic acquisition was identified as

Rappold

1995-01-01

48

An analysis of GAVI, the Global Fund and World Bank support for human resources for health in developing countries.  

PubMed

Shortages, geographic imbalances and poor performance of health workers pose major challenges for improving health service delivery in developing countries. In response, multilateral agencies have increasingly recognized the need to invest in human resources for health (HRH) to assist countries in achieving their health system goals. In this paper we analyse the HRH-related activities of three agencies: the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI); the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (the Global Fund); and the World Bank. First, we reviewed the type of HRH-related activities that are eligible for financing within each agency. Second, we reviewed the HRH-related activities that each agency is actually financing. Third, we reviewed the literature to understand the impact that GAVI, Global Fund and World Bank investments in HRH have had on the health workforce in developing countries. Our analysis found that by far the most common activity supported across all agencies is short-term, in-service training. There is relatively little investment in expanding pre-service training capacity, despite large health worker shortages in developing countries. We also found that the majority of GAVI and the Global Fund grants finance health worker remuneration, largely through supplemental allowances, with little information available on how payment rates are determined, how the potential negative consequences are mitigated, and how payments are to be sustained at the end of the grant period. Based on the analysis, we argue there is an opportunity for improved co-ordination between the three agencies at the country level in supporting HRH-related activities. Existing initiatives, such as the International Health Partnership and the Health Systems Funding Platform, could present viable and timely vehicles for the three agencies to implement this improved co-ordination. PMID:22333685

Vujicic, Marko; Weber, Stephanie E; Nikolic, Irina A; Atun, Rifat; Kumar, Ranjana

2012-02-13

49

M-banking in developing markets: competitive and regulatory implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Mobile banking (M-banking) involves the use of a mobile phone or another mobile device to undertake financial transactions linked to a client's account. M-banking is one of the newest approaches to the provision of financial services through information communication technology (ICT), made possible by the widespread adoption of mobile phones even in low income countries. Emerging mobile banking

Jamie Anderson

2010-01-01

50

African Development Report 2010: Ports, Logistics, and Trade in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African Development Report 2009-2010 is the twenty-first annual survey of economic and social progress in Africa. The Report provides comprehensive analysis of the state of the African economy, examining development policy issues affecting the economic prospects of the continent. The African Development Bank Group is a regional multilateral development finance institution the members of which are all of the

51

Does Prior Banking Experience Matter? Differences of the Banked and Unbanked in Individual Development Accounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 4-year American Dream Demonstration, this study compares saving performance and program participation\\u000a of banked (n = 1,538) and unbanked participants (n = 466) enrolled in 14 IDA programs. The study shows banked participants had $2.74 higher average monthly net deposit (p p p < 0.001). Moreover, program characteristics such as financial education, monthly saving targets, peer group meetings, and\\u000a direct deposit are important predictors

Michal Grinstein-Weiss; Yeong H. Yeo; Mathieu R. Despard; Adriane M. Casalotti; Min Zhan

2010-01-01

52

Multilateral drilling & completion technology based on Solid Expandable Tubular fixing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multilateral technology is developed based on the Solid Expandable Tubular (SET) fixing system. By this new technology, every kinds of tool in drilling, completion, well repair, and oil-formation improvement are located and operated according to down-hole SET-fixing equipment. This SET-fixing multilateral technology reaches the international Technology Advancement Multi Laterals (TAML) 4 completion level and has such characteristics as

Zhang Yanping; Ren Rongquan; Wang Hui; Wang Jun

2009-01-01

53

KEY DRIVERS FOR SOUNDNESS OF THE BANKING SECTOR: LESSONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soundness of banks is important for the economic development of a country. In this paper we empirically examine the impact of key factors such as Infrastructure (ICT infrastructure), Intellectual Capital, Institutions, Integrity (Governance), Interaction (Strategic Partnership) and Innovation (henceforth will be referred to as the6I's) on the soundness of the banks in developed, developing and under-developed countries. The study was

Santha Vaithilingam; Mahendhiran Nair; Muthi Samudra

2006-01-01

54

Governance: The World Bank's Experiece. Development in Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to summarize the Bank's activity in the area of governance in the past two years. The record shows that the Bank's work on governance has greatly expanded, albeit with different points of emphasis, in all regions of the devel...

1994-01-01

55

An exploratory study to examine the success of electronic banking systems implementation in a developing nation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examines the success of electronic banking systems implementation in a developing nation environment. We use the DeLone and McLean (D&M) Information System (IS) success model as a theoretical framework to examine the success of IS implementations in one national bank and one international bank in Ghana. Results indicate that the D&M model is only partially applicable in

Francis Kofi Andoh-Baidoo; Marco A. Villarreal; Lai C. Liu; Perpetual Wuddah-Martey

2010-01-01

56

The Los Angeles Community Development Bank: The Possible Pitfalls of Public-Private Partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the 1992 Los Angeles riots, the federal government, city and county officials, commercial banks and community leaders established the nonprofit Los Angeles Community Development Bank (L ACDB). This public-private partnership was a new development model, designed to spur economic growth in some of Los Angeles' most disadvantaged areas. The L ACDB was capitalized with $435 million from

Julia Sass Rubin; Gregory M. Stankiewicz

2001-01-01

57

OSCE: A Case Study for a Return to Multilateralism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One way that states pursue foreign policy interests is through multilateralism, an international relations term referring to how several states work in concert with one another to achieve their common interests. Multilateralism is generally pursued within...

G. Espinas

2008-01-01

58

Developing Countries and a New Round of WTO Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes some of the results and findings emerging from an ongoing World Bank research and capacity-building project that focuses on the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiating agenda from a developing country perspective. Recent research suggests that the potential gains from further multilateral liberalization of trade remain very large. The payoffs associated with attempts to introduce substantive disciplines in

Thomas W. HertelBernard; M. HoekmanWill Martin

2000-01-01

59

Development of six PROMIS pediatrics proxy-report item banks  

PubMed Central

Background Pediatric self-report should be considered the standard for measuring patient reported outcomes (PRO) among children. However, circumstances exist when the child is too young, cognitively impaired, or too ill to complete a PRO instrument and a proxy-report is needed. This paper describes the development process including the proxy cognitive interviews and large-field-test survey methods and sample characteristics employed to produce item parameters for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pediatric proxy-report item banks. Methods The PROMIS pediatric self-report items were converted into proxy-report items before undergoing cognitive interviews. These items covered six domains (physical function, emotional distress, social peer relationships, fatigue, pain interference, and asthma impact). Caregivers (n = 25) of children ages of 5 and 17 years provided qualitative feedback on proxy-report items to assess any major issues with these items. From May 2008 to March 2009, the large-scale survey enrolled children ages 8-17 years to complete the self-report version and caregivers to complete the proxy-report version of the survey (n = 1548 dyads). Caregivers of children ages 5 to 7 years completed the proxy report survey (n = 432). In addition, caregivers completed other proxy instruments, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Parent Proxy-Report version, PedsQL™ Asthma Module Parent Proxy-Report version, and KIDSCREEN Parent-Proxy-52. Results Item content was well understood by proxies and did not require item revisions but some proxies clearly noted that determining an answer on behalf of their child was difficult for some items. Dyads and caregivers of children ages 5-17 years old were enrolled in the large-scale testing. The majority were female (85%), married (70%), Caucasian (64%) and had at least a high school education (94%). Approximately 50% had children with a chronic health condition, primarily asthma, which was diagnosed or treated within 6 months prior to the interview. The PROMIS proxy sample scored similar or better on the other proxy instruments compared to normative samples. Conclusions The initial calibration data was provided by a diverse set of caregivers of children with a variety of common chronic illnesses and racial/ethnic backgrounds. The PROMIS pediatric proxy-report item banks include physical function (mobility n = 23; upper extremity n = 29), emotional distress (anxiety n = 15; depressive symptoms n = 14; anger n = 5), social peer relationships (n = 15), fatigue (n = 34), pain interference (n = 13), and asthma impact (n = 17).

2012-01-01

60

Bank credit and economic development: an empirical analysis of Indian states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of economic reforms in India, particularly reforms in the banking sector, although boosted and edged up the profits and improved efficiency of the banks, an unwarranted consequence was the decline in credit to the less developed states and regions. The emphasis on efficient allocation of resources overlooked the developmental needs of these regions and states. This study examines

Rashmi Umesh Arora

2009-01-01

61

Financial Crisis, Economic Recovery and Banking Development in Former Soviet Union Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a unified theory to explain the onset of the financial crisis in 1998 and the striking economic recovery in Russia and the former Soviet Union afterwards. Before the crisis, the banking sector in these economies was stuck in a development trap in which the banking sector is separated from the real sector of the economy. The separation

Dalia Marin; Haizhou Huang; Chenggang Xu

2002-01-01

62

Determinants of bank net interest margins in Fiji, a small island developing state  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the determinants of Net Interest Margins (NIM) of banks in Fiji, a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) in the South Pacific, over the period 2000–2010. Based mainly on the Ho and Saunders’ (1981) dealership model and extensions thereto, this study uses a number of panel data estimation techniques to control for possible heterogeneity across banks and various

Neelesh Gounder; Parmendra Sharma

2012-01-01

63

Neighbourhood Peacekeeping: The Inter-American Development Bank's Violence Reduction Programs in Colombia and Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) incorporated, nearly a decade ago, violence prevention in its lending portfolio. Since the first citizen security project loan was approved, the IDB has accumulated valuable experience on the design and implementation of violence prevention operations, placing the Bank at the forefront of this type of lending in the region. To date, the IDB has financed

Erik Alda; Mayra Buvini?; Jorge Lamas

2006-01-01

64

Developing Tanzanian civil society : Desiring democracy, self-empowerment and the World Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The development of Tanzanian civil society is widely understood to be one of the key processes in the democratization of the country, and this vision is also shared by the World Bank. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the intention and impact of World Bank policies aimed at supporting Tanzanian civil society organizations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The

Marinko Banjac

2010-01-01

65

THE IMF AND WORLD BANK APPROACHES TO MACROECONOMIC MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:An half a century has just passed since the creation of the Bretton Woods Institutions, the IMF and World Bank. As in the past decades, both institutions are still on the economic as well as political agenda of a number of countries, in particular, developing countries. This paper gives the analytical descriptions of both the IMF and World Bank approaches,to

Huseyin Sen

66

Adoption of Internet banking among sophisticated consumer segments in an advanced developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

This descriptive study was conducted to develop an understanding of consumers' attitudes and adoption of Internet banking among sophisticated consumers. Based on a random sample of academicians, demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral characteristics of Internet banking (IB) users and non-users were examined. The analyses revealed significant differences between the demographic profiles and attitudes of users and non-users. IB users were further

Serkan Akinci; ?afak Aksoy; Eda Atilgan

2004-01-01

67

Does Trade Openness Promote Multilateral Environmental Cooperation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article puts forward a number of arguments why trade openness might promote multilateral environmental cooperation. Most of these arguments are grounded in the substantive self-interest of the trading country. It tests the proposition using a range of proxy variables for general trade openness as well as specific export interests. The article examines whether countries open to trade are more

Eric Neumayer

2002-01-01

68

The United States and multilateral resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents papers on the issue of international cooperation with regard to global energy sources. Topics considered include oil and cartel power, food resources, the US role in international organizations, the multilateral management of marine mineral resources, the International Seabed Authority, and the issue of global interests versus national interests.

Jordon

1985-01-01

69

Finance Development: A Quarterly Publication of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collection of articles, reprinted from Finance & Development, reflects many different aspects of the World Bank's work on health and development, including family planning, nutrition, and financing of health services, and its cooperation with other sp...

1989-01-01

70

Bank Supervision and Surveillance: A Critical Case Study Analysis of the Bank of Commerce and Development (Libya)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on desk research drawing on both theoretical and empirical literature on prudential regulation and supervision for the banking sector in Libya. The focus of the study is on the tools and techniques that the Central Bank of Libya uses to uncover and correct weaknesses in the banking system and to prevent bank failure from causing broader

Atsede Woldie; Ihab M Dofan

71

Developing an Initial Physical Function Item Bank from Existing Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Illustrates incremental item banking using health-related quality of life data collected from two samples of patients receiving cancer treatment (n=1,755 and n=1,544). Results support findings from previous studies that have equated separate instruments by co-calibrating their items. (SLD)|

Bode, Rita K.; Cella, David; Lai, Jin-shei; Heinemann, Allen W.

2003-01-01

72

Lineages of liberalism and miracles of modernisation: The World Bank, the East Asian trajectory and the international development debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over time the conception of development encouraged by the Bank has shifted, mirroring wider trends in the international political economy. This article begins with a brief discussion of the changes in the World Bank's understanding of development over the past 30 or 40 years. This is followed by an examination of the Bank' s efforts to accommodate the East Asian

Mark T. Berger; Mark Beeson

1998-01-01

73

Application of a Computerized Vibroacoustic Data Bank for Random Vibration Criteria Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computerized data bank system was developed for utilization of large amounts of vibration and acoustic data to formulate component random vibration design and test criteria. This system consists of a computer, graphics tablets, and a dry silver hard cop...

R. C. Ferebee

1982-01-01

74

Thérèse Mound: a case study of coral bank development in the Belgica Mound Province, Porcupine Seabight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution seismic profiles, swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar data and video imageries are analysed in this detailed study of five carbonate mounds from the Belgica mound province with special emphasis on the well-surveyed Thérèse Mound. The selected mounds are located in the deepest part of the Belgica mound province at water depths of 950 m. Seismic data illustrate that the underlying geology is characterised by drift sedimentation in a general northerly flowing current regime. Sigmoidal sediment bodies create local slope breaks on the most recent local erosional surface, which act as the mound base. No preferential mound substratum is observed, neither is there any indication for deep geological controls on coral bank development. Seismic evidence suggests that the start-up of the coral bank development was shortly after a major erosional event of Late Pliocene Quaternary age. The coral bank geometry has been clearly affected by the local topography of this erosional base and the prevailing current regime. The summits of the coral banks are relatively flat and the flanks are steepest on their upper slopes. Deposition of the encased drift sequence has been influenced by the coral bank topography. Sediment waves are formed besides the coral banks and are the most pronounced bedforms. These seabed structures are probably induced by bottom current up to 1 m/s. Large sediment waves are colonised by living corals and might represent the initial phase of coral bank development. The biological facies distribution of the coral banks illustrate a living coral cap on the summit and upper slope and a decline of living coral populations toward the lower flanks. The data suggest that the development of the coral banks in this area is clearly an interaction between biological growth processes and drift deposition both influenced by the local topography and current regime.

de Mol, Ben; Kozachenko, Max; Wheeler, Andy; Alvares, Hugo; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Olu-Le Roy, Karine

2007-02-01

75

Human resource development in an industry in transition: the case of the Russian banking sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents issues and problems faced by the human resource development (HRD) system in the Russian banking industry, and identifies future trends for the development of this system. The study was conducted in 1998; it was based on a mixed-method methodology and included seventy large and medium-sized banks from six regions of Russia and forty-five educational and training institutions.

Alexander Ardichvili; Alexander Gasparishvili

2001-01-01

76

A Minimax Procedure for Negotiating Multilateral Treaties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose in this chapter a procedure for reaching agreement on multilateral treaties that produces a compromise as close\\u000a as possible to the preferences of all parties. By “close” we mean that the maximum distance of the compromise from the position\\u000a of any state is minimal, which we call a minimax outcome. We show that this procedure is relatively invulnerable

Steven J. Brams; D. Marc Kilgour; M. Remzi Sanver

77

Instrument Development for the Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer (GB/SRBS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Details of two on-going technical development projects for the Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer (GB/SRBS) are presented. One is a high dynamic range active balun covering 20-350 MHz. The other is a log periodic array feed for the Green Bank 45-Foot radio telescope covering 300-3000 MHz. Basic design, fabrication, and evaluation information are included for both projects.

Bradley, R.; Parashare, C.; White, S. M.; Bastian, T. S.

2005-12-01

78

Investment Banking and Security Market Development: Why is Chile Di¤erent from the United States?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract There is vast evidence that in developed security markets, particularly the United States, …rms access “direct” markets,through,investment,banks with whom,they establish long-term relationships. By contrast, we present evidence from a small emerging economy—Chile— which suggests that local intermediaries do not establish relationships with …rms but rather engage in “arm’s length” investment banking. This does not a¤ect conglomerates,and large Chilean …rms

Bharat N. Anand; Alexander Galetovic

79

Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

2009-01-01

80

Development of a data entry auditing protocol and quality assurance for a tissue bank database.  

PubMed

Human transcription error is an acknowledged risk when extracting information from paper records for entry into a database. For a tissue bank, it is critical that accurate data are provided to researchers with approved access to tissue bank material. The challenges of tissue bank data collection include manual extraction of data from complex medical reports that are accessed from a number of sources and that differ in style and layout. As a quality assurance measure, the Breast Cancer Tissue Bank (http:\\\\www.abctb.org.au) has implemented an auditing protocol and in order to efficiently execute the process, has developed an open source database plug-in tool (eAuditor) to assist in auditing of data held in our tissue bank database. Using eAuditor, we have identified that human entry errors range from 0.01% when entering donor's clinical follow-up details, to 0.53% when entering pathological details, highlighting the importance of an audit protocol tool such as eAuditor in a tissue bank database. eAuditor was developed and tested on the Caisis open source clinical-research database; however, it can be integrated in other databases where similar functionality is required. PMID:21331789

Khushi, Matloob; Carpenter, Jane E; Balleine, Rosemary L; Clarke, Christine L

2011-02-18

81

A multilateral approach to examining the comovements among major world equity markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the comovement in stock indices among major developed markets, where Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) indices are employed for the purposes of the study. We employ a model that accommodates multilateral international impacts on equity index movements. The empirical results reveal the existence of significant international transmission effects among these major world markets, both in terms of

Chin-Wen Hsin

2004-01-01

82

Learner Interpretations of Shared Space in Multilateral English Blogging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative study aims to understand how English learners interpret shared space in an online multilateral English blogging context and how their interpretations of shared space contribute to their multilateral exchange experience. Twenty-four Asian learners of English from two different universities--one in Japan and one in…

Yang, Yu-Feng

2011-01-01

83

The Role of Multilateral Institutions in International Trade Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Trade Organization (WFO) lacks the power to directly enforce agreements. It is, therefore, important to understand what role the WTO can play to facilitate international cooperation and whether a multilateral institution can offer distinct advantages over a web of bilateral agreements. This paper examines two potential benefits of a multilateral trade institution: first, verifying violations of the agreements

Giovanni Maggi

1999-01-01

84

Multilateral Disarmament: Conspiracy for Common Sense. Occasional Paper 31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper outlines the danger of continuing the conventional and nuclear arms races and offers alternatives to ensure both peace and security. There are five major sections to the paper. In the first section, "Mulitlateral Approach," global multilateral accomplishments, regional multilateral activities, and bilateral negotiations are discussed.…

Stanley, C. Maxwell

85

Nothing Succeeds Like Access? NGO Strategies Towards Multilateral Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a large literature on international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), we still know relatively little about their nature as strategic actors. This article addresses this gap, arguing that a key determinant of NGOs' strategies towards multilateral institutions in particular is their level of formalization. NGOs' choices over both organizational structure and strategy towards multilateral institutions reflect their level of commitment to

Edward A. Fogarty

2011-01-01

86

Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

87

An Analysis Study to the problems of financing small projects With reference to experience Libyan Development Bank in Darna city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the strategic importance of small projects in the development process in developing countries, including the Libyan economy, but they face many economic problems, administrative and organizational productivity, marketing and other problems related to lack of information, working to reduce their access to formal finance in general and banking in particular. Libyan Development Bank Branch Darna Try to financing small

falah. K. Ali Alrubaie

2006-01-01

88

Enhancing microfinance outreach through market-oriented new service development in Indian regional rural banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Hitherto, assessments of the effectiveness of Indian microfinance institutions in achieving their economic and social goals have largely identified only limited success. Critics of Indian regional rural banks (RRBs) and their prevailing culture have argued that a product-focused rather than a market-oriented approach to new service development (NSD) is responsible for their inadequate performance. With this in mind,

Philip Megicks; Atul Mishra; Jonathan Lean

2005-01-01

89

Transboundary Water Conflicts over Hydropower and Irrigation: Can Multinational Development Banks Help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of a transboundary water conflict involv- ing upstream hydropower use and downstream irrigation use. The conflict arises because upstream water release may not coincide with seasonal irri- gation needs of the downstream riparian. Policy interventions by multi- national development banks (MDBs) are of particular interest because these agencies have a comparative advantage in promoting transboundary

Lars Christian Moller

90

Monitoring Rural Development in East Asia. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 439.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper presents results of discussions during an 8-day workshop (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 1979) on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of East Asian and Pacific rural development projects. Major workshop themes identified are managerial, technical, and institutional aspects of monitoring. The introduction discusses previous World Bank

Deboeck, Guido; Ng, Ronald

91

Extractive industries and sustainable development: an evaluation of World Bank Group experience  

SciTech Connect

How effectively has the World Bank Group assisted its clients in enhancing the contribution of the extractive industries to sustainable development? (Extractive industries include oil, gas, and mining of minerals including coals and metals.) This evaluation finds that with its global mandate and experience, comprehensive country development focus, and overarching mission to fight poverty, the World Bank Group is well positioned to help countries overcome the policy, institutional, and technical challenges that prevent them from transforming resource endowments into sustainable benefits. Furthermore, the World Bank Group's achievements are many. On the whole, its extractive industries projects have produced positive economic and financial results, though compliance with its environmental and social safeguards remains a challenge. Its research has broadened and deepened understanding of the causes for the disappointing performance of resource-rich countries. Its guidelines for the mitigation of adverse environmental and social impacts have been widely used and appreciated. More recently, it has begun to address the challenge of country governance with a variety of instruments. The World Bank Group can, however, do much to improve its performance in enhancing the extractive industry sector's contribution to sustainable development and poverty reduction. The report identifies three main areas for improvement - formulating an integrated strategy, strengthening implementation and engagement of stakeholders. 5 annexes.

Andres Liebenthal; Roland Michelitsch; Ethel Tarazona

2005-07-01

92

Nongovernmental Organizations and the World Bank: Cooperation for Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book is a collection of papers on the role, potential, and limits of Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) in development. It combines a global review of what NGOs are and what they can do in the development process with an analysis of the experience o...

S. Paul A. Israel

1991-01-01

93

Factors that affect short-term commercial bank lending to developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries rely on short-term trade credits for imports of several essential consumer goods, including medicines and basic food supplies. The credits also facilitate export-related transactions. The mechanisms commercial banks use to provide trade credits to developing countries are complex and costly. Even a temporary break in the flow of short-term credit can seriously hurt a country's business. But since

Sudarshan Gooptu; Maria Soledad Martinez Peria

1992-01-01

94

CAREER MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT FOR LEADERSHIP IN LOCAL BANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local organizations in Pakistan are generally seen giving adequate consideration to human resource related activities such as recruitment and selection, performance evaluation, compensation and rewards administration; however, they do not give ample attention to the otherwise core HR function of career management and development. As a consequence, employees of these organizations generally assume primary responsibility for their career planning and

Pr Zehra Roofi BUDHWANI

95

Closed form localization algorithms for mode S wide area multilateration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilateration (MLAT) is an increasingly important location and identification system for surface traffic surveillance, is in use in large airports such as London-Heathrow, Frankfurt\\/Main and Rome-Fiumicino. Target location can be extended to approach and terminal area surveillance (wide area multilateration, WAM), with a system coverage to some hundred kilometers around the airport. Practically used MLAT systems exploit signals transmitted by

Mauro Leonardi; Adolf Mathias; Gaspare Galati

2009-01-01

96

The World Bank: An Online Atlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

97

Banking Intelligence: Application of data warehouse in bank operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the development of information technology, business intelligence plays an important role in the bank operation process. Bank Intelligence is a method of storing and presenting key bank business data so that anyone in the bank can quickly and easily ask questions of accurate and timely data. In a bank network, hundreds of millions of customer data records are

Zhonglin Lin; Minghua Zhu; Wenjun Yin; Jin Dong

2008-01-01

98

Development of Short Forms from the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment Item Banks  

PubMed Central

We report on the development of short forms from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS™) Sleep Disturbance (SD) and Sleep-Related Impairment (SRI) item banks. Results from post-hoc computerized adaptive testing (CAT) simulations, item discrimination parameters, item means, and clinical judgment were used to select the best-performing 8 items for SD and SRI. The final 8-item short forms provided less test information than the corresponding full banks, but correlated strongly with the longer forms. The short forms had greater measurement precision than the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) as indicated by larger test information values across the continuum of severity, despite having fewer total items, a major advantage for both research and clinical settings.

Yu, Lan; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Moul, Douglas E.; Stover, Angela; Dodds, Nathan E.; Johnston, Kelly L.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2011-01-01

99

A parametric study on the benefits of drilling horizontal and multilateral wells in coalbed methane reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in development of coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs. Optimizing CBM production is of interest to many operators. Drilling horizontal and multilateral wells is gaining Popularity in many different coalbed reservoirs, with varying results. This study concentrates on variations of horizontal and multilateral-well configurations and their potential benefits. In this study, horizontal and several multilateral drilling patterns for CBM reservoirs are studied. The reservoir parameters that have been studied include gas content, permeability, and desorption characteristics. Net present value (NPV) has been used as the yard stick for comparing different drilling configurations. Configurations that have been investigated are single-, dual-, tri-, and quad-lateral wells along with fishbone (also known as pinnate) wells. In these configurations, the total length of horizontal wells and the spacing between laterals (SBL) have been studied. It was determined that in the cases that have been studied in this paper (all other circumstances being equal), quadlateral wells are the optimum well configuration.

Maricic, N.; Mohaghegh, S.D.; Artun, E. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (USA)

2008-12-15

100

Deep-water coral development as a function of hydrodynamics and surface productivity around the submarine banks of the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics that occur at the Porcupine Bank, Rockall Trough, are described in relation to the role the bank, and others like it, may play in the development of deep-water corals, such as Lophelia pertusa (L.), which occurs widely in the NE Atlantic. High productivity has been measured over the bank, and it appears that this productivity may be fuelled

Martin White; Christian Mohn; Henko de Stigter; Gareth Mottram

101

Financial Crisis, Economic Recovery and Banking Development in Former Soviet Union Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper explains both the onset of the financial crisis in 1998 and the striking economic recovery afterwards in Russia and other Former Soviet Union (FSU) economies. Before the crisis banks do not lend to the real sector of the economy, and firms use non-bank finance - including trade credits and barter trade - to finance production. The banking failure

Haizhou Huang; Dalia Marin; Cheng-Gang Xu

2003-01-01

102

Financial Crisis, Economic Recovery and Banking Development in Former Soviet Union Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains both the onset of the financial crisis in 1998 and the striking economic recovery afterwards in Russia and other Former Soviet Union (FSU) economies. Before the crisis banks do not lend to the real sector of the economy and firms use non-bank finance, including trade credits and barter trade, to finance production. The banking failure arises due

Haizhou Huang; Dalia Marin; Chenggang Xu

2003-01-01

103

Profits and balance sheet developments at U.S. commercial banks in 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. commercial banks continued to be highly profitable in 2004. Return on assets and return on equity declined moderately, but the economy's continued expansion and supportive financial conditions helped keep bank profits in the elevated range that has prevailed since the mid-1990s. Profits were trimmed a bit by a narrowing of banks' net interest margins as the yield curve flattened

Elizabeth C. Klee; Fabio M. Natalucci

2005-01-01

104

Development of coral banks in Porcupine Seabight: do they have Mediterranean ancestors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the spatial distribution and morphology of coral banks in the Porcupine Seabight in relation to their environmental settings. The study area is characterised by well-delimited clusters of coral banks, each featuring typical bank morphology and environmental setting. In the central part of the basin, two mound provinces can be identified: a set of complex

Ben De Mol; Jean-Pierre Henriet; Miquel Canals

105

Development of an EtherCAT enabled digital servo controller for the Green Bank Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is gaining wide spread popularity in the automation industry as a real time field bus based on low cost, Ethernet hardware. EtherCAT maximizes use of 100Mbps Ethernet hardware by using a collision free ring topology, efficient Ethernet frame utilization (> 95%), and data exchange "on the fly". These characteristics enable EtherCAT to achieve Master to Slave node data exchange rates of > 1000 Hz. The Green Bank Telescope, commissioned in 2000, utilizes an analog control system for motion control of 8 elevation and 16 azimuth motors. This architecture, while sufficient for observations at frequencies up to 50GHz, has significant limitations for the current scientific goals of observing at 115GHz. Accordingly, the Green Bank staff has embarked on a servo upgrade project to develop a digital servo system which accommodates development and implementation of advanced control algorithms. This paper describes how the new control system requirements, use of existing infrastructure and budget constraints led us to define a distributed motion control architecture where EtherCAT real-time Ethernet was selected as the communication bus. Finally, design details are provided that describe how NRAO developed a custom EtherCAT-enabled motor controller interface for the GBT's legacy motor drives in order to provide technical benefits and flexibility not available in commercial products.

Whiteis, Peter G.; Mello, Melinda J.

2012-09-01

106

Who is in love with multilateralism? Treaty commitment in the post-Cold War era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of the Cold War, multilateral treaties have again become a central vehicle for international cooperation. In this article, we study states’ commitment to 76 multilateral treaties concluded between 1990 and 2005. The article offers a systematic account of present-day multilateral treaty-making efforts and asks what explains variation in states’ participation as witnessed in the act of treaty

Manfred Elsig; Karolina Milewicz; Nikolas Stürchler

2011-01-01

107

Multilateration applied to airport vehicles management systems: the Agile Trasponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is focused on the implementation of an innovative vehicles surveillance system using the 1090 MHz channel. SSR (secondary surveillance radar) mode S (selective) exploitation in high traffic environment calls for enhancing communication capacity. In the multilateration and ADS-B applications, the presence of both SSR mode S replies and squitter makes the superimposition of 1090 MHz signals probable. In

G. Galati; P. Magaro; E. G. Piracci; L. Ciccotto

2006-01-01

108

The 1994 Haiti intervention: A unilateral operation in multilateral Clothes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers of United States (US) interventions have almost universally characterized the 1994 Haiti intervention as multilateral, a model for how international cooperation can achieve common security goals. A closer analysis of the intervention reveals that the planning and execution of the intervention were almost entirely unilateral and therefore cost the US few if any of the theoretical costs of coalition

Sarah E. Kreps

2007-01-01

109

The future of Clinton's foreign and defense policy: Multilateral security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clinton administration does not have a clear foreign and defense policy. Budget reductions in the Department of Defense, largely a function of domestic economics, are increasing the disparity between the ends and means of U.S. foreign and security policies. As a result, the Clinton administration will seek multilateral security efforts as a means to redress the imbalance.

Mark T. Clark

1994-01-01

110

Bank incentives, contract design and bank runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the Diamond–Dybvig [Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity, J. Polit. Econ. 91 (1983) 401–419] model as developed in Green and Lin [Implementing efficient allocations in a model of financial intermediation, J. Econ. Theory 109 (2003) 1–23] and Peck and Shell [Equilibrium bank runs, J. Polit. Econ. 111 (2003) 103–123]. We dispense with the notion of a bank as

David Andolfatto; Ed Nosal

2008-01-01

111

Electronic Money Free Banking and Some Implications for Central Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses electronic money, its relation to free banking and some implications for central banking. It begins by introducing its conceptual framework for modern central banking, in terms of which it then rehearses the free banking argument. It then reviews the development of e-money in terms of both electronic payment methods and electronic issue, with special attention paid to

Yuksel Gormez; Christopher Houghton Budd

2004-01-01

112

Banks’ Internationalization Strategies: The Role of Bank Capital Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how capital requirements influence a bank’s mode of entry into foreign financial markets. We develop a model of an internationally operating bank that creates and allocates liquidity across countries and argue that the advantage of multinational banking over offering cross-border financial services depends on the benefit and the cost of intimacy with local markets. The benefit is

Diemo Dietrich; Uwe Vollmer

2006-01-01

113

Development of rasch-based item banks for the assessment of work performance in patients with musculoskeletal diseases.  

PubMed

Purpose This study aimed to develop a self-description assessment instrument to measure work performance in patients with musculoskeletal diseases. In terms of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), work performance is defined as the degree of meeting the work demands (activities) at the actual workplace (environment). To account for the fact that work performance depends on the work demands of the job, we strived to develop item banks that allow a flexible use of item subgroups depending on the specific work demands of the patients' jobs. Methods Item development included the collection of work tasks from literature and content validation through expert surveys and patient interviews. The resulting 122 items were answered by 621 patients with musculoskeletal diseases. Exploratory factor analysis to ascertain dimensionality and Rasch analysis (partial credit model) for each of the resulting dimensions were performed. Results Exploratory factor analysis resulted in four dimensions, and subsequent Rasch analysis led to the following item banks: 'impaired productivity' (15 items), 'impaired cognitive performance' (18), 'impaired coping with stress' (13) and 'impaired physical performance' (low physical workload 20 items, high physical workload 10 items). The item banks exhibited person separation indices (reliability) between 0.89 and 0.96. Conclusions The assessment of work performance adds the activities component to the more commonly employed participation component of the ICF-model. The four item banks can be adapted to specific jobs where necessary without losing comparability of person measures, as the item banks are based on Rasch analysis. PMID:23468409

Mueller, Evelyn A; Bengel, Juergen; Wirtz, Markus A

2013-12-01

114

The Evolution of Central Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Evolution of Central Banks employs a wide range of historical evidence and reassesses current monetary analysis to argue that the development of non-profit-maximizing and noncompetitive central banks to supervise and regulate the commercial banking system fulfils a necessary and natural function. Goodhart surveys the case for free banking, examines the key role of the clearing house in the evolution

Charles Goodhart

1988-01-01

115

Can Relationship Banking Survive Competition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of the banking firm that is intended to reflect contemporary trends in the evolution of banks. In particular, we focus on the effects of both interbank and capital market competition on the role of banks in funding corporations. In our model, banks can choose to provide loans that are similar to capital market funding (transaction loans)

Arnoud W A Boot; Anjan Thakor

1997-01-01

116

Applying Banks' Typology of Ethnic Identity Development and Curriculum Goals to Story Content, Classroom Discussion, and the Ecology of Classroom and Community: Phase One. Instructional Resource No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This instructional resource describes ways in which J. A. Banks' typology of the stages of ethnic identity development and related curriculum goals can be applied to literacy instruction. Banks' definitions of the stages of development and the curriculum goals for each stage are provided. Strategies for analyzing materials and developing relevant…

Tomlinson, Louise M.

117

Seeing like an indigenous community: the World Bank's Agriculture for DevelopmentReport read from the perspective of postwar rural Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the case of a rural indigenous village in the war torn highlands of Guatemala to question the framework for using ‘agriculture for development’ put forth by the World Bank in its 2008 World Development Report. There is a significant gap between the Bank's sanguine vision of recent developments in Guatemala and the limited options available to indigenous

Carlota McAllister

2009-01-01

118

Capitalizing hope: the commercial development of umbilical cord blood stem cell banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of commercial cord blood banks rests on the promise of stem cell based regenerative medicine and marks the capitalization of human tissues within a future-oriented “regime of hope”. This paper will present data from a survey of the international cord blood banking industry and will explore: (a) the way firms seek to commercialize cord blood as a new

Paul Martin; Nik Brown; Andrew Turner

2008-01-01

119

Financial Crisis, Economic Recovery, and Banking Development in Russia, Ukraine and Other FSU Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a unified analysis for the onset of the 1998 financial crisis and the strong economic recovery afterward in Russia and other former Soviet Union countries. Before the crisis a banking failure arose owing to the coexistence of a lemons credit market and high government borrowing. In a lemons credit market low credit risk firms switched from bank

Haizhou Huang; Dalia Marin; Chenggang Xu

2004-01-01

120

Development aid and international politics: Does membership on the UN Security Council influence World Bank decisions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether elected members of the UN Security Council receive favorable treatment from the World Bank, using panel data for 157 countries over the period 1970–2004. Our results indicate a robust positive relationship between temporary UN Security Council membership and the number of World Bank projects a country receives, even after accounting for economic and political factors, as well

Axel Dreher; Jan-Egbert Sturm; James Raymond Vreeland

2009-01-01

121

Evolution in the Concept of Development: How Has The World Bank's Legal Assistance Extended its Reach?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Bank's legal and judicial reforms programs have expanded considerably since it began to address the issue of governance in the early 1990s. Initially the Bank focused on legal reforms for inducing private investment. Currently, its legal assistance extends to include the criminal justice sector. Such activities cannot be directly construed from its Articles of Agreement. This paper will

Miwa Yamada

2008-01-01

122

Congenital Hypothyroidism Screening in the West Bank: A Test Case for Screening in Developing Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) among the Arab population of the West Bank began in May 1987 as part of the neonatal screening program in Israel. In the West Bank many infants are born at home or are released from the hospital on the 1st day after birth and thus cannot be screened. However, we tried to reach the infants

Joseph Sack; Inbar Feldman; Igor Kaiserman

1998-01-01

123

ELECTRONIC MONEY AS BASIS OF PAYMENTS AT ELECTRONIC BANKING: DEVELOPMENT AND CONSEQUENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study discusses the basic kinds of electronic bank operations – electronic payments. These operations are based on electronic money. The analysis of the economic nature of electronic money in wide and narrow sense is done. Features and prospects of regulation by the Central bank of electronic money in the future are discussed. Attention is drawn to an opportunity of

Valentina Grozdeva

2006-01-01

124

Implementing multilateral environmental agreements: an analysis of EU directives  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a number of different theoretical models have been advanced to explain why states implement—or, indeed, do not implement—multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), very little empirical work has been undertaken to validate their predictions. With a view to narrowing this gap, the present article adopts a large-N, econometric approach to test the explanatory power of four distinct models of compliance—domestic adjustment,

Richard Perkins; Eric Neumayer

2007-01-01

125

Development of requirements for environmental specimen banking in ecological monitoring (exemplified by the Chernobyl NPP accident area).  

PubMed

Development of requirements for a data bank for natural media as a system of intercorrelated parameters to estimate system states are determined. The problems of functional agreement between experimental and calculation methods are analysed when organizing the ecological monitoring. The methods of forming the environmental specimen bank to estimate and forecast radioactive contamination and exposure dose are considered to be exemplified by the peculiarities of the spatial distribution of radioactive contamination in fields. Analysed is the temporal dynamics of contamination for atmospheric air, soil and water. PMID:8272829

Borzilov, V A

1993-11-01

126

E-Banking Products and Services for Agribusiness Based Eco-Economy, with Ways “From the Farm to the Fork” in Forecasting the Developed and Developing Countries on Period 2020-2050-2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before starting discussing about electronic banking services, we must believe of the revolution of electronic banking concept in rural area. The big challenge of the present is to render the power of the green concept in the context of e-economy development, especially e-banking. In this circuit the people of the future, the inhabitants of the farms and small villages, should

Brindusa Covaci

2009-01-01

127

Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The

A. W. Howe; C. M. Keane

2003-01-01

128

Higher Education in China: Consulting for the Asian Development Bank on Higher Education Reform. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the relationship of the Chinese National Academy of Educational Administration, the Asian Development Bank, and a consulting U.S. university in a project to provide technical assistance for senior Chinese university administrators in management training and modernization of facilities. Although the higher education component…

Mauch, James

129

Cognitive interviewing methodology in the development of a pediatric item bank: a patient reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in health care has seen greater use in recent years, and methods to improve the reliability and validity of PRO instruments are advancing. This paper discusses the cognitive interviewing procedures employed by the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pediatrics group for the purpose of developing a dynamic, electronic item bank for

Debra E Irwin; James W Varni; Karin Yeatts; Darren A DeWalt

2009-01-01

130

Emerging Regions, Persisting Rhetoric of Educational Aid: The Impact of the Asian Development Bank on Educational Policy Making in Kazakhstan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) discourses and practices in the context of its educational sector support in Kazakhstan. Drawing on the document analysis and interviews with the ADB staff and Kazakhstan's education officials, the article examines ADB's discursive and operational frameworks in this Central Asian country. The…

Asanova, Jazira

2006-01-01

131

OUT OF THE GOODNESS OF THEIR HEARTS? REGULATORY AND REGIONAL IMPACTS ON BANK INVESTMENT IN HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks are considered key actors in affordable housing and community development in the United States. Their involvement in such activities may be due partly to their dependence on economic rents generated from development. In the United States, however, banks are encouraged to support such activities by the federal 1977 Community Reinvestment Act (CRA). I examine how dif- ferent factors explain

DAN IMMERGLUCK

132

Electronic Banking in Bulgaria – State and Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this publication is making analyses and evaluation of the current situation of the electronic banking, offered by the commercial banks in Bulgaria, and to draw the perspectives of its future development. A detailed inquiry was made of the basic forms of the electronic banking – telephone, PC-, Internet and GSM-banking, offered by the commercial banks. The distribution

Silvia Parusheva

2005-01-01

133

Banking. Teaching Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One in a series of consumer education materials for teenagers, this document focuses on banking and banking services. The series is based on the philosophy that teens need the training and guidance to develop the skills needed to become competent consumers. Developed for 4-H Club members, the material is designed to acquaint students with the…

Florida Univ., Gainesville. Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

134

Feedback Control of Floor Reaction Force Based on Force-Reflecting-Type Multilateral Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-world haptics is being studied not only for improving feedback on real-world haptic information in teleoperation but also for developing key technologies for future human support. For the remote operating of systems at distant places, haptic information is required in addition to visual information. The haptic information around a work environment can be the floor reaction force, which can be obtained using a movement-type haptic device. The floor reaction force from the environment that the mobile haptic device touches is fed back accurately to the operator. First, this paper proposes a general force-reflecting-type multilateral control. Second, this paper extends the control to feedback control of the floor reaction force by using force-reflecting-type multilateral control and a novel haptic device employing a biped robot with a slave system. The position response of a master system is transformed to a leg tip position command for the biped-type haptic device. In addition, the floor reaction force determined by the biped-type haptic device is fed back to the master system. The proposed method can determine the force feedback to the sole of the foot, which is not possible with a conventional stationary system. As a result, the floor reaction force from a large area can be obtained, and the operability of the control system is improved by using the proposed system.

Nagase, Kazuki; Katsura, Seiichiro

135

Development of an Item Bank for the Assessment of Depression in Persons With Mental Illnesses and Physical Diseases Using Rasch Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The calibration of item banks provides the basis for computerized adaptive testing that ensures high diagnostic precision and minimizes participants’ test burden. The present study aimed at developing a new item bank that allows for assessing depression in persons with mental and persons with somatic diseases. Method: The sample consisted of 161 participants treated for a depressive syndrome, and

Thomas Forkmann; Maren Boecker; Christine Norra; Nicole Eberle; Tilo Kircher; Patrick Schauerte; Karl Mischke; Martin Westhofen; Siegfried Gauggel; Markus Wirtz

2009-01-01

136

Oceanic Core Complex Development Within the Ductile and Brittle Regimes, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge environments, both magmatic and tectonic processes accommodate spreading, where the latter can be manifested as detachment fault systems. Atlantis Bank, an oceanic core complex formed ˜12 Ma at the intersection of the ultra-slow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge and the Atlantis II transform, is dissected by transform-parallel normal faults that provide unique cross-sections through all levels of the detachment fault system. Gabbro collected in ODP Hole 735B and with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 from the footwall, hanging wall, and detachment fault surface provide details of the extensional fault system exposed over 36 km normal to the ridge axis, (>3.5 m.y. of crustal accretion). Together the sample suite provides an ideal basis for interpreting the process of strain localization and fabric development associated with formation of long-lived oceanic detachment faults. Continuous core from ODP Hole 735B demonstrates that the main shear zone associated with denudation of the core complex is 200 m thick. The core samples exhibit magmatic fabrics and metamorphic fabrics of submagmatic, granulite (650° - 900° C), amphibolite (450° - 650° C), greenschist (300° - 450° C) and subgreenschist grades. Analysis of the in situ dive samples indicates that the structurally deepest samples collected from the footwall are characterized by a zone of granulite-grade crystal-plastic deformation with varying fabric intensity. Structurally above the granulites lies a zone of amphibolite-grade protomylonitic to mylonitic fabrics overprinted by semi-brittle to brittle greenschist-grade deformation. The amphibolites contain 20 - 30 mm-thick zones of high-strain mylonite that increase in number and decrease in thickness upward toward the detachment fault surface. Samples from the localized slip plane or detachment fault surface are highly altered and deformed in both the ductile and brittle regimes. Thermometry and microstructural analysis of in situ dive samples demonstrates that ductile deformation initiated at 950° C and continued through 600° C. Folded pyroxene porphyroclasts show that ductile deformation began after exsolution. Two-pyroxene thermometry based on mineral composition data from orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene porphyroclast hosts and their exsolution lamellae in gabbro mylonite yield temperatures of 950° C. Equivalent analysis of adjacent recrystallized ortho- and clinopyroxene neoblasts yield temperatures 850° - 950° C, demonstrating that ductile deformation continued through 850° C. Amphibole-plagioclase thermometry based on mineral composition data from recrystallized amphibole and the associated plagioclase porphyroclasts and neoblasts in oxide gabbro mylonite indicates that ductile deformation began around 890° C and continued through 600° C. The greenschist-grade overprint of granulite gabbro mylonite, manifested by the foliation-parallel growth of green amphibole, chlorite and serpentine around plagioclase neoblasts, preserves a subsequent lower-temperature history. The microstructures of the granulite-grade footwall rocks and those of the detachment fault surface breccias suggest that deformation initiated at high temperatures in the ductile regime, and continued to lower temperatures through the semi-brittle and brittle regimes as fault rocks were denuded along the detachment fault system. Models for the development of oceanic core complexes developed purely within the brittle regime clearly do not apply to the well-exposed and sampled Atlantis Bank region of the Southwest Indian Ridge.

Miranda, E. A.; John, B. E.; Frost, B. R.

2003-12-01

137

Poverty Alleviation in Southern Punjab (Pakistan): An Empirical Evidence from the Project Area of Asian Development Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper investigates the ,factors affecting rural poverty using Logit regression modeling,based on primary,source of data in the project area of Asian Development,Bank. According to the results, rural poverty can be alleviated by lowering the household size, persons per room and dependency ratio, improving education, more female labor force participation, higher household participation rate, improving assets and household’s access

Imran Sharif Chaudhry

138

Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Report of the Labor Advisory Committee (LAC) on the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy (LAC) believes that the proposed trade agreements resulting from the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations offer little, if anything positive to U.S. workers, and in certain r...

1994-01-01

139

Force Transmission Control in Multilateral System for Teletraining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, skill preservation of an expert has been a serious problem of the medical or production fields. It is difficult to acquire a human motion including touching motion by the conventional visual-based system. A touching motion is inherently bilateral, since an action is always accompanied by a reaction. A bilateral force feedback control is necessary to acquire the human's skill. This paper proposes a haptic teletraining system by multilateral force feedback control. Since the multilateral control transmits haptic information among three or more remote systems, it is possible to train remote trainee by one skilled trainer simultaneously. In the proposed haptic teletraining system, each local system consists of a master-slave system. Since a touching motion is subject to the “law of action and reaction”, it is possible to decompose the force information into action force and reaction force by using the bilateral control. Thus the skilled motion by a trainer is acquired and saved as a digital database integrated with his haptic information. The proposed system is applied to one-trainer/two-trainee system. As a result, a motion including contact with the environment is transmitted and trained with vivid force feedback. The experimental results show viability of the proposed method.

Katsura, Seiichiro; Suzuyama, Toshiyuki; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

140

From Early Child Development to Human Development: Investing in Our Children's Future. Proceedings of a World Bank Conference (Washington, D.C., April 10-11, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In April 2000, the World Bank hosted a global conference that addressed the benefits and challenges of investing in early child development (ECD). The landmark conference brought together the world's leading experts, academicians, practitioners, and policymakers to focus on various aspects of ECD. This volume contains the proceedings of the…

Young, Mary Eming, Ed.

141

U.S. Commercial Banks and the Developing Country Debt Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major theme of this paper is that the commercial banks have weathered the debt crisis, while many debtor countries remain in economic paralysis or worse. There is a growing consensus that much of the LDC debt will not be fully serviced in the future, and that consensus is reflected in at least two ways: in the discounts observed in

Jeffrey Sachs; Harry Huizinga

1987-01-01

142

Learning from the Experience: The Inter-American Development Bank and Pharmaceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IDB has supported the governments of Latin America and the Caribbean in their efforts to improve their pharmaceutical systems. The objectives of this paper are twofold. First, it intends to present a brief description of the characteristics of the pharmaceutical sector in the region and discuss the rationale for Bank involvement. The second aim is to carry out a

Antonio Giuffrida

2001-01-01

143

The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza in two simulated stages of spoil-bank succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse experiment based on a dual mode of mycorrhizal inoculation simulated the formation of mycorrhizal symbiosis at two different stages of plant succession on coalmine spoil banks. The model plants were inoculated either with propagules of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae BEG95, which represented the initial stages of succession, or were provided with the pre-established extraradical mycelium

David Püschel; Jana Rydlová; Miroslav Vosátka

2007-01-01

144

Developing an Institutional Knowledge Bank at Ohio State University: From Concept to Action Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a growing interest among academic institutions in collecting, preserving, and creating value-added services from digital content produced in teaching and research. Ohio State University plans to build on existing initiatives to create an institutional repository called the Knowledge Bank. An implementation plan and cost assessment are in…

Rogers, Sally A.

2003-01-01

145

Cognitive interviewing methodology in the development of a pediatric item bank: a patient reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) study  

PubMed Central

Background The evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in health care has seen greater use in recent years, and methods to improve the reliability and validity of PRO instruments are advancing. This paper discusses the cognitive interviewing procedures employed by the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pediatrics group for the purpose of developing a dynamic, electronic item bank for field testing with children and adolescents using novel computer technology. The primary objective of this study was to conduct cognitive interviews with children and adolescents to gain feedback on items measuring physical functioning, emotional health, social health, fatigue, pain, and asthma-specific symptoms. Methods A total of 88 cognitive interviews were conducted with 77 children and adolescents across two sites on 318 items. From this initial item bank, 25 items were deleted and 35 were revised and underwent a second round of cognitive interviews. A total of 293 items were retained for field testing. Results Children as young as 8 years of age were able to comprehend the majority of items, response options, directions, recall period, and identify problems with language that was difficult for them to understand. Cognitive interviews indicated issues with item comprehension on several items which led to alternative wording for these items. Conclusion Children ages 8–17 years were able to comprehend most item stems and response options in the present study. Field testing with the resulting items and response options is presently being conducted as part of the PROMIS Pediatric Item Bank development process.

Irwin, Debra E; Varni, James W; Yeatts, Karin; DeWalt, Darren A

2009-01-01

146

The effects of bank regulations, competition, and financial reforms on banks' performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the influence of bank regulation, concentration, and financial and institutional development on commercial bank margins and profitability across a broad selection of Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. The empirical results suggest that bank-specific characteristics, in particular bank capitalization and credit risk, have a positive and significant impact on banks' net interest margin, cost

Sami Ben Naceur; Mohammed Omran

2011-01-01

147

Bank Regulation, Compliance and Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented where the question of bank regulation is developed under a principal-agent scenario in a regime where the regulator has limited resources and banks may have an incentive to act ultra virus the regulatory standards. If banks are subject to random audit, then compliance is achieved through a system of fines determined according to the extent of

Rupinder Singh

2000-01-01

148

Structural Development of an Oceanic Detachment Fault System, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In slow-spreading environments, both magmatic and tectonic processes accommodate spreading, where the latter can be manifested in the form of an extensional detachment fault system. The detachment fault system of Atlantis Bank, an oceanic core complex formed at the intersection of the Southwest Indian Ridge and the Atlantis II transform, is dissected by transform-parallel normal faults that provide unique cross-sections through all levels of the detachment fault system. Gabbros and peridotite collected in ODP Hole 735B and with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 were located structurally beneath, within, and above the main detachment fault surface along the exposed length of the detachment fault system that correspond to roughly 2 Ma of crustal accretion. The samples are ideal for interpreting the process of strain localization and fabric development associated with the formation of oceanic detachment faults. Analysis of the{ \\it in situ} dive samples and continuous core from Hole 735B indicate that the main shear zone associated with the detachment fault is at least 500m thick. The deepest levels of the shear zone are characterized by a 50-m thick zone of unfoliated or weakly foliated granulite grade rocks. The granulite deformation continues upward but is strongly overprinted by a 150-m zone of penetrative amphibolite facies protomylonitic and mylonitic fabrics. A 300-m thick zone of well-foliated amphibolite facies rocks lies above the overprinted granulite. The amphibolites contain 20-30 mm wide, fine-grained shear zones that increase in abundance upward towards the main, brittle detachment fault. These rocks exhibit a greenschist grade deformation characterized by a cataclastic overprint of crystal-plastically deformed plagioclase and brown amphibole within the layers of the mylonitic foliation, and the growth of green amphibole "coronas" around brown amphibole; these relationships preserve the transition from high-temperature ductile deformation to lower-temperature brittle deformation. Samples located structurally above the main detachment fault show pervasive brittle fabrics that crosscut existing foliations. Plagioclase is replaced almost entirely by epidote. Fractures that cut across foliations are filled with chlorite, prehnite or epidote. All of these characteristics are consistent with an episode of faulting located structurally above the shear zone associated with the detachment fault system. Rocks involved in extensional deformation were originally diabase, gabbro and peridotite, all with clasts of highly altered and bent pyroxene or amphibole, in a matrix of extremely fine-grained phyllosilicates including chlorite and talc. Final slip on the detachment fault system was of a brittle nature in lowest greenschist and subgreenschist grade. Preliminary results suggest that strain localization associated with detachment faulting was promoted by a combination of small grain size, the presence of weak phyllosilicates, and the infiltration of fluids.

Miranda, E. A.; John, B. E.; Hirth, G.; Dick, H.

2002-12-01

149

Oceanic Core Complex Development Within the Ductile and Brittle Regimes, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge environments, both magmatic and tectonic processes accommodate spreading, where the latter can be manifested as detachment fault systems. Atlantis Bank, an oceanic core complex formed ˜12 Ma at the intersection of the ultra-slow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge and the Atlantis II transform, is dissected by transform-parallel normal faults that provide unique cross-sections through all levels of the

E. A. Miranda; B. E. John; B. R. Frost

2003-01-01

150

DNA Banking  

SciTech Connect

The author is involved in the ethical, legal, and social issues of banking of DNA and data from DNA analysis. In his attempt to determine the extent of DNA banking in the U.S., the author surveyed some commercial companies performing DNA banking services. This article summarizes the results of that survey, with special emphasis on the procedures the companies use to protect the privacy of individuals. 4 refs.

Reilly, P.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States))

1992-11-01

151

The World Bank's Role in Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Education, Training, and Technical Assistance. A World Bank Operations Evaluation Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the recent trend where African countries have shown a decline in expansion of their school systems and in replacing expatriates engaged in vital public and private activity. The study explores policy options and traces the evolution of World Bank ideas and actions to help practitioners design policies and programs better…

Ridker, Ronald G.

152

Dams, Development, and the Environment in Latin America and the Caribbean: Some Experiences of the Inter-American Development Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper begins with a summary of the Bank's involvement with large infrastructure projects, including dams, since the 1960s. In the energy sector, the IDB has provided financing for the construction of a large number of hydroelectric projects. A large proportion of IDB's financing for dam-related projects has gone to energy generation and irrigation, with a relative priority given to

Luis E. García; Diego J. Rodríguez; Lorena Rossi

2000-01-01

153

E-banking: challenges and opportunities in the Greek banking sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet technologies have a great potential for changing fundamentally the banks and the banking industry. The opportunities,\\u000a which the e-banking services and technologies offer to the banking sector in order to fulfil existing customer needs and to\\u000a attract new prospective customers, are the driving forces for banks in order to design, develop and operate their own e-banking\\u000a systems. This paper

Georgios Angelakopoulos; Athanassios Mihiotis

154

Paying for Education: How the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund Influence Education in Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the roles of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank from 1980 to the present, distinguishing between two types of impacts they exert in the education sector of borrowing countries (the World Bank's direct involvement in education and economic reform and Structural Adjustment Programs financed by the IMF and World Bank). The…

Alexander, Nancy C.

2001-01-01

155

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Program on Radiation and Tissue Banking: a Successful Program for Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its inception the IAEA program in radiation and tissue banking supported the establishment of twenty five tissue banks in different countries. Now more than 103 tissue banks are now operating in these countries. The production of sterilized tissues has grown in an exponential mode within the IAEA program. From 1988 until the end of 2000 the production of sterilized

Jorge Morales Pedraza

2006-01-01

156

Congressional justification for 1983 estimates, US Department of Housing and Urban Development. Part 2: Solar energy and conservation bank, community planning and development, new community development corporation, policy development and research, fair housing and equal opportunity  

SciTech Connect

HUD budget information for 1983 is presented for the Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank, Community Planning and Development, the New Community Development Corporation, Policy Development and Research, and Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. Data relating to Community Planning and Development present figures on Community Development Grants, Urban Development Action Grants, rental rehabilitation, urban homesteading, and more. Administrative expenses and program outlays are noted for the Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank, the New Community Development Corporation, Policy Development and Research, and Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. Included are summaries of budget requests, changes from 1981 estimates included in March 1982 budget estimates, an explanation of increases and decreases, and program descriptions. Data tables are provided.

Not Available

1982-03-01

157

African External Finance in the 1990s: A World Bank Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: African Financing Needs in the 1990s; The Problem of Sub-Saharan Africa's Debt--and the Solutions; Prospects for Bilateral Concessional Assistance; External Development Financing for Sub-Saharan Africa: Multilateral Concessional Assistance; The ...

I. Husain J. Underwood

1991-01-01

158

Development of an Integrated Hydrologic Model to Explore the Feasibility of Water Banking and Markets in the Southwestern US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) are conducting SAHRA-related research aimed at developing an integrated physical and engineering hydrologic model for the purpose of investigating the feasibility of water banking and markets in the Rio Grande watershed. The main components of the integrated model will include a detailed representation of system behavior in (1) headwater areas (snow accumulation and melt); (2) surface reservoirs and conveyance systems (operational surface reservoirs, river routing, and diversions/returns); (3) regional and near river aquifers; (4) agricultural demand and uses; and (5) urban and industrial demand and uses. Existing models of several of these components have been identified and will be included, to some degree, in the final integrated model (e.g., URGWOM, MMS-PRMS, and various USGS groundwater models). Coupling of existing and new models of each component to create the final completely integrated model requires a detailed understanding of the problem requirements (what questions are being asked) and the data (what information is available in the hydrologic data). Once developed and tested, the integrated model will be used with the economic "Market" model and "Behavior" model to investigate several water market and banking scenarios.

Naranjo, R. C.; Boyle, D. P.; Lamorey, G.; Bassett, S.; Gupta, H.; Brookshire, D.

2005-12-01

159

E-Banking: Risk Management Practices of the Estonian Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last years the development of e-banking in Estonia has been very significant. According to the report of the World Economic Forum, the Estonian IT-development has been substantial. The success of e-banking in Estonia can be compared to the corresponding success of the Nordic countries. According to the Deutsche Bank Research, around 70-80% of the Internet users in Estonia

Dmitri Sokolov

2007-01-01

160

George Bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book provides a rich feast for anyone who has a hunger to learn more about Georges Bank! Its 593 large pages provide articles on a wide variety of scientific and resource management topics. Many human interest features are also included. Among the latter are a photograph demonstrating the only proper way for a seagoing chemist to imbibe, and articles entitled, “My First Trip on Georges Bank,” and “‘Bait Up!’: Dory Fishing on Georges Bank.”Proving that every cloud has a silver lining, interest in producing this book was driven by the climate of controversy that surrounded Georges Bank in the latter 1970s and early 1980s. This was a time when exploratory wells were being driven to search for oil and when disputes between Canada and the United States about jurisdiction over the Bank were reaching their peak. As Backus notes in the Foreword, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., set up a Coastal Research Center in 1979 when “the oil/fish dispute on Georges Bank was hot.” The direct costs of publishing this book were, in turn, supported by the Coastal Research Center.

Codispoti, L. A.

161

World Bank Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has a number of specialized units designed to perform research in order to allow the organization to make informed policy decisions throughout the world. This website happens to provide information on the World Bank Institute, which effectively serves as the capacity development arm of the Bank and also "helps countries share and apply global and local knowledge to meet development challenges". On the Institute's site, visitors can find out about its various programs, which include work on preventing HIV/AIDS risk in the Balkans and scholarships designed to promote knowledge sharing and capacity building in the developing world. Visitors will want to pay close attention to the Publications area, as they may view or download working papers from a wide range of topics, including energy policy, labor force development, and development economics.

162

Foreign Banks in Poor Countries: Theory and Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how foreign bank penetration affects financial sector development in poor countries. A theoretical model shows that when domestic banks are better than foreign banks at monitoring soft information customers, foreign bank entry may hurt these customers and worsen welfare. The model also predicts that credit to the private sector should be lower in countries with more foreign bank

ENRICA DETRAGIACHE; THIERRY TRESSEL; POONAM GUPTA

2008-01-01

163

The Anatomy of Banking Crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a Binary Classification Tree (BCT) model to analyze banking crises in 50 emerging market and developing countries during 1990-2005. The BCT identifies key indicators and their threshold values at which vulnerability to banking crisis increases. The three conditions identified as crisis-prone-(i) very high inflation, (ii) highly dollarized bank deposits combined with nominal depreciation or low liquidity, and

Paul Cashin; Rupa Duttagupta

2008-01-01

164

Moving toward multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

Multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle are seen as a potentially important way to create an industrial infrastructure that will support a renaissance and at the same time not contribute to the risk of nuclear proliferation. In this way, international nuclear fuel cycle centers for enrichment can help to provide an assurance of supply of nuclear fuel that will reduce the likelihood that individual states will pursue this sensitive technology, which can be used to produce nuclear material directly usable nuclear weapons. Multinational participation in such mechanisms can also potentially promote transparency, build confidence, and make the implementation of IAEA safeguards more effective or more efficient. At the same time, it is important to ensure that there is no dissemination of sensitive technology. The Russian Federation has taken a lead role in this area by establishing an International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC) for the provision of enrichment services at its uranium enrichment plant located at the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex (AECC). This paper describes how the IUEe is organized, who its members are, and the steps that it has taken both to provide an assured supply of nuclear fuel and to ensure protection of sensitive technology. It also describes the relationship between the IUEC and the IAEA and steps that remain to be taken to enhance its assurance of supply. Using the IUEC as a starting point for discussion, the paper also explores more generally the ways in which features of such fuel cycle centers with multinational participation can have an impact on safeguards arrangements, transparency, and confidence-building. Issues include possible lAEA safeguards arrangements or other links to the IAEA that might be established at such fuel cycle centers, impact of location in a nuclear weapon state, and the transition by the IAEA to State Level safeguards approaches.

Panasyuk,A.; Rosenthal,M.; Efremov, G. V.

2009-04-17

165

Nuclear Plant Data Bank  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities.

Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

1986-01-01

166

Case for an International Banking Standard, The  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the case for an international banking standard (IBS) to deal with the rash of banking crises in developing countries. Over the past 15 years, almost three-fourths of the IMF's member countries have experienced at least one serious bout of banking problems; there have been at least a dozen developing country episodes where the costs of these crises

Morris Goldstein

1997-01-01

167

Early Childhood Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3869  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is considerable evidence that young children in many developing countries suffer from profound deficits in nutrition, health, fine and gross motor skills, cognitive development, and socio-emotional development. Early childhood development (ECD) outcomes are important markers of the welfare of children. In addition, the deleterious effects…

Schady, Norbert

2006-01-01

168

World Bank: News & Broadcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From logistics to international development, the World Bank's News & Broadcast website is worth bookmarking, particularly for public policy types, international affairs scholars, and anyone with a penchant for global matters. The homepage presents a news area, complete with icons which indicate whether there is video or audio associated with each item. Not only is it a good way to learn about the World Bank's activities, it is another way to stay on top of economic development strategies, political unrest, and foreign investment patterns. Visitors to the site can search all of the media available here, look over the World Bank's YouTube channel, and sign up for their RSS feed. Those persons looking for specific types of information can find a number of categories, including "Speeches", and "Issue Briefs".

169

The Aftermath of the Withdrawal of the World Bank Counterpart Funding for the Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of the World Bank in the funding of the Nigerian Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs) has shown that a properly functioning extension service with positively disposed government policy can help transform agriculture in the country. This study used data from ninety-six (96) farmers and sixteen (16) extension officers of the Ogun State ADP to examine the implications and aftermath

K. Adebayo; I. A. Idowu

2001-01-01

170

Patch reef development in the florigemma Bank Member (Oxfordian) from the Deister Mts (NW Germany): a type example for Late Jurassic coral thrombolite thickets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small reefal bioconstructions that developed in lagoonal settings are widespread in a few horizons of the Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) succession of the Korallenoolith Formation, exposed southwest of Hannover, Northwest Germany. Especially the florigemma-Bank Member, “sandwiched” between oolite shoal deposits, exposes a high variety of build-ups, ranging from coral thrombolite patch reefs, to biostromes and to coral meadows. The reefs show

Carsten Helm; Immo Schülke

2006-01-01

171

Communication Skills for Banking Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The communications skills course was developed for bank employees who are non-native speakers of English, to assist them in improving their English and knowledge of the American workplace culture and to increase productivity. It consists of three instructional levels. Topics covered in level 1 reflect concerns of bank managers about basic…

Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

172

Filter banks in digital communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital signal processing has played a key role in the development of telecommunication systems over the last two decades. In recent years digital filter banks have been occupying an increasingly important role in both wireless and wireline communication systems. In this paper we review some of these applications of filter banks with special emphasis on discrete multitone modulation which has

P. P. Vaidyanathan

2001-01-01

173

Multilateral Determinants of Regionalism: The Effects of GATT\\/WTO on the Formation of Preferential Trading Arrangements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preferential trading arrangements (PTAs) have spread widely over the past fifty years. During the same era, multilateral openness has grown to unprecedented heights, spurred by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and its successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO). If the cornerstone of the manifestly successful multilateral regime is nondiscrimination, why have its members increasingly resorted to preferential

Edward D. Mansfield; Eric Reinhardt

2003-01-01

174

World Bank Photo Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New from the World Bank, this photography library offers over 500 online images of development from around the world. The pictures, works of art in their own right, cover an extensive range of subjects including people, nature, and urban environments. Registration is required. Users may, however, browse the library by entering "guest" in the user name field and "browse" as the password. The library offers both a simple keyword search, as well as an advanced search which allows users to search for images in specific fields including country, topic, photographer, and description. The photographs, marked with a World Bank stamp, are displayed in large thumbnails and include accompanying information.

175

World Bank Research Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has collected its economic research so that users can access it through one easy-to-use Webpage. Research is organized into three main sections: Topics, Project Sites, and Key Outputs. These topics are further broken down into subcategories, which are accessible from the front page via pull-down menus or hyperlinked lists. The site also contains a What's New column, which lists the titles of new World Bank resources and classifies them by document type, such as working paper, evaluations of research, and project. Finally, the World Bank Research Website gives a short list of featured resources, which include research on hot topics such as poverty, civil war, and world development.

176

The role of employee development in customer relations: the case of UK retail banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explores the relevance (practice) of strategic HR (employee development) to the financial service arena and the extent to which it may be possible to use it as a means of retaining external customers. There is at present little understanding of the way employee development is practised within specific industries and particularly its impact on instilling a service and customer orientation

Ioanna Papasolomou-Doukakis

2002-01-01

177

Education and Development: Evidence for New Priorities. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education has been recognized as the cornerstone of economic and social development. Now it is even more important as technological change and new methods of production transform the world economy. Development will depend more and more on knowledge-intensive industries, agriculture, and services. The continuing economic crisis, however, is…

Haddad, Wadi D.; And Others

178

Development of a National Item Bank for Tests of Driving Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Materials intended for driving knowledge test development use by operational licensing and education agencies were prepared. Candidate test items were developed, using literature and operational practice sources, to reflect current state-of-knowledge with respect to principles of safe, efficient driving, to legal regulations, and to traffic…

Pollock, William T.; McDole, Thomas L.

179

Radio for Education and Development: Case Studies, Volume II. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 266.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Use of radio for nonformal education and development communications and the technical and economic considerations related to radio services are covered in this second volume of case studies on use of radio for education and development. Under radio and nonformal education are: an evaluation of radio schools as part of the popular promotion…

Spain, Peter L.; And Others

180

Managing Information for Rural Development: Lessons from Eastern Africa. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 379.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study summarizes discussions and conclusions of the Regional Workshop on Monitoring and Evaluation of Rural Development Projects in East Africa (Nairobi, Kenya, April 1979), whose purpose was to share lessons learned from field experiences in managing information for rural development. An initial section summarizes information in papers…

Deboeck, Guido; Kinsey, Bill

181

Banks in industrial networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks are important institutions by reason of their role as intermediaries between the holders of surplus capital and those in need of financial resources. They are therefore often mentioned as vital nodes in modern economies, with substantial power positions in relation to their clients. In recent years deregulation and the development of information technology have prompted several observers to conclude

Lars Engwall; Jan Johanson

1990-01-01

182

Banking Theory, Deposit Insurance, and Bank Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. Introduction The last several years have seen extensive change in the U.S. banking industry. ' In the 1950s and 1960s the banking industry was a symbol of stability. By contrast, recent years have seen the greatest frequency of bank failures since the Great Depression. During the same period, the banking environment has undergone the most significant changes since 1933,

Douglas W. Diamond; Philip H. Dybvig

1986-01-01

183

Citizen Participation in the Activities of the Inter-American Development Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present document sets forth the basic concepts and guidelines that would be incorporated into the Strategic Framework on Participation. It is based on the preliminary study done in the Sustainable Development Department (SDS): \\

2000-01-01

184

Does Fed Funds Target Interest Rate Lead Bank of England’s Bank Rate and European Central Bank’s Key Interest Rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been a long debate whether Fed Funds target interest rate (FFTR) has significant explanatory power on interest rates in other countries. In this paper, we analyze the effects of FFTR on Bank of England (BOE) bank rate and European Central Bank (ECB) key interest rate employing-the rather new and trustworthy technique of-Bounds testing developed by Pesaran (2001). Our

Sadullah Çelik; P?nar Deniz

2009-01-01

185

Competition, Capital Regulation and Bank Risk Taking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the efiect of capital regulation on the risk taking be- havior of commercial banks. We flrst develop a simple model, which shows that capital regulation works difierently in difierent market structures of bank- ing sectors. In high competitive markets, capital regulation is efiective in mit- igating excessive risk taking behavior because banks' franchise values are low. If

Patrick Behr; Reinhard H. Schmidt; Ru Xie

2008-01-01

186

English commercial bank liquidity, 1860-1913  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents new half-yearly time series for the asset ratios of commercial banks in England and Wales, 1860-1913. The series reveal new evidence on the nature of the banks' business and are, therefore, relevant to the debate on the role of banks in British economic development. The new estimates are used to examine trends and short-term changes in bank

Michael Collins; Mae Baker

2001-01-01

187

Implications of bank failures and fluvial erosion for gully development: Field observations and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gully erosion is most commonly triggered by fluvial erosion following natural and anthropogenic disturbances or as a response to changes in climate and tectonic forcing and base level drop. Field observations attribute the headward growth and widening of many gully systems to gravitational mass-wasting processes of oversteepened sidewalls. Soil saturation, groundwater sapping, and tension crack development contribute to the instability. Recent landscape evolution models treat such mass failures as slope-dependent continuous sediment transport processes, sometimes conditioned on a slope threshold or with nonlinear dependence on slope gradient. In this study we first present an explicit physically based theory for the stability analysis of gully heads and walls. The theory is based on the force balance equation of an assumed planar failure geometry of a steep gully wall, with a potential failure plane dipping into the incised gully bed and tension cracks developing behind the scarp face. Then, we test the theory against field data collected in our field site in Colorado and against other published data. Second, the theory is implemented in a one-dimensional hillslope profile development model and the three-dimensional channel-hillslope integrated landscape development (CHILD) to study the effects of soil cohesion, erosion thresholds, and stochastic climate on the tempo of gully development and morphology. Preliminary results indicate that wider and shallower gullies develop and integrate, forming wide valleys, when soil cohesion is small. As soil cohesion increases, erosion slows down, gullies become deeper with vertical walls, and episodic mass failures occur. Differences in storm intensity-duration characteristics and erosion thresholds are predicted to have a significant impact on gully development. Vertical gully walls develop rapidly, and gullies enlarge by slab failures in a climate characterized by high-intensity, short-duration storm pulses. However, under low-intensity, long-duration storms, gullies quickly stabilize, and vertical walls are eliminated and rounded, forming diffusion-dominated hilltops. Erosion thresholds have a similar impact on the tempo of gully erosion but in the opposite direction. Lowering the erosion threshold enhances gully widening by slab failures. Gully walls stabilize when the erosion threshold is high due to a reduction in the erosion of the failure material on the toe of gully walls.

Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Bras, Rafael L.; Flores-Cervantes, Homero; Tucker, Gregory E.

2005-03-01

188

12 CFR 25.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.25 ...meet the credit needs of its assessment area(s) under the community...community development performance assessment: (1) Qualified investments...d). (e) Benefit to assessment area(s) â(1)...

2013-01-01

189

12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25...meet the credit needs of its assessment area(s) under the community...community development performance assessment: (1) Qualified investments...d). (e) Benefit to assessment area(s) â(1)...

2013-01-01

190

12 CFR 228.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.25...meet the credit needs of its assessment area(s) under the community...community development performance assessment: (1) Qualified investments...d). (e) Benefit to assessment area(s)â (1)...

2013-01-01

191

Trends in Private Sector Development in World Bank Education Projects. Policy Research Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The private sector is playing an increasingly important role in financing and providing educational services in many countries. (Often the term "private sector" encompasses households' out-of-pocket expenses rather than describing for-profit or not-for-profit sectors.) Private sector development has not arisen primarily through public policy…

Sosale, Shobhana

192

Banking on it: Public policy and the ethics of stem cell research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapies is ever realized, demand for stem cells and derivative tissues will be tremendous and will create new challenges for health care systems, especially publicly funded health care systems. We propose a framework for the ethical analysis of stem cell research and development that considers the welfare of communities, tissue recipients, and cell

Mita Giacomini; Francoise Baylis; Jason Robert

2007-01-01

193

Radio for Education and Development: Case Studies, Volume I. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 266.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six papers describe use of the radio for in-school and out-of-school formal education in this first volume of working papers on how radio can and is being used for education and development. Part one on in-school education contains: a Nicaraguan project to teach mathematics to first grade children (including curriculum, materials, teacher…

Spain, Peter L.; And Others

194

World Bank Pension reforms and development patterns in the world system and in the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper compares the cross national effects of pension reform on 33 indicators of social, economic, political and ecological well-being of nations with the effects on these 33 variables by dependency, the adherence to the advice by international financial institutions, world political or world cultural identities; the aging process; feminism, militarism; the public education effort and the development level.

Arno Tausch

2005-01-01

195

The introduction of information technology in the commercial banking sector of developing countries: voices from Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article sets out to draw on new empirical research to illustrate how the process of technological change is shaped by a combination of contextual elements that relate to the political and social history of Sudan. The developments in infrastructure, relationships with economically powerful industrialized countries, and the attitudes and perceptions of key decision makers are discussed Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Mohamed Osman Shereif Mahdi; Patrick Dawson

2007-01-01

196

Technological innovation in retail payments: Key developments and implications for banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States still has a heavily paper-based retail payment system when compared with many other developed economies, but the shift to electronic payments has been bigger and more decisive than commonly perceived. For the first time ever, check use declined in the mid-1990s, and among electronic payments the adoption of debit cards has occurred at an extremely rapid pace.

Karen Furst; Daniel E. Nolle

2004-01-01

197

Gender Dimensions of Transport in Developing Countries: Lessons from World Bank Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women in most developing countries have limited access to transport services and technology. This lack of transport imposes severe constraints on their access to health, education, and other social facilities and services, making them and their children more vulnerable to serious injury or death as a result of childbirth or another medical emergency. Understanding and responding to women’s transport needs

John D Riverson; Mika Kunieda; Peter Roberts; Negede Lewi; Wendy M Walker

2006-01-01

198

Publishing for Schools: Textbooks and the Less Developed Countries. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 398.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concentrating on the complexities of large scale primary and secondary school textbook production, this paper provides guidelines and information for creating viable publishing industries in developing countries. Statistical analysis, personal experience, case studies and responses to a questionnaire (appended) on the publishing roles of the…

Neumann, Peter H.

199

Radio for Education and Development: Case Studies, Volume I. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 266.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six papers describe use of the radio for in-school and out-of-school formal education in this first volume of working papers on how radio can and is being used for education and development. Part one on in-school education contains: a Nicaraguan project to teach mathematics to first grade children (including curriculum, materials, teacher…

Spain, Peter L.; And Others

200

Promoting Exports, Foreign Trade or the International Competitiveness of Production?: The role of international development banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international environment is a factor of central importance in determining a country's foreign trade policies. The post-war context was highly auspicious for the growth of foreign trade, and for accelerated economic expansion in developing countries. The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean were slow to respond to these circumstances. Hence, when they did react, their growth rates were

Florencio Ballestero

201

MKID development for SuperSpec: an on-chip, mm-wave, filter-bank spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperSpec is an ultra-compact spectrometer-on-a-chip for millimeter and submillimeter wavelength astronomy. Its very small size, wide spectral bandwidth, and highly multiplexed readout will enable construction of powerful multibeam spectrometers for high-redshift observations. The spectrometer consists of a horn-coupled microstrip feedline, a bank of narrow-band superconducting resonator filters that provide spectral selectivity, and kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) that detect the power admitted by each filter resonator. The design is realized using thin-film lithographic structures on a silicon wafer. The mm-wave microstrip feedline and spectral filters of the first prototype are designed to operate in the band from 195-310 GHz and are fabricated from niobium with at Tc of 9.2K. The KIDs are designed to operate at hundreds of MHz and are fabricated from titanium nitride with a Tc of ~ 2 K. Radiation incident on the horn travels along the mm-wave microstrip, passes through the frequency-selective filter, and is finally absorbed by the corresponding KID where it causes a measurable shift in the resonant frequency. In this proceedings, we present the design of the KIDs employed in SuperSpec and the results of initial laboratory testing of a prototype device. We will also brie describe the ongoing development of a demonstration instrument that will consist of two 500-channel, R=700 spectrometers, one operating in the 1-mm atmospheric window and the other covering the 650 and 850 micron bands.

Shirokoff, E.; Barry, P. S.; Bradford, C. M.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Day, P.; Doyle, S.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Hollister, M. I.; Kovács, A.; McKenney, C.; Leduc, H. G.; Llombart, N.; Marrone, D. P.; Mauskopf, P.; O'Brient, R.; Padin, S.; Reck, T.; Swenson, L. J.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2012-09-01

202

Modeling the implications of fluvial erosion and bank failures on gully development and growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploring landscape development due to gully erosion has been an important component in Michael J. Kirkby's scientific career. Gully erosion is most commonly triggered by fluvial erosion due to natural and anthropogenic disturbances, or as a response to changes in climate and tectonic forcing, and base level drop. Field observations suggest that following the development of fluvial incisions, headward growth and widening of many gully systems can be attributed to the instability and collapse of steepened gully walls. Soil saturation, sapping and development of tension cracks contribute to the instability. Recent landscape evolution models treat such mass failures as slope dependent continuous sediment transport processes, sometimes conditioned on a slope threshold or with nonlinear dependence on slope gradient. In this study, first we present a theory for stability analysis of gully head and walls. The theory is based on force balance equation of an assumed planar failure geometry of a steep gully wall, with a potential failure plane dipping to the incised gully bed. We consider development of vertical tension cracks behind the face of the gully head that extend down to the failure plane. In the theory, storm water infiltrates in the tension cracks and generates hydrostatic forces in the vertical crack face, and uplift forces along the failure plane. During storms, water level in the crack is related to steady-state basin hydrology. In our model when tension cracks are either dry or completely filled with runoff water, instability occurs when headcut height exceeds a critical threshold (higher for the dry case). For the case when cracks are partially filled, our theory predicts an inverse relationship between headcut height and drainage area. We used field observations in Colorado and another published data set to test our model. Second, we have implemented this theory in the CHILD landscape evolution model and explored the effects of soil cohesion, erosion thresholds and climate on the tempo of gully development and morphology of eroding gullies. Preliminary results indicate that wider and shallower gullies develop and integrate forming wide valleys, when soil cohesion is small. As soil cohesion increases, gullies become deeper with steeper walls and episodic mass failures occur. Introducing a high runoff erosion threshold produces gentler headcuts. Variations in storm duration and intensity are predicted to have a significant impact on gully morphology.

Istanbulluoglu, E.; Flores, H.; Bras, R.; Tucker, G.

2003-12-01

203

Seed banks of a river–reservoir wetland system and their implications for vegetation development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Danjiangkou Reservoir, constructed in 1970s, is the water source area of the middle route of China's interbasin South-to-North Water Transfer Project. To serve such purpose, the Danjiangkou Reservoir Dam will be increased from its present 162.0m to 176.6m, and its regular water level from 157m to 170m above mean sea level. Vegetation development in the new reservoir margins is

Wenzhi Liu; Quanfa Zhang; Guihua Liu

2009-01-01

204

Protecting the sterling area: The chifley government's response to multilateralism 1945–9  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1942 the Australian Labor government accepted multilateralism in the form of Article VII of the Anglo?American Mutual Aid Agreement. Some historians have argued that this was the beginning of a turning point in Australia's economic history: a movement away from the declining British empire towards the United States. I have two arguments in this article. The first is that

David Lee

1990-01-01

205

Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

206

Japanese Policy toward the North Korean ProblemBalancing Bilateralism and Multilateralism  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Korea became an urgent problem for Japan as a result of the 1994 nuclear crisis in North Korea, the 1998 missile launch over Japan and the 2003—4 nuclear crisis. At the historic Tokyo—Pyongyang summit in September 2002, both sides acknowledged the need to solve the security issues surrounding the Korean Peninsula through peaceful, multilateral efforts. However, the issue of

Tsuneo Akaha

2007-01-01

207

Asia-Pacific Security: China's Conditional Multilateralism and Great Power Entente.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph provides an analysis of the People's Republic of China's evaluation of multilateralism and its place in Chinese foreign relations in the Asia-Pacific region. In contrast to conventional scholarly wisdom, the author, Dr. Jing-dong Yuan, cont...

J. Yuan

2000-01-01

208

The world trading system at the crossroads : multilateral trade negotiations in the era of regionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multilateral trade negotiations in the Uruguay Round have stagnated for years. At the same time, the world economy has witnessed a strong revival of regional trade arrangements. This juxtaposition suggests that major trading partners are drifting away from the GATT. Systemic weaknesses in the GATT framework, particularly the lack of effective sanction mechanisms, and the overly ambitious agenda of

Peter Nunnenkamp

1993-01-01

209

JOINT WORLD BANK INSTITUTE/EPA CHINA WORKSHOP ON ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE - E&C ROLES IN DEALING WITH CURRENT AND PROJECTED MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN CHINA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The World Bank Institute (WBI) provides funding for economic development in China. Modules of this funding are specifically dedicated for environmental protection projects. One of these modules is the development of compliance and enforcement. This is broken down into identifi...

210

World Bank: Global Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank works to combat poverty and to increase development opportunities around the world, but they also have selected six strategic themes that focus in on global development. First-time visitors to the site can listen to World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick talk about these themes, and they may also wish to follow along with the accompanying slideshow. Themes include global public goods, the Arab world, and middle-income countries. By clicking on one of these themes, visitors can read comprehensive reports, working papers, or take a look at presentations that explore these areas in greater detail. Many of these information sources are contained within a "Highlights" area. Visitors with a penchant for economic development, international political economy, or international affairs will find this site very useful. It's also easy to see how these materials might be used in a classroom setting to spark discussion or debate about some of these very timely matters.

211

Risks and return of banking activities related to hedge funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are approximately 10,000 hedge funds worldwide, managing assets of over USD 1.5 trillion. Investment banking activities are more and more intertwined with hedge funds, as hedge funds obtain financing from banks through prime brokerage and are clients or counterparties of banks for all sorts of products. The development of hedge funds has therefore created many opportunities for investment banks.

J P. Mustiers; A. Dubois

2007-01-01

212

Determinants of user acceptance of Internet banking: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of Internet usage and the huge funding initiatives in electronic banking have drawn the attention of researchers towards Internet banking. In the past, the conventional focus of Internet banking research has been on technological development, but this is now shifting to user-focused research. Although millions of dollars have been spent on building Internet banking systems, reports have shown

Yi-Shun Wang; Yu-Min Wang; Hsin-Hui Lin; Tzung-I Tang

2003-01-01

213

Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications for Bank Interest Margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the

Ross Levine

2003-01-01

214

Development of a Motor Vehicle Materials Historical, High-Volume Industrial Processing Rates Cost Data Bank (Compact-Type Car).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to identify and establish a Motor Vehicle Materials High-Volume Industrial Processing Cost Data Bank for the compact type car. The efforts directed toward this purpose were divided into two methods. These were: a micro-analysis...

D. J. Chupinsky M. R. Harvey

1976-01-01

215

The HRD Competencies as Perceived by the Human Resource Development Professionals in Banks in Cote d'Ivoire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to identify how Ivorian HRD professionals in banks perceived their current expertise levels of the HRD competencies, and how these professionals perceived the importance of these competencies needed to be successful in their occupations. In addition, this study determined competencies that are perceived to have the…

Konan, Affoue Zitagisele

2010-01-01

216

Mitigating Climate Change Via Clean Energy Financing: An Assessment of the Asian Development Bank’s Mitigation Efforts in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As Southeast Asia has registered an impressive economic growth in recent years, considerable stress to the environment in\\u000a the form of an increasing level of emissions has also been paramount. Development failed to trickle down and energy poverty\\u000a remains a significant issue in Asia. While it is important to amend the current emission trajectory and, at the same time,\\u000a address

Laurence L. Delina

217

Timing of fire relative to seed development may enable non-serotinous species to recolonize from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of non-serotinous, non-sprouting species in fire regimes where serotiny confers an adaptive advantage is puzzling, particularly when these species recruit poorly from soil seed banks or from burn edges. In this paper, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) was used to show how the timing of fire relative to seed development may permit non-serotinous species to recolonize burned areas from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees. To estimate survival of seeds within closed cones during crown fires, cone heating was simulated using a one-dimensional conduction model implemented in a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics fire behavior model. To quantify the area burned when germinable seed would be contained within closed cones during a mast year, empirical fire occurrence and seed development (germinability and cone opening) data were compared for multiple locations across the white spruce range. Approximately 12% of cones contained viable seed following crown fire simulations (0.072 m s-1 mean spread rate; 9147 kW m-1 mean intensity), and roughly half of the historical area burned resulted from fires that occurred when closed cones would contain germinable seed. Together, these results suggest that non-serotinous species may recolonize burned areas from in situ aerial seed banks, and that this may be an important cause of their existence in fire regimes to which they otherwise seem poorly suited.

Michaletz, S. T.; Johnson, E. A.; Mell, W. E.; Greene, D. F.

2013-07-01

218

MALMQUIST INDICES OF PRODUCTIVITY CHANGE IN MALAYSIAN ISLAMIC BANKING INDUSTRY: FOREIGN VERSUS DOMESTIC BANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do Malaysian Islamic banks performed productively in its role as an intermediary? Although the phenomenon of Islamic banking and finance has developed significantly in recent years, only a few studies have tackled this question. To address this issue, this paper attempts to provide new empirical evidence on the performance of Malaysian Islamic banks over the period of 2001-2004. This pa

Fadzlan Sufian

219

Why Do Banks Need a Central Bank?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional view is that the joint provision of payments' services together with portfolio management functions by banks exposes the monetary system to contagious failure, which a Central Bank should prevent. The author argues, however, that the joint provision of payments' services and portfolio management could be safely conducted by mutual collective investment intermediaries without such Central Bank support, and

C. A. E. GOODHART

1987-01-01

220

Is bank supervision central to central banking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several central banks have lost their bank supervisory responsibilities, in part because it has not been shown that supervisory authority improves the conduct of monetary policy. This paper finds that confidential bank supervisory information could help the Board staff more accurately forecast important macroeconomic variables and is used by FOMC members to guide monetary policy. These findings suggest that

Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

1999-01-01

221

World Market in Fresh Fruit and Vegetables, Wine, and Tropical Beverages. Government Intervention and Multilateral Policy Reform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agriculture is a key issue in the Uruguay Round of negotiations under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Much attention has been directed toward reaching an agreement for the multilateral elimination of government policies ...

K. C. Buckley

1990-01-01

222

Socioeconomic obstacles to HIV prevention and treatment in developing countries: the roles of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.  

PubMed

This paper explores the socioeconomic obstacles to HIV prevention and treatment in developing countries. The opening sections explain the historical origins of structural adjustment programs and their characteristics. Structural adjustment programs undermine the social fabric of many developing countries, and potentially promote behaviors which place people at increased risk of HIV infection. The authors discuss the declining sustainability of the rural subsistence economy, development of a transportation infrastructure, migration and urbanization, and reductions in spending on health and social services. Social and economic interventions are needed to stem the spread of HIV and care for those who are already infected. While a substantial amount of biomedical research has been conducted, socioeconomic aspects of the AIDS epidemic have often been ignored. For HIV transmission in developing countries to be substantially reduced, economic policies which may have promoted the spread of disease must be modified. An alternative development strategy consists of satisfying people's basic human needs, shifting from an export-driven economy to diversified agricultural production in the interest of securing regional self-sufficiency, supporting marginal producers and subsistence farmers, and placing greater emphasis upon human resource development in developing countries. Moreover, the IMF and World Bank need to change their policy to one which is truly about cooperative development, while the charters of the IMF and World Bank need to be altered to permit the cancellation or rescheduling of debt. These institutions should also play a leading role in the restructuring of debt owed to private lenders. PMID:7662190

Lurie, P; Hintzen, P; Lowe, R A

1995-06-01

223

Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics, 1990. Held in Washington, DC. on April 26-27, 1990. Supplement to the World Bank Economic Review and the World Bank Research Observer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A Perspective on Economic Transition in Czechoslovakia and Eastern Europe; Policies to Move from Stabilization to Growth; Macroeconomic Policy and Growth: Some Lessons of Experience; The Environment and Emerging Development Issues; Regional Sust...

S. Fischer D. de Tray S. Shah

1991-01-01

224

Siam and the League of Nations: modernization, sovereignty, and multilateral diplomacy, 1920-1940  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the relations between Siam and the League of Nations from 1920 to 1940. It identifies Siam’s policy towards the League as a cornerstone of Siam’s foreign policy and an important element of Siam’s domestic modernization during the sixth, seventh and eighth reigns of the Chakri dynasty. In doing so, the study aims at adding a key multilateral

Stefan Matthias Hell

2007-01-01

225

Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral Trade-Policy Options for the United States and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the Michigan Model of World Production and Trade to simulate the economic effects on the United States, Japan, and other major trading countries\\/regions of the Doha Round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations and a variety of regional\\/bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) involving the United States and Japan. We estimate that an assumed reduction of post-Uruguay Round tariffs

Drusilla K. Brown; Alan V. Deardorff; Robert M. Stern

2003-01-01

226

World Bank: Globalization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The word globalization is thrown around with reckless abandon by numerous parties these days, and as a result, the very notion of such a force is somewhat elusive. While this website from the World Bank may not end all of the fierce academic and pragmatic debates that rage on about globalization, it does offers some perspective from this organization on this wide-ranging phenomenon. The site itself contains audio and video selections, issue briefs, a data and statistics section, and an area dedicated to current research on the subject underway by the World Bank. The issue briefs are definitely worth a look as they address such questions as What is Globalization? and Does More International Trade Openness Increase World Poverty? The selection of videos is also quite nice, particularly a recent talk by Michael Moore (the former director-general of the World Trade Organization) entitled Globalization & Development: Its Implications & Institutions.

227

World Bank: Anticorruption [pdf[  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its many different guises, corruption around the world tends to affect the poor, who are often the most reliant on the provision of public services, and are also least likely to be able to pay the extra costs associated with bribery and fraud. The World Bank has identified corruption as "the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development," and thusly has set up this anticorruption website to serve as an online resource for policy-makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other interested parties. On the site, the World Bank lays out its strategy for combating corruption, which includes increasing political accountability, strengthening civil society participation, and improving public sector management. The site also contains a number of helpful resources, such as toolkits for assessing government performance in this area, and information and reports on various regional and country-based approaches to dealing with corruption. The site is rounded out by a calendar of events and key strategy documents, such as "Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance, A World Bank Strategy."

228

World Bank: Annual Report 2012  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank offers trenchant commentary on a wide range of issues of global import, including food production, gender inequality, development practices, and higher education initiatives. As a result, the World Bank's Annual Report is given close attention by people all over the world. The 314-page report offers thoughtful commentary on all manner of activities, and it is beautifully designed and executed. The first page starts with a list of summary statistics, such as the number of people who gained access to basic health services and how many teachers were recruited or trained as a result of World Bank activities. Visitors can learn all about the World Bank's initiatives in the report or download smaller sections like "Responding with Global Knowledge and Experience" and "World Bank For Results 2012." Visitors can also look over the Corporate Scorecard, which includes a snapshot of results achieved by partner countries with support from the Bank. The Report is available in eight different languages, including Spanish, French, Chinese, and Japanese. [KMG

2012-01-01

229

Development of stereotypies and polydipsia in wild caught bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and their laboratory-bred offspring. Is polydipsia a symptom of diabetes mellitus?  

PubMed

The development of stereotypies and polydipsia was studied in wild caught bank voles (P: n=92) and their laboratory-bred offspring (F1: n=248). All animals were kept isolated in barren cages in the laboratory. In the P generation, no individuals developed stereotypies, but 22% developed polydipsia (>21 ml/day water intake against normally 10 ml/day). Polydipsia was more frequent among males (34%) than females (13%). In F1, 30% developed locomotor stereotypies alone, 21% showed polydipsia alone, and, additionally, 7% developed both stereotypies and polydipsia. Fewer males than females developed stereotypies (23% vs. 38%), whereas polydipsia was more frequent in males than in females (30% vs. 11%). The occurrence and distribution of polydipsia among sexes were the same in F1 and P. The distribution of different types of stereotypies in stereotyping voles were backward somersaulting (BS, 80%), high-speed jumping (JUMP, 29%), pacing following a fixed route (PF, 12%) and windscreen wiper movement (WIN, 5%). Some individuals (10%) showed two or more different types of stereotypies. The average age for developing stereotypies was 96 days while polydipsia was registered at the age of 63 days in both sexes. Voles showing both polydipsia and stereotypies developed polydipsia later (79 days) than polydipsic voles not showing stereotypies. This difference was especially pronounced in stereotyping females in which the occurrence of polydipsia was postponed to the age of 114 days. Polydipsic voles were tested positive for glucosuria indicating that polydipsia could be a symptom of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that the development of stereotypies and polydipsia among bank voles in the laboratory are the results of frustration and prolonged stress. Stereotypies seem to depend on frustrative experiences early in life, while polydipsia may be related to diabetes mellitus caused by the experience of prolonged stress. Moreover, circumstances related to the development of stereotypies may be adaptive by reducing the risks of prolonged stress, including the development of fatal polydipsia. PMID:10844158

Schoenecker; Heller; Freimanis

2000-07-01

230

Do banks benefit from internationalization? Revisiting the market power-risk nexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments on international financial markets have called the benefits of bank globalization into question. Large, internationally active banks have acquired substantial market power, and international activities have not necessarily made banks less risky. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the actual link between bank internationalization, bank risk, and market power. Analyzing this link is the purpose of this paper.

Claudia M. Buch; Cathérine Tahmee Koch; Michael Koetter

2010-01-01

231

ELECTRONIC BANKING - ADVANTAGES FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES DELIVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-banking is a fully automatic service for traditionally banking customer's products based on information technology platforms. E-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts or making payments via e-channels. The advantages generated by this services have determined an accelerate developing of this industry over the entire world. This paper examines some of

Bojan Daniela; Mutu Simona; Paun Dragos

2010-01-01

232

Adoption of Internet Banking: An Integrated Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banking sector in China has been substantially influenced by the development of the Internet. As more and more financial institutions launch their Internet banking services, examinations of factors critical to customer adoption decisions become increasingly important. Based on the UTAUT model, the D&M model, and the concept of trust, a comprehensive research model was developed and empirically examined, using responses

Dong Cheng; Gang Liu; Yuan-Fang Song; Cheng Qian

2008-01-01

233

System connection in multilateral control system considering number of subsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, remote communication technology such as telephone, radio and television is extensively developed. Haptic information is studied as the third multimedia information. Real-world haptics is getting attention as not only the principle for feedback of real-world haptic information in teleoperation but also the key technology for future human support. In order to control haptic information, the bilateral control with a

Takeshi Okura; Seiichiro Katsura

2009-01-01

234

Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

Orewa, S. I.

235

Experiences with "self service" electronic blood banking.  

PubMed

Electronic verification of ABO compatibility (computer crossmatching) has been accepted as the crossmatching procedure for patients without clinically significant alloantibodies. Computer crossmatching offers several advantages over the immediate spin crossmatch and enables the setting up of a self service blood banking system. Self service blood banking saves manpower, improves crossmatch/transfusion(C/T) ratio and makes the maximum surgical blood ordering schedule (MSBOS) redundant. Blood banking service can also be provided at satellite hospitals without stationing blood banking staff there. We have also developed a novel self service system that does not require expensive computer hardware and networking. PMID:9704477

Cheng, G

1998-01-01

236

What Do People Think about Disabled Youth and Employment in Developed and Developing Countries? Results from an E-Discussion Hosted by the World Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even though there are good examples of people with disabilities mainstreamed in the labour market (Bruyere et al., 2004), the situation is still far from being positive, particularly when labour markets are in constant flux due to rapid globalization and technological change, unless new approaches are adopted. In light of this, the World Bank

Roggero, Paola; Tarricone, Rosanna; Nicoli, Marco; Mangiaterra, Viviana

2006-01-01

237

Six decades of educational multilateralism in a globalising world: The history of the UNESCO Institute in Hamburg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Created in 1945 as a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was given, among other mandates, the task of reconstructing education systems devastated during the Second World War. UNESCO, in turn, and after some debate about an engagement in Germany, founded the UNESCO Institute for Education (UIE) in Hamburg in 1952. This paper traces the development of an institute which was founded to contribute to social renewal in war-torn Germany and Europe, functioned as a mediator between Western and Eastern countries during the Cold War and later shifted its geographical focus to developing countries. The institute was instrumental in conceptualising lifelong learning as a global educational paradigm, as well as in shaping the shift from education to learning and the concept of literacy as a "continuum". The author is particularly interested in the nature of the institute's niche which secured its survival in the uncertain domain of educational multilateralism in the past six decades.

Elfert, Maren

2013-07-01

238

Tissue banking in South Africa: a 19-year history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of a Tissue Bank and the science of Tissue Banking in South Africa started in the 1960s and is still developing. This article describes the development and growth of Tissue Banking in South Africa. The current emphasis is to supply viable bone products that have been produced under the best possible quality controlled circumstances; with the collaboration between

B. G. P. Lindeque; A. M. Lindeque; H. Hausner; T. L. B. Le Roux

2005-01-01

239

Lessons from internet banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus on new technologies in service situations is growing and is of particular importance in financial services contexts. It is argued that there is mutuality of benefit for both bank and customer through the adoption of self-service technologies (SSTs), of which e-banking is but one example. While the economic imperative for banks' adoption of e-banking solutions is clear, the

Mark Durkin

240

Bank of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank of Japan serves as Japan's central bank. The web site contains publications such as Quarterly Economic Outlook, Balance of Payments Monthly, and Economic Statistics Monthly. Visitors can also find press releases, Governor's speeches and statistics on prices, money, interest rates, exchange rates, and the Bank of Japan accounts.

241

Efficiency in European banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the established literature on modelling the cost characteristics of banking markets by applying the flexible Fourier functional form and stochastic cost frontier methodologies to estimate scale economies, X-inefficiencies and technical change for a large sample of European banks between 1989 and 1997. The results reveal that scale economies are widespread for smallest banks and those in the

Y. Altunba?; E. P. M. Gardener; P. Molyneux; B. Moore

2001-01-01

242

European Central Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

243

Salt River Salt Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Salt River Salt Banks are located on the north shore of the Salt River on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Three small springs emerge above and flow over the salt banks resulting in the formation of stalactites. The mechanism by which the banks wer...

E. L. Smith G. L. Bender

1973-01-01

244

Seeing Like the World Bank on Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the way in which the World Bank constructs knowledge on poverty by identifying analytic institutions inside the organisation where ideas are developed, ‘anti-poverty advocates’ that populate these institutions and the strategies they employ to foster their agenda. By doing so, the article challenges two common critiques against the organisation. First, the Bank is often seen as an

Antje Vetterlein

2011-01-01

245

Seeing Like the World Bank on Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the way in which the World Bank constructs knowledge on poverty by identifying analytic institutions inside the organisation where ideas are developed, ‘anti-poverty advocates’ that populate these institutions and the strategies they employ to foster their agenda. By doing so, the article challenges two common critiques against the organisation. First, the Bank is often seen as an

Antje Vetterlein

2012-01-01

246

The anatomy of banking firm financial condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs factor analysis to develop a conceptual model of bank financial condition from financial ratios and other characteristics in Nigerian banking. It paints the anatomy of the phenomenon in a conceptual model around the prudential application of market power and market presence to transform deposit mobilisation, under a given macro-economic condition, into earnings quality with capital boosting confidence.

Jonathan Njoku; Eno L. Inanga

2010-01-01

247

Sustainable Competence: A Study of a Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Decentralization and company cultures have emerged to master increasing external flexibility, as in a competitive bank in Sweden, raising issues of the sustainability in terms of competence and competence development. The purpose of this paper is to study how the staff members in a bank perceive a company culture and how this perception…

Hagstrom, Tom; Backstrom, Tomas; Goransson, Susanna

2009-01-01

248

The Evolution of Central Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 1995What have we learned about central banks? The principal factors affecting central bank autonomy in the past two centuries have been prevailing political conditions, a laissez faire environment, and the exchange rate regime (whether fixed or floating).Institutions we know as central banks emerged or were established as commercial banks or government banks. Their evolution into central banks came with

Forrest Capie

1999-01-01

249

78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association...National Association, Retail Bank, Franklin, Pennsylvania (TA-W-82,188...separations at PNC's Retail Banks in Franklin, Pennsylvania and West Chester,...

2013-02-22

250

World Bank Group: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the World Bank's Environment Department, the Climate Change team "provides resources and expertise for the World Bank's participation in international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and provides technical advice to the World Bank's Global Environment Facility Program." Understandably, the site contains a brief explication of the key themes surrounding contemporary concerns about climate change, along with offering a detailed discussion of the various programs and research projects with which the Climate Change group is engaged directly or in tandem with other related organizations and institutions. From the main page, visitors can read about the nature of international climate change (and its disproportionate effects on the developing world), peruse a list of relevant online publications, and read press releases from the Climate Change team.

251

Is the World Bank education policy adequate for fighting poverty? Some evidence from Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the relationship between the World Bank’s education policy and the recent anti-poverty priorities and strategies that shape the present Bank’s agenda for development. The paper provides a critical assessment of the explicit strategies of the World Bank’s education policies aimed at fighting poverty by identifying the contradictions embedded in anti-poverty discourses and strategies, and relating them

Xavier Bonal

2004-01-01

252

Banks: Colleges - A Joint Undertaking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The banking industry has recognized an increasing need to recruit, hire, and train minorities for positions within the industry. Following this line of thought, the American Bankers Association (ABA) formed a task force composed of bankers and black college educators to develop a program mutually beneficial to industry as well as colleges. A Black…

Cordy, Thomas O.

253

Global Soil Moisture Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Data Bank is a collection of more than 400 observations of primarily Asian soil moisture. The data are freely available, and can be used for studying patterns of soil moisture variation, developing and testing land surface models, and ground truth for remote sensing.

1995-01-01

254

Political economy of central banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current developments in the field of comparative political economy have emphasised the role and influence of corporatist institutions in the determination of levels of economic and social performance. Without denying the importance of corporatism, the paper argues for the need to acknowledge and examine the impact of other institutions, such as central banks, on economic performance. Given the increasing role

Kanishka Jayasuriya

1994-01-01

255

BANK SIZE AND INTEREST-RATE SENSITIVITY OF BANK STOCK RETURNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study re-examines the extra-market interest rate sensitivity of bank stock returns over the period from January 1976 through December 2005 using the two-index model developed by Stone (1974). The evidence shows that although the market risk is the primary determinant of bank stock returns, movements in interest rate possess significant explanatory power for the remaining variability of bank stock

Jianzhou Zhu; Morsheda Hassan

2007-01-01

256

RAROC AT BANK OF AMERICA: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, Bank of America's Risk and Capital Analysis Group was charged with the task of developing and instituting a single corporate-wide system to allocate capital to all the bank's activities. Since 1994, that system has been providing quarterly reports of risk-adjusted returns on capital (RAROC) for each of the bank's 37 major business units. By 1995, B of A

Edward Zaik; John Walter; Gabriela Retting; Christopher James

1996-01-01

257

Neural network models and the prediction of bank bankruptcy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of failed banks has reached a high unparalleled since the great Depression. Research in developing predictive models for bank failures is therefore warranted and desirable in this turbulent period. In this paper, we present a neural network approach to bank failures prediction and compare its performance with existing models. Empirical results show that among alternative models, neural networks

KY Tam

1991-01-01

258

Customers' perceptions towards adoption of e-banking in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic distribution channels provide alternatives for faster delivery of banking services to a wider scope of customers. This study aims to understand customers' perception towards the potential benefits and risks associated with electronic banking in Pakistan. The outcomes would help the policy makers to develop effective strategies for future outlook of electronic banking in a country. Primary sources were used

Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir; Ahmad Kaleem; Shabana Kirmani; Imran M. Qureshi

2011-01-01

259

WHO USES INTERNET BANKING IN TURKEY AND WHY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey has a developed banking sector which has a very important place in Turkish economy. Internet banking applications started in 1997. Though it does not have a long history it has a very huge potential in the Turkish market. The aim of this paper is to explore if demographical factors are important in identifying the target customers for internet banking;

Ömür Y. Saatçio?lu

260

Research Note: Financial Market and Roles of Central Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Ithas often been said that e-finance and other developments ,in the ,financial market have implications for the central banks. One implication is that central banks would ,no longer ,be able ,to determine ,the volume ,of money ,supply and hence inflation. The opposite position argues that the central banks, with the backing of their government, can resort of other means

Michael Heng

2006-01-01

261

Customer switching behaviour in the Chinese retail banking industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – There is intense competition and increasing globalisation in financial markets. Bank management must develop customer-oriented strategies in order to compete successfully in the competitive retail banking environment. The longer a bank can retain a customer, the greater revenue and cost savings from that customer. China's accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) has resulted in the liberalisation and

Michael D. Clemes; Christopher Gan; Dongmei Zhang

2010-01-01

262

An Experimental Investigation of Online Banking Adoption in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online banking, an Internet based service enabling people to do financial transactions, has been an obstacle for the development of e-commerce in China. This paper investigates the online banking acceptance in China. We conducted an experiment to investigate how users' perception about online banking is affected by the perceived ease of use of website and the privacy policy provided by

Guangying Hua

263

EXAMINING ONLINE BANKING INITIATIVES IN NIGERIA: A VALUE NETWORK APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central banks of several developing nations have encouraged financial institutions to provide strategic online banking services and products to remain competitive. This is in recognition of the cheaper cost of information and communication technologies (ICT) that support the delivery of such products and services. In this paper, we use a value network theoretical model to examine the electronic banking

Francis Kofi Andoh-Baidoo; Babajide Osatuyi

264

Using Communication Support in Projects. The World Bank's Experience. World Bank Staff Working Papers, Number 551.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to assist World Bank staff and officials in deciding when and how to include communication support activities in Bank-financed development projects, this paper describes the use of planned communications to encourage participation in projects by certain groups of people, to improve institutional efficiency and staff development, and to…

Perrett, Heli E.

265

Coral reefs and the World Bank.  

PubMed

The World Bank¿s involvement in coral reef conservation is part of a larger effort to promote the sound management of coastal and marine resources. This involves three major thrusts: partnerships, investments, networks and knowledge. As an initial partner and early supporter of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI), the Bank serves as the executive planning committee of ICRI. In partnership with the World Conservation Union and the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, the Bank promotes the efforts towards the establishment and maintenance of a globally representative system of marine protected areas. In addition, the Bank invested over $120 million in coral reef rehabilitation and protection programs in several countries. Furthermore, the Bank developed a ¿Knowledge Bank¿ that would market ideas and knowledge to its clients along with investment projects. This aimed to put the best global knowledge on environmentally sustainable development in the hands of its staff and clients. During the celebration of 1997, as the International Year of the Reef, the Bank planned to cosponsor an associated event that would highlight the significance of coral reefs and encourage immediate action to halt their degradation to conserve this unique ecosystem. PMID:12295815

Hatziolos, M

1997-01-01

266

The Origins of Banking Panics: Models, Facts, and Bank Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banking panics are the central event informing and rationalizing government intervention into the banking industry. In the last decade progress has been made in understanding the origins of panics. This essay reviews recent theoretical and empirical work on the origins of banking panics. New evidence on the causes of banking panics is introduced. Banking panics do not appear to have

Charles W. Calomiris; Gary Gorton

1991-01-01

267

Bank and near-bank processes in an incised channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravitational forces acting on in situ bank material act in concert with hydraulic forces at the bank toe to determine rates of bank erosion. The interaction of these forces control streambank mechanics. Hydraulic forces exerted by flowing water on in situ bank-toe material and failed cohesive material at the bank toe are often sufficient to entrain materials at relatively frequent

Andrew Simon; Andrea Curini; Stephen E. Darby; Eddy J. Langendoen

2000-01-01

268

International accounting harmonization, banking regulation, and Islamic banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islamic banks perform both commercial and investment banking services but do not establish firewalls to separate these two services legally, financially, and managerially. Unlike conventional commercial banks, Islamic banks are prohibited from charging or paying of interest. Instead, Islamic banks offer profit-sharing investment accounts, such that investors' return depends on the return on the assets financed by the investors' funds.

Rifaat Ahmed Abdel Karim

2001-01-01

269

SEED BANKS FOR MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION GENERATORS  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been conducting experiments that require pulsed high currents to be delivered into inductive loads. The loads fall into two categories (1) pulsed high field magnets and (2) the input stage of Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (MFCG). Three capacitor banks of increasing energy storage and controls sophistication have been designed and constructed to drive these loads. One bank was developed for the magnet driving application (20kV {approx} 30kJ maximum stored energy.) Two banks where constructed as MFCG seed banks (12kV {approx} 43kJ and 26kV {approx} 450kJ). This paper will describe the design of each bank including switching, controls, circuit protection and safety.

Fulkerson, E S

2008-05-14

270

World Bank okays public interest in higher education A review of Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise, Task Force on Higher Education and Society (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay review discusses the report of The Task Force on Higher Education and Society (TFHES), convened in 1998 by the World Bank but independently financed and staffed in collaboration with UNESCO and several foundations. Peril and Promise marks an historic turning point in the framework for postsecondary educational planning. Rate-of-return analysis has been de-emphasized, while promotion of the public

DAVID POST; LUTITIA CLIPPER; D. ENKHBAATAR; ANITRA MANNING; THOMAS RILEY; HUSAM ZAMAN

271

75 FR 11986 - Public Comments for Multilateral Negotiations in the World Trade Organization on Expansion of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comments for Multilateral Negotiations in the World Trade Organization on Expansion of the...duty elimination by certain members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The specific...dosage-form products by their INNs from the World Health Organization (WHO). (Table...

2010-03-12

272

GenBank  

Microsoft Academic Search

GenBank1 is a comprehensive database that con- tains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 165000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web- based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the

Dennis A. Benson; Ilene Karsch-Mizrachi; David J. Lipman; James Ostell; David L. Wheeler

2003-01-01

273

GenBank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GenBank ® sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of >55 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (Web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA

Dennis A. Benson; Ilene Karsch-Mizrachi; David J. Lipman; James Ostell; Barbara A. Rapp; David L. Wheeler

2000-01-01

274

How Politics Influence State-owned Banks - the Case of German Savings Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is one of the first to analyse political influence on state-owned savings banks in a developed country with an established financial market: Germany. Combining a large dataset with financial and operating figures of all 457 German savings banks from 1994 to 2006 and information on over 1,250 local elections during this period we investigate the change in business

Oliver Vins

2008-01-01

275

Bank Failure and Bank-Specific Factors: A  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys recent empirical literature to identify what are the bank-specific factors of banking failure. It shows that the five elements of the CAMEL framework are the principal bank-specific factors of banking failure. The results of selected papers suggest that capital level and earnings are the most relevant bank-specific factors. Nevertheless, because all the other bank-specific factors rely on

Raulin Lincifort Cadet

276

40 CFR Banking - General Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false General Information Banking Averaging, Banking and Trading (ABT) Program Protection of Environment...at 67 FR 40183, June 12, 2002] Averaging, Banking and Trading (ABT) ProgramâGeneral...

2010-07-01

277

GenBank.  

PubMed

GenBank® (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for almost 260 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assigns accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:23193287

Benson, Dennis A; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

2012-11-27

278

Physics and banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum atomic models and kinetic theory of gases prove suitable for studying dynamic structures such as a bank's balance-sheet. The bank is considered to be a complex economical system which is segmented by different units, whereas it interacts with the economic environment and thus, it can be studied according to the complex networks methodology. The application of Fair Value according

Stella Stamataki Smyrnaki; Titos Smyrnakis

2008-01-01

279

Government Ownership of Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate a neglected aspect of financial systems of many countries around the world: government ownership of banks. We assemble data which establish four findings. First, government ownership of banks is large and pervasive around the world. Second, such ownership is greater in countries with low levels of per capita income, backward financial systems, interventionist and inefficient

Rafael La Porta; Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes; Andrei Shleifer

2001-01-01

280

Government Ownership of Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate a neglected aspect of financial systems of many countries around the world: government ownership of banks. We assemble data which establish four findings. First, government ownership of banks is large and pervasive around the world. Second, such ownership is particularly significant in countries with low levels of per capita income, underdeveloped financial systems, interventionist and

Rafael La Porta; Andrei Shleifer

2000-01-01

281

GenBank  

PubMed Central

GenBank® is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 165?000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in the UK and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps to ensure worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

2005-01-01

282

GenBank  

PubMed Central

GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 205?000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the Web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at .

Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

2006-01-01

283

Banking (Conservatively) with Optimists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial banks frequently encounter optimistic entrepreneurs whose perceptions are biased by wishful thinking. Bankers are left with a difficult screening problem: separating realistic entrepreneurs from optimists who may be clever, knowledgeable, and completely sincere. We build a game-theoretic model of the screening process. We show that although entrepreneurs may practice self-restraint to signal realism, competition may lead banks to be

Michael Manove; A. Jorge Padilla

1999-01-01

284

Oversampled filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfect reconstruction oversampled filter banks are equivalent to a particular class of frames in l2(Z). These frames are the subject of this paper. First, the necessary and sufficient conditions of a filter bank for implementing a frame or a tight frame expansion are established, as well as a necessary and sufficient condition for perfect reconstruction using FIR filters after an

Z. Cvetkovic; M. Vetterli

1998-01-01

285

umbilical cord blood banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current therapeutic uses of umbilical cord blood stem cells and the promise of these cells for the treatment of degenerative diseases in the future have led to the establishment of cord blood banks in many parts of the world. Although umbilical cord blood banking raises many ethical and legal issues, this article focuses on the controversy created by the coexistence

Sylvie Bordet; Linda Kharaboyan; André Lebrun

2007-01-01

286

Soviet Banks and Bankers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description of the organization of the Soviet banking system and the functions performed by it, as well as some glimpses of the role which Soviet bankers play in the economy of the Soviet Union are presented. The history of the Soviet banking syst...

E. Neuberger

1964-01-01

287

Banking on Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank

Roach, Ronald

2010-01-01

288

GenBank.  

PubMed

The GenBank((R))sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of >55 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (Web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure comprehensive worldwide coverage. GenBank data is accessible through NCBI's integrated retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping and protein structure information, plus the biomedical literature via PubMed. Sequence similarity searching is provided by the BLAST family of programs. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. NCBI also offers a wide range of WWW retrieval and analysis services based on GenBank data. The GenBank database and related resources are freely accessible via the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov PMID:10592170

Benson, D A; Karsch-Mizrachi, I; Lipman, D J; Ostell, J; Rapp, B A; Wheeler, D L

2000-01-01

289

The Green Bank Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green Bank Telescope The 100-m NRAO Green Bank Telescope will be completed in early 2000. The GBT has a large number of unique design and performance features that will give it unprecedented scientific capability. This poster display will review those features, which include an offset feed (clear aperture) design, an active surface, a closed-loop laser metrology system for surface

P. R. Jewell

1999-01-01

290

FED: Our Central Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the United States. Congress created the Federal Reserve through a law passed in 1913, charging it with a responsibility to foster a sound banking system and healthy economy. This remains, today, the broad ...

2000-01-01

291

Central Bank Transparency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank transparency has become one of the key features of monetary policy recently. This survey article provides a structured review of the theoretical literature on the consequences of transparency of monetary policy, proposing a distinction between uncertainty and incentive effects of transparency. The theoretical insights are compared to the various ways in which central banks have become transparent in

Petra M. Geraats

2002-01-01

292

Data Mining of Electronic Banking in Thailand: Usage Behavior Analysis by Using K-Means Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the advent of the information era, information technology has developed rapidly and has become significant for every business, particularly the banking industry. Thai commercial banks are currently changing their traditional banking services and becoming increasingly dependent on electronics. With many customer-oriented features, banking services receive significant attention from customers. Due to the lack of experience on online consumer behavior,

Surachai Wiwattanacharoenchai; Anongnart Srivihok

293

Software design for electronic banking: managing the user-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks are developing new electronic banking products very rapidly. This paper argues that the success of new products depends not only on the technology and on marketing considerations, but also on the quality of the user-computer interface provided for different users of banking systems. The paper also discusses evolving trends in banking technology which will affect interface design.

Anna Bodi; John Zeleznikow

1988-01-01

294

Origins, Growth and Concentration of Bank Capital in South Africa, 1860–92  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article quantifies the growth of banking capital and reserves in South Africa from the time of the arrival of the first London-based banks in 1860 to their total dominance of banking in the Cape Colony in 1892. Their better management was responsible for this development. Outside the Cape, in Natal and in the Orange Free State, local banks, favoured

Stuart Jones

1994-01-01

295

Foreign and Domestic Bank Participation in Emerging Markets: Lessons from Mexico and Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian Crisis has highlighted the importance of strong domestic financial systems in overall economic development and stabilization. Less agreement is evident on the role of foreign banks in achieving this goal. We explore this issue by studying bank-specific data on lending by domestically- and foreign-owned banks in Argentina and Mexico. We find that foreign banks generally have had higher

Linda Goldberg; B. Gerard Dages; Daniel Kinney

2000-01-01

296

Research on the Application of Customer Relationship Management in Chinese Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) can help banks in China facing the challenge of intensive market competition to enhance their core competence. With the application of CRM, Chinese banking will provide high quality financial services to customers, thus strengthen market status of banks in China. With the global economy' s development and China' s entry into WTO, banks in China are

Guangshi Wang; Ning Ma

297

Should banks own equity stakes in their borrowers? A contractual solution to hold-up problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model to answer the question whether a bank should hold a share of the equity of a borrowing firm. The model shows that a small equity stake held by the bank can have a significant and positive impact on the lending relationship. The benefit of bank equity participation arises from the reduced ability of the bank

Jan Mahrt-Smith

2006-01-01

298

‘Knowledge management’: a case study of the World Bank's research department  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at ‘knowledge management’, using a case study of the World Bank's research department, located in the Bank's Development Economics Vice-Presidency (DEC). Despite the Bank's presentation of its research arm as conducting ‘rigorous and objective’ work, the author finds that the Bank's ‘knowledge management’ involves research that has tended to reinforce the dominant neo-liberal globalisation policy agenda. The

Robin Broad

2007-01-01

299

Prospects for Development in South-East Europe (Reprint; first published by Bank Austria, Vienna, December 2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southeast Europe (SEE) has been lagging in transition and development. For political, security and institutional reasons, it has developed in a non-standard way. However, the prospects for reforms and growth are now better than they have been in a decade, if not longer. There are positive political changes and there are signs of economic recovery. Also, there is increased openness

Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov

2001-01-01

300

The Green Bank Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is the world's largest fully steerable telescope. The GBT has now been in routine operation for over two years, observing at frequencies up to 50 GHz. In order to deliver the tracking accuracies required at 50 GHz, we solve simultaneously for gravitational and thermal effects in the development of the static pointing and focus tracking models. A precision temperature sensor system then generates additional real-time corrections to compensate for varying thermal gradients in the antenna. Collimation and surface accuracy requirements are met by an active surface control system which combines initial corrections derived from a finite element model of the antenna with additional terms derived from astronomical phase-retrieval holography measurements. The GBT has a rich suite of instrumentation including receivers which cover almost the complete frequency range from ~ 290 MHz to 50 GHz, and backends for spectroscopy, pulsar observing, broadband continuum, very long baseline interferometry and planetary radar reception. A 64-pixel bolometer camera is under development by a consortium including UPenn, NASA-GSFC, NIST, UCardiff and NRAO. Recent software developments include an extremely flexible application which combines traditional interactive observing, scheduling-block based observing and real-time monitoring and data display in a single, convenient interface. In this paper I will summarize the current performance of the GBT, and review some recent science results. I will also describe how plans changed with time, and review some of the lessons learned in the development of the telescope.

Prestage, R. M.

2006-07-01

301

The role of satisfaction and website usability in developing customer loyalty and positive word-of-mouth in the e-banking services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Customer loyalty and positive word-of-mouth (WOM) have been traditionally two main goals aimed at by managers. Focusing on the online banking, the importance of these concepts is even greater due to the increasing competence in electronic commerce. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to characterize both concepts in the e-banking context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The influence of satisfaction

Luis V. Casaló; Carlos Flavián; Miguel Guinalíu

2008-01-01

302

Wells Fargo online banking redesign  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tight interrelationship between user research and design during Wells Fargoís online banking site redesign is discussed. User research, visual design, and information architecture comprised an interdisciplinary design team within a larger team and worked in tandem to create a solution that met business goals and created a positive user experience.Our 4-phase design process:1. Requirements gathering and scenario development2. Concept

Chuck Moore; Robin Beers

2003-01-01

303

Exploring the Determinant Factors of Bank’s Net Earnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the determinants of bank net earnings defined as profit after tax and deductibles in selected banks in Nigeria. Data used were extracted from balance sheets and income statement accounts and analyzed with the Ordinary Least square regression model. The results confirmed that customer’s deposits and reserves all impacted positively on the net earnings but only one bank’s

Okoli Margaret Nnenna

2012-01-01

304

Explaining Bank Efficiency: Bank Size or Ownership Structure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses cost and profit functions to estimate efficiency at the bank level for the 90s in Chile. Using these measures we explained cross-bank differences over time, which are related to bank size, ownership structure and other relevant variables. Our main findings are 1) banks that are established as open corporations in Chile tend to show higher level of

Rodrigo Fuentes; Marcos Vergara

305

Deferred Cost Recovery for Higher Education: Student Loan Programs in Developing Countries. World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 137.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study analyzes the experience of existing higher education student loan programs in developing countries in order to understand their role in fostering cost recovery. Detailed financial analyses of 24 loan programs shows that present value of the repayments collected constitutes a small percentage of the loan value disbursed. In general,…

Albrecht, Douglas; Ziderman, Adrian

306

Development of a Computer-Aided Age Determination System: Evaluation Based on Otoliths of Bank Rockfish off California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a computer-aided system (Bony Parts) to analyze periodic bands in fish otoliths (or other structures) for age estimation. The image analysis program first scans the image of a thin otolith section, perpendicular to the bands specified by the user. Adjacent scans are averaged and filtered with Fourier transformation or spatial domain convolution. Bands of higher density are

Gregor M. Cailliet; L. W. Botsford; John G. Brittnacher; Gary Ford; M. Matsubayashi; Aaron King; Diana L. Watters; Robert G. Kope

1996-01-01

307

Development of a Postacute Hospital Item Bank for the New Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The PEDI-CAT is a new computer adaptive test (CAT) version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Additional PEDI-CAT items specific to postacute pediatric hospital care were recently developed using expert reviews and cognitive interviewing techniques. Expert reviews established face and construct validity, providing…

Dumas, Helene M.

2010-01-01

308

Educational Costing and Financing in Developing Countries: Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 655.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Issues surrounding costs and financing of education in developing countries are examined. The focus is primarily on Sub-Saharan Africa and within Francophone West Africa. International comparative data are used to evaluate educational cost issues, including total expenditures, expenditures per pupil, cost of teachers, student aid, other current…

Eicher, J. C.

309

Primary Schooling and Economic Development: A Review of the Evidence. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 399.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By reviewing pertinent studies and data, this paper seeks to define the economic benefits of primary schooling within a worldwide context. The author concludes that investment in primary schooling results in more productivity at work and in the home. The returns from primary schooling in most developing countries are higher than from other forms…

Colclough, Christopher

310

Modern saltmarsh diatom distributions of the Outer Banks, North Carolina, and the development of a transfer function for high resolution reconstructions of sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We collected modern diatom samples from Currituck Barrier Island, Oregon Inlet and Pea Island marshes, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA, which have different salinity regimes due to their varying distances from a major barrier island inlet. Multivariate analyses separate the saltmarsh diatom assemblages into distinct elevational zones, dominated by differing abundances of polyhalobous, mesohalobous and oligohalobous taxa, suggesting that the distribution of saltmarsh diatoms is a direct function of elevation, with the most important controlling factors being the duration and frequency of subaerial exposure. We developed the first diatom-based transfer function for the east coast of North America to reconstruct former sea levels based upon the relationship between diatom assemblage and elevation. Results imply that this is possible to a precision of ±0.08 m, superior to most similar studies from temperate, mid-latitude environments. The transfer function is used to construct a relative sea-level curve from fossil assemblages from Salvo, North Carolina. These results suggest a sea-level rise of 0.7 m over the last c. 150 years, at an average of c. 3.7 mm year-1. This is consistent with existing sea-level data, and illustrates the utility of the transfer function approach.

Horton, Benjamin P.; Corbett, Reide; Culver, Stephen J.; Edwards, Robin J.; Hillier, Caroline

2006-09-01

311

Core 4: Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Image Bank supplements the coursework for Core 4: The Shaping of the Modern World, an introductory course offered by the History Department of Brooklyn College. The Image Bank indexes numerous historical images spanning from the Scientific Revolution to the present. The images are divided into eight major topic indexes: Ancien Regime and Critics; Age of Revolutions; Industry and Society; Liberalism and Nationalism; Varieties of Imperialism; The World Turned Upside Down; Fascism, Depression & WWII; and, The World Since 1945. Indexes for major topics contain clustered subtopics, allowing users to locate relevant images quickly. This Image Bank presents students and educators with a valuable, visual method for understanding Modern Western History.

312

Sale of oil leases on Georges Bank: the changing role of the courts in the development of public policy  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the changing role of the courts in the development of public policy. It focuses on outer continental shelf (OCS) energy development. The hypothesis is that, in complex policy disputes, the courts do not act strictly as interest adjudicators. They also aggregate and articulate interests. Litigation is thus an intrinsic part of the political process which shapes public policy. The relevant statutes are examined in terms of the issues generating congressional action, the debates within Congress, and their impacts on OCS policy. Particular attention is devoted to the enactment of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments. The Department of Interior's administration of OCS development is reviewed regarding its promulgation of regulations, the establishment of leasing goals, and various studies of the program. In the 1970's, presidential decisions to accelerate OCS leasing created conflicts with coastal states, coastal communities, environmental, and fishing groups. When these conflicts could not be resolved in the congressional and administrative forums, the parties resorted to the courts to halt OCS lease sales. A systems model is utilized to analyze this litigation.

Fitzgerald, E.A.

1986-01-01

313

Understanding Attitudes Towards Internet Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes towards the adoption of Internet Banking have been identified in this paper. This study provides an early analysis of the impediments users perceive as inhibiting non-users adoption of Internet banking Internet Banking has been broadly defined in this paper as as the ability of the customer to transact business with the bank through the use of the Internet.

Danielle Hain; Holly Tootell; Carole Alcock

314

Bank Risk and Deposit Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguing that a relatively high cost of deposit insurance indicates that a bank takes excessive risks, this article estimates the cost of deposit insurance for a large sample of banks in 14 economies to assess the relationship between the risk-taking behavior of banks and their corporate governance structure. The results suggest that banks with concentrated ownership tend to take the

Luc Laeven

2002-01-01

315

Why do banks provide leasing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks are engaging in leasing activities at an increasing rate which is shown by aggregated data for European as well as for US banking companies. However, little is known about leasing activities at the bank level. The contribution of this paper is to introduce the nexus of leasing in banking. Starting from an institutional base, it shows key features of

Dilek Bülbül; Felix Noth

316

Can Relationship Banking Survive Competition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How will banks evolve as competition increases from other banks and from the capital market? Will banks become more like capital market underwriters and offer passive transaction loans or return to their roots as relationship lending experts? These are the questions we address. Our key result is that as interbank competition increases, banks make \\

Arnoud W. A. Boot; Anjan V. Thakor

2000-01-01

317

Water Bank Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Water Bank Program provides incentive payments to landowners and operators for conserving waters, preserving or improving migratory waterfowl habitat and other wildlife resources. The program will help in reducing the loss of wetlands in the Nation. T...

1972-01-01

318

Milk Banking in California  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Milk Banking in California Presented by: Jan Otey, Examiner II ... Page 2. California Health & Safety Code §1635 – 1644.5 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

319

A numerical study on optimization of multilateral horizontal wellbore patterns for coalbed methane production in Southern Shanxi Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's southern Shanxi Province contains thick, gassy coals of anthracite rank. These high-methane-content (higher than 500ft3\\/ton) coals necessitate pre-mining methane drainage to enhance the health and safety of underground coal workers. Both traditional vertical wells and multilateral horizontal wells, which were shown to perform better, have been drilled in the area in order to effectively reduce the gas content of

Steven A. Keim; Kramer D. Luxbacher; Michael Karmis

2011-01-01

320

Public-Private Partnerships for the Earth: Politics and Patterns of Hybrid Authority in the Multilateral System  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The article examines the politics and patterns of public-private partnerships for the environment in the multilateral system. It argues that two kinds of dynamics have contributed to the hybridization of environmental authority at the global level. On one hand, the fragmentation of environmental regimes and the parallel growth of non-state actors have resulted in structural pressures and opportunities for public-private

Liliana B. Andonova

2010-01-01

321

Public-Private Partnerships for the Earth: Politics and Patterns of Hybrid Authority in the Multilateral System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article examines the politics and patterns of public-private partnerships for the environment in the multilateral system. It argues that two kinds of dynamics have contributed to the hybridization of environmental authority at the global level. On one hand, the fragmentation of environmental regimes and the parallel growth of non-state actors have resulted in structural pressures and opportunities for public-private

Liliana B. Andonova

2010-01-01

322

The US-led alliances in the Asia-Pacific: hedge against potential threats or an undesirable multilateral security order?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘hub-and-spoke’ alliance structure led by the United States was – and remains – a major feature of security politics in the Asia-Pacific. This article links its ‘general interests’ with the larger issue of the Asia-Pacific's evolving multilateral regional order. After reviewing the concept of ‘hedging’, the first section problematises the literature that treats the US-led alliances which constitute the

Jae Jeok Park

2011-01-01

323

The Green Bank Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NRAO Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope is a new 100 meter radio telescope that is now in routine astronomical operation. This paper gives a status report on astronomical performance, operational capabilities, development plans, and early scientific highlights. The telescope is now in regular operation to frequencies of 50 GHz, which achieves the base design goal of the facility. Both the surface and pointing accuracies allow good performance at that frequency. The active surface of 2004 movable panels is in regular use at all frequencies above ~8 GHz and significantly improves both gain and diffraction beam shape at high and low elevation angles. Receivers exist at most primary observing frequencies ranging from ~290 MHz to 50 GHz. A 256k-channel correlation spectrometer with up to 16 independent inputs is in routine use for spectroscopy. Backends for pulsar observing, broadband continuum, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, and planetary radar reception also exist. An advanced development program for enhancing the performance of the GBT is also underway. This program includes the Precision Telescope Control Project that will extend operation to 115 GHz or 2.6 mm wavelength (see the paper by Prestage and Constantikes in this volume), a 26-40 GHz receiver, a 68-92 GHz receiver, a fast sampling continuum backend built by a Caltech/NRAO collaboration, and a 64-pixel bolometer camera developed by a consortium of UPenn, NASA-GSFC, NIST, UCardiff, and NRAO. Software development projects for enhanced user interfaces and data handling are underway, and plans to implement queue-based dynamic scheduling and remote observing are being developed. The status of these projects and their anticipated scientific impact will be discussed.

Jewell, Philip R.; Prestage, Richard M.

2004-10-01

324

Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Environmental characteristics and human interaction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is a multidisciplinary update of various topics concerning the Banks -- oceanography, meteorology, commercial fishing, recreation, military activities, hydrocarbon development, and potential environmental impacts. The area surrounding the Flower Garden Banks is increasingly active with oil and gas development.

Deslarzes, K.J.P.

1998-10-01

325

Credit Scoring for Vietnam’s Retail Banking Market: Implementation and Implications for Transactional versus Relationship Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

As banking markets in developing countries are maturing, banks face competition not only from other domestic banks but also from sophisticated foreign banks. Combined with a dramatic growth of consumer credit and increased regulatory attention to risk management, the development of a well-functioning credit assessment framework is essential. As part of such a framework, we propose a credit scoring model

Thi Huyen Thanh Dinh; Stefanie Kleimeier

2006-01-01

326

The World Bank and the environment  

SciTech Connect

In September 1989 the World Bank set out a three-year agenda for action to combat environmental degradation. The main goal of this agenda has been the integration of environmental concerns into the Bank's development work. This report- the Bank's first annual report on the environment - reviews progress in this area during fiscal 1990 (July 1989 - June 1990). Environmental concerns were addressed in Bank operations during FY90 through country-focused environmental strategy work, policy and research activities, and lending operations. Five problem areas required special attention: destruction of natural habitats; land degradation; degradation and depletion of fresh water resources; urban, industrial, and agricultural pollution; and degradation of the global commons' through, for example, atmospheric and marine pollution. The book describes not only the Bank's successes in its environmental work but also the problems it has encountered. It raises important questions about whether real progress can be made by the Bank if inadequate resources are devoted to supervision, project monitoring, and environmental regulation.

Not Available

1990-01-01

327

Research of Mobile Banking Service in China: A Cross Rode of Communication Technology and Financial Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research and comparative of the experiences that mobile phone banking business developed in different countries demonstrates that with the development of communication technology and its support, phone banking as a combination of electronic money and mobile communications has become an example that IT leads the development of finance. After exploring lots of convenience and advantages that mobile banking can

Sheng Min; Chi Fei

2009-01-01

328

Deposit Insurance, Capital Regulations, and Financial Contagion in Multinational Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:?Banking sector globalization has caused an expansion in foreign-owned bank assets. In this paper we analyse the effects of a MNB's liability structure upon its investment in a foreign country. We develop a model in which capital adequacy requirements introduce some deliberate underinvestment which counters deposit insurance-induced overinvestment. Diversification is unattractive with fixed bank capital requirements, because it reduces the

Gyöngyi Lóránth; Alan D. Morrison

2007-01-01

329

The role of household and business credit in banking crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private credit expansions are an important predictor of subsequent banking crises. We revisit that result with a new dataset from developed and developing countries that decomposes private credit into household credit and enterprise credit. We argue that household credit growth raises debt levels without much effect on long-term income. Rapid household credit expansions generate vulnerabilities that can precipitate a banking

Berrak Büyükkarabacak; Neven T. Valev

2010-01-01

330

World Bank Contribution to Building National HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity in Africa: Going beyond Indicator Development and Conceptual Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|International commitment to the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has grown rapidly in recent years, stimulated by the leadership of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and its cosponsors and supported by a range of new mechanisms. These include the World Bank's Multi-Country…

Wilson, David

2004-01-01

331

ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network): Development Criteria and Future Plan for the Occupational Health and Safety Sector of the ECDIN Data Bank (Revised Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review of the ECDIN file on Occupational Health and Safety, the only data bank on OH existing in the European Community, has shown the following main conclusions. The file: (a) is the only operational file existing within the European Communities on O...

M. Boni B. Helm R. Roi

1985-01-01

332

Modern saltmarsh diatom distributions of the Outer Banks, North Carolina, and the development of a transfer function for high resolution reconstructions of sea level  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected modern diatom samples from Currituck Barrier Island, Oregon Inlet and Pea Island marshes, Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA, which have different salinity regimes due to their varying distances from a major barrier island inlet. Multivariate analyses separate the saltmarsh diatom assemblages into distinct elevational zones, dominated by differing abundances of polyhalobous, mesohalobous and oligohalobous taxa, suggesting that the

Benjamin P. Horton; Reide Corbett; Stephen J. Culver; Robin J. Edwards; Caroline Hillier

2006-01-01

333

Bank Governance Contracts: Establishing Goals and Accountability in Bank Restructuring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides a comprehensive annotated model contract to assist policy makers and ban regulators, owners and managers in their efforts to impose discipline on troubled banks. The consequent improvements in these banks should improve the efficient a...

R. P. Roulier

1995-01-01

334

31 CFR 103.187 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 103.187 Section 103.187...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes...or in any jurisdiction. (4) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters,...

2010-07-01

335

31 CFR 103.187 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 103.187 Section 103.187...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes...or in any jurisdiction. (4) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters,...

2009-07-01

336

Government Ownership of Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We assemble,data,on government,ownership,of banks,around,the world. The data show that such ownership is large and pervasive, and higher in countries with low levels of per capita income, backward financial systems, interventionist and inef- ficient governments, and poor protection of property rights. Higher government ownership,of banks,in 1970 is associated,with,slower,subsequent,financial,devel- opment,and,lower,growth,of per capita,income,and,productivity. This evidence supports,“political” theories,of the effects of government,ownership,of firms.

Rafael La Porta; Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes; Andrei Shleifer

2002-01-01

337

A Summary of the Evaluation of the Educational Developmental Laboratories/American Institute of Banking High School Equivalency Program for Bank Trainees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The New York Chapter of the American Institute of Banking (AIB) is a sponsor of the Joint Bank Hiring and Education Program for the Disadvantaged (HEP), the purpose of which is to hire and train undereducated adults and provide education that will enable the trainees to compete successfully in the banking industry. Educational Development

Scheier, Elaine; And Others

338

Banking productivity: an overview of the Greek banking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to examine the productivity of the Greek banking sector for the time period 2004-2006. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Standard ratio measures of bank financial performance have been used as output measures in a data envelopment analysis model in combination with efficiency ratios’ analysis. Findings – The Greek banking efficiency remains relatively constant throughout the

Prodromos D. Chatzoglou; Anastasios D. Diamantidis; Eftichia Vraimaki; Elena Polychrou; Kyriakos Chatzitheodorou

2010-01-01

339

Women's Status and Fertility in Developing Countries: Son Preference and Economic Security. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 682 and Population and Development Series No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of women's…

Cain, Mead

340

Reducing Fertility in Developing Countries: A Review of Determinants and Policy Levers. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 680 and Population and Development Series, No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The determinants of fertility and attempts to extract conclusions that are relevant for fertility reduction policies in developing countries are investigated. The paper suggests that socioeconomic development has a decisive effect in lowering fertility in the long run but in the short run, and for specific households, the effect is not as…

Bulatao, Rodolfo A.

341

Women's Status and Fertility in Developing Countries: Son Preference and Economic Security. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 682 and Population and Development Series No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of…

Cain, Mead

342

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by banks-general. 615... § 615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banksâgeneral. ...agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk...

2010-01-01

343

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by banks-general. 615... § 615.5180 Interest rate risk management by banksâgeneral. ...agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk...

2009-01-01

344

12 CFR 900.2 - Terms relating to Bank operations, mission and supervision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...funding for targeted community lending and affordable housing, including advances made under a Bank's Rural Development Funding (RDF) program, offered under section 10(j)(10) of the Act (12 U.S.C. 1430(j)(10)); a Bank's Urban...

2013-01-01

345

SoftBank II 22  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... SoftBank II 22. Applicant: Soft Computer Consultants, Inc. 510(k) number: BK020021. Product: SoftBank II 22. Date: 09/11/2002. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

346

BANKING, RISK AND FINANCIAL MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the question of financial risk in the relation between the banks and the firms: a problem of great significance for Euroland, a recent monetary union largely dominated by banking (\\

Pasquale Lucio Scandizzo

347

Measuring Depositors' Behaviour of Malaysian Islamic Banking System: A Cointegration Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia has been regarded as one of the committed Muslim countries towards developing a complete Islamic banking system. The system started in 1983 when the first Islamic bank commenced its operations. Since then, many measures and actions have been taken and implemented by the government leading not only towards the development of an Islamic banking system but also an Islamic

Sudin Haron; Wan Nursofiza; Wan Azmi

348

World Bank: Global Challenges: Fragile States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank is concerned with many parts of the developing world, but they are particularly interested in the so-called "fragile states". Loosely defined, "fragile states" are countries "facing particularly severe development challenges such as weak institutional capacity, poor governance, political instability, and frequently on-going violence or the legacy effects of past severe conflict." To provide policy makers and others with information on their work in this area, the Bank has created this website. The material on the site includes a number of slideshow features and essays that address the fight against poverty in these countries, along with "best-practices" approaches to solving some of these seemingly intractable problems. Near the bottom of the page, visitors can click on sections such as "Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction" to learn more about the Bank's work in places like the Sudan and also take a look through the tremendously helpful "Economics of Conflict" website.

349

Pasture seed banks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In our surveys of northeastern pastures, we found the equivalent of more than 8 million seeds per acre in the surface soil (the top four inches) from the seed bank study. These seeds came from 58 species of plants. The annual forbs (all broadleaf plants with the exception of legumes and trees) domin...

350

Personalized Electronic Banking Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personalization is without a doubt a promising area that might be able to answer some of the burning questions that Internet banking must deal with today and even more in the days to come. The possibilities of personalization are not yet fully utilized, nor is there sufficient hands-on experience or research-based knowledge about the most advanced ideas of how to

Mika Hiltunen; Leo Heng; Linda Helgesen

351

Snow Bank Detectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks.…

Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

352

Blood Bank Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentially, blood banks are facilities which procure, store, process, and dispense blood. To operate effectively in the face of both random supply and random demand, sizable buffer stocks of blood are maintained. The resulting inventory control problem is an extremely complex one for several reasons: (1) both supply and demand are random; (2) approximately 50 percent of all bloods demanded,

John B. Jennings

1973-01-01

353

National Trade Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

354

Risk Management Strategies for Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze optimal risk management strategies of a bank financed with deposits and equity in a one period model. The bank's motivation for risk management comes from deposits which can lead to bank runs. In the event of such a run, liquidation costs arise. The hedging strategy that maximizes the value of equity is derived. We identify conditions under which

Wolfgang Bauer; Marc Ryser

2002-01-01

355

Commitment and Equilibrium Bank Runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the role of commitment in a version of the Diamond and Dybvig (JPE, 1983) model with no aggregate uncertainty. As is well known, the banking authority can eliminate the possibility of a bank run by committing to suspend payments to depositors if a run were to start. We show, however, that in an environment without commitment, the banking

Huberto M. Ennis; Todd Keister

2008-01-01

356

Banks' Corporate Governance and Merger  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore what corporate governance characteristics are associated with mergers in the banking industry, the sample of publicly traded banks in different countries between 2005 and 2007 and a variety of empirical methods are used in this paper. By introducing matched sample comparison, univariate comparison and multivariate comparison, the differences between the sample banks that do and do

Junxun Dai

2009-01-01

357

Consumer's expectations from mobile CRM services: a banking context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the primary concerns of a customer when they use mobile banking services and identify factors that can be used for making better mobile customer relationship management (mobile CRM) services in banking. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper empirically explores the underlying factors by the application of exploratory factor analysis.

Purnima S. Sangle; Preety Awasthi

2011-01-01

358

Web banking layout effects on consumer behavioural intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Elaborating on earlier research by Vrechopoulos et al., this paper aims to investigate web banking store layout effects on user-consumer behaviour and to report on a laboratory experimental investigation into user acceptance of three different layout types. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A web banking store was developed in three versions equal to the number of the alternative layouts manipulated by

Adam Vrechopoulos; Evagelos Atherinos

2009-01-01

359

Launching GUPPI: the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is launching the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI), a prototype flexible digital signal processor designed for pulsar observations with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). GUPPI uses field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware and design tools developed by the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the

Ron DuPlain; Scott Ransom; Paul Demorest; Patrick Brandt; John Ford; Amy L. Shelton

2008-01-01

360

Central Banks as Economic Institutions in the Aggregate Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will analyze the synthesis of finance thought of the three primary theorists, Henry Thornton, Walter Bagehot, and Irving Fisher, concerning central banking and monetary policy, and their contributions to the field of international finance, central banking, and monetary policy. The developing analyses not only throughout this segment but also within the synthesis of thought, concerning the respective theorists,

Nicholas Jewczyn

2009-01-01

361

Using Soil Seed Banks for Ecological Education in Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we developed an educational programme using soil seed banks to promote ecological literacy among primary school-aged children. The programme consisted of seven student activities, including sampling and setting soil seed banks around the school, watering, identifying seedlings, and making observations about the plants and their…

Ju, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jae Geun

2011-01-01

362

Using soil seed banks for ecological education in primary school  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we developed an educational programme using soil seed banks to promote ecological literacy among primary school?aged children. The programme consisted of seven student activities, including sampling and setting soil seed banks around the school, watering, identifying seedlings, and making observations about the plants and their environments. Research was conducted in two urban elementary schools in Seoul, Korea

Eun Jeong Ju; Jae Geun Kim

2011-01-01

363

Design of multirate filter banks by ℋ? optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is developed to design IIR synthesis filters in a multirate filter bank. The filters minimize the l2-induced norm of the error system between the multirate filter bank and a desired pure time-delay system. This criterion is reduced to one of ℋ? optimization, for which there is ready-made software

Tongwen Chen; Bruce A. Francis

1995-01-01

364

Year 7 Spelling Bank. Key Stage 3: National Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department for Education and Employment's "The Year 7 Spelling Bank" is intended to support teachers in England in teaching spelling systematically and enjoyably in ways which help students to develop a positive perspective on themselves as spellers. This booklet contains a bank of teaching ideas to help in the teaching of word level…

Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

365

Six Questions about The World Bank's 2020 Education Sector Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on interviews with World Bank staff in April 2011, this article answers six questions about the World Bank's Education Sector Strategy 2020 (ESS 2020): (1) What is the ESS 2020? (2) What is it not? (3) How was the development process of the ESS 2020 different from that of past Strategies? (4) How are the policy recommendations of the…

Shafiq, M. Najeeb

2011-01-01

366

Central bank intervention and risk in the forward market  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two country inter-temporal asset pricing model is developed which implies that central bank foreign exchange intervention affects the forward exchange risk premium. The model is estimated from daily foreign exchange intervention data for the US, German and Japanese central banks. Considerable empirical support is found for the theoretical model with intervention influencing the risk premium in the forward market.

Richard T. Baillie; William P. Osterberg

1997-01-01

367

On the uniqueness of community banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the public, all banks seem alike. But banking insiders make important distinctions between community banks and all other banks. Policymakers worry that community banks’ unique characteristics threaten their survival in the face of industry consolidation. However, despite dramatic regulatory and technological changes in the industry in the past two decades, community banks have not only survived but often prospered.

Scott E. Hein; Timothy W. Koch; S. Scott MacDonald

2005-01-01

368

The Informative Contents of Bank Debt Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the concentration of corporate bank debt. In an economy with asymmetric information, we show that the bank debt concentration with a main bank possessing informational monopoly is a reliable signal of the firm's quality for the secondary banks. Precisely, the firm's choice of the parts lent by the main bank and the secondary banks allows use

Frederic Lobez; Jean-Christophe Statnik

2003-01-01

369

Space medicine policy development for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing medical care capability in a multinational setting in space is a daunting challenge. As the International Space Station (ISS) has taken shape over the last decade the space medicine community of the ISS partners has established a foundation with which to govern medical policy, medial processes, and medical care during the ISS Program. This foundation was predicated on a rich history of bilateral and multilateral cooperation among space faring nations. Three key organizations were established, they include the agency or senior level Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), and the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP). All three are staffed by senior medical personnel within each of the partner organizations of the ISS and each has specific roles and responsibilities. These three entities strive to protect the human element of spaceflight through highly effective interaction in a multilingual, multicultural program. This paper reviews the creation of this tripartite approach to the development of medical policy for ISS.

Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Williams, Richard S.; Comtois, Jean-Marc; Damann, Volker; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Pool, Sam L.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Knowingkov, Oleg L.; Doarn, Charles R.

2009-09-01

370

Training for Public Administration and Management in Developing Countries. A Review. World Bank Staff Working Papers Number 584. Management and Development Series Number 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public administration and management training (PAMT) in developing countries has expanded and diversified in the past three decades. Five preconditions have been identified as necessary to ensure the effectiveness of that training: training policies and management of institutions, the educational system, the stock of educated personnel, personnel…

Paul, Samuel

371

Sand banks of finite amplitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process which leads to the appearance of sand banks in shallow seas is investigated by studying the growth of small-amplitude perturbations of the sea bottom, forced by oscillatory tidal currents. Since the analysis of field data carried out by Dyer and Huntley (1999) suggests that sand banks are likely to occur where the tidal ellipse is circular or characterized by a low ellipticity, attention is focused on small values of ?, where e is the ratio between minor and major axes of the tidal ellipse. The linear analysis, which considers perturbations of small (strictly infinitesimal) amplitude, shows the existence of a critical value rC of the Keulegan-Carpenter number r of the tide (r = U0*/(h0*?*), U0* and ?* being the amplitude and angular frequency of the velocity oscillations induced by the tide propagation and h0* being the averaged water depth) such that for r smaller than rC the flat bottom configuration is stable, while for r larger than rC the sand banks start to appear. Close to the critical condition, the wavelength of the most unstable mode turns out to be finite. Then a weakly nonlinear analysis is developed which allows the evaluation of the equilibrium amplitude of the bottom forms when the parameter r is close to its critical value. The configuration of the sea bottom, when the bottom forms attain their equilibrium, is characterized by the presence of long ridges, almost parallel to the main axis of the tidal ellipse, with crest-to-crest distances similar to those observed during field surveys. The crests of the bottom forms turn out to be flat, and the extensive shallow waters at the crests are compensated by deep troughs between the ridges.

Tambroni, N.; Blondeaux, P.

2008-10-01

372

U.S. Participation in Clinical Research in Developing Countries: Report of a Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States, through its support of bilateral and multilateral foreign assistance programs, has been committed for many years to helping developing countries in their efforts toward economic and social advancement. Because the health needs of develo...

1980-01-01

373

The Impact of Bank Regulations, Concentration, and Institutions on Bank Margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of bank regulations, concentration, inflation, and national institutions on bank net interest margins using data from over 1,400 banks across 72 countries while controlling for bank-specific characteristics. The data indicate that tighter regulations on bank entry and bank activities boost net interest margins. Inflation also exerts a robust, positive impact on bank margins. While concentration

Luc Laeven; Ross Levine

2003-01-01

374

Banking relationships and access to equity capital markets: Evidence from Japan’s main bank system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the role of banking relationships in IPO underwriting. When a firm in Japan goes public, it can engage an investment bank that is related through a common main bank, or can select an alternative investment bank. The main bank relationship can be an efficient way for the investment bank to acquire information generated by the main bank, but

Kenji Kutsuna; Janet Kiholm Smith; Richard L. Smith

2007-01-01

375

Nationwide branch banking and the presence of large banks in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relaxation of government restrictions on multi- office banking (interstate banking and branching by banks) in recent years has facilitated substantial consolidation of the banking industry in the United States. In this article, R. Alton Gilbert examines the impact of this consolidation on the presence of large banking organizations in rural banking markets. Changes in the presence of large banking organizations

R. Alton Gilbert

2000-01-01

376

Deposit insurance and banking reform in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is not to review the pros and cons of deposit insurance systems, but to focus, rather narrowly, on the recent adoption of a deposit insurance system (DIS) in Russia, the rationale offered, and the potential impact it might have on the stability and development of the Russian banking system. An attempt is made to draw

Modibo K. Camara; Fernando Montes-Negret

2006-01-01

377

Central Banking Training at The SEACEN Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a paper delivered at the IMF-UNDP Seminar on Training of Government Officials in Techniques of Macroeconomic Management in Transition Economics: A Review of Experience and Future Needs held in July 1992, Washington, D.C. The paper outlines the development of central banking training activities at The SEACEN Centre from the period 1972 to 1992.

Vicente B. Valdepeñas Jr.

378

Integrated Learning with International Banking Executives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes an in-house executive development programme run by the authors in a leading banking group in the CEE region. The programme attempts to follow a systemic approach to learning and contains a mix of elements including action learning, classroom teaching, study, peer support and feedback and "learning visits" to participants'…

Zinke, Sabine; Briault, Steve

2007-01-01

379

Robbing the bank with a theorem prover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present the first methodology,for analysis and automated d etection of attacks on security application programming,interfaces (security APIs) ? the interfaces to hardware cryptographic services used by developers of critical security systems, such as banking applications. Taking a cue from previous work on the formal analysis of security protocols, we model APIs purely according to specifications, under the assumption

Paul Youn; Ben Adida; Mike Bond; Jolyon Clulow; Jonathan Herzog; Amerson Lin; Ronald L. Rivest; Ross Anderson

380

World Bank Atlas. [Twenty-Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This edition of the World Bank Atlas presents curent economic and social data for 185 countries and territories in the world. A number of maps, tables, and graphs highlight key relationships and trends in the development of the countries. The atlas includes data on population, gross national product (GNP), share of agriculture in gross domestic…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

381

Georges Bank conflict resolved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Court of Justice has resolved the long-term conflict between the United States and Canada over claims to mineral and living resources lying along the countries' common Atlantic maritime border. On October 12, in a 4-1 decision, the World Court rejected the United States' claim to the entire Georges Bank area, a region of the Continental Shelf off Massachusetts and Nova Scotia that is a prime fishing ground and is believed to have good potential for oil and gas deposits as well. The disputed area is roughly the top third of the Georges Bank area. The court awarded each country approximately half of this disputed area. No appeals are allowed under this decision.

Robb, David W.

1984-04-01

382

World Bank Integrity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the World Bank Group, the Integrity Vice Presidency "independently investigates allegations of corruption and fraud." On their homepage, much of the material is covered within three primary sections: "Fighting Fraud & Corruption", "Investigating Staff Misconduct", and "Allegations". In the "Fighting Fraud & Corruption" area, visitors can learn about completed investigations and learn about the outcomes, which in many cases include sanctions and debarments. Moving on, the "Investigating Staff Misconduct" area includes information about recent investigations into partner organizations who have worked with the World Bank in the past and alleged abuses regarding travel fraud, abuse of authority, and corruption within infrastructure projects. Visitors may also wish to scroll down on the homepage to look over their annual report and check out news updates.

383

GenBank.  

PubMed

The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 85,000,000 nucleotides in 67,000 entries from a total of 3,000 organisms. The input stream of data coming into the database is primarily as direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media, with little or no data being keyboarded from the printed page by the databank staff. The data are maintained in a relational database management system and are made available in flatfile form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. The data are also distributed in relational form through satellite copies at a number of institutions in the U.S. and elsewhere. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service. PMID:1598235

Burks, C; Cinkosky, M J; Fischer, W M; Gilna, P; Hayden, J E; Keen, G M; Kelly, M; Kristofferson, D; Lawrence, J

1992-05-11

384

The Green Bank Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upon its completion in 1997, the Green Bank Telescope will be the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope. It is located at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank WV within the boundaries of the National Radio Quiet Zone, an area within which astronomers have some control over transmitters which might be harmful to radio astronomy. The GBT will be 100 meters in diameter, have a solid surface whose panels are accurate to nearly 100mu , and have motorized actuators supporting the panels which can be adjusted continually to compensate for gravitational and other distortions. The optics is that of an unblocked paraboloid whose focal point is outside of the aperture to reduce the effects of interference and standing waves. An innovative laser metrology system will monitor the position of many parts of the telescope to allow accurate focus and pointing. The initial suite of receivers will cover 25 MHz to 50 GHz.

Lockman, F. J.

1996-05-01

385

Commercial Banks and Microfinance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 30 years, microfinance has proven to be a viable solution for the alleviation of poverty through international organizations, voluntary work and donations. Today, the challenge facing microfinance institutions is self-sufficiency. Consequently, the integration of microfinance with commercial banks will provide the necessary scale and outreach in making microfinance a self-sufficient and thus long-term solution for the alleviation

Zeynep Ugur

2006-01-01

386

The Green Bank Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is located in the small town of Green Bank in eastern West Virginia. The site is the home to many historical artifacts and is itself a part of the culture of radio astronomy as well as a significant player in current radio astronomy research. Photographs of the site will supplement a verbal description of the on-site activities and tools.

Sullivan, James

2000-05-01

387

A PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RICE BLAST FUNGUS ON 'BANKS' RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Banks', named after Heartsill G. Banks (the first UA Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC) director in 1926), was released to seed growers during 2004. Developed at the RREC, Banks is a high yielding variety with the major blast resistance (R) gene Pi-ta and offers a primary advantage over LaG...

388

Automated Test Item Banking. Final Report for Period January 1977-February 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The computer can assist test construction in the following four ways: (1) storage or banking of test items; (2) banking of item attributes; (3) test construction; and (4) test printing. Automated Item Banking (AIB) is a computerized item storage and test construction system which illustrates these capabilities. It was developed, implemented, and…

Ree, Malcolm James

389

The impact of supply constraints on bank lending in the euro area - crisis induced crunching?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregate loan development typically hinges on a combination of factors that impact simultaneously on the demand and the supply side of bank lending. The financial turmoil starting in mid-2007 had detrimental consequences for banks’ balance-sheets, cost of funds and profitability, thus weighing negatively on their ability to supply new loans. This paper examines the impact of supply constraints on bank

Hannah Sabine Hempell; Christoffer Kok Sørensen

2010-01-01

390

Factors Determining Net Interest Margins in Australia: Domestic and Foreign Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the application of the Ho and Saunders (1981) model of bank net interest margins (NIMs), and its subsequent developments, using Australian data. The core elements of this model apply in Australia. Bank market power is found to increase NIMs, consistent with McShane and Sharpe (1985), with evidence of bank buying market share and mispricing for risk. Operating

Barry Williams

2007-01-01

391

Provision of electronic banking in the UK and the Republic of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic or online banking is the newest delivery channel to be offered by the retail banks in many developed countries and there is wide agreement that this channel will have a significant impact on the market. Aims to quantify the current provision of electronic services by major retail banking organisations in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Additional insight

Elizabeth Daniel

1999-01-01

392

A reliable and valid measurement scale for the perceived service quality of banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a study performed in Canada to develop a reliable and valid scale for the measurement of the perceived service quality of bank services. A sample of retail banking customers was questioned. The proposed scale is called banking service quality (BSQ) and comprises 31 items which span six dimensions: effectiveness and assurance; access; price; tangibles; services portfolio and reliability.

Kamilia Bahia; Jacques Nantel

2000-01-01

393

Is the World Bank Education Policy Adequate for Fighting Poverty? Some Evidence from Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on the relationship between the World Bank's education policy and the recent anti-poverty priorities and strategies that shape the present Bank's agenda for development. The paper provides a critical assessment of the explicit strategies of the World Bank's education policies aimed at fighting poverty by identifying the…

Bonal, Xavier

2004-01-01

394

Management and governance of venture capital: A challenge for commercial bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venture capital (VC) improves the nation's innovative capacity by making investments in early stage businesses that offer high potential but high risk. This paper is concerned with the venture investment fund programmes in Thailand. In particular, the study describes and analyses the VC management of the Small and Medium Enterprise Development Bank of Thailand (SME Bank), the bank set up

Jarunee Wonglimpiyarat

2007-01-01

395

Bureaucratic imperatives and policy outcomes: The origins of World Bank structural adjustment lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the impact of World Bank and IMF structural adjustment loans on developing country borrowers has been the subject of considerable analysis, our understanding of the origins of these operations remains poor. This article rectifies this deficiency by providing an account of the genesis of the Bank's program of structural adjustment. Drawing on documents from the Bank's archives as well

Patrick Sharma

2012-01-01

396

The Regulation and Supervision of Banks around the World: A New Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

This new and comprehensive database on the regulation and supervision of banks in 107 countries should better inform advice about bank regulation and supervision and lower the marginal cost of empirical research.International consultants on bank regulation and supervision for developing countries often base their advice on how their home country does things, for lack of information on practice in other

Ross Levine; James Barth

2001-01-01

397

A BP-Neural Network Predictor Model for Operational Risk Losses of Commercial Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

With financial globalization, the rapid development of financial derivatives and the complexity of banks management, operational risk measurement and management in commercial bank management is becoming increasingly important. How to effectively predict, control and prevent operational risk in commercial banks have become an important issue. Using BP neural network model to predict the risk has its unique advantages. In recent

Chen Qingguang; Wen Yanping

2010-01-01

398

The National Bank of Romania and its Isuue of Banknotes between Necessity and Possibility, 1880 - 1914  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper looks at the National Bank of Romania’s issue of banknotes from 1880 through 1914, highlighting the developments in the notes’ cover, the channels whereby the central bank put its notes into circulation, as well as the behaviour of the issuing house during episodes of crisis. The narrative evidence reveals that the Bank had successfully managed its seignorage right

George Virgil Stoenescu; Elisabeta Blejan; Brindusa Costache; Adriana Iarovici Aloman

2008-01-01

399

Empirical Research on Effecting Factors of CSR Report of Commercial Banks in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate social responsibility is an important value orientation of economic and social development. As financial services intermediaries, the commercial banks for a country's economic health are particularly important. Actively fulfilling their social responsibilities is also an effective way to enhance the competitiveness of banks. In-depth study on the disclosure status and impact factors of commercial banks' social responsibility reports has

Chen Zhang; Dianyun Wu

2010-01-01

400

ARGEM: A DSGE Model with Banks and Monetary Policy Regimes with Two Feedback Rules, Calibrated for Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model for a small open economy (SOE) that can be calibrated to simulate the macro dynamics of a semi-industrialized developing country like Argentina. We consider a multilateral non-commodity trade environment, with the U.S.A. and Europe as trade partners, and assume that the Law of One Price does not hold for the

Guillermo Escudé

2007-01-01

401

Aid, Development, and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

Klees, Steven J.

2010-01-01

402

12 CFR 615.5452 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation; rights...person against Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation. 615...615.5452 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...

2013-01-01

403

12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution. 1805.201 Section 1805.201 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2010-01-01

404

12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 7 2009-01-01 2009-01-01...Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution. 1805.201 Section 1805.201 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2009-01-01

405

12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution. 1805.201 Section 1805.201 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2013-01-01

406

12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2013-01-01

407

China, The Spratly Islands Territorial Dispute and Multilateral Cooperation - An Exercise in Realist Rhetoric or Mere Diplomatic Posturing? A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disintegration of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the old regional order in the Asia Pacific at the end of the Cold War brought about a fundamental change in the structure of international relations especially via territorial conflicts in the South China Sea. Multilateral cooperation in the South China Sea suffered for the past two decades especially because

Rita Akpan

408

Building up a multilateral strategy for the United States: Alvin Hansen, Jacob Viner and the Council on Foreign Relations (1939-1945)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1943 and 1947 a new economic order was founded, which aimed at implementing multilateral trade, international monetary cooperation and economic stability supported by government intervention. This paper describes the contribution provided to this process by a group of American economists working under the auspices of the Council on Foreign Relations and in close connection with the State Department. Since

Sebastiano Nerozzi

2007-01-01

409

Bank stability, transparency and the safety net  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using bank-level data for over 500 banks in 32 different countries over the years 1994-2000, we relate the likelihood of a severe banking problem - as indicated by a dramatic decline in a bank's stock price - to both the existence of a deposit insurance scheme and to bank transparency. The new approach presented to address the issue also controls

Erlend W. Nier

410

Banks and Corporate Control in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a large sample of Japanese firm level data, we find that Japanese banks act primarily in the short term interests of creditors when dealing with firms outside bank groups. Corporate control mechanisms other than bank oversight appear necessary in these firms. When dealing with firms in bank groups, banks may act in the broader interests of a range of

Randall Morck; Masao Nakamura

1999-01-01

411

Bank Governance, Regulation, and Risk Taking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper conducts the first empirical assessment of theories concerning relationships among risk taking by banks, their ownership structures, and national bank regulations. We focus on conflicts between bank managers and owners over risk, and show that bank risk taking varies positively with the comparative power of shareholders within the corporate governance structure of each bank. Moreover, we show that

Luc Laeven; Ross Levine

2008-01-01

412

Swiss Banking: Reserve Fund and Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall purpose of my Richter project is to explore the relationship between Switzerland?s banking regulation, focusing on the roles of the Swiss Federal Banking Commission, the government financial regulator, and the Swiss Banking Association, the banks? self-regulatory organization. Specifically, I aimed to uncover how the Swiss banking system maintains its depositor confidence despite lacking any formal government insurance, such

Jonathan Brogaard

2005-01-01

413

The Political Science of Regulating Bank Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leading edge issue in banking law today is-or ought to be-bank risk. Every issue in banking law, whether it be bank failure policy, entry restrictions, geographic restrictions on the location of branches, product market restrictions on the scope of bank activities, minimum capital requirements or lending limits, was, at least ostensibly, promulgated in order to mitigate the problem of

Jonathan R Macey

1989-01-01

414

Development of stem cells from umbilical cord blood and blood banking: "non-controversial" and "free of political and ethical debate"?  

PubMed

Opponents of human embryo research have understandably welcomed pluripotent stem cells being derived from body cells including cells from umbilical cords after childbirth. The cord would otherwise be discarded and embryos are not destroyed. However, there are other ethical, legal and political issues in cord blood collection, whether for the child's future use, or a public blood bank. Information and consent procedures may be misleading. Some parents have false hopes about potential outcomes. The right of access to stored blood and other benefits is sometimes uncertain for children and their families. Private stem cell repositories may compete with public ones. People may want to impose conditions on donation. Quality control may be an issue. PMID:22558901

Skene, Loane

2012-03-01

415

The World Bank: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change continues to be of grave concern to many, and the World Bank is particularly concerned with the ramifications it will have on people in the developing world. Their Climate Change site is designed to provide an overview of their work on this vexing problem including information about their current projects, data sets, research papers, and books. Visitors should start by looking over their weblog, and then take a look at their "News" area. Here, they can learn about innovative carbon trading programs, engineering projects, and international agreements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change. The "Research" area has dozens of free publications, including the very relevant "Climate Resilient Cities" work, which discusses how city governments can better understand how to plan for the impact of climate change through sound urban planning.

416

The World Bank: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change continues to be of grave concern to many, and the World Bank is particularly concerned with the ramifications it will have on people in the developing world. Their Climate Change site is designed to provide an overview of their work on this vexing problem and information about their current projects, data sets, research papers, and books. Visitors should start by looking over their weblog, and then take a look at their "What's New" area. Here they can learn about innovative carbon trading programs, engineering projects, and international agreements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change. The "Research & Analysis" area has dozens of free publications, including the very relevant "Climate Resilient Cities" work, which discusses how city governments can better understand how to plan for the impact of climate change through sound urban planning.

2009-08-13

417

Development of a 3D Model for the Assessment of Vulnerability Due to Sea Level Rise on the Historic Strawbery Banke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of climate change is now starting to be widely researched around the world. One prominent exception to this fact is within the discipline of Historic Preservation. With the likelihood of climate change causing sea levels to rise over decades to come, historical preservationists are now looking for data and information which can help them mitigate potential threats to our cultural heritage along our sea coasts. Some such information that can be helpful in understanding these threats includes geographic information such as the locations of artifacts, fossils, and historic structures as well as their vertical elevation above mean sea level. In an effort to build a set of protocols to help preservations study these threats, our work is currently focusing on a historic living history museum site known as Strawbery Banke in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. This poster features a subset of this work that was completed through undergraduate student internships funded by the Joan and James Leitzel Center at the University of New Hampshire. This subset of work focused on the creation a 3D model of the study site. Two aspects of the creation of this model involved the completion of a topographic ground survey and the 3D digital mapping of the site itself. The ground survey was completed with the use of standard surveying techniques and tools and the 3D digital mapping was completed with the use of ArcScene, a software which is part of the ArcGIS suite. This work was completed in conjunction with a larger study funded by the National Geographic Society to better understand how sea level rise and the effects of storm surges are putting the historic structures at Strawbery Banke at risk.

Jefferson, M.; Curran, B.; Routhier, M.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Hall, C. L.

2011-12-01

418

76 FR 59396 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inc., and thereby indirectly retain control of Bank of Odessa, both in Odessa, Missouri, Commercial Bank of Oak Grove, Oak Grove, Missouri, and LaMonte Community Bank, LaMonte, Missouri. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve...

2011-09-26

419

77 FR 65382 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Minnesota 55480-0291: 1. Jill M. Frei Trust, Wagner, South Dakota, (Security National Bank of South...acquire voting shares of Commercial State Bank of Wagner, both in Wagner, South Dakota. B. Federal Reserve Bank of...

2012-10-26

420

78 FR 21367 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares...applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j...Inc., and thereby indirectly control IAB Financial Bank, both of Fort Wayne,...

2013-04-10

421

77 FR 46762 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Corp., and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of The Middlefield Banking Company, both in Middlefield, Ohio, and Emerald Bank, Dublin; Ohio. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (Chapelle Davis, Assistant Vice President) 1000 Peachtree...

2012-08-06

422

78 FR 53457 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...voting shares of Firstsecure Bank and Trust Company, Palos Hills, Illinois. C. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City (Dennis Denney...Yukon, Oklahoma; and Tammy Key, Sulphur, Oklahoma, as shareholders...retain voting shares of Vision Bank, National Association,...

2013-08-29

423

78 FR 18340 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...both of Huron, South Dakota; and American Bank & Trust, Wessington Springs...of Trusts, to retain or acquire voting shares of Leackco Bank Holding Company...retain and acquire voting shares of American Bank & Trust, Wessington...

2013-03-26

424

Australian Item Bank Program: Social Science Item Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After vigorous review, editing, and trial testing, this item bank was compiled to help secondary school teachers construct objective tests in the social sciences. Anthropology, economics, ethnic and cultural studies, geography, history, legal studies, politics, and sociology are among the topics represented. The bank consists of multiple choice…

Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

425

Effects of Bank Consolidation on the Bank Insurance Fraud.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consolidation in the banking industry has increased at record levels during recent years. At year-end 1990, the 25 largest banking organizations held approximately 22 percent of industry assets; by year-end 1998, this figure had increased by more than two...

R. Oshinsky

1999-01-01

426

Bank Money Shields: Workplaced Victimisation, Moral Dilemmas and Crisis in the Bank Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the experience of Brazilian bank employees who have been victims of armed robberies and related crimes such as bank robbery and extortion-related kidnapping. The research is based on 42 interviews with bank employees (18) and their spouses (3), bank security officers (7), bank health officers (6), employee union representatives (5), a bank representative (1), a journalist (1)

Eduardo Paes-Machado; Ana Márcia Nascimento

2006-01-01

427

On the compensation implications of commercial bank entry into investment banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide evidence regarding the extent to which commercial banking organizations that have entered investment banking have adopted pay-performance compensation systems that are like those used by investment banks. We find that pay-performance sensitivities for these banks once they begin securities underwriting are very similar to the sensitivities for commercial banks that have chosen not to enter investment banking. We

L. Paige Fields; Donald R. Fraser

1999-01-01

428

World Bank environmental guidelines: The new international standard  

SciTech Connect

The World Bank's environmental standards are emerging as the consensus basis for environmental compliance by independent power projects in the developing world. The standards are mandatory for projects financed by The World Bank, whether financed directly, through the International Finance Corporation (IFC), or indirectly, through the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) under programs such as the Expanded Cofinancing Program. However, even for projects financed from other sources, compliance with World Bank environmental standards is becoming a widely recognized and accepted measure of environmental impact that project sponsors are expected to satisfy. Sometimes compliance is required by the host country, which is searching for a meaningful environmental standard in the face of poorly developed or nonexistent local environmental laws. In other instances, developers impose the requirement on themselves as a means of screening project opportunities and assuring investors that they are exercising due diligence to avoid environmental problems down the road. Unfortunately, developers seeking to comply with World Bank environmental standards are leaning that, notwithstanding the seemingly definitive nomenclature, these standards are not always easy to identify. The World Bank's environmental program is still evolving, and there may not be an environmental standard for a particular country or technology. Nevertheless, developers and investors in international projects should attempt to obtain as clear an understanding as possible of applicable environmental standards early in the development process in order to avoid unexpected costs and delays down the road.

Price, C.M.; Goodwin, L.M.; Weiner, K.B. (Reid Priest, Washington, DC (United States))

1994-09-01

429

The impact of bank regulations, supervision, market structure, and bank characteristics on individual bank ratings: A cross-country analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use country level data and bank level data from 71 countries and 857 banks to investigate the impact of bank regulations,\\u000a supervision, market structure, and bank characteristics on individual bank ratings. The results indicate that less cost efficient\\u000a banks, with higher than average levels of provisions relatively to their income, and lower liquidity tend to have lower ratings.\\u000a Larger

Fotios Pasiouras; Chrysovalantis Gaganis; Constantin Zopounidis

2006-01-01

430

The Green Bank Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green Bank Telescope The 100-m NRAO Green Bank Telescope will be completed in early 2000. The GBT has a large number of unique design and performance features that will give it unprecedented scientific capability. This poster display will review those features, which include an offset feed (clear aperture) design, an active surface, a closed-loop laser metrology system for surface figure and pointing control, broad frequency coverage from 100 MHz to 115 GHz, a versatile receiver selection mechanism, and a new multi-input, 256k-channel autocorrelation spectrometer. The status of the project, the commissioning schedule, plans for early operations, the initial instrumentation suite, and plans for future instrumentation will be reviewed. Scientific areas for which the GBT will have a large impact will be discussed, including observations of young galaxies at extreme redshifts, pulsars, HI and molecular spectroscopy, VLBI work, and millimeter-wave spectroscopy and continuum studies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

Jewell, P. R.

1999-12-01

431

Tissue banking training courses: Polish experience.  

PubMed

Personnel directly involved in the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells should be appropriately qualified and provided with timely and relevant training according to EU directives. In the time of new tissue and cells regulations implementation such a training system existed in Poland only at a local level. The first training programme outlines for various groups of health professionals engaged in tissue banking practice was created in co-operation with the Institute for LifeLong Learning at University of Barcelona in 2006. This initial training courses were financially supported by EU Transition Facility Programme 2004. Then, starting from 2006, based on previous experience, system of advanced training courses was created. This training programme was financially supported by the National Programme for the Development of Transplantation Medicine 2006-2009-POLGRAFT financed by Polish Ministry of Health. During 2006 and 2007 first set of tissue banking initial training courses were provided according to TF 2004 project. Over 200 pathologists, forensic medicine specialists and other medical doctors responsible for donor screening and classification, medical directors of tissue establishments, technical staff; tissue graft users: orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, cardiosurgeons and ophthalmologists were trained. Between 2006 and 2009 there were organized 8 advanced tissue banking training courses according to POLGRAFT programme. There were organized both theoretical and practical courses on various aspects of tissue for over 350 persons. We present our experience in organisation of international and national tissue banking training courses. PMID:22318653

Kaminski, Artur; Gut, Grzegorz; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, Izabela; Olender, Ewa

2012-02-09

432

A Multilateral Exchange Rate Model (Un modèle de taux de change multilatéral) (Un modelo multilateral de tipos de cambio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general equilibrium model described in this paper was developed to facilitate the assessment of the trade effects of simultaneous changes in the exchange rates of several countries that are closely associated through foreign trade. The analysis of the trade effects of such a currency realignment requires that account be taken of the simultaneous interaction among prices, incomes, and spending

Jacques R. Artus; Rudolf R. Rhomberg

1973-01-01

433

11 CFR 100.142 - Bank loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenditures § 100.142 Bank loans. (a) General...political committee by a State bank, a federally chartered...including a national bank) or a depository...the usual and customary interest rate of the lending...

2012-01-01

434

77 FR 65999 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...large banks \\3\\ and created two scorecards, one for highly complex banks and another for all other large banks, that combine CAMELS ratings and certain forward-looking financial ratios. The scorecards calculate a total score for each...

2012-10-31

435

75 FR 73983 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...2010, regarding Assessments, Large Bank Pricing. This correction clarifies that the comment period for the Assessments, Large Bank Pricing ends January 3, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

2010-11-30

436

12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...an affiliate operating under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, 12...shareholders, provided that the bank receives reasonable compensation...20 percent of the affiliate's net income attributable to the bank's credit life insurance...

2013-01-01

437

Legal Aspects of Tissue Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists no clear national or international consensus in key issues of tissue banking. This holds especially true for the fundamental concept of informed consent. During recent years, the harmonization of norms needed for international collaboration has made crucial progress solely in Europe, namely through legal framing. The norms relating to tissue banking are, however, under permanent construction not only

Ulrich M. Gassner

2007-01-01

438

Green Bank Telescope: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green Bank Telescope, now under construction at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, WV, will be the world's largest fully-steerable telescope upon its completion in 1999. This article describes the general features of the telescope including its site, optics, surface, expected performance, and some of the areas of astronomy to which it will contribute.

Lockman, Felix J.

1998-07-01

439

Fast electronically tunable filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows a new electronically tunable filter bank. The main characteristics are: wide frequency range, 6 to 18GHz, compact size and fast response within the temperature range of -40° C to 75° C. To achieve these objectives the filter bank is built using HMIC and MMIC technology. The purpose of the system is to act as a fast tunable

M. S. Ruiperez; Daniel Amor; J. Gonzalez; J. I. Alonso

2005-01-01

440

Tumour Banking: The Spanish Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can

M. M. Morente; E. de Alava; P. L. Fernandez

2007-01-01

441

Precommitment by central bank independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the issue of central bank independence. The central argument is that government can precommit to the objective of price stability by providing a constitutional status of independence to the central bank. A sufficient set of institutional elements and the problem of incentive compatibility are discussed. It is argued that the solution is superior to a constitutional money

Manfred J. M. Neumann

1991-01-01

442

How transparent are central banks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank transparency has become the topic of a lively public and academic debate on monetary policy. However, this has been complicated by the fact that transparency is a qualitative concept that is hard to measure. This paper proposes an index for the transparency of monetary policy that comprises the political, economic, procedural, policy and operational aspects of central banking.

Sylvester C. W. Eijffinger; Petra M. Geraats

2006-01-01

443

Why do central banks intervene?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intervention by central banks, in terms of buying and selling foreign currency, has been a major activity in recent years. This paper investigates the motivations for such policy and the evidence for its effectiveness. We use high quality daily data on the dollar amounts of intervention by the central banks of the US and Germany. We also use information on

William P. Osterberg

1997-01-01

444

Regulating the Shadow Banking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shadow banking system played a major role in the recent financial crisis but remains largely unregulated. We propose principles for its regulation and describe a specific proposal to implement those principles. We document how the rise of shadow banking was helped by regulatory and legal changes that gave advantages to three main institutions: money-market mutual funds (MMMFs) to capture

Gary Gorton; Andrew Metrick

2011-01-01

445

Regulating the Shadow Banking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The shadow banking system played a major role in the recent financial crisis but remains largely unregulated. We propose principles for its regulation and describe a specific proposal to implement those principles. We document how the rise of shadow banking was helped by regulatory and legal changes that gave advantages to three main institutions: money-market mutual funds (MMMFs) to capture

Gary Gorton; Andrew Metrick

2011-01-01

446

Treasury's Bank Enterprise Award Program: Impact on Investments in Distressed Communities Is Difficult to Determine, but Likely Not Significant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Established in 1994, the Department of the Treasury's Bank Enterprise Award (BEA) program provides cash awards to banks that increase their investments in community development financial institutions (CDFI) and lending in economically distressed communiti...

2006-01-01

447

12 CFR 347.115 - Permissible activities for a foreign branch of an insured state nonmember bank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...government. (c) Local investments . (1) Acquire and hold local investments in: (i) Equity securities of the central bank, clearinghouses, governmental entities, and government sponsored development banks of the country in which the...

2013-01-01

448

World Bank Annual Report 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Fiscal year 1999 (FY99) was a year of continued -- and formidable -- challenges," begins the World Bank Annual Report 1999. It goes on to list the financial crises in Brazil, Asia, and Russia and the natural disasters that struck the Caribbean, Asia, and Central America. And through it all, the World Bank was there. This report charts global economic progress and explains the World Bank's involvement in many aspects of the world economy. Broken into smaller reports, World Bank's annual report looks at the surprising rise of poverty, the issues surrounding Y2K and banking assistance, and the progress in anti-corruption efforts, among other issues. Also included are letters from the chairman, highlights, and summaries of improved projects.

Bank., World

449

Isolation and propagation of nephropathia epidemica virus in bank voles.  

PubMed

Three strains of nephropathia epidemica (NE) virus were isolated from lung tissues of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and a grey-sided vole (C. rufocanus) trapped in Västerbotten county, Sweden. Two of these isolates were serially passaged in seronegative laboratory-bred bank voles. Experimentally infected animals developed a subclinical infection characterized by virus persistence, particularly in lung tissue. Attempts to infect other species of colonized rodents with NE virus and to isolate NE virus from acute phase patient blood were unsuccessful. The serial propagation of NE virus in colonized bank voles provides opportunities to study experimental infection in its reservoir rodent host. PMID:6208601

Yanagihara, R; Svedmyr, A; Amyx, H L; Lee, P; Goldgaber, D; Gajdusek, D C; Gibbs, C J; Nyström, K

1984-01-01

450

Telomeres and seed banks.  

PubMed

We have found that a progressive loss of telomeric sequences occurs from high molecular weight DNA with an increasing appearance at low molecular weight as the periods of storage in the dry state were extended in time to provide seed germination loss from 98 to 0%. Telomere distribution would appear to follow the general pattern of DNA random fragmentation that occurs in the embryos of seeds stored in the dry state, but there are also indications of an overall telomere loss from DNA as a consequence of storage. There is a need for a convenient "equality marker" for the seeds that can be monitored over time. Reviewing the implications of our results very carefully we believe that there is considerable potential in the use of telomere sequences to mark embryo ageing of seeds held in Seed Banks. PMID:17427414

Boubriak, I; Pouschuk, V; Grodzinsky, A; Osborne, Daphne J

451

World bank in AIDS prevention controversy.  

PubMed

A controversial editorial review article on AIDS prevention by researchers at the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) of the University of California was recently published in the British journal, AIDS. The article's thesis is that in addition to individual behavior, social and economic forces have played a role in promoting the spread of HIV in developing countries, where, by the year 2000, 90 percent of HIV infection will have occurred. The researchers argue that an economic approach, called structural adjustment programs [begun and spearheaded by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank], may have created conditions favoring the spread of HIV infection. The article is concerned about four alleged consequences of these programs: the decline of rural subsistence economy; the development of a transportation infrastructure; migration and urbanization; and reduced spending on health and social services. The CAPS authors recommend changes in development programs which focus on the satisfaction of basic human needs and movement from paternalistic to cooperative development policy. They suggest changing the charter of the World Bank and IMF to allow rescheduling or canceling of debt. World Bank officials, in letters to AIDS, tried to persuade the journal not to publish the article, citing that it falls below the journal's current standards and that some of the information is wrong. PMID:11362526

James, J S

1995-06-16

452

The adoption of virtual banking: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual banking is broadly defined in this paper as the provision of banking services via means other than traditional physical branches. Currently, virtual banking exists in the forms of ATM, phone banking, home banking and Internet banking. Understanding people’s adoption intention of virtual banking can help financial institutions to formulate appropriate marketing strategies for new forms of banking. Theory of

Shaoyi Liao; Yuan Pu Shao; Huaiqing Wang; Ada Chen

1999-01-01

453

12 CFR 614.4000 - Farm Credit Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks. 614.4000 Section 614.4000 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending Authorities §...

2013-01-01

454

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

2013-01-01

455

Towards end-to-end security in branchless banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile-based branchless banking has become one of the key mechanisms for extending financial services to low-income populations in the world's developing regions. One shortcoming of today's branchless banking systems is that they rely largely on network-layer services for securing transactions and do not implement any application-layer security. Recent results show that several of these systems are, in fact, not end-to-end

Saurabh Panjwani

2011-01-01

456

Cross-buying evaluations in the retail banking industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is a customer’s past purchase experience of traditional banking products applicable to the continuing purchase of insurance and investment products at a bank branch? Are service attributes used with similar extensions evaluated differently from when used with dissimilar extensions? In response to these questions, this study develops and examines a framework of service attributes (e.g., locational and one-stop shopping convenience,

Tsung-Chi Liu; Li-Wei Wu

2009-01-01

457

Does Microcredit “Empower”? Reflections on the Grameen Bank Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent debates about the Grameen Bank’s microlending practices depict participating female borrowers as having fundamentally\\u000a empowering or disempowering experiences. I argue that this discursive framework may be too reductive: it can conceal how technique\\u000a and technology simultaneously facilitate relations of dependence and independence; and it can diminish our capacity to understand\\u000a and assess innovative development initiatives.

Evan Selinger

2008-01-01

458

Generalized symmetric extension for size-limited multirate filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multirate (MR) filter bank is called size-limited if the total number of output samples equals the number of input samples. A method called symmetric extension improved performance in subband image compression systems compared to the earlier method of circular convolution. However, the symmetric extension method was developed only for two-band uniform filter banks, and required even-length linear phase analysis

Roberto H. Bamberger; Steven L. Eddins; Veyis Nuri

1994-01-01

459

THE APPLICATION OF MULTIWAVELET FILTER BANKS TO IMAGE PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiwavelets are a new addition to the body of wavelet theory. Realizable as matrix-valued filter banks leading to wavelet bases, multiwavelets offer simultaneous orthogonality, symmetry, and short support, which is not possible with scalar 2-channel wavelet systems. After reviewing this recently developed theory, we examine the use of multiwavelets in a filter bank setting for discrete-time sig- nal and image

V. Strela; P. N. Heller; G. Strang; P. Topiwala; C. Heil

1995-01-01

460

Cold-water coral banks and submarine landslides: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to review the relation between cold-water coral bank development and submarine landslides. Both are common\\u000a features on continental margins, but so far it has not been reviewed which effect—if at all—they may have upon each other.\\u000a Indirect and direct relations between coral banks and landslides are evaluated here, based on four case studies: the Magellan\\u000a Mound Province

Ben De Mol; Veerle Huvenne; Miquel Canals

2009-01-01

461

77 FR 17478 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied...acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are considered in acting...Minnesota 55480-0291: 1. Sharon Bauman, Apple Valley, Minnesota; Virginia...

2012-03-26

462

78 FR 41929 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inc., and indirectly acquire voting shares of Capital Bank, SSB, both in El Paso, Texas; Bank of the Rio Grande, Las Cruces, New Mexico; Mile High Banks, Longmont, Colorado; and First National Bank of Santa Fe, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Board...

2013-07-12

463

Non-Governmental Development Organizations in India: A SWOT Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development cooperation policies of multilateral organizations and the European Union (EU) emphasize essentially the role of social entrepreneurship or Non-Governmental Development Organizations (NGDOs) to achieve sustainable, equitable and participatory human and social developments in the developing countries. The study analyzes the trends in the development sector and the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) position of the development sector

N Rajasekaran

2009-01-01

464

12 CFR Appendix B to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies and State Member Banks: Leverage Measure  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies and State Member Banks: Leverage...member banks and bank holding companies. The Federal Reserve...contribute to an organization's profitability and overall financial strength...intangible assets. Bank Holding Companies While the Federal...

2010-01-01

465

Impact Of It In The Danish Banking Industry, With Specific Illustrations From The Nordea Group And Lån & Spar Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Danish banks have traditionally been in the absolute forefront globally as regards the automation and introduction of IT since the mid 60’ies. But when the e-commerce opportunities emerged in the late 90’ies, the majority of the Danish banks resisted the development. They saw no reason to be the prime movers in cannibalising their own key competitive advantage, the 2.500+ retail-outlets

Niels Bjørn-Andersen

2006-01-01

466

How banks go abroad: Branches or subsidiaries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the factors influencing international banks’ organizational form, using an original database on the operations in Latin America and Eastern Europe of the world’s top 100 banks. We find that banks are more likely to operate as branches in countries that have higher taxes and lower regulatory restrictions on bank entry and on foreign branches. Subsidiary operations are preferred

Eugenio Cerutti; Giovanni Dell’Ariccia; Maria Soledad Martínez Pería

2007-01-01

467

A Delphi study of Internet banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation has brought down the boundaries of the banking industry, allowing new entrants and enabling a greater degree of competition. Into this scenario arrived the Internet – another radical technological innovation with the potential to change the structure and nature of banking. Many banks have adopted the Internet as a delivery channel (indeed, some banks have set up as Internet-only

Laura Bradley; Kate Stewart

2003-01-01

468

Determining settings for capacitor bank protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the electric power grid is pushed to its limits, efficiencies can be gained by properly using shunt capacitor banks. Protective relaying must be provided for these banks that will protect the system from abnormal conditions that could be caused by the capacitor bank as well as provide protection to the capacitor bank from abnormal conditions caused by system conditions

T. Smith

2010-01-01

469

Does an Independent Central Bank Violate Democracy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of central bank independence is one of degree. A completely independent central bank is impossible as long as a country has provisions for altering central bank powers, even if that requires constitutional amendments. On the other hand, any central bank has at least some discretion in monetary policy is effectively determined by the currency board. In the United

David A. Levy

1998-01-01

470

Commercial property prices and bank performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We seek to assess the effect of commercial property price movements on the behaviour and performance of individual banks in a range of industrialised economies, extending the existing micro literature on bank performance. Our results suggest that commercial property prices tend to be positively associated with bank lending and profitability, and negatively associated with banks' net interest margin and bad

E. Philip Davis; Haibin Zhu

2005-01-01

471

Foreign banks: executive jobs for Turkish women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the employment policies and practices of Turkish banks and how these practices affect the hiring and promotion of women. Turkey's banking sector consists of state-owned, private, and foreign banks. The overall restructuring of this sector along with the increase of foreign banks is an opportunity to enquire whether human resource

Oya Culpan; Toni Marzotto; Nazmi Demir

2007-01-01

472

Corporate governance and control in Russian banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Working Paper examines peculiarities of the Russian model of corporate governance and control in the banking sector. The study relies upon theoretical as well as applied research of corporate governance in Russian commercial banks featuring different forms of ownership. We focus on real interests of all stakeholders, namely bank and stock market regulators, bank owners, investors, top managers and

Andrei Vernikov

2007-01-01

473

Bank competition and ECB's monetary policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a model of oligopolistic competition in the banking sector, we analyse how the monetary policy rule chosen by the Central Bank can influence the incentive of banks to set high interest rates on loans over the business cycle. We exploit the basic model to investigate the potential impact of EMU implementation on collusion among banks. In particular, we consider

Fabio C. Bagliano; Alberto Dalmazzo; Giancarlo Marini

2000-01-01

474

Managing Confidence in Emerging Market Bank Runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a rational-expectations framework, we model depositors' confidence as a function of the probability of future bank bailouts. We analyze the effect of alternative bank bailout policies on depositors' confidence in an emerging market setting, where liquidity shortages of banks are revealed sequentially and governments cannot credibly commit to bailing out all potentially distressed banks. Our findings suggest that allowing

Ashoka Mody; Se-Jik Kim

2005-01-01

475

Bank involvement with SMEs: Beyond relationship lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “conventional wisdom” in academic and policy circles argues that, while large and foreign banks are generally not interested in serving SMEs, small and niche banks have an advantage because they can overcome SME opaqueness through relationship lending. This paper shows that there is a gap between this view and what banks actually do. Banks perceive SMEs as a core

Augusto de la Torre; María Soledad Martínez Pería; Sergio L. Schmukler

2010-01-01

476

Market Discipline of Banks: The Asset Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the banking business grows more complex, government supervisors of banks seem increasingly willing to share the role of policing bank risk with private investors, especially bondholders. Using spreads on nearly 500 bank bond issues between 1993 and 1998, this paper investigates the relationship between the spreads on those bonds and the full portfolio of assets held by the issuing

Donald P. Morgan; Kevin J. Stiroh

2001-01-01

477

Oil drilling to begin on Georges Bank  

SciTech Connect

Three years of litigation between environmental groups and USDI concerning the legality of the Georges Bank lease sale have ended in a court settlement that will allow drilling for oil and gas to begin immediately. USDI is required to promulgate regulations to ensure that all drilling companies employ the best available and safest technology. NOAA must reconsider, in a formal manner, the designation of Georges Bank as a marine sanctuary, on or before the end of 1981. In return for these concessions, the environmental groups will drop their case against the legality of the lease sale, while retaining the right to challenge any action or decision concerning proposed exploratory drilling or oil and natural gas development.

Weber, M.

1981-02-01

478

Idea Bank: Explaining Biological Phenomena  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Idea Bank, the author provides two classroom activities that integrate argumentation, explanation, and the use of evidence with biology content. The first example fits within an ecology unit; the second works well in one on evolution. These exampl

Levin, Daniel M.

2010-09-01

479

Oeresund experiment. Data bank report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present supplements and extends a previously published magnetic tape containing the complete documented data set of the Oeresund Experiment. The report and the tape together constitute the Oeresund Experiment Data Bank. The report contains information...

N. G. Mortensen S. E. Gryning

1989-01-01

480

PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe.  

PubMed

The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe/) is actively working with its Worldwide Protein Data Bank partners to enhance the quality and consistency of the international archive of bio-macromolecular structure data, the Protein Data Bank (PDB). PDBe also works closely with its collaborators at the European Bioinformatics Institute and the scientific community around the world to enhance its databases and services by adding curated and actively maintained derived data to the existing structural data in the PDB. We have developed a new database infrastructure based on the remediated PDB archive data and a specially designed database for storing information on interactions between proteins and bound molecules. The group has developed new services that allow users to carry out simple textual queries or more complex 3D structure-based queries. The newly designed 'PDBeView Atlas pages' provide an overview of an individual PDB entry in a user-friendly layout and serve as a starting point to further explore the information available in the PDBe database. PDBe's active involvement with the X-ray crystallography, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and cryo-Electron Microscopy communities have resulted in improved tools for structure deposition and analysis. PMID:19858099

Velankar, S; Best, C; Beuth, B; Boutselakis, C H; Cobley, N; Sousa Da Silva, A W; Dimitropoulos, D; Golovin, A; Hirshberg, M; John, M; Krissinel, E B; Newman, R; Oldfield, T; Pajon, A; Penkett, C J; Pineda-Castillo, J; Sahni, G; Sen, S; Slowley, R; Suarez-Uruena, A; Swaminathan, J; van Ginkel, G; Vranken, W F; Henrick, K; Kleywegt, G J

2009-10-25

481

Do foreign banks increase competition? Evidence from emerging Asian and Latin American banking markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the impact of foreign bank penetration on the competitive structure of domestic banking sectors in host emerging economies. We focus our analysis on Asia and Latin America during the period 1997–2008. Using bank-level panel data to identify foreign banks and to estimate measures of banking competition, we are able to provide robust empirical evidence that

Bang Nam Jeon; María Pía Olivero; Ji Wu

2011-01-01

482

Role of the Electronic Banking Services on the Profits of Jordanian Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at examining the effects of electronic banking on bank's profitability in Jordan. How banking sector finds itself before a new fact imposed by technology revolution and digits to change their work mechanisms from traditional means to electronic means and the challenges banks face as a result. Furthermore, this study investigates the reasons behinds providing electronic banking services

Ahmad Zakaria Siam

2006-01-01

483

California Banking in the Nineteenth Century: The Art and Method of the Bank of A. Levy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 1890s loan book of the Bank A. Levy permits a detailed examination of the lending operations of a private bank in California during the National Banking Era (1864-1914). This period has been intensively analyzed at the macroeconomic level, but there are few microeconomic studies of banks. This unregulated bank was well integrated into national money markets and lent to

Eugene N. White

1999-01-01

484

The adoption of commercial innovations in the former Central and Eastern European markets : The case of internet banking in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to examine innovation adoption in the context of internet banking in Estonia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data presented in this study are based on 1,831 questionnaires collected from individual internet banking users in Estonia. Findings – This study extends the applicability of the innovation adoption model developed by Everett Rogers to Estonian internet banking. The model

Kent Eriksson; Katri Kerem; Daniel Nilsson

2008-01-01

485

Innovation Funds for Higher Education: A Users' Guide for World Bank Funded Projects. Education Working Paper Series. Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Education Working Paper Series is produced by the Education Unit at the World Bank (HDNED). It provides an avenue for World Bank staff to publish and disseminate preliminary education findings to encourage discussion and exchange ideas within the World Bank and among the broader development community. This Guide seeks to help those who design…

Saint, William

2005-01-01

486

Featured Research: Bank of America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank of America has made available its collection of economic and technical research reports. The reports include a weekly economic briefing on the US economy, a survey of Wall Street economists, an analysis of payroll employment and CPI; and occasional reports on business and economics. Bank of America also provides a weekly international economic briefing; a technical analyses of the yen, mark and pound exchange rates; and the Stock and Bond Investment Overview & Strategy.

1999-01-01

487

The Membrane Protein Data Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  The Membrane Protein Data Bank (MPDB) is an online, searchable, relational database of structural and functional information\\u000a on integral, anchored and peripheral membrane proteins and peptides. Data originates from the Protein Data Bank and other\\u000a databases, and from the literature. Structures are based on X-ray and electron diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance and\\u000a cryoelectron microscopy. The MPDB is searchable online by

P. Raman; V. Cherezov; M. Caffrey

2006-01-01

488

Fast electronically tunable filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows a new electronically tunable filter bank. The main characteristics are: wide frequency range, 6 to 18 GHz, compact size and fast response within the temperature range of -40degC to 75degC. To achieve these objectives the filter bank is built using HMIC and MMIC technology. The purpose of the system is to act as a fast tunable system

M. S. Ruiperez; Daniel Amor; J. Gonzalez; J. I. Alonso

2005-01-01

489

Limited liability and bank safety net procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented of bank behaviour which identifies the factors determining a bank's optimal capital\\/asset ratio, its optimal liquidity ratio, the expected value of non-performing loans and the probability of bank failure. We propose that this last variable can act as an index of bank credit-worthiness. The main factors determining this index are (i) the risk associated with bank

George Mckenzie; Simon Wolfe

1995-01-01

490

The Contradiction in China's Gradualist Banking Reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s state-owned banks have historically funded money-losing state enterprises as a way of maintaining employment and social stability, but this practice has led to bank insolvency and bailouts. We survey the Chinese banking industry, focusing on the largest banks, which are being reformed to increase their competitiveness following China’s 2001 commitment to open its domestic banking market. We assemble macroeconomic,

Wendy. Dobson; Anil K. Kashyap

2006-01-01

491

CORE CAPABILITIES FOR EXPLOITING ELECTRONIC BANKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

New information technologies and emerging business forces have triggered a new wave of financial innovation -electronic banking (e-banking). This study utilizes an innovation model to analyze the impact of e-banking on the incumbent banks. The results indicate that the nature of e-banking innovation is disruptive, leading to drastic changes in both technological knowledge and business model. We further identify eight

Tzyh-Li Hsia; Michael S H Heng

2006-01-01

492

Competition Policy, Developing Countries and the WTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses developing country interests regarding the inclusion of competition law disciplines in the WTO. Although developing countries have a great interest in pursuing an active domestic competition policy, this can and should be done independently of the WTO. Given the mercantilist basis of multilateral trade negotiations, the WTO is less likely to be a powerful instrument to encourage

Bernard Hoekman; Peter Martin Holmes

2000-01-01

493

Evaluation Systems, Ethics, and Development Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After some 65 years of international development assistance, it is still difficult to show the effectiveness of aid in ways that are fully convincing. In part, this reflects inadequacies in the evaluation systems of the bilateral, multilateral, and global organizations that provide official development aid. Underlying these weaknesses often are a…

Thomas, Vinod

2010-01-01

494

EU Development Policy in a Changing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

On many fronts, EU development policy is at a critical juncture. In the face of major new challenges, such as the current impasse in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, and increasing concerns over security threats, the European Union is having to rethink much of its development policy both with its ‘near neighbours’ and in the South. How has

Andrew Mold

2007-01-01

495

Bank Regulation: Analysis of the Failure of Superior Bank, FSB, Hinsdale, Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reports offers an analysis of the failure of Superior Bank, FSB, a federally chartered savings bank located outside Chicago, Illinois. Shortly after Superior Bank's closure on July 27,2001, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) projected t...

T. J. McCool

2002-01-01

496

Early Childhood Development through an Integrated Program: Evidence from the Philippines. Impact Evaluation Series No. 2. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3922-IE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|More attention and resources have been devoted in recent years to early childhood development (ECD) in low- and middle-income countries. Rigorous studies on the effectiveness of ECD-related programs for improving children's development in various dimensions in the developing world are scant. The authors evaluate an important ECD initiative of the…

Armecin, Graeme; Behrman, Jere R.; Ghuman, Sharon; Gultiano, Socorro; King, Elizabeth M.; Lee, Nanette

2006-01-01

497

Antigen and vaccine banks: technical requirements and the role of the European antigen bank in emergency foot and mouth disease vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Antigen and vaccine banks are stocks of immunogenic materials ready to be formulated into vaccines (bulk antigens) or ready to use (vaccines) in case of need by one or more of the parties of the bank. These stocks were primarily developed by foot and mouth disease (FMD) free European countries to control unexpected severe FMD episodes after the cessation

M. Lombard; A.-E. Füssel

2007-01-01

498

Politicians and banks: Political influences on government-owned banks in emerging markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government ownership of banks is very common in countries other than the United States. This paper provides cross-country, bank-level empirical evidence about political influences on these banks. It shows that government-owned banks increase their lending in election years relative to private banks. This effect is robust to controlling for country-specific macroeconomic and institutional factors as well as bank-specific factors. The

I. Serdar Dinç

2005-01-01

499

World Bank\\/IMF: Financial and Programme Support for SSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the endorsement of The DAC Handbook on Security System Reform by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member governments in 2007, the centrality of governance to the security sector reform (SSR) agenda was clearly established within the development community (Box 8.1). The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) hold observer status in the Development Assistance Community

Nicole Ball

500

Renewable energy in Iran: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the globe, developing countries have reported different cases of successfully implemented Renewable Energy (RE) program supported by bilateral or multilateral funding. In developing countries subsidy has played a big role in RE program marketing and whether this will lead to sustainable development is yet to be determined. The adoption of implementation strategies that will support sustainable development and overcoming

F. Atabi