Sample records for multilateral development banks

  1. Multilateral development aid for Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berhanu Abegaz

    2005-01-01

    Inequities and inefficiencies in development aid arise from donor–recipient motivational conflicts, agency problems, and institutional deficiencies. Recent thinking on reforming official aid recommends technocratic solutions including recipient ownership, selectivity, budgetary grants, and multilateralization of aid management. Locating persistent policy failure in Africa primarily in its political institutions, this paper explores three alternative models of multilateral aid for reconciling need and

  2. Development News: World Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Development News, or DevNews, is the World Bank's daily Web-based newsletter. Available in English, French, and Spanish, DevNews offers feature stories on recent advances and challenges in world development. The newsletter also links to a daily summary of approved loans, speeches given by World Bank officials, an events calendar, and World Bank press releases. Articles from February 1999 to the present can be found in the free archive.

  3. Bank Community Development Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Commerce and Community Affairs, Springfield.

    This handbook provides a brief overview of bank and bank holding company community development corporations (CDCs), the types of activities for which they can be used, the legal requirements in establishing such an entity, and how they are organized and operated. Case studies, including studies of the Shorebank Corporation of Chicago, the First…

  4. World Bank: Open Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank strives to make information about its activities and projects widely accessible, and the Open Development webpage is designed to help with that aspect of their work. Here, visitors can check out various "open" features, including their "Open Data" initiative and their "Open Solutions" area. The "Open Solutions" area includes various apps that help interested parties use the World Bank's data via their various handheld devices. Moving on, the "Blogs" area includes posts on related subjects, with titles like "Improving Public Health with Open Data" and "Taking Stock of the Role of Statistics in Economic Development". Visitors are also encouraged to offer their feedback on the site, and they can also sign up to join their Twitter feed.

  5. The world bank’s role in tourism development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun Mann

    2007-01-01

    Over the last four decades, commitment to tourism as a development strategy for developing economies has fluctuated within the World Bank. This article reviews the bank’s experience from 1966 to the present as it has evolved through various phases of its own institutional role towards development. Today, driven by strong country demand, there is renewed interest within the bank in

  6. Asian Development Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created in 1966, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) is headquartered in Manila. Their operations extend across 67 countries, and their primary mission is "to help its developing member countries reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people." In order to achieve this goal, ADB offers loans, technical assistance, grants, advice, and knowledge. Along the top of their homepage, visitors can make their way through the following sections: "Projects", "Countries", "News & Events", "Topics", and "Publications". The "Topics" area is a good place to start, as it contains information about some of their signature programs, which range from work on preventing bird flu outbreaks to law and policy reform throughout the region. Moving on, the "Publications" area is a real treat for policy types, and visitors can look at recent documents like "Revitalization of Historic Inner-City Areas in Asia".

  7. African Development Bank Group

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) was founded in 1964, and its mission is to "promote sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty in Africa." Their website is extremely thorough in discussing its guidelines for lending, its source of funds, and current projects. On the homepage, in the middle of the page is a link to a book called "Africa Achieves", and it contains text and photos about people and communities in Africa that are "taking charge of their destinies and improving their lives" through projects financed by AfDB. Visitors can click on "Download Full Report", or they can download chapter by chapter under the "Table of Content" heading. The first chapter, on the consequences of living without electricity, reveals many roadblocks to achieving electrification in rural areas. In the "Selected Projects" link, which can be found on the far right hand side of the homepage, visitors can browse projects, or search for them by "keyword", "country", "sector", "status", "finance source" or "approval date". There is a good deal of information on this website that is worth exploring.

  8. BANKING ON PEACE: LESSONS FROM THE MIDDLE EAST DEVELOPMENT BANK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalia Dassa Kaye

    1998-01-01

    One aftermath of the Madrid Peace Conference was establishment of a multilateral track (the “multilateralsâ€) by the United States designed to address issues of region-wide concern, such as arms control and regional security, economic development, water, the environment, and refugees. For the first time since Israel’s creation, Israel and Arab states gathered together specifically to address regional issues of mutual

  9. Development of tissue bank.

    PubMed

    Narayan, R P

    2012-05-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  10. Development of tissue bank

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  11. Advanced multilateration theory, software development, and data processing: The MICRODOT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Gallagher, J. F.; Vonroos, O. H.

    1976-01-01

    The process of geometric parameter estimation to accuracies of one centimeter, i.e., multilateration, is defined and applications are listed. A brief functional explanation of the theory is presented. Next, various multilateration systems are described in order of increasing system complexity. Expected systems accuracy is discussed from a general point of view and a summary of the errors is listed. An outline of the design of a software processing system for multilateration, called MICRODOT, is presented next. The links of this software, which can be used for multilateration data simulations or operational data reduction, are examined on an individual basis. Functional flow diagrams are presented to aid in understanding the software capability. MICRODOT capability is described with respect to vehicle configurations, interstation coordinate reduction, geophysical parameter estimation, and orbit determination. Numerical results obtained from MICRODOT via data simulations are displayed both for hypothetical and real world vehicle/station configurations such as used in the GEOS-3 Project. These simulations show the inherent power of the multilateration procedure.

  12. The World Bank Policies: Damned if You Do, Damned if You Don't.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura Castro, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    A former employee of the World Bank discusses the logic behind multilateral development banks and how they operate, bank ideology and the nature of policy formation, educational and other reforms as loan conditions, the inability of development banks to enforce implementation of their policies in countries receiving loans, and whether the banks

  13. Multilaterals Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A project of the Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy at Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, this site features the texts of international multilateral conventions. Users can keyword-search the site or browse chronologically or by subject. Treaties are organized into ten major categories, including biodiversity, human rights, trade relations, arms control, and more. Although the bulk of material here is from the last half of the 20th century, there are also some older documents such as the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848). Users looking for more information can start with the links at the bottom of the front page.

  14. Foreign Bank Presence, Domestic Bank Performance and Financial Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Hermes; Robert Lensink

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between foreign bank presence and the performance of the domestic banking sector and takes into account the role of the level of development of the financial sector of the recipient country. We use data of 982 banks in 48 countries for 1990-96. We find support for the hypothesis that financial development does matter. In particular,

  15. Multi?level Governance of Banking Regulation in the EU: Evidence from Developing Bank Supervision in Bulgaria and Hungary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aneta B. Spendzharova

    2010-01-01

    Recent bank collapses as a result of the global financial crisis have highlighted the need to keep international bank supervision practices up to date with technological and product innovations in the sector. In the 1980s, coordination in international financial regulation resulted from multilateral negotiations in which states played a central role. Since then, international banking regulation has undergone significant transformation.

  16. Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. [Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1992-05-31

    The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This multilateral'' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

  17. Multilateral Agencies in the Construction of the Global Agenda on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    This article traces the construction of the educational dimension of the global development agenda over the period 1990 to 2006. It argues that the multilateral agencies, and notably the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO and UNDP, played vital roles in designing the architecture of this world agenda, supported at a key stage by the Development Assistance…

  18. The role of multilateral institutions.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Agi; Castro, Gonzalo; Newcombe, Kenneth

    2002-08-15

    In line with its mission of alleviating poverty through support for environmentally and socially sustainable economic development, The World Bank (along with some other multilateral development banks) is working to help developing countries capture a share of the emerging global market in greenhouse-gas-emissions reductions ('carbon trading'). Under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Joint Implementation instrument and the Clean Development Mechanism now provide an opening for substantial international resource transfers and potential for supporting sustainable development through the transfer of cleaner technologies or sustainable forestry and agro-forestry practices. For example, carbon sequestration represents a non-extractive non-consumptive sustainable use of living natural resources that can be incorporated within a multiple-use 'integrated ecosystem management' approach. The World Bank initiated the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) in April 2000, to help spur the development of a global carbon market and to 'learn by doing' how to use carbon-purchase transactions across a range of energy-sector technologies (and some forestry applications) to achieve environmentally credible and cost-effective emissions reductions that benefit developing countries and economies in transition. Building on the success of the PCF ($145 million raised from public and private-sector investors), The World Bank expects to launch two new funds in 2002: the Biocarbon Fund and the Community Development Carbon Fund. These funds will target synergies between carbon markets and objectives such as biodiversity conservation, combating desertification and small-scale community-driven development. Experience from the PCF shows that developing countries can have a comparative advantage in supplying this global market, as emissions reductions can be achieved in developing countries in the range of $3-$5 per ton of CO(2) equivalent, compared with a marginal abatement cost of $10-$15 per ton of CO(2) equivalent in most countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. However, realizing this economic potential over the next decade, and targeting the market to the rural poor, will require substantial assistance with project development and government legal and institutional capacity building. Specific needs include raising awareness of the potential of carbon markets at all levels (particularly in energy and land-use sectors), clarifying property rights, particularly in the case of communally held land and resources, ensuring the existence of an attractive investment climate, eliminating policies that create perverse incentives and constraints, and mitigating logistical, political and 'reputational' risks that could deter private-sector investors. It will also be necessary to find ways to reconcile the short-term needs of the rural poor and the typically long-term revenue stream associated with carbon sequestration. PMID:12460489

  19. Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).

    PubMed

    Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries. PMID:23276290

  20. Apps for Development: World Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank is stepping up to the new media plate by asking concerned app developers to bring out their innovative software applications that "move us a step closer toward solving some of the world's most pressing problems." On the site, visitors can look over all of the apps that have been submitted as part of this initiative, and they are all quite interesting. They include "Food Factor", which gives users a quick visual reference of global food security, and "Forecasting the MDGs", which lets users learn which countries are likely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals established by the World Bank. Visitors can view all of the submissions and sort them out by topic, region of the world and title.

  1. The World Bank Sustainable Development Unit

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    the World Bank to review the service delivery aspects of rural water schemes in various Indian states. HasThe World Bank June 2008 Sustainable Development Unit South Asia Region Report 44789 Public Report has been prepared by Smita Misra (Sr. Economist, SASDU, World Bank), the Task Manager

  2. Philippine Rural Banks and Economic Development1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céline CROUZILLE; Jessica LOS BANOS; Emmanuelle NYS; Alain SAUVIAT

    This paper examines the link between financial and economic development at the regional level in the Philippines and focuses on the role played by rural banks in regional economic activity. We apply cointegration panel data analysis on regional banking and economic data for the period 1993 to 2005. We ranked the sixteen regions in three different groups based on their

  3. Papers of Selected Institutes Asian Development Bank

    E-print Network

    1 Papers of Selected Institutes Asian Development Bank --Economics Working Paper Series Akyüz. Toward a harmonious countryside: rural development survey results of the People's Republic of China, 2010

  4. For Richer or Poorer: Assessing the Criticisms Directed at the Multilateral Development Banks

    E-print Network

    Head, John W.

    2004-01-01

    -2004 HeinOnline -- 52 U. Kan. L. Rev. 311 2003-2004 HeinOnline -- 52 U. Kan. L. Rev. 312 2003-2004 HeinOnline -- 52 U. Kan. L. Rev. 313 2003-2004 HeinOnline -- 52 U. Kan. L. Rev. 314 2003-2004 HeinOnline -- 52 U. Kan. L. Rev. 315 2003-2004 HeinOnline -- 52 U...HeinOnline -- 52 U. Kan. L. Rev. 241 2003-2004 HeinOnline -- 52 U. Kan. L. Rev. 242 2003-2004 HeinOnline -- 52 U. Kan. L. Rev. 243 2003-2004 HeinOnline -- 52 U. Kan. L. Rev. 244 2003-2004 HeinOnline -- 52 U. Kan. L. Rev. 245 2003-2004 Hein...

  5. Bank Information Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bank Information Center (BIC) is a nonprofit, independent, non-governmental organization that "provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)." The organization's Website contains information about BIC's ongoing activities and offers useful publications and toolkits for those interested in and involved with MDBs. The Toolkits for Activists section includes fact sheets that explain the inner workings of the World Bank, covering topics such as basic information about the World Bank, the Country Assistance Strategy, World Bank policy framework, and information on World Bank's lending. Each fact sheet is available in both .pdf and HTML formats. The publications section offers a variety of resources including papers, case studies, and meeting reports, many of which are available online. Also provided are links to other monitoring organizations around the world and several online forums. An information services page will be added soon.

  6. Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. Final report, July 1, 1986--May 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, R.; O`Gallagher, J.J.

    1992-05-31

    The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This ``multilateral`` project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

  7. A multilateral design methodology for development contexts : a framework for the Dharavi potters

    E-print Network

    Razvi, Amina S. (Amina Sultana), 1975-

    2002-01-01

    The migration from rural areas to urban environments, and the continuous growth of the current population has caused an increasing shortage of low-in come urban housing in developing countries. In addition, the high cost ...

  8. Remote Sensing Education and Development Countries: Multilateral Efforts through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Leslie Bermann

    1998-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is an international organization which coordinates space-based Earth observations world wide. Created in 1984, CEOS now comprises 38 national space agencies, regional organizations and international space-related and research groups. The aim of CEOS is to achieve international coordination in the planning of satellite missions for Earth observation and to maximize the utilization of data from these missions world-wide. With regard to developing countries, the fundamental aim of CEOS is to encourage the creation and maintenance of indigenous capability that is integrated into the local decision-making process, thereby enabling developing countries to obtain the maximum benefit from Earth observation. Obtaining adequate access to remote sensing information is difficult for developing countries and students and teachers alike. High unit data prices, the specialized nature of the technology , difficulty in locating specific data, complexities of copyright provisions, the emphasis on "leading edge" technology and research, and the lack of training materials relating to readily understood application are frequently noted obstacles. CEOS has developed an education CD-ROM which is aimed at increasing the integration of space-based data into school curricula, meeting the heretofore unsatisfied needs of developing countries for information about Earth observation application, data sources and future plans; and raising awareness around the world of the value of Earth observation data from space. The CD-ROM is designed to be used with an Internet web browser, increasing the information available to the user, but it can also be used on a stand-alone machine. It contains suggested lesson plans and additional resources for educators and users in developing countries.

  9. Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since 1988, the World Bank Group (described in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has addressed issues of economic architecture, corporate governance, crime, land reform, and the economics of transition at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE). Currently, papers from previous ABCDE's are available online with a keynote addresses, such as by nobel laureate James Tobin, and interested individuals are invited to comment on forthcoming conference papers at the ABCDE homepage.

  10. Banking, Technology Workers and Their Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Lesley; West, Jim

    2001-01-01

    An Australian bank developed a four-stage career development strategy for information technology workers: (1) career coaching sessions with executives; (2) career coaching seminars for line managers and team leaders; (3) staff career planning workshops; and (4) online career development support. The program resulted in increased satisfaction,…

  11. Learning to Play the Game: Bulgaria's Relations with Multilateral Organisations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VESSELIN DIMITROV

    This article aims to examine the extent to which Bulgarian governments after the fall of communism have succeeded in mastering the challenge of developing constructive and sustainable relations with multilateral organisations. The article focuses on Bulgaria's relations with the EU, the central multilateral organisation in post-Cold War Europe and the overriding target of Bulgarian foreign policy. Achieving integration with the

  12. The Asian Development Bank`s role in promoting cleaner production in the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Huq, A.; Lohani, B.N.; Jalal, K.F.; Ouano, E.A.R. [Asian Development Bank, Metro Manila (Philippines)] [Asian Development Bank, Metro Manila (Philippines)

    1999-09-01

    The People`s Republic of China (PRC) has the fastest growing economy in the world and is the third largest producer and consumer of energy. At the same time, the PRC`s industrial sector contributes heavily to air and water pollution. Because of the linkages between the production and use of energy and environmental degradation, the PRC, with the active support of bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, including the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is adopting measures that link economic growth to improvements in the environment. The PRC is pursuing a two-pronged strategy that involves implementing priority investment programs and promoting economic reforms. The ADB`s experience shows that the concept of cleaner production (CP) has been widely accepted, but the widespread adoption of CP requires a new way of thinking and new management capacities. In this regard, the PRC is at an early stage of promoting CP, and inadequacies in coordination among relevant agencies remain a key obstacle. To support CP activities, the ADB is participating in a cluster of activities within China that include policy development, capacity building, and financing environmental investments. This article describes the ADB`s current efforts to promote CP in PRC and analyzes the effectiveness of those efforts.

  13. Economic reforms and bank efficiency in developing countries: the case of the Indian banking industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Ataullah; Hang Le

    2006-01-01

    Using the Indian banking industry as a case study, this paper proposes and tests hypotheses regarding the possibility of a relationship between three elements of the Economic Reforms (ERs) – namely, fiscal reforms, financial reforms, and private investment liberalisation – and bank efficiency in developing countries. Bank efficiency is measured using data envelopment analysis (DEA); the relationship between the measured

  14. Grameen Bank`s experience with energy related microenterprise development

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    Increased population and growth of industry have resulted in greater demand for energy worldwide. Most of this energy is derived from fossil fuel (coal, gas, oil and nuclear) which will soon be depleted. In this context the need for developing renewable sources of energy has taken on a greater sense of importance and urgency. Over the years significant technological advances have been made in the area of renewable energies especially in the field of solar photovoltaics (PV), wind energy and bio-gas technology. In addition, for remote rural areas where there exists no infrastructure for conventional energy supply, these forms of decentralized alternative energy systems will be far more adaptable and well suited. Grameen Shakti (Energy) is an addition to the family of companies of Grameen Bank, to promote and supply renewable energy sources to rural households. GS, a not-for-profit company, expects not only to supply renewable energy services, but also to create employment and income generation opportunities in rural Bangladesh. GS will focus on supply, marketing, sales, testing and development of renewable energy systems of solar pv, biogas, wind turbines and windpumps.

  15. Impact of the Bank's rural development lending.

    PubMed

    Yudelman, M

    1979-09-01

    Following the global food crisis of the early 1970s, the World Bank has placed a priority on funding agriculture and rural development projects. These projects have been funded with a view to raising the productivity of low-income groups. Projects aimed at increasing the incomes of rural poor must clearly identify the target group and be designed so that they will benefit directly. Some of these Bank-funded projects have been in the following areas: 1) irrigation; 2) fertilizer; 3) general rural development, e.g., road construction and rural electrification; 4) agricultural extension; 5) credit extension in rural areas; and 6) comprehensive projects. So far, the Bank programs seem to have exerted an influence on government development policies. Experience shows, however, that expansion of the income-employment sector is limited in scope. It is evident also that poverty-oriented programs must be longer-term than more conventional programs. Real success in this field will be measured in terms of community development and self-sufficiency. PMID:12261286

  16. Modeling performance of horizontal, undulating, and multilateral wells

    E-print Network

    Kamkom, Rungtip

    2009-05-15

    Horizontal, undulating, and multilateral wells are relatively new alternatives in field development because they can increase the productivity per well and reduce the cost of field development. Because the feasibility of these wells may not be valid...

  17. Development in Islamic banking: a financial risk-allocation approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mansoor Khan; M. Ishaq Bhatti

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The core objective of this paper is to direct worldwide attention towards the unparalleled development in Islamic banking, its infrastructures and supporting institutions in recent years. This paper articulates the case for Islamic banking in a very comprehensive and effective manner. It depicts Islamic banking as a growing discipline adding more ethical, competitive and diversified tools and systems

  18. Governance and aid allocation in the International Development Association (IDA) : revisiting assessing aid in the twenty-first century

    E-print Network

    Markgraf, Claire Teresa McCarville

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between governance and the foreign aid allocation of a World Bank agency, the International Development Association. In particular, the study investigates whether this major multilateral ...

  19. 75 FR 677 - Federal Home Loan Bank Membership for Community Development Financial Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...Federal Home Loan Bank Membership for Community Development Financial...1290 RIN 2590-AA18 Federal Home Loan Bank Membership for Community Development Financial...to become members of a Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank). The newly-eligible CDFIs...

  20. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes. PMID:23663485

  1. Multilateral installation from a floating rig

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Troll Olje gas province is approximately 100 km northwest of Bergen, Norway, in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea at a water depth of approximately 315 to 340 m. Troll Olje is part of the Troll gas field, where Norsk Hydro is responsible for developing two areas with thin oil rims. Before spudding the multilateral well described in this paper, 17 wells had been drilled and completed in the Troll Olje oil province. The multilateral-well concept was introduced in the gas province primarily to increase the drainage area for each well. When producing from two separate laterals, a lower drawdown pressure exists throughout the horizontal section. Therefore, gas coning is less likely to occur, and higher production rates can be sustained for a longer period of time. In addition, cost savings are substantial because of reduced well-construction time for each horizontal reservoir-drainage section and because of the reduced number of completion strings, subsea wellheads, and pipelines required for total field development. The full-length paper details design, development, testing, and installation of the first successful multilateral well installed from a floating rig offshore Norway. The paper gives a synopsis.

  2. Sustainability principles of the Asian Development Bank's (ADB's) energy

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Sustainability principles of the Asian Development Bank's (ADB's) energy policy: An opportunity Development Bank (ADB) energy projects to determine how they address the energy sector challenges facing) improving energy efficiency; (2) promoting renewable energy; (3) reducing energy poverty; and (4) enhancing

  3. Multilateral Research Opportunities in Ground Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. International collaboration provides an opportunity to leverage other nations' investments to meet common goals. The Humans In Space Community shares a common goal to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration within and beyond Low Earth Orbit. Meeting this goal requires efficient use of limited resources and International capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) is our primary platform to conduct microgravity research targeted at reducing human health and performance risks for exploration missions. Access to ISS resources, however, is becoming more and more constrained and will only be available through 2020 or 2024. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is actively pursuing methods to effectively utilize the ISS and appropriate ground analogs to understand and mitigate human health and performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. HRP developed a plan to use ground analogs of increasing fidelity to address questions related to exploration missions and is inviting International participation in these planned campaigns. Using established working groups and multilateral panels, the HRP is working with multiple Space Agencies to invite International participation in a series of 30- day missions that HRP will conduct in the US owned and operated Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) during 2016. In addition, the HRP is negotiating access to Antarctic stations (both US and non-US), the German :envihab and Russian NEK facilities. These facilities provide unique capabilities to address critical research questions requiring longer duration simulation or isolation. We are negotiating release of international research opportunities to ensure a multilateral approach to future analog research campaigns, hoping to begin multilateral campaigns in the latter facilities by 2017. Collaborative use of analog facilities and shared investment in the development of spaceflight countermeasures through multilateral campaigns or missions that leverage the global scientific community will focus high quality research and provide sufficient power to accelerate the development of countermeasures and drive sound recommendations for exploration missions. This panel will provide an overview of efforts to encourage and facilitate multilateral collaboration in analog missions or campaigns and describe the facilities currently under consideration to reach the common goal of enabling safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration.

  4. New multilateral well architecture in heterogeneous reservoirs

    E-print Network

    Jia, Hongqiao

    2004-09-30

    Multilateral well technology has been widely used in the world oil fields. There still has technical limitation of these kinds of well structure. This thesis presents a new multilateral well architecture which is more flexible and economical...

  5. Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations

    E-print Network

    Tanrikulu, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the international system development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments of three major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the current process status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the international system development standards.

  6. Moving from Bilateral to Multilateral Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roden, S.; Polk, J. D.; Janney, R. P.; Volpe, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    When the ISS Integrated Medical Group moved to a multilateral configuration for the ASTROLAB mission, several challenges were encountered and overcome that allowed for a streamlined operational experience. Dating back to the early 1990s, the European Space Agency (ESA) has sent flight surgeon and Biomedical Engineering (BME) personnel to NASA-JSC and Russia to train for space flight operational support. This training was tailored towards the needs of particular Shuttle/Soyuz missions, and more generally for eventual ISS support. With the announcement of the ASTROLAB mission, NASA and ESA personnel worked together to develop a detailed training template for ESA BMEs to ensure successful support of the mission from the European Astronaut Center (EAC). This training included the deployment of ESA BMEs to JSC, as well as the development of a rotation of ISS-certified NASA BMEs to the EAC. In addition to training, NASA, ESA, and the Russian Federal Space Agency (FSA) worked together preflight to develop multilateral flight control support concepts and implementation plans. This resulted in flight control support schedules, operational rules of engagement, and the delineation of responsibilities. NASA also assisted ESA with the development and deployment of workstation displays to allow the ESA medical flight control team to monitor ISS telemetry from the EAC. The goal of this presentation is to provide details of the preflight preparation and in-flight support of the ASTROLAB mission by the ESA, NASA, and FSA medical support teams. In addition, it will identify lessons learned that will be implemented for future multilateral endeavors.

  7. Development and efficiency of the banking sector in a transitional economy: Hungarian experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iftekhar Hasan; Katherin Marton

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyzes the experiences and developments of Hungarian banking sector during the transitional process from a centralized economy to a market-oriented system. The paper identifies that early reorganization initiatives, flexible approaches to privatization, and liberal policies towards foreign banks’ involvement with the domestic institutions helped to build a relatively stable and increasingly efficient banking system. Foreign banks and banks

  8. Trust and distrust in online banking: Their role in developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John “Skip” Benamati; Mark A. Serva

    2007-01-01

    Similar to the adoption of automatic teller machines, banks around the world are looking at online banking services as the next technology to reduce costs while maintaining or enhancing services to the customer. In developing countries, the low cost of online banking may enable banks to reach new customers, much like the cell phone offered new possibilities in telephony. Banks

  9. International Multilateral Educational Aid Received by China: History, Characteristics, and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuchi, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years have passed since China began its reform and opening up, to formally accept multilateral educational aid from international organizations, and multilateral educational assistance has made contributions that cannot be overlooked to the reform and development of China's education. This article reviews the history of China's acceptance…

  10. Development and evaluation of online evidence based guideline bank system.

    PubMed

    Park, Myonghwa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the online evidence-based nursing practice guideline bank system to support the best evidence-based decision in the clinical and community practice settings. The main homepage consisted of seven modules for introduction of site, EBN, guideline bank, guideline development, guideline review, related sites, and community. The major contents in the guidelines were purpose, developer, intended audience, method of development, target population, testing, knowledge components, and evaluation. Electronic versions of the guidelines were displayed by XML, PDF, and PDA versions. The system usability were evaluated by general users, guideline developers, and guideline reviewers on the web and the results showed high scores of satisfaction. This online evidence-based guideline bank system could support nurses' best and cost-effective clinical decision using the sharable standardized guidelines with education module of evidence based nursing. PMID:17102227

  11. An analysis of GAVI, the Global Fund and World Bank support for human resources for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Marko; Weber, Stephanie E; Nikolic, Irina A; Atun, Rifat; Kumar, Ranjana

    2012-12-01

    Shortages, geographic imbalances and poor performance of health workers pose major challenges for improving health service delivery in developing countries. In response, multilateral agencies have increasingly recognized the need to invest in human resources for health (HRH) to assist countries in achieving their health system goals. In this paper we analyse the HRH-related activities of three agencies: the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI); the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (the Global Fund); and the World Bank. First, we reviewed the type of HRH-related activities that are eligible for financing within each agency. Second, we reviewed the HRH-related activities that each agency is actually financing. Third, we reviewed the literature to understand the impact that GAVI, Global Fund and World Bank investments in HRH have had on the health workforce in developing countries. Our analysis found that by far the most common activity supported across all agencies is short-term, in-service training. There is relatively little investment in expanding pre-service training capacity, despite large health worker shortages in developing countries. We also found that the majority of GAVI and the Global Fund grants finance health worker remuneration, largely through supplemental allowances, with little information available on how payment rates are determined, how the potential negative consequences are mitigated, and how payments are to be sustained at the end of the grant period. Based on the analysis, we argue there is an opportunity for improved co-ordination between the three agencies at the country level in supporting HRH-related activities. Existing initiatives, such as the International Health Partnership and the Health Systems Funding Platform, could present viable and timely vehicles for the three agencies to implement this improved co-ordination. PMID:22333685

  12. Central Banking Resource Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Central Banks of the World is a pointers page to central banks and central bank information for over 45 countries, as well as multilateral financial institutions, research and training establishments, and conference information. To show how little is generally known about the history of central banking in the United States, this site includes an email message sent to the webmaster of the First Bank of the United States, promoting a certain software company's web interactivity applications. Of course, since the First Bank of the United States was closed in 1811, its web site is primarily historical. The Central Banks site lists over 30 Internet directories and pointers pages that list the First Bank of the United States as a functioning financial institution. To help remedy this situation, the site includes a pointer to a brief history of banking in the US.

  13. Qualitative Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Stress Response Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William; Pajer, Kathleen; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective?To describe the qualitative development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pediatric Stress Response item banks.?Methods?Stress response concepts were specified through a literature review and interviews with content experts, children, and parents. A library comprising 2,677 items derived from 71 instruments was developed. Items were classified into conceptual categories; new items were written and redundant items were removed. Items were then revised based on cognitive interviews (n = 39 children), readability analyses, and translatability reviews.?Results?2 pediatric Stress Response sub-domains were identified: somatic experiences (43 items) and psychological experiences (64 items). Final item pools cover the full range of children’s stress experiences. Items are comprehensible among children aged ?8 years and ready for translation.?Conclusions?Child- and parent-report versions of the item banks assess children’s somatic and psychological states when demands tax their adaptive capabilities. PMID:23124904

  14. World Bank eAtlas of the Millennium Development Goals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

  15. Establishment, operation and development of a donor human milk bank.

    PubMed

    Biasini, Augusto; Stella, Marcello; Malaigia, Laura; China, Mariachiara; Azzalli, Milena; Laguardia, Maria Chiara; Rizzo, Vittoria

    2013-10-01

    Human milk is very valuable in premature infant nutrition. The collection, screening, processing and distribution of donor human milk are described in this report. These activities take place in the Donor Human Milk Bank (DHMB) of the Large Romagna Area (LRA) in Italy, the development of which is also described here. Over the years, the activities of this bank, which is located in Cesena Hospital, in the center of the LRA, have developed from an informal and domestic-level activity to become a multistep controlled process designed to prevent the possibility of disease transmission. This little food-supply industry, run by a multi-disciplinary team with strict rules and diverse responsibilities, complies with the Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. PMID:23891355

  16. Volume 30, Issue 3 Bank competition, institution and economic development: Evidence from Asia

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    the excessive risk taking by banking institutions can cause economic vulnerability which ended up in financialVolume 30, Issue 3 Bank competition, institution and economic development: Evidence from Asia-2007, this paper investigates the link between bank competition and economic development. In general, although

  17. Why do Acquiring Banks in Mergers Concentrate in Well-Developed Areas? Regional Development and Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) in Banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca V. A. Colombo; Gilberto Turati

    2012-01-01

    Colombo L. V. A. and Turati G. Why do acquiring banks in mergers concentrate in well-developed areas? Regional development and mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in banking, Regional Studies. The paper focuses on all mergers and acquisitions (M&As) transactions of regional relevance that occurred in the Italian banking sector between 1995 and 2006. A strong direct effect of regional economic and

  18. How Important are Foreign Banks in the Financial Development of European Transition Countries?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilko Naaborg; Bert Scholtens; Jakob de HaanR; Hanneke Bol; Ralph de HaasQ

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses the development of the banking sector in European transition countries. We find that, although bank assets increased during the 1990s, credit to the private sector remained relatively low. Foreign-owned banks have become major players in the financial system of these countries. However, foreign bank presence and financial development in general vary considerably among the transition economies. Foreign-owned

  19. Government ownership of banks, institutions, and financial development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetlana Andrianova; Panicos Demetriades; Anja Shortland

    2008-01-01

    Using a suitably modified locational model of banking, we examine the influence of institutions, such as deposit contract enforcement, in explaining the share of government owned banks in the banking system. We present cross-country evidence suggesting that institutional factors are relatively more important determinants of the share of state banks than political or historical ones. We argue that rather than

  20. Multilateral Sprint Seminar on Evaluating Progress in Sports Development Since 1989. Budapest, Hungary, April 1-2, 1998. Report of the Committee for the Development of Sport (CDDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This report presents the proceedings of a 1998 seminar which focused on four themes related to progress in sports development in Europe since 1989. Each of the four sections includes four papers, one from each of the experts from the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia. "Tours de table" and discussion allowed participation by other…

  1. The World Bank Rural Development Field Staff Distance Learning and Training Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortera-Gutierrez, Fernando

    The Rural Development Distance Learning and Training Strategy targets locally recruited field staff of the World Bank Rural Sector. Field staff at the bank's mission offices worldwide are heterogeneous in terms of culture, ethnicity, race, gender, social class, and religion. However, they have the following in common: they follow the Bank's work…

  2. Online banking: a field study of drivers, development challenges, and expectations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel M Aladwani

    2001-01-01

    Online banking is the newest and least understood delivery channel for retail banking services. Yet, few, if any, studies were reported quantifying the issues relevant to this cutting-edge technology. This paper reports the results of a quantitative study of the perceptions of banks’ executive and IT managers and potential customers with regard to the drivers, development challenges, and expectations of

  3. Using Development-Oriented Equity Investment as a Tool for Restructuring Transition Banking Sectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helo Meigas

    2001-01-01

    November 2001Development-oriented equity investment, undertaken in the context of World Bank projects, can assist in promoting sound banking systems, especially through its positive impact on bank governance. This was the experience of Swedfund Financial Markets that made equity investments in banks in the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.Over the past 10 years the three Baltic republics have undertaken

  4. The Garden Banks 388 horizontal tree design and development

    SciTech Connect

    Granhaug, O.; Soul, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the Horizontal Subsea Production Tree System, later referred to as a SpoolTree{trademark}, developed for the Enserch Garden Banks 388 field in the Gulf of Mexico. The paper starts with a project overview followed by a comparison between the SpoolTree and the Conventional Tree design. A brief discussion explains why Enserch elected to use the SpoolTree for this field development, including available technology, workover frequency, cost etc. The rigorous safety analysis carried out for the subsea production equipment is then explained in depth. The paper continues with a technical discussion of the main features specific to the SpoolTree design and the Garden Banks 388 field development. Issues discussed include the SpoolTree itself, BOP Adapter Plate (for control during installation, workover and production), Tubing Hanger and pressure barrier design, debris cap design, downhole communication (SCSSV, chemical injection, pressure and temperature) ROV intervention, template wellbay insert design and other relevant issues. The use of computer based 3-D modelling tool is also briefly described. The experience and results described in this paper have direct application to numerous subsea development prospects worldwide, particularly in deep water. In addition, the ``system development`` aspect of the project is relevant to most marine equipment development projects. This includes the use of safety analysis techniques, 3-D computer modelling tools and clearly defined engineering procedures. A full account of the final design configuration of the SpoolTree system is given in the paper. A summary of the experience gained during the extensive testing at the factory and during the template integration tests is also provided.

  5. Fostering Multilateral Involvement in Analog Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2015-01-01

    International collaboration in space flight research is an effective means for conducting investigations and utilizing limited resources to the fullest extent. Through these multilateral collaborations mutual research questions can be investigated and resources contributed by each international partner to maximize the scientific benefits to all parties. Recently the international partners embraced this approach to initiate collaborations in ground-based space flight analog environments. In 2011, the International Analog Research Working Group was established, and later named the International Human Space Flight Analog Research Coordination Group (HANA). Among the goals of this working group are to 1) establish a framework to coordinate research campaigns, as appropriate, to minimize duplication of effort and enhance synergy; 2) define what analogs are best to use for collaborative interests; and 3) facilitate interaction between discipline experts in order to have the full benefit of international expertise. To accomplish these goals, HANA is currently engaged in developing international research campaigns in ground-based analogs. Plans are being made for an international solicitation for proposals to address research of common interest to all international partners. This solicitation with identify an analog environment that will best accommodate the types of investigations requested. Once selected, studies will be integrated into a campaign and implemented at the analog site. Through these combined efforts, research beneficial to all partners will be conducted efficiently to further address human risks of space exploration.

  6. Measuring the service quality of internet banking: scale development and validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Ta Bruce Ho; Wen-Chuan Lin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a multiple item scale for measuring internet banking service quality. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This research adopts the dimensions of electronic service quality (e-service quality) and customer-perceived service quality to develop a framework that can be used to measure internet banking service. Also, this research uses Taiwan's internet banking users as survey

  7. Contribution of Rural Banks to Regional Economic Development: Evidence from the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céline Meslier-Crouzille; Emmanuelle Nys; Alain Sauviat

    2011-01-01

    Meslier-Crouzille C., Nys E. and Sauviat A. Contribution of rural banks to regional economic development: evidence from the Philippines, Regional Studies. The paper examines the link between banking and economic development in the Philippine regions and it focuses on the role of rural banks using a co-integration panel data analysis (1993–2005). No clear-cut evidence is found of a positive influence

  8. Developing an Instrument to Measure Customer Service Quality in Branch Banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Necmi Kemal Avkiran

    1994-01-01

    A 17-item scale emerges following the study to develop an instrument for measuring customer service quality at trading bank branches, with a focus on retail banking. The conceptual framework addresses the psychometric shortcomings of the existing work in service quality research. A robust research design takes the study through multiple stages of development where the construct is pretested and piloted;

  9. Central Bank Independence and Budget Deficits in Developing Countries: New Evidence from Panel Data Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannick Lucotte

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, many countries have passed legislation giving more independence to their central banks. This institutional evolution has concerned several developed countries but also developing countries and, is consistent with the Barro and Gordon's theory of time-inconsistent monetary policy, which emphasizes the importance of independence in terms of acquiring anti-inflationary credibility. But, central bank independence (CBI) could

  10. 12 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 24 - CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments 1...THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC...

  11. Centenary Rural Development Bank, Uganda: A Flagship of Rural Bank Reform in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Dieter Seibel

    2003-01-01

    Centenary RDB is a commercial bank that provides deposit, credit and money transfer services indiscriminately to men and women of lower income. By insisting on loan recovery and cost coverage, it has reached more men and women in rural areas than any other institution in Uganda. With minimum deposits of $6 and minimum loans of $30, access barriers are low.

  12. Development of 2.4 MJ capacitor bank for electro thermal propulsion technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Jung; J. S. Kim; J. H. Chu; G. Y. Sung

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. We have developed a pulsed power system of 2.4 MJ capacitor bank for the electric gun investigation. It is made up of eight parallelled modules of the 300 kJ capacitor bank, and supplies various shape of high current pulse by changing the charging voltage, the inductance and the switching time of each module. The

  13. The World Bank, Support for Universities, and Asymmetrical Power Relations in International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of the World Bank in advancing higher education sectors in the developing world, considering in particular the increasing power and strength of a global knowledge-based economy. Given the powerful role that intergovernmental organizations such as the World Bank play in shaping global economic policies, the authors…

  14. Institutional development, the world bank, and India's new agricultural extension programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mick Moore

    1984-01-01

    The new World Bank?sponsored and funded Training and Visit system of agricultural extension represents a major attempt by the Bank to promote institutional development. The very considerable investment has in fact resulted in little change or improvement in the quality of extension. The reasons lie in failure to analyse the cause of the weakness of the previous extension systems, inherent

  15. Adoption of Internet banking among sophisticated consumer segments in an advanced developing country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serkan Akinci; ?afak Aksoy; Eda Atilgan

    2004-01-01

    This descriptive study was conducted to develop an understanding of consumers' attitudes and adoption of Internet banking among sophisticated consumers. Based on a random sample of academicians, demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral characteristics of Internet banking (IB) users and non-users were examined. The analyses revealed significant differences between the demographic profiles and attitudes of users and non-users. IB users were further

  16. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    SciTech Connect

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  17. Development of protected endorsement for online banking using mobile phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana, Galla; Venkateswarlu, Tammineni; Kumar, G. S. P.; Padmavathamma, Mokkala; Sreekanth, G.; Delhibabu, K.; Prasad, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    Securing Online Banking transactions for customer is the primary goal of financial institutions that provides Internet banking facility. Mobile phones play an important role in our society as more and more functions having been integrated within mobile phones, such as Internet browsing, mobile banking, and shopping. Mobiles phones can be used to secure ATM card pins by sending to the customer directly rather than in emails or by other means which has a possibility of hacking. In this paper we have proposed method of generating a Private Key Security Token by bank authentication servers which uses IMSI registers and IMEI number of client's mobile registered. The key is generated by implementing RIPE MD160 and Hex Encode Algorithm. Token received is valid only for that client mobile only and can be generated upon request by customer dynamically. The client is given a PIN and a Master Key when registered to the Online Banking Services. If in case a client's mobile is lost, authentication is done using Unique Master Key, else the Private Key Token is used there by making transactions secured and simple without the need of carrying any USB Tokens. The additional functionality provides the client more security on their transactions. Due to this Phishing attacks by the hackers is avoided.

  18. Idea Bank: ExploraVision--Extracurricular Research and Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Stone

    2009-12-01

    The ExploraVision model encourages students to use their knowledge and creativity to solve real-world problems. It gives any student, at any grade level, the opportunity to participate in scientific collaboration. This Idea Bank introduces the ExploraVisi

  19. Developing an Initial Physical Function Item Bank from Existing Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Rita K.; Cella, David; Lai, Jin-shei; Heinemann, Allen W.

    2003-01-01

    Illustrates incremental item banking using health-related quality of life data collected from two samples of patients receiving cancer treatment (n=1,755 and n=1,544). Results support findings from previous studies that have equated separate instruments by co-calibrating their items. (SLD)

  20. Latest developments in on- and off-line inspection of bank notes during production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Stephen C.

    2004-06-01

    The inspection of bank notes is a highly labour intensive process where traditionally every note on every sheet is inspected manually. However with the advent of more and more sophisticated security features, both visible and invisible, and the requirement of cost reduction in the printing process, it is clear that automation is required. Machines for the automatic inspection of bank notes have been on the market for the past 10 to 12 years, but recent developments in technology have enabled a new generation of detectors and machines to be developed. This paper focuses on the latest developments in both the off-line and on-line inspection of bank notes covering not only the visible spectrum but also a new range of detectors for inspection some of the more common invisible features used as covert features in today's bank notes.

  1. Carbonate platforms in the Reed Bank area, South China Sea: seismic characteristics, development and controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W.

    2013-12-01

    We identify the seismic characteristics about the carbonate platform and other types of reefs in the Reed Bank area, South China Sea, based on a more than 220 km long multi-channel seismic reflection profile. From the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene Carbonate platforms were well developed featured with high-amplitude continuous reflections at the top and low-amplitude parallel reflections within. Reefal carbonate build-ups continued in structural highs almost up to the Middle Miocene, and even to present in the Reed Bank. The development of carbonate platforms and reefs were controlled by the tectonics and sea level changes in the study area synthetically. During the drifting stage of SCS the Reed Bank area was in a relatively stable condition. An everlasting shallow marine environment and low sediments input favored the formation of carbonate platforms. A sudden thermal subsidence after the cessation of SCS's opening in Early Miocene and the continue rising of sea level made the carbonate platform drown and die. Reed Bank basin is a very promising area for further exploration work. Keywords: carbonate platform, Reed Bank area, Tectonic subsidence, controlling factors, South China Sea Fig 1. Model of hydrocarbon accumulation and transfer with carbonate platform and reef reservoir in the deep water area of the Reed Bank basin. Fig 2 Tectonic subsidence in the Reed Bank Basin

  2. Does the sequence of plant dominants affect mycorrhiza development in simulated succession on spoil banks?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Püschel; Jana Rydlová; Miroslav Vosátka

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to examine how the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on coal mine spoil banks\\u000a is affected by the presence of plants with different mycorrhizal status. A 3-year trial was conducted on the freshly created\\u000a spoil bank Vršany, North-Bohemian coal basin, the Czech Republic. Three plant species – non-mycotrophic annual Atriplex sagittata, highly

  3. Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration

    PubMed Central

    Majarena, Ana C.; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  4. Articulated arm coordinate measuring machine calibration by laser tracker multilateration.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, Jorge; Majarena, Ana C; Samper, David; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  5. Learner Interpretations of Shared Space in Multilateral English Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand how English learners interpret shared space in an online multilateral English blogging context and how their interpretations of shared space contribute to their multilateral exchange experience. Twenty-four Asian learners of English from two different universities--one in Japan and one in…

  6. Multilateral Disarmament: Conspiracy for Common Sense. Occasional Paper 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, C. Maxwell

    This paper outlines the danger of continuing the conventional and nuclear arms races and offers alternatives to ensure both peace and security. There are five major sections to the paper. In the first section, "Mulitlateral Approach," global multilateral accomplishments, regional multilateral activities, and bilateral negotiations are discussed.…

  7. Assessment of bank gully development and vegetation coverage on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Qingke; He, Yuanmei; Yao, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Gully erosion is a serious environmental problem and the primary source of sediment loss on the Loess Plateau of China, yet previous research focusing on bank gullies is limited. An assessment of bank gully development is needed as a basis for predicting erosion rates under the effects of vegetation cover and land use change. To estimate bank gully retreat rates under different land uses, assess the factors leading to bank gully development and model gully area growth rate at the catchment scale, 30 catchments with an average area of 39.0 ha were selected in the southeastern part of the Loess Plateau. QuickBird images (0.61 m resolution) obtained in 2003 and 2010 were interpreted to delineate bank gully features, and a 5 m resolution digital elevation model was used to extract topographic factors. The results showed that from 2003 to 2010, the maximum retreat rates of bank gully heads in the 30 investigated catchments ranged between 0.23 and 1.08 m yr- 1, with an average of 0.51 m yr- 1. The ratio of bank gully growth area to valley area changed from 0.49 to 9.45%, depending on land use, with average increases of 3.94, 4.00 and 2.09% for the three land use types identified, i.e. mixed use, grassland and forestland, respectively. Correlation analysis indicated that the effects of topographic factors on bank gullies decreased as vegetation coverage increased in upslope drainage areas and that vegetation coverage exceeding 60% in upslope drainage areas can significantly control bank gully development. A model was built to predict the bank gully area growth rate (Ra, m2 yr- 1) with upslope drainage area (Ai, m2), local slope gradient (S, m m- 1) and the proportion of the area with vegetation coverage below 60% in upslope drainage areas (?0.6) at the catchment scale. The regression equation is in the form Ra = 0.1540[(?0.6Ai)0.24S]3.2588. Compared with previous studies, vegetation is a factor in this model, which would be helpful for assessing the influence of vegetation cover on bank gully development.

  8. Bank accretion and the development of vegetated depositional surfaces along modified alluvial channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.; Simon, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the recovery of stable bank form and development of vegetated depositional surfaces along the banks of channelized West Tennessee streams. Most perennial streams in West Tennessee were straightened and dredged since the turn of the century. Patterns of fluvial ecological responses to channelization have previously been described by a six-stage model. Dendrogeomorphic (tree-ring) techniques allowed the determination of location, timing, amount, and rate of bank-sediment deposition. Channel cross sections and ecological analyses made at 101 locations along 12 streams, encompassing bends and straight reaches, show that channel and bank processes initially react vertically to channelization through downcutting. A depositional surface forms on banks once bed-degradation and heightened bank mass wasting processes have eased or slowed. The formation of this depositional surface marks the beginning of bank recovery from channelization. Dominating lateral processes, characteristic of stable or natural channels, return during the formation and expansion of the depositional surface, suggesting a relation with thalweg deflection, point-bar development, and meanderloop extension. Characteristic woody riparian vegetation begins to grow as this depositional surface develops and becomes part of the process and form of restabilizing banks. The depositional surface initially forms low on the bank and tends to maintain a slope of about 24??. Mean accretion rates ranges from 5.9 cm/yr on inside bends to 0 cm/yr on most outside bends; straight reaches have a mean-accretion rate of 4.2 cm/yr. The relatively stable, convex upward, depositional surface expands and ultimately attaches to the flood plain. The time required for the recovery process to reach equilibrium averaged about 50 years. Indicative pioneer speccies of woody riparian vegetation include black willow, river birch, silver maple, and boxelder. Stem densities generally decrease with time after and initial flush of about 160 stems per 100 m2. Together bank accretion and vegetative regrowth appear to be the most important environmental processes involved in channel bank recovery from channelization or rejuvenation. ?? 1991.

  9. Multilateral analysis of increasing collective dose and new ALARA programme.

    PubMed

    Oumi, Tadashi; Morii, Yasuki; Imai, Toshirou

    2011-07-01

    JAPC (The Japan Atomic Power Company) is the only electric power company that operates different types of nuclear reactors in Japan; it operates two BWRs (boiling water reactors), one pressurised water reactor and one gas cooled reactor. JAPC has been conducting various activities aimed at reducing radiation dose received by workers for over 45 y. Recently, the collective dose resulting from periodic maintenance has increased at each plant because of the replacement of large equipment and the unexpected extension of the outage period. In particular, the collective dose at Tokai-2 is one of the highest among Japanese BWR plants((1)), owing to the replacement and strengthening of equipment to meet earthquake-proof requirements. In this study, the authors performed a multilateral analysis of unacceptably a large collective dose and devised a new ALARA programme that includes a 3D dose prediction map and the development of machines to assist workers. PMID:21652597

  10. World Bank's Global Development Learning Network: Sharing Knowledge Electronically between Nations To "Fight Poverty."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Global Development Learning Network (GDLN), a satellite-driven global communication system developed by the World Bank to help developing countries fight poverty and share in a global exchange of information. Explains Distance Learning Centers that are used by private and public organizations and institutions for distance education…

  11. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  12. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  13. Examples of Item Banks to Support Local Test Development: Two Case Studies With Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Gary D., Ed.

    This report and compilation of papers summarizes information collected by an Assessment Development and Use Project, initiated by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) to assist test development efforts by state and local agencies. Specific item banking applications are reported in two case studies, selected because they represent…

  14. Gangs, Soldiers and "Idle Girls": Constructions of Youth and Development in World Bank Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luttrell-Rowland, Mikaela

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the World Bank's recent World Development Report on youth and development (2007) as an empirical example to explore the links between the employment of "group identity" and the use of policy frameworks. Drawing on feminist theory to analyse the representations of young people put forward within the report, this article…

  15. AGRICULTURAL CREDIT IN TANZANIA: THE POLICY AND OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE COOPERATIVE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anacleti K. Kashuliza

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the performance of the Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (CRDB), an agricultural credit institution in Tanzania, in financing smallholder agricultural production and other rural development activities. Assessment is largely based on available institutional information between 1971 and 1989. Criteria employed in assessing the performance of the credit institution include: credit allocation methods, operational costs and revenues from

  16. Rural banks' financial capital and livelihoods development of women farmers in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Akudugu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to find out how financial capital from rural banks is contributing to the livelihoods development of women farmers who constitute the most vulnerable and disadvantaged group in Ghana and other developing countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Women farmers were randomly sampled, resulting in 100 beneficiary and 100 non-beneficiary women farmers who were used for

  17. Temperature behavior in the build section of multilateral wells

    E-print Network

    Romero Lugo, Analis Alejandra

    2005-11-01

    Intelligent well completions are increasingly being used in horizontal, multilateral, and multi-branching wells. Such completions are equipped with permanent sensors to measure temperature and pressure profiles, which must then be interpreted...

  18. Coherent Multilateral Radar Processing for Precise Target Geolocation

    E-print Network

    Jao, Jen King

    This paper analyzes the target geolocation performance of coherent processing of target signals observed by several radar receivers in a multilateral configuration. Each radar sensor is designed with a sufficient bandwidth ...

  19. Service quality in the banking industry: an assessment in a developing economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhukar G. Angur; Rajan Nataraajan; John S. Jahera Jr

    1999-01-01

    Examines the applicability of alternative measures of service quality in the developing economy of India and assesses related issues in that context. Based on data gathered from customers of two major banks, overall results support a multidimensional construct of service quality and suggest that the SERVQUAL scale provides greater diagnostic information than the SERVPERF scale. However, the five-factor conceptualization of

  20. The role of muscle development in the transition to endothermy in nestling bank swallows, Riparia riparia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Marsh; Steven J. Wickler

    1982-01-01

    We examined the transition from ectothermy to endothermy in nestling bank swallows (Riparia riparia) by measuring the peak metabolic response to cold (PMR) in groups of nestlings. Additionally aerobic capacity, as assessed by citrate synthase activity (CS), and contractile function, as assessed by myofibrillar ATPase activity (mATPase) were measured in the pectoralis and mixed leg muscles during development. During the

  1. Transboundary Water Conflicts over Hydropower and Irrigation: Can Multinational Development Banks Help?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Christian Moller

    This paper presents a model of a transboundary water conflict involv- ing upstream hydropower use and downstream irrigation use. The conflict arises because upstream water release may not coincide with seasonal irri- gation needs of the downstream riparian. Policy interventions by multi- national development banks (MDBs) are of particular interest because these agencies have a comparative advantage in promoting transboundary

  2. Object-Oriented System Development in a Banking Project: Methodology, Experience, and Conclusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkle, Ute; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the development of a successful object-oriented (OO) system designed for use in banking, beginning with initial failure of the project using a traditional life-cycle approach. Three features that made the OO phase successful are identified: employing OO techniques; combining these techniques with a guideline, the tools-and-materials…

  3. Development and Calibration of an Item Bank for PE Metrics Assessments: Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Fox, Connie; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Graber, Kim C.; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and calibrate an assessment system, or bank, using the latest measurement theories and methods to promote valid and reliable student assessment in physical education. Using an anchor-test equating design, a total of 30 items or assessments were administered to 5,021 (2,568 boys and 2,453 girls) students in…

  4. Item Bank Development for a Revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Helene; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen; Coster, Wendy; Kramer, Jessica; Kao, Ying-Chia; Moed, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is a useful clinical and research assessment, but it has limitations in content, age range, and efficiency. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of the item bank for a new computer adaptive testing version of the PEDI (PEDI-CAT). An expanded item set and response options…

  5. Developing a model to restructure the overpopulated banking industry in Lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulrazzak Charbaji

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multivariate statistical model to classify the commercial banks in Lebanon in cohesive categories on the basis of their financial characteristics revealed by the financial ratios. This article uses factor analysis as a data reduction technique to reduce 52 financial ratios into seven financial ratios that adequately explain differences in performance among

  6. Budget Deficits and Inflation: The Roles of Central Bank Independence and Financial Market Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bilin Neyapti

    2003-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between budget deficits and inflation with the view that the nature of this relationship depends on the characteristics of monetary and financial institutions. The main hypothesis is that budget deficits are especially inflationary when both the central bank is not independent and the financial market is not developed enough to contain inflationary expectations. The empirical

  7. Enhancing microfinance outreach through market-oriented new service development in Indian regional rural banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Megicks; Atul Mishra; Jonathan Lean

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Hitherto, assessments of the effectiveness of Indian microfinance institutions in achieving their economic and social goals have largely identified only limited success. Critics of Indian regional rural banks (RRBs) and their prevailing culture have argued that a product-focused rather than a market-oriented approach to new service development (NSD) is responsible for their inadequate performance. With this in mind,

  8. THE INDONESIAN BANK CRISIS AND RESTRUCTURING: LESSONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OTHER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari PANGESTU

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the Indonesian experience in 1997, this paper demonstrates the complexity of managing banking crises deals. It aims at deriving conclusions from this experience for other developing countries facing similar problems. The paper also refers to comparative experiences of other countries, in particular Malaysia and Thailand, examines the IMF programme and reveals its shortcomings. The key question is to

  9. Development and Validation of the Biobanking Attitudes and Knowledge Survey (BANKS)

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Arevalo, Mariana; Meade, Cathy D.; Gwede, Clement K.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Luque, John S.; Miguel, Gloria San; Watson, Dale; Phillips, Rebecca; Reyes, Carmen; Romo, Margarita; West, Jim; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Background No validated multi-scale instruments exist that measure community members’ views on biobanking and biospecimen donation. This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the English-language BANKS (Biobanking Attitudes aNd Knowledge Survey). Methods The BANKS was created by item generation through review of scientific literature, focus groups with community members, and input from a community advisory board. Items were refined through cognitive interviews. Content validity was assessed through an expert panel review. Psychometric properties of the BANKS were assessed in a sample of 85 community members. Results The final BANKS includes 3 scales: Attitudes, Knowledge, and Self-Efficacy; as well as 3 single items, which evaluated receptivity and intention to donate a biospecimen for research. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for two scales that use Likert response format indicated high internal consistency (Attitudes: ?=.88; Self-Efficacy: ?=.95). Content validity indices were moderate, ranging from 0.69 to 0.89. Intention to donate blood and intention to donate urine were positively correlated with attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, and receptivity to learning more about biobanking (p's range from .029 to <.001). Conclusions The final BANKS shows evidence of satisfactory reliability and validity, is easy to administer, and is a promising tool to inform biospecimen research. Additional studies should be conducted with larger samples considering biospecimen donation to further assess the instrument's reliability and validity. Impact A valid and reliable instrument measuring community members’ views about biobanking may help researchers evaluate relevant communication interventions to enhance understanding, intention, and actual biospecimen donation. A Spanish-language BANKS is under development. PMID:24609846

  10. Clean energy for development investment framework: the World Bank Group action plan

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-03-06

    In September 2005 the Development Committee requested the World Bank to develop an Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development - in the context of the Gleneagles Communique on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development which was issued in July 2005. This Action Plan provides an update of work undertaken to date as well as actions planned by the World Bank Group (WBG) in support of the Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework (CEIF). The Action Plan relies on partnerships, including with the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) and the private sector. While it concentrates on maximizing and extending existing instruments, it provides for continued dialogue with governments and the private sector on new approaches to accelerate the transition to a low carbon economy. In addition to increased investments, the private sector has an important role to play in closing the investment gap in many countries. Projects such as Bujagali (Uganda), Nam Theun II (Laos) and China and India Thermal Power Plant Rehabilitation projects are examples of how partnerships with the private sector can work, both on financing but also on enhancing the overall regulatory framework for enhanced partnerships. The report was prepared for the 15 April 2007 Development Committee meeting, a joint committee of the Board of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the transfer of real resources to developing countries. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 5 annexes.

  11. Development and Psychometric Analysis of the PROMIS Pain Behavior Item Bank

    PubMed Central

    Revicki, Dennis A.; Chen, Wen-Hung; Harnam, Neesha; Cook, Karon F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Callahan, Leigh F.; Jensen, Mark P.; Keefe, Francis J.

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of pain behavior is a key component of the assessment of persons with chronic pain; however few self-reported pain behavior instruments have been developed. We developed a pain behavior item bank as part of the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS). For the Wave I testing, because of the large number of PROMIS items, a complex sampling approach was used where participants were randomly assigned to either respond to two full item banks or to multiple 7-item blocks of items. A web-based survey was designed and completed by 15,528 members of the general population and 967 individuals with different types of chronic pain. Item response theory (IRT) analysis models were used to evaluate item characteristics and to scale both items and individuals on the pain behavior domain. The pain behavior item bank demonstrated good fit to a unidimensional model (Comparative Fit Index = 0.94). Several iterations of IRT analyses resulted in a final 39 item pain behavior bank, and different IRT models were fit to the total sample and to those participants who experienced some pain. The results indicated that these items demonstrated good coverage of the pain behavior construct. Pain behavior scores were strongly related to pain intensity and moderately related to self-reported general health status. Mean pain behavior scores varied significantly by groups based on pain severity and general health status. The PROMIS pain behavior item bank can be used to develop static short-form and dynamic measures of pain behavior for clinical studies. PMID:19683873

  12. Development of 2.4MJ capacitor bank for electrothermal propulsion technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Y. Sung; J. S. Kim; J. H. Chu; J. W. Jung

    2002-01-01

    A pulsed-power supply of a 2.4-MJ capacitor bank has been developed to investigate electric gun technology by the Agency for Defense Development and some Research Institutes. This is made up of eight 300-kJ modules and can supply various shapes of high-current pulse by controlling the charging voltage, inductance, capacitance, and firing time of each module. The unit module has been

  13. Breast tumor bank: an important resource for developing translational cancer research in Romania.

    PubMed

    Braicu, Cornelia; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Pileczki, Valentina; Cojocneanu-Petric, Roxana; Pop, Laura-Ancu?a; Puscas, Emil; Irimie, Alexandru; Buiga, Rares

    2014-01-01

    The development of a breast tumor bank facilitates translational research. Easy access to biological specimens allows scientists to translate the outcomes of basic science into clinically useful knowledge. The breast tumor bank is particularly useful for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that is sporadic but exhibits the worst prognosis. It serves as a national resource that includes biological samples of paraffin-embedded and frozen tumor tissue with corresponding pathological and clinical data. During the first two years, the bank has accrued data and samples from more than 254 breast cancer cases. Based on this information, we observed a higher number of samples with ER (estrogen receptor) and PR (progesterone receptor) positive and negative for Her2. Also, 30% of the total number of cases was defined as TNBC. The use of tumor banks in research and diagnosis allows for the design of different studies that can bring reliable results that may improve the lives of patients, especially those diagnosed with TNBC. PMID:24878812

  14. Multilateration - A nondegenerate method of obtaining station coordinates and satellite ephemerides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, K. M.; Escobal, P. R.

    1974-01-01

    A technique for the determination of three-dimensional station coordinates and satellite ephemerides is developed which is based on the principle of multilateration. The method makes use of a system of six ground stations which simultaneously measure the slant range between each station and one or two satellites. It is demonstrated that a minimum of six stations is required in order to yield a system which will be free of mathematical degeneracies. It will be seen that the method of multilateration is not dependent upon the position of the satellite or any other dynamical considerations in the equations used to determine the relative station coordinates. In fact, the satellite coordinates are obtained as a direct by-product of the method. Numerical results are presented which indicate that the method of multilateration can determine the relative three-dimensional station coordinates with an accuracy that is limited only by the hardware measurement system. If a highly accurate laser ranging system is used, then accuracies in the 1-cm range can be expected.

  15. Development of Rural Banks in Yellow River Delta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-feng Sun; Xue-sheng Zhou

    2010-01-01

    The current status of new-type rural financial institutions in the Yellow River delta is summarized. It is pointed out that these financial institutions have improved the development of economy concerning agriculture, rural areas and peasants, but due to the shortage of capital, deficit and many other reasons, the outlets is fewer, which can not serve the agriculture, rural areas and

  16. The World Bank: An Online Atlas of the Millennium Development Goals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

  17. Geoecological aspects of comprehensive development of Tomsk left-bank area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seryakov, S.; Seryakova, R.; Baranova, A.; Potseluyev, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the unique geoecological characteristics of the left bank of the river Tom' within Tomsk area (Russia). The authors suggest methodological approaches to land management in regions with intensive interaction of ecosystems and technogenic complexes. It proves the necessity to use the systems approach and estimating method to solve the tasks of urban development and land management. The authors make a conclusion about the most rational land use of the studied area in terms of ecologized land management.

  18. A new generation of multilateral well enhances small gas field economics

    E-print Network

    Atse, Jean-Philippe

    2004-09-30

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the applicability of a new multilateral well architecture in the domain of small size and offshore gas fields. The new architecture completely reverses the current multilateral technology...

  19. Development of bank gullies on the shore zone of the Bratsk Reservoir (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaeva, Oksana; Pelinen, Vadim; Janicki, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    Erosional landforms of the gully type include among others V-shaped dissections in high shores of water bodies or steep slopes of large river valleys in various morphoclimatic zones (Drozdowski 1977; Gawrysiak 1994; Burkard, Kostaschuk 1997; Smolska 2007; Leyland, Darby 2008; Superson, Zagórski 2008; Repelewska-P?kalowa et al. 2013). Such erosional dissections, known as bank gullies, develop as a result of concentrated overland flow caused by intensive precipitation or snowmelt. They are usually ephemeral landforms reaching insignificant sizes in natural conditions. They can exceptionally develop during one event and as a result of increased rate of erosion caused by agricultural activities (Rodzik et. al. 2004, 2011; Rodzik, Terpi?owski 2005). An accelerated development of bank gullies is also observed in the zone of artificial dam reservoirs (Pecherkin 1969; Ovchinnikov et al. 1999). In the area of the Kamsk Reservoir, an increase in the volume of gullies developed in loess-like sediments is 2-3 times higher than shore degradation by abrasion processes (Pecherkin 1969). Gully erosion is also an important source of material deposited in the slope zone and in water bodies (Vandekerckhove et al. 2001; Poesen et al. 2003; Foster et al. 2007). The high number and various stages of development of bank gullies dissecting the southern shores of the Bratsk Reservoir encouraged undertaking studies on the rate of development and evolution of these landforms (Ovchinnikov et al. 1999; Mazaeva et al. 2006, 2014; Grobelska et al. 2007; Kaczmarek et al. 2012). High seasonal and annual water level fluctuations in dam reservoirs provide conditions for development of the described gully landforms substantially different than those occurring in the zone of marine shores, lakes, or river valleys. The primary objective of the study was the determination of the current conditions and the identification of factors responsible for the development of gullies in the coastal zone of the Bratsk Reservoir. Another task was to prepare the morphological description of the resulting landforms and their classification

  20. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of operational countermeasures, environmental monitoring, medical care, and emergency medical services. MMOP assures the medical readiness of the Station for each subsequent mission or critical event. All boards and panels have functioned effectively and without interruptions even in various challenging circumstances. Based on the experience of the authors, consensus has prevailed as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, at all levels. The six first years of piloted operation have demonstrated the ability of the ISS medical authority groups and the medical infrastructure to implement medical policies and requirements, effectively interface with non-medical groups, and maintain the health and productivity of the crew in an integrated, multilaterally coordinated fashion. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of all Partners roles, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  1. Timing of fire relative to seed development controls availability of non-serotinous aerial seed banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaletz, S. T.; Johnson, E. A.; Mell, W. E.; Greene, D. F.

    2012-11-01

    The existence of non-serotinous, non-sprouting species in fire regimes where serotiny confers an adaptive advantage is puzzling, particularly when these species recruit poorly from soil seed banks or from burn edges. In this paper, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) was used to show that the timing of fire relative to seed development can control aerial seed bank availability for non-serotinous species. To estimate seed survival in closed cones during crown fires, cone heating was simulated using a one-dimensional conduction model implemented in a computational fluid dynamics (Navier-Stokes) fire spread model. To quantify the area burned when germinable seed would be contained in closed cones, empirical fire occurrence and seed development (germinability and cone opening) data were compared for multiple locations across the white spruce range. Approximately 12% of cones contained viable seed following crown fire simulations (0.072 m s-1 mean spread rate; 9147 kW m-1 mean intensity), and roughly half of the historical area burned resulted from fires that occurred when closed cones would contain germinable seed. Post-fire recruitment from in situ aerial seed banks can occur for non-serotinous species, and may be an important cause of their existence in fire regimes to which they otherwise seem poorly suited.

  2. Developing an item bank and short forms that assess the impact of asthma on quality of life?

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Brian D.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Sherbourne, Cathy D.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Lara, Marielena

    2014-01-01

    Summary The present work describes the process of developing an item bank and short forms that measure the impact of asthma on quality of life (QoL) that avoids confounding QoL with asthma symptomatology and functional impairment. Using a diverse national sample of adults with asthma (N = 2032) we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and item response theory and differential item functioning analyses to develop a 65-item unidimensional item bank and separate short form assessments. A psychometric evaluation of the RAND Impact of Asthma on QoL item bank (RAND-IAQL) suggests that though the concept of asthma impact on QoL is multi-faceted, it may be measured as a single underlying construct. The performance of the bank was then evaluated with a real-data simulated computer adaptive test. From the RAND-IAQL item bank we then developed two short forms consisting of 4 and 12 items (reliability = 0.86 and 0.93, respectively). A real-data simulated computer adaptive test suggests that as few as 4–5 items from the bank are needed to obtain highly precise scores. Preliminary validity results indicate that the RAND-IAQL measures distinguish between levels of asthma control. To measure the impact of asthma on QoL, users of these items may choose from two highly reliable short forms, computer adaptive test administration, or content-specific subsets of items from the bank tailored to their specific needs. PMID:24411842

  3. The Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB): Item bank calibration and development of a disorder-generic short form

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, Carolyn; Yorkston, Kathryn; Eadie, Tanya; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to calibrate the items for the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) using Item Response Theory (IRT). One overriding objective was to examine if the IRT item parameters would be consistent across different diagnostic groups, thereby allowing creation of a disorder-generic instrument. The intended outcomes were the final item bank and a short form ready for clinical and research applications. Methods Self-report data were collected from 701 individuals representing four diagnoses: multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and head and neck cancer. Participants completed the CPIB and additional self-report questionnaires. CPIB data were analyzed using the IRT Graded Response Model (GRM). Results The initial set of 94 candidate CPIB items were reduced to an item bank of 46 items demonstrating unidimensionality, local independence, good item fit, and good measurement precision. Differential item function (DIF) analyses detected no meaningful differences across diagnostic groups. A 10-item, disorder-generic short form was generated. Conclusions The CPIB provides speech-language pathologists with a unidimensional, self-report outcomes measurement instrument dedicated to the construct of communicative participation. This instrument may be useful to clinicians and researchers wanting to implement measures of communicative participation in their work. PMID:23816661

  4. The Economic Basis of Multilateral Bargaining in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskow, Michael H.; And Others

    Collective bargaining in public education differs significantly from collective bargaining in private industry. Whereas bargaining tends to be bilateral between employers and employee organizations in the private sector, it tends to be multilateral (more than two groups involved) in education. Economic analysis gives an explanation for this…

  5. Remote Sensing in Support of Multilateral Environmental Agreements

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Remote Sensing in Support of Multilateral Environmental Agreements Alex de Sherbinin CIESIN, from 172 in 1970 to more than 475 today · the sophistication of remote sensing and geospatial sets · the number of global and regional initiatives attempting to apply remote sensing (RS

  6. Coherent multilateral radar processing for precise target geolocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen King Jao

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the target geolocation performance of coherent processing of target signals observed by several radar receivers in a multilateral configuration. Each radar sensor is designed with a sufficient bandwidth to support good target range resolution but without the benefit of a narrow radar antenna beam for useful cross range measurement of the target position. The analysis results demonstrate

  7. World Bank Journals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank has recently added full-text journal articles to its Website. The World Bank Research Observer is geared towards non-specialist readers who have an interested in bank research. It includes articles on such matters as development economics, new World Bank research, and development policy. The World Bank Economic Review is a professional journal, published three times a year, that focuses on "World Bank-sponsored research that emphasizes empirical applications." Journals are searchable by article and by issue, as well as by author and keyword.

  8. Development of an EtherCAT enabled digital servo controller for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteis, Peter G.; Mello, Melinda J.

    2012-09-01

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is gaining wide spread popularity in the automation industry as a real time field bus based on low cost, Ethernet hardware. EtherCAT maximizes use of 100Mbps Ethernet hardware by using a collision free ring topology, efficient Ethernet frame utilization (> 95%), and data exchange "on the fly". These characteristics enable EtherCAT to achieve Master to Slave node data exchange rates of > 1000 Hz. The Green Bank Telescope, commissioned in 2000, utilizes an analog control system for motion control of 8 elevation and 16 azimuth motors. This architecture, while sufficient for observations at frequencies up to 50GHz, has significant limitations for the current scientific goals of observing at 115GHz. Accordingly, the Green Bank staff has embarked on a servo upgrade project to develop a digital servo system which accommodates development and implementation of advanced control algorithms. This paper describes how the new control system requirements, use of existing infrastructure and budget constraints led us to define a distributed motion control architecture where EtherCAT real-time Ethernet was selected as the communication bus. Finally, design details are provided that describe how NRAO developed a custom EtherCAT-enabled motor controller interface for the GBT's legacy motor drives in order to provide technical benefits and flexibility not available in commercial products.

  9. Sediment transport and development of banner banks and sandwaves in an extreme tidal system: Upper Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Michael Z.; Shaw, John; Todd, Brian J.; Kostylev, Vladimir E.; Wu, Yongsheng

    2014-07-01

    Multibeam sonar mapping and geophysical and geological groundtruth surveys were coupled with tidal current and sediment transport model calculations to investigate the sediment transport and formation processes of the complex seabed features off the Cape Split headland in the upper Bay of Fundy. The Cape Split banner bank, composed of coarse to very coarse sand, is a southwest-northeast oriented, large tear-drop shaped sand body with superimposed sand waves that show wavelengths from 15 to 525 m and heights from 0.5 to 19 m. Isolated and chains of barchan dunes occur on top of a shadow bank to the southeast of the banner bank. The barchan dunes are composed of well-sorted medium sand and are oriented northwest-southeast. Their mean height and width are 1.5 and 55 m, respectively. A gravel bank, with an elongated elliptical shape and west-east orientation, lies in the Minas Passage erosional trough east of the headland to form the counterpart to the sandy Cape Split banner bank. The southern face is featureless but the northern face is covered by gravel megaripples. Tidal model predictions and sediment transport calculations show that the formation of the banner bank and the gravel bank are due to the development of the transient counter-clockwise and clockwise tidal eddies respectively to the west and east of the headland. The formation of barchan dunes is controlled by the nearly unidirectional flow regime in outer Scots Bay. Sand waves on the flanks of the Cape Split banner bank show opposite asymmetry and the barchan dunes are asymmetric to the northeast. The tidal current and sediment transport predictions corroborate bedform asymmetry to show that sand wave migration and net sediment transport is to southwest on the northern flank of the banner bank but to northeast on the southern bank. Long-term migration of the Scots Bay barchan dunes is to the northeast. Spring-condition tidal currents can cause frequent mobilization and high-stage transport over the banner bank and barchan dunes. Strong currents in Minas Passage can cause infrequent low-stage transport over the megarippled northern face but are not high enough to mobilize the coarser gravels on the southern face of the gravel bank.

  10. Banking on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

  11. Of texts and practices: Empowerment and organisational cultures in world bank-funded rural development programmes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Bebbington; David Lewis; Simon Batterbury; Elizabeth Olson; M. Shameem Siddiqi

    2007-01-01

    The World Bank's recent concern for ‘empowerment’ grows out of longer standing discussions of participation, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and civil society. While commitments to empowerment enter World Bank texts with relative ease, their practice within Bank-funded projects is far more contingent, and the meanings they assume become much more diverse. This paper considers the relationship between such texts and the

  12. Banks, Financial Markets, and Industrial Development: Lessons from the Economic Histories of Brazil and Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Haber

    What impact do small and concentrated banking systems have on the competitive structure and performance of manufacturing industry? Why do financial markets not serve as a substitute for banks? This paper uses the economic histories of Brazil and Mexico as a natural laboratory to argue argue that when information is costly, government regulatory policies that constrain competition in banking give

  13. Coordination of International Risk-Reduction Investigations by the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bogomolov, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of the unique capabilities of the International Space Station (ISS) for risk reduction on future deep space missions involves preliminary work in analog environments to identify and evaluate the most promising techniques, interventions and treatments. This entails a consolidated multinational approach to biomedical research both on ISS and in ground analogs. The Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) was chartered by the five ISS partners to recommend the best combination of partner investigations on ISS for risk reduction in the relatively short time available for ISS utilization. MHRPE will also make recommendations to funding agencies for appropriate preparatory analog work. In 2011, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Science, acting for MHRPE, developed a joint US-Russian biomedical program for the 2015 one-year ISS mission (1YM) of American and Russian crewmembers. This was to evaluate the possibilities for multilateral research on ISS. An overlapping list of 16 HRP, 9 IBMP, 3 Japanese, 3 European and 1 Canadian investigations were selected to address risk-reduction goals in 7 categories: Functional Performance, Behavioral Health, Visual Impairment, Metabolism, Physical Capacity, Microbial and Human Factors. MHRPE intends to build on this bilateral foundation to recommend more fully-integrated multilateral investigations on future ISS missions commencing after the 1YM. MHRPE has also endorsed an on-going program of coordinated research on 6-month, one-year and 6-week missions ISS expeditions that is now under consideration by ISS managers. Preparatory work for these missions will require coordinated and collaborative campaigns especially in the psychological and psychosocial areas using analog isolation facilities in Houston, Köln and Moscow, and possibly elsewhere. The multilateral Human Analogs research working group (HANA) is the focal point of those planning discussions, with MHRPE coordinating between the national programs and then supporting implementation on ISS. Experience gained during preparations for the 1YM has identified improvements in both American and Russian processes to enable well-integrated investigations on all subsequent ISS expeditions. Among those is that the greatest efficiency is to be gained with investigations that are fully integrated from their conception, with co-principal investigators, a consolidated proposal and integrated plans for crewmember time and other flight-related resources. Analog investigations preceding future ISS expeditions will employ these lessons in efficiency to evaluate the techniques and tools to be validated aboard ISS. In this way, the resources and capabilities of ISS can be applied most efficiently to solving the problems facing astronauts of all nations in missions deep into the solar system.

  14. Three-D multilateration: A precision geodetic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Ong, K. M.; Vonroos, O. H.; Shumate, M. S.; Jaffe, R. M.; Fliegel, H. F.; Muller, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A technique of satellite geodesy for determining the relative three dimensional coordinates of ground stations within one centimeter over baselines of 20 to 10,000 kilometers is discussed. The system is referred to as 3-D Multilateration and has applications in earthquake hazard assessment, precision surveying, plate tectonics, and orbital mechanics. The accuracy is obtained by using pulsed lasers to obtain simultaneous slant ranges between several ground stations and a moving retroreflector with known trajectory for aiming the lasers.

  15. Application of a computerized vibroacoustic data bank for random vibration criteria development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized data bank system was developed for utilization of large amounts of vibration and acoustic data to formulate component random vibration design and test criteria. This system consists of a computer, graphics tablets, and a dry silver hard copier which are all desk top type hardware and occupy minimal space. Currently, the data bank contains data from the Saturn 5 and Titan 3 flight and static test programs. The vibration and acoustic data are stored in the form of power spectral density and one third octave band plots over the frequency range from 20 to 2000 Hz. The data were stored by digitizing each spectral plot by tracing with the graphics tablet. The digitized data were statistically analyzed, and the resulting 97.5 percent confidence levels were stored on tape along with the appropriate structural parameters. Standard extrapolation procedures were programmed for prediction of component random vibration test criteria for new launch vehicle and payload configurations. A user's manual is included to guide potential users through the programs.

  16. The management and design of economic development projects: A case study of World Bank electricity projects in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    El Sabaa, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    This study is concerned with the efficiency of World Bank projects in Egypt. The study seeks improvements in the methods of evaluating public sector projects in Egypt. To approaches are employed: (1) project identification to optimally allocate Egypt's and World Bank's resources; (2) project appraisal to assess the economic viability and efficiency of investments. The electricity sector is compared with the agriculture sector as a means of employing project identification for priority ordering of investment for development in Egypt. The key criteria for evaluation are the impacts of developments of each sector upon Egypt's national objectives and needs. These include employment opportunities, growth, alleviation of poverty, cross comparison of per capita consumption in each sector, economic rate of return, national security, balance of payments and foreign debt. The allocation of scarce investments would have been more efficient in agriculture than in electricity in meeting Egypt's national objectives and needs. World Bank lending programs in Egypt reveal a priority ordering of electricity over agriculture and rural development. World Bank development projects in Egypt have not been optimally identified, and its programs have not followed an efficient allocation of World Bank's and Egypt's resources. The key parameters in evaluating economic viability and efficiency of development projects are: (1) the discount rate (the opportunity cost of public funds); (2) the exchange rate; and (3) the cost of major inputs, as approximated by shadow prices of labor, water, electricity, and transportation for development projects. Alternative approaches to estimating the opportunity cost of public funds are made. The parameters in evaluating the efficiency of projects have not been accurately estimated in the appraisal stage of the World Bank projects in Egypt, resulting in false or misleading information concerning the economic viability and efficiency of the projects.

  17. Applying Banks' Typology of Ethnic Identity Development and Curriculum Goals to Story Content, Classroom Discussion, and the Ecology of Classroom and Community: Phase One. Instructional Resource No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Louise M.

    This instructional resource describes ways in which J. A. Banks' typology of the stages of ethnic identity development and related curriculum goals can be applied to literacy instruction. Banks' definitions of the stages of development and the curriculum goals for each stage are provided. Strategies for analyzing materials and developing relevant…

  18. Multilateral Biomedical Data Sharing in the One-year Joint US-Russian Mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Haven, C.; Johnson-Throop, K.; Van Baalen, M.; McFather, J.

    2014-01-01

    The One Year Mission (1YM) by two astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), starting in March 2015, offers a unique opportunity to expand multilateral collaboration by sharing data and resources among the partner agencies in preparation for planned space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Agreements and protocols will be established for the collection, distribution, analysis and reporting of both research and clinical data. Data will be shared between the agencies sponsoring the investigators, and between the research and clinical medicine communities where common interests are identified. The assignment of only two astronauts, one Russian and the other American, to the 1YM necessitated creativity in bilateral efforts to maximize the biomedical return from the opportunity. Addition of Canadian, European and Japanese investigations make the effort even more integrative. There will be three types of investigations: joint, cross-participation and data-exchange. The joint investigations have US and Russian coprincipal investigators, and the data acquired will be their common responsibility. The other two types must develop data sharing agreements and processes specific to their needs. A multilateral panel of ISS partner space agencies will develop policies for international exchange of scientific information to meet their science objectives and priorities. They will promote archiving of space flight data and will inform each other and the scientific community at large about the results obtained from space life sciences studies. Integration tasks for the 1YM are based on current experience from the ISS and previous efforts on the Russian space station Mir. Closer coordination between international partners requires more common approaches to remove barriers to multilateral resource utilization on the ISS. Greater integration in implementation should increase utilization efficiency to benefit all participants in spaceflight human research. This presentation will describe the overarching principles for multilateral data collection, analysis and sharing and for data security for medical and research data shared between ISS partners prior to release in public forums.

  19. Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Howe; C. M. Keane

    2003-01-01

    Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The

  20. Development of an Item Bank for Assessing Generic Competences in a Higher-Education Institute: A Rasch Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin; Zhong, Xiaoling; Wang, Wen-Chung; Lim, Cher Ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of an item bank designed for students to assess their own achievements across an undergraduate-degree programme in seven generic competences (i.e., problem-solving skills, critical-thinking skills, creative-thinking skills, ethical decision-making skills, effective communication skills, social…

  1. Developing the Communicative Participation Item Bank: Rasch Analysis Results from a Spasmodic Dysphonia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct the initial psychometric analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank--a new self-report instrument designed to measure the extent to which communication disorders interfere with communicative participation. This item bank is intended for community-dwelling adults across a range of…

  2. FINANCIAL STABILITY OF BANKING SYSTEM IS A BASIS OF ANTIRECESSIONARY ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey L. ERMAKOV

    2010-01-01

    The problems of studying “the basic postulates of stability” of the banks and their system as a whole are constantly being exposed to the analysis under various angle; they begun practically in the ‘90s of the XX-th century, that is almost simultaneously with the beginning of the formation of the new bank system of Russia. However, the existence of various

  3. Opportunity, risk, and success recognizing, addressing, and balancing multiple factors crucial to the success of a project management system deployed to support multi-lateral decommissioning programs

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Greg; Longsworth, Paul [Fluor Cumbria, Unit 8, Galemire Court, Westlakes Science Park, Moor Row, CA24 3HY (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the factors involved in effectively implementing a world-class program/project management information system funded by multiple nations. Along with many other benefits, investing in and utilizing such systems improves delivery and drive accountability for major expenditures. However, there are an equally large number of impediments to developing and using such systems. To be successful, the process requires a dynamic combining of elements and strategic sequencing of initiatives. While program/project-management systems involve information technologies, software and hardware, they represent only one element of the overall system.. Technology, process, people and knowledge must all be integrated and working in concert with one another to assure a fully capable system. Major system implementations occur infrequently, and frequently miss established targets in relatively small organizations (with the risk increasing with greater complexity). The European Bank of Reconstruction (EBRD) is midway through just such an implementation. The EBRD is using funds from numerous donor countries to sponsor development of an overarching program management system. The system will provide the Russian Federation with the tools to effectively manage prioritizing, planning, and physically decommissioning assets{sub i}n northwest Russia to mitigate risks associated the Soviet era nuclear submarine program. Project-management delivery using world-class techniques supported by aligned systems has been proven to increase the probability of delivering on-time and on-budget, assuring those funding such programs optimum value for money. However, systems deployed to manage multi-laterally funded projects must be developed with appropriate levels of consideration given to unique aspects such as: accommodation of existing project management methods, consideration for differences is management structures and organizational behaviors, incorporation of unique strengths, and subtle adjustment to compensate weaknesses. This paper addresses the architecture and sequencing of implementation. (authors)

  4. Game theoretical multi-agent modelling of coalition formation for multilateral trades

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, C.S.K.; Poon, A.S.Y.; Wu, F.F. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1999-08-01

    In recent years, the electric utility industries world wide have been undergoing deregulation to introduce competitiveness in the generation, transmission , and distribution of electric power. The once centralized system planning and operation management must be remodelled to adapt to the new market structure. In particular, the trading mechanism needs to be totally revised as any party may get involved in this free-market, subject to the unavoidable constraints such as generation volumes, physical transmission means, and days-ahead scheduling. This paper presents a multi-agent model in conjunction with game theory to resolve the coalition formation for multilateral trades. The authors have implemented the model using the Java programming language and the JATLite/JAT0.3 agent development tools developed by Stanford University.

  5. A Multilateral Negotiation Model for Cloud Service Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Dongjin; Sim, Kwang Mong

    Trading cloud services between consumers and providers is a complicated issue of cloud computing. Since a consumer can negotiate with multiple providers to acquire the same service and each provider can receive many requests from multiple consumers, to facilitate the trading of cloud services among multiple consumers and providers, a multilateral negotiation model for cloud market is necessary. The contribution of this work is the proposal of a business model supporting a multilateral price negotiation for trading cloud services. The design of proposed systems for cloud service market includes considering a many-to-many negotiation protocol, and price determining factor from service level feature. Two negotiation strategies are implemented: 1) MDA (Market Driven Agent); and 2) adaptive concession making responding to changes of bargaining position are proposed for cloud service market. Empirical results shows that MDA achieved better performance in some cases that the adaptive concession making strategy, it is noted that unlike the MDA, the adaptive concession making strategy does not assume that an agent has information of the number of competitors (e.g., a consumer agent adopting the adaptive concession making strategy need not know the number of consumer agents competing for the same service).

  6. A Realization of Motion Copying System Based on Multilateral Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokura, Yuki; Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    This paper proposes a motion copying system in order to reproduce motion of human operators. The motion copying system consists of both motion saving system and motion loading system based on multilateral controller. The motion saving system is realized by master systems and a slave system. The motion saving system saves motion of a slave system when human operator moves the master systems. At the same time, identity ratio is introduced to decouple the masters motions. The identity ratio of each master system is calculated by force of all master systems, and are saved to memory. On the contrary, real-world master systems and a virtual-world slave system realize the motion loading system. The motion loading system reproduces the motion using saved motion data and value of the identity ratio. The paper confirms that the motion saving system and motion loading system based on multilateral controller is generalized. The reproduced position and force correspond to the saved ones by the proposed method.

  7. The World Bank's Participatory Development Approach in the Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) Paper for the Republic of Senegal: Rhetoric or Reality?

    E-print Network

    Ndiaye, Rokhaya

    2009-12-18

    The aim of this thesis is to study the World Bank's participatory development process in the 2007 Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) for the Republic of Senegal. I seek to shed light on the question of whether or not the Bank is willing to follow...

  8. Bank Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

  9. Bank Record Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  10. Automation of vibroacoustic data bank for random vibration criteria development. [for the space shuttle and launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized data bank system was developed for utilization of large amounts of vibration and acoustic data to formulate component random vibration design and test criteria. This system consists of a computer, graphics tablet, and a dry-silver hard copier which are all desk-top type hardware and occupy minimal space. The data bank contains data from the Saturn V and Titan III flight and static test programs. The vibration and acoustic data are stored in the form of power spectral density and one-third octave band plots over the frequency range from 20 to 2000 Hz. The data was stored by digitizing each spectral plot by tracing with the graphics tablet. The digitized data was statistically analyzed and the resulting 97.5% probability levels were stored on tape along with the appropriate structural parameters. Standard extrapolation procedures were programmed for prediction of component random vibration test criteria for new launch vehicle and payload configurations. This automated vibroacoustic data bank system greatly enhances the speed and accuracy of formulating vibration test criteria. In the future, the data bank will be expanded to include all data acquired from the space shuttle flight test program.

  11. The use of focus groups in the development of the PROMIS Pediatrics Item Bank

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Tasanee R.; Irwin, Debra E.; Meier, Andrea; Varni, James W.; DeWalt, Darren A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To understand differences in perceptions of patient reported outcome domains between children with asthma and children from the general population. We used this information in the development of patient-reported outcome items for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatrics project. Methods We conducted focus groups composed of ethnically, racially, and geographically diverse youth (8-12, 13-17 years) from the general population and youth with asthma. We performed content analysis to identify important themes. Results We identified five unique and different challenges that may confront youth with asthma as compared to general population youth: 1) They experience more difficulties when participating in physical activities; 2) They may experience anxiety about having an asthma attack at anytime and anywhere; 3) They may experience sleep disturbances and fatigue secondary to their asthma symptoms; 4) Their health condition has a greater effect on their emotional well-being and interpersonal relationships; and 5) Youth with asthma report that asthma often leaves them with insufficient energy to complete their school activities, especially physical activities. Conclusions The results confirm unique experiences for children with asthma across a broad range of health domains and enhance the breadth of all domains when creating an item bank. PMID:18427951

  12. Differences in bank regulations: the role of governance and corruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ay?e Y. Evrensel

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed explanation of cross?country differences in bank regulations and their sources. The results suggest that the patterns of bank regulations imply important differences between developed and developing countries. While developing countries have stricter banking regulations, they are more likely to reduce competition among banks and provide greater safety nets to existing banks. The choice of banking

  13. From Early Child Development to Human Development: Investing in Our Children's Future. Proceedings of a World Bank Conference (Washington, D.C., April 10-11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming, Ed.

    In April 2000, the World Bank hosted a global conference that addressed the benefits and challenges of investing in early child development (ECD). The landmark conference brought together the world's leading experts, academicians, practitioners, and policymakers to focus on various aspects of ECD. This volume contains the proceedings of the…

  14. Bank for International Settlements

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Bank for International Settlements (BIS), a creation of the Hague Conference of 1930, is "a[n international] central banking institution" whose aim is "to promote the co-operation of central banks and to provide additional facilities for international financial operations." Its web site provides a detailed profile of BIS, along with its basic texts and charters. However, the power of the site is its publication section, a small but growing list of full text publications (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), highlighted by the quarterly International Banking and Financial Market Developments, a "commentary on recent developments in international banking, securities and global derivatives markets based on partial information available for the [most recent quarter] and on more detailed banking data for [the previous quarter]." The site also contains BIS Review, "a collection of important articles and speeches by senior central bankers."

  15. DORMAN computer program (study 2.5). Volume 2: User's guide and programmer's guide. [development of data bank for computerized information storage of NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, S. T., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The DORMAN program was developed to create and modify a data bank containing data decks which serve as input to the DORCA Computer Program. Via a remote terminal a user can access the bank, extract any data deck, modify that deck, output the modified deck to be input to the DORCA program, and save the modified deck in the data bank. This computer program is an assist in the utilization of the DORCA program. The program is dimensionless and operates almost entirely in integer mode. The program was developed on the CDC 6400/7600 complex for implementation on a UNIVAC 1108 computer.

  16. Early Child Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: List of Projects with World Bank Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    In recent years the World Bank, currently the largest single funding source for education and health programs in the world, has put new emphasis on reaching children in the years before they enter school. Despite the acknowledged benefits to be gained from investing in education, schooling in Latin America has failed to keep pace with the…

  17. The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza in two simulated stages of spoil-bank succession

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Püschel; Jana Rydlová; Miroslav Vosátka

    2007-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment based on a dual mode of mycorrhizal inoculation simulated the formation of mycorrhizal symbiosis at two different stages of plant succession on coalmine spoil banks. The model plants were inoculated either with propagules of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae BEG95, which represented the initial stages of succession, or were provided with the pre-established extraradical mycelium

  18. The queen conch fishery on Pedro Bank, Jamaica: discovery, development, management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl A Aiken; G Andre Kong; Stephen Smikle; Robin Mahon; Richard Appeldoorn

    1999-01-01

    The history, methods, problems and regulation of fishing of the last remaining large queen conch resource in the world, located on a Jamaican fishing bank, are examined. The fishery activities for the queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus are briefly described with the main activities in the industrial sector which produce the bulk of the harvest, which is exported. There are

  19. Multilateral haptics-based immersive teleoperation for improvised explosive device disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Daly, John

    2013-05-01

    Of great interest to police and military organizations is the development of effective improvised explosive device (IED) disposal (IEDD) technology to aid in activities such as mine field clearing, and bomb disposal. At the same time minimizing risk to personnel. This paper presents new results in the research and development of a next generation mobile immersive teleoperated explosive ordnance disposal system. This system incorporates elements of 3D vision, multilateral teleoperation for high transparency haptic feedback, immersive augmented reality operator control interfaces, and a realistic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) 3D simulation environment incorporating vehicle and manipulator dynamics for both operator training and algorithm development. In the past year, new algorithms have been developed to facilitate incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robotic hardware into the teleoperation system. In particular, a real-time numerical inverse position kinematics algorithm that can be applied to a wide range of manipulators has been implemented, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attitude stabilization system for manipulators has been developed and experimentally validated, and a voice­operated manipulator control system has been developed and integrated into the operator control station. The integration of these components into a vehicle simulation environment with half-car vehicle dynamics has also been successfully carried out. A physical half-car plant is currently being constructed for HIL integration with the simulation environment.

  20. The role of security, privacy, usability and reputation in the development of online banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Vicente Casaló; Carlos Flavián; Miguel Guinaliu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to analyse the influence of perceived web site security and privacy, usability and reputation on consumer trust in the context of online banking. Moreover, the paper also aims to analyse the trust-commitment relationship since commitment is a key variable for establishing successful long-term relationships with customers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper describes the

  1. Multiple Versus Single Banking Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrica Detragiache; Paolo Garella; Luigi Guiso

    1997-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model in which firms may choose multiple banking relationships to reduce the risk that financing will be denied by ‘relationship banks’ should the latter experience liquidity problems and refuse to roll over lines of credit. The inability to refinance from relationship banks signals unfavourable information about the quality of the firm’s project, which may also

  2. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  3. The World Bank's Role in Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Education, Training, and Technical Assistance. A World Bank Operations Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridker, Ronald G.

    This study explores the recent trend where African countries have shown a decline in expansion of their school systems and in replacing expatriates engaged in vital public and private activity. The study explores policy options and traces the evolution of World Bank ideas and actions to help practitioners design policies and programs better…

  4. The “missing links” between Islamic development objectives and the current practice of Islamic banking – the experience of the Sudanese Islamic banks (SIBs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Badr El Din A. Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To vindicate whether or not there are signs of social and developmental role in the current practice of Islamic banking in Sudan, a criterion required by the rules guiding the Islamic circulation of money and investment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The objective of the paper is to draw attention to this important, but neglected aspect of Islamic finance, by assessing

  5. Paying for Education: How the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund Influence Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nancy C.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the roles of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank from 1980 to the present, distinguishing between two types of impacts they exert in the education sector of borrowing countries (the World Bank's direct involvement in education and economic reform and Structural Adjustment Programs financed by the IMF and World Bank). The…

  6. Large-scale carbonate platform development of Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas, and implications for associated reef geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkis, Sam; Kerr, Jeremy; Dempsey, Alexandra; Calhoun, Andrew; Metsamaa, Liisa; Riegl, Bernhard; Kourafalou, Villy; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip

    2014-10-01

    The Bahama Archipelago consists of an arcuate chain of carbonate platforms. Average water depths on the platform-tops, such as the Great Bahama Bank (GBB), are typically 10 m or less, with coral reef-rimmed margins, thick sediment accumulations, and the frequent occurrence of islands. There are, however, exceptions. For example, Cay Sal Bank (CSB), a little studied detached Bahamian carbonate platform with depths ranging from 30 to 7 m, is only slightly deeper than the GBB, but devoid of islands, lacks platform-margin coral reefs and holds little sediment on the platform-top; the platform is incipiently drowned. CSB is interesting as it is conspicuously larger (6000 sq. km) than other incipiently drowned platforms in the region, such as Serranilla Bank (1100 sq. km) and the Cat Island platform (1500 sq. km). Field and remote sensing data are assembled to provide insight into the sedimentology and geomorphology of the CSB. The influence of ocean climate, regional hydrodynamics, and Holocene flooding history are investigated to understand why platform-margin coral reef growth on CSB has been unable to keep pace with Holocene sea-level rise. A decade of regional sea-surface temperature data for the Bahamas report CSB to be situated in the same ocean climate regime as GBB. Temperature cannot explain the platform's different morphologies. The Florida Current has been evoked as a possible reason for the immature development of platform-top processes on the CSB, but numeric modeling suggests its influence to be restricted to the deep flanks of the bank. Further, sediment distribution on CSB, including infill patterns of karst depressions, suggest trade winds (easterlies) to drive platform-top hydrodynamics. By assembling a satellite-derived bathymetry map, it can be shown that CSB flooded earlier and at relatively higher rates of Holocene sea-level rise than its neighboring platforms. Flooding history is identified as the most feasible explanation for the atypical morphology of the CSB. By contrasting the present-day morphology of the CSB and the GBB, the work emphasizes how subtle differences in relative sea-level history can influence the growth of platform-margin coral reefs, features that in turn can conspire to set even closely neighboring carbonate platforms on divergent paths with regard to the development of marine landforms. This insight is relevant to interpreting the morphological diversity of carbonate platforms in the modern ocean and in the rock record.

  7. Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters Developed and Demonstrated for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    In-flight sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) is critical to maintaining reliable engine operation during flight. The aircraft engine control system, which computes control commands on the basis of sensor measurements, operates the propulsion systems at the demanded conditions. Any undetected sensor faults, therefore, may cause the control system to drive the engine into an undesirable operating condition. It is critical to detect and isolate failed sensors as soon as possible so that such scenarios can be avoided. A challenging issue in developing reliable sensor FDI systems is to make them robust to changes in engine operating characteristics due to degradation with usage and other faults that can occur during flight. A sensor FDI system that cannot appropriately account for such scenarios may result in false alarms, missed detections, or misclassifications when such faults do occur. To address this issue, an enhanced bank of Kalman filters was developed, and its performance and robustness were demonstrated in a simulation environment. The bank of filters is composed of m + 1 Kalman filters, where m is the number of sensors being used by the control system and, thus, in need of monitoring. Each Kalman filter is designed on the basis of a unique fault hypothesis so that it will be able to maintain its performance if a particular fault scenario, hypothesized by that particular filter, takes place.

  8. Canadian banks: risk reduction by international diversification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Doukas; Melhem Melhem

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in international banking have presented policy makers with some real challenges. The rise of offshore banking centres has challenged the dominant position of national money markets. The Eurocredit market is viewed as ‘the’ international money market, and the main money market for several national banking systems. As a consequence, the composition of bank portfolios has changed and the

  9. Online Banking Authentication Using Mobile Phones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing Fang; Justin Zhan

    2010-01-01

    Online banking authentication plays an important role in the field of online banking security. In past years, a number of methods, including password token, short message password, and USB token, have been developed for online banking authentication. In this paper, we introduce a new authentication protocol for online banking. Our approach enhances performance and robustness against various attacks by using

  10. Bank Mergers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ng, Thiam Hee.

    This week's In the News exaimnes the recent flurry of merger activities in the banking sector. The ten resources discussed provide the details of the recent three big banking mergers and the likely effects on efficiency, lending and consumers. On April 6, 1998, Citibank, the second largest bank in America, announced that it will be merging with Travelers Group, a large financial services firm, in a deal worth $80 billion -- the largest merger deal ever. Only a week later, BankAmerica announced it would merge with NationsBank to create the first coast-to-coast bank in America, in a deal worth $60 billion. The third deal took place on the same day, when First Chicago NBD and Banc One announced they will be merging in a deal valued at $30 billion.

  11. Techno-Political Space Cooperation: A Longitudinal Analysis of NASA's Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudiburg, John J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's international programs are both numerous and successful, with over two thousand international agreements forming a foundation of U.S. government cooperation that involved over half the United Nation's membership. Previous research, by the author, into these agreements has identified five variables underlying NASA's international cooperation efforts and these variables form a framework for explaining international cooperation behavior on a macro-level. This paper builds upon that research to effectively explain lower-level patterns of cooperation in NASA's experience. Two approaches for analyzing the space agency's history are used: aggregation of all agreements and a cluster (disaggregated) analysis of four key segments. While researchers of NASA's international cooperation often considered individual cases first, and then generalize to macro-level explanations. This study, in contrast, begins by considering all agreements together in order to explain as much as possible at the macro level before proceeding to lower tier explanations. These lower tier assessments are important to understanding regional and political influences on bilateral and multilateral cooperation. In order to accomplish this lower-tier analysis, the 2000 agreements are disaggregated into logical groupings enabling an analysis of important questions and clearer focus on key patterns concerning developing states, such as the role of international institutions or privatization on international cooperation in space technology.

  12. 3-D multilateration for measurement of earth crustal deformation and network densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, K. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of how range and range-difference data types can make possible precise three-dimensional measurement of ground station positions and the position of an artificial signal source, without explicit dependence upon the signal source trajectory. An effective strategy for such measurement is to combine the multilateration approach with a VLBI system using natural radio sources. The VLBI methods would provide a coarse grid of three-dimensional benchmark locations on a regional and global scale. Multilateration stations would then occupy these coarse grid locations and provide a means for highly portable, relatively low-cost units to then densify networks on a regional and local scale. Because a multilateration approach can make use of strong artificial radio sources, it makes possible the use of relatively low-cost, highly mobile stations. Such mobile stations are virtually essential for three dimensional surveying in heavily urbanized areas or in rugged terrain.

  13. Mile High Wetland Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The site listed here is provided by an environmental consulting firm that works with commercial and private landowners to establish Wetland Banks. An innovative concept (and growing reality) that has received mixed reviews from scientists, Wetland Banking attempts to combine the goals of developers (i.e., to develop a certain area) and wetland conservationists (i.e., to maintain/ restore areas of intact wetlands). If misused, this approach could work against wetland conservation; if properly instated, however, Wetland Banking might offer an alternative to the currently poor success rate of wetland mitigation projects. This resource by Mile High Wetlands Group, LLC, offers background information on Wetland banking, with an emphasis on the Group's local area (Colorado).

  14. The African Development Bank and women's health: A cross-national analysis of structural adjustment and maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Carolyn; Restivo, Michael; Shandra, John M

    2015-05-01

    We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment lending adversely impacts maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We analyze data for thirty-five Sub-Saharan African nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005) with generalized least squares random effects regression models and modified two-step Heckman models that correct for potential endogeneity regarding whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nations receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We find support for our hypothesis that indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of maternal mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for endogeneity. We conclude by talking about the theoretical and methodological implications along with possible directions for future research. PMID:25769869

  15. Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, A

    2001-08-01

    The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".(1) Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues--which are often not acknowledged by commentators--that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). PMID:11479358

  16. World Bank: Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Many people are familiar with the World Bank's work in the areas of international finance and economic development, but they may not be aware of their work in the area of biodiversity. The World Bank happens to be the world's largest financier of biodiversity, and their work includes supporting the sustainable use of biodiversity outside protected areas, eradication of alien species, and land conservation. First-time visitors may wish to start their journey through the site by clicking on the "What's New" area. Here they will find reports on biodiversity, the role of indigenous peoples in biodiversity conservation, and a review of the World Bank's conservation projects during the past twenty years. Another way to look through the materials on the site is by using the drop-down menus that read "Topic", "Country", and "Region/Income". Visitors can also read overview statements that cover the Bank's work on biodiversity and poverty, biosafety, and mountain ecosystems.

  17. World Bank Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank has a number of specialized units designed to perform research in order to allow the organization to make informed policy decisions throughout the world. This website happens to provide information on the World Bank Institute, which effectively serves as the capacity development arm of the Bank and also "helps countries share and apply global and local knowledge to meet development challenges". On the Institute's site, visitors can find out about its various programs, which include work on preventing HIV/AIDS risk in the Balkans and scholarships designed to promote knowledge sharing and capacity building in the developing world. Visitors will want to pay close attention to the Publications area, as they may view or download working papers from a wide range of topics, including energy policy, labor force development, and development economics.

  18. Patch reef development in the florigemma Bank Member (Oxfordian) from the Deister Mts (NW Germany): a type example for Late Jurassic coral thrombolite thickets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten Helm; Immo Schülke

    2006-01-01

    Small reefal bioconstructions that developed in lagoonal settings are widespread in a few horizons of the Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) succession of the Korallenoolith Formation, exposed southwest of Hannover, Northwest Germany. Especially the florigemma-Bank Member, “sandwiched” between oolite shoal deposits, exposes a high variety of build-ups, ranging from coral thrombolite patch reefs, to biostromes and to coral meadows. The reefs show

  19. Occupational Task Analyses for the Development of Business Education Model Curricula with Emphasis on Banking and Financial Occupations. State Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Board for Vocational Education, Milford.

    This guide, prepared for the Delaware State Board of Education and the State Department of Public Instruction, is intended to assist individuals developing curricula to prepare students for entry-level positions in various banking and financial occupations. It is divided into three sections, each of which consists of a cross-referenced listing of…

  20. Early Childhood Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3869

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schady, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that young children in many developing countries suffer from profound deficits in nutrition, health, fine and gross motor skills, cognitive development, and socio-emotional development. Early childhood development (ECD) outcomes are important markers of the welfare of children. In addition, the deleterious effects of…

  1. Learning from All? The World Bank, Aid Agencies and the Construction of Hegemony in Education for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and quality of the participation that characterises the Bank's consultations with external actors and examines the extent to which the Bank is responsive to such feedback when it comes to defining its policy preferences and strategies in the education domain. It draws on a case study of the participatory process…

  2. Interstate banking, bank consolidation, and bank lending to small business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Rose

    1993-01-01

    Proponents and critics of interstate banking argue over the implications of nationwide banking for bank lending to small business. This study explores the patterns of (1) bank consolidation at the national level and (2) the share of domestic-bank commercial lending extended to small firms, specifically, small manufacturing firms, over the period 1976–90. The evidence indicates that despite the trend toward

  3. U.S. Unilateralism and the International Protection of Religious Freedom: The Multilateral Alternative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Danchin

    2002-01-01

    This article considers the tension in U.S. foreign policy between unilateral and multilateral approaches to the promotion and protection of religious freedom. In particular, it analyzes the recently enacted International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 that seeks to enforce international human rights norms through the imposition of unilateral sanctions on foreign countries that deny religious freedom and persecute religious groups.

  4. Japanese Policy toward the North Korean ProblemBalancing Bilateralism and Multilateralism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuneo Akaha

    2007-01-01

    North Korea became an urgent problem for Japan as a result of the 1994 nuclear crisis in North Korea, the 1998 missile launch over Japan and the 2003—4 nuclear crisis. At the historic Tokyo—Pyongyang summit in September 2002, both sides acknowledged the need to solve the security issues surrounding the Korean Peninsula through peaceful, multilateral efforts. However, the issue of

  5. The ASEAN multilateral agreement on air services: En route to open skies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Khee-Jin Tan

    2010-01-01

    The ten members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations recently adopted a Multilateral Agreement on Air Services that seeks to liberalize market access and ownership and control requirements for air carriers in the region. The Agreement is a precursor to an eventual Single Aviation Market arrangement targeted for 2015. This article analyzes the key provisions of the Agreement and

  6. THE CONTINUED `INSPIRATION' OF GEORGE KENNAN: MULTILATERALISM AND US NATIONAL SECURITY

    E-print Network

    Heinke, Dietmar

    THE CONTINUED `INSPIRATION' OF GEORGE KENNAN: MULTILATERALISM AND US NATIONAL SECURITY Before to Kennan's reputation as a sage of US foreign policy and for expressing "a certainty in our international strategy" during the Cold War through a strategy of "containment." While his impact on American policy

  7. A Parametric Study on the Benefits of Drilling Multilateral and Horizontal Wells in

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    A Parametric Study on the Benefits of Drilling Multilateral and Horizontal Wells in Coalbed Methane;motivation > CBM Background Time Productionrate,MSCF/dorbbl/d Phase 1 Well dewatered Phase 2: - Significant Productionrate,MSCF/dorbbl/d Phase 1 Well dewatered Peak gas rate Phase 3: - Gas rate starts to decline - Water

  8. Multilateral Transport Games F.B. Shepherd, G.T. Wilfong

    E-print Network

    Wilfong, Gordon

    result of Scarf in game theory. We end with a summary of many open problems. Keywords: Interdomain that provides end-to-end connectivity not by design of a centralized authority or by mutual agreement on some of a certain multilateral transport game is nonempty due to a classical result of Scarf. However, we do

  9. Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

  10. 12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25 Community development test for...

  11. 12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25 Community development test for...

  12. 12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25 Community development test for...

  13. 12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25 Community development test for...

  14. 12 CFR 228.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited...GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards...Assessing Performance § 228.25 Community development test for wholesale or...

  15. 12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or...AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25 Community development test for wholesale...

  16. Raising School Quality in Developing Countries: What Investments Boost Learning? World Bank Discussion Papers 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce

    Low levels of student achievement and school quality persist in developing countries. This document reviews the importance of school quality in increasing literacy and influencing economic growth in developing nations. Improvements are discussed in terms of: (1) school quality and economic development; (2) defining school quality; (3) improving…

  17. Assessment of health-related quality of life in arthritis: conceptualization and development of five item banks using item response theory

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Jacek A; Sayre, Eric C; Davis, Aileen M; Badley, Elizabeth M; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Sherlock, Lesley; Williams, J Ivan; Anis, Aslam H; Esdaile, John M

    2006-01-01

    Background Modern psychometric methods based on item response theory (IRT) can be used to develop adaptive measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Adaptive assessment requires an item bank for each domain of HRQL. The purpose of this study was to develop item banks for five domains of HRQL relevant to arthritis. Methods About 1,400 items were drawn from published questionnaires or developed from focus groups and individual interviews and classified into 19 domains of HRQL. We selected the following 5 domains relevant to arthritis and related conditions: Daily Activities, Walking, Handling Objects, Pain or Discomfort, and Feelings. Based on conceptual criteria and pilot testing, 219 items were selected for further testing. A questionnaire was mailed to patients from two hospital-based clinics and a stratified random community sample. Dimensionality of the domains was assessed through factor analysis. Items were analyzed with the Generalized Partial Credit Model as implemented in Parscale. We used graphical methods and a chi-square test to assess item fit. Differential item functioning was investigated using logistic regression. Results Data were obtained from 888 individuals with arthritis. The five domains were sufficiently unidimensional for an IRT-based analysis. Thirty-one items were deleted due to lack of fit or differential item functioning. Daily Activities had the narrowest range for the item location parameter (-2.24 to 0.55) and Handling Objects had the widest range (-1.70 to 2.27). The mean (median) slope parameter for the items ranged from 1.15 (1.07) in Feelings to 1.73 (1.75) in Walking. The final item banks are comprised of 31–45 items each. Conclusion We have developed IRT-based item banks to measure HRQL in 5 domains relevant to arthritis. The items in the final item banks provide adequate psychometric information for a wide range of functional levels in each domain. PMID:16749932

  18. Development and application of vibroacoustic structural data banks in predicting vibration design and test criteria for rocket vehicle structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandgren, H. J.; Smith, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    A method of predicting broadband random vibration criteria for components on space vehicles is presented. Large amounts of vibration and acoustic data obtained from flights and static firing tests of space vehicle were formulated into vibroacoustic data banks for structural categories of ring frame, skin stringer, and honeycomb. The vibration spectra with their associated acoustic spectra are normalized to a reference acoustic spectrum. The individual normalized spectra are grouped according to definite structural characteristics and statistically analyzed to form the vibroacoustic data banks described in this report. These data banks represent the reference vibration criteria available for determining the new vehicle vibration criteria.

  19. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Khwaja, S. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. 12 CFR 25.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited...CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT AND INTERSTATE DEPOSIT...for Assessing Performance § 25.25 Community development test for wholesale or...

  1. Managing Information for Rural Development: Lessons from Eastern Africa. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 379.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Guido; Kinsey, Bill

    The study summarizes discussions and conclusions of the Regional Workshop on Monitoring and Evaluation of Rural Development Projects in East Africa (Nairobi, Kenya, April 1979), whose purpose was to share lessons learned from field experiences in managing information for rural development. An initial section summarizes information in papers…

  2. Methodological Guidelines for Reducing the Complexity of Data Warehouse Development for Transactional Blood Bank Systems

    PubMed Central

    Takecian, Pedro L.; Oikawa, Marcio K.; Braghetto, Kelly R.; Rocha, Paulo; Lucena, Fred; Kavounis, Katherine; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Acker, Susan; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B. F.; Sabino, Ester C.; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P.; Ferreira, João E.

    2013-01-01

    Over time, data warehouse (DW) systems have become more difficult to develop because of the growing heterogeneity of data sources. Despite advances in research and technology, DW projects are still too slow for pragmatic results to be generated. Here, we address the following question: how can the complexity of DW development for integration of heterogeneous transactional information systems be reduced? To answer this, we proposed methodological guidelines based on cycles of conceptual modeling and data analysis, to drive construction of a modular DW system. These guidelines were applied to the blood donation domain, successfully reducing the complexity of DW development. PMID:23729945

  3. Branch Banking, Bank Competition, and Financial Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Carlson; Kris James Mitchener

    2006-01-01

    It is often argued that branching stabilizes banking systems by facilitating diversification of bank portfolios; however, previous empirical research on the Great Depression offers mixed support for this view. Using data on national banks from the 1920s and 1930s, we show that branch banking raises the level of competition and increases exit from the banking system. This consolidation strengthens the

  4. Online banking applications and community bank performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram N. Acharya; Albert Kagan; Srinivasa Rao Lingam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of online banking intensity on the financial performance of community banks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study estimates online banking intensity and bank performance indices using a combination of primary and secondary data. Online banking intensity is specified as a latent construct and estimated using web feature data collected from

  5. An investigation of errors and data processing techniques for an RF multilateration system. [position and velocity measurements of vertical takeoff aircraft during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, C. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The development of an RF Multilateration system to provide accurate position and velocity measurements during the approach and landing phase of Vertical Takeoff Aircraft operation is discussed. The system uses an angle-modulated ranging signal to provide both range and range rate measurements between an aircraft transponder and multiple ground stations. Range and range rate measurements are converted to coordinate measurements and the coordinate and coordinate rate information is transmitted by an integral data link to the aircraft. Data processing techniques are analyzed to show advantages and disadvantages. Error analyses are provided to permit a comparison of the various techniques.

  6. JOINT WORLD BANK INSTITUTE/EPA CHINA WORKSHOP ON ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE - E&C ROLES IN DEALING WITH CURRENT AND PROJECTED MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN CHINA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The World Bank Institute (WBI) provides funding for economic development in China. Modules of this funding are specifically dedicated for environmental protection projects. One of these modules is the development of compliance and enforcement. This is broken down into identifi...

  7. Communication Skills for Banking Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

    The communications skills course was developed for bank employees who are non-native speakers of English, to assist them in improving their English and knowledge of the American workplace culture and to increase productivity. It consists of three instructional levels. Topics covered in level 1 reflect concerns of bank managers about basic…

  8. The Study of Development Strategy for Bank Distribution Network through the Analysis of Inter-regional Financial Transaction Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jae Weon; Hong, Won Eui; Kwak, Yoon Sik

    This study attempts to shed light on the factors that influence the locations of bank branches in establishing a bank's distribution network from the angle of the network analysis. Whereas the previous studies analyzed the locations of bank branches on the basis of their geographical characteristics and image, the significance of this study rests upon the fact that it endeavors to explore the location factors from a new perspective of the movement path of financial customers. For this analysis, the network between administrative districts, which form the fundamental unit of a location, was analyzed based on the financial transactional data. The important findings of this study are as follows. First, in conformity with the previous studies, the income level, the spending level, the number of businesses, and the size of workforce in the pertinent region were all found to influence the size of a bank's market. Second, the centrality index extracted from the analysis of the network was found to have a significant effect on the locations of bank branches. In particular, the degree centrality was revealed to have a greater influence on the size of a bank's market than does the closeness centrality. Such results of this study clearly suggest the needs for a new approach from the perspective of network in furtherance of other factors that have been considered important in the previous studies of the distribution network strategies.

  9. World Bank: News & Broadcast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From logistics to international development, the World Bank's News & Broadcast website is worth bookmarking, particularly for public policy types, international affairs scholars, and anyone with a penchant for global matters. The homepage presents a news area, complete with icons which indicate whether there is video or audio associated with each item. Not only is it a good way to learn about the World Bank's activities, it is another way to stay on top of economic development strategies, political unrest, and foreign investment patterns. Visitors to the site can search all of the media available here, look over the World Bank's YouTube channel, and sign up for their RSS feed. Those persons looking for specific types of information can find a number of categories, including "Speeches", and "Issue Briefs".

  10. Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, A. W.; Keane, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The goal of ESWIB is to provide a variety of users with free access to high-quality geoscience images and technical art gathered from photographers, government organizations, and scientists. Each image is cataloged by location, author, image rights, and a detailed description of what the image shows. Additionally, images are cataloged using keywords from AGI's precise Georef indexing methodology. Students, teachers, and the general public can search or browse and download these images for use in slide show presentations, lectures, papers, or for other educational and outreach uses. This resource can be used for any age level, in any kind of educational venue. Users can also contribute images of their own to the database through the ESWIB website. AGI is scanning these images at a very high resolution (16 x 20 inches) and depending on the author's rights, is making high-resolution copies (digital or print) available for non-commercial and commercial purposes. This ImageBank is different from other photo sites available in that the scope has more breadth and depth than other image resources, and the images are cataloged with a very high grade of detail and precision, which makes finding needed images fast and easy. The image services offered by ESWIB are also unique, such as the low-cost commercial options and high quality image printouts. AGI plans on adding more features to ESWIB in the future, including connecting this resource to the up-coming online Glossary of Geology, a geospatial search option, using the images to make generic PowerPoint presentations that teachers can use and/or modify for their classes, lesson plans related to using the ImageBank, and a `photo of the day' section that will highlight a particular photo which stands out. AGI began work on this project in August of 2002 with the initial scanning and editing of images. ESWIB currently has over 1,300 images cataloged and searchable through the database homepage. In addition to the cataloged images, there are approximately 6,700 images waiting to be edited and cataloged, and over 10,000 images identified for submission at this point. AGI is constantly soliciting images in an attempt to expand the database. Through press releases, e-mail announcements, and our member societies, AGI publicized the launch of ESWIB in June of 2003. Since the launch, ESWIB has received over 300,000 image views as well as publicity in Space Daily, Russian and German news sites, various links through science websites, and most recently in Science Magazine's NetWatch section (August 29th, 2003).

  11. Historical Development of Money and Banking in Eritrea from the Axumite Kingdom to the Present

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravinder Rena

    2007-01-01

    The development of money is an abstract of the history of civilization. F inancial institutions encourage saving habit among the people by receiving deposits from the public in various forms. The Axumite kings were the first to mint c oins in the African Continent. The aim of this paper is to explore the lessons learned from t he different historical

  12. Developing an Item Bank for Use in Testing in Africa: Theory and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtuna, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The author describes the steps taken by a research team, of which she was part, to develop a specific methodology for assessing student attainment in primary school, working with the Programme for the Analysis of Education Systems (PASEC) of the Conference of Ministers of Education of French-speaking Countries (CONFEMEN). This methodology provides…

  13. Implications of bank failures and fluvial erosion for gully development: Field observations and modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkan Istanbulluoglu; Rafael L. Bras; Homero Flores-Cervantes; Gregory E. Tucker

    2005-01-01

    Gully erosion is most commonly triggered by fluvial erosion following natural and anthropogenic disturbances or as a response to changes in climate and tectonic forcing and base level drop. Field observations attribute the headward growth and widening of many gully systems to gravitational mass-wasting processes of oversteepened sidewalls. Soil saturation, groundwater sapping, and tension crack development contribute to the instability.

  14. Banking on it: Public policy and the ethics of stem cell research and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mita Giacomini; Francoise Baylis; Jason Robert

    2007-01-01

    If the therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapies is ever realized, demand for stem cells and derivative tissues will be tremendous and will create new challenges for health care systems, especially publicly funded health care systems. We propose a framework for the ethical analysis of stem cell research and development that considers the welfare of communities, tissue recipients, and cell

  15. Novelty in IT development projects: a case study of practices in a large Canadian bank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Hirji; O. Hauptman; L. Phillips

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Success in information technology development projects is a crucial management issue for the modern firm; however, realizing and sustaining it is not an easy task. An examination of the use of alternative internal and external resources to deliver IT project solutions that must meet multiple project success measures is lacking. This study reports the results of

  16. Trends in Private Sector Development in World Bank Education Projects. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosale, Shobhana

    The private sector is playing an increasingly important role in financing and providing educational services in many countries. (Often the term "private sector" encompasses households' out-of-pocket expenses rather than describing for-profit or not-for-profit sectors.) Private sector development has not arisen primarily through public policy…

  17. Health and role functioning: the use of focus groups in the development of an item bank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milena D. Anatchkova; Jakob B. Bjorner

    2010-01-01

    Background  Role functioning is an important part of health-related quality of life. However, assessment of role functioning is complicated\\u000a by the wide definition of roles and by fluctuations in role participation across the life-span. The aim of this study is to\\u000a explore variations in role functioning across the lifespan using qualitative approaches, to inform the development of a role\\u000a functioning item

  18. BioBanking - The Holy Grail of novel drug and diagnostic developments?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The ever increasing social cost that society pays for illness and disease are currently steadily increasing in many countries in the world today. These changes in society becomes a major financial burden that activates politicians and health care organizations in order to find new solutions. Biobanks are becoming the new powerful modality within the field of modern Life Science, that is expected to be important in the proactive awareness of patient health status. Biobanks are also expected to promote the developments of targeted treatments with personalized indicator assays, for effective use of Personalized Medicine treatments in the near future. PMID:21884630

  19. Bank Runs, Deposit Insurance, and Liquidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Diamond; Philip H. Dybvig; Theodore O. Yntema; John M. Olin

    2007-01-01

    This article develops a model which shows that bank deposit contracts can provide allocations superior to those of exchange markets, offering an explanation of how banks subject to runs can attract deposits. Investors face privately observed risks which lead to a demand for liquidity. Traditional demand deposit contracts which provide liquidity have multiple equilibria, one of which is a bank

  20. Strategic IT Management in Brazilian Banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nogueira; Nicolau Reinhard

    2000-01-01

    Success in the competition in the banking business is related to the development of core competencies, strategic alliances and long term strategic planning. Significant changes in the Brazilian financial sector have required banks to continually reinvent their business supported by adequate strategies and resource management. This paper, based on a survey of Brazilian banks, shows that the effectiveness of IT

  1. Bank insolvencies : cross-country experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard Caprio Jr.; Daniela Klingebiel

    1996-01-01

    Few areas of the world have escaped significant losses from episodes of bank insolvency. Bank insolvency is more costly in the developing world, where losses represent a greater share of income. The authors present data on bank insolvency episodes since the late 1970s. This new database can be used in conjunction with readily available data. Information and insights are presented

  2. Capital regulation and banks' financial decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haibin Zhu

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a stochastic dynamic model to examine the impact of capital regulation on banks' financial decisions. In equilibrium, lending decisions, capital buffer and the probability of bank failure are endogenously determined. Compared to a flat-rate capital rule, a risk-sensitive capital standard causes the capital requirement to be much higher for small (and riskier) banks and much lower for

  3. Water resources management. World Bank policy paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Easter; G. Feder; G. Le Moigne; A. M. Duda; E. Forsyth

    1993-01-01

    Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have

  4. Item Banking. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence

    This digest discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using item banks, and it provides useful information for those who are considering implementing an item banking project in their school districts. The primary advantage of item banking is in test development. Using an item response theory method, such as the Rasch model, items from multiple…

  5. World Bank Photo Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New from the World Bank, this photography library offers over 500 online images of development from around the world. The pictures, works of art in their own right, cover an extensive range of subjects including people, nature, and urban environments. Registration is required. Users may, however, browse the library by entering "guest" in the user name field and "browse" as the password. The library offers both a simple keyword search, as well as an advanced search which allows users to search for images in specific fields including country, topic, photographer, and description. The photographs, marked with a World Bank stamp, are displayed in large thumbnails and include accompanying information.

  6. Range difference multilateration for obtaining precision geodetic and trajectory measurements. [by radio interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Ong, K. M.; Von Roos, O. H.

    1975-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of a new multilateration technique suitable for precision geodesy and orbit determination applications are examined. The multilateration technique considered herein makes use of the differential time of arrival of signals at an ensemble of ground stations from a spacecraft or aircraft as the fundamental data type. It is demonstrated that simultaneous measurements give rise to a system of equations which upon solution permits the determination of the three-dimensional vehicle coordinates plus the three-dimensional coordinates of the station net relative to an arbitrarily adopted origin (which may be taken to be one of the stations). A solution to these equations can be obtained without any a priori knowledge of the locations of the stations and vehicle. The necessary conditions for obtaining all of these coordinates in the same solution are discussed, and it is indicated that at least five stations are required in the station ensemble.

  7. World Bank: China

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank has a number of marvelous country profile websites, and their site dedicated to China is top-notch. It's not just a simple demographic overview of this dynamic country; it is a series of meditations on the state of their economy, political culture, urban development, and other affairs. First-time users will want to look at the "Country-At-A-Glance" section at the top of the homepage to get a thumbnail sketch of the country's current state of affairs. Over on the left-hand side of the page, visitors can look over the "Projects & Programs" area, which talks about the Bank's activities in the country, which include energy efficiency projects and sustainable biodiversity conservation works. Moving on, the "What's New" area features opinion pieces from World Bank officials, press releases, and information about lending policies. Users are also invited to sign up for their RSS feed and email updates here.

  8. World Bank Research Website

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank has collected its economic research so that users can access it through one easy-to-use Webpage. Research is organized into three main sections: Topics, Project Sites, and Key Outputs. These topics are further broken down into subcategories, which are accessible from the front page via pull-down menus or hyperlinked lists. The site also contains a What's New column, which lists the titles of new World Bank resources and classifies them by document type, such as working paper, evaluations of research, and project. Finally, the World Bank Research Website gives a short list of featured resources, which include research on hot topics such as poverty, civil war, and world development.

  9. Mozilla Digital Memory Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for History and New Media at George Mason University doesn't shy away from provocative digital archive projects, and the Mozilla Digital Memory Bank is certainly one such work. Drawing on support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Mozilla Foundation this site serves as a permanent, open, peer-produced digital archive of Mozilla history. Users are welcome to start by browsing the "Memory Bank" section, which includes blogs, interviews, documents, testimonials, and press releases. For those with a geographical bent, there is the "Mozilla Map", which lets users find out where in the world Mozilla developers and users are located. And for those who can't make up their mind about where to start, they can just click on over to the "Featured Bank Deposit" and start reading.

  10. Addressing Tax Risks Involving Bank Losses

    E-print Network

    unknown authors

    ax risk bank loss risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk oss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax isk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax isk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax ank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss ax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank ax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk ba ank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax ?? risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax b

  11. Banks in industrial networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Engwall; Jan Johanson

    1990-01-01

    Banks are important institutions by reason of their role as intermediaries between the holders of surplus capital and those in need of financial resources. They are therefore often mentioned as vital nodes in modern economies, with substantial power positions in relation to their clients. In recent years deregulation and the development of information technology have prompted several observers to conclude

  12. Janus Serum Bank

    Cancer.gov

    The Janus Serum bank was established in order to collect and store blood samples from presumably healthy individuals for future use in cancer research. The intention was to obtain information on factors important in the pathogenesis and etiology of cancer by examining blood samples obtained during the preclinical stage or latent period before the tumor has developed.

  13. HPCwire Job Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    HPCwire Job Bank has become the matchmaker site of choice for bringing together the best talent and the leading employers in HPC commercial computing, research, academia, and the entire ecosystem of suppliers and users of HPC systems and technology, representing career opportunities in hardware, software, middleware, sales, marketing, consulting, design, development, engineering, research, testing, customer support and production.

  14. Academic Interventions Bank Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Tom; Torrens, Meg

    This paper describes development of a bank of interventions in response to individual student needs identified by Student Study Teams (SSTs) in the Horry County (South Carolina) school district. It also describes the training of SST members in the selection, application, and monitoring of each intervention. Following a survey that identified basic…

  15. The Protein Data Bank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen M. Berman; John D. Westbrook; Zukang Feng; Gary Gilliland; Talapady N. Bhat; Helge Weissig; Ilya N. Shindyalov; Philip E. Bourne

    2000-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http:\\/\\/www.rcsb.org\\/pdb\\/ ) is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the goals of the PDB, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information, and near-term plans for the future development of the resource.

  16. Bank It!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    In this game students explore the concept of probability in conjunction with addition of money. The object of the game is to have the most money at the end or reach $5 first. Throughout the game students collect coins for the number(s) rolled on each turn, but once the number 1 is rolled they lose all that they haven't banked.

  17. Field testing of new multilateral drilling and completion technology at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center

    SciTech Connect

    Giangiacomo, L.A. [Fluor Daniel NPOSR, Inc., Casper, WY (United States). Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center

    1998-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has played an important role in bringing new multilateral well technology to the marketplace. Multilateral technology is more complex than most new technologies being brought to the oilfield. It is very difficult to test new designs in the laboratory or conventional test wells. They must be tested downhole in specialized wells to work out design and procedural details. Most of the applications for multilateral technology are in high cost drilling areas, such as offshore or in remote, environmentally sensitive areas. For this reason, opportunities for testing the new technology in the course of routine drilling and completion operations are scarce. Operators are not willing to risk expensive rig time, or losing a wellbore itself, on a test. RMOTC offers a neutral site where the technology can be tested in a relatively low cost environment. There are two drilling rigs and three workover and completion rigs available. Most associated services such as warehouse, roustabouts, backhoe, welders, and mechanics are also available on site, while specialized oilfield services and machine shops are available in nearby Casper. Technologies such as the hollow whipstock, adjustable stabilizer, downhole kickoff assembly, single trip sidetrack tool, stacked multidrain system, rotary steerable systems, and procedures for abandoning an open hole lateral have benefited through the use of RMOTC`s facilities. This paper details the capabilities of the new technologies and the benefits of testing them in a real oilfield environment before taking them to market.

  18. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Officials Authorized To Deny Requests for Records Under the Freedom of Information Act, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Office of Africa Trade Development Assistant Secretary for Trade Development Deputy Assistant Secretary...Assistant Secretary for Tourism Industries Director... Director, Multilateral Development Bank Operations...

  19. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Officials Authorized To Deny Requests for Records Under the Freedom of Information Act, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Office of Africa Trade Development Assistant Secretary for Trade Development Deputy Assistant Secretary...Assistant Secretary for Tourism Industries Director... Director, Multilateral Development Bank Operations...

  20. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Officials Authorized To Deny Requests for Records Under the Freedom of Information Act, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Office of Africa Trade Development Assistant Secretary for Trade Development Deputy Assistant Secretary...Assistant Secretary for Tourism Industries Director... Director, Multilateral Development Bank Operations...

  1. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Officials Authorized To Deny Requests for Records Under the Freedom of Information Act, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Office of Africa Trade Development Assistant Secretary for Trade Development Deputy Assistant Secretary...Assistant Secretary for Tourism Industries Director... Director, Multilateral Development Bank Operations...

  2. Banking Theory, Deposit Insurance, and Bank Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Diamond; Philip H. Dybvig

    1986-01-01

    I. Introduction The last several years have seen extensive change in the U.S. banking industry. ' In the 1950s and 1960s the banking industry was a symbol of stability. By contrast, recent years have seen the greatest frequency of bank failures since the Great Depression. During the same period, the banking environment has undergone the most significant changes since 1933,

  3. Central banking, free banking, and financial crises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger W. Garrison

    1996-01-01

    A Summary View In the Keynesian view, the central bank is a part of an extramarket remedy to a market malady. Investment markets are inherently unstable; government control of the economy's money supply is an important element in macroeconomic stabilization policy. The case against central banking—and for free banking—reverses the characterization of both remedy and malady. Free banking is a

  4. General Banking Conditions 2009 General Banking Conditions

    E-print Network

    Franssen, Michael

    or to the integrity of the financial system. 3 Activities and objectives The Customer provides information to the Bank activities. The Bank may give goods, docu- ments of title, securities or financial instruments that belongGeneral Banking Conditions 2009 r #12;#12;1 General Banking Conditions (Version 2009

  5. Timing of fire relative to seed development may enable non-serotinous species to recolonize from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaletz, S. T.; Johnson, E. A.; Mell, W. E.; Greene, D. F.

    2013-07-01

    The existence of non-serotinous, non-sprouting species in fire regimes where serotiny confers an adaptive advantage is puzzling, particularly when these species recruit poorly from soil seed banks or from burn edges. In this paper, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) was used to show how the timing of fire relative to seed development may permit non-serotinous species to recolonize burned areas from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees. To estimate survival of seeds within closed cones during crown fires, cone heating was simulated using a one-dimensional conduction model implemented in a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics fire behavior model. To quantify the area burned when germinable seed would be contained within closed cones during a mast year, empirical fire occurrence and seed development (germinability and cone opening) data were compared for multiple locations across the white spruce range. Approximately 12% of cones contained viable seed following crown fire simulations (0.072 m s-1 mean spread rate; 9147 kW m-1 mean intensity), and roughly half of the historical area burned resulted from fires that occurred when closed cones would contain germinable seed. Together, these results suggest that non-serotinous species may recolonize burned areas from in situ aerial seed banks, and that this may be an important cause of their existence in fire regimes to which they otherwise seem poorly suited.

  6. The HRD Competencies as Perceived by the Human Resource Development Professionals in Banks in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konan, Affoue Zitagisele

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify how Ivorian HRD professionals in banks perceived their current expertise levels of the HRD competencies, and how these professionals perceived the importance of these competencies needed to be successful in their occupations. In addition, this study determined competencies that are perceived to have the…

  7. Multiple versus Single Banking Relationships: Theory and Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrica Detragiache; Paolo Garella; Luigi Guiso

    2000-01-01

    A theory of the optimal number of banking relationships is developed and tested using matched bank-firm data. According to the theory, relationship banks may be unable to continue funding profitable projects owing to internal problems and a firm may thus have to refinance from nonrelationship banks. The latter, however, face an adverse selection problem, as they do not know the

  8. MULTIPLE vs. SINGLE BANKING Relationships: Theory And Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrica Detragiache; Paolo Garella; Luigi Guiso

    1999-01-01

    A theory of the optimal number of banking relationships is developed and tested usingmatched bank-firm data. According to the theory, relationship banks may be unable tocontinue funding profitable projects owing to internal problems and a firm may thus have torefinance from non-relationship banks. The latter, however, face an adverse selectionproblem, as they do not know the quality of the project,

  9. Macroeconomic Implications of the New Banking Capital Regulation in Emerging Markets: A Duopoly Model Adapted to Risk-Averse Banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastián Nieto Parra

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze the impact of the new banking capital regulation (Basel II) on the business cycle in an emerging economy, I develop a duopoly model composed of domestic and foreign banks. The principal results are: by the conduct of new banking capital regulation, the assessment of credit risk carried out by an international bank in a given country

  10. Philippine Management Review (Special Issue) 2011, Vol. 18, 97113. Banking Industry Structure and Economic Activities

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Philippine Management Review (Special Issue) 2011, Vol. 18, 97113. Banking Industry Structure, 87 031 Limoges Cedex, France This paper examines the link between banking industry structure. Keywords: financial development, regional economic development, banking industry structure

  11. A Brief History of the Institutional Design of Banking Supervision in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joke Mooij; Henriette Prast

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes how banking supervision in the Netherlands has evolved over time. It concentrates on how legal and institutional arrangements and the practice of banking regulation and supervision have responded to developments in the financial environment since the Bank Act of 1948 formally entrusted banking supervision to the Nederlandsche Bank. To put the developments of the last fifty years

  12. Customer relationship management system framework design of Beijing Rural Commercial Bank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lun Zhang; Jinlin Li; Yingying Wang

    2008-01-01

    Compared with state-owned banks and other commercial banks, rural commercial banks are weak in information systematization and customer management. Based on its market positioning and long term development planning, Beijing Rural Commercial Bank decided to make `Customer Oriented' as its business strategy and develop its CRM system, which will help the bank distinguish its core market and core clients. Based

  13. World Bank: Global Challenges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank works to combat poverty and to increase development opportunities around the world, but they also have selected six strategic themes that focus in on global development. First-time visitors to the site can listen to World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick talk about these themes, and they may also wish to follow along with the accompanying slideshow. Themes include global public goods, the Arab world, and middle-income countries. By clicking on one of these themes, visitors can read comprehensive reports, working papers, or take a look at presentations that explore these areas in greater detail. Many of these information sources are contained within a "Highlights" area. Visitors with a penchant for economic development, international political economy, or international affairs will find this site very useful. It's also easy to see how these materials might be used in a classroom setting to spark discussion or debate about some of these very timely matters.

  14. Robbing Banks with Their Own Software-an Exploit Against Norwegian Online Banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yngve Espelid; André N. Klingsheim; Kjell Jørgen Hole

    2008-01-01

    The banking industry in Norway has developed a new security infrastruc- ture for conducting commerce on the Internet. The initiative, called BankID, aims to become a national ID infrastructure supporting services such as authentication and digital signatures for the entire Norwegian population. This paper describes a man-in-the-middle vulnerability in online banking applications using BankID. An exploit has been implemented and

  15. A decade of experience in the development and implementation of tissue banking informatics tools for intra and inter-institutional translational research

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Waqas; Singh, Harpreet; Pople, Andre K.; Winters, Sharon; Dhir, Rajiv; Parwani, Anil V.; Becich, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Tissue banking informatics deals with standardized annotation, collection and storage of biospecimens that can further be shared by researchers. Over the last decade, the Department of Biomedical Informatics (DBMI) at the University of Pittsburgh has developed various tissue banking informatics tools to expedite translational medicine research. In this review, we describe the technical approach and capabilities of these models. Design: Clinical annotation of biospecimens requires data retrieval from various clinical information systems and the de-identification of the data by an honest broker. Based upon these requirements, DBMI, with its collaborators, has developed both Oracle-based organ-specific data marts and a more generic, model-driven architecture for biorepositories. The organ-specific models are developed utilizing Oracle 9.2.0.1 server tools and software applications and the model-driven architecture is implemented in a J2EE framework. Result: The organ-specific biorepositories implemented by DBMI include the Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (http://www.cpctr.info/), Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (http://pcabc.upmc.edu/main.cfm), EDRN Colorectal and Pancreatic Neoplasm Database (http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/) and Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPORE) Head and Neck Neoplasm Database (http://spores.nci.nih.gov/current/hn/index.htm). The model-based architecture is represented by the National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank (http://mesotissue.org/). These biorepositories provide thousands of well annotated biospecimens for the researchers that are searchable through query interfaces available via the Internet. Conclusion: These systems, developed and supported by our institute, serve to form a common platform for cancer research to accelerate progress in clinical and translational research. In addition, they provide a tangible infrastructure and resource for exposing research resources and biospecimen services in collaboration with the clinical anatomic pathology laboratory information system (APLIS) and the cancer registry information systems. PMID:20922029

  16. The CODATA/IUIS Hybridoma Data Bank: development of a hybrid system to handle complex data relationships.

    PubMed

    Walczak, C A; Blaine, L D; Krichevsky, M I

    1988-01-01

    System design for the Hybridoma Data Bank, a database of comprehensive information on immunoreagents for use by scientists in diverse disciplines, is described. Unique problems include: use of nomenclature from diverse fields that is neither static nor standard; the need for two representations of the database--textual for readability and numeric for complex search capabilities, analysis and data compression; and a method of translating between the two representations of the database. PMID:3215024

  17. Essays on banking

    E-print Network

    Erel, Isil

    2006-01-01

    This thesis consists of two chapters that investigate two important issues in banking of the past decade: the effect of banking consolidation on the borrowers and the regulatory capital requirements for banks. The first ...

  18. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... severe combined immunodeficiency . There are two types of banks that store cord blood: Public banks collect donated cord blood for research or for ... collected, anonymously marked, and sent to a public bank to potentially save the life of another child ...

  19. Investment Banks Goldman Sachs

    E-print Network

    Aronov, Boris

    Brown Brothers Harriman Fidelity HSBC Money Center Banking Bank of America CIBC Citigroup Mellon Financial Corporation PNC Bank Wachovia Asset Management Firms Acadian Asset Management Alliance Capital Management Baring Asset Management Dimensional Fund Advisors First Quadrant New Amsterdam Partners

  20. World Bank: Annual Report 2010

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank's Annual Report and the website that accompanies the report are full of data about the world's 79 poorest countries that the World Bank aids through its International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association. The 32-page report covers the period from July 2009 to June 2010. Visitors will find that the website for the Report contains a lot of interactive features for a better understanding of the global poverty situation which the World Bank is trying to help alleviate. The "Data & Research" tab near the top of any page has an "At a Glance" section that features several "Analytical Tools". Visitors won't want to miss the "iSimulate", which allows for performing macroeconomic simulations; "ADePT", which is a software platform for automated economic analysis; and "PovCalNet", which is a poverty analysis tool that "assess[es] global poverty incidence figures."

  1. Ranking the Banks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ranking the Banks, sponsored by American Banker, does just what the title suggests: ranks banks, worldwide. Five catagories of banks -- World Banks, Thrifts, Industry, Bank Holding Companies, and Commercial banks -- are subdivided into a number of different subcatagories including Top 100 Banking Companies in Assets, Top 100 World Banking Companies in Deposits, and Top 25 Lead Legal Advisers. Each compilation of data is ranked and tabled and the current ranking is displayed against the last. All tables are clearly dated, and those exclusive to American Banker online are highlighted with an icon.

  2. Internet Banking System Prototype

    E-print Network

    Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

    2010-01-01

    Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

  3. Effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil development on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years of development drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Michael D.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Pocklington, Patricia; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes effects of drilling with water and synthetic-based drilling muds on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. As such, the paper provides insight on the effects of relatively new synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs), and makes an important contribution to our understanding of the long-term chronic effects of drilling on benthic communities. The Terra Nova Field is located approximately 350 km offshore on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada). Sediment and invertebrate samples were collected in 1997 (baseline) prior to drilling, and subsequently in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations were sampled in each year at distances of less than 1 to approximately 20 km from drill centres. Summary benthic invertebrate community measures examined were total abundance, biomass, richness, diversity and multivariate measures of community composition based on non-Metric Dimensional Scaling (nMDS). Decreases in abundance, biomass and richness were noted at one station located nearest (0.14 km) to a drill centre in some environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years. These decreases coincided with higher levels of tracers of drill muds in sediments (barium and >C10-C21 hydrocarbons). Abundances of selected individual taxa were also examined to help interpret responses when project-related effects on summary measures occurred. Enrichment effects on some tolerant taxa (e.g., the polychaete family Phyllodocidae and the bivalve family Tellinidae) and decreased abundances of sensitive taxa (e.g., the polychaete families Orbiniidae and Paraonidae) were detected to within approximately 1-2 km from discharge source. Lagged responses three to five years after drilling started were noted for Phyllodocidae and Tellinidae, suggesting chronic or indirect effects. Overall, results of benthic community analyses at Terra Nova indicate that effects on summary measures of community composition were spatially limited but, as seen elsewhere, some taxa were more sensitive to drilling discharges.

  4. Development and calibration of an item bank for the assessment of activities of daily living in cardiovascular patients using Rasch analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To develop and calibrate the activities of daily living item bank (ADLib-cardio) as a prerequisite for a Computer-adaptive test (CAT) for the assessment of ADL in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods After pre-testing for relevance and comprehension a pool of 181 ADL items were answered on a five-point Likert scale by 720 CVD patients, who were recruited in fourteen German cardiac rehabilitation centers. To verify that the relationship between the items is due to one factor, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. A Mokken analysis was computed to examine the double monotonicity (i.e. every item generates an equivalent order of person traits, and every person generates an equivalent order of item difficulties). Finally, a Rasch analysis based on the partial credit model was conducted to test for unidimensionality and to calibrate the item bank. Results Results of CFA and Mokken analysis confirmed a one factor structure and double monotonicity. In Rasch analysis, merging response categories and removing items with misfit, differential item functioning or local response dependency reduced the ADLib-cardio to 33 items. The ADLib-cardio fitted to the Rasch model with a nonsignificant item-trait interaction (chi-square=105.42, df=99; p=0.31). Person-separation reliability was 0.81 and unidimensionality could be verified. Conclusions The ADLib-cardio is the first calibrated, unidimensional item bank that allows for the assessment of ADL in rehabilitation patients with CVD. As such, it provides the basis for the development of a CAT for the assessment of ADL in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Calibrating the ADLib-cardio in other than rehabilitation cardiovascular patient settings would further increase its generalizability. PMID:23914735

  5. Rural Development: Part 4, S. 2223--The Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act and Amendment No. 153 (To S. 1483), to Establish the Rural Community Development Bank. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 1st Session, July 23; September 21-24, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of Senate hearings on S. 2223 (the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act) and on Amendment No. 153 (to S. 1483) to establish the rural community development bank are presented in this document. In addition to some 25 miscellaneous documents, statements of representatives from municipal, state, and national organizations are…

  6. Organization and Management of the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The Integrated Medical Group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial fourteen long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  7. Study of feasible and sustainable multilateral approach on nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kuno, Y.; Tazaki, M. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, 4-49 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan); Akiba, M.; Takashima, R.; Izumi, Y.; Tanaka, S. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Despite the Fukushima accident it is undeniable that nuclear power remains one of the most important methods to handle global growth of economic/energy consumption and issues with greenhouse gases. If the demand for nuclear power increases, the demand for not only the generation of power but also for refining uranium (U), conversion, enrichment, re-conversion, and fuel manufacturing should increase. In addition, concerns for the proliferation of 'Sensitive Nuclear Technologies' (SNT) should also increase. We propose a demand-side approach, where nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) activities would be implemented among multiple states. With this approach, NFC services, in particular those using SNTs, are multilaterally executed and controlled, thereby preventing unnecessary proliferation of SNTs, and enabling safe and appropriate control of nuclear technologies and nuclear materials. This proposal would implement nuclear safety and security at an international level and solve transport issues for nuclear fuels. This proposal is based on 3 types of cooperation for each element of NFC: type A: cooperation for 3S only, services received; Type B: cooperation for 3S, MNA (Multilateral Nuclear Activities) without transfer of ownership to MNA; and Type C cooperation for 3S, MNA holding ownership rights. States involved in the 3 types of activity should be referred to as partner states, host states, and site states respectively. The feasibility of the proposal is discussed for the Asian region.

  8. What Do People Think about Disabled Youth and Employment in Developed and Developing Countries? Results from an E-Discussion Hosted by the World Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggero, Paola; Tarricone, Rosanna; Nicoli, Marco; Mangiaterra, Viviana

    2006-01-01

    Even though there are good examples of people with disabilities mainstreamed in the labour market (Bruyere et al., 2004), the situation is still far from being positive, particularly when labour markets are in constant flux due to rapid globalization and technological change, unless new approaches are adopted. In light of this, the World Bank

  9. World Bank: Globalization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The word globalization is thrown around with reckless abandon by numerous parties these days, and as a result, the very notion of such a force is somewhat elusive. While this website from the World Bank may not end all of the fierce academic and pragmatic debates that rage on about globalization, it does offers some perspective from this organization on this wide-ranging phenomenon. The site itself contains audio and video selections, issue briefs, a data and statistics section, and an area dedicated to current research on the subject underway by the World Bank. The issue briefs are definitely worth a look as they address such questions as What is Globalization? and Does More International Trade Openness Increase World Poverty? The selection of videos is also quite nice, particularly a recent talk by Michael Moore (the former director-general of the World Trade Organization) entitled Globalization & Development: Its Implications & Institutions.

  10. Commercial Bank and Bank Holding Company Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Report of Condition and Income database, provided by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, contains financial data for all banks regulated by the Federal Reserve System, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Comptroller of the Currency. Merger Data contains information on all "bank acquisitions and mergers since 1985." The Merger Data is available in either ASCII or SAS format. Quarterly Call Report Data contains "income and balance sheet items for all the banks" from the first quarter of 1989. The data are on an individual bank basis and are downloadable in zipped SAS transport data file format.

  11. Banking Emergence, Credit Rationing and Endogenous Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Sami NABI; Taoufik RAJHI

    This paper analyzes, in a quite simple endogenous growth model, the relationship between the banking system emergence and economic growth in presence of credit market imperfection. We show that the economic development process is constituted of three phases. Primarily, the economic growth is low and there is no banking system. Secondly, the economy develops more quickly thanks to the endogenous

  12. Central bank Financial Independence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have

  13. Strategic online banking adoption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubén Hernández-Murillo; Gerard Llobet; Roberto Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the determinants of banks’ decisions to adopt a transactional website for their customers. Using a panel of commercial banks in the United States for the period 2003–2006, we show that although bank-specific characteristics are important determinants of banks’ adoption decisions, competition also plays a prominent role. The extent of competition is related to the geographic

  14. World Bank: Annual Report 2012

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank offers trenchant commentary on a wide range of issues of global import, including food production, gender inequality, development practices, and higher education initiatives. As a result, the World Bank's Annual Report is given close attention by people all over the world. The 314-page report offers thoughtful commentary on all manner of activities, and it is beautifully designed and executed. The first page starts with a list of summary statistics, such as the number of people who gained access to basic health services and how many teachers were recruited or trained as a result of World Bank activities. Visitors can learn all about the World Bank's initiatives in the report or download smaller sections like "Responding with Global Knowledge and Experience" and "World Bank For Results 2012." Visitors can also look over the Corporate Scorecard, which includes a snapshot of results achieved by partner countries with support from the Bank. The Report is available in eight different languages, including Spanish, French, Chinese, and Japanese. [KMG

  15. World Bank: Anticorruption [pdf[

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In its many different guises, corruption around the world tends to affect the poor, who are often the most reliant on the provision of public services, and are also least likely to be able to pay the extra costs associated with bribery and fraud. The World Bank has identified corruption as "the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development," and thusly has set up this anticorruption website to serve as an online resource for policy-makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other interested parties. On the site, the World Bank lays out its strategy for combating corruption, which includes increasing political accountability, strengthening civil society participation, and improving public sector management. The site also contains a number of helpful resources, such as toolkits for assessing government performance in this area, and information and reports on various regional and country-based approaches to dealing with corruption. The site is rounded out by a calendar of events and key strategy documents, such as "Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance, A World Bank Strategy."

  16. Capacity building on systems engineering, management and projects control for the nanosatc-br cubesat development program - library & data-bank building up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, Tiago Travi; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Lourencena Caldas Franke, Lucas; Moro, Pietro Fernando; Ramos Manica, Thales; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.; Jaenisch, Guilherme Paul; Escobar B, Eduardo; Zavareze da Costa, Leonardo; Balestrin, Maurício Ricardo; Camargo Silveira, Iago; Francisco Mozzaquatro Wen, João

    The Capacity Building (CB) on Systems Engineering, Management && Projects Control for the Brazilian NANOSATC-BR Cubesat Development Program - library && data-bank building up results are presented. The Program && its CB involves a partnership between the INPE's Southern Regional Space Research - CRS/INPE - MCTI and the Federal University of Santa Maria - UFSM, through the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory LACESM/CT - UFSM. The NANOSATC-BR Program consists of two nanosatellites, the NANOSATC-BR1, a 1U standard CubeSat, that is predicted to be launched in the first semester of 2014 (the first Brazilian CubeSat which will be launched) and the NANOSATC-BR2 - 2U CubeSat, which is expected to be launched in the first semester of 2015. The main goal of this paper is to introduce the application of Systems Engineering, Management && Projects Control documentation methodologies in the library building up and data-bank procedures for the CB, Program and its Projects: NANOSATC-BR 1 && 2. These CB, Program and Projects have support from the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB).

  17. 75 FR 11986 - Public Comments for Multilateral Negotiations in the World Trade Organization on Expansion of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...Comments for Multilateral Negotiations in the World Trade Organization on Expansion of the...duty elimination by certain members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The specific...dosage-form products by their INNs from the World Health Organization (WHO). (Table...

  18. Proposing a sequential comparative analysis for assessing multilateral health agency transformation and sustainable capacity: exploring the advantages of institutional theory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article proposes an approach to comparing and assessing the adaptive capacity of multilateral health agencies in meeting country and individual healthcare needs. Most studies comparing multilateral health agencies have failed to clearly propose a method for conducting agency comparisons. Methods This study conducted a qualitative case study methodological approach, such that secondary and primary case study literature was used to conduct case study comparisons of multilateral health agencies. Results Through the proposed Sequential Comparative Analysis (SCA), the author found a more effective way to justify the selection of cases, compare and assess organizational transformative capacity, and to learn from agency success in policy sustainability processes. Conclusions To more affectively understand and explain why some multilateral health agencies are more capable of adapting to country and individual healthcare needs, SCA provides a methodological approach that may help to better understand why these agencies are so different and what we can learn from successful reform processes. As funding challenges continue to hamper these agencies' adaptive capacity, learning from each other will become increasingly important. PMID:24886283

  19. Academic Recognition of Higher Education Entrance, Intermediate and Final Qualifications in the European Community: Multilateral and Bilateral Conventions, Unilateral Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    This publication provides an overview of the multilateral conventions, bilateral conventions, and unilateral decisions on the recognition of higher education entrance, intermediate, and final qualifications which are in force in Economic Community Member States. The material collected originates mainly from three sources: (1) the study "Academic…

  20. Stream Bank Stability in Eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soenksen, Phillip J.; Turner, Mary J.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Simon, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Dredged and straightened channels in eastern Nebraska have experienced degradation leading to channel widening by bank failure. Degradation has progressed headward and affected the drainage systems upstream from the modified reaches. This report describes a study that was undertaken to analyze bank stability at selected sites in eastern Nebraska and develop a simplified method for estimating the stability of banks at future study sites. Bank cross sections along straight reaches of channel and geotechnical data were collected at approximately 150 sites in 26 counties of eastern Nebraska. The sites were categorized into three groups based on mapped soil permeability. With increasing permeability of the soil groups, the median cohesion values decreased and the median friction angles increased. Three analytical methods were used to determine if banks were stable (should not fail even when saturated), at risk (should not fail unless saturated), or unstable (should have already failed). The Culmann and Agricultural Research Service methods were based on the Coulomb equation and planar failure; an indirect method was developed that was based on Bishop's simplified method of slices and rotational failure. The maximum angle from horizontal at which the bank would be stable for the given soil and bank height conditions also was computed with the indirect method. Because of few soil shear-strength data, all analyses were based on the assumption of homogeneous banks, which was later shown to be atypical, at least for some banks. Using the Culmann method and assuming no soil tension cracks, 67 percent of all 908 bank sections were identified as stable, 32 percent were at risk, and 1 percent were unstable; when tension cracks were assumed, the results changed to 58 percent stable, 40 percent at risk, and 1 percent unstable. Using the Agricultural Research Service method, 67 percent of all bank sections were identified as stable and 33 percent were at risk. Using the indirect method, 62 percent of all bank sections were identified as stable and 31 percent were at risk; 3 percent were unstable, and 3 percent were outside of the range of the tables developed for the method. For each of the methods that were used, the largest percentage of stable banks and the smallest percentage of at risk banks was for the soil group with the lowest soil permeability and highest median cohesion values. A comparison of the expected stable bank angles for saturated conditions and the surveyed bank angles indicated that many of the surveyed bank angles were considerably less than the maximum expected stable bank angles despite the banks being classified as at risk or unstable. For severely degraded channels along straight reaches this was not expected. It was expected that they would have angles close to the maximum stable angle as they should have been failing from an oversteepened condition. Several explanations are possible. The channel reaches of some study sites have not yet been affected to a significant degree by degradation; study sites were selected throughout individual basins and severe degradation has not yet extended to some sites along upper reaches; and some reaches have experienced aggradation as degradation progresses upstream. Another possibility is that some bank sections have been affected by lateral migration processes, which typically result in shallow bank angles on the inside bend of the channel. Another possibility is that the maximum expected stable bank angles are too steep. The stability methods used were well established and in essential agreement with each other, and there was no reason to question the geometry data. This left non-representative soil data as a probable reason for computed stable bank angles that, at least in some cases, are overly steep. Based on an examination of the cohesion data, to which the stable bank-angle calculations were most sensitive, both vertical and horizontal variability in soil properti

  1. World Bank Annual Report 1997

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    World Bank.

    1997-01-01

    The 1997 edition of this report, which chronicles the activities of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) for the last fiscal year, discusses Bank programs, operations, financial highlights, and approved projects. Central to this report are the detailed regional progress reports. The full report, excluding the financial statements, is available in HTML. The full report with financial statements can be obtained in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format (250 pages, arranged in sections). Interested users may refer to the 1996 Annual Report (discussed in the December 20, 1996 Scout Report).

  2. Sustainable Competence: A Study of a Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagstrom, Tom; Backstrom, Tomas; Goransson, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Decentralization and company cultures have emerged to master increasing external flexibility, as in a competitive bank in Sweden, raising issues of the sustainability in terms of competence and competence development. The purpose of this paper is to study how the staff members in a bank perceive a company culture and how this perception…

  3. Stock Markets, Banks, and Economic Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Levine; Sara Zervos

    1998-01-01

    Do well-functioning stock markets and banks promote long-run economic growth? This paper shows that stock market liquidity and banking development both positively predict growth, capital accumulation, and productivity improvements when entered together in regressions, even after controlling for economic and political factors. The results are consistent with the views that financial markets provide important services for growth and that stock

  4. Bank panics and the endogeneity of central banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Gorton; Lixin Huang

    2006-01-01

    Central banking is intimately related to liquidity provision to banks during times of crisis, the lender-of-last-resort function. This activity arose endogenously in certain banking systems. Depositors lack full information about the value of bank assets, so that during macroeconomic downturns they monitor their banks by withdrawing in a banking panic. The likelihood of panics depends on the industrial organization of

  5. Transactional Structures of Bank Privatizations in Central Europe and Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Meyendorff; Edward A. Snyder

    1997-01-01

    In pursuing bank privatization, governments in Central Europe and Russia faced a common set of policy issues, including how to break up the monobank system, deal with troubled loans, transfer equity to the private sector, and attract capital to the banks. For each bank undergoing privatization, the government's approach to such issues determines its transactional structure. We develop this conceptual

  6. Banking and Financial Systems. Curriculum Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jan

    This curriculum guide provides course materials for teachers to use in developing a course in banking and financial systems. Following an introductory section that lists the common essential elements of the course, the guide contains six sections that cover the following course topics: (1) introduction to banking and financial systems; (2) banking

  7. On the role of bank staff in online customer purchase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Durkin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper reports the findings of the latest, quantitative phase of a continuing study that explores the impact of the internet on bank-customer relationships. The specific aim is to shed light on customers' own views about when, how and in which circumstances personal contact with bank staff remains appropriate despite developments in online banking. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Building on

  8. The Macroeconomic Implications of the New Banking Capital Regulation in Emerging Markets: A Duopoly Model Adapted to Risk-Averse Banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastián Nieto

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze the impact of the new banking capital regulation (Basel II) on the business cycle in an emerging economy, I develop a duopoly model composed of domestic and foreign banks. The principal results are: by the conduct of new banking capital regulation, the assessment of credit risk carried out by an international bank in a given country

  9. Minority-Owned Banks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The latest installment from this quarterly report from the Federal Reserve Board of Governors lists minority-owned banks by state. Data include assets, deposits, and established dates. The data from this study, from the banks that participate in the Department of the Treasury's Minority Bank Deposit Program, are compiled from "Consolidated Reports of Condition and Income filed quarterly by banks (FFIEC 031 through 034) and from other information in the Board's National Information Center database."

  10. Developing a new stream metric for comparing stream function using a bank-floodplain sediment budget: a case study of three Piedmont streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg

    2013-01-01

    A bank and floodplain sediment budget was created for three Piedmont streams tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. The watersheds of each stream varied in land use from urban (Difficult Run) to urbanizing (Little Conestoga Creek) to agricultural (Linganore Creek). The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between geomorphic parameters and sediment dynamics and to develop a floodplain trapping metric for comparing streams with variable characteristics. Net site sediment budgets were best explained by gradient at Difficult Run, floodplain width at Little Conestoga Creek, and the relation of channel cross-sectional area to floodplain width at Linganore Creek. A correlation for all streams indicated that net site sediment budget was best explained by relative floodplain width (ratio of channel width to floodplain width). A new geomorphic metric, the floodplain trapping factor, was used to compare sediment budgets between streams with differing suspended sediment yields. Site sediment budgets were normalized by floodplain area and divided by the stream's sediment yield to provide a unitless measure of floodplain sediment trapping. A floodplain trapping factor represents the amount of upland sediment that a particular floodplain site can trap (e.g. a factor of 5 would indicate that a particular floodplain site traps the equivalent of 5 times that area in upland erosional source area). Using this factor we determined that Linganore Creek had the highest gross and net (floodplain deposition minus bank erosion) floodplain trapping factor (107 and 46, respectively) that Difficult Run the lowest gross floodplain trapping factor (29) and Little Conestoga Creek had the lowest net floodplain trapping factor (–14, indicating that study sites were net contributors to the suspended sediment load). The trapping factor is a robust metric for comparing three streams of varied watershed and geomorphic character, it promises to be a useful tool for future stream assessments.

  11. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  12. Bank of Japan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Bank of Japan serves as Japan's central bank. The web site contains publications such as Quarterly Economic Outlook, Balance of Payments Monthly, and Economic Statistics Monthly. Visitors can also find press releases, Governor's speeches and statistics on prices, money, interest rates, exchange rates, and the Bank of Japan accounts.

  13. Bank Diversification and Incentives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyöngyi Lóránth; Alan Morrison

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of bank diversification into fee-based businesses. Universal banks raise welfare by expanding the range of services available to entrepreneurs. However, because they may choose to rescue failed entrepreneurs in order to sell them fee-based financial services, universal banks provide weaker incentives. Adopting a holding company structure and devolving liquidation decisions to the lending division partially

  14. European Central Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

  15. Snow Bank Detectives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Audrey C. Rule

    2005-01-01

    Local professors teamed up with a fourth-grade teacher to show students the similarities and differences between sedimentary rock layers and snow banks. Students observed and drew snow banks and explored the effects of melting and salting on the snow banks.

  16. Shadow banking regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Adrian; Adam B. Ashcraft

    2012-01-01

    Shadow banks conduct credit intermediation without direct, explicit access to public sources of liquidity and credit guarantees. Shadow banks contributed to the credit boom in the early 2000s and collapsed during the financial crisis of 2007-09. We review the rapidly growing literature on shadow banking and provide a conceptual framework for its regulation. Since the financial crisis, regulatory reform efforts

  17. Efficiency in European banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Altunba?; E. P. M. Gardener; P. Molyneux; B. Moore

    2001-01-01

    This paper extends the established literature on modelling the cost characteristics of banking markets by applying the flexible Fourier functional form and stochastic cost frontier methodologies to estimate scale economies, X-inefficiencies and technical change for a large sample of European banks between 1989 and 1997. The results reveal that scale economies are widespread for smallest banks and those in the

  18. World Bank Group: Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located within the World Bank's Environment Department, the Climate Change team "provides resources and expertise for the World Bank's participation in international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and provides technical advice to the World Bank's Global Environment Facility Program." Understandably, the site contains a brief explication of the key themes surrounding contemporary concerns about climate change, along with offering a detailed discussion of the various programs and research projects with which the Climate Change group is engaged directly or in tandem with other related organizations and institutions. From the main page, visitors can read about the nature of international climate change (and its disproportionate effects on the developing world), peruse a list of relevant online publications, and read press releases from the Climate Change team.

  19. Banks: Colleges - A Joint Undertaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordy, Thomas O.

    The banking industry has recognized an increasing need to recruit, hire, and train minorities for positions within the industry. Following this line of thought, the American Bankers Association (ABA) formed a task force composed of bankers and black college educators to develop a program mutually beneficial to industry as well as colleges. A Black…

  20. Global Soil Moisture Data Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robock, Alan

    This Data Bank is a collection of more than 400 observations of primarily Asian soil moisture. The data are freely available, and can be used for studying patterns of soil moisture variation, developing and testing land surface models, and ground truth for remote sensing.

  1. Global Soil Moisture Data Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1995-01-01

    This Data Bank is a collection of more than 400 observations of primarily Asian soil moisture. The data are freely available, and can be used for studying patterns of soil moisture variation, developing and testing land surface models, and ground truth for remote sensing.

  2. Towards a global consensus on matters of science : how process and membership can generate valid and sustainable science advice in multilateral environmental treaty negotiations

    E-print Network

    Kohler, Pia M. (Pia Marili)

    2006-01-01

    In most multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), science advisory bodies (SABs) are tasked with producing guidance on scientific aspects of the problem. SABs are a necessary infrastructure of global environmental ...

  3. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  4. SEED BANKS FOR MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, E S

    2008-05-14

    In recent years the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been conducting experiments that require pulsed high currents to be delivered into inductive loads. The loads fall into two categories (1) pulsed high field magnets and (2) the input stage of Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (MFCG). Three capacitor banks of increasing energy storage and controls sophistication have been designed and constructed to drive these loads. One bank was developed for the magnet driving application (20kV {approx} 30kJ maximum stored energy.) Two banks where constructed as MFCG seed banks (12kV {approx} 43kJ and 26kV {approx} 450kJ). This paper will describe the design of each bank including switching, controls, circuit protection and safety.

  5. World Bank: Africa

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank does a great deal of development work throughout Africa, and it is by far the largest provider of assistance on the continent. As of 2007, their portfolio of projects under implementation was over $19 billion. They are also involved with working with a wide range of government partners on the "Africa Action Plan", which is concerned with everything from reducing and mitigating violent conflicts to promoting private sector-led growth and job creation. Visitors can learn about the Plan on the site, and they can also utilize the drop-down menus on the homepage to learn about initiatives and topics in every country on the continent. Along the left-side of the homepage, visitors can explore a number of thematic areas, such as "Data & Statistics", "Development Topics", and "Partnerships". Additionally, visitors with very specific needs can look under the "Resources For" area. Here there are resources organized for government officials, businesses, youth, and so on.

  6. The evolution of the World Bank`s environmental guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, S.K. [Aggarwal (Sanjeev K.), Lorton, VA (United States); Weaver, K.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The World Bank Group is continually reviewing its environmental guidelines to be more effective in achieving sustainable development. In 1995 and 1996, the World Bank proposed significant changes to the existing 1988 environmental guidelines. The new guidelines focus on pollution prevention, including cleaner production and good management techniques rather than end-of-pipe controls. The guidelines have been designed to (1) be protective of human health and the environment; (2) have acceptable levels of mass loadings; (3) recommend emission levels based on commercially proven and widely used technologies; (4) follow the current regulatory and technology trends which encourage pollution prevention; (5) be cost-effective; and (6) promote the adoption of good management practices which boost productivity and energy efficiency. The Handbook will be updated periodically to reflect technological advances and address emerging environmental issues. This paper addresses the processes which the World Bank utilized in determining the goals, structure, format, and content of its proposed environmental guidelines in the Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. This paper will explore the role of consultants, lawyers, international agencies, industrial groups, and environmental groups in formulating the guidelines. Several environmental programs from the OECD and the developing countries were reviewed while designing these guidelines. A comparison will be made of the guidelines with those of other financial institutions and regulatory agencies. Several financial institutions including private banks and insurance companies have indicated that they would use the guidelines even for projects not financed by the World Bank. Hence, the guidelines will have a major impact on investments in the developing countries.

  7. Time course of oocyte development in winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus and spawning seasonality for the Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank and southern New England stocks.

    PubMed

    Press, Y K; McBride, R S; Wuenschel, M J

    2014-08-01

    Winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus were collected at monthly intervals from December 2009 to May 2011, to describe the pattern and seasonality of oocyte development, including: (1) the group-synchronous transition from primary to secondary oocytes that initiates immediately after spawning, (2) the slow (months) development of vitellogenic oocytes followed by the rapid (weeks) maturation of oocytes, (3) the synchronous nature of mature oocytes ovulating, but the discrete releases of benthic eggs in batches, (4) the protracted (months) degradation of postovulatory follicles and (5) the occurrence of follicular atresia. Although fish were collected across only c. 2° latitudinal range, the spawning season was c. 1 month later in the Gulf of Maine (GOM) than on Georges Bank and in southern New England. This is probably due to lower temperatures in the GOM. These stock-specific data regarding the time course of oogenesis are of practical value. This information is discussed in relation to measuring and interpreting elements of reproductive potential such as maturation, skipped spawning and fecundity, the response of reproductive traits by this widely distributed species to changing climate and the response by this common, marine-estuarine species to urbanization, particularly environmental pollutants and dredging. PMID:24942788

  8. Schooling Effects on Cognitive Development in a Difficult Environment: The Case of Refugee Camps in the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabr, Dua; Cahan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Schooling is now considered the major factor underlying the development of cognitive abilities. However, most studies on the effect of schooling on cognitive development have been conducted in free and generally supportive western environments. The possible variability of schooling effects between educational systems differing in the quality of…

  9. Banking on Knowledge: The New Knowledge Projects of the World Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Examines the tensions and debates at the heart of the World Bank's desire to become a knowledge agency. Discusses implications of the Bank's changing priorities towards education, trade-off between knowledge sharing versus knowledge development, and use of information and communications technology to create a global knowledge hypermarket called…

  10. Exploring the nexus between banking sector reform and performance: Evidence from newly acceded EU countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophocles N. Brissimis; Manthos D. Delis; Nikolaos I. Papanikolaou

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between banking sector reform and bank performance – measured in terms of efficiency, total factor productivity growth and net interest margin – accounting for the effects through competition and bank risk-taking. To this end, we develop an empirical model of bank performance, which is consistently estimated using recent econometric techniques.

  11. Local banking markets and the relation between structure, prices, and nonprices in rural areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Stolz

    1975-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the relationship between market structure and the prices of bank services, most have been concerned with metropolitan areas. These studies generally have used bank balance sheet and income statement ratios as bank conduct proxies. Moreover, prior studies have approximated local banking markets with county or SMSA boundaries. ; This study develops a methodology for delineating

  12. Flow dynamics of multi-lateral jets injection into a round pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Chia X.; Kalt, Peter A. M.; Dally, Bassam B.; Birzer, Cristian H.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the mixing field of turbulent jets is an important approach in optimizing practical combustion systems. The use of multi-lateral jets upstream from the nozzle exit to control mixing fields is one particular method. Existing studies have investigated jets into a confined cross-flow (JICCF) for dilution mixing, but there is a paucity of data available on the fundamentals for turbulent mixing capabilities of JICCF. The current study investigates the flow structures and Primary Reynolds number mixing characteristics within a round pipe flow modified by four equi-spaced, lateral side injectors. Experiments are conducted in a primary water jet flow that is modified with smaller jets located one central (axial) jet diameter upstream of the nozzle exit. Flow structures and mixing within the nozzle are non-intrusively characterized using simultaneous planar optical techniques. Planar laser-induced fluorescence is used to measure the scalar mixing of the side and axial jet streams, and particle imaging velocimetry is used to measure the planar velocities. Several cases are investigated with variable primary flow to explore the influence of cross-flow velocity on the induced mixing structures within the nozzle. By varying the momentum ratio, three characteristic flow modes are identified within the primary flow, namely streaming mode, impinging mode, and backflow mode. The impact of these modes on the flow and scalar fields is presented and discussed.

  13. The Origins of Banking Panics: Models, Facts, and Bank Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. Calomiris; Gary Gorton

    1991-01-01

    Banking panics are the central event informing and rationalizing government intervention into the banking industry. In the last decade progress has been made in understanding the origins of panics. This essay reviews recent theoretical and empirical work on the origins of banking panics. New evidence on the causes of banking panics is introduced. Banking panics do not appear to have

  14. Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bartha M Knoppers; Rosario Isasi

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research.\\u000a Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins\\u000a and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine\\u000a are leading to the development of a

  15. Issues in the appraisal of energy projects for oil-importing developing countries. World Bank staff working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, S.; Nalebuff, B.

    1985-01-01

    The paper develops a theoretical framework to evaluate the benefits and costs of energy projects in oil-importing developing countries (OIDCs). The framework is used to address various questions: How should the problems of energy dependency and vulnerability be reflected in a project appraisal. Are there externalities not captured in the market price of the resource. Should royalty values be included in cost-benefit calculations. Why do the real prices of exhaustible resources rise over time. Should several energy development projects be done simultaneously. What are the true costs of stockpiling oil. Is there a need for an international institution to act as coordinator directing a strategy for information gathering and project diversification across countries.

  16. Cooperative Banks and Financial Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Cihák; Heiko Hesse

    2007-01-01

    Cooperative banks are an important, and growing, part of many financial systems. This paper empirically analyzes the role of cooperative banks in financial stability. Contrary to some suggestions in the literature, we find that cooperative banks are more stable than commercial banks. This finding is due to the lower volatility of the cooperative banks' returns, which more than offsets their

  17. Banking Scope and Financial Innovation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnoud W A Boot; Anjan V Thakor

    1997-01-01

    We explore the implications of financial system design for financial innovation. We begin with assumptions about the investment opportunities of firms, their observable attributes, and the roles of commercial banks, investment banks, and the financial market. We examine the borrower's choice between bank and financial market funding, the commercial bank's choice of monitoring capacity, and the investment bank's choice of

  18. World Bank Support for Land Administration and Management: Responding to the Challenges of the Millennium Development Goals 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Clifford BELL

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Land and property are generally the major assets in any economy. In most countries, land may account for between half to three-quarters of national wealth. Land is a fundamental factor for agricultural production and is thus directly linked to food security. Security of land tenure is an important foundation for economic development, social and environmental management, and also for

  19. Developing an Open Resource Bank for Interactive Teaching of STEM: Perspecives of School Teachers and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Bjoern; Hennessy, Sara; Knight, Simon; Connolly, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current literature related to Open Educational Resource (OER) development and practice concentrates on higher education, although a growing body of work is also emerging for the primary and secondary school sectors. This article examines the user perspectives of teachers and teacher educators, regarding: discovery of teaching…

  20. Deferred Cost Recovery for Higher Education: Student Loan Programs in Developing Countries. World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 137.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Douglas; Ziderman, Adrian

    This study analyzes the experience of existing higher education student loan programs in developing countries in order to understand their role in fostering cost recovery. Detailed financial analyses of 24 loan programs shows that present value of the repayments collected constitutes a small percentage of the loan value disbursed. In general,…

  1. Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. A World Bank Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutlinger, Shlomo; And Others

    Food security means access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Available data suggest that more than 700 million people in the developing world lack the food necessary for such a life. No problem of underdevelopment may be more serious or have such important implications for the long-term growth of low-income…

  2. Development of a Postacute Hospital Item Bank for the New Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Helene M.

    2010-01-01

    The PEDI-CAT is a new computer adaptive test (CAT) version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Additional PEDI-CAT items specific to postacute pediatric hospital care were recently developed using expert reviews and cognitive interviewing techniques. Expert reviews established face and construct validity, providing positive…

  3. Banking: shop and compare.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors. PMID:25108982

  4. Bank Director Magazine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created for directors of financial companies, Bank Director Magazine is a quarterly publication that examines issues of importance to bank directors. The online publication includes the complete table of contents, as well as a selection of articles from the current issue. The site also features a directory of names, addresses, and phone numbers of M&A investment banking and law firms, consulting firms, and technology and retail delivery companies.

  5. Millennium Seed Bank Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    A number of organizations have developed a concerted interest in establishing seed banks to protect the wide diversity of existing plant life for future generations. The Royal Botanic Gardens is currently working on their own project, whose ultimate goal is to collect 24,000 plant species. So far, they have successfully secured samples from almost all of the native flowering plants in the United Kingdom, and their work continues on in the present day. Many visitors to the site will want to peruse their homepage and the helpful graphic (a peapod) helps orient first-time visitors to the various sections on the site, such as "Solving Seed Problems" and their publications and data area. The site also includes a field manual for those who would like to collect their own seeds in the field as well as data about the seeds collected thus far in the Seed Information Database.

  6. World Bank: Africa

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank does a great deal of development work throughout Africa, and it is by far the largest provider of assistance on the continent. As of 2007, their portfolio of projects under implementation was over $19 billion. They are also involved with working with a wide range of government partners on the "Africa Action Plan", which is concerned with everything from reducing and mitigating violent conflicts to promoting private sector-led growth and job creation. Visitors can learn about the Plan on the site, and they can also utilize the drop-down menus on the homepage to learn about initiatives and topics in every country on the continent. Along the left-side of the homepage, visitors can explore a number of thematic areas, such as Data, Research, and News.

  7. Alterations in bottom sediment physical and chemical characteristics at the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the grand banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes sediment composition at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, at an approximate water depth of 100 m. Surface sediment samples (upper 3 cm) were collected for chemical and particle size analyses at the site pre-development (1997) and in 2000-2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations have been sampled in each program year, with stations extending from less than 1 km to a maximum of 20 km from source (drill centres) along five gradients, extending to the southeast, southwest, northeast, northwest and east of Terra Nova. Results show that Terra Nova sediments were contaminated with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium-the two main constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site. Highest levels of contamination occurred within 1 to 2 km from source, consistent with predictions from drill cuttings dispersion modelling. The strength of distance gradients for >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, and overall levels, generally increased as drilling progressed but decreased from 2006 to 2010, coincident with a reduction in drilling. As seen at other offshore oil development sites, metals other than barium, sulphur and sulphide levels were elevated and sediment fines content was higher in the immediate vicinity (less than 0.5 km) of drill centres in some sampling years; but there was no strong evidence of project-related alterations of these variables. Overall, sediment contamination at Terra Nova was spatially limited and only the two major constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site, >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, showed clear evidence of project-related alternations.

  8. The European Central Bank: The Bank that rules Europe? 

    E-print Network

    Howarth, D.

    2009-01-01

    The power of the European Central Bank (ECB) is rooted in its independence established in the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. This power is reinforced though the bank’s monetary policy credibility—achieved through meeting its price stability mandate...

  9. Historical Statistics on Banking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Historical Statistics on Banking (HSOB), from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, "provides annual statistical information on the banking industry beginning in 1934." The site contains commercial banking reports, savings institution reports, and bank and thrift failure reports from 1934 to 1999. The Milestones feature offers a chronological retrospective on the FDIC's collection and use of data. Although the database is fairly easy to use, the HSOB Help section contains additional detailed instructions on saving and printing charts, and also offers a helpful glossary of terms used.

  10. Functional classification of riparian roots for bank stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvi, L. E.; Merritt, D. M.; Wohl, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    It is well established that the roots of riparian vegetation add tensile strength to stream banks, thus reducing bank erosion and undercutting. Bank stability models that add the mechanical strength of riparian roots, based on root tensile strength and density, contribute to the understanding of vegetation-enhanced bank strength. However, for land managers who require a simple method for determining which riparian vegetation species are most suited for bank stabilization (i.e., river restoration), these methods can require time-consuming efforts. The system the United States Forest Service (USFS) currently uses employs a qualitatively-based ranking scheme of riparian vegetation, which also implies that bank stability is an inherent characteristic of a riparian plant species, regardless of bank characteristics. We present a functional classification of riparian species for bank stability that meet the needs of land managers but still acknowledges that bank stability is not an inherent characteristic of vegetation, and that takes into account bank materials (sediment grain size and stratigraphy). The objectives of this research are to (1) develop a functional classification of riparian vegetation based on root morphology and role in stabilizing banks, using a bank stability model (BSTEM) to determine the added bank strength from diverse species for varying bank textures and geometries, and developing a ternary diagram of riparian vegetation based on bank stabilization characteristics (tensile strength, root depth and lateral extent, and root density or branching); and (2) understand the role of riparian indicator species in channel processes and streambank and valley formation. Tensile strength, root morphology and density, and stem density were obtained for 14 riparian species common to the Colorado Front Range (4 trees, 3 shrubs, 3 graminoids, and 4 forbs). We use BSTEM to determine the addition to bank stability for these species for a range of bank textures and geometries, ranging from fine-grained cohesive sediment to gravel and cobble non-cohesive banks. Preliminary results show forbs have the lowest root tensile strengths and graminoids have the highest strengths. Graminoids have significantly higher root densities than shrubs, trees, and forbs. We expect each species to provide a distinct range of additional bank stability, some of which are unique while others overlap. This classification is supplemented with additional root characteristics (depth, lateral extent, sinuosity) to develop the functional classification. This comparison of the bank stability added by species will be more quantitative, objective, and reproducible than the current method used by USFS.

  11. Should Banks Be Diversified? Evidence from Individual Bank Loan Portfolios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iftekhar Hasan; Anthony Saunders

    2006-01-01

    We study the effect of loan portfolio focus versus diversification on the return and the risk of 105 Italian banks over the period 1993–99 using data on bank-by-bank exposures to different industries and sectors. We find that diversification is not guaranteed to produce superior performance and\\/or greater safety for banks. For high-risk banks, diversification reduces bank return while producing riskier

  12. American Association of Tissue Banks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AATB here for more information ="imageslider.next()"> Tissue Bank Specialist Certification AATB offers a program for Certification ... prep and other meetings and training workshops >> Accredited Bank Search AATB’s Accreditation Program ensures that tissue-banking ...

  13. FDIC Banking Review, October 1999

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The FDIC's monthly publication Banking Review includes the article "Financially Distressed Banks: How Effective Are Enforcement Actions in the Supervision Process?" which looks at some effects of bank examinations.

  14. Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Environmental characteristics and human interaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deslarzes, K.J.P.

    1998-10-01

    This report is a multidisciplinary update of various topics concerning the Banks -- oceanography, meteorology, commercial fishing, recreation, military activities, hydrocarbon development, and potential environmental impacts. The area surrounding the Flower Garden Banks is increasingly active with oil and gas development.

  15. Federal Reserve Banks: Federal Reserve System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Feds on the Web site was developed by the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis to provide easy access to information from the Federal Reserve System. At the site, visitors may link to each of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks and Board of Governors via a short list of unique types of information available at each site. A map of the Federal Reserve districts, mailing addresses and phone numbers are also available at the site.

  16. 75 FR 67731 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...both of Victor, Iowa; Corydon State Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of...

  17. 75 FR 69444 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...both of Victor, Iowa; Corydon State Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of...

  18. Banking on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank

  19. Overflowing the Banks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson will teach students about levees and how they are designed to hold a river in its bank. They will construct a model of a river bank and explore how levees can cause water levels to back up into smaller streams and tributaries, causing floods.

  20. iBank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

    2012-01-01

    iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

  1. Rural banking in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard van Empel

    2010-01-01

    Many people in the vast rural areas of Africa lack access to financial services, and most commercial banks are not interested in moving into these areas due to their low income levels, lack of scale economies, and poor infrastructure. Also, few banks actually understand the most common economic activity in rural areas: agriculture. Consequently, the absence of financial institutions in

  2. Earth Science World Image Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    Visitors to the ImageBank can view and download photographs, remote imagery, and slide shows. The images are related to earth and space science topics such as dinosaurs, earthquakes, volcanoes, rocks and minerals, mining and petroleum, groundwater, planets and astronomical phenomena, and others. The site contains thousands of images and is searchable by category, continent, country, or keyword. A teachers' section provides links to educational materials such as books, posters, slide shows, professional development materials, scholarship information, and other resources.

  3. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...

  4. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...

  5. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF...

  6. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF...

  7. Reducing Fertility in Developing Countries: A Review of Determinants and Policy Levers. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 680 and Population and Development Series, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulatao, Rodolfo A.

    The determinants of fertility and attempts to extract conclusions that are relevant for fertility reduction policies in developing countries are investigated. The paper suggests that socioeconomic development has a decisive effect in lowering fertility in the long run but in the short run, and for specific households, the effect is not as…

  8. Women's Status and Fertility in Developing Countries: Son Preference and Economic Security. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 682 and Population and Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Mead

    The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of women's…

  9. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    GenBank® (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 300 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:25414350

  10. Using GenBank.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David

    2007-01-01

    GenBank(R) is a comprehensive database of publicly available DNA sequences for more than 205,000 named organisms and for more than 60,000 within the embryophyta, obtained through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure, and domain information and the biomedical journal literature through PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available through FTP. GenBank usage scenarios ranging from local analyses of the data available through FTP to online analyses supported by the NCBI Web-based tools are discussed. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:18287687

  11. World Bank Contribution to Building National HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity in Africa: Going beyond Indicator Development and Conceptual Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David

    2004-01-01

    International commitment to the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has grown rapidly in recent years, stimulated by the leadership of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and its cosponsors and supported by a range of new mechanisms. These include the World Bank's Multi-Country…

  12. Ex-situ conservation of Black poplar in Europe: genetic diversity in nine gene bank collections and their value for nature development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Storme; A. Vanden Broeck; B. Ivens; D. Halfmaerten; J. Van Slycken; S. Castiglione; F. Grassi; T. Fossati; J. E. Cottrell; H. E. Tabbener; F. Lefèvre; C. Saintagne; S. Fluch; V. Krystufek; K. Burg; S. Bordács; A. Borovics; K. Gebhardt; B. Vornam; A. Pohl; N. Alba; D. Agúndez; C. Maestro; E. Notivol; J. Bovenschen; B. C. van Dam; J. van der Schoot; B. J. Vosman; W. Boerjan; M. J. M. Smulders

    2004-01-01

    Populus nigra L. is a pioneer tree species of riparian ecosystems that is threatened with extinction because of the loss of its natural habitat. To evaluate the existing genetic diversity of P. nigra within ex-situ collections, we analyzed 675 P. nigra L. accessions from nine European gene banks with three amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and five microsatellite [or simple

  13. The Impact of Information Technology in Nigeria's Banking Industry

    E-print Network

    Oluwatolani, Oluwagbemi; Philip, Achimugu

    2011-01-01

    Today, information technology (IT) has become a key element in economic development and a backbone of knowledge-based economies in terms of operations, quality delivery of services and productivity of services. Therefore, taking advantage of information technologies (IT) is an increasing challenge for developing countries. There is now growing evidence that Knowledge-driven innovation is a decisive factor in the competitiveness of nations, industries, organizations and firms. Organizations like the banking sector have benefited substantially from e-banking, which is one among the IT applications for strengthening the competitiveness. This paper presents the current trend in the application of IT in the banking industries in Nigeria and gives an insight into how quality banking has been enhanced via IT. The paper further reveals that the deployment of IT facilities in the Nigerian Banking industry has brought about fundamental changes in the content and quality of banking business in the country. This analysis...

  14. Autonomous Multilateral Debridement with the Raven Surgical Robot Ben Kehoe1, Gregory Kahn2, Jeffrey Mahler2, Jonathan Kim2, Alex Lee2, Anna Lee2, Keisuke Nakagawa4,

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    Autonomous Multilateral Debridement with the Raven Surgical Robot Ben Kehoe1, Gregory Kahn2 to heal. We present an autonomous multilateral surgical debridement system using the Raven, an open) demonstrating the first reliable autonomous robot performance of a surgical sub-task using the Raven, and (3

  15. World Bank Experts Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created with reporters and editors in mind, the World Bank Experts Guide provides World Bank experts that are available to comment on to the media on a wide variety of topics. The list of experts may be viewed by name of expert or by subject. Each expert is given his or her own Webpage, which includes a short biography, expertise, and languages spoken, along with a photograph and related links. For ease of use, several "hot topics" are highlighted including AIDS/HIV and debt relief. This site gives an awe-inspiring look at the variety of experts working for the World Bank.

  16. Core 4: Image Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Image Bank supplements the coursework for Core 4: The Shaping of the Modern World, an introductory course offered by the History Department of Brooklyn College. The Image Bank indexes numerous historical images spanning from the Scientific Revolution to the present. The images are divided into eight major topic indexes: Ancien Regime and Critics; Age of Revolutions; Industry and Society; Liberalism and Nationalism; Varieties of Imperialism; The World Turned Upside Down; Fascism, Depression & WWII; and, The World Since 1945. Indexes for major topics contain clustered subtopics, allowing users to locate relevant images quickly. This Image Bank presents students and educators with a valuable, visual method for understanding Modern Western History.

  17. Measuring perceived service quality at UAE commercial banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naceur Jabnoun; Hussein A. Hassan Al-Tamimi

    2003-01-01

    Service quality is becoming more critical for banks to maintain their market shares. This paper develops a modified SERVQUAL for measuring service quality in the United Arab Emirates commercial banks. The instrument includes thirty items that belong to the five dimensions of SERVQUAL. The developed instrument was tested for reliability and validity and the results indicated that the instrument had

  18. Romanian Banks – Romanian SMEs: A Mutual Business Relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ion POPA; Camelia Elena CIOLAC; Sebastian CEPTUREANU; Eduard CEPTUREANU

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the bank-SMEs partnership in terms of ICT collaboration. The data about ICT projects developed in the Romanian banks having SMEs as a technology provider is collected by web content mining. Then, the paper addresses two main perspectives. At first, we identify the features that characterize the successful SMEs that managed to develop business relationships with the Romanian

  19. The New Economics of Banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Llewellyn

    1999-01-01

    All aspects of banking business are being radically transformed and to an extent that is changing the fundamental economics of the banking firm and the banking industry. This is because of three dominant factors: a series of powerful pressures acting simultaneously; technology is changing the very core of banking business: infor-mation advantages, processing, moni-toring, delivery, etc; and because, as a

  20. The Anatomy of Bank Diversification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Elsas; Andreas Hackethal; Markus Holzhaeuser

    2006-01-01

    We use panel data from nine countries over the period 1996 to 2003 to test how revenue diversi-fication in conjunction with increasing bank size affects bank value. Using a comprehensive framework for bank performance measurement, we find no evidence for a conglomerate discount, unlike studies concerned with industrial firms. Rather, revenue diversification increases bank profitability and is associated with higher

  1. The Evolution of Online Banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Ross

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the success of U.S. banks in utilizing online banking as a distribution channel for their products and services. The emergence of the Internet as a distribution medium of revolutionary potential in the mid-1990s was greeted by the majority of banks with reservation and caution. At the beginning of this era banks were

  2. Bank diversification, market structure and bank risk taking: theory and evidence from U.S. commercial banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Goetz

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies how a bank’s diversification affects its own risk taking behavior and the risk taking of competing, nondiversified banks. By combining theories of bank organization, market structure and risk taking, I show that greater geographic diversification of banks changes a bank’s lending behavior and market interest rates, which also has ramifications for nondiversified competitors due to interactions in

  3. Cross-border outsourcing and risk management for banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Kelly; Daniel Nolle

    2003-01-01

    U.S. banks are increasingly outsourcing an expanding range of their operations to third-party service providers. Recent industry estimates show that outsourcing by U.S. banks accounts for almost 20 percent of their information technology services spending. Importantly, the prospect of considerable cost savings and access to scarce information processing and development resources has led a growing number of banks to consider

  4. Consumers’ attitudes towards online and mobile banking in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Laforet; Xiaoyan Li

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to investigate the market status for online\\/mobile banking in China. With the recent and forecasted high growth of Chinese electronic banking, it has the potential to develop into a world-scale internet economy and requires examination. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The demographic, attitudinal and behavioural characteristics of online and mobile bank users were examined. Respondents

  5. Developing Item Banks for Measuring Pediatric Generic Health-Related Quality of Life: An Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth and Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Pranav K.; Thompson, Lindsay A.; Tuli, Sanjeev Y.; Revicki, Dennis A.; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Huang, I-Chan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop item banks by linking items from three pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments using a mixed methodology. Secondary data were collected from 469 parents of children aged 8-16 years. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth (ICF-CY) served as a framework to compare the concepts of items from three HRQoL instruments. The structural validity of the individual domains was examined using confirmatory factor analyses. Samejima's Graded Response Model was used to calibrate items from different instruments. The known-groups validity of each domain was examined using the status of children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Concepts represented by the items in the three instruments were linked to 24 different second-level categories of the ICF-CY. Eight item banks representing eight unidimensional domains were created based on the linkage of the concepts measured by the items of the three instruments to the ICF-CY. The HRQoL results of CSHCN in seven out of eight domains (except personality) were significantly lower compared with children without special health care needs (p<0.05). This study demonstrates a useful approach to compare the item concepts from the three instruments and to generate item banks for a pediatric population. PMID:25268926

  6. Statistics on Banking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The FDIC Statistics on Banking is a "quarterly publication that provides aggregate financial and structure information on FDIC-insured institutions, with summary totals by state and charter type." The latest figures for third quarter 1997 are now available.

  7. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  8. Fall Math Idea Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wendy Petti

    2014-01-01

    This math idea bank includes autumn themed hands-on activities focused on the topics of leaves, spiders, and pumpkins. Also included in this resource are links to online activities and websites for research.

  9. Banking Data and Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Humphrey, Ruth Kobylecky.

    This article on free banking data and research, created by Ruth Kobylecky Humphrey for the American Library Association, includes an index of annotations on a wide range of federal and association Websites that offer financial information and help for their members. The index is broken into several sections including Federal Agencies, The Federal Reserve System, International Banking, and the Secondary Market. Within each section, the entries are arranged in alphabetical order and carefully annotated.

  10. Cold-water coral banks and submarine landslides: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mol, Ben; Huvenne, Veerle; Canals, Miquel

    2009-06-01

    This paper aims to review the relation between cold-water coral bank development and submarine landslides. Both are common features on continental margins, but so far it has not been reviewed which effect—if at all—they may have upon each other. Indirect and direct relations between coral banks and landslides are evaluated here, based on four case studies: the Magellan Mound Province in the Porcupine Seabight, where fossil coral banks appear partly on top of a buried slide deposit; the Sula Ridge Reef Complex and the Storegga landslide both off mid-Norway; and the Mauritania coral bank province, associated with the Mauritanian Slide Complex. For each of these locations, positive and negative relationships between both features are discussed, based on available datasets. Locally submarine landslides might directly favour coral bank development by creating substratum where corals can settle on, enhancing turbulence due to abrupt seabed morphological variations and, in some cases, causing fluid seepage. In turn, some of these processes may contribute to increased food availability and lower sedimentation rates. Landslides can also affect coral bank development by direct erosion of the coral banks, and by the instantaneous increase of turbidity, which may smother the corals. On the other hand, coral banks might have a stabilising function and delay or stop the headwall retrogradation of submarine landslides. Although local relationships can be deduced from these case studies, no general and direct relationship exists between submarine landslides and cold-water coral banks.

  11. 12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

  12. 12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

  13. 12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution. 1805.201 Section 1805.201 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

  14. 12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution. 1805.201 Section 1805.201 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

  15. 12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

  16. 12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution. 1805.201 Section 1805.201 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

  17. 12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

  18. 12 CFR 250.410 - Interlocking relationships between bank and its commingled investment account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...410 Interlocking relationships between bank and its...Banking Act of 1933 in view of the interlocking relationships that would exist between...have been developed in respect to the application...would constitute a single entity for the...

  19. 12 CFR 250.410 - Interlocking relationships between bank and its commingled investment account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...410 Interlocking relationships between bank and its...Banking Act of 1933 in view of the interlocking relationships that would exist between...have been developed in respect to the application...would constitute a single entity for the...

  20. 12 CFR 250.410 - Interlocking relationships between bank and its commingled investment account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...410 Interlocking relationships between bank and its...Banking Act of 1933 in view of the interlocking relationships that would exist between...have been developed in respect to the application...would constitute a single entity for the...

  1. Bank Asset Liability Management Model Based on Multi-period Stochastic Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu Jin; Yingjie Feng; Xiaoyuan Huang

    2006-01-01

    A multi-period stochastic programming model with simple recourse was developed to study the asset and liability management of banks under uncertainties based on the domestic economic environment. The uncertainties in future asset returns and deposit flows of banks were considered and estimated by using the vector auto-regression method. Furthermore, empirical study on Shanghai Pudong development bank was made and compared

  2. Assessing the Impacts of Intergovernmental Economic Organizations: The Case of the World Bank and Nonformal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Michael G.

    A preliminary investigation into the World Bank's support of non-formal education in less-developed countries discusses the role of education in the development process, the Bank's concern with education, and its funding of non-formal education projects. The Bank's involvement in education projects is described, from support for upper division…

  3. A Summary of the Evaluation of the Educational Developmental Laboratories/American Institute of Banking High School Equivalency Program for Bank Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Elaine; And Others

    The New York Chapter of the American Institute of Banking (AIB) is a sponsor of the Joint Bank Hiring and Education Program for the Disadvantaged (HEP), the purpose of which is to hire and train undereducated adults and provide education that will enable the trainees to compete successfully in the banking industry. Educational Development

  4. The Impact of Bank and NonBank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqiang Cheng; Hans Degryse

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on the relationship between finance and growth in a fast growing country, such as China. Employing\\u000a data of 27 Chinese provinces over the period 1995–2003, we study whether the financial development of two different types\\u000a of financial institutions — banks and non-banks — have a (significantly different) impact on local economic growth. Our findings\\u000a indicate that

  5. 12 CFR 1261.14 - Vacant Bank directorships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacant Bank directorships. 1261.14 Section 1261.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK...

  6. 12 CFR 1261.14 - Vacant Bank directorships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacant Bank directorships. 1261.14 Section 1261.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK...

  7. The World Bank Group Energy Strategy

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    and Climate Change: A Strategic Framework for the World Bank Group EI extractive industry EITI Extractive..............................................................................................................................20 Appendix 1: Scope of the Energy Sector's Activities and Development CIF Climate Investment Funds CO2 carbon dioxide CTF Clean Technology Fund DCCSF Development

  8. World`s first application of a multilateral system combining a cased and cemented junction with fullbore access to both laterals

    SciTech Connect

    Hovda, S.; Haugland, T.; Waddel, K. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Norsk Hydro in conjunction with its service partners have completed the world`s first multilateral well with a cased and cemented junction and fullbore access to both laterals. Norsk Hydro`s Oseberg C platform has a limited number of slots to drill new wells to recover considerable reserves that remain in the Ness Formation of the Brent Group. Multilateral wells were seen as a solution to provide additional cost effective drainage points to the reservoir unit. This highly visible and multidisciplined project demanded a dedicated team from Norsk Hydro and Halliburton during the planning and execution phases. The C-12B horizontal section was drilled and completed as planned in the ORE (Oseberg, Rannoch & Etive) Formations. A window was cut in the 9 5/8-in. parent casing with a packer-based multilateral system. A new lateral was drilled and completed in the Ness Formation and the parent wellbore was regained. Commingled production is possible when the pressure differentials between the two formations have equalized. The following list outlines the main objectives of the testing of multilateral technology. (1) install the whipstock and mill a window (2) install a hollow whipstock (3) install and cement the lateral liner (4) reestablish the parent wellbore (5) acquire fullbore access to the Ness and ORE laterals Norsk Hydro and its service partners evaluated each operational phase according to success criteria mutually agreed upon at the outset of the project.

  9. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS... § 615.5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks...authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or...

  10. 31 CFR 1010.652 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 1010.652 Section 1010...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters,...

  11. 31 CFR 1010.652 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 1010.652 Section 1010...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters,...

  12. 31 CFR 103.187 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 103.187 Section 103.187...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes...or in any jurisdiction. (4) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters,...

  13. 78 FR 63476 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...Georgia 30309: 1. Jane Bryant Banks, Mary Banks Garnand, James Banks Garnand, and Daniel Michael Garnand, all of...indirectly retain voting shares of Merchants & Farmers Bank of Greene County, both in Eutaw, Alabama. Board of...

  14. Central banking in transition economies: Estonia and Belarus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Lassiter; Timothy O. Bisping; Joseph Horton

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider the difference in the development of the central bank in two states in transition from communism to capitalism and from being parts of the Soviet Union to being independent states. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data and theoretical analysis were gathered from various sources in order to evaluate the approach to central banking

  15. Water Sector -Aid Funded Business with the World Bank

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    million people live in countries experiencing water stress or scarcity. By 2035, it is projected that 3Water Sector - Aid Funded Business with the World Bank Scotland Development International Produced and shington, DC 15 June, 2010 #12;CONTENTS PAGE WORLD BANK WATER SECTOR OVERVIEW: Water Sector Overview 2 tion

  16. Using Soil Seed Banks for Ecological Education in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ju, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jae Geun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed an educational programme using soil seed banks to promote ecological literacy among primary school-aged children. The programme consisted of seven student activities, including sampling and setting soil seed banks around the school, watering, identifying seedlings, and making observations about the plants and their…

  17. Suppose There Were a "World Bank" for American Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    About 120 nations can borrow from an international bank for the purposes of financing domestic educational improvement. The United States is a donor to this bank, but by virtue of its economic development, it cannot borrow. Nevertheless, the virtues of having such a facility might be worth considering within the United States. This article briefly…

  18. Six Questions about The World Bank's 2020 Education Sector Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    Based on interviews with World Bank staff in April 2011, this article answers six questions about the World Bank's Education Sector Strategy 2020 (ESS 2020): (1) What is the ESS 2020? (2) What is it not? (3) How was the development process of the ESS 2020 different from that of past Strategies? (4) How are the policy recommendations of the ESS…

  19. ASSET LIABILITY MANAGEMENT IN BANK PORTFOLIOS WITH FUZZY LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. de Andrés; J. Angla; X. Cámara; M. C. Molina; S. Sardà

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we develop a model of asset liability management for banking companies that maximises bank profits and minimises capital requirement in accordance with the Basel Accords. The model is based on fuzzy programming, which we use to solve a bi objective programme with crisp coefficients. Subsequently, we propose a fuzzy programming model that makes it possible to avoid

  20. The evolution of commercial banking and financial markets in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzong-shian Yu

    1999-01-01

    Over the past five decades, Taiwan has achieved rapid economic development. Correspondingly, Taiwan’s financial system has been gradually transformed from a controlled system into a liberalized one, from a state banking system into a private banking one, and from an inward investment system into an outward investment one. In the financial market, the interest rate and foreign exchange rate have

  1. World Bank: Global Challenges: Fragile States

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank is concerned with many parts of the developing world, but they are particularly interested in the so-called "fragile states". Loosely defined, "fragile states" are countries "facing particularly severe development challenges such as weak institutional capacity, poor governance, political instability, and frequently on-going violence or the legacy effects of past severe conflict." To provide policy makers and others with information on their work in this area, the Bank has created this website. The material on the site includes a number of slideshow features and essays that address the fight against poverty in these countries, along with "best-practices" approaches to solving some of these seemingly intractable problems. Near the bottom of the page, visitors can click on sections such as "Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction" to learn more about the Bank's work in places like the Sudan and also take a look through the tremendously helpful "Economics of Conflict" website.

  2. A quality system for placental blood banking.

    PubMed

    Sirchia, G; Rebulla, P; Mozzi, F; Lecchi, L; Lazzari, L; Ratti, I

    1998-06-01

    A Quality System for Placental Blood Banking aimed at the transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells to related and unrelated allogeneic recipients is described. It includes the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management. The Quality System described in this article is based on ISO 9002, a model for quality assurance in production, installation and servicing developed in 1987 and revised in 1994 by the International Organization for Standardization. ISO 9002 includes 20 clauses that provide guidance for the implementation of the Quality System. The development of the Quality System is started by the Placental Blood Bank Medical Director with the definition of a General Quality Plan including: (1) the written description of the Mission, Objectives, Technical and Organizational Policies, and Staff Organization Chart; (2) the definition and acquisition of adequate financial, human and structural resources; (3) the appointment of a Quality System Head, who must identify the Placental Blood Banking process together with the Placental Blood Bank personnel; implement a documentation plan; identify quality indicators; start regular internal audit; report audit results to the Medical Director for review. Following staff training and qualification, the Quality System is launched. The Placental Blood Bank can then undergo audit by an external inspector and be finally certified for compliance to ISO 9002. The Quality System must be maintained and subjected to external audit at regular intervals so that certification is confirmed. PMID:9712493

  3. The Guaranty of Bank Deposits

    E-print Network

    Hopper, E.B.

    1913-06-01

    ,000 and there were no outstanding liabilities, (d) (9) Mr. H. H. Smock, the first flank Commissioner under the new law, favored it, enforced it rigidly and did all that he could to make it a succees. Mr. A. M. Y^ung, the Commis­ sioner who succeeded Mr. Smock... OF BANK DEPOSITS " A thesis submitted to the Department of Economics of the University of Kansas, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts. by Earl Brady Hopper - ? June 1913. C0HTENT8 Chapter I. Development...

  4. Are Banks Affiliated with Bank Holding Companies More Efficient Than Independent Banks? The Recent Experience Regarding Japanese Regional BHCs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyoshi Yamori; Kozo Harimaya; Kazumine Kondo

    2003-01-01

    Few studies have investigated whether Japanese banks affiliated with bank holding companies are more efficient and profitable than independent banks. The present paper tests this hypothesis by using both a stochastic frontier approach and a market valuation approach. First, our results suggest that banks affiliated with bank holding companies are not more cost-efficient than are independent banks. Because of the

  5. Should banks be diversified? Evidence from individual bank loan portfolios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viral V. Acharya; Anthony Saunders

    2002-01-01

    We study empirically the effect of focus (specialization) vs. diversification on the return and the risk of banks using data from 105 Italian banks over the period 1993-1999. Specifically, we analyze the tradeoffs between (loan portfolio) focus and diversification using a unique data set that is able to identify individual bank loan exposures to different industries, to different sectors, and

  6. A Multilateral Exchange Rate Model (Un modèle de taux de change multilatéral) (Un modelo multilateral de tipos de cambio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques R. Artus; Rudolf R. Rhomberg

    1973-01-01

    The general equilibrium model described in this paper was developed to facilitate the assessment of the trade effects of simultaneous changes in the exchange rates of several countries that are closely associated through foreign trade. The analysis of the trade effects of such a currency realignment requires that account be taken of the simultaneous interaction among prices, incomes, and spending

  7. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

  8. An aggregate structural model of competition in the European banking industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien Neven; Lars-Hendrik Röller

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze competition in the European banking industry in light of the changing regulatory frameworks to which banks are exposed. We focus on the provision of mortgages to households and loans to the corporate sectors in seven European countries. We develop and estimate an aggregate model for the European banking industry which controls for

  9. The Regulation and Supervision of Banks around the World: A New Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Levine; James Barth

    2001-01-01

    This new and comprehensive database on the regulation and supervision of banks in 107 countries should better inform advice about bank regulation and supervision and lower the marginal cost of empirical research.International consultants on bank regulation and supervision for developing countries often base their advice on how their home country does things, for lack of information on practice in other

  10. A multivariate analysis of the determinants of Moody’s bank financial strength ratings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winnie P. H. Poon; Michael Firth; Hung-Gay Fung

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 Moody’s Investors Services inaugurated a new rating service, bank financial strength ratings (BFSRs), that assesses the safety and soundness of banks in over 50 countries. Our study sets out to do some preliminary investigations of this new type of credit rating. We develop logistic regression models to help explain or predict BFSRs. Using bank-specific accounting and financial data

  11. Banking Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Growth: International Evidence from Industry Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Cetorelli; Michele Gambera

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the empirical relevance of banking market structure on growth. There is substantial evidence of a positive relationship between the level of development of the banking sector of an economy and its long-run output growth. Little is known, however, about the role played by the market structure of the banking sector on the dynamics of capital accumulation. This

  12. Reaction of European Bank stock prices to events of the Asian and Russian Financial crises

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Reaction of European Bank stock prices to events of the Asian and Russian Financial crises Céline of the Asian and Russian financial crises for a sample of European banks. This issue is of importance regarding financial fragility and contagion effects within the banking industry. We develop an event study methodology

  13. Is the World Bank Education Policy Adequate for Fighting Poverty? Some Evidence from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonal, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between the World Bank's education policy and the recent anti-poverty priorities and strategies that shape the present Bank's agenda for development. The paper provides a critical assessment of the explicit strategies of the World Bank's education policies aimed at fighting poverty by identifying the…

  14. Do Reforms in Transition Economies Affect Foreign Bank Entry&quest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Lensink; Jakob Haan

    2002-01-01

    Using a newly developed database for eight transition economies, this paper examines whether reforms and political freedom are important for foreign bank entry. We provide evidence that foreign bank entry positively responds to reform measures. We also find some support for the importance of political freedom. Our estimates suggest that economic reform affects foreign bank entry by enhancing the efficiency

  15. Provision of electronic banking in the UK and the Republic of Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Electronic or online banking is the newest delivery channel to be offered by the retail banks in many developed countries and there is wide agreement that this channel will have a significant impact on the market. Aims to quantify the current provision of electronic services by major retail banking organisations in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Additional insight

  16. Criteria Used by Private Bank Officers to Evaluate New Ventures: An Analysis of Gaps and Shortcomings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørnar Reitan; Sigmund J. Waagø

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the criteria used by private bank officers in Norway when evaluating and validating new venture proposals. A questionnaire was administered to 130 private bank officers in four Norwegian banks to determine the criteria they use to decide on funding new ventures. The response rate was 83.1%. A list of forty-two criteria was developed, building

  17. Automated Test Item Banking. Final Report for Period January 1977-February 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ree, Malcolm James

    The computer can assist test construction in the following four ways: (1) storage or banking of test items; (2) banking of item attributes; (3) test construction; and (4) test printing. Automated Item Banking (AIB) is a computerized item storage and test construction system which illustrates these capabilities. It was developed, implemented, and…

  18. Antecedents of online banking satisfaction and loyalty: empirical evidence from Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heikki Karjaluoto; Lasse Jarvenpaa; Ville Kauppi

    2009-01-01

    This study endeavours to contribute to a better understanding of Service Quality (SQ) in online banking by examining the various dimensions related to creating a satisfactory online banking experience. The authors develop a conceptual model and test it with a convenience sample of 183 online banking users. The empirical test of the model finds strong support for the links between

  19. Renewable energy in Iran: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Atabi

    Around the globe, developing countries have reported different cases of successfully implemented Renewable Energy (RE) program supported by bilateral or multilateral funding. In developing countries subsidy has played a big role in RE program marketing and whether this will lead to sustainable development is yet to be determined. The adoption of implementation strategies that will support sustainable development and overcoming

  20. The efficiency of bank branches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen N. Berger; John H. Leusner; John J. Mingo

    1994-01-01

    Most of the early studies of bank efficiency focused on scale and product mix efficiency, or how close banks are to producing at the scale or product mix that minimizes costs per unit of output. Despite these past efforts, something rather important is missing from most of the analysis according to the authors - evaluation of bank branch efficiency. There

  1. The anatomy of bank diversification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Elsas; Andreas Hackethal; Markus Holzhäuser

    2010-01-01

    We use panel data from nine countries over the period 1996–2008 to test how revenue diversification affects bank value. Relying on a comprehensive framework for bank performance measurement, we find robust evidence against a conglomerate discount, unlike studies concerned with industrial firms. Rather, diversification increases bank profitability and, as a consequence also market valuations. This indirect performance effect does not

  2. FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA First Mover Advantage: A Portfolio Perspective of the State Analysts FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA #12;Disclaimer Our remarks today reflect our own views OF PHILADELPHIA Paul R. Flora Senior Economic Analyst FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA First Mover Advantage

  3. Bank Relationship and Firm Profitability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Degryse; S. Ongena

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing virtually all Norwegian publicly listed firms for the period 1979-1995. We find that profitability is substantially higher if firms maintain

  4. Do Banks Provide Financial Slack?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. Hadlock; Christopher M. James

    2002-01-01

    We study the decision to choose bank debt rather than public securities in a firm's marginal financing choice. Using a sample of 500 firms over the 1980 to 1993 time period, we find that firms are relatively more likely to choose bank loans when variables that measure asymmetric information problems are elevated. The sensitivity of the likelihood of choosing bank

  5. Personnel Management for Rural Banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheth N R; Shah B G

    This paper presents an analysis of the problem of adjustment to the rural environment among the branch managers in commercial banks working in rural areas in consequence of the lead bank scheme. The analysis is based on data collected during an exploratory study of the lead bank scheme in a district in Gujarat State. The data suggest that urban-oriented managers

  6. The Diffusion of Online Banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Bradley; Kate Stewart

    2003-01-01

    The financial services environment has been subject to changes on many fronts. Technological change and the advent of the Internet are among the most dramatic and challenging areas of change for the sector. This paper looks at retail banking and its adoption of online banking, in particular the factors driving and inhibiting adoption by banks. An international Delphi study confirms

  7. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, published by ARRAY Development, is a bimonthly ezine devoted to all aspects of electronic commerce. Though published in Canada, it has an international flavor. Articles are of varying length and complexity, and reader submissions are solicited. The present issue (Vol. 1 No. 5) contains articles on stored-value cards, 2560 bit encryption keys, and the possible future role of Central Banks in Internet payments, among others. A complete archive of all issues (browsable only) is available at the site.

  8. DOE/ANL/HTRI heat exchanger tube vibration data bank

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, H.; Chenoweth, J.M.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1980-02-01

    Development of a new heat exchanger tube vibration data bank at Argonne National Laboratory is described. Comprehensive case histories on heat exchangers that have experienced tube-vibration problems and units that have been trouble-free are accumulated and this information is rendered available for evaluation, improvement, and development of vibration-prediction methods and design guidelines. Discussions include difficulties in generating a data bank, data form development, and solicitation efforts. Also included are 15 case histories upon which the data bank will be built. As new case histories are received, they will be assembled and published as addenda to this report.

  9. Modelling Satisfaction with Automated Banking Channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm Beynon; Mark M. H. Goode; Luiz A. Moutinho; Helena R. Snee

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply a new technique, i.e., Variable Precision Rough Set Theory (VPRS) to explaining consumer satisfaction with automated banking channels. VPRS is a new development on the original Rough Set Theory (RST) (for a discussion of RST see Slowinski et al. (1997) or Dimitras et al. (1999), for a discussion of VPRS see Ziarko,

  10. World Bank Teachers and Students Home Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank Site (reviewed in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business and Economics) now has a section specifically devoted to educational resources. Educational material found here relates to topics relevant to the World Bank's larger mission of reducing international poverty and raising the standard of living for people in developing nations. For instance, the Learning Materials area focuses on sustainable development, with learning modules on Population Growth Rate and Access to Safe Water, as well as graphs, charts, and questions for students and teachers to explore. Students have the opportunity to get their own work published in the Sustainable Development Post, an online newspaper with student contributors from around the world. Other areas of the site offer resources on specific issues, such as AIDS, climate change, and gender, or on particular regions and countries. Teachers and students can also use the site to learn more about the World Bank and its mission, read views on development from people around the world, and learn how to use data and other tools available at the World Bank site. Sections of the site are yet to be completed, but on the whole, there are plenty of resources to keep classrooms busy.

  11. A Terminology Data Bank for Translators (TEAM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, J.

    1980-01-01

    The TEAM system is a data bank developed in Germany for translators of specialized technical, economic, and scientific texts. The system is described in nontechnical language, with attention to multilingual terminology, multiword terms, phraseology, definitions and contexts, synonyms, grammatical data, and data organization and retrieval. (MSE)

  12. World Bank Atlas. [Twenty-Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This edition of the World Bank Atlas presents curent economic and social data for 185 countries and territories in the world. A number of maps, tables, and graphs highlight key relationships and trends in the development of the countries. The atlas includes data on population, gross national product (GNP), share of agriculture in gross domestic…

  13. The World Bank and School Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahar, Mary Helen

    1984-01-01

    Describes formation of the seminar on School Libraries/Media Centers held on October 19, 1982, at the World Bank, Washington, D.C. Highlights include seminar writers, summaries of three background papers (teaching-learning role of media centers/libraries; organization, structure, staffing and administration; perspective from developing countries);…

  14. It is time for IsoBank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was back in 1982, when the United States was mired in the Cold War and a recession, that the National Institutes of Health awarded a five-year, $3.2 million grant to a group of scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop GenBank. It now houses nearly 200 billion bases from 178 mil...

  15. SpeciesBank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SpeciesBank is a growing library of digital information about the biological species of Canada. It includes high-quality photographs, distribution maps, identification guidance, and a host of other information including links to monographs and species-specific information elsewhere on the Internet. The site is divided into sections that cover butterflies, brassicaceae, poisonous plants, moths, and noctuoidea.

  16. Banking & Financial Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Brenda; Sorrell, Lisa

    This document, which is intended for high school business teachers, outlines the plan for a course in which students gain hands-on experience in operating a bank in which students actually deposit money. The document begins with a brief course description, rationale, and list of 11 course objectives. Presented next is background information about…

  17. PLATFORMS FOR DNA BANKING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accelerated use of genomic technology in biological research portends a changing pattern in the use of genetic resource collections and fuels the desire among researchers to establish DNA banks. DNA sequencing of herbarium sheet specimens, cell cultures and germplasm offers a new approach to st...

  18. Replacing America's Job Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  19. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

  20. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing. PMID:23666187

  1. Geographic diversification in banking, market share changes, and the viability of small independent banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Rose; John D. Wolken

    1990-01-01

    The prospect of unlimited nationwide banking raises a question about the viability of small independent banks in competition with large, geographically diversified banking organizations. This study addresses the issue of small bank viability by focusing on the relative performance of independent banks and bank holding company subsidiaries in a regime of intrastate banking, where “performance” is measured by the cumulative

  2. 12 CFR 7.1000 - National bank ownership of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National bank ownership of property. 7.1000 Section 7.1000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND...

  3. 12 CFR 7.1000 - National bank ownership of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National bank ownership of property. 7.1000 Section 7.1000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND...

  4. Development of a 3D Model for the Assessment of Vulnerability Due to Sea Level Rise on the Historic Strawbery Banke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, M.; Curran, B.; Routhier, M.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Hall, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    The study of climate change is now starting to be widely researched around the world. One prominent exception to this fact is within the discipline of Historic Preservation. With the likelihood of climate change causing sea levels to rise over decades to come, historical preservationists are now looking for data and information which can help them mitigate potential threats to our cultural heritage along our sea coasts. Some such information that can be helpful in understanding these threats includes geographic information such as the locations of artifacts, fossils, and historic structures as well as their vertical elevation above mean sea level. In an effort to build a set of protocols to help preservations study these threats, our work is currently focusing on a historic living history museum site known as Strawbery Banke in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. This poster features a subset of this work that was completed through undergraduate student internships funded by the Joan and James Leitzel Center at the University of New Hampshire. This subset of work focused on the creation a 3D model of the study site. Two aspects of the creation of this model involved the completion of a topographic ground survey and the 3D digital mapping of the site itself. The ground survey was completed with the use of standard surveying techniques and tools and the 3D digital mapping was completed with the use of ArcScene, a software which is part of the ArcGIS suite. This work was completed in conjunction with a larger study funded by the National Geographic Society to better understand how sea level rise and the effects of storm surges are putting the historic structures at Strawbery Banke at risk.

  5. Towards alternative strategies for sustainable development in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Eyong; I. I. Foy

    2006-01-01

    African dynasties and empires enjoyed sustainable development prior to Western contact and conquest. This is fast eroding since the colonial era of rooting out all what is African by 'modernizing'Africa through the inculcation of Western ideologies and technologies. Bilateral and multilateral development cooperation for Africa has strongly favoured flawed strategies that put classical economic models at the forefront ofAfrica's development.

  6. The Maturity, Sectoral and Nationality Distribution of International Bank Lending

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the Bank for International Settlements (discussed in the March 7, 1997 Scout Report), this semi-annual publication (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) tracks the distribution of international bank lending. Current issues are accompanied by relevant data in .csv (comma-separated value) format, for easy use in spreadsheet or statistical programs. The latest (May 1998) issue addresses late 1997 developments, including "the movements of funds which took place at the height of the Asian crisis." Reports generally cover banking developments with a lag time of about six months, and are currently available back to June 1996. CSV tables are available back to January 1998.

  7. Bank Erosion as a Desirable Attribute of Rivers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joan L. Florsheim (University of California at Davis; )

    2008-06-01

    Bank erosion is integral to the functioning of river ecosystems. It is a geomorphic process that promotes riparian vegetation succession and creates dynamic habitats crucial for aquatic and riparian plants and animals. River managers and policymakers, however, generally regard bank erosion as a process to be halted or minimized in order to create landscape and economic stability. Here, we recognize bank erosion as a desirable attribute of rivers. Recent advances in our understanding of bank erosion processes and of associated ecological functions, as well as of the effects and failure of channel bank infrastructure for erosion control, suggest that alternatives to current management approaches are greatly needed. In this article, we develop a conceptual framework for alternatives that address bank erosion issues. The alternatives conserve riparian linkages at appropriate temporal and spatial scales, consider integral relationships between physical bank processes and ecological functions, and avoid secondary and cumulative effects that lead to the progressive channelization of rivers. By linking geomorphologic processes with ecological functions, we address the significance of channel bank erosion in sustainable river and watershed management.

  8. Technology and Economics Affecting Unconventional Reservoir Development

    E-print Network

    Flores Campero, Cecilia P.

    2010-01-15

    the introduction of new technologies that have boosted even more oil and gas production from the plays. Great examples are the use of horizontal and multilateral wells which has opened up additional areas for development, such as the Barnett Shale and the Bakken...

  9. 12 CFR 225.115 - Applicability of Bank Service Corporation Act in certain bank holding company situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of Bank Service Corporation Act in certain bank holding company situations. 225.115 Section 225.115 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  10. PhysioBank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The PhsyioBank is an impressive archive of digital recordings of physiologic signals and related data for use by the biomedical research community. The website is maintained by the National Institute of Biomedical Imagining and Bioengineering and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and new material is being added on a regular basis. Currently, the site includes biomedical signals and reports from healthy subjects and patients with a range of conditions, including congestive heart failure, epilepsy, gait disorders, and sleep apnea. First-time visitors would do well to take the interactive tour and then use the Getting Started section for locating resources. Also, visitors should make sure to look at the PhysioBank Archives. Here they will find a complete listing of all the currently available databases, organized according to the types of signals and annotations contained in each database. Finally, visitors can send queries about the site and its database via a contact form on the site's homepage.

  11. World Bank Integrity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created as part of the World Bank Group, the Integrity Vice Presidency "independently investigates allegations of corruption and fraud." On their homepage, much of the material is covered within three primary sections: "Fighting Fraud & Corruption", "Investigating Staff Misconduct", and "Allegations". In the "Fighting Fraud & Corruption" area, visitors can learn about completed investigations and learn about the outcomes, which in many cases include sanctions and debarments. Moving on, the "Investigating Staff Misconduct" area includes information about recent investigations into partner organizations who have worked with the World Bank in the past and alleged abuses regarding travel fraud, abuse of authority, and corruption within infrastructure projects. Visitors may also wish to scroll down on the homepage to look over their annual report and check out news updates.

  12. The Changing Role of the WORLD BANK in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2005-01-01

    The World Bank began operations on June 25, 1946. Although it was established to finance European reconstruction after World War II, the bank today is a considerable force in the health, nutrition, and population (HNP) sector in developing countries. Indeed, it has evolved from having virtually no presence in global health to being the world’s largest financial contributor to health-related projects, now committing more than $1 billion annually for new HNP projects. It is also one of the world’s largest supporters in the fight against HIV/AIDS, with commitments of more than $1.6 billion over the past several years. I have mapped this transformation in the World Bank’s role in global health, illustrating shifts in the bank’s mission and financial orientation, as well as the broader changes in development theory and practice. Through a deepened understanding of the complexities of development, the World Bank now regards investments in HNP programs as fundamental to its role in the global economy. PMID:15623860

  13. Who Robbed the Bank?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students use DNA profiling to determine who robbed a bank. After they learn how the FBI's Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is used to match crime scene DNA with tissue sample DNA, students use CODIS principles and sample DNA fragments to determine which of three suspects matches evidence obtain at a crime location. They communicate their results as if they were biomedical engineers reporting to a police crime scene investigation.

  14. 78 FR 48918 - Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...certificate company, as well as any business development...ESC''). ``Fund Servicing Activities'' means...Professions Code relating to a Wells Fargo Bank bookkeeping...which they provided Fund Servicing Activities. Applicants...other than certain of Wells Fargo Bank's)...

  15. 77 FR 70193 - Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ...certificate company, as well as a business development...ESC''). ``Fund Servicing Activities'' means...Complaint'') against Wells Fargo Bank in the United...which they provided Fund Servicing Activities. Applicants...other than certain of Wells Fargo Bank's)...

  16. Generating interest rate scenarios for bank asset liability management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosmidou Kyriaki; Constantin Zopounidis

    2008-01-01

    Over the last years the Second European Directive on Banking and Financial services demand that financial institutions develop\\u000a asset liability management tools to identify and measure the various financial risks they encounter. The present paper develops\\u000a a goal programming ALM model with a simulation analysis, to assist a commercial bank in managing its exposure to interest\\u000a rate risk taking into

  17. The local knowledge bank : uncovering the processes and networks of social innovation at Brazil's first community bank

    E-print Network

    Gao, Ying, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I apply a case study method to examine the processes of knowledge management both within the neighborhood, and in institutional partnerships, by Banco Palmas, Brazil's first community development bank, as ...

  18. Bank Portfolios and the Bank Lending Channel in Austria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johann Burgstaller; Johannes Kepler

    This paper analyzes the adjustments in the structure of assets and liabilities of the Austrian banking sector taking place after a monetary tightening. Following increases in short-term interest rates, the share of loans to non-banks in interest-earning assets rises, which is at odds with predictions from the bank lending channel of monetary policy transmission. An extension of credit to nonfinancial

  19. Wave basin model tests of technical-biological bank protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sloped embankments of inland waterways are usually protected from erosion and other negative im-pacts of ship-induced hydraulic loads by technical revetments consisting of riprap. Concerning the dimensioning of such bank protection there are several design rules available, e.g. the "Principles for the Design of Bank and Bottom Protection for Inland Waterways" or the Code of Practice "Use of Standard Construction Methods for Bank and Bottom Protection on Waterways" issued by the BAW (Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute). Since the European Water Framework Directive has been put into action special emphasis was put on natural banks. Therefore the application of technical-biological bank protection is favoured. Currently design principles for technical-biological bank protection on inland waterways are missing. The existing experiences mainly refer to flowing waters with no or low ship-induced hydraulic loads on the banks. Since 2004 the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute has been tracking the re-search and development project "Alternative Technical-Biological Bank Protection on Inland Water-ways" in company with the Federal Institute of Hydrology. The investigation to date includes the ex-amination of waterway sections where technical- biological bank protection is applied locally. For the development of design rules for technical-biological bank protection investigations shall be carried out in a next step, considering the mechanics and resilience of technical-biological bank protection with special attention to ship-induced hydraulic loads. The presentation gives a short introduction into hydraulic loads at inland waterways and their bank protection. More in detail model tests of a willow brush mattress as a technical-biological bank protec-tion in a wave basin are explained. Within the scope of these tests the brush mattresses were ex-posed to wave impacts to determine their resilience towards hydraulic loads. Since the developing pore water pressure is significant considering the slope stability under hydraulic load, particular atten-tion is paid to the interaction of willow roots and pore water pressure. Furthermore the occurring ero-sion is determined. The methods of measurements, test conditions and executions as well as first results will be presented.

  20. 12 CFR 7.2024 - Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staggered terms for national bank directors...Corporate Practices § 7.2024 Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board. (a) Staggered terms. Any national bank...

  1. The effects of culture on banking strategy : a study of three banks in three countries

    E-print Network

    Kuroiwa, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    Every company pursues a different strategy, and banks are no different. In the banking industry, each bank performs its business based on its own business strategies. Japanese banks have different strategies, but in terms ...

  2. Measuring the post-adoption customer perception of mobile banking services.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Fang, Kwoting

    2009-02-01

    With liberalization and internalization in the financial market and progress in information technology, banks face dual competitive pressures to provide service quality and administrative efficiency. That these recent developments are fueled by technology might misleadingly suggest that the adoption of mobile banking is largely based on technological criteria. The purpose of this study is to establish a better measurement model for postadoption user perception of mobile banking services. Based on 458 valid responses of mobile banking users, the results show that the instrument, consisting of 21 items and 6 factors, is a reliable, valid, and useful measurement for assessing the postadoption perception of mobile banking. PMID:19018694

  3. 12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution. 1805... Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS...

  4. 12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution. 1805... Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS...

  5. Bank Relationships and Firm Profitability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Degryse; Steven Ongena

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing virtually all Norwegian publicly listed firms for the period 1979-1995. We find a robust and economically relevant negative two-way correspondence

  6. Bank Competition and Financial Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen N. Berger; Leora F. Klapper; Rima Turk-Ariss

    2009-01-01

    Under the traditional “competition-fragility” view, more bank competition erodes market power, decreases profit margins, and\\u000a results in reduced franchise value that encourages bank risk taking. Under the alternative “competition-stability” view, more\\u000a market power in the loan market may result in higher bank risk as the higher interest rates charged to loan customers make\\u000a it harder to repay loans, and exacerbate

  7. AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse

    PubMed Central

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    Background AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. Aims The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. Methods & Procedures We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. Main Contribution AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. Conclusions AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

  8. AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse.

    PubMed

    Macwhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. AIMS: The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. MAIN CONTRIBUTION: AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. CONCLUSIONS: AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

  9. 77 FR 55214 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...percent of the voting shares of Lakeside Bank Holding Company, and thereby indirectly retain voting shares of Lakeside State Bank, both in New Town, North Dakota, and McKenzie County Bank, Watford City, North Dakota. Board...

  10. 78 FR 38978 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...than July 15, 2013. A. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (Chapelle Davis, Assistant...indirectly retain shares of The Citizens State Bank of Taylor County, Reynolds, Georgia. B. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Gerald C. Tsai,...

  11. 76 FR 25692 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...20, 2011. A. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (Glenda Wilson...retain control of First National Bank of Muhlenberg County, Kentucky, both in Central City, Kentucky. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City (Dennis...

  12. 78 FR 33092 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ...views in writing to the Reserve Bank indicated for that notice or...2013. A. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (Yvonne Sparks...acquire voting shares of Hardin County Bancorp, Rosiclare, Illinois...thereby indirectly acquire Area Bank, Rosiclare, Illinois....

  13. 76 FR 41500 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...later than July 29, 2011. A. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (Colette A. Fried, Assistant Vice...indirectly acquire control of Town and Country Bank, Springfield, Illinois, and Logan County Bank, Lincoln, Illinois. Board of Governors...

  14. 77 FR 46762 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...Corp., and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of The Middlefield Banking Company, both in Middlefield, Ohio, and Emerald Bank, Dublin; Ohio. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (Chapelle Davis, Assistant Vice President) 1000 Peachtree...

  15. 76 FR 7568 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act...Spurzem, individually, and Sandbox, LLC, both of Charlottesville...Virginia. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System,...

  16. Bank capital regulation, diversification loss and the probability of bank failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Tsuji

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of bank capital regulation on the probability of bank failure. Utilizing a two-parameter approach, it is shown that the relationship between bank capital ratio and probability of bank failure is not necessarily negative, and that capital ratio regulation may increase the probability of bank failure. This is because an increase in bank capital ratio may

  17. 12 CFR 209.2 - Banks desiring to become member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Banks desiring to become member banks. 209.2 Section 209.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE...

  18. 12 CFR 209.2 - Banks desiring to become member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks desiring to become member banks. 209.2 Section 209.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE...

  19. The impact of bank regulations, supervision, market structure, and bank characteristics on individual bank ratings: A cross-country analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fotios Pasiouras; Chrysovalantis Gaganis; Constantin Zopounidis

    2006-01-01

    We use country level data and bank level data from 71 countries and 857 banks to investigate the impact of bank regulations,\\u000a supervision, market structure, and bank characteristics on individual bank ratings. The results indicate that less cost efficient\\u000a banks, with higher than average levels of provisions relatively to their income, and lower liquidity tend to have lower ratings.\\u000a Larger

  20. Vocational Education and Training: A Review of World Bank Investment. World Bank Discussion Papers 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, John; Demsky, Terry

    A study of a representative sample of 121 World Bank-funded vocational education and training components suggests that the level of economic development and consequent size and dynamism of industrial employment powerfully influence the outcome of such education and training. Consequently, future investment strategies should differ among countries…

  1. Thinking about the World Bank’s “accordion” geography of financial globalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Coleman

    2002-01-01

    Two “flagship” World Bank reports, entitled The Long March—A Reform Agenda for Latin America and the Caribbean In The Next Decade (1997) and the World Development Report, 1999–2000 (2000), are the subject of this paper. Both publications attempt to come to terms with the policy and practice of structural adjustment in the context of a new geography of global finance.

  2. Efficiency of the Polish banking industry: Foreign versus domestic banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olena Havrylchyk

    2006-01-01

    The present paper investigates the efficiency of the Polish banking industry between 1997 and 2001. Our preferred methodology is Data Envelopment Analysis, which allows us to distinguish between cost, allocative, technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency. Additionally, we perform a number of tests to investigate whether domestic and foreign banks come from the same population. Finally, we attempt to shed

  3. Using Banks: Teaching Banking Skills to Low-Income Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

    This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…

  4. Bricks vs clicks: entrepreneurial online banking behaviour and relationship banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Han

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – Little research has been conducted on the effects of information technology on financing entrepreneurial businesses or small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of entrepreneurial online banking and relationship banking on the severity of financial problems perceived by entrepreneurs and their interactive effect. It also investigates how characteristics of

  5. Idea Bank: Changing Misconceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tara Holzmiller

    2008-12-01

    During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.

  6. 78 FR 25858 - National Practitioner Data Bank

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...60 and 61 RIN 0906-AA87 National Practitioner Data Bank AGENCY: Health Resources...the final rule entitled ``National Practitioner Data Bank'' which appeared in the...INFORMATION CONTACT: Director, Division of Practitioner Data Banks, Bureau of Health...

  7. 75 FR 72611 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...12 CFR Part 327 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing; Proposed Rule Federal Register...327 RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance...number and the words ``Assessments, Large Bank Pricing NPR,'' by any of the...

  8. 77 FR 18109 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...327 RIN 3064-AD92 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance...number and the words ``Assessments, Large Bank Pricing Definition Revisions Notice of...CONTACT: Patrick Mitchell, Chief, Large Bank Pricing Section, Division of...

  9. 76 FR 10671 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ...12 CFR Part 327 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing; Final Rule Federal Register...327 RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance...898-6796; Lisa Ryu, Chief, Large Bank Pricing Section, Division of...

  10. US-Canada Great Lakes Regional Specimen Bank Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Kerry, A; Edmonds, C J; Landon, L; Yonker, T L

    1993-11-01

    A study to examine the feasibility of establishing a Regional Specimen Bank in the Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada has recently been initiated by the Michigan Audubon Society. There are several existing formal and informal specimen banking facilities active in the region but their combined adequacy has not been evaluated. This feasibility study will establish the need and use of a regional bank and the institution(s) necessary to satisfy this need will be recommended. The study will address the scope required to meet present and future needs including the types of specimens to be represented in the bank, geographic coverage and protocols for collection, shipping, processing, analysis and storage. A management policy of the bank will be developed encompassing business operation, costs, governing structure and personnel requirements. The legal requirements of the bank will be determined with regards to the acquisition of samples, transport across national boundaries, access to specimens and information, and liability during operation. An effective information dissemination network will be recommended that is compatible with national and international partners, will facilitate technology and information transfer and support the quality and status of the bank. Determination of secure, long-term funding sources will be one of the key elements to ensuring a safe repository. This feasibility study is funded by the Great Lakes Protection Fund. PMID:8272827

  11. Nonprofit Human Milk Banking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Updegrove, Kimberly

    2013-07-29

    Human milk, widely understood to be beneficial for infants, can be lifesaving for preterm neonates, especially in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Donor human milk (DHM) is an option when mothers are unable to provide milk or have an inadequate supply for their infants. Nonprofit donor human milk banks are established to provide safe, processed human milk from milk donated by healthy lactating mothers who have undergone a rigorous screening process. These milk banks, operating under the auspices of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America, obtain, process, and dispense human milk under strict guidelines set by the association. Increasing the supply of donor human milk to meet a dramatic increase in demand poses a significant challenge for nonprofit milk banks. Efforts to increase supply nationwide include education of providers, use of social media to engage potential donors, and outreach to news media. In parallel, milk banks are establishing regional depots to collect donations, and additional milk banks are being developed. This article describes the current nonprofit milk bank industry in the United States, its challenges, and its future prospects. PMID:23895257

  12. The World Bank: HIV and AIDS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    UNAIDS (The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) and the World Bank worked together to create the AIDS Economics site to help improve understanding of the economics of HIV/AIDS and to "help researchers and policymakers in developing countries to define and implement humane, cost-effective policies to fight the disease." The highlight of the site is the summary of the findings and statistical appendices from Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic, a World Bank report. The full text of the report will be available shortly. The site also features a toolkit to assist consultants in assessing the implications of HIV/AIDS in the distribution of development assistance. Visitors to the site can also sign up for AIDS Economics, a free electronic newsletter.

  13. The service quality of e-banks: an exploratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Gerrard; J. Barton Cunningham

    2005-01-01

    This study develops a model for measuring the service quality of e-banks. Our model's seven factors are very consistent with the four core factors of the generic e-SERVQUAL model, but less consistent with its three non-core factors. Appearances and staff qualities, being new factors identified in this study, should be useful to e-bank management because they are factors uniquely relevant

  14. Access to Bank Financing and New Investment: Evidence from Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry W. Chavis; Leora F. Klapper; Inessa Love

    \\u000a In this paper we study the relationship between firm age, the use of external finance and new investment decisions, in a sample\\u000a of European firms. We find that younger firms use less bank financing than older firms only in non-EU countries, suggesting\\u000a that greater financial development and a stronger investment climate offers young firms greater access to bank financing.\\u000a Next,

  15. Global Banking and Local Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pietro Alessandrini; Andrea Filippo Presbitero; Alberto Zazzaro

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a widely-shared opinion among scholars and practitioners was that the importance of physical proximity between banks and borrowers would be doomed to drastically decrease over time and, put in extreme terms, the end of banking geography would become a real possibility. However, the empirical evidence show an unrelenting importance of local credit markets for small borrowers

  16. Tumour Banking: The Spanish Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Morente; E. de Alava; P. L. Fernandez

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can

  17. Case Study: Online Banking Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kjell Jørgen Hole; Vebjørn Moen; Thomas Tjøstheim

    2006-01-01

    A description of attack scenarios over a two-year period illustrates several key security issues with Internet banking systems in Norway. Given the banks' security-by-obscurity policy, online customers knew little about security levels and falsely believed their assets were safe

  18. Enhanced Authentication In Online Banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory D. Williamson

    The online banking environment has grown tremendously over the past several years and will continue to grow as financial institutions continue to strive to allow customers to complete money transfers, pay bills, and access critical information online. During this same time, online banking has been plagued by Internet criminals and fraudsters attempting to steal customer information. Phishing, pharming, and other

  19. Continuous monitoring of a capacitor bank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Mielke; C. M. Boyle; C. A. Buenafe; J. S. Dreicer; J. R. Gattiker; B. J. Martinez; D. A. Smith

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a prototype system for safety assurance of a capacitor bank by combining application-specific and off-the-shelf surveillance technology for remote monitoring. Traditional surveillance technology passively records facility operations, waiting for an event to trigger a physical audit of the collected information. We have implemented a more active approach to remote monitoring and used the Pulsed Field Laboratory as

  20. A system analysis of the basel capital accord's regulatory control over the behaviour of modern banking systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacky Mallett

    2012-01-01

    The banking system plays a critical role in the economy controlling both the supply of money and a significant percentage of total debt. Originating in medieval book keeping practices, it has developed into a distributed recursive feedback system, where money in the form of bank deposits is created by banks when loans are made, and removed as they are repaid.