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1

United States Participation in the Multilateral Development Banks in the 1980s.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study focuses on four institutions--the World Bank Group, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the African Development Bank. The first part of the assessment discusses the role of the MDBs in the international economic ...

1982-01-01

2

Multilateral development banks and socially responsible investments--the case of tobacco.  

PubMed

Globally, tobacco kills more people than HIV-related conditions or AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined. In 1991, The World Bank, the world's largest lender, pledged that it would no longer support tobacco-related projects. It was expected that other financial investors would follow, but most did not respond to this call. As a result, several financial institutions continue to invest in tobacco and fuel an epidemic to an unprecedented scale. Using tobacco as a case in point, this review highlights the continuing investments among financial institutions which do not conform to 'socially responsible investments' and calls for monitoring and reporting such unethical practices. The paper also underscores the need to harmonise the numerous criteria, principles and voluntary codes that govern socially responsible investing and ensure that financial institutions comply with them. PMID:24803444

Lal, Pranay

2012-12-01

3

Summary of Gender Strategies of Multilateral Development Agencies and Selected Bilateral Donors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reviews gender-mainstreaming strategies in use by multilateral and bilateral agencies. Many, but not all, of the multilateral and bilateral donor development agencies have strategies that specifically address issues of women in development a...

J. D. Winship

2004-01-01

4

Development News: World Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Development News, or DevNews, is the World Bank's daily Web-based newsletter. Available in English, French, and Spanish, DevNews offers feature stories on recent advances and challenges in world development. The newsletter also links to a daily summary of approved loans, speeches given by World Bank officials, an events calendar, and World Bank press releases. Articles from February 1999 to the present can be found in the free archive.

5

Developing Courntries: Switching Some Multilateral Loans to Grants Lessens Poor Country Debt Burdens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 2001, President Bush proposed that the World Bank and other development banks dramatically increase the distribution of grants to the world's poorest countries, recommending that grants replace up to 50 percent of future lending. This proposal was...

2002-01-01

6

The American Indian Development Bank?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

Pottinger, Richard

1992-01-01

7

Foreign Bank Presence, Domestic Bank Performance and Financial Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the relationship between foreign bank presence and the performance of the domestic banking sector and takes into account the role of the level of development of the financial sector of the recipient country. We use data of 982 banks in 48 countries for 1990-96. We find support for the hypothesis that financial development does matter. In particular,

Niels Hermes; Robert Lensink

2004-01-01

8

The World Bank Policies: Damned if You Do, Damned if You Don't.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A former employee of the World Bank discusses the logic behind multilateral development banks and how they operate, bank ideology and the nature of policy formation, educational and other reforms as loan conditions, the inability of development banks to enforce implementation of their policies in countries receiving loans, and whether the banks

de Moura Castro, Claudio

2002-01-01

9

Multilaterals Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project of the Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy at Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, this site features the texts of international multilateral conventions. Users can keyword-search the site or browse chronologically or by subject. Treaties are organized into ten major categories, including biodiversity, human rights, trade relations, arms control, and more. Although the bulk of material here is from the last half of the 20th century, there are also some older documents such as the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848). Users looking for more information can start with the links at the bottom of the front page.

1997-01-01

10

Exchanging development for market access? Deep integration and industrial policy under multilateral and regional-bilateral trade agreements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the developmental trade-offs involved in multilateral versus regional-bilateral strategies of integration into the international economy. I contrast the regulations that guide policy in the areas of trade, investment, and intellectual property in the World Trade Organization (WTO) and in regional-bilateral agreements between the US and developing countries. Both strategies of integration feature similar trade-offs, in that developing

Kenneth C. Shadlen

2005-01-01

11

Advanced multilateration theory, software development, and data processing: The MICRODOT system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process of geometric parameter estimation to accuracies of one centimeter, i.e., multilateration, is defined and applications are listed. A brief functional explanation of the theory is presented. Next, various multilateration systems are described in order of increasing system complexity. Expected systems accuracy is discussed from a general point of view and a summary of the errors is listed. An outline of the design of a software processing system for multilateration, called MICRODOT, is presented next. The links of this software, which can be used for multilateration data simulations or operational data reduction, are examined on an individual basis. Functional flow diagrams are presented to aid in understanding the software capability. MICRODOT capability is described with respect to vehicle configurations, interstation coordinate reduction, geophysical parameter estimation, and orbit determination. Numerical results obtained from MICRODOT via data simulations are displayed both for hypothetical and real world vehicle/station configurations such as used in the GEOS-3 Project. These simulations show the inherent power of the multilateration procedure.

Escobal, P. R.; Gallagher, J. F.; Vonroos, O. H.

1976-01-01

12

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985-1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This 'multilateral' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125 mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125 mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250 C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government, and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

1992-05-01

13

Internet Banking: Developments and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper addresses significant gaps in existing ,knowledge ,about the Internet banking landscape. Using information drawn from a survey of national bank examiners, we find that while only 20 percent of national banks offered Internet banking in Q3 1999, these transactional Internet banks accounted for almost 90 percent of national ,banking system assets and 84 percent of the total

Karen Furst; William W. Lang; Daniel E. Nolle

2002-01-01

14

Multilateral Agencies in the Construction of the Global Agenda on Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the construction of the educational dimension of the global development agenda over the period 1990 to 2006. It argues that the multilateral agencies, and notably the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO and UNDP, played vital roles in designing the architecture of this world agenda, supported at a key stage by the Development Assistance…

King, Kenneth

2007-01-01

15

Funding and Viability of Rural Development Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the Jamaican Development Bank as an example, this paper examines the impact of existing funding sources on the viability of rural development banks (RDB) in low-income countries and suggests new sources for RDB funding.

C. Bourne D. H. Graham

1980-01-01

16

The role of multilateral institutions.  

PubMed

In line with its mission of alleviating poverty through support for environmentally and socially sustainable economic development, The World Bank (along with some other multilateral development banks) is working to help developing countries capture a share of the emerging global market in greenhouse-gas-emissions reductions ('carbon trading'). Under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Joint Implementation instrument and the Clean Development Mechanism now provide an opening for substantial international resource transfers and potential for supporting sustainable development through the transfer of cleaner technologies or sustainable forestry and agro-forestry practices. For example, carbon sequestration represents a non-extractive non-consumptive sustainable use of living natural resources that can be incorporated within a multiple-use 'integrated ecosystem management' approach. The World Bank initiated the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) in April 2000, to help spur the development of a global carbon market and to 'learn by doing' how to use carbon-purchase transactions across a range of energy-sector technologies (and some forestry applications) to achieve environmentally credible and cost-effective emissions reductions that benefit developing countries and economies in transition. Building on the success of the PCF ($145 million raised from public and private-sector investors), The World Bank expects to launch two new funds in 2002: the Biocarbon Fund and the Community Development Carbon Fund. These funds will target synergies between carbon markets and objectives such as biodiversity conservation, combating desertification and small-scale community-driven development. Experience from the PCF shows that developing countries can have a comparative advantage in supplying this global market, as emissions reductions can be achieved in developing countries in the range of $3-$5 per ton of CO(2) equivalent, compared with a marginal abatement cost of $10-$15 per ton of CO(2) equivalent in most countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. However, realizing this economic potential over the next decade, and targeting the market to the rural poor, will require substantial assistance with project development and government legal and institutional capacity building. Specific needs include raising awareness of the potential of carbon markets at all levels (particularly in energy and land-use sectors), clarifying property rights, particularly in the case of communally held land and resources, ensuring the existence of an attractive investment climate, eliminating policies that create perverse incentives and constraints, and mitigating logistical, political and 'reputational' risks that could deter private-sector investors. It will also be necessary to find ways to reconcile the short-term needs of the rural poor and the typically long-term revenue stream associated with carbon sequestration. PMID:12460489

Kiss, Agi; Castro, Gonzalo; Newcombe, Kenneth

2002-08-15

17

Internet Banking: Developments and Prospects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses significant gaps in existing knowledge about the Internet banking landscape. Using information drawn from a survey of national bank examiners, we find that while only 20 percent of national banks offered Internet banking in Q3 1999, t...

D. E. Nolle K. Furst W. W. Lang

2000-01-01

18

Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).  

PubMed

The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries. PMID:23276290

Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

2013-04-01

19

Bank Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank Information Center (BIC) is a nonprofit, independent, non-governmental organization that "provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)." The organization's Website contains information about BIC's ongoing activities and offers useful publications and toolkits for those interested in and involved with MDBs. The Toolkits for Activists section includes fact sheets that explain the inner workings of the World Bank, covering topics such as basic information about the World Bank, the Country Assistance Strategy, World Bank policy framework, and information on World Bank's lending. Each fact sheet is available in both .pdf and HTML formats. The publications section offers a variety of resources including papers, case studies, and meeting reports, many of which are available online. Also provided are links to other monitoring organizations around the world and several online forums. An information services page will be added soon.

20

Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1988, the World Bank Group (described in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has addressed issues of economic architecture, corporate governance, crime, land reform, and the economics of transition at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE). Currently, papers from previous ABCDE's are available online with a keynote addresses, such as by nobel laureate James Tobin, and interested individuals are invited to comment on forthcoming conference papers at the ABCDE homepage.

1988-01-01

21

Banking, Technology Workers and Their Career Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Australian bank developed a four-stage career development strategy for information technology workers: (1) career coaching sessions with executives; (2) career coaching seminars for line managers and team leaders; (3) staff career planning workshops; and (4) online career development support. The program resulted in increased satisfaction,…

Armstrong, Lesley; West, Jim

2001-01-01

22

Remote Sensing Education and Development Countries: Multilateral Efforts through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is an international organization which coordinates space-based Earth observations world wide. Created in 1984, CEOS now comprises 38 national space agencies, regional organizations and international space-related and research groups. The aim of CEOS is to achieve international coordination in the planning of satellite missions for Earth observation and to maximize the utilization of data from these missions world-wide. With regard to developing countries, the fundamental aim of CEOS is to encourage the creation and maintenance of indigenous capability that is integrated into the local decision-making process, thereby enabling developing countries to obtain the maximum benefit from Earth observation. Obtaining adequate access to remote sensing information is difficult for developing countries and students and teachers alike. High unit data prices, the specialized nature of the technology , difficulty in locating specific data, complexities of copyright provisions, the emphasis on "leading edge" technology and research, and the lack of training materials relating to readily understood application are frequently noted obstacles. CEOS has developed an education CD-ROM which is aimed at increasing the integration of space-based data into school curricula, meeting the heretofore unsatisfied needs of developing countries for information about Earth observation application, data sources and future plans; and raising awareness around the world of the value of Earth observation data from space. The CD-ROM is designed to be used with an Internet web browser, increasing the information available to the user, but it can also be used on a stand-alone machine. It contains suggested lesson plans and additional resources for educators and users in developing countries.

Charles, Leslie Bermann

1998-01-01

23

Online banking in transition economies: the implementation and development of online banking systems in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet banking is one of the newest Internet technology applications, which promises multiple benefits both for the financial institutions and for clients. In the last five years a large number of banks have launched Web sites, offering online banking services. While the implementation and the functioning of these digital systems seem to be relatively smooth in the developed economies, the

Ca?lin Gura?u

2002-01-01

24

The Asian Development Bank`s role in promoting cleaner production in the People`s Republic of China  

SciTech Connect

The People`s Republic of China (PRC) has the fastest growing economy in the world and is the third largest producer and consumer of energy. At the same time, the PRC`s industrial sector contributes heavily to air and water pollution. Because of the linkages between the production and use of energy and environmental degradation, the PRC, with the active support of bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, including the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is adopting measures that link economic growth to improvements in the environment. The PRC is pursuing a two-pronged strategy that involves implementing priority investment programs and promoting economic reforms. The ADB`s experience shows that the concept of cleaner production (CP) has been widely accepted, but the widespread adoption of CP requires a new way of thinking and new management capacities. In this regard, the PRC is at an early stage of promoting CP, and inadequacies in coordination among relevant agencies remain a key obstacle. To support CP activities, the ADB is participating in a cluster of activities within China that include policy development, capacity building, and financing environmental investments. This article describes the ADB`s current efforts to promote CP in PRC and analyzes the effectiveness of those efforts.

Huq, A.; Lohani, B.N.; Jalal, K.F.; Ouano, E.A.R. [Asian Development Bank, Metro Manila (Philippines)] [Asian Development Bank, Metro Manila (Philippines)

1999-09-01

25

SUPERVISION, CAPITAL ADEQUACY AND BANKING DEVELOPMENT: SOME EVIDENCE FROM ZIMBABWE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1970s there has been increasing policy concern with the potentials for systemic risk within developed, free-market banking systems. The increased volume and complexity of banking risks have figured prominently in helping to enhance the practical importance of banking regulatory policies aimed at reducing systemic risk potential. As a result, capital adequacy monitoring and regulation, a core part

C. L. Dhliwayo; E. P. M. Gardener

1996-01-01

26

Development in Islamic banking: a financial risk-allocation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The core objective of this paper is to direct worldwide attention towards the unparalleled development in Islamic banking, its infrastructures and supporting institutions in recent years. This paper articulates the case for Islamic banking in a very comprehensive and effective manner. It depicts Islamic banking as a growing discipline adding more ethical, competitive and diversified tools and systems

M. Mansoor Khan; M. Ishaq Bhatti

2008-01-01

27

Developing tailored instruments: item banking and computerized adaptive assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Item banks and Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) have the potential to greatly improve the assessment of health outcomes.\\u000a This review describes the unique features of item banks and CAT and discusses how to develop item banks. In CAT, a computer\\u000a selects the items from an item bank that are most relevant for and informative about the particular respondent; thus optimizing

Jakob Bue Bjorner; Chih-Hung Chang; David Thissen; Bryce B. Reeve

2007-01-01

28

Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory.  

PubMed

The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes. PMID:23663485

Gómez, Eduardo J; Atun, Rifat

2013-01-01

29

Staff Development Data Banks: Taking Evaluation beyond "Happiness Quotients."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Detroit Center for Professional Growth and Development, a state-funded teacher center, has prepared a computerized data bank to study patterns of relationships among selected staff development and school characteristics. A description of what the staff development data bank contains and how it obtains information is given. (JN)

Hockman, Elaine

1982-01-01

30

Sexual Aspects of Multilateral Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study involved a variety of data gathering techniques focusing on almost every aspect of multilateral marriages. Specific topics covered included sex as motivation, group sex, sleeping arrangements, cohesion, sexual problems, jealousy, roles and sex differences. (Author/CG)

Constantine, Joan M.; Constantine, Larry L.

1971-01-01

31

Regionalism and Incentives for Multilateralism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper studies the effects of regional integration on the incentives of members and non-members to undertake multilateral trade liberalization. Using a three-country political economy model with imperfect competition, it shows how regionalism can under...

S. Andriamananjara

1999-01-01

32

ICT strategies for development: Implementing multichannel banking in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of information and communication technologies in developing countries represents an important tool that can determine economic development and prosperity. One of the main areas in which technology can have a powerful impact on the economic activity is the introduction of Internet banking and multichannel banking services. Although the implementation and the functioning of these multichannel systems are well

C?lin Gur?u

2005-01-01

33

Regional Financial Development and Bank Competition: Effects on Firms' Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fernández de Guevara J. and Maudos J. Regional financial development and bank competition: effects on firms' growth, Regional Studies. This paper analyses the effect of regional financial development and bank competition on firms' growth using the Spanish provinces as a testing ground. The results show that firms in industries with a greater dependence on external finance grow faster in more

Juan Fernández de Guevara; Joaquín Maudos

2009-01-01

34

Prudential Regulation of Banks in Less Developed Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with an empirical analysis of banking crises using a logit econometric model covering a sample of developed and developing countries between 1980-1997, the paper suggests that crises are more likely in years of low growth and high real interest rates. Private sector credit as a percentage of GDP, lagged credit growth and tight liquidity in the banking sector are

S Mansoob Mursheda; Djono Subagjo

2002-01-01

35

The development and use of a modern data bank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modern data bank emphasizes immediate access by a user community which may be large in number, widespread, and having varied needs. Electronic computers have been found very useful in the processing of stored information. The key to the design of a data bank is the optimum mix of human intellectual effort and mechanized processing. The elements of the NASA data bank are presented as one approach to the many trade-off decisions involved in the development of a data bank and integrated information system.

Mcconnell, D. G.

1973-01-01

36

Quarterly Review: International Banking and Financial Market Developments, June 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to this issue of International Banking and Financial Market Development, equity markets, especially those trading technology stocks, marked the first several months of this year as "a period of heightened market volatility."

37

Monetary Policy Instruments for Developing Countries: A World Bank Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The Use of Market Instruments for Monetary Policy; Central Bank Liquidity Management and the Money Market; The Use of Monetary Policy Instruments by Developing Countries; Building Financial Institutions for a Market-Based Monetary Policy; Moneta...

G. Caprio P. Honohan

1991-01-01

38

Development of a PROMIS item bank to measure pain interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the psychometric properties of the PROMIS-pain interference (PROMIS-PI) bank. An initial candidate item pool (n=644) was developed and evaluated based on the review of existing instruments, interviews with patients, and consultation with pain experts. From this pool, a candidate item bank of 56 items was selected and responses to the items were collected from large community and

Dagmar Amtmann; Karon F. Cook; Mark P. Jensen; Wen-Hung Chen; Seung Choi; Dennis Revicki; David Cella; Nan Rothrock; Francis Keefe; Leigh Callahan; Jin-Shei Lai

2010-01-01

39

Moving from Bilateral to Multilateral Medical Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When the ISS Integrated Medical Group moved to a multilateral configuration for the ASTROLAB mission, several challenges were encountered and overcome that allowed for a streamlined operational experience. Dating back to the early 1990s, the European Space Agency (ESA) has sent flight surgeon and Biomedical Engineering (BME) personnel to NASA-JSC and Russia to train for space flight operational support. This training was tailored towards the needs of particular Shuttle/Soyuz missions, and more generally for eventual ISS support. With the announcement of the ASTROLAB mission, NASA and ESA personnel worked together to develop a detailed training template for ESA BMEs to ensure successful support of the mission from the European Astronaut Center (EAC). This training included the deployment of ESA BMEs to JSC, as well as the development of a rotation of ISS-certified NASA BMEs to the EAC. In addition to training, NASA, ESA, and the Russian Federal Space Agency (FSA) worked together preflight to develop multilateral flight control support concepts and implementation plans. This resulted in flight control support schedules, operational rules of engagement, and the delineation of responsibilities. NASA also assisted ESA with the development and deployment of workstation displays to allow the ESA medical flight control team to monitor ISS telemetry from the EAC. The goal of this presentation is to provide details of the preflight preparation and in-flight support of the ASTROLAB mission by the ESA, NASA, and FSA medical support teams. In addition, it will identify lessons learned that will be implemented for future multilateral endeavors.

Roden, S.; Polk, J. D.; Janney, R. P.; Volpe, M. A.

2006-01-01

40

Determinants of Bank Profitability in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from the China Banking Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese banking sector has undergone noteworthy financial reforms, which significantly metamorphosed the banking system. This article seeks to examine the determinants of the profitability of the Chinese banking sector. The empirical analysis is confined to the four State Owned Commercial Banks (SOCBs) and the 12 Joint Stock Commercial Banks (JSCBs) during the postreform period of 2000–2007. The empirical findings

Fadzlan Sufian

2009-01-01

41

Commercial bank's development strategy under low-carbon economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-carbon economy as one scientific development way is becoming the choice to achieve sustainable development. In recent years, our country's low carbon economic development brings a series of changes in social and economic field; it also causes corresponding changes in financial sector. Commercial banks as the main form of financial institutions implement low carbon strategy too, but there are

Houmin; Xuqun

2010-01-01

42

An integrated approach for the planning and completion of horizontal and multilateral wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rules and the criteria required for selection of horizontal and multilateral wells were developed. The selection criteria for junction levels and for lateral-section completion were also formulated. These criteria were illustrated with logical flowcharts and a single matrix. These flowcharts and matrix were used to establish a systematic procedure for the planning and completion of horizontal and multilateral wells.

Ali A. Garrouch; Haitham M. S. Lababidi; Abdullah S. Ebrahim

2004-01-01

43

A web-based expert system for the planning and completion of multilateral wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces the development of a web-based fuzzy expert system (MULTSYS) for aiding in the preliminary planning and completion of multilateral wells. The reasoning process is based on a systematic planning approach for screening and selecting multilateral well candidates, lateral-section completion types, and junction complexity levels. A modular approach was employed. It consists of a number of knowledge modules

Ali A. Garrouch; Haitham M. S. Lababidi; Abdullah S. Ebrahim

2005-01-01

44

Resource Management through Multilateral Matchmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Federated distributed systems present new challenges to resource management, which cannot be met by conventional systems that employ,relatively static resource models,and centralized allocators. We previously argued,that Match- making,provides an elegant and robust resource manage- ment solution for these highly dynamic,environments,[5]. Although powerful and flexible, multiparty policies (e.g., co-allocation) cannot,be accomodated,by Matchmaking. In this paper we present Gang-Matching, a multilateral

Rajesh Raman; Miron Livny; Marvin H. Solomon

2000-01-01

45

Foreign Bank Entry: Experience, Implications for Developing Countries, and Agenda for Further Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

October 2001Foreign banks are playing an increasingly large role in many developing countries, holding more than 50 percent of banking assets in several of these countries. But important issues about foreign bank entry continue to be debated.In recent years foreign bank participation has increased tremendously in several developing countries. In Argentina, Chile, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland, for example,

George Clarke; Robert Cull; Maria Soledad Martinez Peria

2001-01-01

46

Learning during developing and implementing new bank offerings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Knowledge of the management issues for developing new bank offerings efficiently is limited. Furthermore, recent research suggests that organisational learning can contribute greatly to the success of innovation projects. The aims of this paper are to provide a detailed description of the development process of a new financial product and to identify learning actions that may contribute to

Eric Stevens; Sergios Dimitriadis

2005-01-01

47

Regulatory Environment and Banking Crises: Case of Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1980s and early 1990s several countries experienced sever banking crises. The paper discusses the theoretical debates regarding the relationship between regulatory and supervisory policies and bank stability. It also studies the determinants of banking crises and the issue of how bank regulation and supervision affects bank fragility. This issue is very important since ensuring bank safety and soundness

Hajer Zarrouk; Sana Ayachi

48

The Development of a Scale Measuring Consumers' Selection of Retail Banks in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana, one of the fastest growing liberalized developing economies in Africa, has, in recent years, established a nationwide rural bank system and has witnessed an increase in the entry of foreign retail banks. Although there are increased activities and interest about bank offerings and bank–customer relationships in Ghana (Dadzie, Akaah, and Dunson, 1989), to date, researchers have overlooked the factors

Charles Blankson; Chris H. N. Mbah; Lambert Yaw Owusu-Frempong

2009-01-01

49

The impact of the Internet in banking: observations and evidence from developed and emerging markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the risk, efficiency and rate of progress in the implementation of electronic commerce (e-commerce) in a sample of banks from a developed country (the US), and a sample of banks from developing and emerging markets. The results confirm that the US is very advanced in its electronic-banking (e-banking) actuation. There is evidence suggesting that e-banking is driven

John Simpson

2002-01-01

50

Development of hyperglycemia and diabetes in captive Polish bank voles.  

PubMed

Diabetes has been detected in Danish and Swedish bank voles (Myodes glareolus). There are no data, however, concerning the prevalence of diabetes in populations from other geographic regions. We investigated the frequency and physiological effects of glucose metabolism disorders in captive bank voles from Poland. Single measurement of fasting blood glucose concentration performed in the 3-4month old captive-born bank Polish voles without any disease symptoms showed that 8% of individuals (22/284) displayed an impaired fasting glucose (IFG, blood glucose (BG) ?100mg/dL) and 1% (4/284) showed hyperglycemia (BG ?126mg/dL) which could suggest diabetes. Next, we analyzed blood glucose in samples taken once a month from an additional cohort of bank voles with (FHD), or without (H), a family history of diabetes. The prevalence of IFG at age six months was 26% (16/62) among bank voles from the H group. In the FHD group the prevalence increased to 49% (43/88), and additional 12% (11/88) became diabetic (DB, BG ?126mg/dL at two time points). Postnatal stress (three maternal deprivations before weaning) did not affect the risk of developing IFG or DB in H voles, but significantly reduced the frequency of glucose metabolism disorders (IFG and DB combined) in FHD voles. IFG was associated with hyperinsulinemia, but not with other biochemical disturbances. Diabetic animals displayed a progressive malformation and vacuolization of ?-cells in the pancreas, without visible leukocytic infiltrations. In summary, our results indicate that Polish captive bank voles can develop diabetes, which shows features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in humans. Risk of diabetes is higher in animal with FHD. PMID:23291363

Bartelik, Aleksandra; Ciesla, Maciej; Kotlinowski, Jerzy; Bartelik, Stanislaw; Czaplicki, Dominik; Grochot-Przeczek, Anna; Kurowski, Krzysztof; Koteja, Pawe?; Dulak, Jozef; Józkowicz, Alicja

2013-03-01

51

Regional financial development and bank competition: effects on economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have analysed the effect of financial development and bank competition on economic growth from a cross-country perspective. However, to our knowledge, no paper has analysed the effect of these two financial variables on growth at regional level. This paper examines the case of the Spanish regions in an attempt to fill this gap. Our results show that firms

Juan Fernandez de Guevara; Joaquin Maudos

2007-01-01

52

Regional Financial Development and Bank Competition. Effects on Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have analysed the effect of financial development and bank competition on economic growth from a cross-country perspective. However, to our knowledge, no paper has analysed the effect of these two financial variables on growth at regional level. This working paper examines the case of the Spanish regions in an attempt to fill this gap. Our results show that

Fernández de Guevara Radoselovics Juan; Maudos Villarroya Joaquín

2007-01-01

53

Small States and the Politics of Multilateral Trade Liberalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following article examines the position of small states in the global politics of trade and development. It does so by focusing specifically on the issue of multilateral trade liberalization and the attendant distributional consequences that this process is said to herald for small states. Drawing on historical intuitionalist insights, but couched in the specific empirical setting of the recent

Tony Heron

2008-01-01

54

Institutional Reforms and the Role of Multilateral Aid Agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the role of the multilateral aid agencies in the delivery of aid. The role of these institutions is as old as the debate on the role of aid in economic development. Aid is effective in a good policy environment. However, effective aid delivery is equally crucial. This is why the need to reform the institutions involved in

Sylvanus I. Ikhide

2002-01-01

55

Central Banking Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Central Banks of the World is a pointers page to central banks and central bank information for over 45 countries, as well as multilateral financial institutions, research and training establishments, and conference information. To show how little is generally known about the history of central banking in the United States, this site includes an email message sent to the webmaster of the First Bank of the United States, promoting a certain software company's web interactivity applications. Of course, since the First Bank of the United States was closed in 1811, its web site is primarily historical. The Central Banks site lists over 30 Internet directories and pointers pages that list the First Bank of the United States as a functioning financial institution. To help remedy this situation, the site includes a pointer to a brief history of banking in the US.

1996-01-01

56

Development of A Promis Item Bank to Measure Pain Interference  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the psychometric properties of the PROMIS Pain Interference (PROMIS-PI) bank. An initial candidate item pool (n=644) was developed and evaluated based on review of existing instruments, interviews with patients, and consultation with pain experts. From this pool, a candidate item bank of 56 items was selected and responses to the items were collected from large community and clinical samples. A total of 14,848 participants responded to all or a subset of candidate items. The responses were calibrated using an item response theory (IRT) model. A final 41-item bank was evaluated with respect to IRT assumptions, model fit, differential item function (DIF), precision, and construct and concurrent validity. Items of the revised bank had good fit to the IRT model (CFI and NNFI/TLI ranged from 0.974 to 0.997), and the data were strongly unidimensional (e.g., ratio of first and second eigenvalue = 35). Nine items exhibited statistically significant DIF. However, adjusting for DIF had little practical impact on score estimates and the items were retained without modifying scoring. Scores provided substantial information across levels of pain; for scores in the T-score range 50-80, the reliability was equivalent to 0.96 to 0.99. Patterns of correlations with other health outcomes supported the construct validity of the item bank. The scores discriminated among persons with different numbers of chronic conditions, disabling conditions, levels of self-reported health, and pain intensity (p< 0.0001). The results indicated that the PROMIS-PI items constitute a psychometrically sound bank. Computerized adaptive testing and short forms are available.

Amtmann, Dagmar; Cook, Karon F.; Jensen, Mark P.; Chen, Wen-Hung; Choi, Seung; Revicki, Dennis; Cella, David; Rothrock, Nan; Keefe, Francis; Callahan, Leigh

2010-01-01

57

International banks and the environment: From growth to sustainability - an unfinished agenda  

SciTech Connect

Multilateral development banks (MDB) have played an active role in promoting and funding Third World development during the last 30 years. Mikesell and Williams analyze the successes and failures of development projects in the major economic sectors - agriculture, forestry, livestock, power, mining, and infrastructure - and examine several case studies. While pointing out how the MDBs have improved attention to environmental concerns, the authors also offer recommendations for change and guidelines for future development plans.

Mikesell, R.F.; Williams, L.F.

1992-01-01

58

World Bank eAtlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

2008-06-10

59

Qualitative Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Stress Response Item Banks  

PubMed Central

Objective?To describe the qualitative development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pediatric Stress Response item banks.?Methods?Stress response concepts were specified through a literature review and interviews with content experts, children, and parents. A library comprising 2,677 items derived from 71 instruments was developed. Items were classified into conceptual categories; new items were written and redundant items were removed. Items were then revised based on cognitive interviews (n = 39 children), readability analyses, and translatability reviews.?Results?2 pediatric Stress Response sub-domains were identified: somatic experiences (43 items) and psychological experiences (64 items). Final item pools cover the full range of children’s stress experiences. Items are comprehensible among children aged ?8 years and ready for translation.?Conclusions?Child- and parent-report versions of the item banks assess children’s somatic and psychological states when demands tax their adaptive capabilities.

Gardner, William; Pajer, Kathleen; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher B.

2013-01-01

60

Investing in People: The World Bank in Action. Directions in Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The booklet has two purposes. One is to provide, for audiences unfamiliar with the World Bank, a short introduction to how the Bank supports developing countries' efforts to improve education, health care, nutrition, family planning, and other means of pr...

1995-01-01

61

Government ownership of banks, institutions, and financial development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a suitably modified locational model of banking, we examine the influence of institutions, such as deposit contract enforcement, in explaining the share of government owned banks in the banking system. We present cross-country evidence suggesting that institutional factors are relatively more important determinants of the share of state banks than political or historical ones. We argue that rather than

Svetlana Andrianova; Panicos Demetriades; Anja Shortland

2008-01-01

62

How Important are Foreign Banks in the Financial Development of European Transition Countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the development of the banking sector in European transition countries. We find that, although bank assets increased during the 1990s, credit to the private sector remained relatively low. Foreign-owned banks have become major players in the financial system of these countries. However, foreign bank presence and financial development in general vary considerably among the transition economies. Foreign-owned

Ilko Naaborg; Bert Scholtens; Jakob de HaanR; Hanneke Bol; Ralph de HaasQ

2004-01-01

63

Human resource development in a challenging financial environment: the case of a Greek bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the external environment have reshaped the banking industry environment. Responding to that, Greek banks are adopting new strategies towards organizational development and realize that success requires adjustments to their HRD effort. The case example presented here refers to a leading Greek bank that was involved in a systematic HRD effort, based on the use of training interventions as

Eugenia Petridou; Niki Glaveli

2003-01-01

64

Development of the electronic banking services in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Launching in Romania the banking products and services with long-distance access was based on image motives for the Romanian banks, domestic institutions or foreign banks branches. In this way, banks wanted to be innovative and they didn't address necessarily to their clients' needs. Once the long-distance payment instruments diversified and once the clients became aware of the benefits of such

Magdalena Rdulescu

65

Multilateral Sprint Seminar on Evaluating Progress in Sports Development Since 1989. Budapest, Hungary, April 1-2, 1998. Report of the Committee for the Development of Sport (CDDS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the proceedings of a 1998 seminar which focused on four themes related to progress in sports development in Europe since 1989. Each of the four sections includes four papers, one from each of the experts from the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia. "Tours de table" and discussion allowed participation by other…

Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

66

The Truth about Public Health Protection and Community Sewerage and Water Supply Sanitation in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the establishment, following World War II, of the ‘World System,’ by which the affluent industrialized countries established various international assistance agencies (including the multilateral development banks, UN affiliates, and Bilaterals), these assistance agencies have invested very large sums in helping finance planning and construction of community sewerage and water supply facilities in the developing countries. However, much of this

Harvey F. Ludwig; Kumar Mohit; Daniel Gunaratnam

2003-01-01

67

Internet banking adoption strategies for a developing country: the case of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objective of the paper is to identify the factors that encourage consumers to adopt internet banking services in Thailand and to use the study's findings to develop strategies for banks on how to maximize the rate of adoption. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Quantitative research with a sample size of 600 achieved by sending questionnaires to 15 people in each

Bussakorn Jaruwachirathanakul; Dieter Fink

2005-01-01

68

Adoption of Internet banking among sophisticated consumer segments in an advanced developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

This descriptive study was conducted to develop an understanding of consumers' attitudes and adoption of Internet banking among sophisticated consumers. Based on a random sample of academicians, demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral characteristics of Internet banking (IB) users and non-users were examined. The analyses revealed significant differences between the demographic profiles and attitudes of users and non-users. IB users were further

Serkan Akinci; ?afak Aksoy; Eda Atilgan

2004-01-01

69

Bank credit and economic development: an empirical analysis of Indian states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of economic reforms in India, particularly reforms in the banking sector, although boosted and edged up the profits and improved efficiency of the banks, an unwarranted consequence was the decline in credit to the less developed states and regions. The emphasis on efficient allocation of resources overlooked the developmental needs of these regions and states. This study examines

Rashmi Umesh Arora

2009-01-01

70

The World Bank, Support for Universities, and Asymmetrical Power Relations in International Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role of the World Bank in advancing higher education sectors in the developing world, considering in particular the increasing power and strength of a global knowledge-based economy. Given the powerful role that intergovernmental organizations such as the World Bank play in shaping global economic policies, the authors…

Collins, Christopher S.; Rhoads, Robert A.

2010-01-01

71

Electrification in the Mountain Kingdom: The implications of the Nepal Power Development Project (NPDP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores implications of the Nepal Power Development Project (NPDP), a scheme funded by a consortium of multilateral donors, including the World Bank and the Government of Nepal, to promote grid-connected hydroelectricity, off-grid microhydro energy, and transmission and distribution upgrades. After explaining its methods of data collection – namely research interviews, field research, and a literature review – the

Benjamin K. Sovacool; Malavika Jain Bambawale; Olivia Gippner; Saroj Dhakal

2011-01-01

72

Bank Supervision and Surveillance: A Critical Case Study Analysis of the Bank of Commerce and Development (Libya)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on desk research drawing on both theoretical and empirical literature on prudential regulation and supervision for the banking sector in Libya. The focus of the study is on the tools and techniques that the Central Bank of Libya uses to uncover and correct weaknesses in the banking system and to prevent bank failure from causing broader

Atsede Woldie; Ihab M Dofan

73

Developing an Initial Physical Function Item Bank from Existing Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates incremental item banking using health-related quality of life data collected from two samples of patients receiving cancer treatment (n=1,755 and n=1,544). Results support findings from previous studies that have equated separate instruments by co-calibrating their items. (SLD)

Bode, Rita K.; Cella, David; Lai, Jin-shei; Heinemann, Allen W.

2003-01-01

74

Developing and Improving Irrigation and Drainage Systems. Selected Papers from World Bank Seminars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The Global Problem of Land and Water Constraints; Irrigation in the 1990s: A Role for the Bank; Irrigation and Drainage Projects: Sustainability, Performance, and Impact; Institutional Aspects of Irrigation Development in North Africa: Experienc...

G. Le Moigne S. Barghouti L. Garbus

1992-01-01

75

Energy efficiency and conservation in the developing world. World Bank policy paper  

SciTech Connect

Contents: evolution of energy efficiency; forces driving increased energy efficiency; why is energy efficiency performance in developing countries so poor; what can be done: country policy priorities; what can be done: sector priorities; strategy for the world bank.

Saunders, R.J.; Gandhi, S.

1993-01-01

76

Providing Enterprise Development and Financial Services to Women. A Decade of Bank Experience in Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper contributes to the World Bank's internal dialogue on institutional approaches to providing enterprize development and financial services (EDFS/W) to low income clients, particularly women. Patterns and trends in the EDFS/W project portfolio are ...

L. Bennett M. Goldberg

1993-01-01

77

Improving the Supply of Fertilizers to Developing Countries: A Summary of the World Bank's Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is based on two decades of World Bank Group experience improving the efficiency and security of supplying fertilizers to developing countries. It shows that the availability of fertilizers is vital to food production. Because of current concern ...

1989-01-01

78

Application of a Computerized Vibroacoustic Data Bank for Random Vibration Criteria Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computerized data bank system was developed for utilization of large amounts of vibration and acoustic data to formulate component random vibration design and test criteria. This system consists of a computer, graphics tablets, and a dry silver hard cop...

R. C. Ferebee

1982-01-01

79

Thérèse Mound: a case study of coral bank development in the Belgica Mound Province, Porcupine Seabight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution seismic profiles, swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar data and video imageries are analysed in this detailed study of five carbonate mounds from the Belgica mound province with special emphasis on the well-surveyed Thérèse Mound. The selected mounds are located in the deepest part of the Belgica mound province at water depths of 950 m. Seismic data illustrate that the underlying geology is characterised by drift sedimentation in a general northerly flowing current regime. Sigmoidal sediment bodies create local slope breaks on the most recent local erosional surface, which act as the mound base. No preferential mound substratum is observed, neither is there any indication for deep geological controls on coral bank development. Seismic evidence suggests that the start-up of the coral bank development was shortly after a major erosional event of Late Pliocene Quaternary age. The coral bank geometry has been clearly affected by the local topography of this erosional base and the prevailing current regime. The summits of the coral banks are relatively flat and the flanks are steepest on their upper slopes. Deposition of the encased drift sequence has been influenced by the coral bank topography. Sediment waves are formed besides the coral banks and are the most pronounced bedforms. These seabed structures are probably induced by bottom current up to 1 m/s. Large sediment waves are colonised by living corals and might represent the initial phase of coral bank development. The biological facies distribution of the coral banks illustrate a living coral cap on the summit and upper slope and a decline of living coral populations toward the lower flanks. The data suggest that the development of the coral banks in this area is clearly an interaction between biological growth processes and drift deposition both influenced by the local topography and current regime.

de Mol, Ben; Kozachenko, Max; Wheeler, Andy; Alvares, Hugo; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Olu-Le Roy, Karine

2007-02-01

80

Carbonate platforms in the Reed Bank area, South China Sea: seismic characteristics, development and controlling factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify the seismic characteristics about the carbonate platform and other types of reefs in the Reed Bank area, South China Sea, based on a more than 220 km long multi-channel seismic reflection profile. From the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene Carbonate platforms were well developed featured with high-amplitude continuous reflections at the top and low-amplitude parallel reflections within. Reefal carbonate build-ups continued in structural highs almost up to the Middle Miocene, and even to present in the Reed Bank. The development of carbonate platforms and reefs were controlled by the tectonics and sea level changes in the study area synthetically. During the drifting stage of SCS the Reed Bank area was in a relatively stable condition. An everlasting shallow marine environment and low sediments input favored the formation of carbonate platforms. A sudden thermal subsidence after the cessation of SCS's opening in Early Miocene and the continue rising of sea level made the carbonate platform drown and die. Reed Bank basin is a very promising area for further exploration work. Keywords: carbonate platform, Reed Bank area, Tectonic subsidence, controlling factors, South China Sea Fig 1. Model of hydrocarbon accumulation and transfer with carbonate platform and reef reservoir in the deep water area of the Reed Bank basin. Fig 2 Tectonic subsidence in the Reed Bank Basin

Ding, W.

2013-12-01

81

Does the sequence of plant dominants affect mycorrhiza development in simulated succession on spoil banks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this field study was to examine how the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on coal mine spoil banks\\u000a is affected by the presence of plants with different mycorrhizal status. A 3-year trial was conducted on the freshly created\\u000a spoil bank Vršany, North-Bohemian coal basin, the Czech Republic. Three plant species – non-mycotrophic annual Atriplex sagittata, highly

David Püschel; Jana Rydlová; Miroslav Vosátka

2008-01-01

82

Quaternary slope development of the western, leeward margin of the Great Bahama Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, work on the Great Bahama Bank’s western, leeward margin has centred chiefly on seismic-scale expressions of carbonate sequences and systems tracts. However, periplatform, slope sediments also exhibit very well developed cyclicity on scales of decimetres to several metres. It is these small-scale, high-frequency cycles within the larger-scale facies successions of the Quaternary which form the main topic of

R. H. Rendle; J. J. G. Reijmer

2002-01-01

83

The credit risk-contingency system of an Asian development bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a new method for the evaluation of financial institutions, one that combines socioeconomic survey data with appropriate accounting standards. A government-operated development bank in Thailand is found to be offering a risk-contingency or insurance system while being regulated as a more standard, loan-generating bank. Farmer clients experiencing adverse shocks receive indemnities that improve their well-being. With proper

Robert M. Townsend; Jacob Yaron

2001-01-01

84

Enhanced Bank-Stability Modeling With Coupled Geotechnical, Hydraulic and Near-Bank Groundwater Sub-Models: Development and Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically-based, deterministic bank-stability models have recently been developed to effectively simulate the driving and resisting forces governing streambank erosion. Significant advances have been made in the manner in which groundwater flow through variably saturated porous media, planar and circular geotechnical failures and fluvial sediment transport are simulated. However, to date, coupling these models has required tedious exporting and conversion of geometries and results and manual remeshing. In this presentation, we introduce the first fully integrated suite of models that deterministically simulate the controlling hydrologic, hydraulic and geotechnical processes that govern streambank erosion and channel-width adjustment. The model suite incorporates routines that: 1. Permit the user to enter between 5 and 23 points to describe the bank cross-sectional geometry; 2. Automatically generate a mesh by which to implicitly discretize the 2-D Richards equation utilizing finite volumes. The resulting pentadiagonal matrix is solved iteratively with Stone's Strongly Implicit Procedure (SIP). Timesteps are automatically adjusted to minimize mass balance and truncation errors; 3. Evaluate the force-equilibrium factor of safety (Fs), permitting the simulation of planar and cantilever shear failures with a horizontal slice method and planar shear failures with tension cracks with a rigorous vertical slice method. A random walk approach is adopted to search for the minimum Fs; 4. Estimate the increase in cohesion due to vegetation with a global load-sharing Fibre Bundle Model; and 5. Simulate the erosion of the bank face and bank toe with an excess shear stress approach. Management options to increase slope stability (through the addition of vegetation) and reduce channel- boundary erodibility (through the addition of natural and artificial structures) are also incorporated. We illustrate the efficacy of the modeling approach with a series of case studies in which the components are validated both separately and in unison. Case studies are presented including those from previously published lysimeter experiments and an actively eroding meander bend on Goodwin Creek, Mississippi. The examples illustrate the use of the model suite to: 1. Understand the rates and importance of geotechnical and hydraulic processes in streambank erosion; 2. Estimate the absolute and relative contribution of geotechnical failures and hydraulic scour to volumetric fluvial sediment loads; and 3. Estimate the impact of potential streambank-erosion management and river restoration strategies.

Thomas, R. E.; Simon, A.; Bankhead, N.

2008-12-01

85

Bank accretion and the development of vegetated depositional surfaces along modified alluvial channels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper describes the recovery of stable bank form and development of vegetated depositional surfaces along the banks of channelized West Tennessee streams. Most perennial streams in West Tennessee were straightened and dredged since the turn of the century. Patterns of fluvial ecological responses to channelization have previously been described by a six-stage model. Dendrogeomorphic (tree-ring) techniques allowed the determination of location, timing, amount, and rate of bank-sediment deposition. Channel cross sections and ecological analyses made at 101 locations along 12 streams, encompassing bends and straight reaches, show that channel and bank processes initially react vertically to channelization through downcutting. A depositional surface forms on banks once bed-degradation and heightened bank mass wasting processes have eased or slowed. The formation of this depositional surface marks the beginning of bank recovery from channelization. Dominating lateral processes, characteristic of stable or natural channels, return during the formation and expansion of the depositional surface, suggesting a relation with thalweg deflection, point-bar development, and meanderloop extension. Characteristic woody riparian vegetation begins to grow as this depositional surface develops and becomes part of the process and form of restabilizing banks. The depositional surface initially forms low on the bank and tends to maintain a slope of about 24??. Mean accretion rates ranges from 5.9 cm/yr on inside bends to 0 cm/yr on most outside bends; straight reaches have a mean-accretion rate of 4.2 cm/yr. The relatively stable, convex upward, depositional surface expands and ultimately attaches to the flood plain. The time required for the recovery process to reach equilibrium averaged about 50 years. Indicative pioneer speccies of woody riparian vegetation include black willow, river birch, silver maple, and boxelder. Stem densities generally decrease with time after and initial flush of about 160 stems per 100 m2. Together bank accretion and vegetative regrowth appear to be the most important environmental processes involved in channel bank recovery from channelization or rejuvenation. ?? 1991.

Hupp, C. R.; Simon, A.

1991-01-01

86

Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

2009-01-01

87

Multilateral Disarmament: Conspiracy for Common Sense. Occasional Paper 31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the danger of continuing the conventional and nuclear arms races and offers alternatives to ensure both peace and security. There are five major sections to the paper. In the first section, "Mulitlateral Approach," global multilateral accomplishments, regional multilateral activities, and bilateral negotiations are discussed.…

Stanley, C. Maxwell

88

Multilateral drilling, seismic acquisition top upstream technology needs  

SciTech Connect

High-impact technology needs for the US upstream oil industry include advanced seismic acquisition, high-resolution depth imaging, cementing, and multilateral drilling. The Department of Energy and the national labs have shown a definite willingness to work on oil and gas research projects, providing the research and development could not be accomplished by private industry alone. Advanced seismic acquisition was identified as a high need for independent operators, and horizontal well technology was the highest ranking need for service companies. The highest areas of impact identified by majors, other integrated companies, and independents were high-resolution depth imaging and improved well productivity. Technology will be a critical component to discovery and utilization of new oil and gas resources. The paper discusses the technology needed to advance exploration, drilling and completion, and resource development in Arctic regions.

Rappold, K..

1995-10-30

89

Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration  

PubMed Central

A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision.

Majarena, Ana C.; Brau, Agustin; Velazquez, Jesus

2014-01-01

90

Multilateral analysis of increasing collective dose and new ALARA programme.  

PubMed

JAPC (The Japan Atomic Power Company) is the only electric power company that operates different types of nuclear reactors in Japan; it operates two BWRs (boiling water reactors), one pressurised water reactor and one gas cooled reactor. JAPC has been conducting various activities aimed at reducing radiation dose received by workers for over 45 y. Recently, the collective dose resulting from periodic maintenance has increased at each plant because of the replacement of large equipment and the unexpected extension of the outage period. In particular, the collective dose at Tokai-2 is one of the highest among Japanese BWR plants((1)), owing to the replacement and strengthening of equipment to meet earthquake-proof requirements. In this study, the authors performed a multilateral analysis of unacceptably a large collective dose and devised a new ALARA programme that includes a 3D dose prediction map and the development of machines to assist workers. PMID:21652597

Oumi, Tadashi; Morii, Yasuki; Imai, Toshirou

2011-07-01

91

Asian Development Bank, policy conditionalities and the social democratic governance: Kerala Model under pressure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study of the implications of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) loan on the Indian state of Kerala explores how neoliberal reforms have impacted on the state's much-acclaimed social model of development. Notwithstanding resistance, the state moves towards market-driven reforms wherein external funds are privileged over internal resources, the reasons for which are probed within the context of social

K. Ravi Raman

2009-01-01

92

Development and psychometric analysis of the PROMIS pain behavior item bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of pain behavior is a key component of the assessment of persons with chronic pain; however, few self-reported pain behavior instruments have been developed. We developed a pain behavior item bank as part of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS). For the Wave I testing, because of the large number of PROMIS items, a complex sampling approach

Dennis A. Revicki; Wen-Hung Chen; Neesha Harnam; Karon F. Cook; Dagmar Amtmann; Leigh F. Callahan; Mark P. Jensen; Francis J. Keefe

2009-01-01

93

Gangs, Soldiers and "Idle Girls": Constructions of Youth and Development in World Bank Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the World Bank's recent World Development Report on youth and development (2007) as an empirical example to explore the links between the employment of "group identity" and the use of policy frameworks. Drawing on feminist theory to analyse the representations of young people put forward within the report, this article…

Luttrell-Rowland, Mikaela

2007-01-01

94

Development of a meandering channel caused by the planform shape of the river bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a typhoon and a stationary rain front, record amounts of rain fell in September 2011, and the largest class of discharge in recorded history was observed in the Otofuke River of eastern Hokkaido in Japan, and extensive bank erosion occurred in various parts of the river channel. Damages were especially serious in the middle reaches, where part of a dike was washed out. The results of a post-flood survey suggested that the direct cause of the dike breach was lateral advance of the bank erosion associated with the development of meandering channels. As the related development mechanism and predominant factors have not yet been clarified, this remains a priority from the viewpoint of disaster prevention. A past study on the development of meandering channels was reported by Shimizu et al. (1996). In this study, the meandering channel development process was reproduced using a slope failure model that linked bank erosion with bed changes. The study attempted to clarify the meandering development mechanism in the disaster and its predominant factors by using this model. The analysis properly reproduced the characteristics of the post-flood meandering waveforms. Therefore, it is suggested that the development of meandering during the flood attributed to the propagation of meandering downstream, which is triggered by the meandering flow from the meandering channel in the upstream, which also suggests that this propagated meandering then caused a gradual increase of meandering amplitude accompanied by bank erosion in the recession period of the flood.

Nagata, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Yasuda, H.; Ito, A.

2014-04-01

95

Development of a meandering channel caused by the plane shape of the river bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a typhoon and a stationary rain front, record amounts of rain fell in September 2011, and the largest class of discharge in recorded history was observed in the Otofuke River of eastern Hokkaido in Japan, and extensive bank erosion occurred in various parts of the river channel. Damages were especially serious in the middle reaches, where part of a dike was washed out. The results of a post-flood survey suggested that the direct cause of the dike breach was lateral advance of the bank erosion associated with the development of meandering channels. As the related development mechanism and predominant factors have not yet been clarified, this remains a priority from the viewpoint of disaster prevention. A past study on the development of meandering channels was reported by Shimizu et al. In this study, the meandering channel development process was reproduced using a slope failure model that linked bank erosion with bed changes. The study attempted to clarify the meandering development mechanism in the disaster and it's predominant factors by using this model. The analysis properly reproduced the characteristics of the post-flood meandering waveforms. Therefore, it is suggested that the development of meandering during the flood attributed to the propagation of meandering to downstream, which is triggered by the meandering flow from the meandering channel in the upstream, and also suggested that this propagated meandering then caused a gradual increase of meandering amplitude accompanied by bank erosion in the recession period of the flood.

Nagata, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Yasuda, H.; Ito, A.

2013-11-01

96

Vocational education and training in developing countries: has the World Bank got it right?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Bank argues that vocational education and training in developing countries is best left to individuals, enterprises and private sector training institutions with government interventions kept to a minimum. This article argues that this policy prescription is seriously flawed both conceptually and in relation to the current VET policies adopted by governments in the advanced industrial economies as well

Paul Bennell; Jan Segerstrom

1998-01-01

97

Budget Deficits and Inflation: The Roles of Central Bank Independence and Financial Market Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the relationship between budget deficits and inflation with the view that the nature of this relationship depends on the characteristics of monetary and financial institutions. The main hypothesis is that budget deficits are especially inflationary when both the central bank is not independent and the financial market is not developed enough to contain inflationary expectations. The empirical

Bilin Neyapti

2003-01-01

98

A CREDIT SCORING MODEL FOR DEVELOPMENT BANKS: AN AFRICAN CASE STUDY \\/ UN MODELE DE \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loan portfolio quality could improve through a suitable creditworthiness analysis specifically designed to adapt to the particular LDC's context. In a broader perspective, an effective control of credit risk is a crucial aspect of bank management, especially in a development setting. This is the case of the Caisse Nationale de Crédit Agricole of Burkina Faso where the model proposed in

Laura Viganò

1993-01-01

99

Item Bank Development for a Revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is a useful clinical and research assessment, but it has limitations in content, age range, and efficiency. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of the item bank for a new computer adaptive testing version of the PEDI (PEDI-CAT). An expanded item set and response options…

Dumas, Helene; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen; Coster, Wendy; Kramer, Jessica; Kao, Ying-Chia; Moed, Richard

2010-01-01

100

Development and Calibration of an Item Bank for PE Metrics Assessments: Standard 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and calibrate an assessment system, or bank, using the latest measurement theories and methods to promote valid and reliable student assessment in physical education. Using an anchor-test equating design, a total of 30 items or assessments were administered to 5,021 (2,568 boys and 2,453 girls) students in…

Zhu, Weimo; Fox, Connie; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Graber, Kim C.; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

2011-01-01

101

Transboundary Water Conflicts over Hydropower and Irrigation: Can Multinational Development Banks Help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of a transboundary water conflict involv- ing upstream hydropower use and downstream irrigation use. The conflict arises because upstream water release may not coincide with seasonal irri- gation needs of the downstream riparian. Policy interventions by multi- national development banks (MDBs) are of particular interest because these agencies have a comparative advantage in promoting transboundary

Lars Christian Moller

102

Development and implementation of a perfusion-based high cell density cell banking process.  

PubMed

A perfusion-based high cell density (HD) cell banking process has been developed that offers substantial advantages in time savings and simplification of upstream unit operations. HD cell banking provides the means to reduce the time required for culture inoculum expansion and scale-up by eliminating the need for multiple small to intermediate scale shake flask-based operations saving up to 9 days of operation during large-scale inoculum expansion. HD perfusion cultures were developed and optimized in a disposable Wave bioreactor system. Through optimization of perfusion rate, rocking speed and aeration rate, the perfusion system supported peak cell densities of >20 × 10(6) cells/mL while maintaining high cell viability (? 90%). The cells were frozen at HD (90-100 × 10(6) viable cells/mL) in 5-mL CryoTube vials. HD cell banks were demonstrated to enable direct inoculation of culture into a Wave bioreactor in the inoculum expansion train thus eliminating the need for intermediate shake flask expansion unit operations. The simplicity of the disposable perfusion system and high quality of the cell banks resulted in the successful implementation in a 2000 L scale manufacturing facility. PMID:21538974

Tao, Yiwen; Shih, Jennifer; Sinacore, Marty; Ryll, Thomas; Yusuf-Makagiansar, Helena

2011-01-01

103

Development and Psychometric Analysis of the PROMIS Pain Behavior Item Bank  

PubMed Central

The measurement of pain behavior is a key component of the assessment of persons with chronic pain; however few self-reported pain behavior instruments have been developed. We developed a pain behavior item bank as part of the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS). For the Wave I testing, because of the large number of PROMIS items, a complex sampling approach was used where participants were randomly assigned to either respond to two full item banks or to multiple 7-item blocks of items. A web-based survey was designed and completed by 15,528 members of the general population and 967 individuals with different types of chronic pain. Item response theory (IRT) analysis models were used to evaluate item characteristics and to scale both items and individuals on the pain behavior domain. The pain behavior item bank demonstrated good fit to a unidimensional model (Comparative Fit Index = 0.94). Several iterations of IRT analyses resulted in a final 39 item pain behavior bank, and different IRT models were fit to the total sample and to those participants who experienced some pain. The results indicated that these items demonstrated good coverage of the pain behavior construct. Pain behavior scores were strongly related to pain intensity and moderately related to self-reported general health status. Mean pain behavior scores varied significantly by groups based on pain severity and general health status. The PROMIS pain behavior item bank can be used to develop static short-form and dynamic measures of pain behavior for clinical studies.

Revicki, Dennis A.; Chen, Wen-Hung; Harnam, Neesha; Cook, Karon F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Callahan, Leigh F.; Jensen, Mark P.; Keefe, Francis J.

2009-01-01

104

Banking Institutions in Developing Markets. Volume 1. Building Strong Management and Responding to Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two-volume set was written with the objective of providing an understanding of the fundamentals of good bank management. It is intended as a reference guide for those concerned with strengthening and managing banks: bankers, bank supervisors, creditor...

D. McNaughton

1992-01-01

105

Initial adjustments within a new river channel: Interactions between fluvial processes, colonizing vegetation, and bank profile development.  

PubMed

A conceptual model of the morphological development of the riparian margins of newly cut river channels is presented, suggesting early feedbacks between vegetation growth and bank form. To test the model, observations of long and cross profiles, bank sediment and seed deposition, and bank vegetation development were collected over the first 2 years of river flows through a reach of the River Cole, West Midlands, UK. The newly created channel had a sinuous planform and varying asymmetric trapezoidal cross section in sympathy with the planform. No imposed bedforms or bank reseeding were included in the design. Over the 2 years, development of bedforms was rapid, with bed sediment sorting and bank profile adjustment occurring more steadily and progressively. Six classes of bank profile were identified by the end of the study period, illustrating close associations with sediment aggradation, vegetation colonization, and growth patterns. Vegetation colonization of the banks was seeded predominantly from local sources during the summer and from hydrochory (transport by the river) during the winter. Colonizing vegetation on the riverbanks appeared to act as a significant propagule source by the second summer and as an increasingly important roughness element, trapping both propagules and sediment, within the second year and providing early feedback into bank evolution. As a result, the time required for riparian margin development in the conceptual model was found to be considerably longer than observed in the study river. In addition, the role of surface wash/bank failure in modifying the bank profile and transporting seeds onto the upper bank face during the first year of bank development was found to be important in initiating rapid bank vegetation colonization and surface stabilization. This set of processes had not been incorporated in the initial conceptual model. In relation to channel restoration, this research illustrates that in small temperate rivers of modest energy the provision of an initial, sinuous corridor is sufficient to induce rapid development of fluvial features and vegetation cover without the need to construct bed forms or to seed the banks. PMID:16933081

Gurnell, Angela M; Morrissey, Ian P; Boitsidis, Angela J; Bark, Tony; Clifford, Nicholas J; Petts, Geoffrey E; Thompson, Kenneth

2006-10-01

106

Item Bank Development for a Revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)  

PubMed Central

The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is a useful clinical and research assessment but it has limitations in content, age range and efficiency. The purpose of this article is to describe the process used to develop the item bank for a new computerized adaptive test version of the PEDI (PEDI-CAT). An expanded item set and response scales were reviewed by clinician experts and examined at parent and clinician focus groups. Eleven parents participated in 32 cognitive interviews to examine content, format, and comprehension of items and responses. A revised set of self-care (n=76), mobility (n=78; walking aids n=13; wheelchair n=14) and social function (n=64) items with pictures and a 4-point ‘Difficulty’ scale were developed. Also, the PEDI’s Caregiver Assistance Scale was replaced by a ‘Responsibility Scale’ with 53 items. The new PEDI-CAT item bank covers a broader range of functional activities for children of all ages and abilities.

Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Haley, Stephen M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kramer, Jessica M.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Moed, Richard

2013-01-01

107

The World Bank: An Online Atlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

108

eVLBI Developments at Jodrell Bank Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial experiments at the iGRID 2002 demonstration showed that the Internet is capable of sending data at rates of 900 Mbps or more from the UK to the correlator at JIVE. Since then a number of further tests have been made investigating the effects of packet loss, and what happens to continuously streamed eVLBI data from MKV systems. The University of Manchester is a memeber of the UK's ESLEA (Exploitation of Switched Lightpaths for Escience Applications) consortium which is deveoping strategies for optimal use of the UKLight switched light path circuits. One of the aims of this project is to develop eVLBI to make the best use of such networks. The UKLight connection has recently come onstream and some early results will be described.

Spencer, Ralph Hughes-Jones, Richard Casey, Simon Burgess, Paul

109

LOVING TO STRAIGHTEN OUT DEVELOPMENT: SEXUALITY AND ETHNODEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD BANK'S ECUADORIAN LENDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender staff in the World Bank -- the world's largest and most influential development institution -- have a policy problem.\\u000a Having prioritised efforts to get women into paid employment as the ?8cure-all?9 for gender inequality they must deal with\\u000a the work that women already do -- the unpaid labour of caring, socialisation, and human needs fulfilment. This article explores\\u000a the

KATE BEDFORD

2005-01-01

110

Human finger-prick induced pluripotent stem cells facilitate the development of stem cell banking.  

PubMed

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients can be a good model for studying human diseases and for future therapeutic regenerative medicine. Current initiatives to establish human iPSC (hiPSC) banking face challenges in recruiting large numbers of donors with diverse diseased, genetic, and phenotypic representations. In this study, we describe the efficient derivation of transgene-free hiPSCs from human finger-prick blood. Finger-prick sample collection can be performed on a "do-it-yourself" basis by donors and sent to the hiPSC facility for reprogramming. We show that single-drop volumes of finger-prick samples are sufficient for performing cellular reprogramming, DNA sequencing, and blood serotyping in parallel. Our novel strategy has the potential to facilitate the development of large-scale hiPSC banking worldwide. PMID:24646489

Tan, Hong-Kee; Toh, Cheng-Xu Delon; Ma, Dongrui; Yang, Binxia; Liu, Tong Ming; Lu, Jun; Wong, Chee-Wai; Tan, Tze-Kai; Li, Hu; Syn, Christopher; Tan, Eng-Lee; Lim, Bing; Lim, Yoon-Pin; Cook, Stuart A; Loh, Yuin-Han

2014-05-01

111

Timing of fire relative to seed development controls availability of non-serotinous aerial seed banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of non-serotinous, non-sprouting species in fire regimes where serotiny confers an adaptive advantage is puzzling, particularly when these species recruit poorly from soil seed banks or from burn edges. In this paper, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) was used to show that the timing of fire relative to seed development can control aerial seed bank availability for non-serotinous species. To estimate seed survival in closed cones during crown fires, cone heating was simulated using a one-dimensional conduction model implemented in a computational fluid dynamics (Navier-Stokes) fire spread model. To quantify the area burned when germinable seed would be contained in closed cones, empirical fire occurrence and seed development (germinability and cone opening) data were compared for multiple locations across the white spruce range. Approximately 12% of cones contained viable seed following crown fire simulations (0.072 m s-1 mean spread rate; 9147 kW m-1 mean intensity), and roughly half of the historical area burned resulted from fires that occurred when closed cones would contain germinable seed. Post-fire recruitment from in situ aerial seed banks can occur for non-serotinous species, and may be an important cause of their existence in fire regimes to which they otherwise seem poorly suited.

Michaletz, S. T.; Johnson, E. A.; Mell, W. E.; Greene, D. F.

2012-11-01

112

The development of a recruiting-drawing-inventory model for a community blood bank system.  

PubMed

A community blood bank system is a multiorganizational program that is designed to supply the blood needs of a community. Participating in such a program are hospitals, a central blood bank, industrial donor groups, the American Red Cross, advisory committees, and the community at large. The underlying determinant of the community's success or failure with its blood program is the degree of cooperation among the various organizations. Intertwined with organizational considerations are the management problems associated with the operation of a responsive and efficient inventory control system. This paper reports on the development of a system for a community blood bank that is in its third year of operation. The system that has been developed can be operated manually by a part-time clerk. Details of the model include an integration of the donor scheduling function and the inventory control function. Simulated testing of the model has been conducted and full-scale implementation is awaiting the expansion of the known donor base. PMID:1129839

Smackey, B M

1975-01-01

113

Developing an item bank and short forms that assess the impact of asthma on quality of life.  

PubMed

The present work describes the process of developing an item bank and short forms that measure the impact of asthma on quality of life (QoL) that avoids confounding QoL with asthma symptomatology and functional impairment. Using a diverse national sample of adults with asthma (N = 2032) we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and item response theory and differential item functioning analyses to develop a 65-item unidimensional item bank and separate short form assessments. A psychometric evaluation of the RAND Impact of Asthma on QoL item bank (RAND-IAQL) suggests that though the concept of asthma impact on QoL is multi-faceted, it may be measured as a single underlying construct. The performance of the bank was then evaluated with a real-data simulated computer adaptive test. From the RAND-IAQL item bank we then developed two short forms consisting of 4 and 12 items (reliability = 0.86 and 0.93, respectively). A real-data simulated computer adaptive test suggests that as few as 4-5 items from the bank are needed to obtain highly precise scores. Preliminary validity results indicate that the RAND-IAQL measures distinguish between levels of asthma control. To measure the impact of asthma on QoL, users of these items may choose from two highly reliable short forms, computer adaptive test administration, or content-specific subsets of items from the bank tailored to their specific needs. PMID:24411842

Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Eberhart, Nicole K; Lara, Marielena

2014-02-01

114

Developing a California Inventory for Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) Foam Banks and Emissions from Foams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Caleb and its project team undertook the development of an inventory of foams and their related blowing agents for California. The inventory provides data on greenhouse gas emissions and banks (greenhouse gases contained in existing foam, and not yet rele...

A. A. J. Vetter P. K. Ashford

2011-01-01

115

Development of bank gullies on the shore zone of the Bratsk Reservoir (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosional landforms of the gully type include among others V-shaped dissections in high shores of water bodies or steep slopes of large river valleys in various morphoclimatic zones (Drozdowski 1977; Gawrysiak 1994; Burkard, Kostaschuk 1997; Smolska 2007; Leyland, Darby 2008; Superson, Zagórski 2008; Repelewska-P?kalowa et al. 2013). Such erosional dissections, known as bank gullies, develop as a result of concentrated overland flow caused by intensive precipitation or snowmelt. They are usually ephemeral landforms reaching insignificant sizes in natural conditions. They can exceptionally develop during one event and as a result of increased rate of erosion caused by agricultural activities (Rodzik et. al. 2004, 2011; Rodzik, Terpi?owski 2005). An accelerated development of bank gullies is also observed in the zone of artificial dam reservoirs (Pecherkin 1969; Ovchinnikov et al. 1999). In the area of the Kamsk Reservoir, an increase in the volume of gullies developed in loess-like sediments is 2-3 times higher than shore degradation by abrasion processes (Pecherkin 1969). Gully erosion is also an important source of material deposited in the slope zone and in water bodies (Vandekerckhove et al. 2001; Poesen et al. 2003; Foster et al. 2007). The high number and various stages of development of bank gullies dissecting the southern shores of the Bratsk Reservoir encouraged undertaking studies on the rate of development and evolution of these landforms (Ovchinnikov et al. 1999; Mazaeva et al. 2006, 2014; Grobelska et al. 2007; Kaczmarek et al. 2012). High seasonal and annual water level fluctuations in dam reservoirs provide conditions for development of the described gully landforms substantially different than those occurring in the zone of marine shores, lakes, or river valleys. The primary objective of the study was the determination of the current conditions and the identification of factors responsible for the development of gullies in the coastal zone of the Bratsk Reservoir. Another task was to prepare the morphological description of the resulting landforms and their classification

Mazaeva, Oksana; Pelinen, Vadim; Janicki, Grzegorz

2014-06-01

116

World Bank Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has recently added full-text journal articles to its Website. The World Bank Research Observer is geared towards non-specialist readers who have an interested in bank research. It includes articles on such matters as development economics, new World Bank research, and development policy. The World Bank Economic Review is a professional journal, published three times a year, that focuses on "World Bank-sponsored research that emphasizes empirical applications." Journals are searchable by article and by issue, as well as by author and keyword.

117

AAMRL Biodynamics Data Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report traces the development of the Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (AAMRL) Biodynamics Data Bank from the original concept of a National Biomechanics Data Bank proposed by Working Group 87 of the National Research Council. ...

T. S. Abrams I. Kaleps J. W. Brinkley

1988-01-01

118

Seed-bank and vegetation development in a created tidal freshwater wetland on the Delaware River, Trenton, New Jersey, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial stages of seed-bank and vegetation development were documented in a newly created tidal freshwater wetland where\\u000a donor soils were not applied. The 32.3-ha site adjacent to the Delaware River in New Jersey, USA was completed in stages from\\u000a November 1993 to November 1994. Objectives of the study were to determine characteristics of the seed bank and vegetation\\u000a and

Mary Allessio Leck

2003-01-01

119

Coherent multilateral radar processing for precise target geolocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the target geolocation performance of coherent processing of target signals observed by several radar receivers in a multilateral configuration. Each radar sensor is designed with a sufficient bandwidth to support good target range resolution but without the benefit of a narrow radar antenna beam for useful cross range measurement of the target position. The analysis results demonstrate

Jen King Jao

2006-01-01

120

Bargaining over International Multilateral Agreements: The Duration of Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the duration of international multilateral agreement negotiations. Based on propositions in the literature concerning factors which may have an effect on the length of negotiations, I derive testable hypotheses concerning the involvement of intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations in the negotiation process, the number of negotiating parties, and the duration of the agreement. These hypotheses are tested using

Nicole M. Simonelli

2011-01-01

121

Mesozoic Lithofacies Development and Economic Potential of the Georges Bank Basin Off Southern New England.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interpretation of seismic facies and interval velocities from multichannel seismic reflection and refraction profiles collected over Georges Bank suggests the presence of a Jurassic-Early Cretaceous reef/carbonate bank underlying the outer continental ...

J. A. Austin E. Uchupi

1980-01-01

122

Sediment transport and development of banner banks and sandwaves in an extreme tidal system: Upper Bay of Fundy, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multibeam sonar mapping and geophysical and geological groundtruth surveys were coupled with tidal current and sediment transport model calculations to investigate the sediment transport and formation processes of the complex seabed features off the Cape Split headland in the upper Bay of Fundy. The Cape Split banner bank, composed of coarse to very coarse sand, is a southwest-northeast oriented, large tear-drop shaped sand body with superimposed sand waves that show wavelengths from 15 to 525 m and heights from 0.5 to 19 m. Isolated and chains of barchan dunes occur on top of a shadow bank to the southeast of the banner bank. The barchan dunes are composed of well-sorted medium sand and are oriented northwest-southeast. Their mean height and width are 1.5 and 55 m, respectively. A gravel bank, with an elongated elliptical shape and west-east orientation, lies in the Minas Passage erosional trough east of the headland to form the counterpart to the sandy Cape Split banner bank. The southern face is featureless but the northern face is covered by gravel megaripples. Tidal model predictions and sediment transport calculations show that the formation of the banner bank and the gravel bank are due to the development of the transient counter-clockwise and clockwise tidal eddies respectively to the west and east of the headland. The formation of barchan dunes is controlled by the nearly unidirectional flow regime in outer Scots Bay. Sand waves on the flanks of the Cape Split banner bank show opposite asymmetry and the barchan dunes are asymmetric to the northeast. The tidal current and sediment transport predictions corroborate bedform asymmetry to show that sand wave migration and net sediment transport is to southwest on the northern flank of the banner bank but to northeast on the southern bank. Long-term migration of the Scots Bay barchan dunes is to the northeast. Spring-condition tidal currents can cause frequent mobilization and high-stage transport over the banner bank and barchan dunes. Strong currents in Minas Passage can cause infrequent low-stage transport over the megarippled northern face but are not high enough to mobilize the coarser gravels on the southern face of the gravel bank.

Li, Michael Z.; Shaw, John; Todd, Brian J.; Kostylev, Vladimir E.; Wu, Yongsheng

2014-07-01

123

12 CFR 1806.204 - Applications for Bank Enterprise Awards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications for Bank Enterprise Awards. 1806.204 Section 1806.204 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2013-01-01

124

12 CFR 1806.204 - Applications for Bank Enterprise Awards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for Bank Enterprise Awards. 1806.204 Section 1806.204 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2012-01-01

125

Development of coral banks in Porcupine Seabight: do they have Mediterranean ancestors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the spatial distribution and morphology of coral banks in the Porcupine Seabight in relation to their environmental settings. The study area is characterised by well-delimited clusters of coral banks, each featuring typical bank morphology and environmental setting. In the central part of the basin, two mound provinces can be identified: a set of complex

Ben De Mol; Jean-Pierre Henriet; Miquel Canals

126

Banks, Financial Markets, and Industrial Development: Lessons from the Economic Histories of Brazil and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

What impact do small and concentrated banking systems have on the competitive structure and performance of manufacturing industry? Why do financial markets not serve as a substitute for banks? This paper uses the economic histories of Brazil and Mexico as a natural laboratory to argue argue that when information is costly, government regulatory policies that constrain competition in banking give

Stephen Haber

127

Bank performance measurement in a developing economy: an application of data envelopment analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlines previous research on measuring the performance of banks and the factors leading up to the banking crisis in Nigeria in the 1990s. Applies data envelopment analysis to 1991-1994 data on ten listed Nigerian banks to assess their relative efficiency and tabulates the results for each year, year by year. Discusses the consistency of the findings with other research and

O. Felix Ayadi; Arinola O. Adebayo; Eddy Omolehinwa

1998-01-01

128

Development of an EtherCAT enabled digital servo controller for the Green Bank Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is gaining wide spread popularity in the automation industry as a real time field bus based on low cost, Ethernet hardware. EtherCAT maximizes use of 100Mbps Ethernet hardware by using a collision free ring topology, efficient Ethernet frame utilization (> 95%), and data exchange "on the fly". These characteristics enable EtherCAT to achieve Master to Slave node data exchange rates of > 1000 Hz. The Green Bank Telescope, commissioned in 2000, utilizes an analog control system for motion control of 8 elevation and 16 azimuth motors. This architecture, while sufficient for observations at frequencies up to 50GHz, has significant limitations for the current scientific goals of observing at 115GHz. Accordingly, the Green Bank staff has embarked on a servo upgrade project to develop a digital servo system which accommodates development and implementation of advanced control algorithms. This paper describes how the new control system requirements, use of existing infrastructure and budget constraints led us to define a distributed motion control architecture where EtherCAT real-time Ethernet was selected as the communication bus. Finally, design details are provided that describe how NRAO developed a custom EtherCAT-enabled motor controller interface for the GBT's legacy motor drives in order to provide technical benefits and flexibility not available in commercial products.

Whiteis, Peter G.; Mello, Melinda J.

2012-09-01

129

Newly developed Fountain pyrometer for a running hot strip in the cooling banks of a hot strip mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature control of a hot strip has been important in run-out table of hot strip mill in order to stabilize and improve the material properties of its products. We developed a new temperature measurement method for hot strip cooled by a lot of water in the cooling banks. And we developed control system using the new measurement method and confirmed

T. Honda; S. Nakagawa; C. Uematsu; H. Tachibana; Y. Buei; K. Sakagami

2009-01-01

130

The UNDP - World Bank\\/IMF Partnership in Achieving Millennium Development Goals: The Role of Poverty Reduction Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the partnership in development policies between the World Bank and IMF, and the United Nations. In a review and interpretation of the genesis and development of MDGs and PRSPs, we argue that PRSPs are instruments used by the Washington institutions to achieve the MDGs initiated by the UN. We then report on data collected for MDGS 2,3

Andrea R. Eggen; Dirk J. Bezemer

131

Internet Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use multivariate logistic regressions to identify factors affecting adoption of Internet banking. These factors include membership in a bank holding company, an urban location, and relatively higher premises and other fixed expenses to net operating revenue, higher noninterest income, and greater accounting cost efficiency than non-Internet banks. More profitable banks were more likely to adopt Internet banking after Quarter

Karen Furst; William W. Lang; Daniel E. Nolle

2002-01-01

132

Three-D multilateration: A precision geodetic measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique of satellite geodesy for determining the relative three dimensional coordinates of ground stations within one centimeter over baselines of 20 to 10,000 kilometers is discussed. The system is referred to as 3-D Multilateration and has applications in earthquake hazard assessment, precision surveying, plate tectonics, and orbital mechanics. The accuracy is obtained by using pulsed lasers to obtain simultaneous slant ranges between several ground stations and a moving retroreflector with known trajectory for aiming the lasers.

Escobal, P. R.; Ong, K. M.; Vonroos, O. H.; Shumate, M. S.; Jaffe, R. M.; Fliegel, H. F.; Muller, P. M.

1973-01-01

133

Development of small carbonate banks on the south Florida platform margin: Response to sea level and climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geophysical and coring data from the Dry Tortugas, Tortugas Bank, and Riley's Hump on the southwest Florida margin reveal the stratigraphic framework and growth history of these carbonate banks. The Holocene reefs of the Dry Tortugas and Tortugas Bank are approximately 14 and 10 m thick, respectively, and are situated upon Pleistocene reefal edifices. Tortugas Bank consists of the oldest Holocene corals in the Florida Keys with earliest coral recruitment occurring at ???9.6 cal ka. Growth curves for the Tortugas Bank reveal slow growth (<1 mm/yr) until 6.2 cal ka, then a rapid increase to 3.4 mm/yr, until shallow reef demise at ???4.2 cal ka. Coral reef development at the Dry Tortugas began at ???6.4 cal ka. Aggradation at the Dry Tortugas was linear, and rapid (???3.7 mm/yr) and kept pace with sea-level change. The increase in aggradation rate of Tortugas Bank at 6.2 cal ka is attributed to the growth of the Dry Tortugas reefs, which formed a barrier to inimical shelf water. Termination of shallow (<15 m below sea level) reef growth at Tortugas Bank at ???4.2 cal ka is attributed to paleoclimate change in the North American interior that increased precipitation and fluvial discharge. Reef growth rates and characteristics are related to the rate of sea-level rise relative to the position of the reef on the shelf margin, and are additionally modified by hydrographic conditions related to climate change. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Mallinson, D.; Hine, A.; Hallock, P.; Locker, S.; Shinn, E.; Naar, D.; Donahue, B.; Weaver, D.

2003-01-01

134

Multilateration with the wide-angle laser ranging system: ranging performance and first ground-based validation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide-angle laser ranging system has been developed for high-precision multilateration. A laser transmits short pulses in a widely diverging beam toward a network of cube-corner retroreflectors (CCRs). Returned echoes are detected, amplified, digitized, and timed. Impact of instrumental error sources, atmospheric refraction, and scintillation are discussed. The precision of the correlation method for the estimation of times of arrival

Olivier Bock; Christian Thom; M. Kasser; J. R. Pelon

1999-01-01

135

THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES EXTENSION IN BANKING: THE CASE OF E BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN PRACTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new technologies in the banking services are part of rapid changes in the way of life and thinking. The banks are aware these new changes are fundamental for their performance improvement. The banks of Romania have rapidly growing and developing e-banking services, especially the Internet information and home and mobile banking. The sites of banks provide specific information, particularly

Danciu Victor

136

How developments in cryobiology, reproductive technologies and conservation genomics could shape gene banking strategies for (farm) animals.  

PubMed

Many local breeds are currently at risk because of replacement by a limited number of specialized commercial breeds. Concurrently, for many breeds, allelic diversity within breeds declines because of inbreeding. Gene banking of germplasm may serve to secure the breeds and the alleles for any future use, for instance to recover a lost breed, to address new breeding goals, to support breeding schemes in small populations to minimize inbreeding, and for conservation genetics and genomics research. Developments in cryobiology and reproductive technology have generated several possibilities for preserving germplasm in farm animals. Furthermore, in some mammalian and bird species, gene banking of material is difficult or impossible, requiring development of new alternative methods or improvement of existing methods. Depending on the species, there are interesting possibilities or research developments in the use of epididymal spermatozoa, oocytes and embryos, ovarian and testicular tissue, primordial germ cells, and somatic cells for the conservation of genetic diversity in farm- and other animal species. Rapid developments in genomics research also provide new opportunities to optimize conservation and sampling strategies and to characterize genome-wide genetic variation. With regard to gene banks for farm animals, collaboration between European countries is being developed through a number of organizations, aimed at sharing knowledge and expertise between national programmes. It would be useful to explore further collaboration between countries, within the framework of a European gene banking strategy that should minimize costs of conservation and maximize opportunities for exploitation and sustainable use of genetic diversity. PMID:22827380

Woelders, H; Windig, J; Hiemstra, S J

2012-08-01

137

Developing the Communicative Participation Item Bank: Rasch Analysis Results from a Spasmodic Dysphonia Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct the initial psychometric analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank--a new self-report instrument designed to measure the extent to which communication disorders interfere with communicative participation. This item bank is intended for community-dwelling adults across a range of…

Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

2009-01-01

138

Bank Terminals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

1978-01-01

139

Security Multilateralism in Asia: Views from the United States and japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this policy paper, two leading authorities on the topic--one Japanese and one American--take a look at the rise of regional multilateralism in Asia. Akiko Fukushima’s monograph provides a rich historical background on Japan’s periodic flirtation with multilateralism, including the disappointments during the inter- war and immediate post-war period. Dr. Fukushima traces renewed interest in multilateralism to a thaw in

Ralph Cossa; Akiko Fukushima; Stephan Haggard; Daniel J. Pinkston

1999-01-01

140

A technical assessment of ADS-B and multilateration technology in the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two aircraft surveillance technologies, multilateration and ADS-B, have emerged during the past few years and now appear to be possible alternatives to traditional primary and secondary radar systems. Multilateration has been tested extensively for airport surface applications - e.g., test in Atlanta (1996) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) tests at Dallas-Forth Worth (1998-1999). The FAA plans to deploy multilateration\\/ADS-B systems

A. Daskalakis; P. Martone

2003-01-01

141

The development and deployment of Common Data Elements for tissue banks for translational research in cancer - An emerging standard based approach for the Mesothelioma Virtual Tissue Bank  

PubMed Central

Background Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and the increasing demands for biomarker validation studies have catalyzed changes in the landscape of cancer research, fueling the development of tissue banks for translational research. A result of this transformation is the need for sufficient quantities of clinically annotated and well-characterized biospecimens to support the growing needs of the cancer research community. Clinical annotation allows samples to be better matched to the research question at hand and ensures that experimental results are better understood and can be verified. To facilitate and standardize such annotation in bio-repositories, we have combined three accepted and complementary sets of data standards: the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Cancer Checklists, the protocols recommended by the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology (ADASP) for pathology data, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registry (NAACCR) elements for epidemiology, therapy and follow-up data. Combining these approaches creates a set of International Standards Organization (ISO) – compliant Common Data Elements (CDEs) for the mesothelioma tissue banking initiative supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Methods The purpose of the project is to develop a core set of data elements for annotating mesothelioma specimens, following standards established by the CAP checklist, ADASP cancer protocols, and the NAACCR elements. We have associated these elements with modeling architecture to enhance both syntactic and semantic interoperability. The system has a Java-based multi-tiered architecture based on Unified Modeling Language (UML). Results Common Data Elements were developed using controlled vocabulary, ontology and semantic modeling methodology. The CDEs for each case are of different types: demographic, epidemiologic data, clinical history, pathology data including block level annotation, and follow-up data including treatment, recurrence and vital status. The end result of such an effort would eventually provide an increased sample set to the researchers, and makes the system interoperable between institutions. Conclusion The CAP, ADASP and the NAACCR elements represent widely established data elements that are utilized in many cancer centers. Herein, we have shown these representations can be combined and formalized to create a core set of annotations for banked mesothelioma specimens. Because these data elements are collected as part of the normal workflow of a medical center, data sets developed on the basis of these elements can be easily implemented and maintained.

Mohanty, Sambit K; Mistry, Amita T; Amin, Waqas; Parwani, Anil V; Pople, Andrew K; Schmandt, Linda; Winters, Sharon B; Milliken, Erin; Kim, Paula; Whelan, Nancy B; Farhat, Ghada; Melamed, Jonathan; Taioli, Emanuela; Dhir, Rajiv; Pass, Harvey I; Becich, Michael J

2008-01-01

142

Higher Education in China: Consulting for the Asian Development Bank on Higher Education Reform. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship of the Chinese National Academy of Educational Administration, the Asian Development Bank, and a consulting U.S. university in a project to provide technical assistance for senior Chinese university administrators in management training and modernization of facilities. Although the higher education component in…

Mauch, James

143

Effects of the Israeli Segregation Wall on biodiversity and environmental sustainable development in the West Bank, Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the effects of the Israeli Segregation Wall on biodiversity and environmental sustainable development in the West Bank, Palestine. Land confiscation, damage to species and soil erosion, together with loss of water resources have all impacted on the Palestinians and deepened their poverty. The paper shows a grim prospect.

Tanya Abdallah; Khaled Swaileh

2011-01-01

144

Emerging Regions, Persisting Rhetoric of Educational Aid: The Impact of the Asian Development Bank on Educational Policy Making in Kazakhstan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) discourses and practices in the context of its educational sector support in Kazakhstan. Drawing on the document analysis and interviews with the ADB staff and Kazakhstan's education officials, the article examines ADB's discursive and operational frameworks in this Central Asian country. The…

Asanova, Jazira

2006-01-01

145

Multilateral Biomedical Data Sharing in the One-year Joint US-Russian Mission on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The One Year Mission (1YM) by two astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), starting in March 2015, offers a unique opportunity to expand multilateral collaboration by sharing data and resources among the partner agencies in preparation for planned space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Agreements and protocols will be established for the collection, distribution, analysis and reporting of both research and clinical data. Data will be shared between the agencies sponsoring the investigators, and between the research and clinical medicine communities where common interests are identified. The assignment of only two astronauts, one Russian and the other American, to the 1YM necessitated creativity in bilateral efforts to maximize the biomedical return from the opportunity. Addition of Canadian, European and Japanese investigations make the effort even more integrative. There will be three types of investigations: joint, cross-participation and data-exchange. The joint investigations have US and Russian coprincipal investigators, and the data acquired will be their common responsibility. The other two types must develop data sharing agreements and processes specific to their needs. A multilateral panel of ISS partner space agencies will develop policies for international exchange of scientific information to meet their science objectives and priorities. They will promote archiving of space flight data and will inform each other and the scientific community at large about the results obtained from space life sciences studies. Integration tasks for the 1YM are based on current experience from the ISS and previous efforts on the Russian space station Mir. Closer coordination between international partners requires more common approaches to remove barriers to multilateral resource utilization on the ISS. Greater integration in implementation should increase utilization efficiency to benefit all participants in spaceflight human research. This presentation will describe the overarching principles for multilateral data collection, analysis and sharing and for data security for medical and research data shared between ISS partners prior to release in public forums.

Charles, John B.; Haven, C.; Johnson-Throop, K.; Van Baalen, M.; McFather, J.

2014-01-01

146

Human Milk Banking in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 30 milk banks existed in the early 1980s in the United States, whereas seven banks currently exist in the United States and one in Canada. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in human milk banks as evidenced by the number of institutions in various stages of developing new human milk banks. During 2003, North American milk banks

Kim Updegrove

2005-01-01

147

Profits and balance sheet developments at U.S. commercial banks in 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The profitability of the U.S. commercial banking industry remained robust in 2000, but returns on equity and on commercial bank assets fell back somewhat from the peak reached in 1999. The falloff reflected a continuation of the decline in net interest margin that dates from the extraordinarily high levels of the early 1990s, a significant increase in loan-loss provisions, and

William F. Bassett; Egon Zakrajsek

2001-01-01

148

Bank for International Settlements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS), a creation of the Hague Conference of 1930, is "a[n international] central banking institution" whose aim is "to promote the co-operation of central banks and to provide additional facilities for international financial operations." Its web site provides a detailed profile of BIS, along with its basic texts and charters. However, the power of the site is its publication section, a small but growing list of full text publications (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), highlighted by the quarterly International Banking and Financial Market Developments, a "commentary on recent developments in international banking, securities and global derivatives markets based on partial information available for the [most recent quarter] and on more detailed banking data for [the previous quarter]." The site also contains BIS Review, "a collection of important articles and speeches by senior central bankers."

1997-01-01

149

Multilateral Tarriff Cooperation During the Formation of Regional Free Trade Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the impact of the formation of regional free trade agreements on the ability of countries to maintain low cooperative multilateral tariffs. We assume that countries can not make binding international commitments, but are instead limited to self-enforcing arrangements. Specifically, we model cooperation in multilateral trade policy as involving a constant balance between, on the one hand, the gains

Kyle Bagwell; Robert W. Staiger

1993-01-01

150

New service development competence in retail banking: Construct development and measurement validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New service development (NSD) has emerged as an important area of research in service operations management. However, NSD empirical investigations have been hindered by the lack of psychometrically sound measurement items and scales. This paper reports a two-stage approach for the development and validation of new multi-item measurement scales reflecting a multidimensional construct called NSD competence. NSD competence reflects an

Larry J. Menor; Aleda V. Roth

2007-01-01

151

Game theoretical multi-agent modelling of coalition formation for multilateral trades  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the electric utility industries world wide have been undergoing deregulation to introduce competitiveness in the generation, transmission , and distribution of electric power. The once centralized system planning and operation management must be remodelled to adapt to the new market structure. In particular, the trading mechanism needs to be totally revised as any party may get involved in this free-market, subject to the unavoidable constraints such as generation volumes, physical transmission means, and days-ahead scheduling. This paper presents a multi-agent model in conjunction with game theory to resolve the coalition formation for multilateral trades. The authors have implemented the model using the Java programming language and the JATLite/JAT0.3 agent development tools developed by Stanford University.

Yeung, C.S.K.; Poon, A.S.Y.; Wu, F.F. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1999-08-01

152

Oceanic Core Complex Development Within the Ductile and Brittle Regimes, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge environments, both magmatic and tectonic processes accommodate spreading, where the latter can be manifested as detachment fault systems. Atlantis Bank, an oceanic core complex formed ˜12 Ma at the intersection of the ultra-slow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge and the Atlantis II transform, is dissected by transform-parallel normal faults that provide unique cross-sections through all levels of the detachment fault system. Gabbro collected in ODP Hole 735B and with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 from the footwall, hanging wall, and detachment fault surface provide details of the extensional fault system exposed over 36 km normal to the ridge axis, (>3.5 m.y. of crustal accretion). Together the sample suite provides an ideal basis for interpreting the process of strain localization and fabric development associated with formation of long-lived oceanic detachment faults. Continuous core from ODP Hole 735B demonstrates that the main shear zone associated with denudation of the core complex is 200 m thick. The core samples exhibit magmatic fabrics and metamorphic fabrics of submagmatic, granulite (650° - 900° C), amphibolite (450° - 650° C), greenschist (300° - 450° C) and subgreenschist grades. Analysis of the in situ dive samples indicates that the structurally deepest samples collected from the footwall are characterized by a zone of granulite-grade crystal-plastic deformation with varying fabric intensity. Structurally above the granulites lies a zone of amphibolite-grade protomylonitic to mylonitic fabrics overprinted by semi-brittle to brittle greenschist-grade deformation. The amphibolites contain 20 - 30 mm-thick zones of high-strain mylonite that increase in number and decrease in thickness upward toward the detachment fault surface. Samples from the localized slip plane or detachment fault surface are highly altered and deformed in both the ductile and brittle regimes. Thermometry and microstructural analysis of in situ dive samples demonstrates that ductile deformation initiated at 950° C and continued through 600° C. Folded pyroxene porphyroclasts show that ductile deformation began after exsolution. Two-pyroxene thermometry based on mineral composition data from orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene porphyroclast hosts and their exsolution lamellae in gabbro mylonite yield temperatures of 950° C. Equivalent analysis of adjacent recrystallized ortho- and clinopyroxene neoblasts yield temperatures 850° - 950° C, demonstrating that ductile deformation continued through 850° C. Amphibole-plagioclase thermometry based on mineral composition data from recrystallized amphibole and the associated plagioclase porphyroclasts and neoblasts in oxide gabbro mylonite indicates that ductile deformation began around 890° C and continued through 600° C. The greenschist-grade overprint of granulite gabbro mylonite, manifested by the foliation-parallel growth of green amphibole, chlorite and serpentine around plagioclase neoblasts, preserves a subsequent lower-temperature history. The microstructures of the granulite-grade footwall rocks and those of the detachment fault surface breccias suggest that deformation initiated at high temperatures in the ductile regime, and continued to lower temperatures through the semi-brittle and brittle regimes as fault rocks were denuded along the detachment fault system. Models for the development of oceanic core complexes developed purely within the brittle regime clearly do not apply to the well-exposed and sampled Atlantis Bank region of the Southwest Indian Ridge.

Miranda, E. A.; John, B. E.; Frost, B. R.

2003-12-01

153

Structure and development of a microcontinent: Elan Bank in the southern Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microcontinents appear to commonly form on young continental margins close to hot spots, but difficulties in understanding their geology and evolution have inhibited assessment of their global distribution and significance. Thick volcanic accumulations in areas affected by hot spot magmatism only complicate the issue. Elan Bank, a large western salient of the Kerguelen Plateau, is a microcontinent that originally lay between India and Antarctica in Gondwana. Recent regional plate tectonic reconstructions suggest that during Gondwana breakup, Elan Bank and India initially separated from Antarctica, and Elan Bank became isolated in the Southern Ocean via a ridge jump to the north between Elan Bank and India. In Albian time (˜108 Ma), voluminous magmatism attributed to the Kerguelen hot spot overprinted and radically altered the original microcontinent and its surroundings. Recent ODP investigations, deep seismic reflection data, and a wide-angle seismic line on Elan Bank allow us to gain the first insight into the feature's integrated crustal structure and geological evolution and the adjacent continent-ocean transition zone. Our analysis shows that Elan Bank's crust is at least 16 km thick. The upper igneous crust consists of a 2-3 km thick layer with seismic velocities ranging from 4.4 to 5.9 km/s that can be interpreted as the result of accumulation of lava flows originating from the Kerguelen hot spot. Seismic velocities at the base of the crust are as low as 6.6 km/s, which is consistent with a fragment of thinned continental crust ˜14 km thick. A high velocity body, located at depths of 5 to 10 km, could be interpreted as plutonic rocks emplaced during the major regional magmatic episode. On the basis of deep seismic reflection data, we interpret extensional structures beneath the volcanic flows. In Albian time, when the area was affected by the Kerguelen hot spot, volcaniclastic material and lava flows accumulated in faulted grabens and basins both on the bank and within the continent-ocean transition zone to the south, creating the appearance of flat, unstructured basement. The seismic structure and inferred composition of Elan Bank revealed by this study contribute to our understanding of microcontinent formation as well as provide a template for identifying microcontinents in accreted terranes and mountain belts.

Borissova, Irina; Coffin, Millard F.; Charvis, Philippe; Operto, StéPhane

2003-09-01

154

Development of small carbonate banks on the south Florida platform margin: response to sea level and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical and coring data from the Dry Tortugas, Tortugas Bank, and Riley’s Hump on the southwest Florida margin reveal the stratigraphic framework and growth history of these carbonate banks. The Holocene reefs of the Dry Tortugas and Tortugas Bank are approximately 14 and 10 m thick, respectively, and are situated upon Pleistocene reefal edifices. Tortugas Bank consists of the oldest

David Mallinson; Albert Hine; Pamela Hallock; Stanley Locker; Eugene Shinn; David Naar; Brian Donahue; Douglas Weaver

2003-01-01

155

DORMAN computer program (study 2.5). Volume 2: User's guide and programmer's guide. [development of data bank for computerized information storage of NASA programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DORMAN program was developed to create and modify a data bank containing data decks which serve as input to the DORCA Computer Program. Via a remote terminal a user can access the bank, extract any data deck, modify that deck, output the modified deck to be input to the DORCA program, and save the modified deck in the data bank. This computer program is an assist in the utilization of the DORCA program. The program is dimensionless and operates almost entirely in integer mode. The program was developed on the CDC 6400/7600 complex for implementation on a UNIVAC 1108 computer.

Wray, S. T., Jr.

1973-01-01

156

Factors affecting the adoption of Internet Banking in Hong Kong—implications for the banking sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of Internet and Electronic Business has stimulated the banking and financial sectors towards encouraging customers to bank on-line. This paper explores the adoption of Internet Banking by retail customers in Hong Kong. The paper attempts to make sense of Internet Banking in Hong Kong from three angles: (i) the current adoption rate of Internet Banking; (ii) the

Chi Shing Yiu; Kevin Grant; David Edgar

2007-01-01

157

Developing a holistic understanding of workplace health: the case of bank workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding health in the workplace from a holistic perspective requires appropriate research approaches. An exploratory, qualitative study with whitecollar employees from a large banking organization in the North West of England is detailed here. The aim was to explore health from the perspective of the employee. Semi-structured interviews (n = 29) elicited detailed responses, allowing the relationship between psychosocial and

L. Dugdill

2000-01-01

158

Early Child Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: List of Projects with World Bank Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years the World Bank, currently the largest single funding source for education and health programs in the world, has put new emphasis on reaching children in the years before they enter school. Despite the acknowledged benefits to be gained from investing in education, schooling in Latin America has failed to keep pace with the…

World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

159

PROMIS Pediatric Peer Relationships Scale: Development of a Peer Relationships Item Bank as Part of Social Health Measurement  

PubMed Central

Objective This study’s objective was to develop a measure of social health using item response theory as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods After candidate items were generated from review of prior literature, focus groups, expert input, and cognitive interviews, items were administered to youth aged 8–17 as part of the PROMIS pediatric large scale testing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess dimensionality and to identify instances of local dependence. Items that met the unidimensionality criteria were subsequently calibrated using Samejima’s Graded Response Model. Differential item functioning was examined by gender and age. Results The sample included 3,048 youth who completed the questionnaire (51.8% female, 60% white, and 22.7% with chronic illness). The initial conceptualization of social function and sociability did not yield unidimensional item banks. Rather, factor analysis revealed dimensions contrasting peer relationships and adult relationships. The analysis also identified dimensions formed by responses to positively versus negatively worded items. The resulting 15-item bank measures quality of peer relationships and has strong psychometric characteristics as a full bank or an 8-item short form. Conclusions The PROMIS pediatric peer relationships scale demonstrates good psychometric characteristics and addresses an important aspect of child health.

DeWalt, Darren A.; Thissen, David; Stucky, Brian D.; Langer, Michelle M.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Irwin, Debra E.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Yeatts, Karin B.; Gross, Heather E.; Taylor, Olivia; Varni, James W.

2013-01-01

160

Structural Development of an Oceanic Detachment Fault System, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In slow-spreading environments, both magmatic and tectonic processes accommodate spreading, where the latter can be manifested in the form of an extensional detachment fault system. The detachment fault system of Atlantis Bank, an oceanic core complex formed at the intersection of the Southwest Indian Ridge and the Atlantis II transform, is dissected by transform-parallel normal faults that provide unique cross-sections through all levels of the detachment fault system. Gabbros and peridotite collected in ODP Hole 735B and with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 were located structurally beneath, within, and above the main detachment fault surface along the exposed length of the detachment fault system that correspond to roughly 2 Ma of crustal accretion. The samples are ideal for interpreting the process of strain localization and fabric development associated with the formation of oceanic detachment faults. Analysis of the{ \\it in situ} dive samples and continuous core from Hole 735B indicate that the main shear zone associated with the detachment fault is at least 500m thick. The deepest levels of the shear zone are characterized by a 50-m thick zone of unfoliated or weakly foliated granulite grade rocks. The granulite deformation continues upward but is strongly overprinted by a 150-m zone of penetrative amphibolite facies protomylonitic and mylonitic fabrics. A 300-m thick zone of well-foliated amphibolite facies rocks lies above the overprinted granulite. The amphibolites contain 20-30 mm wide, fine-grained shear zones that increase in abundance upward towards the main, brittle detachment fault. These rocks exhibit a greenschist grade deformation characterized by a cataclastic overprint of crystal-plastically deformed plagioclase and brown amphibole within the layers of the mylonitic foliation, and the growth of green amphibole "coronas" around brown amphibole; these relationships preserve the transition from high-temperature ductile deformation to lower-temperature brittle deformation. Samples located structurally above the main detachment fault show pervasive brittle fabrics that crosscut existing foliations. Plagioclase is replaced almost entirely by epidote. Fractures that cut across foliations are filled with chlorite, prehnite or epidote. All of these characteristics are consistent with an episode of faulting located structurally above the shear zone associated with the detachment fault system. Rocks involved in extensional deformation were originally diabase, gabbro and peridotite, all with clasts of highly altered and bent pyroxene or amphibole, in a matrix of extremely fine-grained phyllosilicates including chlorite and talc. Final slip on the detachment fault system was of a brittle nature in lowest greenschist and subgreenschist grade. Preliminary results suggest that strain localization associated with detachment faulting was promoted by a combination of small grain size, the presence of weak phyllosilicates, and the infiltration of fluids.

Miranda, E. A.; John, B. E.; Hirth, G.; Dick, H.

2002-12-01

161

Developing the Communicative Participation Item Bank: Rasch Analysis Results From a Spasmodic Dysphonia Sample  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to conduct the initial psychometric analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank—a new self-report instrument designed to measure the extent to which communication disorders interfere with communicative participation. This item bank is intended for community-dwelling adults across a range of communication disorders. Method A set of 141 candidate items was administered to 208 adults with spasmodic dysphonia. Participants rated the extent to which their condition interfered with participation in various speaking communication situations. Questionnaires were administered online or in a paper version per participant preference. Participants also completed the Voice Handicap Index (B. H. Jacobson et al., 1997) and a demographic questionnaire. Rasch analyses were conducted using Winsteps software (J. M. Linacre, 1991). Results The results show that items functioned better when the 5-category response format was recoded to a 4-category format. After removing 8 items that did not fit the Rasch model, the remaining 133 items demonstrated strong evidence of sufficient unidimensionality, with the model accounting for 89.3% of variance. Item location values ranged from ?2.73 to 2.20 logits. Conclusions Preliminary Rasch analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank show strong psychometric properties. Further testing in populations with other communication disorders is needed.

Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

2011-01-01

162

Bank Mergers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News exaimnes the recent flurry of merger activities in the banking sector. The ten resources discussed provide the details of the recent three big banking mergers and the likely effects on efficiency, lending and consumers. On April 6, 1998, Citibank, the second largest bank in America, announced that it will be merging with Travelers Group, a large financial services firm, in a deal worth $80 billion -- the largest merger deal ever. Only a week later, BankAmerica announced it would merge with NationsBank to create the first coast-to-coast bank in America, in a deal worth $60 billion. The third deal took place on the same day, when First Chicago NBD and Banc One announced they will be merging in a deal valued at $30 billion.

Ng, Thiam H.

163

76 FR 70069 - Federal Home Loan Bank Community Support Amendments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...appropriate Federal banking agency,'' ``appropriate...community development financial institution or CDFI...Community Development Banking and Financial Institutions Act of...Community Development Banking and Financial Institutions Act...

2011-11-10

164

National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video describes the development of an environmental specimen bank project. It highlights a number of minitoring programs involving human liver specimens, marine sediments and tissues, Alaskan marine mammal tissues, and total human diet specimens. Prim...

1994-01-01

165

Trends in South African Internet banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study follows up a study examining the effectiveness of Internet marketing, which found that only 22.6 per cent of respondents banked online. This study aims to determine respondents' reasons for not banking online, and to develop strategies for banks to get people banking online. A sample of 369 consumers was drawn from two universities in Kwazulu-Natal. Universities were chosen

Anesh Maniraj Singh

2004-01-01

166

Bank Capital, Agency Costs, and Monetary Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that banks, like firms, face financial frictions when raising funds. The authors develop a quantitative, monetary business cycle model in which agency problems affect both the relationship between banks and firms and the relationship between banks and their depositors. As a result, bank capital and entrepreneurial net worth jointly determine aggregate investment, and are important determinants of the

Césaire Meh; Kevin Moran

2004-01-01

167

Effects of vegetation on chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soils developed on a decantation bank from a copper mine.  

PubMed

Open cast mining has a strong impact on the environment, the intensity depending on the morphology of the deposit and on the nature of the minerals. At Touro mine (NW Spain) there is a large area covered by tailings, one of which, called the "sedimentation bank", was used to deposit sludge resulting from the extraction of copper in the flotation plant. Three zones were selected and the soils were sampled to analyse the changes brought about by vegetation on the chemical and mineralogical properties of the soils developed over the sedimentation bank and its development over time. The vegetation increased the pH, contents of organic material, nitrogen, clay and free oxides of Fe and Al, and the cationic exchange capacity of the soils. The decrease in the sulphide content, benefited by the vegetation process, led to a reduction in the total content of Cr and Cu. The vegetation also contributed towards the alteration of the primary minerals. The transformation of jarosite, the formation of nanocrystals of hematite, goethite, hydroxypolymers, and amorphous minerals that contained Cu, Cr and Pb were observed. Nevertheless the high Cu and Cr contents indicate that it is advisable to change the restoration process. PMID:22356872

Cerqueira, Beatriz; Vega, Flora A; Silva, Luis F O; Andrade, Luisa

2012-04-01

168

Sustainable development - lessons from success  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the push of development agencies and multilateral development banks in developing countries to achieve economic, political and social sustainability without considering long-term environmental costs. A case in point is dams built for irrigation and hydroelectric power; the benefits are outweighed by the environmental costs of salt intrusion, delta erosion, drying of downstream lakes and channel deepening as well as the effects of displacement of people. The information and technologies that form the basis of ecologically sustainable development already exist. Energy efficiency projects could reduce the balance of trade deficits in developing nations. In addition, great advances in agricultural, forest and range productivity could be achieved at very low capital costs through soil and water conservation techniques, intercropping, agroforestry and organic fertilization.

Reid, W.V.C. (World Resources Institute, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-05-01

169

World Bank: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many people are familiar with the World Bank's work in the areas of international finance and economic development, but they may not be aware of their work in the area of biodiversity. The World Bank happens to be the world's largest financier of biodiversity, and their work includes supporting the sustainable use of biodiversity outside protected areas, eradication of alien species, and land conservation. First-time visitors may wish to start their journey through the site by clicking on the "What's New" area. Here they will find reports on biodiversity, the role of indigenous peoples in biodiversity conservation, and a review of the World Bank's conservation projects during the past twenty years. Another way to look through the materials on the site is by using the drop-down menus that read "Topic", "Country", and "Region/Income". Visitors can also read overview statements that cover the Bank's work on biodiversity and poverty, biosafety, and mountain ecosystems.

170

The Effects of Bank Regulations, Competition and Financial Reforms on MENA Banks’ Profitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the influence of bank regulations, concentration, financial and institutional development on commercial bank margin and profitability across a broad menu of Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. We cover the 1989-2005 period and control for a wide array of macroeconomic,, financial and bank characteristics. The empirical results find that bank specific characteristics, in particular

Samy Ben Naceur; Mohammed Omran

2008-01-01

171

Bank Insolvency: Bad Luck, Bad Policy, or Bad Banking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article examines the causesand effects of these crises and how governments have responded. It finds that bothmacroeconomic and microeconomic factors have figured in bank crises and that, based onthe criteria developed here, few governments have responded well to these episodes. To bettermanage insolvencies, policymakers must develop a regulatory framework that allows banks torespond more robustly to shocks and ensures

Gerard Caprio

1996-01-01

172

World Bank Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has a number of specialized units designed to perform research in order to allow the organization to make informed policy decisions throughout the world. This website happens to provide information on the World Bank Institute, which effectively serves as the capacity development arm of the Bank and also "helps countries share and apply global and local knowledge to meet development challenges". On the Institute's site, visitors can find out about its various programs, which include work on preventing HIV/AIDS risk in the Balkans and scholarships designed to promote knowledge sharing and capacity building in the developing world. Visitors will want to pay close attention to the Publications area, as they may view or download working papers from a wide range of topics, including energy policy, labor force development, and development economics.

173

DORMAN computer program (study 2.5). Volume 3: Original data bank listing. [development of data bank for computerized information storage of NASA programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of analyses have been performed using the DORCA program for several NASA-funded Aerospace Corporation studies in the past few years. The data decks containing the input data for these analyses have been compiled and are submitted, under separate cover. A few of the data decks are full (basic) decks containing every data item and are used as reference decks in the data bank. The other data decks were obtained by differencing a full deck with respect to one of the reference decks. Using the DORMAN program, a full deck can be recreated from the modified deck and its reference deck when and if desired. The content and structure of the data bank are described. A description of each of these data decks is presented. Three of the cases that are included in this volume have become so widely recognized and accepted that additional descriptive material has been provided. The three cases are: Case 500 Costs, Case 506 Costs, and Case 403.

Stricker, L. T.

1973-01-01

174

George Bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book provides a rich feast for anyone who has a hunger to learn more about Georges Bank! Its 593 large pages provide articles on a wide variety of scientific and resource management topics. Many human interest features are also included. Among the latter are a photograph demonstrating the only proper way for a seagoing chemist to imbibe, and articles entitled, “My First Trip on Georges Bank,” and “‘Bait Up!’: Dory Fishing on Georges Bank.”Proving that every cloud has a silver lining, interest in producing this book was driven by the climate of controversy that surrounded Georges Bank in the latter 1970s and early 1980s. This was a time when exploratory wells were being driven to search for oil and when disputes between Canada and the United States about jurisdiction over the Bank were reaching their peak. As Backus notes in the Foreword, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., set up a Coastal Research Center in 1979 when “the oil/fish dispute on Georges Bank was hot.” The direct costs of publishing this book were, in turn, supported by the Coastal Research Center.

Codispoti, L. A.

175

Techno-Political Space Cooperation: A Longitudinal Analysis of NASA's Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's international programs are both numerous and successful, with over two thousand international agreements forming a foundation of U.S. government cooperation that involved over half the United Nation's membership. Previous research, by the author, into these agreements has identified five variables underlying NASA's international cooperation efforts and these variables form a framework for explaining international cooperation behavior on a macro-level. This paper builds upon that research to effectively explain lower-level patterns of cooperation in NASA's experience. Two approaches for analyzing the space agency's history are used: aggregation of all agreements and a cluster (disaggregated) analysis of four key segments. While researchers of NASA's international cooperation often considered individual cases first, and then generalize to macro-level explanations. This study, in contrast, begins by considering all agreements together in order to explain as much as possible at the macro level before proceeding to lower tier explanations. These lower tier assessments are important to understanding regional and political influences on bilateral and multilateral cooperation. In order to accomplish this lower-tier analysis, the 2000 agreements are disaggregated into logical groupings enabling an analysis of important questions and clearer focus on key patterns concerning developing states, such as the role of international institutions or privatization on international cooperation in space technology.

Hudiburg, John J.

2004-01-01

176

Branch Banking, Bank Competition, and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often argued that branching stabilizes banking systems by facilitating diversification of bank portfolios; however, previous empirical research on the Great Depression offers mixed support for this view. Using data on national banks from the 1920s and 1930s, we show that branch banking raises the level of competition and increases exit from the banking system. This consolidation strengthens the

Mark Carlson; Kris James Mitchener

2006-01-01

177

Occupational Task Analyses for the Development of Business Education Model Curricula with Emphasis on Banking and Financial Occupations. State Technical Committee Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, prepared for the Delaware State Board of Education and the State Department of Public Instruction, is intended to assist individuals developing curricula to prepare students for entry-level positions in various banking and financial occupations. It is divided into three sections, each of which consists of a cross-referenced listing of…

Delaware State Board for Vocational Education, Milford.

178

Early Childhood Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3869  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable evidence that young children in many developing countries suffer from profound deficits in nutrition, health, fine and gross motor skills, cognitive development, and socio-emotional development. Early childhood development (ECD) outcomes are important markers of the welfare of children. In addition, the deleterious effects of…

Schady, Norbert

2006-01-01

179

Development and application of vibroacoustic structural data banks in predicting vibration design and test criteria for rocket vehicle structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of predicting broadband random vibration criteria for components on space vehicles is presented. Large amounts of vibration and acoustic data obtained from flights and static firing tests of space vehicle were formulated into vibroacoustic data banks for structural categories of ring frame, skin stringer, and honeycomb. The vibration spectra with their associated acoustic spectra are normalized to a reference acoustic spectrum. The individual normalized spectra are grouped according to definite structural characteristics and statistically analyzed to form the vibroacoustic data banks described in this report. These data banks represent the reference vibration criteria available for determining the new vehicle vibration criteria.

Bandgren, H. J.; Smith, W. C.

1973-01-01

180

Toward a model for the acceptance of Internet banking in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology acceptance model (TAM) has been used in much of the research into technology diffusion conducted in the United States and other developed Western countries. There is, however, no empirical evidence that information-technology acceptance models established in developed countries can apply equally well to less-developed countries without some modification to account for the different context. This article questions the

Ahmad Al Sukkar; Helen Hasan

2005-01-01

181

Global Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few sectors of the global economy have experienced the dynamic and structural change that has occurred over the past several decades in banking and financial services or as much turbulence and damage to the economy and to ordinary people. Regulatory and technological changes have been among the main catalysts of change in the financial industry worldwide, making entrenched competitive structures

Roy C. Smith; Ingo Walter; Gayle DeLong

182

Comparison of intelligent techniques to solve economic load dispatch with bilateral and multilateral transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most challenging operational aspects in restructured systems with open transmission access is the power management of the grid. With the trend of an increasing number of bilateral and multilateral transactions submitted to the independent system operator (ISO), the possibility of insufficient resources in the transmission system may be unavoidable. In this paper, evolutionary computation techniques such as

I. Jacob Raglend; P. Karthikeyan; Sudheera; Sailaja; Sowjanya; D. P. Kothari

2008-01-01

183

The potential of multilateral analyses of neuronal activities in future brain-machine interface research.  

PubMed

Current brain-machine interfaces are based on the implicit assumption that information encoded by neuronal activities does not change despite some recent physiological studies indicating that information encoded by neuronal activities changes. Here, we highlight the necessity for advanced decoding of neuronal activities. Especially, we discuss the advantages of multilateral analyses of neuronal activities, including synchronization and variability. PMID:24110166

Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

184

The Clash of Liberalizations: Preferential vs. Multilateral Trade Liberalization in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an explosion in the number of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) in the last decade. PTAs are characterized by liberalization with respect to only a few partners and thus, they can potentially clash with and retard multilateral trade liberalization (MTL). Despite this important concern with PTAs, there is almost no systematic evidence on whether they actually affect MTL

Baybars Karacaovali; Nuno Limão

2005-01-01

185

The clash of liberalizations : preferential versus multilateral trade liberalization in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an explosion in the number of preferential trade agreements in the past decade. Preferential trade agreements are characterized by liberalization with respect to only a few partners and thus they can potentially clash with and retard multilateral trade liberalization. Despite this important concern with preferential trade agreements, there is almost no systematic evidence on whether they actually

Baybars Karacaovali; Nuno Limao

2005-01-01

186

A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects  

SciTech Connect

Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Khwaja, S. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-01-01

187

Development of a National Item Bank for Tests of Driving Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials intended for driving knowledge test development use by operational licensing and education agencies were prepared. Candidate test items were developed, using literature and operational practice sources, to reflect current state-of-knowledge with respect to principles of safe, efficient driving, to legal regulations, and to traffic…

Pollock, William T.; McDole, Thomas L.

188

Education and Development: Evidence for New Priorities. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education has been recognized as the cornerstone of economic and social development. Now it is even more important as technological change and new methods of production transform the world economy. Development will depend more and more on knowledge-intensive industries, agriculture, and services. The continuing economic crisis, however, is…

Haddad, Wadi D.; And Others

189

Susceptibility of populations of Banks grass mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) suspected of developing bifenthrin resistance from three maize fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks), from three Texas maize fields were assayed for bifenthrin resistance following poor field control in 1995. Laboratory\\u000a bioassays showed the field mites to be 3- to 23-fold more tolerant to bifenthrin than the susceptible laboratory culture.\\u000a Comparison of LC50 values to assays with bifenthrin from 1985 to 1993 indicated no statistically significant changes in

E. D. Jr. Bynum; T. L. Archer

2002-01-01

190

Duke Data Bank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA computerized image processing techniques are an integral part of a cardiovascular data bank at Duke University Medical Center. Developed by Dr. C. F. Starmer and colleagues at Duke, the data bank documents the Center's clinical experience with more than 4,000 heart patients as an aid to diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Data is stored in a computerized system that allows a physician to summon detailed records of former patients whose medical profiles are similar to those of a new patient. A video display (photo) and printed report shows prognostic information for the new patient based on similar past experience.

1979-01-01

191

Customer acceptance of internet banking in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study technology acceptance of internet banking in Estonia, an emerging east European economy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The present paper modifies the technology acceptance model and applies it to bank customers in Estonia, because Estonia, a country with a developing economy, has focused on internet banking as an important distribution channel. Findings –

Kent Eriksson; Katri Kerem; Daniel Nilsson

2005-01-01

192

Capital regulation and banks' financial decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a stochastic dynamic model to examine the impact of capital regulation on banks' financial decisions. In equilibrium, lending decisions, capital buffer and the probability of bank failure are endogenously determined. Compared to a flat-rate capital rule, a risk-sensitive capital standard causes the capital requirement to be much higher for small (and riskier) banks and much lower for

Haibin Zhu

2007-01-01

193

Bank insolvencies : cross-country experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few areas of the world have escaped significant losses from episodes of bank insolvency. Bank insolvency is more costly in the developing world, where losses represent a greater share of income. The authors present data on bank insolvency episodes since the late 1970s. This new database can be used in conjunction with readily available data. Information and insights are presented

Gerard Caprio Jr.; Daniela Klingebiel

1996-01-01

194

Water resources management. World Bank policy paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have

K. W. Easter; G. Feder; G. Le Moigne; A. M. Duda; E. Forsyth

1993-01-01

195

Bank Runs, Deposit Insurance, and Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a model which shows that bank deposit contracts can provide allocations superior to those of exchange markets, offering an explanation of how banks subject to runs can attract deposits. Investors face privately observed risks which lead to a demand for liquidity. Traditional demand deposit contracts which provide liquidity have multiple equilibria, one of which is a bank

Douglas W. Diamond; Philip H. Dybvig; Theodore O. Yntema; John M. Olin

2007-01-01

196

Mozilla Digital Memory Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for History and New Media at George Mason University doesn't shy away from provocative digital archive projects, and the Mozilla Digital Memory Bank is certainly one such work. Drawing on support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Mozilla Foundation this site serves as a permanent, open, peer-produced digital archive of Mozilla history. Users are welcome to start by browsing the "Memory Bank" section, which includes blogs, interviews, documents, testimonials, and press releases. For those with a geographical bent, there is the "Mozilla Map", which lets users find out where in the world Mozilla developers and users are located. And for those who can't make up their mind about where to start, they can just click on over to the "Featured Bank Deposit" and start reading.

197

The Study of Development Strategy for Bank Distribution Network through the Analysis of Inter-regional Financial Transaction Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study attempts to shed light on the factors that influence the locations of bank branches in establishing a bank's distribution network from the angle of the network analysis. Whereas the previous studies analyzed the locations of bank branches on the basis of their geographical characteristics and image, the significance of this study rests upon the fact that it endeavors to explore the location factors from a new perspective of the movement path of financial customers. For this analysis, the network between administrative districts, which form the fundamental unit of a location, was analyzed based on the financial transactional data. The important findings of this study are as follows. First, in conformity with the previous studies, the income level, the spending level, the number of businesses, and the size of workforce in the pertinent region were all found to influence the size of a bank's market. Second, the centrality index extracted from the analysis of the network was found to have a significant effect on the locations of bank branches. In particular, the degree centrality was revealed to have a greater influence on the size of a bank's market than does the closeness centrality. Such results of this study clearly suggest the needs for a new approach from the perspective of network in furtherance of other factors that have been considered important in the previous studies of the distribution network strategies.

Hong, Jae Weon; Hong, Won Eui; Kwak, Yoon Sik

198

AHERMATYPIC CORAL BANKS: LIVING AND FOSSIL COUNTERPARTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reef-like structures referred to as banks are produced by framework-building ahermatypic scleractinians in cool water at various depths, usually below those of hermatypic shallow-water reef corals. The distribution of Holocene banks is closely related to the ecological requirements of the ahermatypic corals. Fifteen major regions of bank development are known today in the Atlantic and Pacific and these banks vary

Stephen D. Cairns; George D. Stanley

199

Methodological Guidelines for Reducing the Complexity of Data Warehouse Development for Transactional Blood Bank Systems  

PubMed Central

Over time, data warehouse (DW) systems have become more difficult to develop because of the growing heterogeneity of data sources. Despite advances in research and technology, DW projects are still too slow for pragmatic results to be generated. Here, we address the following question: how can the complexity of DW development for integration of heterogeneous transactional information systems be reduced? To answer this, we proposed methodological guidelines based on cycles of conceptual modeling and data analysis, to drive construction of a modular DW system. These guidelines were applied to the blood donation domain, successfully reducing the complexity of DW development.

Takecian, Pedro L.; Oikawa, Marcio K.; Braghetto, Kelly R.; Rocha, Paulo; Lucena, Fred; Kavounis, Katherine; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Acker, Susan; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B. F.; Sabino, Ester C.; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P.; Ferreira, Joao E.

2013-01-01

200

Methodological Guidelines for Reducing the Complexity of Data Warehouse Development for Transactional Blood Bank Systems.  

PubMed

Over time, data warehouse (DW) systems have become more difficult to develop because of the growing heterogeneity of data sources. Despite advances in research and technology, DW projects are still too slow for pragmatic results to be generated. Here, we address the following question: how can the complexity of DW development for integration of heterogeneous transactional information systems be reduced? To answer this, we proposed methodological guidelines based on cycles of conceptual modeling and data analysis, to drive construction of a modular DW system. These guidelines were applied to the blood donation domain, successfully reducing the complexity of DW development. PMID:23729945

Takecian, Pedro L; Oikawa, Marcio K; Braghetto, Kelly R; Rocha, Paulo; Lucena, Fred; Kavounis, Katherine; Schlumpf, Karen S; Acker, Susan; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B F; Sabino, Ester C; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P; Ferreira, João E

2013-06-01

201

Janus Serum Bank  

Cancer.gov

The Janus Serum bank was established in order to collect and store blood samples from presumably healthy individuals for future use in cancer research. The intention was to obtain information on factors important in the pathogenesis and etiology of cancer by examining blood samples obtained during the preclinical stage or latent period before the tumor has developed.

202

Crowdfunding: disintermediated investment banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces crowdfunding as a concept and model for the evolution of investment banking. Crowdfunding, an application of crowdsourcing, is defined as one party’s attempt to finance a project by offering three types of investment opportunities to potential investors. The investment opportunities are donations, passive investments, and active investments. From this foundation I develop a model in which interdependent

Brian J Rubinton

2011-01-01

203

Academic Interventions Bank Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes development of a bank of interventions in response to individual student needs identified by Student Study Teams (SSTs) in the Horry County (South Carolina) school district. It also describes the training of SST members in the selection, application, and monitoring of each intervention. Following a survey that identified basic…

Jenkins, Tom; Torrens, Meg

204

HPCwire Job Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HPCwire Job Bank has become the matchmaker site of choice for bringing together the best talent and the leading employers in HPC commercial computing, research, academia, and the entire ecosystem of suppliers and users of HPC systems and technology, representing career opportunities in hardware, software, middleware, sales, marketing, consulting, design, development, engineering, research, testing, customer support and production.

205

The Protein Data Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http:\\/\\/www.rcsb.org\\/pdb\\/ ) is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the goals of the PDB, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information, and near-term plans for the future development of the resource.

Helen M. Berman; John D. Westbrook; Zukang Feng; Gary Gilliland; Talapady N. Bhat; Helge Weissig; Ilya N. Shindyalov; Philip E. Bourne

2000-01-01

206

Central banking, free banking, and financial crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Summary View In the Keynesian view, the central bank is a part of an extramarket remedy to a market malady. Investment markets are inherently unstable; government control of the economy's money supply is an important element in macroeconomic stabilization policy. The case against central banking—and for free banking—reverses the characterization of both remedy and malady. Free banking is a

Roger W. Garrison

1996-01-01

207

Development of a postacute hospital item bank for the new Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test.  

PubMed

The PEDI-CAT is a new computer adaptive test (CAT)version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory(PEDI). Additional PEDI-CAT items specific to post acute pediatric hospital care were recently developed using expert reviews and cognitive interviewing techniques.Expert reviews established face and construct validity,providing positive feedback on domain content and response scale options. Cognitive interviews established content validity while 60% of items were revised or removed because of the items being unclear or ambiguous, not measuring what was intended or lack of therapeutic terminology. As a result, an item bank containing more than 110 items in the three domains of self-care, mobility, and social function has been constructed and is ready to be calibrated and tested in a CAT application. With the addition of items specific for an inpatient pediatric postacute hospital setting, the PEDI-CAT (postacute hospital) will provide clinicians with the opportunity to use a context-specific assessment of function to support quality evaluations during inpatient rehabilitation care. PMID:20520562

Dumas, Helene M; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Haley, Stephen M

2010-12-01

208

MKID development for SuperSpec: an on-chip, mm-wave, filter-bank spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperSpec is an ultra-compact spectrometer-on-a-chip for millimeter and submillimeter wavelength astronomy. Its very small size, wide spectral bandwidth, and highly multiplexed readout will enable construction of powerful multibeam spectrometers for high-redshift observations. The spectrometer consists of a horn-coupled microstrip feedline, a bank of narrow-band superconducting resonator filters that provide spectral selectivity, and kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) that detect the power admitted by each filter resonator. The design is realized using thin-film lithographic structures on a silicon wafer. The mm-wave microstrip feedline and spectral filters of the first prototype are designed to operate in the band from 195-310 GHz and are fabricated from niobium with at Tc of 9.2K. The KIDs are designed to operate at hundreds of MHz and are fabricated from titanium nitride with a Tc of ~ 2 K. Radiation incident on the horn travels along the mm-wave microstrip, passes through the frequency-selective filter, and is finally absorbed by the corresponding KID where it causes a measurable shift in the resonant frequency. In this proceedings, we present the design of the KIDs employed in SuperSpec and the results of initial laboratory testing of a prototype device. We will also brie describe the ongoing development of a demonstration instrument that will consist of two 500-channel, R=700 spectrometers, one operating in the 1-mm atmospheric window and the other covering the 650 and 850 micron bands.

Shirokoff, E.; Barry, P. S.; Bradford, C. M.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Day, P.; Doyle, S.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Hollister, M. I.; Kovács, A.; McKenney, C.; Leduc, H. G.; Llombart, N.; Marrone, D. P.; Mauskopf, P.; O'Brient, R.; Padin, S.; Reck, T.; Swenson, L. J.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2012-09-01

209

Implications of bank failures and fluvial erosion for gully development: Field observations and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gully erosion is most commonly triggered by fluvial erosion following natural and anthropogenic disturbances or as a response to changes in climate and tectonic forcing and base level drop. Field observations attribute the headward growth and widening of many gully systems to gravitational mass-wasting processes of oversteepened sidewalls. Soil saturation, groundwater sapping, and tension crack development contribute to the instability. Recent landscape evolution models treat such mass failures as slope-dependent continuous sediment transport processes, sometimes conditioned on a slope threshold or with nonlinear dependence on slope gradient. In this study we first present an explicit physically based theory for the stability analysis of gully heads and walls. The theory is based on the force balance equation of an assumed planar failure geometry of a steep gully wall, with a potential failure plane dipping into the incised gully bed and tension cracks developing behind the scarp face. Then, we test the theory against field data collected in our field site in Colorado and against other published data. Second, the theory is implemented in a one-dimensional hillslope profile development model and the three-dimensional channel-hillslope integrated landscape development (CHILD) to study the effects of soil cohesion, erosion thresholds, and stochastic climate on the tempo of gully development and morphology. Preliminary results indicate that wider and shallower gullies develop and integrate, forming wide valleys, when soil cohesion is small. As soil cohesion increases, erosion slows down, gullies become deeper with vertical walls, and episodic mass failures occur. Differences in storm intensity-duration characteristics and erosion thresholds are predicted to have a significant impact on gully development. Vertical gully walls develop rapidly, and gullies enlarge by slab failures in a climate characterized by high-intensity, short-duration storm pulses. However, under low-intensity, long-duration storms, gullies quickly stabilize, and vertical walls are eliminated and rounded, forming diffusion-dominated hilltops. Erosion thresholds have a similar impact on the tempo of gully erosion but in the opposite direction. Lowering the erosion threshold enhances gully widening by slab failures. Gully walls stabilize when the erosion threshold is high due to a reduction in the erosion of the failure material on the toe of gully walls.

Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Bras, Rafael L.; Flores-Cervantes, Homero; Tucker, Gregory E.

2005-03-01

210

Radio for Education and Development: Case Studies, Volume I. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 266.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six papers describe use of the radio for in-school and out-of-school formal education in this first volume of working papers on how radio can and is being used for education and development. Part one on in-school education contains: a Nicaraguan project to teach mathematics to first grade children (including curriculum, materials, teacher…

Spain, Peter L.; And Others

211

Banking on it: Public policy and the ethics of stem cell research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapies is ever realized, demand for stem cells and derivative tissues will be tremendous and will create new challenges for health care systems, especially publicly funded health care systems. We propose a framework for the ethical analysis of stem cell research and development that considers the welfare of communities, tissue recipients, and cell

Mita Giacomini; Francoise Baylis; Jason Robert

2007-01-01

212

Modeling the implications of fluvial erosion and bank failures on gully development and growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploring landscape development due to gully erosion has been an important component in Michael J. Kirkby's scientific career. Gully erosion is most commonly triggered by fluvial erosion due to natural and anthropogenic disturbances, or as a response to changes in climate and tectonic forcing, and base level drop. Field observations suggest that following the development of fluvial incisions, headward growth and widening of many gully systems can be attributed to the instability and collapse of steepened gully walls. Soil saturation, sapping and development of tension cracks contribute to the instability. Recent landscape evolution models treat such mass failures as slope dependent continuous sediment transport processes, sometimes conditioned on a slope threshold or with nonlinear dependence on slope gradient. In this study, first we present a theory for stability analysis of gully head and walls. The theory is based on force balance equation of an assumed planar failure geometry of a steep gully wall, with a potential failure plane dipping to the incised gully bed. We consider development of vertical tension cracks behind the face of the gully head that extend down to the failure plane. In the theory, storm water infiltrates in the tension cracks and generates hydrostatic forces in the vertical crack face, and uplift forces along the failure plane. During storms, water level in the crack is related to steady-state basin hydrology. In our model when tension cracks are either dry or completely filled with runoff water, instability occurs when headcut height exceeds a critical threshold (higher for the dry case). For the case when cracks are partially filled, our theory predicts an inverse relationship between headcut height and drainage area. We used field observations in Colorado and another published data set to test our model. Second, we have implemented this theory in the CHILD landscape evolution model and explored the effects of soil cohesion, erosion thresholds and climate on the tempo of gully development and morphology of eroding gullies. Preliminary results indicate that wider and shallower gullies develop and integrate forming wide valleys, when soil cohesion is small. As soil cohesion increases, gullies become deeper with steeper walls and episodic mass failures occur. Introducing a high runoff erosion threshold produces gentler headcuts. Variations in storm duration and intensity are predicted to have a significant impact on gully morphology.

Istanbulluoglu, E.; Flores, H.; Bras, R.; Tucker, G.

2003-12-01

213

Water resources management. World Bank policy paper  

SciTech Connect

Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have not taken sufficient account of environmental concerns in the management of water resources. (Copyright (c) 1993 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

Easter, K.W.; Feder, G.; Le Moigne, G.; Duda, A.M.; Forsyth, E.

1993-01-01

214

BioBanking - The Holy Grail of novel drug and diagnostic developments?  

PubMed Central

The ever increasing social cost that society pays for illness and disease are currently steadily increasing in many countries in the world today. These changes in society becomes a major financial burden that activates politicians and health care organizations in order to find new solutions. Biobanks are becoming the new powerful modality within the field of modern Life Science, that is expected to be important in the proactive awareness of patient health status. Biobanks are also expected to promote the developments of targeted treatments with personalized indicator assays, for effective use of Personalized Medicine treatments in the near future.

2011-01-01

215

An investigation of errors and data processing techniques for an RF multilateration system. [position and velocity measurements of vertical takeoff aircraft during landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an RF Multilateration system to provide accurate position and velocity measurements during the approach and landing phase of Vertical Takeoff Aircraft operation is discussed. The system uses an angle-modulated ranging signal to provide both range and range rate measurements between an aircraft transponder and multiple ground stations. Range and range rate measurements are converted to coordinate measurements and the coordinate and coordinate rate information is transmitted by an integral data link to the aircraft. Data processing techniques are analyzed to show advantages and disadvantages. Error analyses are provided to permit a comparison of the various techniques.

Britt, C. L., Jr.

1975-01-01

216

Determinants of user acceptance of Internet banking: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of Internet usage and the huge funding initiatives in electronic banking have drawn the attention of researchers towards Internet banking. In the past, the conventional focus of Internet banking research has been on technological development, but this is now shifting to user-focused research. Although millions of dollars have been spent on building Internet banking systems, reports have shown

Yi-Shun Wang; Yu-Min Wang; Hsin-Hui Lin; Tzung-I Tang

2003-01-01

217

Intermediation, integration and internationalisation: a survey on banking in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a survey on recent and current developments in the European banking industry. Traditional banking activities have diminished in relative terms, but banks remain the predominant players in the euro area financial system. Economic and monetary integration in the EU has strongly encouraged internationalisation and concentration. The share of foreign assets and liabilities on the EU banks’ balance

J. A. Bikker; A. A. T. Wesseling

2003-01-01

218

The role of bank capital in the propagation of shocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent financial turmoil has underlined the importance of analyzing the link between banks’ balance sheets and economic activity. We develop a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which bank capital mitigates an agency problem between banks and their creditors. As a result, the capital position of banks affects their ability to attract loanable funds and therefore influences the business

Césaire A. Meh; Kevin Moran

2010-01-01

219

Timing of fire relative to seed development may enable non-serotinous species to recolonize from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of non-serotinous, non-sprouting species in fire regimes where serotiny confers an adaptive advantage is puzzling, particularly when these species recruit poorly from soil seed banks or from burn edges. In this paper, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) was used to show how the timing of fire relative to seed development may permit non-serotinous species to recolonize burned areas from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees. To estimate survival of seeds within closed cones during crown fires, cone heating was simulated using a one-dimensional conduction model implemented in a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics fire behavior model. To quantify the area burned when germinable seed would be contained within closed cones during a mast year, empirical fire occurrence and seed development (germinability and cone opening) data were compared for multiple locations across the white spruce range. Approximately 12% of cones contained viable seed following crown fire simulations (0.072 m s-1 mean spread rate; 9147 kW m-1 mean intensity), and roughly half of the historical area burned resulted from fires that occurred when closed cones would contain germinable seed. Together, these results suggest that non-serotinous species may recolonize burned areas from in situ aerial seed banks, and that this may be an important cause of their existence in fire regimes to which they otherwise seem poorly suited.

Michaletz, S. T.; Johnson, E. A.; Mell, W. E.; Greene, D. F.

2013-07-01

220

The HRD Competencies as Perceived by the Human Resource Development Professionals in Banks in Cote d'Ivoire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to identify how Ivorian HRD professionals in banks perceived their current expertise levels of the HRD competencies, and how these professionals perceived the importance of these competencies needed to be successful in their occupations. In addition, this study determined competencies that are perceived to have the…

Konan, Affoue Zitagisele

2010-01-01

221

Development of a Motor Vehicle Materials Historical, High-Volume Industrial Processing Rates Cost Data Bank (Compact-Type Car).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to identify and establish a Motor Vehicle Materials High-Volume Industrial Processing Cost Data Bank for the compact type car. The efforts directed toward this purpose were divided into two methods. These were: a micro-analysis...

D. J. Chupinsky M. R. Harvey

1976-01-01

222

Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral Trade-Policy Options for the United States and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the Michigan Model of World Production and Trade to simulate the economic effects on the United States, Japan, and other major trading countries\\/regions of the Doha Round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations and a variety of regional\\/bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) involving the United States and Japan. We estimate that an assumed reduction of post-Uruguay Round tariffs

Drusilla K. Brown; Alan V. Deardorff; Robert M. Stern

2003-01-01

223

Multiple multilateral coronary-cameral fistulae in a patient with minor cardiac venous system.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old man was hospitalized in the coronary care unit with chest pain and abnormal electrocardiogram. Twenty days earlier, the patient underwent laparoscopic gallbladder surgery. Due to chest pain and ischemic ECG changes, patient was subjected to coronary angiography. The selective coronary angiography revealed multiple multilateral fistulae arising from the left anterior descending artery, circumflex artery, and the right coronary artery draining to the left ventricle. Multislice computed tomography showed hypoplastic coronary sinus and minor cardiac venous system. PMID:24826312

Markota, Darko; Prskalo, Zrinko; Markota, Ivica; Starcevic, Boris; Maskovic, Josip; Tomic, Monika; Brizic, Ivica

2014-01-01

224

Armington elasticities in intermediate inputs trade: a problem in using multilateral trade data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?In this paper we find that the estimates of Armington elasticities (the elasticity of substitution between groups of products identified by country of origin) obtained from multilateral trade data can differ from those obtained from bilateral trade data. In particular, the former tends to be higher than the latter when trade consists largely of intermediate inputs. Given that the variety

Mika Saito

2004-01-01

225

Poverty Impacts of Preferential and Multilateral Trade Liberalization on the Philippines: a Computable General Equilibrium Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Philippines has been participating in preferential and multilateral trade liberalization since the 1990s. However, the poverty effects of these trading arrangements are not yet fully known. This paper, which uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, finds that reducing both Most-Favored-Nation (MFN) tariff rate and ASEAN Free Trade Area’s Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) rate, combined with enhancing direct

Erwing L. Corong; Rachel C. Reyes; Angelo B. Taningco

2010-01-01

226

Multiple Multilateral Coronary-Cameral Fistulae in a Patient with Minor Cardiac Venous System  

PubMed Central

A 40-year-old man was hospitalized in the coronary care unit with chest pain and abnormal electrocardiogram. Twenty days earlier, the patient underwent laparoscopic gallbladder surgery. Due to chest pain and ischemic ECG changes, patient was subjected to coronary angiography. The selective coronary angiography revealed multiple multilateral fistulae arising from the left anterior descending artery, circumflex artery, and the right coronary artery draining to the left ventricle. Multislice computed tomography showed hypoplastic coronary sinus and minor cardiac venous system.

Markota, Darko; Prskalo, Zrinko; Markota, Ivica; Starcevic, Boris; Maskovic, Josip; Tomic, Monika; Brizic, Ivica

2014-01-01

227

World Bank: Global Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank works to combat poverty and to increase development opportunities around the world, but they also have selected six strategic themes that focus in on global development. First-time visitors to the site can listen to World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick talk about these themes, and they may also wish to follow along with the accompanying slideshow. Themes include global public goods, the Arab world, and middle-income countries. By clicking on one of these themes, visitors can read comprehensive reports, working papers, or take a look at presentations that explore these areas in greater detail. Many of these information sources are contained within a "Highlights" area. Visitors with a penchant for economic development, international political economy, or international affairs will find this site very useful. It's also easy to see how these materials might be used in a classroom setting to spark discussion or debate about some of these very timely matters.

228

Internet banking: strategic responses to the accession of WTO by Chinese banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To assess to what extent Chinese domestic banks' use of internet banking as a strategic response to the entrance of the WTO is affected by factors both external and internal to the banks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A model depicted by a path diagram is developed to test the impact of various external and internal factors considered to have an

Ming-te Lu; Chun-hong Liu; Jiang Jing; Linjun Huang

2005-01-01

229

Banking Services for Everyone? Barriers to Bank Access and Use around the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information from 209 banks in 62 countries is used to develop new indicators of barriers to banking services around the world, show their correlation with measures of outreach, and explore their association with bank and country characteristics suggested by theory as potential determinants. Barriers such as minimum account and loan balances, account fees, and required documents are associated with lower

Thorsten Beck; Asli Demirgüç-Kunt; Maria Soledad Martinez Peria

2008-01-01

230

Automated Information Management In Public Administration; Present Developments and Impacts. Part I; Conclusions by the Data Bank Panel. Part II; Automated Information Management in Public Administration; Present Developments and Impact (by Klaus Lenk).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report by the Computer Utilization Group which was set up in 1960 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consists of two parts: 1) a brief statement of conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for research by the data bank panel and a list of the panel members and 2) the background report prepared by Klaus…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

231

World Bank: Annual Report 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank's Annual Report and the website that accompanies the report are full of data about the world's 79 poorest countries that the World Bank aids through its International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association. The 32-page report covers the period from July 2009 to June 2010. Visitors will find that the website for the Report contains a lot of interactive features for a better understanding of the global poverty situation which the World Bank is trying to help alleviate. The "Data & Research" tab near the top of any page has an "At a Glance" section that features several "Analytical Tools". Visitors won't want to miss the "iSimulate", which allows for performing macroeconomic simulations; "ADePT", which is a software platform for automated economic analysis; and "PovCalNet", which is a poverty analysis tool that "assess[es] global poverty incidence figures."

232

The security concern on internet banking adoption among Malaysian banking customers.  

PubMed

The existing literatures highlights that the security is the primary factor which determines the adoption of Internet banking technology. The secondary information on Internet banking development in Malaysia shows a very slow growth rate. Hence, this study aims to study the banking customers perception towards security concern and Internet banking adoption through the information collected from 150 sample respondents. The data analysis reveals that the customers have much concern about security and privacy issue in adoption of Internet banking, whether the customers are adopted Internet banking or not. Hence, it infers that to popularize Internet banking system there is a need for improvement in security and privacy issue among the banking customers. PMID:19069993

Sudha, Raju; Thiagarajan, A S; Seetharaman, A

2007-01-01

233

The development of common data elements for a multi-institute prostate cancer tissue bank: The Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR) experience  

PubMed Central

Background The Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR) is a consortium of four geographically dispersed institutions that are funded by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to provide clinically annotated prostate cancer tissue samples to researchers. To facilitate this effort, it was critical to arrive at agreed upon common data elements (CDEs) that could be used to collect demographic, pathologic, treatment and clinical outcome data. Methods The CPCTR investigators convened a CDE curation subcommittee to develop and implement CDEs for the annotation of collected prostate tissues. The draft CDEs were refined and progressively annotated to make them ISO 11179 compliant. The CDEs were implemented in the CPCTR database and tested using software query tools developed by the investigators. Results By collaborative consensus the CPCTR CDE subcommittee developed 145 data elements to annotate the tissue samples collected. These included for each case: 1) demographic data, 2) clinical history, 3) pathology specimen level elements to describe the staging, grading and other characteristics of individual surgical pathology cases, 4) tissue block level annotation critical to managing a virtual inventory of cases and facilitating case selection, and 5) clinical outcome data including treatment, recurrence and vital status. These elements have been used successfully to respond to over 60 requests by end-users for tissue, including paraffin blocks from cases with 5 to 10 years of follow up, tissue microarrays (TMAs), as well as frozen tissue collected prospectively for genomic profiling and genetic studies. The CPCTR CDEs have been fully implemented in two major tissue banks and have been shared with dozens of other tissue banking efforts. Conclusion The freely available CDEs developed by the CPCTR are robust, based on "best practices" for tissue resources, and are ISO 11179 compliant. The process for CDE development described in this manuscript provides a framework model for other organ sites and has been used as a model for breast and melanoma tissue banking efforts.

Patel, Ashokkumar A; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Berman, Jules J; Bosland, Maarten; Datta, Milton W; Dhir, Rajiv; Gilbertson, John; Melamed, Jonathan; Orenstein, Jan; Tai, Kuei-Fang; Becich, Michael J

2005-01-01

234

Short-Term Banking and Euro-Currency Credits to Developing Countries (Prêts bancaires à court terme et crédits en euro-monnaies aux pays en voie de développement) (Créditos de corto plazo bancarios y en euromonedas a los países en desarrollo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the modalities of extending short-term banking and Euro-currency credits to developing countries and analyzes some of the issues related to these types of financing from the point of external debt management policies. Lines of credit are extended in the framework of traditional bank-to-bank correspondent relationships. They are based essentially on evaluation of the \\

Azizali F. Mohammed; Fabrizio Saccomanni

1973-01-01

235

Commercial Bank and Bank Holding Company Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Report of Condition and Income database, provided by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, contains financial data for all banks regulated by the Federal Reserve System, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Comptroller of the Currency. Merger Data contains information on all "bank acquisitions and mergers since 1985." The Merger Data is available in either ASCII or SAS format. Quarterly Call Report Data contains "income and balance sheet items for all the banks" from the first quarter of 1989. The data are on an individual bank basis and are downloadable in zipped SAS transport data file format.

236

Are Central Banks necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent studies use history and theory to examine the likely consequences of eliminating government intervention in the provision of money. Such proposals would end the central bank monopoly over note issue and replace it with note issues by competing banks. Supervisory functions of central banks would be dispensed with. Accordingly, the proposals would free banks from all regulations on

Anna J. Schwartz

1993-01-01

237

Central bank Financial Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have

J. Ramon Martinez-Resano

2004-01-01

238

Internet banking versus other banking channels: Young consumers’ view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial institutions offer new banking channels to their customers, as technology adds new dimensions to the classic banking systems. One of the most popular self-service banking technologies is Internet banking. This study examines how young consumers perceive Internet banking in relation to other six banking channels (brick and mortar, automated teller machine (ATM), phone banking, wireless application protocol (WAP), electronic

Fethi Calisir; Cigdem Altin Gumussoy

2008-01-01

239

Commercial bank customer satisfaction research based on Kano model and BP neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer satisfaction is very important to commercial bank's development. The BP neural network and Kano model are employed to study commercial bank's customer satisfaction. The results show that banking convenience and service level are the most important factors, while the safety and neatness environment of banking are must-be factors. The toilet, parking and lighting of banks are \\

Zhou Li; Li Ziyao

2012-01-01

240

How foreign participation and market concentration impact bank spreads: evidence from Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing foreign participation and high concentration levels characterize the recent evolution of banking sectors' market structures in developing countries. We analyze the impact of these factors on Latin American bank spreads during the late 1990s. Our results suggest that foreign banks were able to charge lower spreads relative to domestic banks. This was more so for de novo foreign banks

Maria Soledad Martinez Peria; Ashoka Mody

2004-01-01

241

Development of stereotypies and polydipsia in wild caught bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and their laboratory-bred offspring. Is polydipsia a symptom of diabetes mellitus?  

PubMed

The development of stereotypies and polydipsia was studied in wild caught bank voles (P: n=92) and their laboratory-bred offspring (F1: n=248). All animals were kept isolated in barren cages in the laboratory. In the P generation, no individuals developed stereotypies, but 22% developed polydipsia (>21 ml/day water intake against normally 10 ml/day). Polydipsia was more frequent among males (34%) than females (13%). In F1, 30% developed locomotor stereotypies alone, 21% showed polydipsia alone, and, additionally, 7% developed both stereotypies and polydipsia. Fewer males than females developed stereotypies (23% vs. 38%), whereas polydipsia was more frequent in males than in females (30% vs. 11%). The occurrence and distribution of polydipsia among sexes were the same in F1 and P. The distribution of different types of stereotypies in stereotyping voles were backward somersaulting (BS, 80%), high-speed jumping (JUMP, 29%), pacing following a fixed route (PF, 12%) and windscreen wiper movement (WIN, 5%). Some individuals (10%) showed two or more different types of stereotypies. The average age for developing stereotypies was 96 days while polydipsia was registered at the age of 63 days in both sexes. Voles showing both polydipsia and stereotypies developed polydipsia later (79 days) than polydipsic voles not showing stereotypies. This difference was especially pronounced in stereotyping females in which the occurrence of polydipsia was postponed to the age of 114 days. Polydipsic voles were tested positive for glucosuria indicating that polydipsia could be a symptom of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that the development of stereotypies and polydipsia among bank voles in the laboratory are the results of frustration and prolonged stress. Stereotypies seem to depend on frustrative experiences early in life, while polydipsia may be related to diabetes mellitus caused by the experience of prolonged stress. Moreover, circumstances related to the development of stereotypies may be adaptive by reducing the risks of prolonged stress, including the development of fatal polydipsia. PMID:10844158

Schoenecker; Heller; Freimanis

2000-07-01

242

Six decades of educational multilateralism in a globalising world: The history of the UNESCO Institute in Hamburg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Created in 1945 as a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was given, among other mandates, the task of reconstructing education systems devastated during the Second World War. UNESCO, in turn, and after some debate about an engagement in Germany, founded the UNESCO Institute for Education (UIE) in Hamburg in 1952. This paper traces the development of an institute which was founded to contribute to social renewal in war-torn Germany and Europe, functioned as a mediator between Western and Eastern countries during the Cold War and later shifted its geographical focus to developing countries. The institute was instrumental in conceptualising lifelong learning as a global educational paradigm, as well as in shaping the shift from education to learning and the concept of literacy as a "continuum". The author is particularly interested in the nature of the institute's niche which secured its survival in the uncertain domain of educational multilateralism in the past six decades.

Elfert, Maren

2013-07-01

243

Development and calibration of an item bank for the assessment of activities of daily living in cardiovascular patients using Rasch analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To develop and calibrate the activities of daily living item bank (ADLib-cardio) as a prerequisite for a Computer-adaptive test (CAT) for the assessment of ADL in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods After pre-testing for relevance and comprehension a pool of 181 ADL items were answered on a five-point Likert scale by 720 CVD patients, who were recruited in fourteen German cardiac rehabilitation centers. To verify that the relationship between the items is due to one factor, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. A Mokken analysis was computed to examine the double monotonicity (i.e. every item generates an equivalent order of person traits, and every person generates an equivalent order of item difficulties). Finally, a Rasch analysis based on the partial credit model was conducted to test for unidimensionality and to calibrate the item bank. Results Results of CFA and Mokken analysis confirmed a one factor structure and double monotonicity. In Rasch analysis, merging response categories and removing items with misfit, differential item functioning or local response dependency reduced the ADLib-cardio to 33 items. The ADLib-cardio fitted to the Rasch model with a nonsignificant item-trait interaction (chi-square=105.42, df=99; p=0.31). Person-separation reliability was 0.81 and unidimensionality could be verified. Conclusions The ADLib-cardio is the first calibrated, unidimensional item bank that allows for the assessment of ADL in rehabilitation patients with CVD. As such, it provides the basis for the development of a CAT for the assessment of ADL in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Calibrating the ADLib-cardio in other than rehabilitation cardiovascular patient settings would further increase its generalizability.

2013-01-01

244

World Bank: Annual Report 2012  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank offers trenchant commentary on a wide range of issues of global import, including food production, gender inequality, development practices, and higher education initiatives. As a result, the World Bank's Annual Report is given close attention by people all over the world. The 314-page report offers thoughtful commentary on all manner of activities, and it is beautifully designed and executed. The first page starts with a list of summary statistics, such as the number of people who gained access to basic health services and how many teachers were recruited or trained as a result of World Bank activities. Visitors can learn all about the World Bank's initiatives in the report or download smaller sections like "Responding with Global Knowledge and Experience" and "World Bank For Results 2012." Visitors can also look over the Corporate Scorecard, which includes a snapshot of results achieved by partner countries with support from the Bank. The Report is available in eight different languages, including Spanish, French, Chinese, and Japanese. [KMG

2012-01-01

245

World Bank: Anticorruption [pdf[  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its many different guises, corruption around the world tends to affect the poor, who are often the most reliant on the provision of public services, and are also least likely to be able to pay the extra costs associated with bribery and fraud. The World Bank has identified corruption as "the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development," and thusly has set up this anticorruption website to serve as an online resource for policy-makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other interested parties. On the site, the World Bank lays out its strategy for combating corruption, which includes increasing political accountability, strengthening civil society participation, and improving public sector management. The site also contains a number of helpful resources, such as toolkits for assessing government performance in this area, and information and reports on various regional and country-based approaches to dealing with corruption. The site is rounded out by a calendar of events and key strategy documents, such as "Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance, A World Bank Strategy."

246

Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

Orewa, S. I.

247

Stream Bank Stability in Eastern Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dredged and straightened channels in eastern Nebraska have experienced degradation leading to channel widening by bank failure. Degradation has progressed headward and affected the drainage systems upstream from the modified reaches. This report describes a study that was undertaken to analyze bank stability at selected sites in eastern Nebraska and develop a simplified method for estimating the stability of banks at future study sites. Bank cross sections along straight reaches of channel and geotechnical data were collected at approximately 150 sites in 26 counties of eastern Nebraska. The sites were categorized into three groups based on mapped soil permeability. With increasing permeability of the soil groups, the median cohesion values decreased and the median friction angles increased. Three analytical methods were used to determine if banks were stable (should not fail even when saturated), at risk (should not fail unless saturated), or unstable (should have already failed). The Culmann and Agricultural Research Service methods were based on the Coulomb equation and planar failure; an indirect method was developed that was based on Bishop's simplified method of slices and rotational failure. The maximum angle from horizontal at which the bank would be stable for the given soil and bank height conditions also was computed with the indirect method. Because of few soil shear-strength data, all analyses were based on the assumption of homogeneous banks, which was later shown to be atypical, at least for some banks. Using the Culmann method and assuming no soil tension cracks, 67 percent of all 908 bank sections were identified as stable, 32 percent were at risk, and 1 percent were unstable; when tension cracks were assumed, the results changed to 58 percent stable, 40 percent at risk, and 1 percent unstable. Using the Agricultural Research Service method, 67 percent of all bank sections were identified as stable and 33 percent were at risk. Using the indirect method, 62 percent of all bank sections were identified as stable and 31 percent were at risk; 3 percent were unstable, and 3 percent were outside of the range of the tables developed for the method. For each of the methods that were used, the largest percentage of stable banks and the smallest percentage of at risk banks was for the soil group with the lowest soil permeability and highest median cohesion values. A comparison of the expected stable bank angles for saturated conditions and the surveyed bank angles indicated that many of the surveyed bank angles were considerably less than the maximum expected stable bank angles despite the banks being classified as at risk or unstable. For severely degraded channels along straight reaches this was not expected. It was expected that they would have angles close to the maximum stable angle as they should have been failing from an oversteepened condition. Several explanations are possible. The channel reaches of some study sites have not yet been affected to a significant degree by degradation; study sites were selected throughout individual basins and severe degradation has not yet extended to some sites along upper reaches; and some reaches have experienced aggradation as degradation progresses upstream. Another possibility is that some bank sections have been affected by lateral migration processes, which typically result in shallow bank angles on the inside bend of the channel. Another possibility is that the maximum expected stable bank angles are too steep. The stability methods used were well established and in essential agreement with each other, and there was no reason to question the geometry data. This left non-representative soil data as a probable reason for computed stable bank angles that, at least in some cases, are overly steep. Based on an examination of the cohesion data, to which the stable bank-angle calculations were most sensitive, both vertical and horizontal variability in soil properti

Soenksen, Phillip J.; Turner, Mary J.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Simon, Andrew

2003-01-01

248

Organization and Management of the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The Integrated Medical Group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial fourteen long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

2007-01-01

249

Organization and management of the International Space Station (ISS) multilateral medical operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework for, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The integrated medical group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial 15 long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

250

Rural Development: Part 4, S. 2223--The Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act and Amendment No. 153 (To S. 1483), to Establish the Rural Community Development Bank. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 1st Session, July 23; September 21-24, 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transcripts of Senate hearings on S. 2223 (the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act) and on Amendment No. 153 (to S. 1483) to establish the rural community development bank are presented in this document. In addition to some 25 miscellaneous documents, statements of representatives from municipal, state, and national organizations are…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

251

Aircraft Fasteners Test Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides a bank of test questions on the use of fasteners in the aerospace industry. Eighty three test questions and their correct answers are included in this test bank.

2012-11-23

252

Aircraft Materials Test Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides a bank of test questions on materials used in the aircraft industry. 35 test questions and their correct answers are included in this test bank.

2012-11-13

253

Security for Internet banking: a framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a continually growing financial service of electronic commerce, Internet banking requires the development and implementation of a sound security procedure. This involves designing effective methods via which users can be authenticated in a remote environment. Specifically for Internet banking there is a real need for a way uniquely to identify and authenticate users without the possibility of their authenticity

Damien Hutchinson; Matthew Warren

2003-01-01

254

Taxation of banks: A theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to develop a model of financial intermediation analyze the impact of various forms of taxation. The model considers in a unified framework various functions of banks: monitoring, transaction services and asset transformation. Particular attention is devoted to conditions for separability between deposits and loans. The analysis focuses on: (i) competition between banks and alternative

Ramon Caminal

2002-01-01

255

Intelligent Question Bank and Examination System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question bank can be described as the databank that keeps all the examination questions whether pre-existing or created by user while web based examination system is an online assessment tool that used to evaluate students' performance. In this paper, we develop and implement an online Intelligent Question Bank and Examination System (IQBAES), which make use of open source technology. This

ANG TAN FONG; HU HENG SIEW; LIP YEE; LIEW CHEE SUN

2006-01-01

256

Item Banking Using Sample Free Calibration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential value of developing item banks that would both guarantee the quality of teacher-made examinations and allow for national comparison of student achievement is described. Use of Rasch model methods, rather than classical item analysis techniques, to calibrate the items for these banks is illustrated. (BS)

Choppin, Bruce

1985-01-01

257

Texture Classification: Are Filter Banks Necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We question the role that large scale filter banks have tra- ditionally played in texture classification. It is demon- strated that textures can be classified using the joint distri- bution of intensity values over extremely compact neigh- bourhoods (starting from as small as 3 ×3 pixels square), and that this outperforms classification using filter banks with large support. We develop

Manik Varma; Andrew Zisserman

2003-01-01

258

Stock Markets, Banks, and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do well-functioning stock markets and banks promote long-run economic growth? This paper shows that stock market liquidity and banking development both positively predict growth, capital accumulation, and productivity improvements when entered together in regressions, even after controlling for economic and political factors. The results are consistent with the views that financial markets provide important services for growth and that stock

Ross Levine; Sara Zervos

1998-01-01

259

Sustainable Competence: A Study of a Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Decentralization and company cultures have emerged to master increasing external flexibility, as in a competitive bank in Sweden, raising issues of the sustainability in terms of competence and competence development. The purpose of this paper is to study how the staff members in a bank perceive a company culture and how this perception…

Hagstrom, Tom; Backstrom, Tomas; Goransson, Susanna

2009-01-01

260

The Evolution of Central Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 1995What have we learned about central banks? The principal factors affecting central bank autonomy in the past two centuries have been prevailing political conditions, a laissez faire environment, and the exchange rate regime (whether fixed or floating).Institutions we know as central banks emerged or were established as commercial banks or government banks. Their evolution into central banks came with

Forrest Capie

1999-01-01

261

A Theory of Bank Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks can create liquidity because their deposits are fragile and prone to runs. Increased uncertainty can make deposits excessively fragile in which case there is a role for outside bank capital. Greater bank capital reduces liquidity creation by the bank but enables the bank to survive more often and avoid distress. A more subtle effect is that banks with different

Douglas W. Diamond; Raghuram G. Rajan

1999-01-01

262

Snow Bank Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Local professors teamed up with a fourth-grade teacher to show students the similarities and differences between sedimentary rock layers and snow banks. Students observed and drew snow banks and explored the effects of melting and salting on the snow banks.

Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

263

What's different among banks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on commercial paper being a nearly perfect substitute for certificates of deposits (CDs) and CD reserve requirements creating a higher cost of funds for banks, Fama shows that the banking industry must have some monopoly power relative to other financial institutions. His analysis does not resolve whether this monopoly power is vested in banks collectively, vis-à-vis other financial institutions,

Thomas F. Cosimano; Bill McDonald

1998-01-01

264

Efficiency in European banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the established literature on modelling the cost characteristics of banking markets by applying the flexible Fourier functional form and stochastic cost frontier methodologies to estimate scale economies, X-inefficiencies and technical change for a large sample of European banks between 1989 and 1997. The results reveal that scale economies are widespread for smallest banks and those in the

Y. Altunba?; E. P. M. Gardener; P. Molyneux; B. Moore

2001-01-01

265

Proposing a sequential comparative analysis for assessing multilateral health agency transformation and sustainable capacity: exploring the advantages of institutional theory  

PubMed Central

Background This article proposes an approach to comparing and assessing the adaptive capacity of multilateral health agencies in meeting country and individual healthcare needs. Most studies comparing multilateral health agencies have failed to clearly propose a method for conducting agency comparisons. Methods This study conducted a qualitative case study methodological approach, such that secondary and primary case study literature was used to conduct case study comparisons of multilateral health agencies. Results Through the proposed Sequential Comparative Analysis (SCA), the author found a more effective way to justify the selection of cases, compare and assess organizational transformative capacity, and to learn from agency success in policy sustainability processes. Conclusions To more affectively understand and explain why some multilateral health agencies are more capable of adapting to country and individual healthcare needs, SCA provides a methodological approach that may help to better understand why these agencies are so different and what we can learn from successful reform processes. As funding challenges continue to hamper these agencies' adaptive capacity, learning from each other will become increasingly important.

2014-01-01

266

Tariff liberalization and the growth of world trade: a comparative historical analysis for the evaluation of the multilateral trading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between tariff barriers and world trade growth from a comparative and historical perspective and at the same time derive some useful indications for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the current multilateral trading system in promoting world trade. The distinguishing feature of this work is the complex reconstruction of the

Silvia Nenci

2009-01-01

267

Resolving trade disputes arising from trends in food safety regulation: the role of the multilateral governance framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

New food regulations may impede international trade, but multilateral mechanisms can resolve trade conflicts when they do arise. Food safety regulation in industrialized countries during the 1990s increasingly uses risk analysis in a farm-to-table approach, promotes the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, and increases the stringency of standards or creates new regulations for hazards. The 1995 Agreement

DONNA ROBERTS; LAURIAN UNNEVEHR

2005-01-01

268

75 FR 11986 - Public Comments for Multilateral Negotiations in the World Trade Organization on Expansion of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comments for Multilateral Negotiations in the World Trade Organization on Expansion of the...duty elimination by certain members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The specific...dosage-form products by their INNs from the World Health Organization (WHO). (Table...

2010-03-12

269

COMPETITION IN THE BANKING SYSTEM OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banking system is one of the financial market segments which plays an important role in the financial circuit both at the country level and as a component of the international financial system. Developing a competitive banking system allows to avoid monopoly situations creating the possibility for each bank to be oriented to a certain range of services and products

Enicov Igor; Chetraru Aliona

2011-01-01

270

The Roots of Banking Crises: The Macroeconomic Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the ways in which macroeconomic developments can put stress on banks, and in extreme cases lead to banking crises. These macroeconomic causes of bank vulnerability and crisis have important implications for regulatory regimes, and for macroeconomic policy itself. Much of the discussion emphasizes the need for monetary policy to be set with an eye on the state

Michael Gavin; Ricardo Hausmann

1996-01-01

271

Banking crises and exchange rate regimes: is there a link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the linkages between banking crises and exchange rate regimes, using a comprehensive cross-country dataset for the last two decades. The paper examines whether the choice of exchange rate regime affects the likelihood, cost, and duration of banking crises. Empirical results seem to indicate that adopting a fixed exchange rate diminishes the likelihood of banking crises among developing

Ilker Domaç; Maria Soledad Martinez Peria

2003-01-01

272

Banking and Financial Systems. Curriculum Guide. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides course materials for teachers to use in developing a course in banking and financial systems. Following an introductory section that lists the common essential elements of the course, the guide contains six sections that cover the following course topics: (1) introduction to banking and financial systems; (2) banking

Patton, Jan

273

A Proof of Concept Attack against Norwegian Internet Banking Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banking industry in Norway has developed a new security infrastructure for conducting commerce on the Internet. The initiative,\\u000a called BankID, aims to become a national ID infrastructure supporting services such as authentication and digital signatures\\u000a for the entire Norwegian population. This paper describes a practical man-in the- middle attack against online banking applications\\u000a using BankID. The attack gives an

Yngve Espelid; André N. Klingsheim; Kjell Jørgen Hole

2008-01-01

274

Role of NonBank Financial Intermediation: Challenges for Central Banks in the SEACEN Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well developed non-bank financial sector is viewed as an important component of a healthy and efficient financial system that can provide a sound base for growth and prosperity in the economy. This study observes that the non-bank financial sector has developed significantly in the SEACEN countries in the last two decades and it has helped widen and deepen the

Min B. Shrestha

275

Bahrain's offshore banking center  

SciTech Connect

The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

1983-01-01

276

Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability.  

PubMed

Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research. Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine are leading to the development of a bioeconomy, 'a world where biotechnology contributes to a significant share of economic output'. Consequently, stem cell banks are destined to constitute a pillar of the bioeconomy in many countries. While certain ethical and legal concerns are specific to the nature of stem cells, stem cell banking could do well to examine the approaches fostered by tissue banking generally. Indeed, the past decade has seen a move to simplify and harmonize biological tissue and data banking so as to foster international interoperability. In particular, the issues of consent and of traceability illustrate not only commonalities but the opportunity for stem cell banking to appreciate the lessons learned in biobanking generally. This paper analyzes convergence and divergence in issues surrounding policy harmonization, transnational sharing, informed consent, traceability and return of results in the context of stem cell banks. PMID:20923580

Knoppers, Bartha M; Isasi, Rosario

2010-01-01

277

Global Soil Moisture Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Data Bank is a collection of more than 400 observations of primarily Asian soil moisture. The data are freely available, and can be used for studying patterns of soil moisture variation, developing and testing land surface models, and ground truth for remote sensing.

1995-01-01

278

Global Soil Moisture Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Data Bank is a collection of more than 400 observations of primarily Asian soil moisture. The data are freely available, and can be used for studying patterns of soil moisture variation, developing and testing land surface models, and ground truth for remote sensing.

Robock, Alan

2007-01-24

279

Maintaining quality in blood banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of transfusion or blood banking facilities has followed, rather than preceded the regulation of the pharmaceutical industry and today we find, in Europe and the United States, the basic regulations developed for the pharmaceutical industry being extended to blood transfusion centres (BTC)?.In this article we explore the role of voluntary accreditation or registration to quality systems standards such as

E. Harvey; C. Hewison; D. E. Nevalainen; H. L. Lloyd

1995-01-01

280

A Multilateral Use and Processing of A Large Bibliographic Database for Research Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explain the multilateral use of bibliographic database in research activities, nuclear fusion research field as the comprehensive science was selected. The processing method of the above mentioned database is mainly described. Considering advantages of the bibliographic and indexed information of such database, its use is classified into three types: 1. To use for reference information, 2. To obtain facts and knowledge from information, and 3. To process and analyse information. Each sample corresponding to the above is introduced as follows, and the usefulness of a large scale database is made clear. 1) Use of online search in research activities, 2) Construction of scientific terms list utilizing keywords and their frequency in the database, and 3) To analyse bibliographic information metrically and evaluate research. This is an application of scientometrics.

Konishi, Osamu; Obayashi, Haruo

281

Developing a new stream metric for comparing stream function using a bank-floodplain sediment budget: a case study of three Piedmont streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bank and floodplain sediment budget was created for three Piedmont streams tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. The watersheds of each stream varied in land use from urban (Difficult Run) to urbanizing (Little Conestoga Creek) to agricultural (Linganore Creek). The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between geomorphic parameters and sediment dynamics and to develop a floodplain trapping metric for comparing streams with variable characteristics. Net site sediment budgets were best explained by gradient at Difficult Run, floodplain width at Little Conestoga Creek, and the relation of channel cross-sectional area to floodplain width at Linganore Creek. A correlation for all streams indicated that net site sediment budget was best explained by relative floodplain width (ratio of channel width to floodplain width). A new geomorphic metric, the floodplain trapping factor, was used to compare sediment budgets between streams with differing suspended sediment yields. Site sediment budgets were normalized by floodplain area and divided by the stream's sediment yield to provide a unitless measure of floodplain sediment trapping. A floodplain trapping factor represents the amount of upland sediment that a particular floodplain site can trap (e.g. a factor of 5 would indicate that a particular floodplain site traps the equivalent of 5 times that area in upland erosional source area). Using this factor we determined that Linganore Creek had the highest gross and net (floodplain deposition minus bank erosion) floodplain trapping factor (107 and 46, respectively) that Difficult Run the lowest gross floodplain trapping factor (29) and Little Conestoga Creek had the lowest net floodplain trapping factor (–14, indicating that study sites were net contributors to the suspended sediment load). The trapping factor is a robust metric for comparing three streams of varied watershed and geomorphic character, it promises to be a useful tool for future stream assessments.

Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg

2013-01-01

282

Dynamics of Banking Technology Adoption: An Application to Internet Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with examining behaviour of firms (banks) and consumers (banks' customers) in the event of a new technology (internet banking) introduction. The determinants of consumer adoption of internet banking are characterised using survey data from Korea in both static and dynamic framework. I find evidence that adoption of internet banking is influenced by sex, age, marital status,

Yoonhee Tina Chang

2003-01-01

283

Determinants of Internet banking adoption by banks in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The current exploratory study is an attempt to discover the factors affecting a bank's decision to adopt Internet banking in India. Particularly, it seeks to examine the relationship between the bank's adoption decision and various bank and market characteristics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data for this study consist of panel data of 88 banks in India covering the financial

Pooja Malhotra; Balwinder Singh

2007-01-01

284

Experience in internet banking and performance of banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to examine the impact of internet banking on banks' performance and also whether, among banks offering internet banking, those that have offered it for a relatively long time outperformed those that only recently began to offer it. Using the data on financial performance of 82 scheduled commercial banks, during the period of 1998-2007, the univariate analysis indicates

Pooja Malhotra; Balwinder Singh

2010-01-01

285

The Origins of Banking Panics: Models, Facts, and Bank Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banking panics are the central event informing and rationalizing government intervention into the banking industry. In the last decade progress has been made in understanding the origins of panics. This essay reviews recent theoretical and empirical work on the origins of banking panics. New evidence on the causes of banking panics is introduced. Banking panics do not appear to have

Charles W. Calomiris; Gary Gorton

1991-01-01

286

Is Central Bank Transparency Desirable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I analyse central bank transparency when the central bank's objective function is its private information. Non-transparency exists when the public does not observe the action of the central bank and an unobservable component of the inflation-control error keeps the public from using its observation of inflation to infer perfectly the central bank's action, and hence, the central bank's objective. The

Anne C. Sibert

2006-01-01

287

Cooperative Banks and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative banks are an important, and growing, part of many financial systems. This paper empirically analyzes the role of cooperative banks in financial stability. Contrary to some suggestions in the literature, we find that cooperative banks are more stable than commercial banks. This finding is due to the lower volatility of the cooperative banks' returns, which more than offsets their

Martin Cihák; Heiko Hesse

2007-01-01

288

Banking Scope and Financial Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the implications of financial system design for financial innovation. We begin with assumptions about the investment opportunities of firms, their observable attributes, and the roles of commercial banks, investment banks, and the financial market. We examine the borrower's choice between bank and financial market funding, the commercial bank's choice of monitoring capacity, and the investment bank's choice of

Arnoud W A Boot; Anjan V Thakor

1997-01-01

289

A Theory of Bank Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks can create liquidity precisely because deposits are fragile and prone to runs. Increased uncertainty makes deposits excessively fragile, creating a role for outside bank capital. Greater bank capital reduces the probability of financial distress but also reduces liquidity creation. The quantity of capital influences the amount that banks can induce borrowers to pay. Optimal bank capital structure trades off

Douglas W. Diamond; Raghuram G. Rajan

2000-01-01

290

Bank Director Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created for directors of financial companies, Bank Director Magazine is a quarterly publication that examines issues of importance to bank directors. The online publication includes the complete table of contents, as well as a selection of articles from the current issue. The site also features a directory of names, addresses, and phone numbers of M&A investment banking and law firms, consulting firms, and technology and retail delivery companies.

291

The World Bank's Lending Approaches: A Special World Bank News Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Bank, operating in a complex, diverse, and changing environment, provides financial advice and support to developing nations that range from macro-economic management to project design. Major changes in management systems have occurred during the 1980s and are reflected in the bank's assistance in: (1) analytical support of policy…

Blackman, Hugh, Ed.; Coronel, Leandro V., Ed.

1986-01-01

292

Intermediation,integration and internationalisation: a survey on banking in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a survey on recent developments in the European banking industry. Traditional banking activities have contracted in relative terms, but banks remain the predomination players in the euro area financial system. Economic and monetary integration in the EU has strongly encouraged internationalisation and concentration. The share of foreign assets and liabilities on EU banks’ balance sheets is still

Jaap Bikker; Sandra Wesseling

2003-01-01

293

Foreign banks in Central and Eastern Europe : source of vulnerability or stabilization factor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the impact of foreign banks' presence in Central and Eastern Europe's countries on their economic development and on the financial crisis they went through. We show that, despite a certain vulnerability of the domestic banking systems, the consequences of the opening of the banking markets to the foreign banks was globally positive. Thanks to local acquisitions by foreign

Monica Beuran; Estelle Brack

2009-01-01

294

Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research.\\u000a Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins\\u000a and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine\\u000a are leading to the development of a

Bartha M Knoppers; Rosario Isasi

2010-01-01

295

How Should Developing Countries Adjust to External Shocks in the 1980s: An Examination of Some World Bank Macroeconomic Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper arose out of the desire to review the quantitative relationships between external shocks, economic policies and performance across a sample of developing countries, as background to the World Development Report 1984. Initially, it was proposed ...

W. C. Sanderson J. G. Williamson

1985-01-01

296

World Bank: Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank does a great deal of development work throughout Africa, and it is by far the largest provider of assistance on the continent. As of 2007, their portfolio of projects under implementation was over $19 billion. They are also involved with working with a wide range of government partners on the "Africa Action Plan", which is concerned with everything from reducing and mitigating violent conflicts to promoting private sector-led growth and job creation. Visitors can learn about the Plan on the site, and they can also utilize the drop-down menus on the homepage to learn about initiatives and topics in every country on the continent. Along the left-side of the homepage, visitors can explore a number of thematic areas, such as Data, Research, and News.

297

Millennium Seed Bank Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of organizations have developed a concerted interest in establishing seed banks to protect the wide diversity of existing plant life for future generations. The Royal Botanic Gardens is currently working on their own project, whose ultimate goal is to collect 24,000 plant species. So far, they have successfully secured samples from almost all of the native flowering plants in the United Kingdom, and their work continues on in the present day. Many visitors to the site will want to peruse their homepage and the helpful graphic (a peapod) helps orient first-time visitors to the various sections on the site, such as "Solving Seed Problems" and their publications and data area. The site also includes a field manual for those who would like to collect their own seeds in the field as well as data about the seeds collected thus far in the Seed Information Database.

2005-01-01

298

Platy algal banks: Modern and ancient  

SciTech Connect

Plaly algal banks and associated cycles in the lower Ismay zone of the Paradox Formation are exposed along the walls of the San Juan River canyon, southeastern Utah. These complexes closely resemble algal bank reservoirs in the lower Ismay zone of Ismay and Cache, and possibly other Paradox basin fields. Similarities include facies relationships, lateral and vertical textural variations, and early diagenesis. Extensive algal banks exposed along the San Juan canyon generally have flat bases and mound and swale topographic surfaces, and are separated by interbank channels. The surficial mounds have a regular amplitude and wavelength suggesting a hydrologic rather than biologic influence on topography. The banks themselves, however, are believed to be thick, predominantly in-situ accumulations of platy algae. Distribution of algal banks can be mapped on a field scale; mound and swale topographic features may be identified in core on the basis of depositional and early diagenetic characteristics. Halimeda bioherms (Holocene) cover large areas behind the Great Barrier Reef, developing adjacent to the deep passes that separate the individual reefs. These large in-situ accumulations (20-50 m deep) display similar bank geometries, interbank features, topographic features, vertical textural sequence (including porosity type and distribution), and facies relationships to algal banks observed in the outcropping and subsurface Paradox Formation. Although the hydrodynamic and paleobathymetric settings differ markedly between these two examples, analogies between the mounds themselves are very close. The resemblance lends relevance to exploration and development drilling.

Brinton, L. (Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (USA))

1990-05-01

299

The World Bank's innovation market.  

PubMed

Large, tradition-bound organizations can make space for radical, low-cost (and therefore low-risk) innovations. Just ask executives at the World Bank. The story of this best practice begins in 1998, when a young new-products group at the international funding agency proposed holding an Innovation Marketplace to capture novel ideas within the Bank for alleviating poverty. The forum, which eventually was opened to external participants, let people informally present their antipoverty ideas to potential funding sources. Funders could move among hundreds of booths and evaluate proposals for, say, a program that would provide postdisaster reconstruction insurance in developing countries or a vaccination development initiative. The marketplace truncated the Bank's standard project-review processes, which often stretched to a year or more, and gave funders permission to make commitments in the tens of thousands of dollars, rather than in the tens of millions more typical of Bank-financed projects. The marketplace concept met with some skepticism at the beginning. Some senior executives at the Bank felt no group had the right to spend the agency's money without following its well-established resource allocations process. But the marketplace team believed an open process for allocating grants would produce more breakthrough ideas in the long run than a centralized one. In this article, the authors describe how the new-products team brainstormed to create a market for ideas, how it got senior management's support, and how it has expanded on the original concept for these innovation marketplaces. The program's success, they contend, offers hope both for the world's poor and for business leaders looking to find new ideas under the hard crust of corporate dogma, conformance, and bureaucracy. PMID:12422794

Wood, Robert Chapman; Hamel, Gary

2002-11-01

300

Eye Bank Association of America  

MedlinePLUS

... to content Skip to Navigation Find an Eye Bank Near You MEMBER LOGIN ALERT (April 11, 2014): ... is the nationally-recognized accrediting body for eye banks. Since 1961, EBAA member banks have restored sight ...

301

Comparative International Characteristics of Banking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper compares key characteristics of banking systems across countries. A basic premise underlying our review is that the increasing globalization of banking and finance mandate a broad, cross-country perspective on banking issues. Indeed, cross-coun...

D. E. Nolle G. Caprio J. R. Barth

2004-01-01

302

FDIC Banking Review, October 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC's monthly publication Banking Review includes the article "Financially Distressed Banks: How Effective Are Enforcement Actions in the Supervision Process?" which looks at some effects of bank examinations.

303

Functional classification of riparian roots for bank stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that the roots of riparian vegetation add tensile strength to stream banks, thus reducing bank erosion and undercutting. Bank stability models that add the mechanical strength of riparian roots, based on root tensile strength and density, contribute to the understanding of vegetation-enhanced bank strength. However, for land managers who require a simple method for determining which riparian vegetation species are most suited for bank stabilization (i.e., river restoration), these methods can require time-consuming efforts. The system the United States Forest Service (USFS) currently uses employs a qualitatively-based ranking scheme of riparian vegetation, which also implies that bank stability is an inherent characteristic of a riparian plant species, regardless of bank characteristics. We present a functional classification of riparian species for bank stability that meet the needs of land managers but still acknowledges that bank stability is not an inherent characteristic of vegetation, and that takes into account bank materials (sediment grain size and stratigraphy). The objectives of this research are to (1) develop a functional classification of riparian vegetation based on root morphology and role in stabilizing banks, using a bank stability model (BSTEM) to determine the added bank strength from diverse species for varying bank textures and geometries, and developing a ternary diagram of riparian vegetation based on bank stabilization characteristics (tensile strength, root depth and lateral extent, and root density or branching); and (2) understand the role of riparian indicator species in channel processes and streambank and valley formation. Tensile strength, root morphology and density, and stem density were obtained for 14 riparian species common to the Colorado Front Range (4 trees, 3 shrubs, 3 graminoids, and 4 forbs). We use BSTEM to determine the addition to bank stability for these species for a range of bank textures and geometries, ranging from fine-grained cohesive sediment to gravel and cobble non-cohesive banks. Preliminary results show forbs have the lowest root tensile strengths and graminoids have the highest strengths. Graminoids have significantly higher root densities than shrubs, trees, and forbs. We expect each species to provide a distinct range of additional bank stability, some of which are unique while others overlap. This classification is supplemented with additional root characteristics (depth, lateral extent, sinuosity) to develop the functional classification. This comparison of the bank stability added by species will be more quantitative, objective, and reproducible than the current method used by USFS.

Polvi, L. E.; Merritt, D. M.; Wohl, E. E.

2010-12-01

304

Prospects for Development in South-East Europe (Reprint; first published by Bank Austria, Vienna, December 2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southeast Europe (SEE) has been lagging in transition and development. For political, security and institutional reasons, it has developed in a non-standard way. However, the prospects for reforms and growth are now better than they have been in a decade, if not longer. There are positive political changes and there are signs of economic recovery. Also, there is increased openness

Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov

2001-01-01

305

Banks, markets, and efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the question whether increasing households' financial market access improves welfare in a financial system in which there is intense competition among banks for private households' funds. Following earlier work by Diamond and by Fecht, we use a model in which the degree of liquidity insurance offered to households through banks' deposit contracts is restrained by

Falko Fecht; Antoine Martin

2005-01-01

306

Banks, Markets, and Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Diamond (1997) and Fecht (2004) we use a model in which financial market access of households restrains the efficiency of the liquidity insurance that banks' deposit contracts provide to households that are subject to idiosyncratic liquidity shocks. But in contrast to these approaches we assume spacial monopolistic competition among banks. Since monopoly rents are assumed to bring about inefficiencies,

Falko Fecht; Antoine Martin

2005-01-01

307

Banks, Markets, and Eciency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Diamond (1997) and Fecht (2004) we use a model in which financial market access of households restrains the eciency of the liquidity insurance that banks' deposit contracts provide to households that are subject to idiosyncratic liquidity shocks. But in contrast to these approaches we assume spacial monopolistic competition among banks. Since monopoly rents are assumed to bring about ineciencies,

Falko Fecht; Deutsche Bundesbank; Antoine Martin

2005-01-01

308

Banks, markets, and efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Diamond (1997) and Fecht (2004) we use a model in which financial market access of households restrains the efficiency of the liquidity insurance that banks' deposit contracts provide to households that are subject to idiosyncratic liquidity shocks. But in contrast to these approaches we assume spacial monopolistic competition among banks. Since monopoly rents are assumed to bring about inefficiencies,

Falko Fecht; Antoine Martin

2005-01-01

309

Overflowing the Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will teach students about levees and how they are designed to hold a river in its bank. They will construct a model of a river bank and explore how levees can cause water levels to back up into smaller streams and tributaries, causing floods.

310

Banking (Conservatively) with Optimists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial banks frequently encounter optimistic entrepreneurs whose perceptions are biased by wishful thinking. Bankers are left with a difficult screening problem: separating realistic entrepreneurs from optimists who may be clever, knowledgeable, and completely sincere. We build a game-theoretic model of the screening process. We show that although entrepreneurs may practice self-restraint to signal realism, competition may lead banks to be

Michael Manove; A. Jorge Padilla

1999-01-01

311

iBank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

2012-01-01

312

Banking on Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank

Roach, Ronald

2010-01-01

313

Volunteer Community Language Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

314

75 FR 67731 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System,...

2010-11-03

315

75 FR 69444 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System,...

2010-11-12

316

12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL...

2012-01-01

317

12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL...

2013-01-01

318

The Porcupine Bank Canyon coral mounds: oceanographic and topographic steering of deep-water carbonate mound development and associated phosphatic deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The head of a canyon system extending along the western Porcupine Bank (west of Ireland) and which accommodates a large field of giant carbonate mounds was investigated during two cruises (INSS 2000 and TTR-13). Multibeam and sidescan sonar data (600-1,150 m water depth) suggest that the pre-existing seabed topography acts as a significant factor controlling mound distribution and shape. The mounds are concentrated along the edges of the canyon or are associated with a complex fault system traced around the canyon head, comprising escarpments up to 60 m high and several km long. The sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis of numerous types of authigenic deposits was guided by sidescan sonar and video recordings. Calcite-cemented biogenic rubble was observed at the top and on the flanks of the carbonate mounds, being associated with both living and dead corals ( Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and occasional Desmophyllum cristagalli). This can plausibly be explained by dissolution of coral debris facilitated by strong currents along the mound tops and flanks. In turn, the dissolved carbon is recycled and precipitated as interstitial micrite. Calcite, dolomite and phosphatic hardgrounds were identified in samples from the escarpment framing the eastern part of the survey area. The laterally extensive phosphatic hardgrounds represent a novel discovery in the region, supplying hard substrata for the establishment of new coral colonies. Based on existing knowledge of regional oceanographic conditions, complemented with new CTD measurements, it is suggested that water column stratification, enhanced bottom currents, and upwelling facilitate the deposition of organic matter, followed by phosphatisation leading to the formation of phosphate-glauconite deposits. The occurrence of strong bottom currents was confirmed by means of video observations combined with acoustic and sampling data, providing circumstantial evidence of fine- to medium-grained sand. Evidently, slope breaks such as escarpments and deep-water canyon headwalls are important structural elements in the development of mature carbonate mounds induced by deep-water coral growth. Stable isotope data show no evidence of methane-derived carbon in the carbonates and lithified sediments of the Porcupine Bank Canyon mounds.

Mazzini, A.; Akhmetzhanov, A.; Monteys, X.; Ivanov, M.

2012-06-01

319

Earth Science World Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to the ImageBank can view and download photographs, remote imagery, and slide shows. The images are related to earth and space science topics such as dinosaurs, earthquakes, volcanoes, rocks and minerals, mining and petroleum, groundwater, planets and astronomical phenomena, and others. The site contains thousands of images and is searchable by category, continent, country, or keyword. A teachers' section provides links to educational materials such as books, posters, slide shows, professional development materials, scholarship information, and other resources.

2004-01-01

320

World Bank Experts Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with reporters and editors in mind, the World Bank Experts Guide provides World Bank experts that are available to comment on to the media on a wide variety of topics. The list of experts may be viewed by name of expert or by subject. Each expert is given his or her own Webpage, which includes a short biography, expertise, and languages spoken, along with a photograph and related links. For ease of use, several "hot topics" are highlighted including AIDS/HIV and debt relief. This site gives an awe-inspiring look at the variety of experts working for the World Bank.

321

Sexual and reproductive health and rights in the evolving post-2015 agenda: perspectives from key players from multilateral and related agencies in 2013.  

PubMed

This paper reports the views of participants from key multilaterals and related agencies in the evolving global negotiations on the post-2015 development agenda on the strategic location of sexual and reproductive health and rights. The research was carried out in June and July 2013, following the release of the report of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, and comprised 40 semi-structured interviews with 57 participants and two e-mail respondents. All respondents were responsible for the post-2015 health and development agenda, or the post-2015 agenda more broadly, within their organisations. The interviews provide an insight into the intention to ensure that sexual and reproductive health and rights are integrated into the post-2015 trajectory by key players who sit at the interface of UN and Member State interaction. They reveal both an awareness of the shortcomings of the Millennium Development Goal process and its impact on advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights in early post-2015 engagement, as well as the vulnerability of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the remaining phases of post-2015 negotiations. Recent events bear these concerns out. Ensuring sexual and reproductive health and rights are included in the final post-2015 outcome document in the time remaining for negotiations, will be anything but a "doddle". PMID:24908457

Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S

2014-06-01

322

Banking Panics and Business Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a century of newly constructed data, competing theories explaining banking panics are tested. The evidence shows that banking panics during the U.S. national banking era (1865-1914) were the products of revisions in the perceived risk of the banking system based on the arrival of new information. Panics were triggered by a leading indicator of recession. Whenever this variable reached

Gary Gorton

1988-01-01

323

On the application of under-decimated filter banks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximally decimated filter banks have been extensively studied in the past. A filter bank is said to be under-decimated if the number of channels is more than the decimation ratio in the subbands. A maximally decimated filter bank is well known for its application in subband coding. Another application of maximally decimated filter banks is in block filtering. Convolution through block filtering has the advantages that parallelism is increased and data are processed at a lower rate. However, the computational complexity is comparable to that of direct convolution. More recently, another type of filter bank convolver has been developed. In this scheme, the convolution is performed in the subbands. Quantization and bit allocation of subband signals are based on signal variance, as in subband coding. Consequently, for a fixed rate, the result of convolution is more accurate than is direct convolution. This type of filter bank convolver also enjoys the advantages of block filtering, parallelism, and a lower working rate. Nevertheless, like block filtering, there is no computational saving. In this article, under-decimated systems are introduced to solve the problem. The new system is decimated only by half the number of channels. Two types of filter banks can be used in the under-decimated system: the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks. They are well known for their low complexity. In both cases, the system is approximately alias free, and the overall response is equivalent to a tunable multilevel filter. Properties of the DFT filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks can be exploited to simultaneously achieve parallelism, computational saving, and a lower working rate. Furthermore, for both systems, the implementation cost of the analysis or synthesis bank is comparable to that of one prototype filter plus some low-complexity modulation matrices. The individual analysis and synthesis filters have complex coefficients in the DFT filter banks but have real coefficients in the cosine modulated filter banks.

Lin, Y.-P.; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

1994-01-01

324

Statistics on Banking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC Statistics on Banking is a "quarterly publication that provides aggregate financial and structure information on FDIC-insured institutions, with summary totals by state and charter type." The latest figures for third quarter 1997 are now available.

325

Protein Data Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Protein Data Bank is the international depository for the results of structural studies of biological macromolecules. At present, some 1200 biological macromolecules are reported to have been crystallized, of which approximately 350 have structures de...

E. E. Abola F. C. Bernstein T. F. Koetzle

1984-01-01

326

Banking Data and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article on free banking data and research, created by Ruth Kobylecky Humphrey for the American Library Association, includes an index of annotations on a wide range of federal and association Websites that offer financial information and help for their members. The index is broken into several sections including Federal Agencies, The Federal Reserve System, International Banking, and the Secondary Market. Within each section, the entries are arranged in alphabetical order and carefully annotated.

Humphrey, Ruth K.

327

River Bank Erosion at the Intra-Event Timescale: Implications for Bank Sediment Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bank erosion is often a significant contributor to catchment sediment yield. However, it has proved difficult to gain insight into the relationship between erosion events that supply bank material to river systems, and associated variations in fluvial sediment flux. One of the difficulties has been that there is a mismatch in our capability to quantify processes at relevant timescales. Thus, while fluvial flux can readily be monitored quasi-continuously during competent flow events, studies of bank erosion processes have largely been focused at the event timescale. A lack of sub-event scale data is understandable given the difficulties involved in accessing river banks during competent flows. Nevertheless, bank sediment delivery processes involve a combination of (quasi-continuous) fluvial erosion and (quasi-discrete) mass-wasting processes. Moreover, relatively little research has been focused on the dynamic interactions between these two groups of processes, especially in terms of quantifying the extent to which different bank erosion processes might dominate in different environments. To address these issues, we have been investigating bank sediment delivery processes at two study sites. The Fiume Cecina (central Italy) is an actively migrating (c. 10 m/yr) gravel-bed river, which constrasts with the River Asker (southern UK), a gravel-bed river with relatively slow (c. 0.1 m/yr) retreat rates. At each site we have developed simulation models to predict modes of bank sediment delivery during observed flow events. Our approach follows previous investigations in that event hydrographs are initially discretised into a series of time steps. Finite-element seepage analysis and slope-stability modelling software packages are then used to simulate bank pore water pressure and mass-failure conditions at each time step, to quantify their evolution throughout the flow event. Where our approach differs from previous studies is that we have used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to estimate the boundary shear stress distribution exerted on the banks in each time step. Consequently, the bank profile is updated in response to any deformation caused by fluvial erosion. As a result, our simulations are able to highlight two contrasting roles that fluvial erosion has in triggering bank failures during flood hydrographs. First, fluvial erosion destabilises the bank with respect to mass failure by steepening the bank profile. However, this bank deformation also results in a modified distribution of bank pore-water pressures relative to cases where there is no fluvial erosion. A possible implication of our results is that conceptual models of bank sediment delivery processes founded on event-scale analyses may be misleading. Previous modelling studies have emphasised mass-failures as quasi-catastrophic events timed to occur on the falling limb of event hydrographs. In contrast, our simulations suggest that mass-wasting might also occur as a series of much smaller-scale episodes, timed at frequent intervals throughout the event hydrograph. It follows that the residence time of bank material debris delivered to the bank-toe may be much shorter than suggested by approaches that do not account for bank deformation processes at the intra-event time scale. Further research is required to investigate this hypothesis.

Darby, S. E.; Rinaldi, M.

2004-12-01

328

An audit of blood bank services  

PubMed Central

Background: An audit is a written series of simple, direct questions, which when answered and reviewed, tell whether the laboratory is performing its procedures, activities, and policies correctly and on time. Aim: The aim of this study is to briefly highlight the importance of audit in blood bank services. Materials and Methods: An Audit of Blood Bank Services was carried out in a Blood bank of the tertiary care hospital, Central India by using the tool kit, (comprised of checklists) developed by Directorate General of Health Services, Dhaka WHO, July 2008. Results: After going through these checklists, we observed that there is no system for assessing the training needs of staff in the blood bank. There was no provision for duty doctor's room, expert room, medical technologist room and duty care service. There was no checklist for routine check for observation of hemolysis and deterioration of blood and plasma. There was no facility for separate private interview to exclude sexual disease in the donor. Requisition forms were not properly filled for blood transfusion indications. There was no facility for notification of donors who are permanently deferred. There were no records documented for donors who are either temporarily or permanently deferred on the basis of either clinical examination, history, or serological examination. It was found that wearing of apron, cap, and mask was not done properly except in serology laboratory. When the requisition forms for blood transfusions were audited, it was found that many requisition forms were without indications. Conclusion: Regular audit of blood bank services needs to be initiated in all blood banks and the results needs to be discussed among the managements, colleagues, and staffs of blood bank. These results will provide a good opportunity for finding strategies in improving the blood bank services with appropriate and safe use of blood.

Kumar, Alok; Sharma, Satish; Ingole, Narayan; Gangane, Nitin

2014-01-01

329

World bank energy projects in China: influences on environmental protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the World Bank's energy-related project portfolio in China reveals several areas where World Bank assistance has clearly influenced broader trends in energy and environmental protection in China. This paper reviews the World Bank's 36 energy-related projects approved from 1984 to 1999 in the context of these broader trends. Projects helped accelerate development of large-scale efficient coal power

Eric Martinot

2001-01-01

330

Space medicine policy development for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing medical care capability in a multinational setting in space is a daunting challenge. As the International Space Station (ISS) has taken shape over the last decade the space medicine community of the ISS partners has established a foundation with which to govern medical policy, medial processes, and medical care during the ISS Program. This foundation was predicated on a rich history of bilateral and multilateral cooperation among space faring nations. Three key organizations were established, they include the agency or senior level Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), and the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP). All three are staffed by senior medical personnel within each of the partner organizations of the ISS and each has specific roles and responsibilities. These three entities strive to protect the human element of spaceflight through highly effective interaction in a multilingual, multicultural program. This paper reviews the creation of this tripartite approach to the development of medical policy for ISS.

Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Williams, Richard S.; Comtois, Jean-Marc; Damann, Volker; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Pool, Sam L.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Knowingkov, Oleg L.; Doarn, Charles R.

2009-09-01

331

Banking crises and exchange rate regimes - Is there a link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the links between banking crises, and exchange rate regimes, using a comprehensive data set that includes developed, and developing countries over the last two decades. In particular, they examine whether the choice of exchange rate regime affects the likelihood, cost, and duration of banking crises. Empirical results indicate that adopting a fixed exchange rate, diminishes the likelihood

Ilker Domac; Maria Soledad Martinez-Peria

2000-01-01

332

The legal environment, banks, and long-run economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between the legal system and banking development and traces this connection through to long-run rates of per capita GDP growth, capital stock growth, and productivity growth. The data indicate that countries where the legal system (1) emphasizes creditor rights and (2) rigorously enforces contracts have better developed banks than countries where laws do not give

Ross Levine

1998-01-01

333

World Bank Contribution to Building National HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity in Africa: Going beyond Indicator Development and Conceptual Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International commitment to the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has grown rapidly in recent years, stimulated by the leadership of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and its cosponsors and supported by a range of new mechanisms. These include the World Bank's Multi-Country…

Wilson, David

2004-01-01

334

Cold-water coral banks and submarine landslides: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to review the relation between cold-water coral bank development and submarine landslides. Both are common features on continental margins, but so far it has not been reviewed which effect—if at all—they may have upon each other. Indirect and direct relations between coral banks and landslides are evaluated here, based on four case studies: the Magellan Mound Province in the Porcupine Seabight, where fossil coral banks appear partly on top of a buried slide deposit; the Sula Ridge Reef Complex and the Storegga landslide both off mid-Norway; and the Mauritania coral bank province, associated with the Mauritanian Slide Complex. For each of these locations, positive and negative relationships between both features are discussed, based on available datasets. Locally submarine landslides might directly favour coral bank development by creating substratum where corals can settle on, enhancing turbulence due to abrupt seabed morphological variations and, in some cases, causing fluid seepage. In turn, some of these processes may contribute to increased food availability and lower sedimentation rates. Landslides can also affect coral bank development by direct erosion of the coral banks, and by the instantaneous increase of turbidity, which may smother the corals. On the other hand, coral banks might have a stabilising function and delay or stop the headwall retrogradation of submarine landslides. Although local relationships can be deduced from these case studies, no general and direct relationship exists between submarine landslides and cold-water coral banks.

de Mol, Ben; Huvenne, Veerle; Canals, Miquel

2009-06-01

335

12 CFR 1261.13 - Ineligible Bank directors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible Bank directors. 1261.13 Section 1261.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK...

2012-01-01

336

12 CFR 1261.13 - Ineligible Bank directors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible Bank directors. 1261.13 Section 1261.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK...

2013-01-01

337

12 CFR 1261.14 - Vacant Bank directorships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacant Bank directorships. 1261.14 Section 1261.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK...

2013-01-01

338

International Inland Waters: Concepts for a More Active World Bank Role.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews the World Bank's role in international water affairs. The paper recommends that the Bank should play a more proactive role in international water affairs. Development should be the primary objective for its interventions. Its policy shou...

S. Kirmani R. Rangeley

1994-01-01

339

12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.  

...and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND...

2014-01-01

340

The Impact of Bank and NonBank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides evidence on the relationship between finance and growth in a fast growing country, such as China. Employing\\u000a data of 27 Chinese provinces over the period 1995–2003, we study whether the financial development of two different types\\u000a of financial institutions — banks and non-banks — have a (significantly different) impact on local economic growth. Our findings\\u000a indicate that

Xiaoqiang Cheng; Hans Degryse

2010-01-01

341

Electronic Banking: Enhancing Federal Oversight of Internet Banking Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As you requested, this report discusses federal oversight of depository institutions' Internet banking activities. Internet banking involves individuals' use of personal computers connected to their depository institutions over the Internet to transfer fu...

1999-01-01

342

Euro Skin Bank: large scale skin-banking in Europe based on glycerol-preservation of donor skin.  

PubMed

Although skin banking has been well developed through the years as a means of providing sufficient skin which is instantly accessible to the burn patient, the methods of preservation and the scale on which various institutions bank skin vary considerably. In 1984, the Dutch National Skin Bank started using glycerol as a preservant for skin allografts. Since then there has been a marked increase in both the volume of glycerol skin grafts applied and the area over which these have been distributed. The procedure and organizational aspects of the Euro Skin Bank, as our own institution is now called, and its current method of skin preservation are described. PMID:8198742

de Backere, A C

1994-01-01

343

MANAGING DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY — INTERNET BANKING VENTURES FOR TRADITIONAL BANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the perception of the nature of technological change for Internet Banking by proposing and testing a model of the strategic management of online banking by traditional banks. Specifically, this empirical study uses a stratified sample of the FDIC database to address how perception of the technology and the environmental context (knowledge of cause-effect relations and crystallized outcome

STEPHEN K. CALLAWAY; ROBERT D. HAMILTON

2008-01-01

344

A Model of Competition in Banking: Bank Capital vs Expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of competition in the banking industry based upon the interplay of two factors: the level of capitalization of banks and their ability to monitor different types of projects (i.e., their expertise). In a setting of moral hazard with limited liability, banks must receive some rents to induce them to monitor projects diligently. The rents are

Andres Almazan

2002-01-01

345

Seigniorage Earnings of Commercial Banks and State Bank of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the trend of seigniorage earnings by State Bank of Pakistan and commercial banks. It is found that seigniorage revenue of the SBP has declined overtime which indicates autonomy of the central bank as well as less reliance of the government on SBP’s resources for budget financing. In general, a direct relationship has been observed between seigniorage and

M. Farooq Arby

2006-01-01

346

MolBank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MolBank, an interesting resource for chemists, "is an electronic journal where very short notes of searchable experimental data records for individual molecules are published." Affiliated with the magazine Molecules and Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), MolBank is particularly interested in unconventional, experimental data such as starting materials and synthetic intermediates. Adhering to a single page, single structure format, the up-to-date, refereed papers are searchable by substructure or chemical and physical characteristics. Submission guidelines are also available at the site.

2007-06-07

347

University of Cologne Development Research Center Universität zu Köln Arbeitsstelle für Entwicklungsländerforschung The Microbanking Division of Bank Rakyat Indonesia: A Flagship of Rural Microfinance in Asia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of BRI is evidence that, in a deregulated policy environment, the microfinance section of a government-owned bank can (a) be transformed into a highly profitable, self-reliant financial intermediary; and (b) turn into a major microfinance provider, offering carefully crafted microsav- ings and microcredit products to low-income people at market rates of interest. Making good use of government seed

Hans Dieter Seibel

348

BANKING, RISK AND FINANCIAL MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the question of financial risk in the relation between the banks and the firms: a problem of great significance for Euroland, a recent monetary union largely dominated by banking (\\

Pasquale Lucio Scandizzo

349

American Association of Tissue Banks  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter Registration now open! Webinar: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Survey of Tissue Banking Date: June ... 2014 09:50:19 Webinar: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Survey of Tissue Banking 04 Jun ...

350

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

351

Development of item bank to measure deliberate self-harm behaviours: facilitating tailored scales and computer adaptive testing for specific research and clinical purposes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of item banking to questionnaire items intended to measure Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) behaviours. The Rasch measurement model was used to evaluate behavioural items extracted from seven published DSH scales administered to 568 Australians aged 18-30 years (62% university students, 21% mental health patients, and 17% community members). Ninety four items were calibrated in the item bank (including 12 items with differential item functioning for gender and age). Tailored scale construction was demonstrated by extracting scales covering different combinations of DSH methods but with the same raw score for each person location on the latent DSH construct. A simulated computer adaptive test (starting with common self-harm methods to minimise presentation of extreme behaviours) demonstrated that 11 items (on average) were needed to achieve a standard error of measurement of 0.387 (corresponding to a Cronbach?s Alpha of 0.85). This study lays the groundwork for advancing DSH measurement to an item bank approach with the flexibility to measure a specific definitional orientation (e.g., non-suicidal self-injury) or a broad continuum of self-harmful acts, as appropriate to a particular research/clinical purpose. PMID:24703572

Latimer, Shane; Meade, Tanya; Tennant, Alan

2014-07-30

352

Banking and Currency Crises: How Common Are The Twins?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coincidence of having both banking and currency crises associated with the Asian financial crisis has drawn renewed attention to causal and common factors linking the two phenomena. In this paper, we analyse the incidence and underlying causes of banking and currency crises in 90 industrial and developing countries over the 1975-97 period. We measure the individual and joint (\\

Reuven GLICK; Michael M. Hutchison

2000-01-01

353

A Guide to the Internet Revolution in Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banking is an industry that is expected to undergo drastic change because of the E-commerce revolution. This article maps out the direction of the Internet revolution in banking by surveying the phenomenon's history, its technological development, and associated managerial and technological issues.

David C. Chou; Amy Y. Chou

2000-01-01

354

The Naval Sea Systems Command Underwater Acoustic Data Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) Underwater Acoustic Data Bank (NAVDAB) was initiated to provide an appropriate data base for development and validation of sonar perfomance prediction models. The main data bank was installed at the Naval Undersea Center with branches at the Naval Underwater Systems Center and the Naval Oceanographic Office. NAVDAB is administered, under NAVSEA direction, by a

L. Maples; S. Santaniello

1975-01-01

355

IT governance: Objectives and assurances in internet banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops and tests a new factor of the trust model in electronic commerce; namely, internet banking. Internal control of internet banking is very consistent with high levels of trust factors such as security, privacy, and other risk issues. However, this type of association has not yet been widely recognized as a trusted model from the consumer's electronic commerce

Shi-Ming Huang; Wei-Cheng Shen; David C. Yen; Ling-Yi Chou

356

The evolution of commercial banking and financial markets in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past five decades, Taiwan has achieved rapid economic development. Correspondingly, Taiwan’s financial system has been gradually transformed from a controlled system into a liberalized one, from a state banking system into a private banking one, and from an inward investment system into an outward investment one. In the financial market, the interest rate and foreign exchange rate have

Tzong-shian Yu

1999-01-01

357

Using Soil Seed Banks for Ecological Education in Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we developed an educational programme using soil seed banks to promote ecological literacy among primary school-aged children. The programme consisted of seven student activities, including sampling and setting soil seed banks around the school, watering, identifying seedlings, and making observations about the plants and their…

Ju, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jae Geun

2011-01-01

358

Six Questions about The World Bank's 2020 Education Sector Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on interviews with World Bank staff in April 2011, this article answers six questions about the World Bank's Education Sector Strategy 2020 (ESS 2020): (1) What is the ESS 2020? (2) What is it not? (3) How was the development process of the ESS 2020 different from that of past Strategies? (4) How are the policy recommendations of the ESS…

Shafiq, M. Najeeb

2011-01-01

359

The Role of Demandable Debt in Structuring Optimal Banking Arrangements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demandable-debt finance by banks warrants explanation because it entails costs of bank suspension, liquidation, and idle reserve holdings. An explanation is developed in which demandable debt provides incentive-compatible intermediation where the banker has comparative advantage in allocating investment funds but may act against the interests of uninformed depositors. Demandable debt attracts funds by giving depositors an option to force liquidation.

Charles W Calomiris; Charles M Kahn

1991-01-01

360

Suppose There Were a "World Bank" for American Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About 120 nations can borrow from an international bank for the purposes of financing domestic educational improvement. The United States is a donor to this bank, but by virtue of its economic development, it cannot borrow. Nevertheless, the virtues of having such a facility might be worth considering within the United States. This article briefly…

Heyneman, Stephen P.

2007-01-01

361

The Informative Contents of Bank Debt Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the concentration of corporate bank debt. In an economy with asymmetric information, we show that the bank debt concentration with a main bank possessing informational monopoly is a reliable signal of the firm's quality for the secondary banks. Precisely, the firm's choice of the parts lent by the main bank and the secondary banks allows use

Frederic Lobez; Jean-Christophe Statnik

2003-01-01

362

A theory of banking structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a theory to analyze the specialization of banking activities based upon the different functions that banks perform when rendering a variety of financial services. The functional difference in the services performed by banks is based upon two dimensions: the degree of information asymmetry involved in providing the service, and the degree of verifiability of the value of

Sanjiv R. Das; Ashish Nanda

1999-01-01

363

Do Banks Provide Financial Slack?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the decision to choose bank debt rather than public securities in a firm's marginal financing choice. Using a sample of 500 firms over the 1980 to 1993 time period, we find that firms are relatively more likely to choose bank loans when variables that measure asymmetric information problems are elevated. The sensitivity of the likelihood of choosing bank

Charles J. Hadlock; Christopher M. James

2002-01-01

364

Liquidity Shortages and Banking Crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show in this article that bank failures can be contagious. Unlike earlier work where contagion stems from depositor panics or contractual links between banks, we argue that bank failures can shrink the common pool of liquidity, creating, or exacerbating aggregate liquidity shortages. This could lead to a contagion of failures and a total meltdown of the system. Given the

DOUGLAS W. DIAMOND; RAGHURAM G. RAJAN

2005-01-01

365

The Green Bank Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

Richard M. Prestage; Kim T. Constantikes; Todd R. Hunter; Lee J. King; Richard J. Lacasse; Felix J. Lockman; Roger D. Norrod

2009-01-01

366

Money with Bank Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We allow banks to choose between two networks in a simple version of the Cavalcanti and Wallace (1999) model of inside money. Members of a network have access to credit but must redeem banknotes issued by other members in random meetings. We find equilibria in which members of a particular network issue more valuable notes, but face the same ex-ante

Ricardo de Oliveira Cavalcanti; Henrique Dezemone Forno

2004-01-01

367

World Data Bank I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World Data Bank I (WDB I) is a digital representation of the coastlines and boundaries of the world for use in automated mapping systems. The first two files consist of 100,000 individual coordinate points arranged sequentially to describe each linear fea...

1972-01-01

368

Cord-Blood Banking  

MedlinePLUS

... private: How financially stable is the cord-blood bank? (Financial stability means a reduced chance that you will have to transfer your sample if the facility closes.) How many samples are processed in the facility? (A larger number of samples usually means that there are more collection ...

369

Blood Bank Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentially, blood banks are facilities which procure, store, process, and dispense blood. To operate effectively in the face of both random supply and random demand, sizable buffer stocks of blood are maintained. The resulting inventory control problem is an extremely complex one for several reasons: (1) both supply and demand are random; (2) approximately 50 percent of all bloods demanded,

John B. Jennings

1973-01-01

370

SpeciesBank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SpeciesBank is a growing library of digital information about the biological species of Canada. It includes high-quality photographs, distribution maps, identification guidance, and a host of other information including links to monographs and species-specific information elsewhere on the Internet. The site is divided into sections that cover butterflies, brassicaceae, poisonous plants, moths, and noctuoidea.

371

National Trade Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

372

Snow Bank Detectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

373

Banking & Financial Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for high school business teachers, outlines the plan for a course in which students gain hands-on experience in operating a bank in which students actually deposit money. The document begins with a brief course description, rationale, and list of 11 course objectives. Presented next is background information about…

Warren, Brenda; Sorrell, Lisa

374

World Bank Lending to Small Enterprises: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1978 the World Bank published a sector policy paper, *Employment and Development of Small Enterprises', laying out the case for increased lending to small enterprises in the developing countries. This paper analyzes the results of 10 completed...

J. Levitsky

1986-01-01

375

12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 7 2009-01-01 2009-01-01...Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution. 1805.201 Section 1805.201 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2009-01-01

376

12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution. 1805.201 Section 1805.201 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2010-01-01

377

12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2012-01-01

378

12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2013-01-01

379

Mapping the reasons for resistance to Internet banking: A means-end approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Internet banking has been widely adopted in developed countries, there is still a group of customers resisting the services. In other words, Internet banking, although proven to be a successful innovation, has still not become adopted by the laggards, and hence, has not met all the expectations of banks. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify the

Tuire Kuisma; Tommi Laukkanen; Mika Hiltunen

2007-01-01

380

Corporate image measurement : A further problem for the tangibilization of Internet banking services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study and measurement of image especially in the Internet banking field has become an important tool to help the management of the banks operating on the Internet to make decisions. As there are no previous scales in existence to enable the image of this type of bank to be measured, our paper is centered on developing and proposing a

Carlos Flavián; Eduardo Torres; Miguel Guinalíu

2004-01-01

381

The effects of financial liberalization and new bank entry on market structure and competition in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until 1980 Turkey's financial system was shaped to support state-oriented development. After the 1960s the financial system, dominated by commercial banks, became an instrument of planned industrialization. Turkey had an uncompetitive financial market and an inefficient banking system. Controlled interest rates, directed credit, high reserve requirements and other restrictions on financial intermediation, and restricted entry of new banks -plus the

Cevdet Denizer

1997-01-01

382

Opening the Black Box on Bank Efficiency in China: Does Economic Freedom Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides, for the first time, empirical evidence on the impact of economic freedom on bank efficiency in a developing economy. We employ the Data Envelopment Analysis method to compute the efficiency of the Chinese banking sector during 2000–2008. The empirical findings indicate that the inefficiency of the Chinese banking sector stems largely from scale rather than pure technical.

Fadzlan Sufian; Muzafar Shah Habibullah

2011-01-01

383

12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank, bank for cooperatives, and agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk management program tailored to the needs of the institution and consistent with the requirements set forth in § 615.5135 of this...

2009-01-01

384

A multivariate analysis of the determinants of Moody’s bank financial strength ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995 Moody’s Investors Services inaugurated a new rating service, bank financial strength ratings (BFSRs), that assesses the safety and soundness of banks in over 50 countries. Our study sets out to do some preliminary investigations of this new type of credit rating. We develop logistic regression models to help explain or predict BFSRs. Using bank-specific accounting and financial data

Winnie P. H. Poon; Michael Firth; Hung-Gay Fung

1999-01-01

385

Banking Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Growth: International Evidence from Industry Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the empirical relevance of banking market structure on growth. There is substantial evidence of a positive relationship between the level of development of the banking sector of an economy and its long-run output growth. Little is known, however, about the role played by the market structure of the banking sector on the dynamics of capital accumulation. This

Nicola Cetorelli; Michele Gambera

2001-01-01

386

Comparison of factors influencing job satisfaction in domestic and foreign banks in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study has been designed to examine the main factors that affect job satisfaction of two foreign banks and two state-owned banks in Shanghai, China. The banks were selected and from each organization 75 subjects were selected randomly. A questionnaire developed by Lujia (2001) was used for ascertaining the most important and different factors that influence job satisfaction in

Zhu Xiaoyan; Ouyang Puxi

2010-01-01

387

Credit Risk Management of Loan Portfolios by Indian Banks: Some Empirical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic functions of most of the banks are the acceptance of deposits from public and lending funds to public, corporate, etc. This business of lending has brought trouble to individual banks as well as to the entire banking system, thus giving rise to credit risk, which is the risk of default. The present paper is designed to develop an

Jayanta Kishore Nandi; Navin Kumar Choudhary

2011-01-01

388

Seminar on Factual and Numerical Data Banks. Final Report (Rabat, Morocco, February 21-24, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of a seminar on factual and numerical data banks are described. Seminar objectives were to: (1) make potential users aware of the value of data banks in their respective disciplines and inform them of the tools available; (2) identify national and regional data bank requirements; and (3) define a strategy for development in this…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.

389

WWW-query: An on-line retrieval system for biological sequence banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a World Wide Web (WWW) version of the sequence retrieval system Query: WWW-Query. This server allows to query nucleotide sequence banks in the EMBL\\/GenBank\\/DDBJ formats and protein sequence banks in the NBRF\\/PIR format. WWW-Query includes all the features of the on-line sequence browsers already available: possibility to build complex queries, integration of cross-references with different data banks,

G. Perrière; M. Gouy

1996-01-01

390

Tissue banking in India: gamma-irradiated allografts.  

PubMed

In India, the procurement of tissues for transplantation is governed by the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994. Although this law exists, it is primarily applied to organ transplantation and rules and regulations that are specific to tissue banking which have yet to be developed. The Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) Tissue Bank was started in 1988 as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) programme to promote the use of ionising radiation for the sterilisation of biological tissues. It represents the Government of India within this project and was the first facility in the country to use radiation for the sterilisation of allografts. It is registered with the Health Services Maharashtra State and provides freeze-dried, gamma irradiated amnion, dura mater, skin and bone. The tissues are obtained either from cadavers or live donors. To date the TMH Tissue Bank has provided 6328 allografts which have found use as biological dressings and in various reconstructive procedures. The TMH Tissue Bank has helped initiate a Tissue Bank at the Defence Laboratory (DL), Jodhpur. At present these are the only two Banks in the country using radiation for the terminal sterilisation of preserved tissues. The availability of safe, clinically useful and cost effective grafts has stimulated innovative approaches to surgery. There is an increased demand for banked tissues and a heightened interest in the development of tissue banks. Inadequate infrastructure for donor referral programmes and the lack of support for tissue transplant co-ordinators however, continue to limit the availability of donor tissue. PMID:15256861

Lobo Gajiwala, A

2003-01-01

391

Internet Banking: A Customer-Centric Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many financial institutions are actively developing new electronic banking products for their retail customers. These efforts are can succeed only if their managers focus the promotion of the new services toward those customers who are most likely to find them attractive. The analysis of a 6-branch financial institution presented in this study suggests that institutions are vulnerable to loss of

Don Sciglimpaglia; David Ely

2002-01-01

392

Integrated Learning with International Banking Executives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes an in-house executive development programme run by the authors in a leading banking group in the CEE region. The programme attempts to follow a systemic approach to learning and contains a mix of elements including action learning, classroom teaching, study, peer support and feedback and "learning visits" to participants'…

Zinke, Sabine; Briault, Steve

2007-01-01

393

Multiple Bank Relationships and the Main Bank System: Evidence from a Matched Sample of Japanese Small Firms and Main Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Based on a matched sample of Japanese small firms and main banks we investigate the bank-firm relationships in the early 2000s.\\u000a We obtain new findings. First, even small firms with a main bank relation have multiple bank relationships. Second, firms\\u000a tied with a financially weak main bank increase the number of bank relations. Third, longer duration of a main bank

Kazuo Ogawa; Elmer Sterken; Ichiro Tokutsu

2007-01-01

394

12 CFR 1266.8 - Banks as secured creditors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Banks as secured creditors. 1266.8 Section 1266.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS ADVANCES Advances to Members...

2012-01-01

395

12 CFR 1281.23 - Bank data integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank data integrity. 1281.23 Section 1281.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING...

2013-01-01

396

12 CFR 1278.6 - Ratification by Bank Members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ratification by Bank Members. 1278.6 Section 1278.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS VOLUNTARY MERGERS OF FEDERAL...

2013-01-01

397

12 CFR 1278.6 - Ratification by Bank members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ratification by Bank members. 1278.6 Section 1278.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS VOLUNTARY MERGERS OF FEDERAL...

2012-01-01

398

12 CFR 1266.8 - Banks as secured creditors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Banks as secured creditors. 1266.8 Section 1266.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS ADVANCES Advances to Members...

2013-01-01

399

12 CFR 1281.23 - Bank data integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank data integrity. 1281.23 Section 1281.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING...

2012-01-01

400

GenBank  

PubMed Central

The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 85,000,000 nucleotides in 67,000 entries from a total of 3,000 organisms. The input stream of data coming into the database is primarily as direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media, with little or no data being keyboarded from the printed page by the databank staff. The data are maintained in a relational database management system and are made available in flatfile form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. The data are also distributed in relational form through satellite copies at a number of institutions in the U.S. and elsewhere. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service.

Burks, Christian; Cinkosky, Michael J.; Fischer, William M.; Gilna, Paul; Hayden, Jamie E.-D.; Keen, Gifford M.; Kelly, Michael; Kristofferson, David; Lawrence, Julie

1992-01-01

401

Development of a Parent-Report Cognitive Function Item Bank Using Item Response Theory and Exploration of its Clinical Utility in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

PubMed Central

Objective?The purpose of this study is to report the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of a parent-report perceived cognitive function (pedsPCF) item bank.?Methods?From the U.S. general population, 1,409 parents of children aged 7–17 years completed 45 pedsPCF items. Their psychometric properties were evaluated using Item Response Theory (IRT) approaches. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and discriminant function analysis were used to predict clinical problems on child behavior checklist (CBCL) scales. A computerized adaptive testing (CAT) simulation was used to evaluate clinical utility.?Results?The final 43-item pedsPCF item bank demonstrates no item bias, has acceptable IRT parameters, and provides good prediction of related clinical problems. CAT simulation resulted in correlations of 0.98 between CAT and the full-length pedsPCF.?Conclusions?The pedsPCF has sound psychometric properties, U.S. general population norms, and a brief-yet-precise CAT version is available. Future work will evaluate pedsPCF in other clinical populations in which cognitive function is important.

Butt, Zeeshan; Zelko, Frank; Cella, David; Krull, Kevin R.; Kieran, Mark W.; Goldman, Stewart

2011-01-01

402

12 CFR 615.5452 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding...  

...obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation; rights...person against Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation. 615...615.5452 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...

2014-01-01

403

Secure Internet Banking Authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes current authentication threats and two proposed solutions as well as how these solutions can be extended in the face of more complex future attacks. This work falls in line with recent federal regulator initia-tives (see www. ffiec. gov\\/press\\/pr101205.htm and www. info. gov. hk\\/hkma\\/eng\\/press\\/2005\\/20050530e3 _ index. htm) requiring, or at least expecting, banks to rapidly adopt two-factor authentication

Alain P. Hiltgen; Thorsten Kramp; Thomas Weigold

2006-01-01

404

Information extraction by edge detection using complementary filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the 2D Complementary Filter (CF) Banks, a signal processing technique applied to information extraction by edge detection. Based on the 2D multirate signal processing theory and complementary filters properties, the CF Banks allow to consider different types of sampling and filters. Procedures to design 2D nonseparable quincunx, rectangular and circular complementary filters are developed for an alias free decimation and interpolation. The CF bank is related with wavelet theory. Perfect reconstruction is achieved when the CF bank is implemented with quincunx sampling and filters. Although perfect reconstruction is not reached in other cases, the analysis and synthesis are performed without aliasing, corresponding to a high signal-to-noise ratio and visual quality. New structures were designed to get a better data compression. Implementation of CF Banks analysis/synthesis with images and application in information extraction by edge detection are shown.

Almeida, Maria G.

2001-08-01

405

Fostering public cord blood banking and research in Canada.  

PubMed

In June 2013, Canadian Blood Services (CBS) established the National Public Cord Blood Bank (NPCBB) accessible to Canadian and international patients and researchers. The NPCBB promotes efforts that contribute to research and improved clinical care by making units not suitable for banking or transplantation available for research. In the context of the NPCBB of the CBS, this article will focus on the practical tools (e.g., consent protocols) developed to optimize umbilical cord blood (UCB) banking and research while enabling ethical provenance of UCB stem cells. The Canadian approach represents an ideal model for comparison as it is a country in which the national public bank (and other regional/provincial public banks) coexists with private companies. PMID:24304072

Isasi, Rosario; Dalpe, Gratien; Knoppers, Bartha M

2013-12-01

406

Virtual blood bank  

PubMed Central

Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

Wong, Kit Fai

2011-01-01

407

Capacitor bank for electrical generator  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A capacitor bank for an electrical power generator comprises: a positive assembly having a positive electrical terminal; a negative assembly having a negative electrical terminal; at least one capacitor sandwiched between and electrically coupled to the positive and negative assemblies; and electrical interconnects coupled to each of the terminals and for coupling to a load or to another capacitor bank. The positive and negative assemblies of the capacitor bank are each stackable on the positive and negative assemblies of another capacitor bank. When two capacitor banks are stacked with their positive assemblies facing each other, the interconnects couple the capacitor banks in series, and when two capacitor banks are stacked with a positive assembly facing a negative assembly, the interconnects couple the capacitor banks in parallel. A plurality of such capacitor banks can be electrically connected in series and/or in parallel in a number of different configurations, thereby providing a highly customizable capacitor bank assembly to suit the particular needs of the electrical power generator.

2009-01-13

408

Bank Erosion as a Desirable Attribute of Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank erosion is integral to the functioning of river ecosystems. It is a geomorphic process that promotes riparian vegetation succession and creates dynamic habitats crucial for aquatic and riparian plants and animals. River managers and policymakers, however, generally regard bank erosion as a process to be halted or minimized in order to create landscape and economic stability. Here, we recognize bank erosion as a desirable attribute of rivers. Recent advances in our understanding of bank erosion processes and of associated ecological functions, as well as of the effects and failure of channel bank infrastructure for erosion control, suggest that alternatives to current management approaches are greatly needed. In this article, we develop a conceptual framework for alternatives that address bank erosion issues. The alternatives conserve riparian linkages at appropriate temporal and spatial scales, consider integral relationships between physical bank processes and ecological functions, and avoid secondary and cumulative effects that lead to the progressive channelization of rivers. By linking geomorphologic processes with ecological functions, we address the significance of channel bank erosion in sustainable river and watershed management.

Joan L. Florsheim (University of California at Davis;)

2008-06-01

409

Tying up lions: multilateral initiative on malaria communications: the first chapter of a malaria research network in Africa.  

PubMed

"When spider webs unite, they can tie up a lion" (Ethiopian folk adage). The Multilateral Initiative on Malaria Communications Network (MIMCom) facilitates a new way of doing research in Africa and African scientists' participation in the international scientific community. The MIMCom supports full access to the Internet and the resources of the WorldWide Web at 19 research sites in 11 African countries. Furthermore, the MIMCom project comprises two websites: one includes links to resources, databases, and publications as well as a document delivery service for full text journal articles, and the other is a research agenda specific website with a server for a research network desiring to share raw data. Other important components of MIMCom are training and evaluation components. The MIMCom was conceived in 1997 by African researchers and has been designed, implemented, and overseen by the U.S. National Library of Medicine in collaboration with partners in Africa, the United States, and the United Kingdom. This project demonstrates clearly that it can make a positive difference in the functioning of remote research sites in Africa, in terms of site growth and productivity and in the professional lives of individual researchers. This report reviews the project's background, methods of operation with an emphasis on local needs and priorities, cost effectiveness, and local responsibility; results focusing on a technical network; documentation of the system and two-way exchange of information; the MIMCom website; a network approach to research; and financial sustainability. The report concludes with summaries of evaluations by an independent panel, the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria Secretariat, and the U.S. National Library of Medicine. PMID:15331846

Royall, Julia; Bennett, Mark; van Schayk, Ingeborg; Alilio, Martin

2004-08-01

410

Seigniorage Earnings of Commercial Banks and State Bank of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The paper reviews the trend of seigniorage earningsby State Bank of Pakistan and commercial,banks. It is found that seigniorage revenue of the SBP has declined overtime which indicates autonomy,of the central bank as well as less reliance of the government,on SBP’s resources for budget financing. In general, a direct relationship has been observed between seigniorage and inflation in Pakistan.

M. Farooq

2007-01-01

411

12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.  

... 2014-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND...

2014-01-01

412

Conduct in a Banking Monopoly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extending previous empirical work on concentrated markets, this paper appliesa Rosse–Panzar revenue test to quarterly data from a monopoly bank. The testrejects the hypotheses of static monopoly pricing or perfectly contestablepricing. Other tests suggest that the bank was in long-run equilibrium duringthe sample period and did not exhibit particular forms of expense-preferencebehavior. Possible interpretations of the bank's conduct include limit

Sherrill Shaffer

2002-01-01

413

Bank Competition and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the traditional “competition-fragility” view, more bank competition erodes market power, decreases profit margins, and\\u000a results in reduced franchise value that encourages bank risk taking. Under the alternative “competition-stability” view, more\\u000a market power in the loan market may result in higher bank risk as the higher interest rates charged to loan customers make\\u000a it harder to repay loans, and exacerbate

Allen N. Berger; Leora F. Klapper; Rima Turk-Ariss

2009-01-01

414

The Morphology of Shoreline Trees as an Indicator of Bank Stability on the South River, Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian trees in our study area appear to develop characteristic forms on eroding and accreting riverbanks. Because rates of bank retreat and advance are too slow to map using traditional methods on the South River, we hypothesized that tree morphology could be used to determine if banks are eroding, accreting, or stable over decadal timescales. We measured the physical characteristics of trees, including the lean angle of the trunk (degrees from vertical), the breast height diameter, and the distance of undercutting on banks that were known to be stable, accreting, and eroding. The morphologic data from these trees were then compared to a bank immediately upstream of a dam that had been breached between 2002 and 2005. While this bank showed signs of erosion, we were not able to measure bank retreat using aerial photographs. The trees on banks known to be stable and accreting showed statistically significant differences in tree morphology when compared to the trees on the eroding bank. The stable and accreting banks had median undercutting values of 0%, while the undercutting for the accreting bank was 95%. The median lean angle of the stable and accreting banks were 21° and 19.5°, respectively, while that of the eroding bank was 0°. The trees on the bank immediately upstream of the dam displayed a median undercutting of 77% and a median lean of 7°. These results are very similar those of the known eroding bank and are also significantly different from both the stable and the accreting banks. These data support the hypothesis that the bank immediately upstream of the breached dam is actively eroding. Our study demonstrates that physical characteristics of trees can be used to distinguish eroding riverbanks from those that are stable or accreting.

Stotts, S. N.; Pizzuto, J. E.

2009-12-01

415

12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank associations, Federal land credit associations, production credit associations, and agricultural credit...

2014-01-01

416

Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.  

PubMed

The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

Collin, Jeff

2012-03-01

417

The World Bank: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change continues to be of grave concern to many, and the World Bank is particularly concerned with the ramifications it will have on people in the developing world. Their Climate Change site is designed to provide an overview of their work on this vexing problem and information about their current projects, data sets, research papers, and books. Visitors should start by looking over their weblog, and then take a look at their "What's New" area. Here they can learn about innovative carbon trading programs, engineering projects, and international agreements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change. The "Research & Analysis" area has dozens of free publications, including the very relevant "Climate Resilient Cities" work, which discusses how city governments can better understand how to plan for the impact of climate change through sound urban planning.

2009-08-13

418

The World Bank: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change continues to be of grave concern to many, and the World Bank is particularly concerned with the ramifications it will have on people in the developing world. Their Climate Change site is designed to provide an overview of their work on this vexing problem including information about their current projects, data sets, research papers, and books. Visitors should start by looking over their weblog, and then take a look at their "News" area. Here, they can learn about innovative carbon trading programs, engineering projects, and international agreements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change. The "Research" area has dozens of free publications, including the very relevant "Climate Resilient Cities" work, which discusses how city governments can better understand how to plan for the impact of climate change through sound urban planning.

419

The impact of bank regulations, supervision, market structure, and bank characteristics on individual bank ratings: A cross-country analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use country level data and bank level data from 71 countries and 857 banks to investigate the impact of bank regulations,\\u000a supervision, market structure, and bank characteristics on individual bank ratings. The results indicate that less cost efficient\\u000a banks, with higher than average levels of provisions relatively to their income, and lower liquidity tend to have lower ratings.\\u000a Larger

Fotios Pasiouras; Chrysovalantis Gaganis; Constantin Zopounidis

2006-01-01

420

A survey of DNA diagnostic laboratories regarding DNA banking.  

PubMed Central

This article reports the findings of a survey of 148 academically based and commercial DNA diagnostic labs regarding DNA banking (defined as the storage of individual DNA samples in some form with identifiers for later retrieval). The population surveyed consisted of all laboratories listed with HELIX, a national directory of DNA diagnostic labs that includes a fairly comprehensive listing of clinical service labs as well as a large number of research labs. The survey was concerned primarily with the legal and ethical issues that the long-term storage of DNA may raise. The survey inquired into the respondents' policies and procedures concerning (1) the extent of DNA banking and of interest in developing DNA banking in academia and industry and (2) the degree to which DNA banks had developed written internal policies and/or a written depositor's agreement (a signed document defining the rights and obligations of the person from whom the sample was taken and the bank) designed to anticipate or prevent some of the ethical and legal problems that can arise from the long-term retention of DNA. Our research suggests that (1) the activity of DNA banking is growing, particularly in the academic setting, and (2) most academically based DNA banks lack written internal policies, written depositor's agreements, or other relevant documentation regarding important aspects of this activity.

McEwen, J E; Reilly, P R

1995-01-01

421

Idea Bank: Changing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.

Holzmiller, Tara

2008-12-01

422

Using Banks: Teaching Banking Skills to Low-Income Consumers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…

Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

423

73. The Metals Bank Building (now the State Savings Bank) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

73. The Metals Bank Building (now the State Savings Bank) was designed by Cass Gilbert and built in 1906, under the suoervision of Link had Haire, Architects. The structure is L-shaped, with oak and tile finishes on the interior. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

424

Australian Item Bank Program: Social Science Item Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After vigorous review, editing, and trial testing, this item bank was compiled to help secondary school teachers construct objective tests in the social sciences. Anthropology, economics, ethnic and cultural studies, geography, history, legal studies, politics, and sociology are among the topics represented. The bank consists of multiple choice…

Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

425

AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse  

PubMed Central

Background AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. Aims The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. Methods & Procedures We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. Main Contribution AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. Conclusions AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia.

MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

2011-01-01

426

75 FR 73983 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...2010, regarding Assessments, Large Bank Pricing. This correction clarifies that the comment period for the Assessments, Large Bank Pricing ends January 3, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

2010-11-30

427

46 CFR Sec. 2 - Bank account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bank account. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping ...TRANSACTIONS UNDER AGENCY AGREEMENTS Accounts Sec. 2 Bank account. A separate joint bank account will be maintained in a...

2013-10-01

428

Is Banking a Natural Monopoly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the arguments behind claims that banking is a natural monopoly. There are economies in reserve-holding and asset diversification, but the marginal return to scale tends to fall as the bank grows, and there is not particular reason to expect these economies to be large enough to produce a natural monopoly. The paper then examines three spurious arguments

Kevin Dowd

1992-01-01

429

Bankers' Perspectives Bankers' Perspectives Bankers' Perspectives Bankers' Perspectives on Internet Banking on Internet Banking on Internet Banking on Internet Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In every industry, E-commerce is revolutionizing the way business is conducted. New business models are replacing outdated ones and organizations are rethinking business process designs and customer relationship management strategies. Banks are no exception to this transformation. This study examines bankers’ views on providing banking services to cus

Ravi Nath; Paul Schrick; Monica Parzinger

2001-01-01

430

Introduction to Composites: Test Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides a bank of test questions on the use of composite materials in the aerospace industry. These questions are intended to accompany a PowerPoint presentation, which may be found here along with other accompanying materials. Fifty test questions and their correct answers are included in this test bank.

2011-11-08

431

World Bank Annual Report 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Fiscal year 1999 (FY99) was a year of continued -- and formidable -- challenges," begins the World Bank Annual Report 1999. It goes on to list the financial crises in Brazil, Asia, and Russia and the natural disasters that struck the Caribbean, Asia, and Central America. And through it all, the World Bank was there. This report charts global economic progress and explains the World Bank's involvement in many aspects of the world economy. Broken into smaller reports, World Bank's annual report looks at the surprising rise of poverty, the issues surrounding Y2K and banking assistance, and the progress in anti-corruption efforts, among other issues. Also included are letters from the chairman, highlights, and summaries of improved projects.

Bank., World

432

The World Bank: HIV and AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UNAIDS (The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) and the World Bank worked together to create the AIDS Economics site to help improve understanding of the economics of HIV/AIDS and to "help researchers and policymakers in developing countries to define and implement humane, cost-effective policies to fight the disease." The highlight of the site is the summary of the findings and statistical appendices from Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic, a World Bank report. The full text of the report will be available shortly. The site also features a toolkit to assist consultants in assessing the implications of HIV/AIDS in the distribution of development assistance. Visitors to the site can also sign up for AIDS Economics, a free electronic newsletter.

1998-01-01

433

12 CFR 614.4000 - Farm Credit Banks.  

...Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks. 614.4000 Section 614.4000 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending Authorities §...

2014-01-01

434

12 CFR 1290.6 - Bank community support programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank community support programs. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT...

2012-01-01

435

75 FR 72751 - Voluntary Mergers of Federal Home Loan Banks  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 2590-AA37 Voluntary Mergers of Federal Home Loan Banks AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice...HERA) amended section 26 of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act (Bank Act) to permit any Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank)...

2010-11-26

436

12 CFR 1290.6 - Bank community support programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank community support programs. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT...

2013-01-01

437

Forensic DNA data banking by state crime labortaories  

SciTech Connect

This article reports the results of a survey of the responsible crime laboratories in the first 19 states with legislation establishing forensic DNA data banks. The survey inquired into the labs` policies and procedures regarding the collection, storage, and analysis of samples; the retention of samples and data; search protocols; access to samples and data by third parties; and related matters. The research suggests that (1) the number of samples collected from convicted offenders for DNA data banking has far surpassed the number that have been analyzed; (2) data banks have already been used in a small but growing number of cases, to locate suspects and to identify associations between unresolved cases; (3) crime labs currently plan to retain indefinitely the samples collected for their data banks; and (4) the nature and extent of security safeguards that crime labs have implemented for their data banks vary among states. The recently enacted DNA Identification Act (1994) will provide $40 million in federal matching grants to states for DNA analysis activities, so long as states comply with specified quality-assurance standards, submit to external proficiency testing, and limit access to DNA information. Although these additional funds should help to ease some sample backlogs, it remains unclear how labs will allocate the funds, as between analyzing samples for their data banks and testing evidence samples in cases without suspects. The DNA Identification Act provides penalties for the disclosure or obtaining of DNA data held by data banks that participate in CODIS, the FBI`s evolving national network of DNA data banks, but individual crime labs must also develop stringent internal safeguards to prevent breaches of data-bank security. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

McEwen, J.E. [Eunice Kennedy Shrive Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)

1995-06-01

438

Bioinformatics Activity Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is designed for educators hoping to teach students about the world of biotechnology and bioinformatics, and the lesson plans here are top-notch. The lessons span a variety of topics, including applied mathematics, DNA, and genetics. Visitors can scroll through six sections, including Organisms and Evolution or Proteins and Proteomics. Visitors can scroll through each area, keeping in mind that each activity is categorized by grade level, subject area, and type. For those looking for specific areas, they will find a set of activity filters that can be used to easily identify specific resources. Some of the activity offerings here include "Genetic Disorder Research," "What is Cloning?," and "DNA Detectives: Extract your Own DNA." Finally, visitors can visit In The News to learn more about ongoing activities at the Bioinformatics Activities Bank.

2013-04-30

439

The Green Bank Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green Bank Telescope (GBT), a new 100 m diameter radio telescope, is under commissioning and early scientific operation. The GBT has a number of novel design features including an unblocked aperture, an active surface, and a precision telescope control system that is designed to allow operation into the 3 mm wavelength range. The unblocked aperture has already paid dividends in high dynamic range images. The active surface has worked very well in its initial operation and has made a substantial improvement in gain and beam quality over a large range of elevation angles. This paper describes the features of the GBT, its status, and some of the early scientific results from the telescope.

Jewell, Phil R.

2002-08-01

440

Credit Unions vs. Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the debate between the banks and credit unions over the issues of membership. The nine resources discussed provide background information about the debate and the arguments from both sides of the issue. On February 25, 1998, the Supreme Court ruled that the National Credit Union Administration's policy of permitting federal credit unions to serve multiple unrelated groups was unlawful. As a result, the credit union lobby persuaded the House of Representatives to overwhelmingly pass HR 1151, the Credit Union Membership Access Act, by a vote of 411-8. HR 1151 will allow credit unions to form multiple common bonds with certain limitations. Similar legislation is now under consideration in the Senate.

Ng, Thiam H.

1998-01-01

441

Telomeres and seed banks.  

PubMed

We have found that a progressive loss of telomeric sequences occurs from high molecular weight DNA with an increasing appearance at low molecular weight as the periods of storage in the dry state were extended in time to provide seed germination loss from 98 to 0%. Telomere distribution would appear to follow the general pattern of DNA random fragmentation that occurs in the embryos of seeds stored in the dry state, but there are also indications of an overall telomere loss from DNA as a consequence of storage. There is a need for a convenient "equality marker" for the seeds that can be monitored over time. Reviewing the implications of our results very carefully we believe that there is considerable potential in the use of telomere sequences to mark embryo ageing of seeds held in Seed Banks. PMID:17427414

Boubriak, I; Pouschuk, V; Grodzinsky, A; Osborne, Daphne J

2007-01-01

442

The biomedical discourse relation bank  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB), in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB), which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89). These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28), mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57). Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more annotated data. The poor performance of a classifier trained in the open domain and tested in the biomedical domain suggests significant differences in the semantic usage of connectives across these domains, and provides robust evidence for a biomedical sublanguage for discourse and the need to develop a specialized biomedical discourse annotated corpus. The results of our cross-domain experiments are consistent with related work on identifying connectives in BioDRB.

2011-01-01

443

The adoption of commercial innovations in the former Central and Eastern European markets : The case of internet banking in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to examine innovation adoption in the context of internet banking in Estonia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data presented in this study are based on 1,831 questionnaires collected from individual internet banking users in Estonia. Findings – This study extends the applicability of the innovation adoption model developed by Everett Rogers to Estonian internet banking. The model

Kent Eriksson; Katri Kerem; Daniel Nilsson

2008-01-01

444

The role of bank credit for cattle raising in financing tropical deforestation: An economic case study from Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panama's rapid deforestation for cattle pasture is causing serious environmental problems, as well as negative economic and social consequences. Bank credit encourages deforestation by making cattle pasture expansion more affordable, more profitable, or less risky. Two governmental banks in Panama supply most of the institutional credit provided to small- and medium-scale ranchers, through loans from the Inter-American Development Bank and

Ledec

1992-01-01

445

Innovation Funds for Higher Education: A Users' Guide for World Bank Funded Projects. Education Working Paper Series. Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Education Working Paper Series is produced by the Education Unit at the World Bank (HDNED). It provides an avenue for World Bank staff to publish and disseminate preliminary education findings to encourage discussion and exchange ideas within the World Bank and among the broader development community. This Guide seeks to help those who design…

Saint, William

2005-01-01

446

Sand Bank Weakly Nonlinear Stability Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the continental shelf, tidal currents often give rise to large scale periodic bed forms named sand banks. Sand banks are long ridges (length of the order of several tens of kilometers) with a spacing (crest to crest distance) up to 10 km and a height up to several tens of meters. Their crests are almost aligned with the tidal currents, forming small positive or negative angles. Although reliable models based on linear stability analyses exist to predict the main geometrical characteristics of the sand banks as they start to appear, little is known on the morphodynamic processes that shape and maintain these bed forms in equilibrium conditions. A weakly nonlinear analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the equilibrium configuration attained by unstable bottom perturbations when the parameters of the problem are close to the critical values. However difficulties arise to apply a weakly nonlinear analysis of sand bank dynamics because the linear approaches predict infinite wavelengths of the most unstable mode close to the critical conditions. Here we first revisit the linear approach of Hulscher et al. (1993, Cont. Shelf Res. 13). In particular the time development of small amplitude bottom perturbations forced by tidal currents is studied using a different parameterization of both the bed shear stress and the sediment transport predictor which provides vanishing values of the sediment transport rate when the bottom shear stress is smaller than a critical value and accounts for the deviation of the sediment transport rate from the depth averaged velocity. With these improvements, both clockwise and counterclockwise sand banks are predicted. Moreover the wavelength of the most unstable mode close to the critical conditions turns out to be finite. This result opens the possibility to carry out a weakly nonlinear stability analysis. Then the time development of the most unstable mode is studied for values of the parameters close to the marginal conditions. The analysis provides estimates of the sand bank equilibrium amplitude and predicts equilibrium profiles characterized by crests sharper than the troughs, a feature often observed in field surveys.

Tambroni, N.; Blondeaux, P.

2006-12-01

447

EXPERIENCE WITH UNUSUAL ACOUSTIC VIBRATION IN HEAT EXCHANGER AND STEAM GENERATOR TUBE BANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cases of atypical acoustic vibration in heat exchanger and steam generator tube banks are presented. The cases include a tubular air heater with acoustic vibration developed in the flow direction, a steam generator tube bank with vibration developed along the tubes, and a shell and tube process heat exchanger with acoustic vibration developed in the shell axial direction. The vibratory

F. L. Eisinger; R. E. Sullivan

1996-01-01

448

Spheromak Buildup in SSPX using a Modular Capacitor Bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sustained Spheromak Physics eXperiment uses DC coaxial helicity injection to produce plasmas with central Te >350eV and be ˜5% with toroidal fields of 0.6T. We report here results from experiments using a new solid-state programmable modular capacitor bank that allows higher peak injection currents (> 600kA), longer injection-current flattop (>8ms), and multiple current pulses (5) for step-wise buildup experiments. The increased flexibility allows study of the physics of magnetic field generation, which is key to development of the spheromak as a magnetic fusion concept. Experiments using the modular capacitor bank have produced discharges (long formation) with the highest edge poloidal fields measured on SSPX and multiple current pulse discharges that continue to build magnetic field in a stepwise manner. The design of the programmable bank and results from using the bank to increase the magnetic field in SSPX will be presented.

Wood, R. D.; Hill, D. N.; Hooper, E. B.; McLean, H. S.; Romero-Talamás, C. A.

2006-10-01

449

Investor Valuations and Measuring Bank Intangible Assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the value-relevance and reliability of bank intangible asset measures. The majority of bank intangible assets are not recognized and few banks voluntarily disclose estimates or provide other information about these assets. Investors therefore have limited direct information about this important component of bank value. I incorporate publicly available financial and market information to estimate four customer-based intangible

Mark Kohlbeck

2004-01-01

450

A Delphi study of Internet banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation has brought down the boundaries of the banking industry, allowing new entrants and enabling a greater degree of competition. Into this scenario arrived the Internet – another radical technological innovation with the potential to change the structure and nature of banking. Many banks have adopted the Internet as a delivery channel (indeed, some banks have set up as Internet-only

Laura Bradley; Kate Stewart

2003-01-01

451

Efficiency and market power in Spanish banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some recent studies have been investigating the existence of market power in the European banking system, in general, and the Spanish banking industry, in particular. Although results are mixed, the evidence suggests some commercial banks and savings banks benefit from monopoly rents. Some other studies (Berger and Hannan, Review of Economics and Statistics LXXX (1998) 454-465) have also found strong

Rolf Färe; Shawna Grosskopf; Emili Tortosa-Ausina

2005-01-01

452

Central Bank Monopolies and Money Issuance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article deals with the role of the central banks in advanced market economies and the theoretical possibility of abolishing these institutions. Central banks have monopolies in some areas, especially regarding monetary policy. In many countries, central banks also have monopolies in other areas, for example in the payment and clearing transactions for banks and the state. In the context

Zbyn?k Revenda

2009-01-01

453

Financial Dollarization and Central Bank Credibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do firms and banks hold foreign currency denominated liabilities? Cowan and Do argue that foreign currency debt, by altering the effect of a devaluation on output, has a disciplining effect when the Central Bank?s objectives differ from the social optimum. However, under imperfect information, bad priors about the Central Bank induce excess dollarization of liabilities, which in turn limits

Kevin Cowan

2003-01-01

454

The Efficiency of European Regional Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

W ILLIAMS J. and G ARDENER E. P. M. (2003) The efficiency of European regional banking, Reg. Studies 37 , 321-330. Financial deregulation may segment European banking into pan-national and regional tiers. Regional banking must finance productive investment to facilitate regional economic growth. Local banks are the appropriate financing vehicles because of their specialist knowledge of regional market risks and

Jonathan Williams; Edward Gardener

2003-01-01

455

Internet banking services and credit union performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Existing empirical evidence indicates internet banks worldwide have underperformed newly chartered traditional banks mainly because of their higher overhead costs. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of internet banking services on credit union activity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The impact of internet banking services on credit union over the period 1999-2006 was studied and regression equations

Krishnan Dandapani; Gordon V. Karels; Edward R. Lawrence

2008-01-01

456

China's Banking Reform: The Remaining Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1994, China has endeavoured to establish a banking system that works more closely to commercial principles by transforming the specialized banks (SBs) into state-owned commercial banks (SOCBs). However, lending decisions of the SOCBs were still determined by state directives instead of profitability consideration. This paper argues that although the post-WTO banking reforms have accomplished staggering results, China's SOCBs need

Charles C. L. Kwong

2011-01-01

457

Bank Underwriting of Debt Securities: Modern Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines debt securities underwritten by Section 20 subsidiaries of bank holding companies relative to those underwritten by investment houses. Consistent with a net certification effects for banks, bank underwriting of lower credit rated firms to whom the bank lends results in relatively higher prices (lower yields). We find no evidence of conflicts of interest even when an issue

Ingo Walter

1997-01-01

458

Changes in the banking sector – the case of Internet banking in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is gaining popularity as a delivery channel in the banking sector. At the same time, customer needs are changing. A total of 12 Internet banking operations in the UK are analysed under customer empowerment functions and Internet banking Web attributes. Internet banking renders location and time irrelevant, and empowers customers with greater control of their accounts. Banks achieve

Chanaka Jayawardhena; Paul Foley

2000-01-01

459

Bank mergers, banking efficiency, and economies of scale and scope: a review of the empirical literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the background of past bank merger activities the present overview discusses the recent empirical literature on bank mergers, banking efficiency and the existence of scale and product mix economies for banks. Previous mainly US-based bank cost studies generally reveal that only minor cost reductions can be achieved by aiming at a scale efficient level. Considerably more promising are potential

M. C. J. van Rooij

1997-01-01

460

PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe.  

PubMed

The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe/) is actively working with its Worldwide Protein Data Bank partners to enhance the quality and consistency of the international archive of bio-macromolecular structure data, the Protein Data Bank (PDB). PDBe also works closely with its collaborators at the European Bioinformatics Institute and the scientific community around the world to enhance its databases and services by adding curated and actively maintained derived data to the existing structural data in the PDB. We have developed a new database infrastructure based on the remediated PDB archive data and a specially designed database for storing information on interactions between proteins and bound molecules. The group has developed new services that allow users to carry out simple textual queries or more complex 3D structure-based queries. The newly designed 'PDBeView Atlas pages' provide an overview of an individual PDB entry in a user-friendly layout and serve as a starting point to further explore the information available in the PDBe database. PDBe's active involvement with the X-ray crystallography, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and cryo-Electron Microscopy communities have resulted in improved tools for structure deposition and analysis. PMID:19858099

Velankar, S; Best, C; Beuth, B; Boutselakis, C H; Cobley, N; Sousa Da Silva, A W; Dimitropoulos, D; Golovin, A; Hirshberg, M; John, M; Krissinel, E B; Newman, R; Oldfield, T; Pajon, A; Penkett, C J; Pineda-Castillo, J; Sahni, G; Sen, S; Slowley, R; Suarez-Uruena, A; Swaminathan, J; van Ginkel, G; Vranken, W F; Henrick, K; Kleywegt, G J

2010-01-01

461

Shasta River Biotechnical Bank Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to stabilize and re-vegetate 400 feet of river bank using willow mattressing and techniques. This stabilization will assist in the reduction of excessive sediment load, and re-establish riparian vegetation.

2002-01-01

462

The Electronic Banking Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Electronic Banking Resource Center, provided by an MBA graduate student at Ohio State University, is a one stop resource for information about banking on the Internet. It contains pointers to explanations of various open payment standards; a FAQ on electronic money/Internet payment systems that discusses such issues as challenges of Internet payment systems, electronic cash, credit cards, and checks and the Web, and advice for merchants on the Internet, among others; a page of pointers to examples of Internet financial transactions; and a large page of pointers to banks on the Internet. The Resource Center also contains pointers to other banking related sites. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~damm/Lehre/E-Money/InternetPayment.html

463

Bank Operating Statistics (on Diskette).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This product contains the U.S. data on characteristics of agricultural and nonagricultural banks, 1980-91, including measures of profitability, liquidity, solvency, and efficiency. Also includes State data on return on assets for agricultural and nonagric...

1994-01-01

464

Transportation Environment Data Bank Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to determine the environment intensities to which energy materials in transit will be exposed, a ''Data Bank'' of environmental information has been established by Sandia Laboratories, Division 1285 for the ERDA Division of Environmental Cont...

C. A. Davidson J. T. Foley

1977-01-01

465

Idea Bank: The Invented Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thoughtful teachers allow students to pursue the relationship between structure and function before learning about particular organelles, usually through an analogy to a factory or some other complex system (Crooks and Sheldon 2005). In this Idea Bank, th

Levin, Daniel M.

2010-12-01

466

Featured Research: Bank of America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank of America has made available its collection of economic and technical research reports. The reports include a weekly economic briefing on the US economy, a survey of Wall Street economists, an analysis of payroll employment and CPI; and occasional reports on business and economics. Bank of America also provides a weekly international economic briefing; a technical analyses of the yen, mark and pound exchange rates; and the Stock and Bond Investment Overview & Strategy.

1999-01-01

467

Banking regulation’s impact on industry monopoly and risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suggests that banks are different due to plasticity of assets and high debt\\/equity ratios. For this reason banks need to be regulated. Discusses the most efficient method of regulating banks. Highlights that the move from unlimited liability banking to limited liability banking was inefficient as it led to a more unstable banking system. The unstable banking system required government monitoring

Charles Hickson; John Turner

1996-01-01

468

Early Childhood Development through an Integrated Program: Evidence from the Philippines. Impact Evaluation Series No. 2. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3922-IE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More attention and resources have been devoted in recent years to early childhood development (ECD) in low- and middle-income countries. Rigorous studies on the effectiveness of ECD-related programs for improving children's development in various dimensions in the developing world are scant. The authors evaluate an important ECD initiative of the…

Armecin, Graeme; Behrman, Jere R.; Ghuman, Sharon; Gultiano, Socorro; King, Elizabeth M.; Lee, Nanette

2006-01-01

469

Bank Regulation: Analysis of the Failure of Superior Bank, FSB, Hinsdale, Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reports offers an analysis of the failure of Superior Bank, FSB, a federally chartered savings bank located outside Chicago, Illinois. Shortly after Superior Bank's closure on July 27,2001, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) projected t...

T. J. McCool

2002-01-01

470

26 CFR 1.581-2 - Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks. 1.581-2 Section 1.581-2 Internal...Institutions § 1.581-2 Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and...

2013-04-01

471

BANKS, FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION AND THE 'INTEREST RATE PREMIUM PUZZLE' IN EAST ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a simple theoretical framework to explorethe role of banks, bank inefficiencies and financial liberalization inexplaining the sustained interest rate premium offered in a number ofemerging economies in East Asia despite evidence of fairly credibleex-ante fixed exchange rates (Thailand in particular).Key words: banks, currency crisis, East Asia, financial liberalization,interest rates, ThailandJEL Classification: F30, F32, F4121. Background and Introduction...

Ramkishen S. Rajan

1999-01-01

472

Credit risk management system of a commercial bank in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model to be used further in understanding credit risk management (CRM) system of commercial banks (CBs) in an economy with less developed financial sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews existing literature that consists mostly evidence from developed countries. A study model is proposed with amendment to fit Tanzania's

Evelyn Richard; Marcellina Chijoriga; Erasmus Kaijage; Christer Peterson; Hakan Bohman

2008-01-01

473

Clustering the consumers on the basis of their perceptions of the Internet banking services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to explore Internet banking services (IBS), consumers availing the services and the potential development possibilities of the services in the challenging operational environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – On the basis of exploratory interviews, previous Internet banking studies and relating literature, seven dimensions of IBS ranging from very practical to more hedonic are developed and

Katariina Mäenpää

2006-01-01

474

Uncommon Knowledge: World Bank Policy and the Unmaking of the Knowledge Economy in Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Bank is clearly one of the most influential global intergovernmental operators for international development assistance. In recent decades, the Bank and other agencies have invested immense technical and financial resources in a troubled and unprecedented mission of revitalizing and restructuring the development of education in Africa. A…

Obamba, Milton O.

2013-01-01

475

The World Bank's Support for Science and Technology.  

PubMed

The World Bank, the largest aid-granting agency in the world, has played a substantial but largely unsung role in helping the scientific and technological development of developing countries. Its investments, totaling $15.5 billion in fiscal year 1984, involve choosing appropriate technology and financing local technological development. Since 1980, the Bank has lent $0.5 billion for agricultural research and about $1 billion for scientific and technological education. It contributes to and mobilizes finances for large international research programs in agriculture and the health sciences. It supports research on labor-based construction, low-cost sanitation, renewable energy resources, and control of traffic congestion. It provides training in the technological aspects of development policy. As funds for aid become scarce, the Bank is reexamining its approach to science and technology. PMID:17742086

Weiss, C

1985-01-18

476

Multilateral Digital Library Partnerships for Sharing and Preserving Instructional Content and Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores Digital Library development partnering as a strategic response to the problem of competitive convergence, and the value added to information by providing its "context of use." The latter is of strategic interest to libraries as the critical information need of library users shifts from information access to relief from abundance of…

Gold, Anna Keller

2003-01-01

477

International financial services: determinants of banks’ foreign assets held by non-banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks’ foreign assets held by non-banks are part of the growing volume of international trade in financial services. This paper investigates, for the first time, the determinants of banks’ assets held by non-banks for Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. The underlying model used to measure banks’ foreign assets held by non-banks in this study, is based

Fariborz Moshirian; Ilan Sadeh; Jason Zein

2004-01-01

478

12. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH OF CONSTRUCTION OF FIRST NATIONAL BANK BUILDING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH OF CONSTRUCTION OF FIRST NATIONAL BANK BUILDING. PHOTOGRAPHER AND DATE UNKNOWN. (First National Bank Archives) - First National Bank, 1206 Eleventh Avenue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

479

Cultural Memory Banking in Preservice Science Teacher Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on the exemplification of cultural memory banking as an ethnographic tool to understand cultural practices relevant to science teaching and learning in a rural coastal village in a central island of the Philippine archipelago. Using the collaborative action ethnography as a research methodology, 10 prospective science teachers and a science teacher educator/doctoral candidate formed a research team and documented community funds of knowledge relevant to science teaching and learning through their participation in a Community Immersion course. The study employed the use of the cultural memory banking as a meditational tool to analyze, make sense of, and represent interview, focus-group discussion, and observation data, among others, for the development of culturally relevant science lessons. Originally used as an anthropological tool to preserve cultural knowledge associated with the cultivation of indigenous plant varieties, the cultural memory banking, as adapted in science education, was used, both as a data collection and analytic tool, to locate relevant science at the intersection of community life. The research team developed a cultural memory bank exemplar, "Ginamos: The Stinky Smell that Sells," to highlight the learning experiences and meaning-making process of those involved in its development. Dilemmas and insights on the development and use of cultural memory banking were discussed with respect to issues of knowledge mining and mainstreaming of indigenous/local funds of knowledge, troubling the privileged position of Western-inspired nature of science.

Handa, Vicente C.; Tippins, Deborah J.

2012-12-01

480

Education for Economic Growth or Human Development? the Capabilities Approach and the World Bank's Basic Education Project in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turkey's recent development plans suggest that, according to state planners, development is no longer identified with, achieved through or measured by economic growth. These documents evince that Turkey has embraced what is referred to as the capability approach. What remains unclear is whether this embrace is substantive or rhetorical. This…

McClure, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

481

Internet-Banking in Global Rural Area and Agribusiness Based on Bioeconomy for Sustainable Development of Agrifood Green Power in Forecasting the Periods 2020-2050-2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses recent trend and evolution of internet monetary institution (monetary institution through Internet) for small village monetary institutions in rural areas in order to develop this area for smarter agribusiness based on bioeconomy. Many countries will continue depending on international trade to ensure their food security. It is estimated that by 2050 developing countries’ net imports of cereals

Brindusa Covaci

2009-01-01

482

IAEA/NUS Distance Learning Diploma Training Course for Tissue Bank Operators - Past, Present and Future.  

PubMed

National University Hospital (NUH) Tissue Bank as the Regional Training Centre for Asia Pacific Region provided National University of Singapore (NUS) Diploma Course in Tissue Banking - a long distance diploma course since 1997. To date, five batches have participated - 94 tissue bank operators. Sixty-three tissue bank operators have convocated with NUS Diploma in Tissue Banking.From Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) Project, RAS 7/008 technology transfer was effected to Latin America and to Africa.A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed between International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and NUS in July 2002 making Singapore the International Training Centre. An Internet NUS Diploma Course in Tissue Banking has been developed by IAEA and NUS. The first on-line diploma course will be launched in 2003. PMID:15256843

Nather, A; Philips, G O; Morales, J

2003-01-01

483

A Revised Version of the Multilateral Exchange Rate Model (Une version révisée du modèle multilatéral de taux de change) (Versión revisada del modelo multilateral de tipos de cambio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a description of the current version of the Multilateral Exchange Rate Model (MERM), a model first presented in the November 1973 issue of Staff Papers. The purpose of the model--the estimation of the medium-term (two- to three-year) effects of changes in the exchange rates of the various industrial countries on their trade balances--has not changed since it

Jacques R. Artus; Anne Kenny McGuirk

1981-01-01

484

76 FR 4896 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...retain voting shares of Biscayne Bancshares, Inc., and thereby indirectly retain voting shares of Biscayne Bank, both in Coconut Grove, Florida. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City (Dennis Denney, Assistant Vice President) 1 Memorial Drive,...

2011-01-27

485

77 FR 42312 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...voting shares of NBRS Financial Bank, both in Rising Sun, Maryland. B. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Kenneth Binning, Vice President, Applications and Enforcement) 101 Market Street, San Francisco, California 94105-1579: 1....

2012-07-18

486

77 FR 33459 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...acquire voting shares of Millennium Bank, both in Edwards, Colorado. B. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Kenneth Binning, Vice President, Applications and Enforcement) 101 Market Street, San Francisco, California 94105-1579: [[Page...

2012-06-06

487

75 FR 26255 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...acquire voting shares of Adrian State Bank, both of Adrian, Minnesota. B. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Kenneth Binning, Vice President, Applications and Enforcement) 101 Market Street, San Francisco, California 94105-1579: 1....

2010-05-11

488

76 FR 58811 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of The First National Bank of Fairbury, both in Fairbury, Nebraska. B. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Kenneth Binning, Vice President, Applications and Enforcement) 101 Market Street, San Francisco, California 94105-1579: 1. James...

2011-09-22

489

75 FR 75173 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Citizens Bank of Polson, National Association, both of Polson, Montana. C. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Kenneth Binning, Vice President, Applications and Enforcement) 101 Market Street, San Francisco, California 94105-1579: 1. LG...

2010-12-02

490

75 FR 8719 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...acquire Community Bank of Central Wisconsin, both of Colby, Wisconsin. B. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Kenneth Binning, Vice President, Applications and Enforcement) 101 Market Street, San Francisco, California 94105-1579: 1. Park...

2010-02-25

491

75 FR 7597 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...indirectly retain control of Piqua State Bank, both in Piqua, Kansas. C. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Kenneth Binning, Vice President, Applications and Enforcement) 101 Market Street, San Francisco, California 94105-1579: 1....

2010-02-22

492

77 FR 40614 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...acquire control of Henderson State Bank, both in Henderson, Nebraska. D. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Kenneth Binning, Vice President, Applications and Enforcement) 101 Market Street, San Francisco, California 94105-1579: 1....

2012-07-10