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1

Evolution of the Governing Law for Loan Agreements of the World Bank and Other Multilateral Development Banks  

E-print Network

What is the governing law for loan agreements entered into by the World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) in carrying out their public sector lending? That question was first definitively addressed about thirty-five years ago...

Head, John W.

1996-01-01

2

Multilateral development aid for Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequities and inefficiencies in development aid arise from donor–recipient motivational conflicts, agency problems, and institutional deficiencies. Recent thinking on reforming official aid recommends technocratic solutions including recipient ownership, selectivity, budgetary grants, and multilateralization of aid management. Locating persistent policy failure in Africa primarily in its political institutions, this paper explores three alternative models of multilateral aid for reconciling need and

Berhanu Abegaz

2005-01-01

3

Trade in banking services : issues for multilateral negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was instituted in 1948, its mandate excluded such industries as banking, insurance and telecommunciaitons. These services sectors were highly regulated and protected in most countries, partly because of their sensitivity to national security and cultural identity. Under U.S. pressure, the Uruguay Round talks have included financial services, particularly banking. The response of

Alan Gelb; Silvia Sagari

1990-01-01

4

Evaluation as Arbitration: External Evaluation of a Multilateral Development Project in a Third World Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation as a political arbitration entity is discussed in the case of a multilateral literacy development project in the fourth year of operation in a Third World country. An external evaluation team was invited to evaluate the project when conflict appeared between the funding agency (A) and the technical agency (B) over a project-related…

Bhola, H. S.

5

Reforming Agricultural Development Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of agricultural development banking discussed in this paper has a history to it. For a hundred years or more, until the middle of the 20th century, a small number of agricultural banks existed outside of Europe. During that period, 15.5% of the banks in the AgriBank-Stat inventory, were established.1 Some seem to have led an inconspicuous life, like

Thorsten Giehler; Hans Dieter Seibel; Stefan Karduck

2005-01-01

6

Agricultural Development Bank Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB\\/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local

Hans Dieter Seibel

2001-01-01

7

Trade Policies toward Developing Countries: The Multilateral Trade Negotiations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proceedings are presented of a 1977 conference about aspects of international trade negotiations of importance to developing countries. Participants included staff from Washington-based international organizations, various United States departments, Congressional staff, and students of the Foreign Service Institute. Transcripts of three addresses…

Perez, Lorenzo L., Ed.; Benedick, Gerald R., Ed.

8

Multilaterals Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project of the Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy at Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, this site features the texts of international multilateral conventions. Users can keyword-search the site or browse chronologically or by subject. Treaties are organized into ten major categories, including biodiversity, human rights, trade relations, arms control, and more. Although the bulk of material here is from the last half of the 20th century, there are also some older documents such as the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848). Users looking for more information can start with the links at the bottom of the front page.

1997-01-01

9

Advanced multilateration theory, software development, and data processing: The MICRODOT system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process of geometric parameter estimation to accuracies of one centimeter, i.e., multilateration, is defined and applications are listed. A brief functional explanation of the theory is presented. Next, various multilateration systems are described in order of increasing system complexity. Expected systems accuracy is discussed from a general point of view and a summary of the errors is listed. An outline of the design of a software processing system for multilateration, called MICRODOT, is presented next. The links of this software, which can be used for multilateration data simulations or operational data reduction, are examined on an individual basis. Functional flow diagrams are presented to aid in understanding the software capability. MICRODOT capability is described with respect to vehicle configurations, interstation coordinate reduction, geophysical parameter estimation, and orbit determination. Numerical results obtained from MICRODOT via data simulations are displayed both for hypothetical and real world vehicle/station configurations such as used in the GEOS-3 Project. These simulations show the inherent power of the multilateration procedure.

Escobal, P. R.; Gallagher, J. F.; Vonroos, O. H.

1976-01-01

10

Asian Development Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1966, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) is headquartered in Manila. Their operations extend across 67 countries, and their primary mission is "to help its developing member countries reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people." In order to achieve this goal, ADB offers loans, technical assistance, grants, advice, and knowledge. Along the top of their homepage, visitors can make their way through the following sections: "Projects", "Countries", "News & Events", "Topics", and "Publications". The "Topics" area is a good place to start, as it contains information about some of their signature programs, which range from work on preventing bird flu outbreaks to law and policy reform throughout the region. Moving on, the "Publications" area is a real treat for policy types, and visitors can look at recent documents like "Revitalization of Historic Inner-City Areas in Asia".

11

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. [Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)  

SciTech Connect

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This multilateral'' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

1992-05-31

12

Multilateral Organizations And Early Child Care And Education Policies For Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and interprets the impact, particularly on women and children, of pressure by multilateral organizations on contemporary Brazilian early child care and education policies. Based on an analysis of macro data and documents, the author argues that this pressure is old, existing prior to the introduction of the concept of globalization into the vocabulary of the media and

Fúlvia Rosemberg

2003-01-01

13

Multi?level Governance of Banking Regulation in the EU: Evidence from Developing Bank Supervision in Bulgaria and Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent bank collapses as a result of the global financial crisis have highlighted the need to keep international bank supervision practices up to date with technological and product innovations in the sector. In the 1980s, coordination in international financial regulation resulted from multilateral negotiations in which states played a central role. Since then, international banking regulation has undergone significant transformation.

Aneta B. Spendzharova

2010-01-01

14

Foreign Bank Presence, Domestic Bank Performance and Financial Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the relationship between foreign bank presence and the performance of the domestic banking sector and takes into account the role of the level of development of the financial sector of the recipient country. We use data of 982 banks in 48 countries for 1990-96. We find support for the hypothesis that financial development does matter. In particular,

Niels Hermes; Robert Lensink

2004-01-01

15

Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).  

PubMed

The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries. PMID:23276290

Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

2013-04-01

16

World Bank Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank group consists of IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development); IDA (International Development Agency); IFC (International Finance Corporation); MIGA (Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency); and ICSID (International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes). Visitors to the site will find information on the goals and activities of these agencies. Press releases, project reports and speeches by World Bank officials are also available at the site. The highlight of the site is the publications section which contains various online versions of World Bank periodicals such as World Bank News, Environment Matters, Finance & Development (discussed in the March 21, 1997 Scout Report) and Private Sector Notes, among others.

17

Banking Activity for Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corporations gain a power of influence, unthinkable years ago; they have acquired more and more rights and, in some way, govern the life of billions of peoples and of the earth in general. With every right, comes though the responsibility of the conservation and development of the environment in which the corporations act. The banking system has a major

Alexandra Eremia; Ion Stancu

2006-01-01

18

Apps for Development: World Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank is stepping up to the new media plate by asking concerned app developers to bring out their innovative software applications that "move us a step closer toward solving some of the world's most pressing problems." On the site, visitors can look over all of the apps that have been submitted as part of this initiative, and they are all quite interesting. They include "Food Factor", which gives users a quick visual reference of global food security, and "Forecasting the MDGs", which lets users learn which countries are likely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals established by the World Bank. Visitors can view all of the submissions and sort them out by topic, region of the world and title.

19

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. Final report, July 1, 1986--May 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This ``multilateral`` project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

Winston, R.; O`Gallagher, J.J.

1992-05-31

20

Arab-related Bilateral and Multilateral Sources of Development Finance: Issues, Trends, and the Way Forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the organisational structure as well as the characteristics of development finance provided by Arab donor countries. This is done with a comparative view in relation to western donors and with the aim to develop recommendations as to how Arab development finance can be strengthened and rendered more effective for the new millennium. In the 1960s and 1970s

Eric Neumayer

2004-01-01

21

Inter-American Development Bank Sustainable Development Department  

E-print Network

Inter-American Development Bank Sustainable Development Department Environment Division Forest Correa Pertti Veijalainen Harri Ahveninen Inter-American Development Bank Washington, D.C. Sustainable position of the Inter-American Development Bank. #12;Preface Globalization has had a significant impact

22

A multilateral design methodology for development contexts : a framework for the Dharavi potters  

E-print Network

The migration from rural areas to urban environments, and the continuous growth of the current population has caused an increasing shortage of low-in come urban housing in developing countries. In addition, the high cost ...

Razvi, Amina S. (Amina Sultana), 1975-

2002-01-01

23

Remote Sensing Education and Development Countries: Multilateral Efforts through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is an international organization which coordinates space-based Earth observations world wide. Created in 1984, CEOS now comprises 38 national space agencies, regional organizations and international space-related and research groups. The aim of CEOS is to achieve international coordination in the planning of satellite missions for Earth observation and to maximize the utilization of data from these missions world-wide. With regard to developing countries, the fundamental aim of CEOS is to encourage the creation and maintenance of indigenous capability that is integrated into the local decision-making process, thereby enabling developing countries to obtain the maximum benefit from Earth observation. Obtaining adequate access to remote sensing information is difficult for developing countries and students and teachers alike. High unit data prices, the specialized nature of the technology , difficulty in locating specific data, complexities of copyright provisions, the emphasis on "leading edge" technology and research, and the lack of training materials relating to readily understood application are frequently noted obstacles. CEOS has developed an education CD-ROM which is aimed at increasing the integration of space-based data into school curricula, meeting the heretofore unsatisfied needs of developing countries for information about Earth observation application, data sources and future plans; and raising awareness around the world of the value of Earth observation data from space. The CD-ROM is designed to be used with an Internet web browser, increasing the information available to the user, but it can also be used on a stand-alone machine. It contains suggested lesson plans and additional resources for educators and users in developing countries.

Charles, Leslie Bermann

1998-01-01

24

Bank Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank Information Center (BIC) is a nonprofit, independent, non-governmental organization that "provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)." The organization's Website contains information about BIC's ongoing activities and offers useful publications and toolkits for those interested in and involved with MDBs. The Toolkits for Activists section includes fact sheets that explain the inner workings of the World Bank, covering topics such as basic information about the World Bank, the Country Assistance Strategy, World Bank policy framework, and information on World Bank's lending. Each fact sheet is available in both .pdf and HTML formats. The publications section offers a variety of resources including papers, case studies, and meeting reports, many of which are available online. Also provided are links to other monitoring organizations around the world and several online forums. An information services page will be added soon.

25

Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1988, the World Bank Group (described in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has addressed issues of economic architecture, corporate governance, crime, land reform, and the economics of transition at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE). Currently, papers from previous ABCDE's are available online with a keynote addresses, such as by nobel laureate James Tobin, and interested individuals are invited to comment on forthcoming conference papers at the ABCDE homepage.

1988-01-01

26

Informal influence in the Asian Development Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through case studies and empirical analysis, scholars have uncovered convincing evidence that individual donors influence\\u000a lending decisions of international financial institutions (IFIs) such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Less\\u000a clear are the mechanisms by which donors exert influence. Potential mechanisms are either formal or informal. Formal influence\\u000a is through official decisions of the board of executive

Christopher Kilby

2011-01-01

27

Scale and Scope Economies in Banking: A Case Study of the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the scale and scope efficiency of the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan. Using the production approach to measuring bank outputs and costs, a translog cost function is estimated to provide an assessment of the bank’s scale and scope efficiency, and to quantify the extent to which its production costs are sensitive to size and output mix. Our

Musleh-Ud Din; Ejaz Ghani; Sarfraz K. Qureshi

1996-01-01

28

The Asian Development Bank`s role in promoting cleaner production in the People`s Republic of China  

SciTech Connect

The People`s Republic of China (PRC) has the fastest growing economy in the world and is the third largest producer and consumer of energy. At the same time, the PRC`s industrial sector contributes heavily to air and water pollution. Because of the linkages between the production and use of energy and environmental degradation, the PRC, with the active support of bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, including the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is adopting measures that link economic growth to improvements in the environment. The PRC is pursuing a two-pronged strategy that involves implementing priority investment programs and promoting economic reforms. The ADB`s experience shows that the concept of cleaner production (CP) has been widely accepted, but the widespread adoption of CP requires a new way of thinking and new management capacities. In this regard, the PRC is at an early stage of promoting CP, and inadequacies in coordination among relevant agencies remain a key obstacle. To support CP activities, the ADB is participating in a cluster of activities within China that include policy development, capacity building, and financing environmental investments. This article describes the ADB`s current efforts to promote CP in PRC and analyzes the effectiveness of those efforts.

Huq, A.; Lohani, B.N.; Jalal, K.F.; Ouano, E.A.R. [Asian Development Bank, Metro Manila (Philippines)] [Asian Development Bank, Metro Manila (Philippines)

1999-09-01

29

Geothermal: Energy for development - The World Bank and geothermal development  

SciTech Connect

The World Bank views geothermal energy as one of a variety of natural resources which can be developed to supply the energy needs of a country. Since the World Bank Group finances projects in developing countries. This paper discusses geothermal energy only in that context. Geothermal power is generated in nine developing countries today, which represent nearly 40% of worldwide geothermal generating capacity. The World Bank has helped finance geothermal investments in six of these countries-the Phillippines, Mexico, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Indonesia and Kenya.

Bertelsmeier, W.

1986-01-01

30

Grameen Bank`s experience with energy related microenterprise development  

SciTech Connect

Increased population and growth of industry have resulted in greater demand for energy worldwide. Most of this energy is derived from fossil fuel (coal, gas, oil and nuclear) which will soon be depleted. In this context the need for developing renewable sources of energy has taken on a greater sense of importance and urgency. Over the years significant technological advances have been made in the area of renewable energies especially in the field of solar photovoltaics (PV), wind energy and bio-gas technology. In addition, for remote rural areas where there exists no infrastructure for conventional energy supply, these forms of decentralized alternative energy systems will be far more adaptable and well suited. Grameen Shakti (Energy) is an addition to the family of companies of Grameen Bank, to promote and supply renewable energy sources to rural households. GS, a not-for-profit company, expects not only to supply renewable energy services, but also to create employment and income generation opportunities in rural Bangladesh. GS will focus on supply, marketing, sales, testing and development of renewable energy systems of solar pv, biogas, wind turbines and windpumps.

Barua, D.C.

1997-12-01

31

12 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 24 - CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments 1 Appendix 1 To Part 24 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2011-01-01

32

12 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 24 - CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments 1 Appendix 1 To Part 24 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2010-01-01

33

Impact of the Bank's rural development lending.  

PubMed

Following the global food crisis of the early 1970s, the World Bank has placed a priority on funding agriculture and rural development projects. These projects have been funded with a view to raising the productivity of low-income groups. Projects aimed at increasing the incomes of rural poor must clearly identify the target group and be designed so that they will benefit directly. Some of these Bank-funded projects have been in the following areas: 1) irrigation; 2) fertilizer; 3) general rural development, e.g., road construction and rural electrification; 4) agricultural extension; 5) credit extension in rural areas; and 6) comprehensive projects. So far, the Bank programs seem to have exerted an influence on government development policies. Experience shows, however, that expansion of the income-employment sector is limited in scope. It is evident also that poverty-oriented programs must be longer-term than more conventional programs. Real success in this field will be measured in terms of community development and self-sufficiency. PMID:12261286

Yudelman, M

1979-09-01

34

A Foucauldian analysis of development banking lending practices: a case study of the Fiji development Bank (FDB) 1967-1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fiji Development Bank (FDB) in its development lending operations has undergone stmctural and cultural changes over the past nimiber of years. This research examines the bank's lending operations for the past thirty years (1967-1997), using a Foucauldian theoretical framework. The history of the bank's development lending practices can be described as discursive formations or discontinuities where the issue of

Hemant Narayan Deo

1999-01-01

35

Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory  

PubMed Central

The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes. PMID:23663485

2013-01-01

36

Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1958, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) funds cooperative efforts "to promote the economic and social development of Latin America." Current data on the economies, political systems, and cultures of the Americas is available from the IDB's economic, trade, and social databases with estimates of balance of payments, income distribution, and non-financial public sector statistics in comma-delimited format for downloading. Recent working paper series on sectral topics (1996-present) are also available, as well as IDB country reports with statistical tables and graphs.

1999-01-01

37

Governance and aid allocation in the International Development Association (IDA) : revisiting assessing aid in the twenty-first century  

E-print Network

This paper examines the relationship between governance and the foreign aid allocation of a World Bank agency, the International Development Association. In particular, the study investigates whether this major multilateral ...

Markgraf, Claire Teresa McCarville

2014-01-01

38

Development in Islamic banking: a financial risk-allocation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The core objective of this paper is to direct worldwide attention towards the unparalleled development in Islamic banking, its infrastructures and supporting institutions in recent years. This paper articulates the case for Islamic banking in a very comprehensive and effective manner. It depicts Islamic banking as a growing discipline adding more ethical, competitive and diversified tools and systems

M. Mansoor Khan; M. Ishaq Bhatti

2008-01-01

39

Agricultural Development Banks: Close them or reform them?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural development banks were established to extend credit and other financial services to customers considered noncreditworthy by the commercial banking sector. Although frequently unprofitable, they play an important role in the fight against rural poverty. This article asks if these banks should be closed or if they are worth revamping. --

Hans Dieter Seibel

2000-01-01

40

Why the case for a multilateral agreement on investment is weak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand of industrialized countries for a multilateral agreement on investment to be negotiated under the roof of the WTO is meeting with considerable resistance on the part of developing countries. The proponents of such a multilateral agreement argue that binding disciplines of capital-importing countries would help reduce uncertainty and, hence, result in more foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing

Peter Nunnenkamp; Manoj Pant

2003-01-01

41

International Multilateral Educational Aid Received by China: History, Characteristics, and Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty years have passed since China began its reform and opening up, to formally accept multilateral educational aid from international organizations, and multilateral educational assistance has made contributions that cannot be overlooked to the reform and development of China's education. This article reviews the history of China's acceptance…

Yuchi, Zhao

2012-01-01

42

A Game Simulation of Multilateral Trade for Classroom Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative to existing methods for teaching elementary economic geography courses was developed in a game format to teach the basic process of trade through role playing. Simplifying the complexities of multilateral trade to a few basic decisions and acts, the cognitive objectives are to develop in the student: 1) an understanding of regional…

Thompson, Gary L.; Carter, Ronald L.

43

The Sharp Smog Bank and California Fog Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Meteorological conditions associated with the observance of a sharp smog bank near Riverside, Calif., are compared with those previously shown to be related to the development of winter fogs in California. The conditions are similar. Thus, it is proposed ...

D. F. Leipper

1968-01-01

44

Quarterly Review: International Banking and Financial Market Developments, June 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to this issue of International Banking and Financial Market Development, equity markets, especially those trading technology stocks, marked the first several months of this year as "a period of heightened market volatility."

45

Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.  

PubMed

Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy. PMID:23959505

Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

2014-09-01

46

12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...data provided by the bank, such as data on loans...investors; and (3) The bank's responsiveness to...needs. (d) Indirect activities. At a bank's option, the FDIC...Community development lending by affiliates,...

2010-01-01

47

12 CFR 25.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...data provided by the bank, such as data on loans...investors; and (3) The bank's responsiveness to...needs. (d) Indirect activities. At a bank's option, the OCC...Community development lending by affiliates,...

2010-01-01

48

12 CFR 228.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...data provided by the bank, such as data on loans...investors; and (3) The bank's responsiveness to...needs. (d) Indirect activities. At a bank's option, the Board...Community development lending by affiliates,...

2010-01-01

49

Sustainable development - lessons from success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the push of development agencies and multilateral development banks in developing countries to achieve economic, political and social sustainability without considering long-term environmental costs. A case in point is dams built for irrigation and hydroelectric power; the benefits are outweighed by the environmental costs of salt intrusion, delta erosion, drying of downstream lakes and channel deepening as

W. V. C

1989-01-01

50

Challenges of regionalism: Development and spatial structure of the hungarian banking system section: Financial issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEY WORDS: Hungarian banking system, transitional financial markets, banking network, global-local dichotomy, and uneven regional development. ABSTRACT: The growing literature on regional finance suggests that credit allocation in regional banking system and the different national banking systems are different according to their stage of development, and frictions also exist across regions within national economies, resulting in different availability of capital.

Zoltán Gál

2001-01-01

51

Operation Restore Hope: Strengthening Multilateral Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States' 1994 National Security Strategy emphasized the strengthening of the United Nations' (UN) capability to conduct multilateral operations. This thesis analyzes U.S. policy decisions made during the 1992- 1994 Somali crisis and Operation Re...

J. M. Alexander

2013-01-01

52

How an Agricultural Development Bank Revolutionized Rural Finance: The Case of Bank Rakyat Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of BRI is evidence that, in a deregulated policy environment, a government-owned agricultural development bank can (a) be transformed into a highly profitable, self-reliant financial intermediary, and (b) turn into a major microfinance provider, offering carefully crafted microsavings and microcredit products to low-income people at market rates of interest. Making good use of government seed money and a

Hans Dieter Seibel

2000-01-01

53

Development of A Promis Item Bank to Measure Pain Interference  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the psychometric properties of the PROMIS Pain Interference (PROMIS-PI) bank. An initial candidate item pool (n=644) was developed and evaluated based on review of existing instruments, interviews with patients, and consultation with pain experts. From this pool, a candidate item bank of 56 items was selected and responses to the items were collected from large community and clinical samples. A total of 14,848 participants responded to all or a subset of candidate items. The responses were calibrated using an item response theory (IRT) model. A final 41-item bank was evaluated with respect to IRT assumptions, model fit, differential item function (DIF), precision, and construct and concurrent validity. Items of the revised bank had good fit to the IRT model (CFI and NNFI/TLI ranged from 0.974 to 0.997), and the data were strongly unidimensional (e.g., ratio of first and second eigenvalue = 35). Nine items exhibited statistically significant DIF. However, adjusting for DIF had little practical impact on score estimates and the items were retained without modifying scoring. Scores provided substantial information across levels of pain; for scores in the T-score range 50-80, the reliability was equivalent to 0.96 to 0.99. Patterns of correlations with other health outcomes supported the construct validity of the item bank. The scores discriminated among persons with different numbers of chronic conditions, disabling conditions, levels of self-reported health, and pain intensity (p< 0.0001). The results indicated that the PROMIS-PI items constitute a psychometrically sound bank. Computerized adaptive testing and short forms are available. PMID:20554116

Amtmann, Dagmar; Cook, Karon F.; Jensen, Mark P.; Chen, Wen-Hung; Choi, Seung; Revicki, Dennis; Cella, David; Rothrock, Nan; Keefe, Francis; Callahan, Leigh

2010-01-01

54

Multilateral Sprint Seminar on Evaluating Progress in Sports Development Since 1989. Budapest, Hungary, April 1-2, 1998. Report of the Committee for the Development of Sport (CDDS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the proceedings of a 1998 seminar which focused on four themes related to progress in sports development in Europe since 1989. Each of the four sections includes four papers, one from each of the experts from the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia. "Tours de table" and discussion allowed participation by other…

Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

55

Central Banking Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Central Banks of the World is a pointers page to central banks and central bank information for over 45 countries, as well as multilateral financial institutions, research and training establishments, and conference information. To show how little is generally known about the history of central banking in the United States, this site includes an email message sent to the webmaster of the First Bank of the United States, promoting a certain software company's web interactivity applications. Of course, since the First Bank of the United States was closed in 1811, its web site is primarily historical. The Central Banks site lists over 30 Internet directories and pointers pages that list the First Bank of the United States as a functioning financial institution. To help remedy this situation, the site includes a pointer to a brief history of banking in the US.

1996-01-01

56

An analysis of GAVI, the Global Fund and World Bank support for human resources for health in developing countries.  

PubMed

Shortages, geographic imbalances and poor performance of health workers pose major challenges for improving health service delivery in developing countries. In response, multilateral agencies have increasingly recognized the need to invest in human resources for health (HRH) to assist countries in achieving their health system goals. In this paper we analyse the HRH-related activities of three agencies: the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI); the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (the Global Fund); and the World Bank. First, we reviewed the type of HRH-related activities that are eligible for financing within each agency. Second, we reviewed the HRH-related activities that each agency is actually financing. Third, we reviewed the literature to understand the impact that GAVI, Global Fund and World Bank investments in HRH have had on the health workforce in developing countries. Our analysis found that by far the most common activity supported across all agencies is short-term, in-service training. There is relatively little investment in expanding pre-service training capacity, despite large health worker shortages in developing countries. We also found that the majority of GAVI and the Global Fund grants finance health worker remuneration, largely through supplemental allowances, with little information available on how payment rates are determined, how the potential negative consequences are mitigated, and how payments are to be sustained at the end of the grant period. Based on the analysis, we argue there is an opportunity for improved co-ordination between the three agencies at the country level in supporting HRH-related activities. Existing initiatives, such as the International Health Partnership and the Health Systems Funding Platform, could present viable and timely vehicles for the three agencies to implement this improved co-ordination. PMID:22333685

Vujicic, Marko; Weber, Stephanie E; Nikolic, Irina A; Atun, Rifat; Kumar, Ranjana

2012-12-01

57

A Global Knowledge Bank? The World Bank and Bottom-Up Efforts to Reinforce Neoliberal Development Perspectives in the Post-Washington Consensus Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1990s, in reaction to growing protests against its insistence on the universal applicability of market-oriented development programs (the ‘Washington Consensus’), the World Bank reinvented itself as a ‘global knowledge bank’. The Bank has gone to considerable effort to improve and decentralize its knowledge management, aiming to increase sensitivity and responsiveness. Critical scholars argue that the Bank continues

Dieter Plehwe

2007-01-01

58

World Bank eAtlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

2008-06-10

59

Qualitative Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Stress Response Item Banks  

PubMed Central

Objective?To describe the qualitative development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pediatric Stress Response item banks.?Methods?Stress response concepts were specified through a literature review and interviews with content experts, children, and parents. A library comprising 2,677 items derived from 71 instruments was developed. Items were classified into conceptual categories; new items were written and redundant items were removed. Items were then revised based on cognitive interviews (n = 39 children), readability analyses, and translatability reviews.?Results?2 pediatric Stress Response sub-domains were identified: somatic experiences (43 items) and psychological experiences (64 items). Final item pools cover the full range of children’s stress experiences. Items are comprehensible among children aged ?8 years and ready for translation.?Conclusions?Child- and parent-report versions of the item banks assess children’s somatic and psychological states when demands tax their adaptive capabilities. PMID:23124904

Gardner, William; Pajer, Kathleen; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher B.

2013-01-01

60

Establishment, operation and development of a donor human milk bank.  

PubMed

Human milk is very valuable in premature infant nutrition. The collection, screening, processing and distribution of donor human milk are described in this report. These activities take place in the Donor Human Milk Bank (DHMB) of the Large Romagna Area (LRA) in Italy, the development of which is also described here. Over the years, the activities of this bank, which is located in Cesena Hospital, in the center of the LRA, have developed from an informal and domestic-level activity to become a multistep controlled process designed to prevent the possibility of disease transmission. This little food-supply industry, run by a multi-disciplinary team with strict rules and diverse responsibilities, complies with the Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. PMID:23891355

Biasini, Augusto; Stella, Marcello; Malaigia, Laura; China, Mariachiara; Azzalli, Milena; Laguardia, Maria Chiara; Rizzo, Vittoria

2013-10-01

61

Volume 30, Issue 3 Bank competition, institution and economic development: Evidence from Asia  

E-print Network

the excessive risk taking by banking institutions can cause economic vulnerability which ended up in financialVolume 30, Issue 3 Bank competition, institution and economic development: Evidence from Asia-2007, this paper investigates the link between bank competition and economic development. In general, although

Boyer, Edmond

62

How Important are Foreign Banks in the Financial Development of European Transition Countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the development of the banking sector in European transition countries. We find that, although bank assets increased during the 1990s, credit to the private sector remained relatively low. Foreign-owned banks have become major players in the financial system of these countries. However, foreign bank presence and financial development in general vary considerably among the transition economies. Foreign-owned

Ilko Naaborg; Bert Scholtens; Jakob de HaanR; Hanneke Bol; Ralph de HaasQ

2004-01-01

63

Government ownership of banks, institutions, and financial development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a suitably modified locational model of banking, we examine the influence of institutions, such as deposit contract enforcement, in explaining the share of government owned banks in the banking system. We present cross-country evidence suggesting that institutional factors are relatively more important determinants of the share of state banks than political or historical ones. We argue that rather than

Svetlana Andrianova; Panicos Demetriades; Anja Shortland

2008-01-01

64

Operational Primer for Multilateral Peace Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The end of the cold war has seen an increase in the number of peace operations undertaken by the United Nations, by regional organizations, and by multilateral coalitions. Post-cold war peace operations have differed from the 'traditional' UN Chapter VI m...

B. S. Hasty

1999-01-01

65

The United States and multilateral resource management  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the issue of international cooperation with regard to global energy sources. Topics considered include oil and cartel power, food resources, the US role in international organizations, the multilateral management of marine mineral resources, the International Seabed Authority, and the issue of global interests versus national interests.

Jordon, R.S.

1985-01-01

66

The World Bank Rural Development Field Staff Distance Learning and Training Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Development Distance Learning and Training Strategy targets locally recruited field staff of the World Bank Rural Sector. Field staff at the bank's mission offices worldwide are heterogeneous in terms of culture, ethnicity, race, gender, social class, and religion. However, they have the following in common: they follow the Bank's work…

Mortera-Gutierrez, Fernando

67

Application of Customer Resource Management in Agricultural Development Bank of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As foreign banks' application get nod in China, better financial service from these banks gives local lenders unprecedented competitions and challenges. As a financial institution under the direct leadership of the State Council, the Agriculture Development bank of China (ADBC) has the responsibility of implementing the policies of the governments while running business management. Given the ever-increasing competition for every

Shuxiang Liu; Jinzhong Ge

2007-01-01

68

Developing Countries and a New Round of WTO Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes some of the results and findings emerging from an ongoing World Bank research and capacity-building project that focuses on the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiating agenda from a developing country perspective. Recent research suggests that the potential gains from further multilateral liberalization of trade remain very large. The payoffs associated with attempts to introduce substantive disciplines in

Thomas W. HertelBernard; M. HoekmanWill Martin

2000-01-01

69

Strategic Directions for Developing an Islamic Banking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that Islamic banking does not merely imply the interest-free banking system; rather, it is the banking in consonance with the ethos and value system of Islam and governed by the principles and rules laid down by Islamic Shariah. The question arises as to why the Islamic financing system has not been fully realised in Pakistan. And what

Suleman Aziz Lodhi; Rukhsana Kalim

2005-01-01

70

THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAMIC BANKING ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SUDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islamic banking is a relatively new and rapidly growing phenomenon, particularly in the Muslim world. Islamic banking prohibits all kinds of financial transactions based on interest. Its primary approach to financing is the mudaraba profit-loss contract, where the financing partner, the bank, and the entrepreneurial partner, the individual seeking investment capital, share profit as mutually agreed upon. In the case

Muhammad Ali Alula Al-Hashimi

1989-01-01

71

The Garden Banks 388 horizontal tree design and development  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Horizontal Subsea Production Tree System, later referred to as a SpoolTree{trademark}, developed for the Enserch Garden Banks 388 field in the Gulf of Mexico. The paper starts with a project overview followed by a comparison between the SpoolTree and the Conventional Tree design. A brief discussion explains why Enserch elected to use the SpoolTree for this field development, including available technology, workover frequency, cost etc. The rigorous safety analysis carried out for the subsea production equipment is then explained in depth. The paper continues with a technical discussion of the main features specific to the SpoolTree design and the Garden Banks 388 field development. Issues discussed include the SpoolTree itself, BOP Adapter Plate (for control during installation, workover and production), Tubing Hanger and pressure barrier design, debris cap design, downhole communication (SCSSV, chemical injection, pressure and temperature) ROV intervention, template wellbay insert design and other relevant issues. The use of computer based 3-D modelling tool is also briefly described. The experience and results described in this paper have direct application to numerous subsea development prospects worldwide, particularly in deep water. In addition, the ``system development`` aspect of the project is relevant to most marine equipment development projects. This includes the use of safety analysis techniques, 3-D computer modelling tools and clearly defined engineering procedures. A full account of the final design configuration of the SpoolTree system is given in the paper. A summary of the experience gained during the extensive testing at the factory and during the template integration tests is also provided.

Granhaug, O.; Soul, J.

1995-12-31

72

Agricultural Development Bank Reform: The Case of The Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC), Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC) in Thailand has gone through four major phases of reform: 1966-74, laying the foundation for individual lending to farmers through joint liability groups; 1975-87, expanding its lending operations through access to commercial bank and donor funds and consolidating its operations by reducing loan channeling through cooperatives; 1988-96, striving for viability and self-reliance,

Klaus Maurer; Shyam Khadka; Hans Dieter Seibel

2000-01-01

73

RURAL CREDIT RATIONING AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common problem in agricultural credit markets in developing countries is the coexistence of a competitive market equilibrium interest rate and credit rationing. The literature typically explains the existence of credit rationing in competitive credit markets using adverse selection and moral hazard. Unfortunately these analyses are not consistent with the empirical reality that developing countries deal with in terms of

Gabriel Casillas; Paul D. Mitchell

2003-01-01

74

Problem Loans, Foreign Outstandings, and Other Developments in Bank Disclosure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the disclosure requirements of the SEC and the bank regulatory agencies relating to loans, credit quality, and foreign exposure. The authors analyze 1983 and 1984 changes in these requirements, point out differences between the SEC's rules and those of the banking agencies, and comment on the role of disclosure in today's international economic environment.

George W. Coombe Jr.; Jeffrey R. Lapic

1985-01-01

75

DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS AND THE WORLD BANK'S IDENTITY CRISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author, the Brazilian Finance Minister in the late 1980s, uses his insights and experience to examine critically the identity crisis of the World Bank. Trapped by the neo-liberal turn in the 1980s, and unable to return to the Keynesian lending principles of earlier decades, the Bank is claimed to be facing an unsettled future in terms

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

76

World Bank Activities in Library and Documentation Services Provision in Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the World Bank provides loans primarily for economic development in developing countries, many of its loans include provision for project-related information transfer. Because the Bank is likely to become increasingly involved in lending for information activities, it must determine whether or to what extent there is a need for greater or…

Duces, Brigitte

1991-01-01

77

Centenary Rural Development Bank, Uganda: A Flagship of Rural Bank Reform in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centenary RDB is a commercial bank that provides deposit, credit and money transfer services indiscriminately to men and women of lower income. By insisting on loan recovery and cost coverage, it has reached more men and women in rural areas than any other institution in Uganda. With minimum deposits of $6 and minimum loans of $30, access barriers are low.

Hans Dieter Seibel

2002-01-01

78

Centenary Rural Development Bank, Uganda: A Flagship of Rural Bank Reform in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centenary RDB is a commercial bank that provides deposit, credit and money transfer services indiscriminately to men and women of lower income. By insisting on loan recovery and cost coverage, it has reached more men and women in rural areas than any other institution in Uganda. With minimum deposits of $6 and minimum loans of $30, access barriers are low.

Hans Dieter Seibel

2003-01-01

79

Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System (WEMS): A solution to support compliance of Multilateral Environmental Agreements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the rising number of international environmental agreements, it is increasingly difficult for many developing countries to meet the basic commitments of compliance to Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs). One major reason for non-compliance is an unforced restriction on enforcement information flow to the national environmental governance repository either due to policy regulations or, technological hindrance. The purpose of this paper

Remi Chandran; Padmanabhan Krishnan; Khoi Nguyen

2011-01-01

80

Nationalism and multilateralism in Chinese foreign policy: implications for Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of Michael Leifer's main fears for the future role of ASEAN arose from the spectre of a rising nationalistic China. This article assesses whether recent developments have borne out those fears by looking at the nature of Beijing's evolving multilateral approach towards the region. Agreeing with Leifer that nationalism is an important influence on Chinese foreign policy, the article

Christopher R. Hughes

2005-01-01

81

Research for development : a World Bank perspective on future directions for research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the history of development research at the World Bank and points to new future directions in both what we research and how we research. Six main messages emerge. First, research and data have long been essential elements of the Bank's country programs and its contributions to global public goods, and this will remain the

2010-01-01

82

Developing Tanzanian civil society : Desiring democracy, self-empowerment and the World Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The development of Tanzanian civil society is widely understood to be one of the key processes in the democratization of the country, and this vision is also shared by the World Bank. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the intention and impact of World Bank policies aimed at supporting Tanzanian civil society organizations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The

Marinko Banjac

2010-01-01

83

Power and knowledge in the Agricultural Lending Division of the Fiji Development Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to expose the gap between rationalist banking theory and actual practice within the Agricultural Lending Division of the Fiji Development Bank (FDB) by focusing on the inter-relationship between power and knowledge. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data for this qualitative research project were gathered from archived documents, interviews, observation and reflection. A Foucauldian theoretical framework was used, which

Hemant Deo; Helen Irvine

2006-01-01

84

Linking Sustainable Agriculture and Community Development: The Lowcountry Food Bank's Use of Locally Grown Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food banks throughout the South have historically helped meet the nutritional needs of low income families, but are not often involved in community development efforts aimed at creating sustainable agricultural situations. In this paper we seek to critically evaluate a food bank's efforts to enhance small- scale farm operations, increase the quality and quantity of their products, and enhance distribution

Kenneth L. Robinson; Kathleen K. Robinson; Carlos Carpio; David Hughes

2007-01-01

85

Learner Interpretations of Shared Space in Multilateral English Blogging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aims to understand how English learners interpret shared space in an online multilateral English blogging context and how their interpretations of shared space contribute to their multilateral exchange experience. Twenty-four Asian learners of English from two different universities--one in Japan and one in…

Yang, Yu-Feng

2011-01-01

86

Operators are ready for more sophisticated multilateral well technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operators, encouraged by the profit-promoting successes of improved directional drilling and 3-D seismic imaging, are poised to embrace multilateral drilling and completion as they did horizontal technologies. And service companies appear ready to oblige them with the technological advances operators demand. This paper reviews the existing uses of multilateral wells, the equipment, and installation techniques along with the identified problems

Von Flatern

1996-01-01

87

Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration  

PubMed Central

A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

Majarena, Ana C.; Brau, Agustin; Velazquez, Jesus

2014-01-01

88

Development of protected endorsement for online banking using mobile phones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Securing Online Banking transactions for customer is the primary goal of financial institutions that provides Internet banking facility. Mobile phones play an important role in our society as more and more functions having been integrated within mobile phones, such as Internet browsing, mobile banking, and shopping. Mobiles phones can be used to secure ATM card pins by sending to the customer directly rather than in emails or by other means which has a possibility of hacking. In this paper we have proposed method of generating a Private Key Security Token by bank authentication servers which uses IMSI registers and IMEI number of client's mobile registered. The key is generated by implementing RIPE MD160 and Hex Encode Algorithm. Token received is valid only for that client mobile only and can be generated upon request by customer dynamically. The client is given a PIN and a Master Key when registered to the Online Banking Services. If in case a client's mobile is lost, authentication is done using Unique Master Key, else the Private Key Token is used there by making transactions secured and simple without the need of carrying any USB Tokens. The additional functionality provides the client more security on their transactions. Due to this Phishing attacks by the hackers is avoided.

Narayana, Galla; Venkateswarlu, Tammineni; Kumar, G. S. P.; Padmavathamma, Mokkala; Sreekanth, G.; Delhibabu, K.; Prasad, A. R.

2013-03-01

89

Asynchronous Multilateral Control for Simplified Walking Haptic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there has been extensive development in remote communication technologies such as telephone, radio, and television. Haptic information is studied as the third type of multimedia information. Real-world haptics is getting attention not only for the feedback of real-world haptic information in teleoperation but also as the key technology for future human support. Most of the objects of study in haptics are stationary. Therefore, the moving range of such haptic systems is limited. This paper proposes a novel haptic device that receives force feedback of walking motion from a remote environment and manipulates remote system. Thus, its moving range is unrestricted. To drive this haptic system, the paper also proposes asynchronous multilateral control. By using this control, an operator can operate the remote system without changing his/her position. The proposed haptic system is expected to act as an effective interface for virtual reality applications and teleoperation.

Okura, Takeshi; Katsura, Seiichiro

90

Multilateral analysis of increasing collective dose and new ALARA programme.  

PubMed

JAPC (The Japan Atomic Power Company) is the only electric power company that operates different types of nuclear reactors in Japan; it operates two BWRs (boiling water reactors), one pressurised water reactor and one gas cooled reactor. JAPC has been conducting various activities aimed at reducing radiation dose received by workers for over 45 y. Recently, the collective dose resulting from periodic maintenance has increased at each plant because of the replacement of large equipment and the unexpected extension of the outage period. In particular, the collective dose at Tokai-2 is one of the highest among Japanese BWR plants((1)), owing to the replacement and strengthening of equipment to meet earthquake-proof requirements. In this study, the authors performed a multilateral analysis of unacceptably a large collective dose and devised a new ALARA programme that includes a 3D dose prediction map and the development of machines to assist workers. PMID:21652597

Oumi, Tadashi; Morii, Yasuki; Imai, Toshirou

2011-07-01

91

Lineages of liberalism and miracles of modernisation: The World Bank, the East Asian trajectory and the international development debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over time the conception of development encouraged by the Bank has shifted, mirroring wider trends in the international political economy. This article begins with a brief discussion of the changes in the World Bank's understanding of development over the past 30 or 40 years. This is followed by an examination of the Bank' s efforts to accommodate the East Asian

Mark T. Berger; Mark Beeson

1998-01-01

92

DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-FOCUSED BANKING MANAGEMENT TENDENCIES AND PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial crisis showed up the weakness in the management systems quality of national and international financial institutions, especially in Internal Control and Risk- management. At the last spring meetings International Monetary Fund and World Bank approved a number of measures to strengthen a structure of supervision, including the proposals of Financial Stability Forum (FSF). FSF encourages to enhance

2009-01-01

93

Idea Bank: ExploraVision--Extracurricular Research and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ExploraVision model encourages students to use their knowledge and creativity to solve real-world problems. It gives any student, at any grade level, the opportunity to participate in scientific collaboration. This Idea Bank introduces the ExploraVisi

Stone, David

2009-12-01

94

Does the sequence of plant dominants affect mycorrhiza development in simulated succession on spoil banks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this field study was to examine how the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on coal mine spoil banks\\u000a is affected by the presence of plants with different mycorrhizal status. A 3-year trial was conducted on the freshly created\\u000a spoil bank Vršany, North-Bohemian coal basin, the Czech Republic. Three plant species – non-mycotrophic annual Atriplex sagittata, highly

David Püschel; Jana Rydlová; Miroslav Vosátka

2008-01-01

95

Urban governance and multilateral aid organizations: The case of informal water supply systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the different urban governance models proposed by multilateral aid organizations in accessing water through\\u000a informal supply systems, to assess the rationale and the guiding principles at the basis of their different ‘governance approaches’.\\u000a There can be no doubt that most developing countries are now experiencing a rapid and unprecedented urban growth, which is\\u000a bringing about a rising

Luisa Moretto

2007-01-01

96

Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

2009-01-01

97

AGRICULTURAL CREDIT IN TANZANIA: THE POLICY AND OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE COOPERATIVE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the performance of the Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (CRDB), an agricultural credit institution in Tanzania, in financing smallholder agricultural production and other rural development activities. Assessment is largely based on available institutional information between 1971 and 1989. Criteria employed in assessing the performance of the credit institution include: credit allocation methods, operational costs and revenues from

Anacleti K. Kashuliza

1992-01-01

98

Development of a meandering channel caused by the plane shape of the river bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a typhoon and a stationary rain front, record amounts of rain fell in September 2011, and the largest class of discharge in recorded history was observed in the Otofuke River of eastern Hokkaido in Japan, and extensive bank erosion occurred in various parts of the river channel. Damages were especially serious in the middle reaches, where part of a dike was washed out. The results of a post-flood survey suggested that the direct cause of the dike breach was lateral advance of the bank erosion associated with the development of meandering channels. As the related development mechanism and predominant factors have not yet been clarified, this remains a priority from the viewpoint of disaster prevention. A past study on the development of meandering channels was reported by Shimizu et al. In this study, the meandering channel development process was reproduced using a slope failure model that linked bank erosion with bed changes. The study attempted to clarify the meandering development mechanism in the disaster and it's predominant factors by using this model. The analysis properly reproduced the characteristics of the post-flood meandering waveforms. Therefore, it is suggested that the development of meandering during the flood attributed to the propagation of meandering to downstream, which is triggered by the meandering flow from the meandering channel in the upstream, and also suggested that this propagated meandering then caused a gradual increase of meandering amplitude accompanied by bank erosion in the recession period of the flood.

Nagata, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Yasuda, H.; Ito, A.

2013-11-01

99

Development of a meandering channel caused by the planform shape of the river bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a typhoon and a stationary rain front, record amounts of rain fell in September 2011, and the largest class of discharge in recorded history was observed in the Otofuke River of eastern Hokkaido in Japan, and extensive bank erosion occurred in various parts of the river channel. Damages were especially serious in the middle reaches, where part of a dike was washed out. The results of a post-flood survey suggested that the direct cause of the dike breach was lateral advance of the bank erosion associated with the development of meandering channels. As the related development mechanism and predominant factors have not yet been clarified, this remains a priority from the viewpoint of disaster prevention. A past study on the development of meandering channels was reported by Shimizu et al. (1996). In this study, the meandering channel development process was reproduced using a slope failure model that linked bank erosion with bed changes. The study attempted to clarify the meandering development mechanism in the disaster and its predominant factors by using this model. The analysis properly reproduced the characteristics of the post-flood meandering waveforms. Therefore, it is suggested that the development of meandering during the flood attributed to the propagation of meandering downstream, which is triggered by the meandering flow from the meandering channel in the upstream, which also suggests that this propagated meandering then caused a gradual increase of meandering amplitude accompanied by bank erosion in the recession period of the flood.

Nagata, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Yasuda, H.; Ito, A.

2014-04-01

100

Development and Calibration of an Item Bank for PE Metrics Assessments: Standard 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and calibrate an assessment system, or bank, using the latest measurement theories and methods to promote valid and reliable student assessment in physical education. Using an anchor-test equating design, a total of 30 items or assessments were administered to 5,021 (2,568 boys and 2,453 girls) students in…

Zhu, Weimo; Fox, Connie; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Graber, Kim C.; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

2011-01-01

101

Transboundary Water Conflicts over Hydropower and Irrigation: Can Multinational Development Banks Help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of a transboundary water conflict involv- ing upstream hydropower use and downstream irrigation use. The conflict arises because upstream water release may not coincide with seasonal irri- gation needs of the downstream riparian. Policy interventions by multi- national development banks (MDBs) are of particular interest because these agencies have a comparative advantage in promoting transboundary

Lars Christian Moller

102

Budget Deficits and Inflation: The Roles of Central Bank Independence and Financial Market Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the relationship between budget deficits and inflation with the view that the nature of this relationship depends on the characteristics of monetary and financial institutions. The main hypothesis is that budget deficits are especially inflationary when both the central bank is not independent and the financial market is not developed enough to contain inflationary expectations. The empirical

Bilin Neyapti

2003-01-01

103

Object-Oriented System Development in a Banking Project: Methodology, Experience, and Conclusions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of a successful object-oriented (OO) system designed for use in banking, beginning with initial failure of the project using a traditional life-cycle approach. Three features that made the OO phase successful are identified: employing OO techniques; combining these techniques with a guideline, the tools-and-materials…

Burkle, Ute; And Others

1995-01-01

104

Monitoring Rural Development in East Asia. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 439.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents results of discussions during an 8-day workshop (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 1979) on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of East Asian and Pacific rural development projects. Major workshop themes identified are managerial, technical, and institutional aspects of monitoring. The introduction discusses previous World Bank

Deboeck, Guido; Ng, Ronald

105

Low-Income Housing and Community Development Activities of the Federal Home Loan Bank System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is required by law to monitor and report annually to the advisory councils of the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLBanks) on the support of low-income housing and community development and the use of FHLBank member ...

2010-01-01

106

Goals Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals bank is one of a number of support services currently being developed by the Rhode Island Department of Education to help school districts begin implementing the Local Planning and Assessment Process. The bank was designed to mark out general areas, to describe what a goal looks like, and to present the reader with a multitude of…

Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Bureau of Technical Assistance.

107

Extractive industries and sustainable development: an evaluation of World Bank Group experience  

SciTech Connect

How effectively has the World Bank Group assisted its clients in enhancing the contribution of the extractive industries to sustainable development? (Extractive industries include oil, gas, and mining of minerals including coals and metals.) This evaluation finds that with its global mandate and experience, comprehensive country development focus, and overarching mission to fight poverty, the World Bank Group is well positioned to help countries overcome the policy, institutional, and technical challenges that prevent them from transforming resource endowments into sustainable benefits. Furthermore, the World Bank Group's achievements are many. On the whole, its extractive industries projects have produced positive economic and financial results, though compliance with its environmental and social safeguards remains a challenge. Its research has broadened and deepened understanding of the causes for the disappointing performance of resource-rich countries. Its guidelines for the mitigation of adverse environmental and social impacts have been widely used and appreciated. More recently, it has begun to address the challenge of country governance with a variety of instruments. The World Bank Group can, however, do much to improve its performance in enhancing the extractive industry sector's contribution to sustainable development and poverty reduction. The report identifies three main areas for improvement - formulating an integrated strategy, strengthening implementation and engagement of stakeholders. 5 annexes.

Andres Liebenthal; Roland Michelitsch; Ethel Tarazona

2005-07-01

108

Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of operational countermeasures, environmental monitoring, medical care, and emergency medical services. MMOP assures the medical readiness of the Station for each subsequent mission or critical event. All boards and panels have functioned effectively and without interruptions even in various challenging circumstances. Based on the experience of the authors, consensus has prevailed as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, at all levels. The six first years of piloted operation have demonstrated the ability of the ISS medical authority groups and the medical infrastructure to implement medical policies and requirements, effectively interface with non-medical groups, and maintain the health and productivity of the crew in an integrated, multilaterally coordinated fashion. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of all Partners roles, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

2007-01-01

109

Modelling multilateral negotiations: An application to California water policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we advance a new framework for noncooperative, multilateral bargaining that can be used to conceptualize negotiation processes. In the proposed game theoretic setting, the outcome of the negotiation process depends crucially on the “constitutional” structure of the game: the input each group has in the decision making process, the coalitions of groups that can implement proposals, the

Gregory Adams; Gordon Rausser; Leo Simon

1996-01-01

110

Regional Versus Multilateral Liberalization of Trade in Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the same time as regional agreements to liberalize trade in services were being pursued by OECD countries, services were also introduced onto the agenda of a multilateral trade negotiation - the Uruguay Round. This paper focuses on the relationship between regional agreements and the draft General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), negotiated under the auspices of the Uruguay

Bernard Hoekman

1993-01-01

111

Development and Psychometric Analysis of the PROMIS Pain Behavior Item Bank  

PubMed Central

The measurement of pain behavior is a key component of the assessment of persons with chronic pain; however few self-reported pain behavior instruments have been developed. We developed a pain behavior item bank as part of the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS). For the Wave I testing, because of the large number of PROMIS items, a complex sampling approach was used where participants were randomly assigned to either respond to two full item banks or to multiple 7-item blocks of items. A web-based survey was designed and completed by 15,528 members of the general population and 967 individuals with different types of chronic pain. Item response theory (IRT) analysis models were used to evaluate item characteristics and to scale both items and individuals on the pain behavior domain. The pain behavior item bank demonstrated good fit to a unidimensional model (Comparative Fit Index = 0.94). Several iterations of IRT analyses resulted in a final 39 item pain behavior bank, and different IRT models were fit to the total sample and to those participants who experienced some pain. The results indicated that these items demonstrated good coverage of the pain behavior construct. Pain behavior scores were strongly related to pain intensity and moderately related to self-reported general health status. Mean pain behavior scores varied significantly by groups based on pain severity and general health status. The PROMIS pain behavior item bank can be used to develop static short-form and dynamic measures of pain behavior for clinical studies. PMID:19683873

Revicki, Dennis A.; Chen, Wen-Hung; Harnam, Neesha; Cook, Karon F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Callahan, Leigh F.; Jensen, Mark P.; Keefe, Francis J.

2009-01-01

112

Agricultural Development Banking: Lessons from Latin America?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Latin America, the inadequate development of rural finance and rural markets in general remains one of the central, recurring themes in discussion of public policy for promoting development and eliminating poverty. Rural financial markets remain sluggish and have been unable to establish a broad financial system that meets the needs of rural dwellers, especially low-income residents. Various public policies

Carolina Trivelli

113

Pragmatism and the Gradual Shift from Dependency to Neoliberalism: The World Bank, African Leaders and Development Policy in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-standing disagreement between the international community and African leaders over an appropriate development strategy has been settled by the World Bank’s Comprehensive Development Framework (CDF) and African leaders’ New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). Both documents support neoliberalism and see increased global integration as the key to Africa’s development. This paper traces Africa’s journey from the dependency\\/neoliberalism debate in

Francis Owusu

2003-01-01

114

CAREER MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT FOR LEADERSHIP IN LOCAL BANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local organizations in Pakistan are generally seen giving adequate consideration to human resource related activities such as recruitment and selection, performance evaluation, compensation and rewards administration; however, they do not give ample attention to the otherwise core HR function of career management and development. As a consequence, employees of these organizations generally assume primary responsibility for their career planning and

Pr Zehra Roofi BUDHWANI

115

Development of Rural Banks in Yellow River Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of new-type rural financial institutions in the Yellow River delta is summarized. It is pointed out that these financial institutions have improved the development of economy concerning agriculture, rural areas and peasants, but due to the shortage of capital, deficit and many other reasons, the outlets is fewer, which can not serve the agriculture, rural areas and

Jin-feng Sun; Xue-sheng Zhou

2010-01-01

116

The World Bank: An Online Atlas of the Millennium Development Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate "good governance" and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

117

Three-D multilateration: A precision geodetic measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique of satellite geodesy for determining the relative three dimensional coordinates of ground stations within one centimeter over baselines of 20 to 10,000 kilometers is discussed. The system is referred to as 3-D Multilateration and has applications in earthquake hazard assessment, precision surveying, plate tectonics, and orbital mechanics. The accuracy is obtained by using pulsed lasers to obtain simultaneous slant ranges between several ground stations and a moving retroreflector with known trajectory for aiming the lasers.

Escobal, P. R.; Ong, K. M.; Vonroos, O. H.; Shumate, M. S.; Jaffe, R. M.; Fliegel, H. F.; Muller, P. M.

1973-01-01

118

Development of Short Forms from the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment Item Banks  

PubMed Central

We report on the development of short forms from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS™) Sleep Disturbance (SD) and Sleep-Related Impairment (SRI) item banks. Results from post-hoc computerized adaptive testing (CAT) simulations, item discrimination parameters, item means, and clinical judgment were used to select the best-performing 8 items for SD and SRI. The final 8-item short forms provided less test information than the corresponding full banks, but correlated strongly with the longer forms. The short forms had greater measurement precision than the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) as indicated by larger test information values across the continuum of severity, despite having fewer total items, a major advantage for both research and clinical settings. PMID:22250775

Yu, Lan; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Moul, Douglas E.; Stover, Angela; Dodds, Nathan E.; Johnston, Kelly L.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2011-01-01

119

Timing of fire relative to seed development controls availability of non-serotinous aerial seed banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of non-serotinous, non-sprouting species in fire regimes where serotiny confers an adaptive advantage is puzzling, particularly when these species recruit poorly from soil seed banks or from burn edges. In this paper, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) was used to show that the timing of fire relative to seed development can control aerial seed bank availability for non-serotinous species. To estimate seed survival in closed cones during crown fires, cone heating was simulated using a one-dimensional conduction model implemented in a computational fluid dynamics (Navier-Stokes) fire spread model. To quantify the area burned when germinable seed would be contained in closed cones, empirical fire occurrence and seed development (germinability and cone opening) data were compared for multiple locations across the white spruce range. Approximately 12% of cones contained viable seed following crown fire simulations (0.072 m s-1 mean spread rate; 9147 kW m-1 mean intensity), and roughly half of the historical area burned resulted from fires that occurred when closed cones would contain germinable seed. Post-fire recruitment from in situ aerial seed banks can occur for non-serotinous species, and may be an important cause of their existence in fire regimes to which they otherwise seem poorly suited.

Michaletz, S. T.; Johnson, E. A.; Mell, W. E.; Greene, D. F.

2012-11-01

120

Development of an optically switched high-temperature superconducting multichannel bandstop filter bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optically controlled bandstop filter bank has been developed using High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin films for the filter resonator elements and light-sensitive GaAs for switch control. In the non-illuminated (reject) state the maximum rejection for each filter was typically 60 dB, and the attenuation could be switched to less than 0.5 dB at 10 GHz in the illuminated (pass) state. The high Qs of HTS resonators enable three-section filters with superior shape factors to be realized. We report on the development, design and test of a five- channel filter bank divided into two bands. The filters were designed using a bidielectric `stripline' configuration to reduce unwanted resonator coupling and permit frequency setting by adjusting tuning screws above each resonator. The filter elements were rectangular hairpin- style resonators loaded with an interdigitated capacitor to form the switch topology. The HTS realization permits switch banks with a large number of channels to be constructed with low insertion loss. Such units could be used to protect receivers while maintaining a low noise figure. This architecture allows for low loss protection against multiple signals, superior to existing YIG bandstop filter technology.

Fenzi, Neal; Raihn, Kurt; Soares, E.; Mathaei, G.

1994-01-01

121

Forecasting Food Price Inflation, Challenges for Central Banks in Developing Countries using an Inflation Targeting Framework: the Case of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replaced with revised version of paper 11\\/17\\/06. Former title: Forecasting Food Price Inflation, Challenges for Central Banks in Developing Countries using an Inflation Targeting Framework: the Case of Colombia

Miguel I. Gomez; Eliana Gonzalez; Luis F. Melo; Jose L. Torres

2006-01-01

122

Developing Accountability for Health: The World Bank, the Millennium Development Goals, and the Role of Physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Funding : The writing of this article was funded by the University of Minnesota's Consortium on Law and Values in Health, Environment and Life Sciences. The Consortium was not involved in preparing the manuscript or the decision to submit the article to the journal. The opinions in this article are those of the author only. Abstract The World Bank has

Stephanie L. Smith

123

Health and role functioning: the use of focus groups in the development of an item bank  

PubMed Central

Background Role functioning is an important part of health-related quality of life. However, assessment of role functioning is complicated by the wide definition of roles and by fluctuations in role participation across the life-span. The aim of this study is to explore variations in role functioning across the lifespan using qualitative approaches, to inform the development of a role functioning item bank and to pilot test sample items from the bank. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 38 English-speaking adults recruited in Rhode Island. Participants were stratified by gender and four age groups. Focus groups were taped, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Results Participants of all ages identified family roles as the most important. There was age variation in the importance of social life roles, with younger and older adults rating them as more important. Occupational roles were identified as important by younger and middle-aged participants. The potential of health problems to affect role participation was recognized. Participants found the sample items easy to understand, response options identical in meaning and preferred five response choices. Conclusions Participants identified key aspects of role functioning and provided insights on their perception of the impact of health on their role participation. These results will inform item bank generation. PMID:20047086

Bjorner, Jakob B.

2013-01-01

124

Multilateration with the wide-angle laser ranging system: ranging performance and first ground-based validation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide-angle laser ranging system has been developed for high-precision multilateration. A laser transmits short pulses in a widely diverging beam toward a network of cube-corner retroreflectors (CCRs). Returned echoes are detected, amplified, digitized, and timed. Impact of instrumental error sources, atmospheric refraction, and scintillation are discussed. The precision of the correlation method for the estimation of times of arrival

Olivier Bock; Christian Thom; M. Kasser; J. R. Pelon

1999-01-01

125

Deep-water coral development as a function of hydrodynamics and surface productivity around the submarine banks of the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics that occur at the Porcupine Bank, Rockall Trough, are described in relation to the role the bank, and others like it, may play in the development of deep-water corals, such as Lophelia pertusa (L.), which occurs widely in the NE Atlantic. High productivity has been measured over the bank, and it appears that this productivity may be fuelled

Martin White; Christian Mohn; Henko de Stigter; Gareth Mottram

126

MULTILATERALISM, AMERICAN POWER AND EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of the 1980s when the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum was inaugurated, it looked like an idea whose time had come. APEC seemed ideally placed to benefit from and facilitate the post-Cold War preoccupation with economic development and integration. Moreover, it held out the prospect of institutionalising and managing relations between the 'miraculous' economies of East

Mark Beeson

127

Seed-bank and vegetation development in a created tidal freshwater wetland on the Delaware River, Trenton, New Jersey, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial stages of seed-bank and vegetation development were documented in a newly created tidal freshwater wetland where\\u000a donor soils were not applied. The 32.3-ha site adjacent to the Delaware River in New Jersey, USA was completed in stages from\\u000a November 1993 to November 1994. Objectives of the study were to determine characteristics of the seed bank and vegetation\\u000a and

Mary Allessio Leck

2003-01-01

128

Development of an EtherCAT enabled digital servo controller for the Green Bank Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is gaining wide spread popularity in the automation industry as a real time field bus based on low cost, Ethernet hardware. EtherCAT maximizes use of 100Mbps Ethernet hardware by using a collision free ring topology, efficient Ethernet frame utilization (> 95%), and data exchange "on the fly". These characteristics enable EtherCAT to achieve Master to Slave node data exchange rates of > 1000 Hz. The Green Bank Telescope, commissioned in 2000, utilizes an analog control system for motion control of 8 elevation and 16 azimuth motors. This architecture, while sufficient for observations at frequencies up to 50GHz, has significant limitations for the current scientific goals of observing at 115GHz. Accordingly, the Green Bank staff has embarked on a servo upgrade project to develop a digital servo system which accommodates development and implementation of advanced control algorithms. This paper describes how the new control system requirements, use of existing infrastructure and budget constraints led us to define a distributed motion control architecture where EtherCAT real-time Ethernet was selected as the communication bus. Finally, design details are provided that describe how NRAO developed a custom EtherCAT-enabled motor controller interface for the GBT's legacy motor drives in order to provide technical benefits and flexibility not available in commercial products.

Whiteis, Peter G.; Mello, Melinda J.

2012-09-01

129

Banking on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

Internet Research, 1996

1996-01-01

130

Banks, Financial Markets, and Industrial Development: Lessons from the Economic Histories of Brazil and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

What impact do small and concentrated banking systems have on the competitive structure and performance of manufacturing industry? Why do financial markets not serve as a substitute for banks? This paper uses the economic histories of Brazil and Mexico as a natural laboratory to argue argue that when information is costly, government regulatory policies that constrain competition in banking give

Stephen Haber

131

Item Bank Development for a Revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)  

PubMed Central

The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is a useful clinical and research assessment but it has limitations in content, age range and efficiency. The purpose of this article is to describe the process used to develop the item bank for a new computerized adaptive test version of the PEDI (PEDI-CAT). An expanded item set and response scales were reviewed by clinician experts and examined at parent and clinician focus groups. Eleven parents participated in 32 cognitive interviews to examine content, format, and comprehension of items and responses. A revised set of self-care (n=76), mobility (n=78; walking aids n=13; wheelchair n=14) and social function (n=64) items with pictures and a 4-point ‘Difficulty’ scale were developed. Also, the PEDI’s Caregiver Assistance Scale was replaced by a ‘Responsibility Scale’ with 53 items. The new PEDI-CAT item bank covers a broader range of functional activities for children of all ages and abilities. PMID:20608855

Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Haley, Stephen M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kramer, Jessica M.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Moed, Richard

2013-01-01

132

Public Opinion on Foreign Policy: The Multilateral Public that Perceives Itself as Unilateral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans have a strong preference for multilateral for- eign policies over unilateral foreign policies. But do Americans know their own preferences? Data from a national survey show wide misper- ceptions of public opinion on foreign policy. While Americans strongly prefer multilateral policies, they overestimate public support for unilat- eral policies. For example, while only 23 percent of respondents agreed that

ALEXANDER TODOROV; ANESU N. MANDISODZA

2004-01-01

133

Application of a computerized vibroacoustic data bank for random vibration criteria development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized data bank system was developed for utilization of large amounts of vibration and acoustic data to formulate component random vibration design and test criteria. This system consists of a computer, graphics tablets, and a dry silver hard copier which are all desk top type hardware and occupy minimal space. Currently, the data bank contains data from the Saturn 5 and Titan 3 flight and static test programs. The vibration and acoustic data are stored in the form of power spectral density and one third octave band plots over the frequency range from 20 to 2000 Hz. The data were stored by digitizing each spectral plot by tracing with the graphics tablet. The digitized data were statistically analyzed, and the resulting 97.5 percent confidence levels were stored on tape along with the appropriate structural parameters. Standard extrapolation procedures were programmed for prediction of component random vibration test criteria for new launch vehicle and payload configurations. A user's manual is included to guide potential users through the programs.

Ferebee, R. C.

1982-01-01

134

The management and design of economic development projects: A case study of World Bank electricity projects in Egypt  

SciTech Connect

This study is concerned with the efficiency of World Bank projects in Egypt. The study seeks improvements in the methods of evaluating public sector projects in Egypt. To approaches are employed: (1) project identification to optimally allocate Egypt's and World Bank's resources; (2) project appraisal to assess the economic viability and efficiency of investments. The electricity sector is compared with the agriculture sector as a means of employing project identification for priority ordering of investment for development in Egypt. The key criteria for evaluation are the impacts of developments of each sector upon Egypt's national objectives and needs. These include employment opportunities, growth, alleviation of poverty, cross comparison of per capita consumption in each sector, economic rate of return, national security, balance of payments and foreign debt. The allocation of scarce investments would have been more efficient in agriculture than in electricity in meeting Egypt's national objectives and needs. World Bank lending programs in Egypt reveal a priority ordering of electricity over agriculture and rural development. World Bank development projects in Egypt have not been optimally identified, and its programs have not followed an efficient allocation of World Bank's and Egypt's resources. The key parameters in evaluating economic viability and efficiency of development projects are: (1) the discount rate (the opportunity cost of public funds); (2) the exchange rate; and (3) the cost of major inputs, as approximated by shadow prices of labor, water, electricity, and transportation for development projects. Alternative approaches to estimating the opportunity cost of public funds are made. The parameters in evaluating the efficiency of projects have not been accurately estimated in the appraisal stage of the World Bank projects in Egypt, resulting in false or misleading information concerning the economic viability and efficiency of the projects.

El Sabaa, S.M.

1992-01-01

135

Additional Notes on Application Guidelines for the Asian Development Bank-Japan Scholarship Program(ADB-JSP)  

E-print Network

Additional Notes on Application Guidelines for the Asian Development Bank-Japan Scholarship Program(ADB-JSP (ADB-JSP). This program is not offered for the Doctoral students. In addition to the Application Guidelines for the Special Course for Development Policy (2014 Master's Course), ADB-JSP applicants should

Banbara, Mutsunori

136

Additional Notes on Application Guidelines for the Asian Development Bank-Japan Scholarship Program(ADB-JSP)  

E-print Network

Additional Notes on Application Guidelines for the Asian Development Bank-Japan Scholarship Program(ADB-JSP (ADB-JSP). This program is not offered for the Doctoral students. In addition to the Application Guidelines for the Special Course for Development Policy(2013 Master's Course), ADB-JSP applicants should

Banbara, Mutsunori

137

Development of small carbonate banks on the south Florida platform margin: Response to sea level and climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geophysical and coring data from the Dry Tortugas, Tortugas Bank, and Riley's Hump on the southwest Florida margin reveal the stratigraphic framework and growth history of these carbonate banks. The Holocene reefs of the Dry Tortugas and Tortugas Bank are approximately 14 and 10 m thick, respectively, and are situated upon Pleistocene reefal edifices. Tortugas Bank consists of the oldest Holocene corals in the Florida Keys with earliest coral recruitment occurring at ???9.6 cal ka. Growth curves for the Tortugas Bank reveal slow growth (<1 mm/yr) until 6.2 cal ka, then a rapid increase to 3.4 mm/yr, until shallow reef demise at ???4.2 cal ka. Coral reef development at the Dry Tortugas began at ???6.4 cal ka. Aggradation at the Dry Tortugas was linear, and rapid (???3.7 mm/yr) and kept pace with sea-level change. The increase in aggradation rate of Tortugas Bank at 6.2 cal ka is attributed to the growth of the Dry Tortugas reefs, which formed a barrier to inimical shelf water. Termination of shallow (<15 m below sea level) reef growth at Tortugas Bank at ???4.2 cal ka is attributed to paleoclimate change in the North American interior that increased precipitation and fluvial discharge. Reef growth rates and characteristics are related to the rate of sea-level rise relative to the position of the reef on the shelf margin, and are additionally modified by hydrographic conditions related to climate change. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Mallinson, D.; Hine, A.; Hallock, P.; Locker, S.; Shinn, E.; Naar, D.; Donahue, B.; Weaver, D.

2003-01-01

138

A multilateral filtering method applied to airplane runway image  

E-print Network

By considering the features of the airport runway image filtering, an improved bilateral filtering method was proposed which can remove noise with edge preserving. Firstly the steerable filtering decomposition is used to calculate the sub-band parameters of 4 orients, and the texture feature matrix is then obtained from the sub-band local median energy. The texture similar, the spatial closer and the color similar functions are used to filter the image.The effect of the weighting function parameters is qualitatively analyzed also. In contrast with the standard bilateral filter and the simulation results for the real airport runway image show that the multilateral filtering is more effective than the standard bilateral filtering.

Yu, Zhang; Run-quan, Wang

2008-01-01

139

Internet banking and quality of service: Perspectives from a developing nation in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of this paper: With an enormous growth in Internet banking, this paper discusses how banks can be competitive by providing quality services. This paper measures the quality of service from customers' perspective Design\\/methodology\\/approach: This study is based on a questionnaire survey conducted in Saudi Arabia. Based on an extensive review of literature, the paper uses empirical research to analyze

M. Sadiq Sohail; Nassar M. Shaikh

2008-01-01

140

MEASURING BANK EFFICIENCY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF WAEMU (WEST AFRICAN ECONOMIC MONETARY UNION)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers to measure WAEMU banks efficiency and its determining factors, after the banking system reforms from 1993 to 1996. At this purpose, we use Data Envelopment Analysis method (DEA) for assessing technical efficiency and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for cost efficiency. Our results suggest similar evolutions for the two types of efficiency for every WAEMU countries apart from

Sandrine Kablan

141

The Development and Management of Banks of Performance Based Test Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symposium papers presented at an Annual Meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education (Chicago, 1972), all of which concern banks of test items for use in constructing criterion referenced tests, comprise this document. The first paper, "Locally Produced Item Banks" by Thomas J. Slocum, presents information on the procedures, staff…

Curtis, H. A., Ed.

142

AN ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK: CREDIT RISK CONTINGENCY AND THE SUBSIDY DEPENDENCE INDEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the backdrop of the Asian financial crisis, we offer an analysis of one financial institution, a government-operated bank in Thailand, the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC). This article ties the actual BAAC operating systems to the theory of an optimal allocation of risk bearing. We recommend accordingly a revised and more appropriate accounting of BAAC operations. That

Robert M. Townsend; Jacob Yaron

2002-01-01

143

Development of an Integrated Hydrologic Model to Explore the Feasibility of Water Banking and Markets in the Southwestern US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) are conducting SAHRA-related research aimed at developing an integrated physical and engineering hydrologic model for the purpose of investigating the feasibility of water banking and markets in the Rio Grande watershed. The main components of the integrated model will include a detailed representation of system behavior in (1) headwater areas (snow accumulation and

R. C. Naranjo; D. P. Boyle; G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; H. Gupta; D. Brookshire

2005-01-01

144

Emerging Regions, Persisting Rhetoric of Educational Aid: The Impact of the Asian Development Bank on Educational Policy Making in Kazakhstan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) discourses and practices in the context of its educational sector support in Kazakhstan. Drawing on the document analysis and interviews with the ADB staff and Kazakhstan's education officials, the article examines ADB's discursive and operational frameworks in this Central Asian country. The…

Asanova, Jazira

2006-01-01

145

Problems of Electronic Commerce applications in a developing country: A descriptive case study of the banking industry of Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet banking is a relatively new area and there are several issues, which have been generally untouched and are therefore open to further investigation, especially in the developing countries. Hence, this study is a step in this direction. This research has been focused on investigating to identify and highlight the main potential factors or impediments that are currently inhibiting the

Khamis N. Al-Gharbi; A. M. Khalfan; Ahmed M. Al-Kindi

2006-01-01

146

Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The

A. W. Howe; C. M. Keane

2003-01-01

147

Steps towards the adoption of the Logical Framework Approach in the African Development Bank: some illustrations for agricultural sector projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1988 the Operations Evaluation Office of the African Development Bank produced a report which highlighted three specific areas of weakness in completed projects: project design, project implementation and assessment of project effects. Many of the problems experienced could be resolved by adopting the Logical Framework Approach (LFA) and applying it at all stages of the project planning cycle. The

David Akroyd

1995-01-01

148

4.1 INTroDuCTIoN Recent research at the Asian Development Bank (ADB) on Asian regional  

E-print Network

4.1 INTroDuCTIoN Recent research at the Asian Development Bank (ADB) on Asian regional integration region has an important stake in an expanded Southeast Asian trade infrastructure. This is particularly a lesser extent) Viet Nam have long been at the margins of the more dynamic East and South Asian growth

Kammen, Daniel M.

149

The development and deployment of Common Data Elements for tissue banks for translational research in cancer - An emerging standard based approach for the Mesothelioma Virtual Tissue Bank  

PubMed Central

Background Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and the increasing demands for biomarker validation studies have catalyzed changes in the landscape of cancer research, fueling the development of tissue banks for translational research. A result of this transformation is the need for sufficient quantities of clinically annotated and well-characterized biospecimens to support the growing needs of the cancer research community. Clinical annotation allows samples to be better matched to the research question at hand and ensures that experimental results are better understood and can be verified. To facilitate and standardize such annotation in bio-repositories, we have combined three accepted and complementary sets of data standards: the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Cancer Checklists, the protocols recommended by the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology (ADASP) for pathology data, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registry (NAACCR) elements for epidemiology, therapy and follow-up data. Combining these approaches creates a set of International Standards Organization (ISO) – compliant Common Data Elements (CDEs) for the mesothelioma tissue banking initiative supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Methods The purpose of the project is to develop a core set of data elements for annotating mesothelioma specimens, following standards established by the CAP checklist, ADASP cancer protocols, and the NAACCR elements. We have associated these elements with modeling architecture to enhance both syntactic and semantic interoperability. The system has a Java-based multi-tiered architecture based on Unified Modeling Language (UML). Results Common Data Elements were developed using controlled vocabulary, ontology and semantic modeling methodology. The CDEs for each case are of different types: demographic, epidemiologic data, clinical history, pathology data including block level annotation, and follow-up data including treatment, recurrence and vital status. The end result of such an effort would eventually provide an increased sample set to the researchers, and makes the system interoperable between institutions. Conclusion The CAP, ADASP and the NAACCR elements represent widely established data elements that are utilized in many cancer centers. Herein, we have shown these representations can be combined and formalized to create a core set of annotations for banked mesothelioma specimens. Because these data elements are collected as part of the normal workflow of a medical center, data sets developed on the basis of these elements can be easily implemented and maintained. PMID:18397527

Mohanty, Sambit K; Mistry, Amita T; Amin, Waqas; Parwani, Anil V; Pople, Andrew K; Schmandt, Linda; Winters, Sharon B; Milliken, Erin; Kim, Paula; Whelan, Nancy B; Farhat, Ghada; Melamed, Jonathan; Taioli, Emanuela; Dhir, Rajiv; Pass, Harvey I; Becich, Michael J

2008-01-01

150

Bank Terminals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

1978-01-01

151

Behind the Multilateral Trading System: Legal Indigenization and the WTO in Comparative Perspective  

E-print Network

's core thesis is that the key elements of the legal tradition and culture of a society or political system inevitably and fundamentally influence the ways in which WTO members propose multilateral trading rules and implement their WTO obligations...

Xing, Lijuan

2012-05-31

152

Development of an Item Bank for the Assessment of Depression in Persons With Mental Illnesses and Physical Diseases Using Rasch Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The calibration of item banks provides the basis for computerized adaptive testing that ensures high diagnostic precision and minimizes participants’ test burden. The present study aimed at developing a new item bank that allows for assessing depression in persons with mental and persons with somatic diseases. Method: The sample consisted of 161 participants treated for a depressive syndrome, and

Thomas Forkmann; Maren Boecker; Christine Norra; Nicole Eberle; Tilo Kircher; Patrick Schauerte; Karl Mischke; Martin Westhofen; Siegfried Gauggel; Markus Wirtz

2009-01-01

153

World Bank challenge.  

PubMed

Founded in 1945 to meet the needs of post-war European reconstruction, the World Bank was formerly know as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. While Bank principals increasingly recognize the relationship between population growth and economic development, social investments in family planning have traditionally been less important than conventional Bank activities. Bank staff are generally maladroit in relating to demographic issues and favor carefully designed infrastructure projects over Third World social projects. Dr. Thomas Merrick has recently been appointed Senior Population Adviser to the World Bank. In this position, Dr. Merrick must accomplish the formidable task of convincing skeptical Bank economists that population is directly relevant to their work. He plans to argue the importance of population activities on a country- and issue-specific basis and stress population and family planning policies' bearing on capital formation, health, education, environment, job creation, urban development, and other Bank sectors. Dr. Merrick will also have to build up the number and competence of the World Bank's demographic staff. After having accomplished these internal tasks, the new Senior Population Adviser may also need to address the World Bank's tendency to work with recipient officials who give only low priority to borrowing for family planning. PMID:12344705

Carty, W P

1992-01-01

154

Human Milk Banking in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 30 milk banks existed in the early 1980s in the United States, whereas seven banks currently exist in the United States and one in Canada. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in human milk banks as evidenced by the number of institutions in various stages of developing new human milk banks. During 2003, North American milk banks

Kim Updegrove

2005-01-01

155

Bank for International Settlements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS), a creation of the Hague Conference of 1930, is "a[n international] central banking institution" whose aim is "to promote the co-operation of central banks and to provide additional facilities for international financial operations." Its web site provides a detailed profile of BIS, along with its basic texts and charters. However, the power of the site is its publication section, a small but growing list of full text publications (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), highlighted by the quarterly International Banking and Financial Market Developments, a "commentary on recent developments in international banking, securities and global derivatives markets based on partial information available for the [most recent quarter] and on more detailed banking data for [the previous quarter]." The site also contains BIS Review, "a collection of important articles and speeches by senior central bankers."

1997-01-01

156

Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the

S. I. Orewa

2008-01-01

157

Moving toward multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

Multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle are seen as a potentially important way to create an industrial infrastructure that will support a renaissance and at the same time not contribute to the risk of nuclear proliferation. In this way, international nuclear fuel cycle centers for enrichment can help to provide an assurance of supply of nuclear fuel that will reduce the likelihood that individual states will pursue this sensitive technology, which can be used to produce nuclear material directly usable nuclear weapons. Multinational participation in such mechanisms can also potentially promote transparency, build confidence, and make the implementation of IAEA safeguards more effective or more efficient. At the same time, it is important to ensure that there is no dissemination of sensitive technology. The Russian Federation has taken a lead role in this area by establishing an International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC) for the provision of enrichment services at its uranium enrichment plant located at the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex (AECC). This paper describes how the IUEe is organized, who its members are, and the steps that it has taken both to provide an assured supply of nuclear fuel and to ensure protection of sensitive technology. It also describes the relationship between the IUEC and the IAEA and steps that remain to be taken to enhance its assurance of supply. Using the IUEC as a starting point for discussion, the paper also explores more generally the ways in which features of such fuel cycle centers with multinational participation can have an impact on safeguards arrangements, transparency, and confidence-building. Issues include possible lAEA safeguards arrangements or other links to the IAEA that might be established at such fuel cycle centers, impact of location in a nuclear weapon state, and the transition by the IAEA to State Level safeguards approaches.

Panasyuk,A.; Rosenthal,M.; Efremov, G. V.

2009-04-17

158

DORMAN computer program (study 2.5). Volume 2: User's guide and programmer's guide. [development of data bank for computerized information storage of NASA programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DORMAN program was developed to create and modify a data bank containing data decks which serve as input to the DORCA Computer Program. Via a remote terminal a user can access the bank, extract any data deck, modify that deck, output the modified deck to be input to the DORCA program, and save the modified deck in the data bank. This computer program is an assist in the utilization of the DORCA program. The program is dimensionless and operates almost entirely in integer mode. The program was developed on the CDC 6400/7600 complex for implementation on a UNIVAC 1108 computer.

Wray, S. T., Jr.

1973-01-01

159

Trading Arrangements and Industrial Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

June 1997A new approach to analyzing the role of trade in promoting industrial development.How do different trading arrangements influence the industrialization process of developing countries? Can preferential trading arrangements (PTAs) be superior to multilateral liberalization, or at least an alternative when multilateral liberalization proceeds slowly? If so, what form should the PTAs take? Are developing countries better advised to seek

Anthony Venables; Diego Puga

1999-01-01

160

Pathways to Change: Improving the Quality of Education in Developing Countries. World Bank Discussion Papers 53.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of 21 educational change programs supported by 42 World Bank-assisted projects found that the most successful programs have a different profile than the less successful programs. The former aimed at comprehensive change, encompassing a wide range of objectives including administrative and management training and the provision of…

Verspoor, Adriaan

161

Issues in the Development of Multigrade Schools. World Bank Technical Paper Number 172.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multigrade schools, which combine students of different ages and abilities in one classroom under one teacher's direction, are supported by numerous World Bank projects. This paper aims to increase staff awareness of the complexity of such components and their economic and pedagogical benefits. Pedagogical techniques and outcomes form the core of…

Thomas, Christopher; Shaw, Christopher

162

Structural Development of an Oceanic Detachment Fault System, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In slow-spreading environments, both magmatic and tectonic processes accommodate spreading, where the latter can be manifested in the form of an extensional detachment fault system. The detachment fault system of Atlantis Bank, an oceanic core complex formed at the intersection of the Southwest Indian Ridge and the Atlantis II transform, is dissected by transform-parallel normal faults that provide unique cross-sections through all levels of the detachment fault system. Gabbros and peridotite collected in ODP Hole 735B and with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 were located structurally beneath, within, and above the main detachment fault surface along the exposed length of the detachment fault system that correspond to roughly 2 Ma of crustal accretion. The samples are ideal for interpreting the process of strain localization and fabric development associated with the formation of oceanic detachment faults. Analysis of the{ \\it in situ} dive samples and continuous core from Hole 735B indicate that the main shear zone associated with the detachment fault is at least 500m thick. The deepest levels of the shear zone are characterized by a 50-m thick zone of unfoliated or weakly foliated granulite grade rocks. The granulite deformation continues upward but is strongly overprinted by a 150-m zone of penetrative amphibolite facies protomylonitic and mylonitic fabrics. A 300-m thick zone of well-foliated amphibolite facies rocks lies above the overprinted granulite. The amphibolites contain 20-30 mm wide, fine-grained shear zones that increase in abundance upward towards the main, brittle detachment fault. These rocks exhibit a greenschist grade deformation characterized by a cataclastic overprint of crystal-plastically deformed plagioclase and brown amphibole within the layers of the mylonitic foliation, and the growth of green amphibole "coronas" around brown amphibole; these relationships preserve the transition from high-temperature ductile deformation to lower-temperature brittle deformation. Samples located structurally above the main detachment fault show pervasive brittle fabrics that crosscut existing foliations. Plagioclase is replaced almost entirely by epidote. Fractures that cut across foliations are filled with chlorite, prehnite or epidote. All of these characteristics are consistent with an episode of faulting located structurally above the shear zone associated with the detachment fault system. Rocks involved in extensional deformation were originally diabase, gabbro and peridotite, all with clasts of highly altered and bent pyroxene or amphibole, in a matrix of extremely fine-grained phyllosilicates including chlorite and talc. Final slip on the detachment fault system was of a brittle nature in lowest greenschist and subgreenschist grade. Preliminary results suggest that strain localization associated with detachment faulting was promoted by a combination of small grain size, the presence of weak phyllosilicates, and the infiltration of fluids.

Miranda, E. A.; John, B. E.; Hirth, G.; Dick, H.

2002-12-01

163

Social reporting by islamic banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last thirty years have witnessed the appearance and rapid expansion of Islamic banking both inside and outside the Islamic world. Islamic banks provide financial products that do not violate Sharia, the Islamic law of human conduct. The Islamic principles upon which the banks claim to operate give an important role to social issues. Applying these principles, we develop a

Bassam Maali; Peter Casson; Christopher Napier

2006-01-01

164

ARE MULTILATERAL MALARIA RESEARCH AND CONTROL PROGRAMS THE MOST SUCCESSFUL? LESSONS FROM THE PAST 100 YEARS IN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilateral malaria research and control programs in Africa have regained prominence recently as bilat- eral assistance has diminished. The transnational nature of the threat and the need for inspired leadership, good coordination, and new discoveries to decrease the impact of the disease has led to the founding of the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria, the Roll Back Malaria Project, Global Fund

MARTIN S. ALILIO; IB C. BYGBJERG; JOEL G. BREMAN

2004-01-01

165

The “missing links” between Islamic development objectives and the current practice of Islamic banking – the experience of the Sudanese Islamic banks (SIBs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To vindicate whether or not there are signs of social and developmental role in the current practice of Islamic banking in Sudan, a criterion required by the rules guiding the Islamic circulation of money and investment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The objective of the paper is to draw attention to this important, but neglected aspect of Islamic finance, by assessing

Badr El Din A. Ibrahim

2006-01-01

166

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Program on Radiation and Tissue Banking: a Successful Program for Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its inception the IAEA program in radiation and tissue banking supported the establishment of twenty five tissue banks in different countries. Now more than 103 tissue banks are now operating in these countries. The production of sterilized tissues has grown in an exponential mode within the IAEA program. From 1988 until the end of 2000 the production of sterilized

Jorge Morales Pedraza

2006-01-01

167

Paying for Education: How the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund Influence Education in Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the roles of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank from 1980 to the present, distinguishing between two types of impacts they exert in the education sector of borrowing countries (the World Bank's direct involvement in education and economic reform and Structural Adjustment Programs financed by the IMF and World Bank). The…

Alexander, Nancy C.

2001-01-01

168

Large-scale carbonate platform development of Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas, and implications for associated reef geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bahama Archipelago consists of an arcuate chain of carbonate platforms. Average water depths on the platform-tops, such as the Great Bahama Bank (GBB), are typically 10 m or less, with coral reef-rimmed margins, thick sediment accumulations, and the frequent occurrence of islands. There are, however, exceptions. For example, Cay Sal Bank (CSB), a little studied detached Bahamian carbonate platform with depths ranging from 30 to 7 m, is only slightly deeper than the GBB, but devoid of islands, lacks platform-margin coral reefs and holds little sediment on the platform-top; the platform is incipiently drowned. CSB is interesting as it is conspicuously larger (6000 sq. km) than other incipiently drowned platforms in the region, such as Serranilla Bank (1100 sq. km) and the Cat Island platform (1500 sq. km). Field and remote sensing data are assembled to provide insight into the sedimentology and geomorphology of the CSB. The influence of ocean climate, regional hydrodynamics, and Holocene flooding history are investigated to understand why platform-margin coral reef growth on CSB has been unable to keep pace with Holocene sea-level rise. A decade of regional sea-surface temperature data for the Bahamas report CSB to be situated in the same ocean climate regime as GBB. Temperature cannot explain the platform's different morphologies. The Florida Current has been evoked as a possible reason for the immature development of platform-top processes on the CSB, but numeric modeling suggests its influence to be restricted to the deep flanks of the bank. Further, sediment distribution on CSB, including infill patterns of karst depressions, suggest trade winds (easterlies) to drive platform-top hydrodynamics. By assembling a satellite-derived bathymetry map, it can be shown that CSB flooded earlier and at relatively higher rates of Holocene sea-level rise than its neighboring platforms. Flooding history is identified as the most feasible explanation for the atypical morphology of the CSB. By contrasting the present-day morphology of the CSB and the GBB, the work emphasizes how subtle differences in relative sea-level history can influence the growth of platform-margin coral reefs, features that in turn can conspire to set even closely neighboring carbonate platforms on divergent paths with regard to the development of marine landforms. This insight is relevant to interpreting the morphological diversity of carbonate platforms in the modern ocean and in the rock record.

Purkis, Sam; Kerr, Jeremy; Dempsey, Alexandra; Calhoun, Andrew; Metsamaa, Liisa; Riegl, Bernhard; Kourafalou, Villy; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip

2014-10-01

169

Development of an Integrated Hydrologic Model to Explore the Feasibility of Water Banking and Markets in the Southwestern US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) are conducting SAHRA-related research aimed at developing an integrated physical and engineering hydrologic model for the purpose of investigating the feasibility of water banking and markets in the Rio Grande watershed. The main components of the integrated model will include a detailed representation of system behavior in (1) headwater areas (snow accumulation and melt); (2) surface reservoirs and conveyance systems (operational surface reservoirs, river routing, and diversions/returns); (3) regional and near river aquifers; (4) agricultural demand and uses; and (5) urban and industrial demand and uses. Existing models of several of these components have been identified and will be included, to some degree, in the final integrated model (e.g., URGWOM, MMS-PRMS, and various USGS groundwater models). Coupling of existing and new models of each component to create the final completely integrated model requires a detailed understanding of the problem requirements (what questions are being asked) and the data (what information is available in the hydrologic data). Once developed and tested, the integrated model will be used with the economic "Market" model and "Behavior" model to investigate several water market and banking scenarios.

Naranjo, R. C.; Boyle, D. P.; Lamorey, G.; Bassett, S.; Gupta, H.; Brookshire, D.

2005-12-01

170

Flexible Controller Design of Bilateral Grasping Systems Based on a Multilateral Control Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel bilateral grasping control system including master-slave robots with different degree of freedom. The master and slave controllers are designed based on a multilateral control scheme. Decoupling design of force and position controllers is realized by mode transformation using the discrete Fourier transform matrices and a disturbance observer. In the proposed system, a human operator manipulates

Ryogo Kubo; T. Shimono; K. Ohnishi

2009-01-01

171

Multilateral Transport Games F.B. Shepherd, G.T. Wilfong  

E-print Network

explore a cooperative game theoretic model that accounts for such coalitional behaviour. One objective coalition game, predicting player behaviours usually involves assuming that the grand coalition (iMultilateral Transport Games F.B. Shepherd, G.T. Wilfong Bell Laboratories 600 Mountain Ave. Murray

Wilfong, Gordon

172

Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

173

U.S. Trade Policy: The Emergence of Regional and Bilateral Alternatives to Multilateralism  

E-print Network

- 1 - U.S. Trade Policy: The Emergence of Regional and Bilateral Alternatives to Multilateralism Excerpts from Existing Papers: Cobbled Together for University of Sussex Trade Conference September 28 #12;- 2 - Historical Overview of Postwar U.S. Trade Policy From the 1940's, when the postwar

Sussex, University of

174

Why did the People’s Development Bank of Mozambique fail? Lessons from successful government development banks from Asia and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many decades of experimentation with supplier-led approaches to credit in many developing countries, limited success has been achieved in terms of improving access to credit for smallholder farmers. In the case of Mozambique, previous attempts by government to improve access to credit for farmers were not successful and the government is looking for more effective strategies. The purpose of

Anina Trefina Manganhele

2010-01-01

175

Bank Mergers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News exaimnes the recent flurry of merger activities in the banking sector. The ten resources discussed provide the details of the recent three big banking mergers and the likely effects on efficiency, lending and consumers. On April 6, 1998, Citibank, the second largest bank in America, announced that it will be merging with Travelers Group, a large financial services firm, in a deal worth $80 billion -- the largest merger deal ever. Only a week later, BankAmerica announced it would merge with NationsBank to create the first coast-to-coast bank in America, in a deal worth $60 billion. The third deal took place on the same day, when First Chicago NBD and Banc One announced they will be merging in a deal valued at $30 billion.

Ng, Thiam H.

176

Heads in the clouds, feet in the sand: Multilateral policy coordination in global environmental issues  

SciTech Connect

This is a study of how issues that can only be solved through cooperation (such as commons issues) reach the international agenda and how states then form policy on those issues. Extensive primary data are used in analyzing (1) accession of stratospheric ozone depletion and global climate change to the international agenda and (2) the policy formation of ten states on these issues. This study shows that commons issues reach the international agenda through the actions of intergovernmental organizations in defining the problem, and the political activities of a leader state (such as the US on ozone) or a state acting as a policy entrepreneur. In the extensive literature on international cooperation most studies emphasize the importance of system level variables. Adapting the two-level games approach to multilateral issues, this study argues that, as commons issues do not directly threaten the security of most states, state policy on such issues primarily reflects domestic political necessities. In effect, foreign and domestic policy on such issues become unified. Through analysis of secondary and primary data, including more than 30 interviews with representatives of both developed states (the US, Canada, the UK, and Japan) and developing states (Brazil, India, Algeria, Mexico, and Thailand), and the Soviet Union, this study shows how domestic factors influenced foreign policy decisions and actions. The study shows that states seem to be less interested in absolute or relative gains in international negotiations that in maximizing domestic political rewards from its choice of foreign policy. Finally, through study of the accession of the global climate change issue it is appears that knowledge may be politically derived. States required a {open_quotes}consensus{close_quotes} among the technical experts before initiating the international negotiations. Politics seems to have played a large part in forming the technical consensus and in communicating it to states.

Harrison, N.E.

1994-12-31

177

THE IMPORTANCE OF DEFAULT RISK TO AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS: AN EXAMPLE FROM EL SALVADOR \\/ L'IMPORTANCE DU RISQUE DE NON-SOLVABILITE DANS LES BANQUES DE DEVELOPPEMENT: L'EXPERIENCE DU SALVADOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many agricultural development banks in developing countries the Agricultural Development Bank of EI Salvador suffers from low rates of return on assets. This paper uses a model of lending costs developed by Baker and Bottomly to identify the relative importance of the three components of lending cost. The risk premium for default is found to be the largest component,

Gerald C. Nelson; Ricardo Cruz-Letona

1991-01-01

178

Mile High Wetland Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site listed here is provided by an environmental consulting firm that works with commercial and private landowners to establish Wetland Banks. An innovative concept (and growing reality) that has received mixed reviews from scientists, Wetland Banking attempts to combine the goals of developers (i.e., to develop a certain area) and wetland conservationists (i.e., to maintain/ restore areas of intact wetlands). If misused, this approach could work against wetland conservation; if properly instated, however, Wetland Banking might offer an alternative to the currently poor success rate of wetland mitigation projects. This resource by Mile High Wetlands Group, LLC, offers background information on Wetland banking, with an emphasis on the Group's local area (Colorado).

179

Japanese Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

How did the Japanese achieve their unrivalled position in world banking? This book provides the first full account in English of the banking industry in Japan for the century following the opening of the country to the outside world in 1859. Professor Tamaki begins by considering the period of experimentation during the Meiji Restoration which resulted in the adoption of

Norio Tamaki

180

The developmental impact of the financed environmental projects of the development bank of the Philippines in the promotion of equity and sustainable development.  

PubMed

The Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP), the first Philippine bank to be ISO 140001 certified, plays a vital role in promoting environmental protection, health, and safety. It continues to play a proactive role in integrating environmental investments into development projects. In order to show its commitment to environmental protection and sustainable development, DBP integrates and implements environmental considerations into all aspects of its operations and services, assets management, and business decisions. It has instituted various credit programs that support the adoption of environmental technologies and continues to provide credit support to environment-friendly industrial operations; this is one of its major thrusts. The environmental credit programs are geared toward the promotion of the protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment. The objective of this research study was to determine the developmental impact of the DBP financed environmental projects in attaining sustainable development. It specifically identifies the number and amount of loan exposures on the different projects financed and the environmental benefits for the period January 2005 to December 2006. PMID:18991901

Lucero, Noli B

2008-10-01

181

The African Development Bank, structural adjustment, and child mortality: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment adversely impacts child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We use generalized least square random effects regression models and two-step Heckman models that correct for selection bias using data on 35 nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). We find substantial support for our hypothesis, which indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of child mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for selection bias on whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nation receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We conclude by discussing the methodological implications of the article, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research. PMID:23821909

Pandolfelli, Lauren E; Shandra, John M

2013-01-01

182

Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community.  

PubMed

The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".(1) Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues--which are often not acknowledged by commentators--that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). PMID:11479358

Wagstaff, A

2001-08-01

183

12 CFR 7.1010 - Postal service by national bank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Powers § 7.1010 Postal service by national bank. (a) General. A national bank may maintain and operate a postal substation...letters and packages, and the sale of related insurance. The bank may advertise, develop, and extend the...

2010-01-01

184

12 CFR 7.1010 - Postal service by national bank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Powers § 7.1010 Postal service by national bank. (a) General. A national bank may maintain and operate a postal substation...letters and packages, and the sale of related insurance. The bank may advertise, develop, and extend the...

2011-01-01

185

12 CFR 25.26 - Small bank performance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appropriate, other lending-related activities located in the bank's assessment...and (4) The bank's responsiveness through such activities to community development lending, investment... (d) Small bank performance...

2010-01-01

186

12 CFR 228.26 - Small bank performance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appropriate, other lending-related activities located in the bank's assessment...and (4) The bank's responsiveness through such activities to community development lending, investment... (d) Small bank performance...

2010-01-01

187

Learning from All? The World Bank, Aid Agencies and the Construction of Hegemony in Education for Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the nature and quality of the participation that characterises the Bank's consultations with external actors and examines the extent to which the Bank is responsive to such feedback when it comes to defining its policy preferences and strategies in the education domain. It draws on a case study of the participatory process…

Verger, Antoni; Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

2014-01-01

188

A new generation of multilateral well enhances small gas field economics  

E-print Network

A NEW GENERATION OF MULTILATERAL WELL ENHANCES SMALL GAS FIELD ECONOMICS A Thesis by JEAN-PHILIPPE ATSE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... GAS FIELD ECONOMICS A Thesis by JEAN-PHILIPPE ATSE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Richard A...

Atse, Jean-Philippe

2004-09-30

189

Utilizing Distributed Temperature and Pressure Data To Evaluate The Production Distribution in Multilateral Wells  

E-print Network

for their willingness to serve as members on this thesis committee and for being always available to help and comment on my work as needed. Finally, many thanks to the great Saudi community in College Station, TX for making our stay here so enjoyable. Among my Saudi... are Relative to Vertical Wells in $/BPD .............................................................. 2 Figure 1.2: A Typical Multilateral Well Drilled in Saudi Arabia; This is a Trilateral Wells...

Al Zahrani, Rashad Madees K.

2012-07-16

190

Occupational Task Analyses for the Development of Business Education Model Curricula with Emphasis on Banking and Financial Occupations. State Technical Committee Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, prepared for the Delaware State Board of Education and the State Department of Public Instruction, is intended to assist individuals developing curricula to prepare students for entry-level positions in various banking and financial occupations. It is divided into three sections, each of which consists of a cross-referenced listing of…

Delaware State Board for Vocational Education, Milford.

191

The Aftermath of the Withdrawal of the World Bank Counterpart Funding for the Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of the World Bank in the funding of the Nigerian Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs) has shown that a properly functioning extension service with positively disposed government policy can help transform agriculture in the country. This study used data from ninety-six (96) farmers and sixteen (16) extension officers of the Ogun State ADP to examine the implications and aftermath

K. Adebayo; I. A. Idowu

2001-01-01

192

Executive Development Programs in Bangladesh. Phase I, Final Report. A Component of the World Bank/Bangladesh Management Education and Training Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With funding made available by the World Bank, activities were undertaken in Bangladesh to enhance business management education and training. A model for management development was explained and carried through with the Commerce Faculty of the University of Chittagong. Steps in the model were as follows: (1) analysis of the current status of…

McLean, Gary N.

193

Branch Banking, Bank Competition, and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often argued that branching stabilizes banking systems by facilitating diversification of bank portfolios; however, previous empirical research on the Great Depression offers mixed support for this view. Analyses using state-level data find that states allowing branch banking had lower failure rates, while those examining individual banks find that branch banks were more likely to fail. We argue that

Mark Carlson; Kris James Mitchener

2005-01-01

194

Branch Banking, Bank Competition, and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often argued that branching stabilizes banking systems by facilitating diversification of bank portfolios; however, previous empirical research on the Great Depression offers mixed support for this view. Using data on national banks from the 1920s and 1930s, we show that branch banking raises the level of competition and increases exit from the banking system. This consolidation strengthens the

Mark Carlson; Kris James Mitchener

2006-01-01

195

A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects  

SciTech Connect

Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Khwaja, S. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-01-01

196

Development of a National Item Bank for Tests of Driving Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials intended for driving knowledge test development use by operational licensing and education agencies were prepared. Candidate test items were developed, using literature and operational practice sources, to reflect current state-of-knowledge with respect to principles of safe, efficient driving, to legal regulations, and to traffic…

Pollock, William T.; McDole, Thomas L.

197

World Bank: News & Broadcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From logistics to international development, the World Bank's News & Broadcast website is worth bookmarking, particularly for public policy types, international affairs scholars, and anyone with a penchant for global matters. The homepage presents a news area, complete with icons which indicate whether there is video or audio associated with each item. Not only is it a good way to learn about the World Bank's activities, it is another way to stay on top of economic development strategies, political unrest, and foreign investment patterns. Visitors to the site can search all of the media available here, look over the World Bank's YouTube channel, and sign up for their RSS feed. Those persons looking for specific types of information can find a number of categories, including "Speeches", and "Issue Briefs".

198

Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The goal of ESWIB is to provide a variety of users with free access to high-quality geoscience images and technical art gathered from photographers, government organizations, and scientists. Each image is cataloged by location, author, image rights, and a detailed description of what the image shows. Additionally, images are cataloged using keywords from AGI's precise Georef indexing methodology. Students, teachers, and the general public can search or browse and download these images for use in slide show presentations, lectures, papers, or for other educational and outreach uses. This resource can be used for any age level, in any kind of educational venue. Users can also contribute images of their own to the database through the ESWIB website. AGI is scanning these images at a very high resolution (16 x 20 inches) and depending on the author's rights, is making high-resolution copies (digital or print) available for non-commercial and commercial purposes. This ImageBank is different from other photo sites available in that the scope has more breadth and depth than other image resources, and the images are cataloged with a very high grade of detail and precision, which makes finding needed images fast and easy. The image services offered by ESWIB are also unique, such as the low-cost commercial options and high quality image printouts. AGI plans on adding more features to ESWIB in the future, including connecting this resource to the up-coming online Glossary of Geology, a geospatial search option, using the images to make generic PowerPoint presentations that teachers can use and/or modify for their classes, lesson plans related to using the ImageBank, and a `photo of the day' section that will highlight a particular photo which stands out. AGI began work on this project in August of 2002 with the initial scanning and editing of images. ESWIB currently has over 1,300 images cataloged and searchable through the database homepage. In addition to the cataloged images, there are approximately 6,700 images waiting to be edited and cataloged, and over 10,000 images identified for submission at this point. AGI is constantly soliciting images in an attempt to expand the database. Through press releases, e-mail announcements, and our member societies, AGI publicized the launch of ESWIB in June of 2003. Since the launch, ESWIB has received over 300,000 image views as well as publicity in Space Daily, Russian and German news sites, various links through science websites, and most recently in Science Magazine's NetWatch section (August 29th, 2003).

Howe, A. W.; Keane, C. M.

2003-12-01

199

Implications of bank failures and fluvial erosion for gully development: Field observations and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gully erosion is most commonly triggered by fluvial erosion following natural and anthropogenic disturbances or as a response to changes in climate and tectonic forcing and base level drop. Field observations attribute the headward growth and widening of many gully systems to gravitational mass-wasting processes of oversteepened sidewalls. Soil saturation, groundwater sapping, and tension crack development contribute to the instability. Recent landscape evolution models treat such mass failures as slope-dependent continuous sediment transport processes, sometimes conditioned on a slope threshold or with nonlinear dependence on slope gradient. In this study we first present an explicit physically based theory for the stability analysis of gully heads and walls. The theory is based on the force balance equation of an assumed planar failure geometry of a steep gully wall, with a potential failure plane dipping into the incised gully bed and tension cracks developing behind the scarp face. Then, we test the theory against field data collected in our field site in Colorado and against other published data. Second, the theory is implemented in a one-dimensional hillslope profile development model and the three-dimensional channel-hillslope integrated landscape development (CHILD) to study the effects of soil cohesion, erosion thresholds, and stochastic climate on the tempo of gully development and morphology. Preliminary results indicate that wider and shallower gullies develop and integrate, forming wide valleys, when soil cohesion is small. As soil cohesion increases, erosion slows down, gullies become deeper with vertical walls, and episodic mass failures occur. Differences in storm intensity-duration characteristics and erosion thresholds are predicted to have a significant impact on gully development. Vertical gully walls develop rapidly, and gullies enlarge by slab failures in a climate characterized by high-intensity, short-duration storm pulses. However, under low-intensity, long-duration storms, gullies quickly stabilize, and vertical walls are eliminated and rounded, forming diffusion-dominated hilltops. Erosion thresholds have a similar impact on the tempo of gully erosion but in the opposite direction. Lowering the erosion threshold enhances gully widening by slab failures. Gully walls stabilize when the erosion threshold is high due to a reduction in the erosion of the failure material on the toe of gully walls.

Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Bras, Rafael L.; Flores-Cervantes, Homero; Tucker, Gregory E.

2005-03-01

200

Development of a Web Site for a Commercial Bank Corporate Library in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the creation, development, and implementation of a corporate library Web site. It gives details of how the author was motivated to deliver Web-based services to the users of the library as a provision of improved services. A brief introduction of the library and its existing services are given. The leadership and management practices that were followed together

Shivanthi Weerasinghe

2004-01-01

201

World Bank Pension reforms and development patterns in the world system and in the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper compares the cross national effects of pension reform on 33 indicators of social, economic, political and ecological well-being of nations with the effects on these 33 variables by dependency, the adherence to the advice by international financial institutions, world political or world cultural identities; the aging process; feminism, militarism; the public education effort and the development level.

Arno Tausch

2005-01-01

202

Developing an Item Bank for Use in Testing in Africa: Theory and Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes the steps taken by a research team, of which she was part, to develop a specific methodology for assessing student attainment in primary school, working with the Programme for the Analysis of Education Systems (PASEC) of the Conference of Ministers of Education of French-speaking Countries (CONFEMEN). This methodology provides…

Furtuna, Daniela

2014-01-01

203

Trends in Private Sector Development in World Bank Education Projects. Policy Research Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The private sector is playing an increasingly important role in financing and providing educational services in many countries. (Often the term "private sector" encompasses households' out-of-pocket expenses rather than describing for-profit or not-for-profit sectors.) Private sector development has not arisen primarily through public policy…

Sosale, Shobhana

204

The Disciplinary Monopoly in Development Research at the World Bank Forthcoming in Global Governance, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

unmatched in terms of the volume, quality, a nd impact of its work on development issues. Among other things, its staff publish in the most prestigious scholarly and applied journals; they help produce, analyze, and disseminate the househ old surveys used to determine whether global poverty is rising or falling; they work closely w ith client counterparts ar ound the

Vijayendra Rao; Michael Woolcock

205

Banking, Inside Money and Outside Money  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated theory of money and banking. I address the following question: when both individuals and banks have private information, what is the optimal way to settle debts? I develop a dynamic model with micro-founded roles for banks and a medium of exchange. I establish two main results: first, markets can improve upon the optimal dynamic contract

Hongfei Sun

2007-01-01

206

Capital regulation and banks' financial decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a stochastic dynamic model to examine the impact of capital regulation on banks' financial decisions. In equilibrium, lending decisions, capital buffer and the probability of bank failure are endogenously determined. Compared to a flat-rate capital rule, a risk-sensitive capital standard causes the capital requirement to be much higher for small (and riskier) banks and much lower for

Haibin Zhu

2007-01-01

207

Modeling the implications of fluvial erosion and bank failures on gully development and growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploring landscape development due to gully erosion has been an important component in Michael J. Kirkby's scientific career. Gully erosion is most commonly triggered by fluvial erosion due to natural and anthropogenic disturbances, or as a response to changes in climate and tectonic forcing, and base level drop. Field observations suggest that following the development of fluvial incisions, headward growth and widening of many gully systems can be attributed to the instability and collapse of steepened gully walls. Soil saturation, sapping and development of tension cracks contribute to the instability. Recent landscape evolution models treat such mass failures as slope dependent continuous sediment transport processes, sometimes conditioned on a slope threshold or with nonlinear dependence on slope gradient. In this study, first we present a theory for stability analysis of gully head and walls. The theory is based on force balance equation of an assumed planar failure geometry of a steep gully wall, with a potential failure plane dipping to the incised gully bed. We consider development of vertical tension cracks behind the face of the gully head that extend down to the failure plane. In the theory, storm water infiltrates in the tension cracks and generates hydrostatic forces in the vertical crack face, and uplift forces along the failure plane. During storms, water level in the crack is related to steady-state basin hydrology. In our model when tension cracks are either dry or completely filled with runoff water, instability occurs when headcut height exceeds a critical threshold (higher for the dry case). For the case when cracks are partially filled, our theory predicts an inverse relationship between headcut height and drainage area. We used field observations in Colorado and another published data set to test our model. Second, we have implemented this theory in the CHILD landscape evolution model and explored the effects of soil cohesion, erosion thresholds and climate on the tempo of gully development and morphology of eroding gullies. Preliminary results indicate that wider and shallower gullies develop and integrate forming wide valleys, when soil cohesion is small. As soil cohesion increases, gullies become deeper with steeper walls and episodic mass failures occur. Introducing a high runoff erosion threshold produces gentler headcuts. Variations in storm duration and intensity are predicted to have a significant impact on gully morphology.

Istanbulluoglu, E.; Flores, H.; Bras, R.; Tucker, G.

2003-12-01

208

Natural gas in developing countries: Evaluating the benefits to the environment. World Bank discussion paper  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the size of the natural gas resource in the developing countries, gives a broad indication of its costs, and outlines its main environmental benefits as an alternative fuel. It discusses the opportunities presented by new (and old) technology for using natural gas in an efficient way to reduce air pollution and relates that to recent developments in international concerns over the world's environment. The paper gives a perspective on the extent of flaring of natural gas in the petroleum industry and on the amount of emissions of the greenhouse gases of methane and carbon dioxide during production and use. It establishes a data source for many of the parameters necessary to derive both a country and a global perspective of the opportunities for natural gas.

Homer, J.

1993-01-01

209

Seed banks of a river–reservoir wetland system and their implications for vegetation development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Danjiangkou Reservoir, constructed in 1970s, is the water source area of the middle route of China's interbasin South-to-North Water Transfer Project. To serve such purpose, the Danjiangkou Reservoir Dam will be increased from its present 162.0m to 176.6m, and its regular water level from 157m to 170m above mean sea level. Vegetation development in the new reservoir margins is

Wenzhi Liu; Quanfa Zhang; Guihua Liu

2009-01-01

210

Duke Data Bank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA computerized image processing techniques are an integral part of a cardiovascular data bank at Duke University Medical Center. Developed by Dr. C. F. Starmer and colleagues at Duke, the data bank documents the Center's clinical experience with more than 4,000 heart patients as an aid to diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Data is stored in a computerized system that allows a physician to summon detailed records of former patients whose medical profiles are similar to those of a new patient. A video display (photo) and printed report shows prognostic information for the new patient based on similar past experience.

1979-01-01

211

BioBanking - The Holy Grail of novel drug and diagnostic developments?  

PubMed Central

The ever increasing social cost that society pays for illness and disease are currently steadily increasing in many countries in the world today. These changes in society becomes a major financial burden that activates politicians and health care organizations in order to find new solutions. Biobanks are becoming the new powerful modality within the field of modern Life Science, that is expected to be important in the proactive awareness of patient health status. Biobanks are also expected to promote the developments of targeted treatments with personalized indicator assays, for effective use of Personalized Medicine treatments in the near future. PMID:21884630

2011-01-01

212

World Bank: China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has a number of marvelous country profile websites, and their site dedicated to China is top-notch. It's not just a simple demographic overview of this dynamic country; it is a series of meditations on the state of their economy, political culture, urban development, and other affairs. First-time users will want to look at the "Country-At-A-Glance" section at the top of the homepage to get a thumbnail sketch of the country's current state of affairs. Over on the left-hand side of the page, visitors can look over the "Projects & Programs" area, which talks about the Bank's activities in the country, which include energy efficiency projects and sustainable biodiversity conservation works. Moving on, the "What's New" area features opinion pieces from World Bank officials, press releases, and information about lending policies. Users are also invited to sign up for their RSS feed and email updates here.

213

Misteriosa Bank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This SeaWiFS view shows the Misteriosa Bank between Cuba and the Yucatan peninsula. The Cayman islands are visible in the center of the image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

214

HPCwire Job Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HPCwire Job Bank has become the matchmaker site of choice for bringing together the best talent and the leading employers in HPC commercial computing, research, academia, and the entire ecosystem of suppliers and users of HPC systems and technology, representing career opportunities in hardware, software, middleware, sales, marketing, consulting, design, development, engineering, research, testing, customer support and production.

215

Janus Serum Bank  

Cancer.gov

The Janus Serum bank was established in order to collect and store blood samples from presumably healthy individuals for future use in cancer research. The intention was to obtain information on factors important in the pathogenesis and etiology of cancer by examining blood samples obtained during the preclinical stage or latent period before the tumor has developed.

216

Banking on it: public policy and the ethics of stem cell research and development.  

PubMed

If the therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapies is ever realized, demand for stem cells and derivative tissues will be tremendous and will create new challenges for health care systems, especially publicly funded health care systems. We propose a framework for the ethical analysis of stem cell research and development that considers the welfare of communities, tissue recipients, and cell sources in relation to a range of stem cell production and distribution options. Ethical desiderata include: equitable access, maximized potential therapeutic benefit across demographic and disease groups, and reasonable cost. Other ethical priorities include the minimization of stem cell line and tissue wastage, risk of immune rejection, risk of transmitting diseases, the use of human embryos, and risk to those contributing source cells. We array plausible sources of stem cells and distribution strategies to characterize 12 potential models for producing and distributing cells and tissues in the future. We describe "personalized", "matched", and "universalized" models, and compare the ethical acceptability of these models. Popular and scientific discourses about stem cells typically emphasize personalized or matched stem cell distribution models. We show that universalized models may ultimately best serve the interest of taxpayers, communities and patients who hold high stakes in the therapeutic success of stem cell science. They are therefore highly worthy of scientific pursuit. This conclusion is provisional and the framework must be reapplied as scientific knowledge, technological capacity and ethical mores evolve. PMID:17590489

Giacomini, Mita; Baylis, Francoise; Robert, Jason

2007-10-01

217

Water resources management. World Bank policy paper  

SciTech Connect

Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have not taken sufficient account of environmental concerns in the management of water resources. (Copyright (c) 1993 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

Easter, K.W.; Feder, G.; Le Moigne, G.; Duda, A.M.; Forsyth, E.

1993-01-01

218

General Banking Conditions 2009 General Banking Conditions  

E-print Network

or to the integrity of the financial system. 3 Activities and objectives The Customer provides information to the Bank activities. The Bank may give goods, docu- ments of title, securities or financial instruments that belongGeneral Banking Conditions 2009 r #12;#12;1 General Banking Conditions (Version 2009

Franssen, Michael

219

Central banking, free banking, and financial crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Summary View In the Keynesian view, the central bank is a part of an extramarket remedy to a market malady. Investment markets are inherently unstable; government control of the economy's money supply is an important element in macroeconomic stabilization policy. The case against central banking—and for free banking—reverses the characterization of both remedy and malady. Free banking is a

Roger W. Garrison

1996-01-01

220

Study of feasible and sustainable multilateral approach on nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

Despite the Fukushima accident it is undeniable that nuclear power remains one of the most important methods to handle global growth of economic/energy consumption and issues with greenhouse gases. If the demand for nuclear power increases, the demand for not only the generation of power but also for refining uranium (U), conversion, enrichment, re-conversion, and fuel manufacturing should increase. In addition, concerns for the proliferation of 'Sensitive Nuclear Technologies' (SNT) should also increase. We propose a demand-side approach, where nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) activities would be implemented among multiple states. With this approach, NFC services, in particular those using SNTs, are multilaterally executed and controlled, thereby preventing unnecessary proliferation of SNTs, and enabling safe and appropriate control of nuclear technologies and nuclear materials. This proposal would implement nuclear safety and security at an international level and solve transport issues for nuclear fuels. This proposal is based on 3 types of cooperation for each element of NFC: type A: cooperation for 3S only, services received; Type B: cooperation for 3S, MNA (Multilateral Nuclear Activities) without transfer of ownership to MNA; and Type C cooperation for 3S, MNA holding ownership rights. States involved in the 3 types of activity should be referred to as partner states, host states, and site states respectively. The feasibility of the proposal is discussed for the Asian region.

Kuno, Y.; Tazaki, M. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, 4-49 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan); Akiba, M.; Takashima, R.; Izumi, Y.; Tanaka, S. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

2013-07-01

221

The Quality of Education and Economic Development. A World Bank Symposium. Papers prepared for the Conference of the World Bank Research Committee (Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, May 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research findings on the economic implications of investments in the quality of education are examined in this report. "The Quality of Education and Economic Growth: A Review of Literature" (Lewis C. Solmon) reviews evidence on ways to develop educational policy that would stimulate economic growth in developing countries. "School Quality…

Heyneman, Stephen P., Ed.; White, Daphne Siev, Ed.

222

Timing of fire relative to seed development may enable non-serotinous species to recolonize from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of non-serotinous, non-sprouting species in fire regimes where serotiny confers an adaptive advantage is puzzling, particularly when these species recruit poorly from soil seed banks or from burn edges. In this paper, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) was used to show how the timing of fire relative to seed development may permit non-serotinous species to recolonize burned areas from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees. To estimate survival of seeds within closed cones during crown fires, cone heating was simulated using a one-dimensional conduction model implemented in a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics fire behavior model. To quantify the area burned when germinable seed would be contained within closed cones during a mast year, empirical fire occurrence and seed development (germinability and cone opening) data were compared for multiple locations across the white spruce range. Approximately 12% of cones contained viable seed following crown fire simulations (0.072 m s-1 mean spread rate; 9147 kW m-1 mean intensity), and roughly half of the historical area burned resulted from fires that occurred when closed cones would contain germinable seed. Together, these results suggest that non-serotinous species may recolonize burned areas from in situ aerial seed banks, and that this may be an important cause of their existence in fire regimes to which they otherwise seem poorly suited.

Michaletz, S. T.; Johnson, E. A.; Mell, W. E.; Greene, D. F.

2013-07-01

223

Automated Information Management In Public Administration; Present Developments and Impacts. Part I; Conclusions by the Data Bank Panel. Part II; Automated Information Management in Public Administration; Present Developments and Impact (by Klaus Lenk).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report by the Computer Utilization Group which was set up in 1960 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consists of two parts: 1) a brief statement of conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for research by the data bank panel and a list of the panel members and 2) the background report prepared by Klaus…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

224

Risks and return of banking activities related to hedge funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are approximately 10,000 hedge funds worldwide, managing assets of over USD 1.5 trillion. Investment banking activities are more and more intertwined with hedge funds, as hedge funds obtain financing from banks through prime brokerage and are clients or counterparties of banks for all sorts of products. The development of hedge funds has therefore created many opportunities for investment banks.

J P. Mustiers; A. Dubois

2007-01-01

225

International capital, indigenous accumulation and the state in Papua New Guinea: the case of the Development Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been asserted about the comprador status of the bourgeoisie in Africa and the way it has been blackenised at the behest of old colonial powers and new international agencies such as the World Bank. Scott MacWilliam takes up this issue which has been extended to Australia's former colony of Papua New Guinea to show whether and how an

Scott MacWilliam

1986-01-01

226

Socioeconomic obstacles to HIV prevention and treatment in developing countries: the roles of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.  

PubMed

This paper explores the socioeconomic obstacles to HIV prevention and treatment in developing countries. The opening sections explain the historical origins of structural adjustment programs and their characteristics. Structural adjustment programs undermine the social fabric of many developing countries, and potentially promote behaviors which place people at increased risk of HIV infection. The authors discuss the declining sustainability of the rural subsistence economy, development of a transportation infrastructure, migration and urbanization, and reductions in spending on health and social services. Social and economic interventions are needed to stem the spread of HIV and care for those who are already infected. While a substantial amount of biomedical research has been conducted, socioeconomic aspects of the AIDS epidemic have often been ignored. For HIV transmission in developing countries to be substantially reduced, economic policies which may have promoted the spread of disease must be modified. An alternative development strategy consists of satisfying people's basic human needs, shifting from an export-driven economy to diversified agricultural production in the interest of securing regional self-sufficiency, supporting marginal producers and subsistence farmers, and placing greater emphasis upon human resource development in developing countries. Moreover, the IMF and World Bank need to change their policy to one which is truly about cooperative development, while the charters of the IMF and World Bank need to be altered to permit the cancellation or rescheduling of debt. These institutions should also play a leading role in the restructuring of debt owed to private lenders. PMID:7662190

Lurie, P; Hintzen, P; Lowe, R A

1995-06-01

227

Branch Banking as a Device for Discipline: Competition and Bank Survivorship during the Great Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because California was a pioneer in the development of large-scale branching, we use its experience during the 1920s and 1930s to assess the effects of branching on competition and on the stability of banking systems. Using individual bank balance sheets, income statements, and branch establishment data, we show that smaller incumbent banks responded to the entry of a large branch

Mark Carlson

2009-01-01

228

The development of common data elements for a multi-institute prostate cancer tissue bank: The Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR) experience  

PubMed Central

Background The Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR) is a consortium of four geographically dispersed institutions that are funded by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to provide clinically annotated prostate cancer tissue samples to researchers. To facilitate this effort, it was critical to arrive at agreed upon common data elements (CDEs) that could be used to collect demographic, pathologic, treatment and clinical outcome data. Methods The CPCTR investigators convened a CDE curation subcommittee to develop and implement CDEs for the annotation of collected prostate tissues. The draft CDEs were refined and progressively annotated to make them ISO 11179 compliant. The CDEs were implemented in the CPCTR database and tested using software query tools developed by the investigators. Results By collaborative consensus the CPCTR CDE subcommittee developed 145 data elements to annotate the tissue samples collected. These included for each case: 1) demographic data, 2) clinical history, 3) pathology specimen level elements to describe the staging, grading and other characteristics of individual surgical pathology cases, 4) tissue block level annotation critical to managing a virtual inventory of cases and facilitating case selection, and 5) clinical outcome data including treatment, recurrence and vital status. These elements have been used successfully to respond to over 60 requests by end-users for tissue, including paraffin blocks from cases with 5 to 10 years of follow up, tissue microarrays (TMAs), as well as frozen tissue collected prospectively for genomic profiling and genetic studies. The CPCTR CDEs have been fully implemented in two major tissue banks and have been shared with dozens of other tissue banking efforts. Conclusion The freely available CDEs developed by the CPCTR are robust, based on "best practices" for tissue resources, and are ISO 11179 compliant. The process for CDE development described in this manuscript provides a framework model for other organ sites and has been used as a model for breast and melanoma tissue banking efforts. PMID:16111498

Patel, Ashokkumar A; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Berman, Jules J; Bosland, Maarten; Datta, Milton W; Dhir, Rajiv; Gilbertson, John; Melamed, Jonathan; Orenstein, Jan; Tai, Kuei-Fang; Becich, Michael J

2005-01-01

229

The effect of demand elasticity on security prices for the PoolCo and multi-lateral contract models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimum power flows and security constrained power flows assume that customer demand is a fixed quantity. In the new competitive environment, it is necessary to assume that demand is elastic and will vary as a function of price. A critical element in any competitive model, whether it be a PoolCo or a multi-lateral contract model, is for a system operator

R. Rajaraman; J. V. Sarlashkar; F. L. Alvarado

1997-01-01

230

World Bank: Annual Report 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank's Annual Report and the website that accompanies the report are full of data about the world's 79 poorest countries that the World Bank aids through its International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association. The 32-page report covers the period from July 2009 to June 2010. Visitors will find that the website for the Report contains a lot of interactive features for a better understanding of the global poverty situation which the World Bank is trying to help alleviate. The "Data & Research" tab near the top of any page has an "At a Glance" section that features several "Analytical Tools". Visitors won't want to miss the "iSimulate", which allows for performing macroeconomic simulations; "ADePT", which is a software platform for automated economic analysis; and "PovCalNet", which is a poverty analysis tool that "assess[es] global poverty incidence figures."

231

The Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM): a perspective from the first co-ordinator.  

PubMed

If research against malaria is to have a major impact on health, then all available resources and expertise must be harnessed for maximal effect. Bringing together scientists, funding organisations and disease control experts, the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM) has made significant progress since its creation in 1997 in promoting and co-ordinating scientific research against malaria. Enhancing global collaboration, mobilizing resources, promoting capacity building in Africa and strengthening links between research and control are major emphases of MIM. The initiative primarily acts through drawing together diverse international research activities, setting well considered priorities, and promoting effective targeting of energies and funds. This article is a personal view on MIM contributed by the Wellcome Trust as the nominated co-ordinator during 1998 and part of 1999. It aims to set out the rationale for MIM, to explain the principles of its operation and to illustrate achievement during its first phase. PMID:14513941

Davies, C S

2001-01-01

232

A Multilateral Use and Processing of A Large Bibliographic Database for Research Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explain the multilateral use of bibliographic database in research activities, nuclear fusion research field as the comprehensive science was selected. The processing method of the above mentioned database is mainly described. Considering advantages of the bibliographic and indexed information of such database, its use is classified into three types: 1. To use for reference information, 2. To obtain facts and knowledge from information, and 3. To process and analyse information. Each sample corresponding to the above is introduced as follows, and the usefulness of a large scale database is made clear. 1) Use of online search in research activities, 2) Construction of scientific terms list utilizing keywords and their frequency in the database, and 3) To analyse bibliographic information metrically and evaluate research. This is an application of scientometrics.

Konishi, Osamu; Obayashi, Haruo

233

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking  

E-print Network

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking Job Code 0203 � Level 6 CIBC is a leading and services to 11 million individual, small business, commercial, corporate and institutional clients Group of Companies please visit CIBC.com. Job Overview The Commercial Banking Associate Program provides

Northern British Columbia, University of

234

Is bank supervision central to central banking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several central banks have lost their bank supervisory responsibilities, in part because it has not been shown that supervisory authority improves the conduct of monetary policy. This paper finds that confidential bank supervisory information could help the Board staff more accurately forecast important macroeconomic variables and is used by FOMC members to guide monetary policy. These findings suggest that

Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

1999-01-01

235

Development and calibration of an item bank for the assessment of activities of daily living in cardiovascular patients using Rasch analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To develop and calibrate the activities of daily living item bank (ADLib-cardio) as a prerequisite for a Computer-adaptive test (CAT) for the assessment of ADL in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods After pre-testing for relevance and comprehension a pool of 181 ADL items were answered on a five-point Likert scale by 720 CVD patients, who were recruited in fourteen German cardiac rehabilitation centers. To verify that the relationship between the items is due to one factor, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. A Mokken analysis was computed to examine the double monotonicity (i.e. every item generates an equivalent order of person traits, and every person generates an equivalent order of item difficulties). Finally, a Rasch analysis based on the partial credit model was conducted to test for unidimensionality and to calibrate the item bank. Results Results of CFA and Mokken analysis confirmed a one factor structure and double monotonicity. In Rasch analysis, merging response categories and removing items with misfit, differential item functioning or local response dependency reduced the ADLib-cardio to 33 items. The ADLib-cardio fitted to the Rasch model with a nonsignificant item-trait interaction (chi-square=105.42, df=99; p=0.31). Person-separation reliability was 0.81 and unidimensionality could be verified. Conclusions The ADLib-cardio is the first calibrated, unidimensional item bank that allows for the assessment of ADL in rehabilitation patients with CVD. As such, it provides the basis for the development of a CAT for the assessment of ADL in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Calibrating the ADLib-cardio in other than rehabilitation cardiovascular patient settings would further increase its generalizability. PMID:23914735

2013-01-01

236

Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

Orewa, S. I.

237

Commercial Bank and Bank Holding Company Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Report of Condition and Income database, provided by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, contains financial data for all banks regulated by the Federal Reserve System, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Comptroller of the Currency. Merger Data contains information on all "bank acquisitions and mergers since 1985." The Merger Data is available in either ASCII or SAS format. Quarterly Call Report Data contains "income and balance sheet items for all the banks" from the first quarter of 1989. The data are on an individual bank basis and are downloadable in zipped SAS transport data file format.

238

World Bank: Globalization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The word globalization is thrown around with reckless abandon by numerous parties these days, and as a result, the very notion of such a force is somewhat elusive. While this website from the World Bank may not end all of the fierce academic and pragmatic debates that rage on about globalization, it does offers some perspective from this organization on this wide-ranging phenomenon. The site itself contains audio and video selections, issue briefs, a data and statistics section, and an area dedicated to current research on the subject underway by the World Bank. The issue briefs are definitely worth a look as they address such questions as What is Globalization? and Does More International Trade Openness Increase World Poverty? The selection of videos is also quite nice, particularly a recent talk by Michael Moore (the former director-general of the World Trade Organization) entitled Globalization & Development: Its Implications & Institutions.

239

What Do People Think about Disabled Youth and Employment in Developed and Developing Countries? Results from an E-Discussion Hosted by the World Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though there are good examples of people with disabilities mainstreamed in the labour market (Bruyere et al., 2004), the situation is still far from being positive, particularly when labour markets are in constant flux due to rapid globalization and technological change, unless new approaches are adopted. In light of this, the World Bank

Roggero, Paola; Tarricone, Rosanna; Nicoli, Marco; Mangiaterra, Viviana

2006-01-01

240

Investment Banks Goldman Sachs  

E-print Network

Financial Corporation PNC Bank Wachovia Asset Management Firms Acadian Asset Management Alliance CapitalInvestment Banks Goldman Sachs Merrill Lynch Morgan Stanley UBS Bear Stearns JP Morgan Chase Brown Brothers Harriman Fidelity HSBC Money Center Banking Bank of America CIBC Citigroup Mellon

Aronov, Boris

241

Central bank Financial Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have

J. Ramon Martinez-Resano

2004-01-01

242

International banking facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Reserve Board permitted banking offices located in the United States to establish International Banking Facilities (IBFs) beginning in December 1981. The purpose was to allow these banking offices to conduct a deposit and loan business with foreign residents, including foreign banks, without being subject to reserve requirements or to the interest rate ceilings then in effect. IBFs are

Henry S. Terrell

1988-01-01

243

Item Banks: What, Where, Why and How.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses item banks calibrated to indicate levels of difficulty to assist in test development. The item bank topics discussed are: (1) purpose; (2) development issues; (3) advantages and disadvantages; and (4) practical issues. The most common issues are content validity, reliability, concerns with software purchase and programming,…

Anzaldua, Ric M.

244

Causal ordering and 'The bank lending channel'  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bank lending channel implies the Federal Reserve can influence real income by controlling the level of intermediated loans. Using the notion of causality developed by Simon (1953) and the causal order methodology developed by Hoover (1990), I test for an operative bank lending channel in the transmission mechanism of monetary policy. I find loans did cause real income; there

Stephen J. Perez

1998-01-01

245

Adoption of Internet Banking: An Integrated Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banking sector in China has been substantially influenced by the development of the Internet. As more and more financial institutions launch their Internet banking services, examinations of factors critical to customer adoption decisions become increasingly important. Based on the UTAUT model, the D&M model, and the concept of trust, a comprehensive research model was developed and empirically examined, using responses

Dong Cheng; Gang Liu; Yuan-Fang Song; Cheng Qian

2008-01-01

246

World Bank: Anticorruption [pdf[  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its many different guises, corruption around the world tends to affect the poor, who are often the most reliant on the provision of public services, and are also least likely to be able to pay the extra costs associated with bribery and fraud. The World Bank has identified corruption as "the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development," and thusly has set up this anticorruption website to serve as an online resource for policy-makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other interested parties. On the site, the World Bank lays out its strategy for combating corruption, which includes increasing political accountability, strengthening civil society participation, and improving public sector management. The site also contains a number of helpful resources, such as toolkits for assessing government performance in this area, and information and reports on various regional and country-based approaches to dealing with corruption. The site is rounded out by a calendar of events and key strategy documents, such as "Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance, A World Bank Strategy."

247

Towards a global consensus on matters of science : how process and membership can generate valid and sustainable science advice in multilateral environmental treaty negotiations  

E-print Network

In most multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), science advisory bodies (SABs) are tasked with producing guidance on scientific aspects of the problem. SABs are a necessary infrastructure of global environmental ...

Kohler, Pia M. (Pia Marili)

2006-01-01

248

Capacity building on systems engineering, management and projects control for the nanosatc-br cubesat development program - library & data-bank building up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Capacity Building (CB) on Systems Engineering, Management && Projects Control for the Brazilian NANOSATC-BR Cubesat Development Program - library && data-bank building up results are presented. The Program && its CB involves a partnership between the INPE's Southern Regional Space Research - CRS/INPE - MCTI and the Federal University of Santa Maria - UFSM, through the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory LACESM/CT - UFSM. The NANOSATC-BR Program consists of two nanosatellites, the NANOSATC-BR1, a 1U standard CubeSat, that is predicted to be launched in the first semester of 2014 (the first Brazilian CubeSat which will be launched) and the NANOSATC-BR2 - 2U CubeSat, which is expected to be launched in the first semester of 2015. The main goal of this paper is to introduce the application of Systems Engineering, Management && Projects Control documentation methodologies in the library building up and data-bank procedures for the CB, Program and its Projects: NANOSATC-BR 1 && 2. These CB, Program and Projects have support from the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB).

Farias, Tiago Travi; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Lourencena Caldas Franke, Lucas; Moro, Pietro Fernando; Ramos Manica, Thales; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.; Jaenisch, Guilherme Paul; Escobar B, Eduardo; Zavareze da Costa, Leonardo; Balestrin, Maurício Ricardo; Camargo Silveira, Iago; Francisco Mozzaquatro Wen, João

249

A new approach to select multi-lateral well candidates using a fuzzy-logic based computer model  

E-print Network

good candidates for applying multi-lateral technology. 1. 3 Expert Systems Expert systems have been used in the past to help engineers design matrix acidizing treatments, hydraulic fracturing treatments, and other drilling and production design... of the mechanical configuration of the wellbore, and the mechanical stability/hydraulic isolation of the junction. Seven different levels of complexity have been identified. These levels are discussed below. ~ Level I: 0 en hole/unsu orted Junction The Open hole...

Colmenares Diaz, Luis Carlos

2012-06-07

250

Stream Bank Stability in Eastern Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dredged and straightened channels in eastern Nebraska have experienced degradation leading to channel widening by bank failure. Degradation has progressed headward and affected the drainage systems upstream from the modified reaches. This report describes a study that was undertaken to analyze bank stability at selected sites in eastern Nebraska and develop a simplified method for estimating the stability of banks at future study sites. Bank cross sections along straight reaches of channel and geotechnical data were collected at approximately 150 sites in 26 counties of eastern Nebraska. The sites were categorized into three groups based on mapped soil permeability. With increasing permeability of the soil groups, the median cohesion values decreased and the median friction angles increased. Three analytical methods were used to determine if banks were stable (should not fail even when saturated), at risk (should not fail unless saturated), or unstable (should have already failed). The Culmann and Agricultural Research Service methods were based on the Coulomb equation and planar failure; an indirect method was developed that was based on Bishop's simplified method of slices and rotational failure. The maximum angle from horizontal at which the bank would be stable for the given soil and bank height conditions also was computed with the indirect method. Because of few soil shear-strength data, all analyses were based on the assumption of homogeneous banks, which was later shown to be atypical, at least for some banks. Using the Culmann method and assuming no soil tension cracks, 67 percent of all 908 bank sections were identified as stable, 32 percent were at risk, and 1 percent were unstable; when tension cracks were assumed, the results changed to 58 percent stable, 40 percent at risk, and 1 percent unstable. Using the Agricultural Research Service method, 67 percent of all bank sections were identified as stable and 33 percent were at risk. Using the indirect method, 62 percent of all bank sections were identified as stable and 31 percent were at risk; 3 percent were unstable, and 3 percent were outside of the range of the tables developed for the method. For each of the methods that were used, the largest percentage of stable banks and the smallest percentage of at risk banks was for the soil group with the lowest soil permeability and highest median cohesion values. A comparison of the expected stable bank angles for saturated conditions and the surveyed bank angles indicated that many of the surveyed bank angles were considerably less than the maximum expected stable bank angles despite the banks being classified as at risk or unstable. For severely degraded channels along straight reaches this was not expected. It was expected that they would have angles close to the maximum stable angle as they should have been failing from an oversteepened condition. Several explanations are possible. The channel reaches of some study sites have not yet been affected to a significant degree by degradation; study sites were selected throughout individual basins and severe degradation has not yet extended to some sites along upper reaches; and some reaches have experienced aggradation as degradation progresses upstream. Another possibility is that some bank sections have been affected by lateral migration processes, which typically result in shallow bank angles on the inside bend of the channel. Another possibility is that the maximum expected stable bank angles are too steep. The stability methods used were well established and in essential agreement with each other, and there was no reason to question the geometry data. This left non-representative soil data as a probable reason for computed stable bank angles that, at least in some cases, are overly steep. Based on an examination of the cohesion data, to which the stable bank-angle calculations were most sensitive, both vertical and horizontal variability in soil properti

Soenksen, Phillip J.; Turner, Mary J.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Simon, Andrew

2003-01-01

251

World Bank Annual Report 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1997 edition of this report, which chronicles the activities of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) for the last fiscal year, discusses Bank programs, operations, financial highlights, and approved projects. Central to this report are the detailed regional progress reports. The full report, excluding the financial statements, is available in HTML. The full report with financial statements can be obtained in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format (250 pages, arranged in sections). Interested users may refer to the 1996 Annual Report (discussed in the December 20, 1996 Scout Report).

Bank., World

1997-01-01

252

The World Bank and poverty.  

PubMed

During the 1970s it was World Bank policy to use its funds to raise the productivity and living standards of the poor. It has increased its lending for sector and subsectors considered to offer the most direct benefits to the poor such as rural development, population, health, and nutrition. Projects with particular emphasis on poverty have benefitted large numbers of poor people and have had good economic rates of return. Lending for rural projects increased in the 1970s from US$2.6 billion in 1969-73 to over US$13 billion in 1978-81; rural development projects audited in 1979 benfitted 660 small farmers for every US$1 million loaned compared with 47 farmers/US$1 million in other agricultural projects. Some problems are: 1) low-risk technical packages appropriate for poor farmers in semi-arid rainfed areas are not readily available; 2) the Bank's rural development strategy seeks mainly to raise the production of small farms, but other aspects need to be emphasized; 3) domestic pricing and postharvest policies often undermine the success of projects aimed at the rural poor; and 4) success in rural development often rests on sociological and cultural factors, difficult areas that deserve more attention. For urban areas the Bank has strongly endorsed providing "sites and sources" instead of structures; since 1972, 52 Bank projects centered on urban shelter involving US$1.6 billion have been undertaken. Cost recovery is established at 66-95%. About 5% of Bank lending is for education and despite the importance of population, health, and nutrition, these areas absorb less than 1% of the Bank's total lending program. Only US$400 million in population loans were made to 13 countries in the 1970s and only recently have separate health projects been started. Emphasis for the 1980s must be on rural development, urban shelter, primary education, health, education, and population. PMID:12338639

Lipton, M; Shakow, A

1982-06-01

253

Intelligent Question Bank and Examination System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question bank can be described as the databank that keeps all the examination questions whether pre-existing or created by user while web based examination system is an online assessment tool that used to evaluate students' performance. In this paper, we develop and implement an online Intelligent Question Bank and Examination System (IQBAES), which make use of open source technology. This

ANG TAN FONG; HU HENG SIEW; LIP YEE; LIEW CHEE SUN

2006-01-01

254

Sustainable Competence: A Study of a Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Decentralization and company cultures have emerged to master increasing external flexibility, as in a competitive bank in Sweden, raising issues of the sustainability in terms of competence and competence development. The purpose of this paper is to study how the staff members in a bank perceive a company culture and how this perception…

Hagstrom, Tom; Backstrom, Tomas; Goransson, Susanna

2009-01-01

255

Buffered banks in multiprocessor systems  

SciTech Connect

A memory design based on logical banks is analyzed for shared memory multiprocessor systems. In this design, each physical bank is replaced by a logical bank consisting of a fast register and subbanks of slower memory. The subbanks are buffered by input and output queues which substantially reduce the effective cycle time when the reference rate is below saturation. The principal contribution of this work is the development of a simple analytical model which leads to scaling relationships among the efficiency, the bank cycle time, the number of processors, the size of the buffers, and the granularity of the banks. These scaling relationships imply that if the interconnection network has sufficient bandwidth to support efficient access using high-speed memory, then lower-speed memory can be substituted with little additional interconnection cost. The scaling relationships are shown to hold for a full datapath vector simulation based on the Cray Y-MP architecture. The model is used to develop design criteria for a system which supports 192 independent reference streams, and the performance of this system is evaluated by simulation over a range of loading conditions. 22 refs.

Robbins, K.A.; Robbins, S. [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-04-01

256

Essays on informal banking  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three theoretical essays that examine the role of time-inconsistent preferences in informal banking. The first two chapters focus on specific banking institutions, while the third studies ...

Basu, Karna

2006-01-01

257

Banking and Financial Systems. Curriculum Guide. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides course materials for teachers to use in developing a course in banking and financial systems. Following an introductory section that lists the common essential elements of the course, the guide contains six sections that cover the following course topics: (1) introduction to banking and financial systems; (2) banking

Patton, Jan

258

WHO USES INTERNET BANKING IN TURKEY AND WHY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey has a developed banking sector which has a very important place in Turkish economy. Internet banking applications started in 1997. Though it does not have a long history it has a very huge potential in the Turkish market. The aim of this paper is to explore if demographical factors are important in identifying the target customers for internet banking;

Ömür Y. Saatçio?lu

259

Evolution of Banking Structure: Industrial Policy and Deregulation  

E-print Network

development in the region. Therefore, the competition environment in the East Asian banking should attention to the role of banking sector in the East Asian industrialisation, which influenced its 591622 ISSN 1745-9648 #12;2 1. Introduction Throughout the last decade, the East Asian banking industry

Feigon, Brooke

260

WORKING PAPER N 2010 -39 Looking on English and German banking  

E-print Network

and development in France (1880-1913) Guillaume Bazot JEL Codes: G21, N13, N23, O14, O31 Keywords: Local banking1-10Feb2011 #12;Looking on English and German Banking in the French Mirror : Banking and Development. The relation is all the more strong since local banking tied on non agricultural eco- nomies. Thus, we open

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Using Communication Support in Projects. The World Bank's Experience. World Bank Staff Working Papers, Number 551.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to assist World Bank staff and officials in deciding when and how to include communication support activities in Bank-financed development projects, this paper describes the use of planned communications to encourage participation in projects by certain groups of people, to improve institutional efficiency and staff development, and to…

Perrett, Heli E.

262

Snow Bank Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Local professors teamed up with a fourth-grade teacher to show students the similarities and differences between sedimentary rock layers and snow banks. Students observed and drew snow banks and explored the effects of melting and salting on the snow banks.

Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

263

Branch Banking as a Device for Discipline: Competition and Bank Survivorship During the Great Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because California was a pioneer in the development of intrastate branching, we use its experience during the 1920s and 1930s to assess the effects of the expansion of large-scale, branch-banking networks on competition and the stability of banking systems. Using a new database of individual bank balance sheets, income statements, and branch establishment, we examine the characteristics that made a

Mark Carlson; Kris James Mitchener

2007-01-01

264

Md Abul Basher - Empowerment of Microcredit Participants and Its Spillover Effects: Evidence from the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh - The Journal of Developing Areas 40:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes how participation in microcredit program helps to reduce the fertility rate. By using the data from the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh, the paper also examines whether the accomplished empowerment of the microcredit borrower remains limited only to economic activities or also reflected in their non-economic activities. The results show that the Grameen Bank transforms its participants from

2007-01-01

265

Population and the World Bank.  

PubMed

The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program. PMID:12257161

Sankaran, S

1973-12-01

266

Developing a new stream metric for comparing stream function using a bank-floodplain sediment budget: a case study of three Piedmont streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bank and floodplain sediment budget was created for three Piedmont streams tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. The watersheds of each stream varied in land use from urban (Difficult Run) to urbanizing (Little Conestoga Creek) to agricultural (Linganore Creek). The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between geomorphic parameters and sediment dynamics and to develop a floodplain trapping metric for comparing streams with variable characteristics. Net site sediment budgets were best explained by gradient at Difficult Run, floodplain width at Little Conestoga Creek, and the relation of channel cross-sectional area to floodplain width at Linganore Creek. A correlation for all streams indicated that net site sediment budget was best explained by relative floodplain width (ratio of channel width to floodplain width). A new geomorphic metric, the floodplain trapping factor, was used to compare sediment budgets between streams with differing suspended sediment yields. Site sediment budgets were normalized by floodplain area and divided by the stream's sediment yield to provide a unitless measure of floodplain sediment trapping. A floodplain trapping factor represents the amount of upland sediment that a particular floodplain site can trap (e.g. a factor of 5 would indicate that a particular floodplain site traps the equivalent of 5 times that area in upland erosional source area). Using this factor we determined that Linganore Creek had the highest gross and net (floodplain deposition minus bank erosion) floodplain trapping factor (107 and 46, respectively) that Difficult Run the lowest gross floodplain trapping factor (29) and Little Conestoga Creek had the lowest net floodplain trapping factor (–14, indicating that study sites were net contributors to the suspended sediment load). The trapping factor is a robust metric for comparing three streams of varied watershed and geomorphic character, it promises to be a useful tool for future stream assessments.

Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg

2013-01-01

267

Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability  

PubMed Central

Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research. Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine are leading to the development of a bioeconomy, 'a world where biotechnology contributes to a significant share of economic output'. Consequently, stem cell banks are destined to constitute a pillar of the bioeconomy in many countries. While certain ethical and legal concerns are specific to the nature of stem cells, stem cell banking could do well to examine the approaches fostered by tissue banking generally. Indeed, the past decade has seen a move to simplify and harmonize biological tissue and data banking so as to foster international interoperability. In particular, the issues of consent and of traceability illustrate not only commonalities but the opportunity for stem cell banking to appreciate the lessons learned in biobanking generally. This paper analyzes convergence and divergence in issues surrounding policy harmonization, transnational sharing, informed consent, traceability and return of results in the context of stem cell banks. PMID:20923580

2010-01-01

268

12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS LIABILITIES... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The...

2012-01-01

269

12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS LIABILITIES... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The...

2013-01-01

270

12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.  

... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS LIABILITIES... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The...

2014-01-01

271

Bahrain's offshore banking center  

SciTech Connect

The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

1983-01-01

272

World Bank: Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank does a great deal of development work throughout Africa, and it is by far the largest provider of assistance on the continent. As of 2007, their portfolio of projects under implementation was over $19 billion. They are also involved with working with a wide range of government partners on the "Africa Action Plan", which is concerned with everything from reducing and mitigating violent conflicts to promoting private sector-led growth and job creation. Visitors can learn about the Plan on the site, and they can also utilize the drop-down menus on the homepage to learn about initiatives and topics in every country on the continent. Along the left-side of the homepage, visitors can explore a number of thematic areas, such as "Data & Statistics", "Development Topics", and "Partnerships". Additionally, visitors with very specific needs can look under the "Resources For" area. Here there are resources organized for government officials, businesses, youth, and so on.

2007-11-28

273

Central Bank Independence and inflation: the case of Colombia. 1924 - 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the link between central bank independence and inflation for the case of Colombia. It develops a theoretical framework concerning central bank independence and inflation. It concludes that central bank independence is an important feature for reducing inflation and partially solvind the problem of time inconsistency, assuming the existence of a monetary dominant regime Central Bank Independence has

José Manuel Restrepo

2000-01-01

274

Information externality, bank structure, and growth  

E-print Network

, it examines factors that contribute to the promotion of economic growth that come from a concentrated banking system. There is substantial evidence of a positive relationship between financial markets development and long term output growth. Little is known...

Doh, Bo-Eun

2004-09-30

275

The World Bank and pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

Within less than a decade the World Bank has become the largest single source of finance (loans) for health in low and middle income countries as well as a major player in the field of pharmaceuticals. Often 20-50% of the recurrent government health budget in developing countries is used to procure drugs. Drugs are among the most salient and cost-effective elements of health care and often a key factor for the success of a health sector reform. However, pharmaceuticals are frequently being used irrationally, mainly due to market imperfections in health care, such as information asymmetries, leading to serious health problems and a heavy financial burden on the health system. Lending priorities set by the World Bank could be used to promote public health sector reform, leading to the rational use of affordable and available drugs of good quality in developing countries. This report provides the first analysis of World Bank activity in the pharmaceutical sector worldwide. The analysis of 77 staff appraisal reports, describing the planning phase of World Bank country projects, shows that 16% of the total World Bank health, nutrition and population budget, or approximately US$1.3 billion, has been committed to loans or credits supporting pharmaceutical activities in the programme countries between 1989-95. Roughly US$1.05 billion has been committed to procurement of drugs and medical equipment. Only 5% of the total pharmaceutical sector lending is committed to software components such as drug policy work and rational use of drugs. No more than 45% of the projects were developed in collaboration with pharmaceutical expertise. The World Bank is recommended to improve its pharmaceutical sector involvement by promoting drug policy research and development including national and international dialogue on pharmaceutical issues to ensure rational use of both drugs and loans. In this, the World Bank has an advantage given its experience from working with both the private and the public sector, its in-house expertise in health economics, and lastly its ability to be listened to by governments through its power. PMID:10731235

Falkenberg, T; Tomson, G

2000-03-01

276

How to Develop and Use In-Basket Simulations: A Case Study in the Selection of Bank Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature on in-basket exercises, their use in assessment, and advantages in predicting managerial success. An account of the development of an in-basket exercise to assess job candidates covers design team establishment, exercise selection, task determination and material collection, scoring key development, and pilot study and field…

Kemerer, Richard; Wahlstrom, Merlin

1984-01-01

277

Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research.\\u000a Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins\\u000a and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine\\u000a are leading to the development of a

Bartha M Knoppers; Rosario Isasi

2010-01-01

278

Bank Secrecy Act: Suspicious Activity Report Use Is Increasing, but FinCEN Needs to Further Develop and Document Its Form Revision Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To assist law enforcement agencies in their efforts to combat money laundering, terrorist financing, and other financial crimes, the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) requires financial institutions to file suspicious activity reports (SAR) to inform the federal gov...

2009-01-01

279

Banking Scope and Financial Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the implications of financial system design for financial innovation. We begin with assumptions about the investment opportunities of firms, their observable attributes, and the roles of commercial banks, investment banks, and the financial market. We examine the borrower's choice between bank and financial market funding, the commercial bank's choice of monitoring capacity, and the investment bank's choice of

Arnoud W A Boot; Anjan V Thakor

1997-01-01

280

Cooperative Banks and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative banks are an important, and growing, part of many financial systems. This paper empirically analyzes the role of cooperative banks in financial stability. Contrary to some suggestions in the literature, we find that cooperative banks are more stable than commercial banks. This finding is due to the lower volatility of the cooperative banks' returns, which more than offsets their

Martin Cihák; Heiko Hesse

2007-01-01

281

The World Bank's Participatory Development Approach in the Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) Paper for the Republic of Senegal: Rhetoric or Reality?  

E-print Network

. iv In memory of my beloved Mother Marieme Mbodji, who passed away while I was writing this thesis. May ALLAH bless her soul. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter One: Introduction...???????????..p.48 Chapter Four: The Participatory Approach in the 2007 CAS???????????.p.54 A. Country Economic, Political, and Social Profile?????????????...p.54 B. Poverty as Interpreted by Senegalese Citizens??????????????...p.58 C. The World Bank?s Role...

Ndiaye, Rokhaya

2009-12-18

282

12 CFR 32.2 - Definitions.  

...European Commission, or a multilateral development bank; (3) A Federal Home Loan Bank...qualifying commitment and proceeding in reverse chronological order. When a commitment...transaction means a repurchase agreement, reverse repurchase agreement, securities...

2014-01-01

283

Platy algal banks: Modern and ancient  

SciTech Connect

Plaly algal banks and associated cycles in the lower Ismay zone of the Paradox Formation are exposed along the walls of the San Juan River canyon, southeastern Utah. These complexes closely resemble algal bank reservoirs in the lower Ismay zone of Ismay and Cache, and possibly other Paradox basin fields. Similarities include facies relationships, lateral and vertical textural variations, and early diagenesis. Extensive algal banks exposed along the San Juan canyon generally have flat bases and mound and swale topographic surfaces, and are separated by interbank channels. The surficial mounds have a regular amplitude and wavelength suggesting a hydrologic rather than biologic influence on topography. The banks themselves, however, are believed to be thick, predominantly in-situ accumulations of platy algae. Distribution of algal banks can be mapped on a field scale; mound and swale topographic features may be identified in core on the basis of depositional and early diagenetic characteristics. Halimeda bioherms (Holocene) cover large areas behind the Great Barrier Reef, developing adjacent to the deep passes that separate the individual reefs. These large in-situ accumulations (20-50 m deep) display similar bank geometries, interbank features, topographic features, vertical textural sequence (including porosity type and distribution), and facies relationships to algal banks observed in the outcropping and subsurface Paradox Formation. Although the hydrodynamic and paleobathymetric settings differ markedly between these two examples, analogies between the mounds themselves are very close. The resemblance lends relevance to exploration and development drilling.

Brinton, L. (Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (USA))

1990-05-01

284

Bank Director Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created for directors of financial companies, Bank Director Magazine is a quarterly publication that examines issues of importance to bank directors. The online publication includes the complete table of contents, as well as a selection of articles from the current issue. The site also features a directory of names, addresses, and phone numbers of M&A investment banking and law firms, consulting firms, and technology and retail delivery companies.

285

Banking: shop and compare.  

PubMed

There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors. PMID:25108982

O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

2014-01-01

286

Millennium Seed Bank Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of organizations have developed a concerted interest in establishing seed banks to protect the wide diversity of existing plant life for future generations. The Royal Botanic Gardens is currently working on their own project, whose ultimate goal is to collect 24,000 plant species. So far, they have successfully secured samples from almost all of the native flowering plants in the United Kingdom, and their work continues on in the present day. Many visitors to the site will want to peruse their homepage and the helpful graphic (a peapod) helps orient first-time visitors to the various sections on the site, such as "Solving Seed Problems" and their publications and data area. The site also includes a field manual for those who would like to collect their own seeds in the field as well as data about the seeds collected thus far in the Seed Information Database.

2005-01-01

287

World Bank: Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank does a great deal of development work throughout Africa, and it is by far the largest provider of assistance on the continent. As of 2007, their portfolio of projects under implementation was over $19 billion. They are also involved with working with a wide range of government partners on the "Africa Action Plan", which is concerned with everything from reducing and mitigating violent conflicts to promoting private sector-led growth and job creation. Visitors can learn about the Plan on the site, and they can also utilize the drop-down menus on the homepage to learn about initiatives and topics in every country on the continent. Along the left-side of the homepage, visitors can explore a number of thematic areas, such as Data, Research, and News.

288

Developing an Open Resource Bank for Interactive Teaching of STEM: Perspecives of School Teachers and Teacher Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the current literature related to Open Educational Resource (OER) development and practice concentrates on higher education, although a growing body of work is also emerging for the primary and secondary school sectors. This article examines the user perspectives of teachers and teacher educators, regarding: discovery of teaching…

Hassler, Bjoern; Hennessy, Sara; Knight, Simon; Connolly, Teresa

2014-01-01

289

FDIC Banking Review, October 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC's monthly publication Banking Review includes the article "Financially Distressed Banks: How Effective Are Enforcement Actions in the Supervision Process?" which looks at some effects of bank examinations.

290

Transactional versus Relational Customer Orientation: Developing a Segmentation Tool in the French Banking Industry An exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conduct an exploratory study in order to develop a measurement scale of customers' transactional\\/ relational orientation. The study is implemented in the context of French industry in both B.-to-C. and B.-to-B. environments. They show that transactional\\/ relational orientation can be measured following four dimensions: affective, technical, short-term and long-term dimensions. This scale is the first in this field

Yasmine Benamour; Isabelle Prim-Allaz

1999-01-01

291

75 FR 69444 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...both of Victor, Iowa; Corydon State Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of...

2010-11-12

292

75 FR 67731 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...both of Victor, Iowa; Corydon State Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of...

2010-11-03

293

12 CFR 7.1003 - Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1003 Section 7.1003 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1003 Money...bank funds: (1) From the lending bank or its operating...

2010-01-01

294

COUNTERPOINT Data Bank — \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final few sentences of the paper by Drs Israeli and Altholz, proposing an international practitioner data bank, suggest that they have in mind a wider concept for its content than malpractice information. Nevertheless the paper and its title are supportive of the national practitioner data bank, which was established in the United States of America in 1990, to gather

B. T. COLLOPY

1997-01-01

295

Overflowing the Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will teach students about levees and how they are designed to hold a river in its bank. They will construct a model of a river bank and explore how levees can cause water levels to back up into smaller streams and tributaries, causing floods.

296

Federal Reserve Banks: Federal Reserve System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Feds on the Web site was developed by the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis to provide easy access to information from the Federal Reserve System. At the site, visitors may link to each of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks and Board of Governors via a short list of unique types of information available at each site. A map of the Federal Reserve districts, mailing addresses and phone numbers are also available at the site.

297

Earth Science World Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to the ImageBank can view and download photographs, remote imagery, and slide shows. The images are related to earth and space science topics such as dinosaurs, earthquakes, volcanoes, rocks and minerals, mining and petroleum, groundwater, planets and astronomical phenomena, and others. The site contains thousands of images and is searchable by category, continent, country, or keyword. A teachers' section provides links to educational materials such as books, posters, slide shows, professional development materials, scholarship information, and other resources.

2004-01-01

298

Understanding the Adoption of Electronic Banking in China Sherah Kurnia, Fei Peng, Yi Ruo Liu  

E-print Network

Understanding the Adoption of Electronic Banking in China Sherah Kurnia, Fei Peng, Yi Ruo Liu, developing countries still lag behind developed countries in the adoption of e-banking. To address the lack of studies on e-banking adoption in developing countries, this paper explores factors impacting e

Kurnia, Sherah

299

Tying up lions: multilateral initiative on malaria communications: the first chapter of a malaria research network in Africa.  

PubMed

"When spider webs unite, they can tie up a lion" (Ethiopian folk adage). The Multilateral Initiative on Malaria Communications Network (MIMCom) facilitates a new way of doing research in Africa and African scientists' participation in the international scientific community. The MIMCom supports full access to the Internet and the resources of the WorldWide Web at 19 research sites in 11 African countries. Furthermore, the MIMCom project comprises two websites: one includes links to resources, databases, and publications as well as a document delivery service for full text journal articles, and the other is a research agenda specific website with a server for a research network desiring to share raw data. Other important components of MIMCom are training and evaluation components. The MIMCom was conceived in 1997 by African researchers and has been designed, implemented, and overseen by the U.S. National Library of Medicine in collaboration with partners in Africa, the United States, and the United Kingdom. This project demonstrates clearly that it can make a positive difference in the functioning of remote research sites in Africa, in terms of site growth and productivity and in the professional lives of individual researchers. This report reviews the project's background, methods of operation with an emphasis on local needs and priorities, cost effectiveness, and local responsibility; results focusing on a technical network; documentation of the system and two-way exchange of information; the MIMCom website; a network approach to research; and financial sustainability. The report concludes with summaries of evaluations by an independent panel, the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria Secretariat, and the U.S. National Library of Medicine. PMID:15331846

Royall, Julia; Bennett, Mark; van Schayk, Ingeborg; Alilio, Martin

2004-08-01

300

The Impact of Information Technology in Nigeria's Banking Industry  

E-print Network

Today, information technology (IT) has become a key element in economic development and a backbone of knowledge-based economies in terms of operations, quality delivery of services and productivity of services. Therefore, taking advantage of information technologies (IT) is an increasing challenge for developing countries. There is now growing evidence that Knowledge-driven innovation is a decisive factor in the competitiveness of nations, industries, organizations and firms. Organizations like the banking sector have benefited substantially from e-banking, which is one among the IT applications for strengthening the competitiveness. This paper presents the current trend in the application of IT in the banking industries in Nigeria and gives an insight into how quality banking has been enhanced via IT. The paper further reveals that the deployment of IT facilities in the Nigerian Banking industry has brought about fundamental changes in the content and quality of banking business in the country. This analysis...

Oluwatolani, Oluwagbemi; Philip, Achimugu

2011-01-01

301

Core 4: Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Image Bank supplements the coursework for Core 4: The Shaping of the Modern World, an introductory course offered by the History Department of Brooklyn College. The Image Bank indexes numerous historical images spanning from the Scientific Revolution to the present. The images are divided into eight major topic indexes: Ancien Regime and Critics; Age of Revolutions; Industry and Society; Liberalism and Nationalism; Varieties of Imperialism; The World Turned Upside Down; Fascism, Depression & WWII; and, The World Since 1945. Indexes for major topics contain clustered subtopics, allowing users to locate relevant images quickly. This Image Bank presents students and educators with a valuable, visual method for understanding Modern Western History.

302

World Bank Experts Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with reporters and editors in mind, the World Bank Experts Guide provides World Bank experts that are available to comment on to the media on a wide variety of topics. The list of experts may be viewed by name of expert or by subject. Each expert is given his or her own Webpage, which includes a short biography, expertise, and languages spoken, along with a photograph and related links. For ease of use, several "hot topics" are highlighted including AIDS/HIV and debt relief. This site gives an awe-inspiring look at the variety of experts working for the World Bank.

303

Can Relationship Banking Survive Competition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How will banks evolve as competition increases from other banks and from the capital market? Will banks become more like capital market underwriters and offer passive transaction loans or return to their roots as relationship lending experts? These are the questions we address. Our key result is that as interbank competition increases, banks make \\

Arnoud W. A. Boot; Anjan V. Thakor

2000-01-01

304

Banks as Catalysts for Industrialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a new theory of the role of banks as catalysts for industrialization. In their influential analysis of continental European industrialization, Gerschenkron and Schumpeter argued that banks promoted the creation of new industries. We formalize this role of banks by introducing financial intermediaries into a “big push” model. We show that banks may act as catalysts for industrialization provided

Marco Da Rin; Thomas Hellmann

2002-01-01

305

WBOPENDATA: Stata module to access World Bank databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

wbopendata draws from the main World Bank collections of development indicators, compiled from officially-recognized international sources, and made available through the World Bank Open Data Initiative, and presents the most current and accurate global development data available, and includes national, regional and global estimates. Users can chose from one of three of the languages supported by the database, namely, English,

Joao Pedro Azevedo

2011-01-01

306

The World Bank's Support for Science and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the World Bank's role in helping scientific and technological development in developing countries. Areas considered include bank support for science and technology, agricultural research/extension, international agricultural and health research, education and training, support for industrial innovation, energy, research and policy, and…

Weiss, Charles, Jr.

1985-01-01

307

Protein Data Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Protein Data Bank is the international depository for the results of structural studies of biological macromolecules. At present, some 1200 biological macromolecules are reported to have been crystallized, of which approximately 350 have structures de...

E. E. Abola, F. C. Bernstein, T. F. Koetzle

1984-01-01

308

Statistics on Banking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC Statistics on Banking is a "quarterly publication that provides aggregate financial and structure information on FDIC-insured institutions, with summary totals by state and charter type." The latest figures for third quarter 1997 are now available.

309

Fall Math Idea Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math idea bank includes autumn themed hands-on activities focused on the topics of leaves, spiders, and pumpkins. Also included in this resource are links to online activities and websites for research.

Petti, Wendy

2014-01-01

310

12 CFR 996.2 - Bank employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank employees. 996.2 Section 996.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES AUTHORITY FOR BANK ASSISTANCE OF THE RESOLUTION...

2011-01-01

311

12 CFR 996.2 - Bank employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank employees. 996.2 Section 996.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES AUTHORITY FOR BANK ASSISTANCE OF THE RESOLUTION...

2010-01-01

312

An audit of blood bank services  

PubMed Central

Background: An audit is a written series of simple, direct questions, which when answered and reviewed, tell whether the laboratory is performing its procedures, activities, and policies correctly and on time. Aim: The aim of this study is to briefly highlight the importance of audit in blood bank services. Materials and Methods: An Audit of Blood Bank Services was carried out in a Blood bank of the tertiary care hospital, Central India by using the tool kit, (comprised of checklists) developed by Directorate General of Health Services, Dhaka WHO, July 2008. Results: After going through these checklists, we observed that there is no system for assessing the training needs of staff in the blood bank. There was no provision for duty doctor's room, expert room, medical technologist room and duty care service. There was no checklist for routine check for observation of hemolysis and deterioration of blood and plasma. There was no facility for separate private interview to exclude sexual disease in the donor. Requisition forms were not properly filled for blood transfusion indications. There was no facility for notification of donors who are permanently deferred. There were no records documented for donors who are either temporarily or permanently deferred on the basis of either clinical examination, history, or serological examination. It was found that wearing of apron, cap, and mask was not done properly except in serology laboratory. When the requisition forms for blood transfusions were audited, it was found that many requisition forms were without indications. Conclusion: Regular audit of blood bank services needs to be initiated in all blood banks and the results needs to be discussed among the managements, colleagues, and staffs of blood bank. These results will provide a good opportunity for finding strategies in improving the blood bank services with appropriate and safe use of blood. PMID:24741651

Kumar, Alok; Sharma, Satish; Ingole, Narayan; Gangane, Nitin

2014-01-01

313

Developing item banks for measuring pediatric generic health-related quality of life: an application of the international classification of functioning, disability and health for children and youth and item response theory.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop item banks by linking items from three pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments using a mixed methodology. Secondary data were collected from 469 parents of children aged 8-16 years. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth (ICF-CY) served as a framework to compare the concepts of items from three HRQoL instruments. The structural validity of the individual domains was examined using confirmatory factor analyses. Samejima's Graded Response Model was used to calibrate items from different instruments. The known-groups validity of each domain was examined using the status of children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Concepts represented by the items in the three instruments were linked to 24 different second-level categories of the ICF-CY. Eight item banks representing eight unidimensional domains were created based on the linkage of the concepts measured by the items of the three instruments to the ICF-CY. The HRQoL results of CSHCN in seven out of eight domains (except personality) were significantly lower compared with children without special health care needs (p<0.05). This study demonstrates a useful approach to compare the item concepts from the three instruments and to generate item banks for a pediatric population. PMID:25268926

Gandhi, Pranav K; Thompson, Lindsay A; Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Revicki, Dennis A; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Huang, I-Chan

2014-01-01

314

Developing Item Banks for Measuring Pediatric Generic Health-Related Quality of Life: An Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth and Item Response Theory  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop item banks by linking items from three pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments using a mixed methodology. Secondary data were collected from 469 parents of children aged 8-16 years. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth (ICF-CY) served as a framework to compare the concepts of items from three HRQoL instruments. The structural validity of the individual domains was examined using confirmatory factor analyses. Samejima's Graded Response Model was used to calibrate items from different instruments. The known-groups validity of each domain was examined using the status of children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Concepts represented by the items in the three instruments were linked to 24 different second-level categories of the ICF-CY. Eight item banks representing eight unidimensional domains were created based on the linkage of the concepts measured by the items of the three instruments to the ICF-CY. The HRQoL results of CSHCN in seven out of eight domains (except personality) were significantly lower compared with children without special health care needs (p<0.05). This study demonstrates a useful approach to compare the item concepts from the three instruments and to generate item banks for a pediatric population. PMID:25268926

Gandhi, Pranav K.; Thompson, Lindsay A.; Tuli, Sanjeev Y.; Revicki, Dennis A.; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Huang, I-Chan

2014-01-01

315

Banking Data and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article on free banking data and research, created by Ruth Kobylecky Humphrey for the American Library Association, includes an index of annotations on a wide range of federal and association Websites that offer financial information and help for their members. The index is broken into several sections including Federal Agencies, The Federal Reserve System, International Banking, and the Secondary Market. Within each section, the entries are arranged in alphabetical order and carefully annotated.

Humphrey, Ruth K.

316

12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...means a credit facility that finances or has financed the acquisition...property, unless the facility finances: (1) One- to four-family...Development, the International Finance Corporation, the Inter-American...Caribbean Development Bank, the Islamic Development Bank, the...

2012-01-01

317

12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...means a credit facility that finances or has financed the acquisition...property, unless the facility finances: (1) One- to four-family...Development, the International Finance Corporation, the Inter-American...Caribbean Development Bank, the Islamic Development Bank, the...

2013-01-01

318

12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...means a credit facility that finances or has financed the acquisition...property, unless the facility finances: (1) One- to four-family...Development, the International Finance Corporation, the Inter-American...Caribbean Development Bank, the Islamic Development Bank, the...

2012-01-01

319

12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...means a credit facility that finances or has financed the acquisition...property, unless the facility finances: (1) One- to four-family...Development, the International Finance Corporation, the Inter-American...Caribbean Development Bank, the Islamic Development Bank, the...

2013-01-01

320

12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2010-01-01

321

12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2013-01-01

322

12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.  

12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2014-01-01

323

12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2011-01-01

324

12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. 1806...Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND,...

2012-01-01

325

Client profiles and access to retail bank services in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many developed, and some developing countries, technological innovation has enabled banks to provide intermediary services and supply products via a variety of methods. This article uses econometric techniques to assess the impact of the product suite, credit score and the spatial availability of bank branches on the level of access to banking services in Gauteng Province, South Africa over

Charles Okeahalam

2008-01-01

326

The Impact of Bank and NonBank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides evidence on the relationship between finance and growth in a fast growing country, such as China. Employing\\u000a data of 27 Chinese provinces over the period 1995–2003, we study whether the financial development of two different types\\u000a of financial institutions — banks and non-banks — have a (significantly different) impact on local economic growth. Our findings\\u000a indicate that

Xiaoqiang Cheng; Hans Degryse

2010-01-01

327

Commercial Aspects of Self-Help Group Banking in India: A Study of Bank Transaction Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two outstanding aspects to Nabard’s Linking Banks and Self-Help Groups: with an outreach to 500,000 SHGs and a population of 40m rural poor, it is the largest non-directed microsavings & microcredit program in the developing world; and its bank lending rates – fluctuating at market rates around 7% in real terms – are among the lowest. Is it

Harishkumar R. Dave; Hans Dieter Seibel

2002-01-01

328

Development of item bank to measure deliberate self-harm behaviours: facilitating tailored scales and computer adaptive testing for specific research and clinical purposes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of item banking to questionnaire items intended to measure Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) behaviours. The Rasch measurement model was used to evaluate behavioural items extracted from seven published DSH scales administered to 568 Australians aged 18-30 years (62% university students, 21% mental health patients, and 17% community members). Ninety four items were calibrated in the item bank (including 12 items with differential item functioning for gender and age). Tailored scale construction was demonstrated by extracting scales covering different combinations of DSH methods but with the same raw score for each person location on the latent DSH construct. A simulated computer adaptive test (starting with common self-harm methods to minimise presentation of extreme behaviours) demonstrated that 11 items (on average) were needed to achieve a standard error of measurement of 0.387 (corresponding to a Cronbach?s Alpha of 0.85). This study lays the groundwork for advancing DSH measurement to an item bank approach with the flexibility to measure a specific definitional orientation (e.g., non-suicidal self-injury) or a broad continuum of self-harmful acts, as appropriate to a particular research/clinical purpose. PMID:24703572

Latimer, Shane; Meade, Tanya; Tennant, Alan

2014-07-30

329

Using Soil Seed Banks for Ecological Education in Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we developed an educational programme using soil seed banks to promote ecological literacy among primary school-aged children. The programme consisted of seven student activities, including sampling and setting soil seed banks around the school, watering, identifying seedlings, and making observations about the plants and their…

Ju, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jae Geun

2011-01-01

330

The evolution of commercial banking and financial markets in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past five decades, Taiwan has achieved rapid economic development. Correspondingly, Taiwan’s financial system has been gradually transformed from a controlled system into a liberalized one, from a state banking system into a private banking one, and from an inward investment system into an outward investment one. In the financial market, the interest rate and foreign exchange rate have

Tzong-shian Yu

1999-01-01

331

12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF...

2010-01-01

332

12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF...

2011-01-01

333

Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.  

PubMed

The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

Collin, Jeff

2012-03-01

334

Competition and choice: banks and savings banks in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how Spanish savings banks have come to compete directly with commercial banks. It also looks at how regulatory changes and corporate strategies have affected the nature of competition between the two types of bank in Spain. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – There is a re-examination of the existing bibliography as a basis prior

J. Carles Maixé-Altés

2010-01-01

335

The perception of banks' mergers and acquisitions by bank employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banking sector is consolidating at an accelerating pace. Almost all banking institutions feel obliged to become larger and more powerful. One out of four mergers and acquisitions in Greece took place in the banking sector, which was also known to have been the field of great enterprise transactions. Many economic and\\/or financial reasons have, so far, been proposed in

John Mylonakis

2006-01-01

336

MANAGING DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY — INTERNET BANKING VENTURES FOR TRADITIONAL BANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the perception of the nature of technological change for Internet Banking by proposing and testing a model of the strategic management of online banking by traditional banks. Specifically, this empirical study uses a stratified sample of the FDIC database to address how perception of the technology and the environmental context (knowledge of cause-effect relations and crystallized outcome

STEPHEN K. CALLAWAY; ROBERT D. HAMILTON

2008-01-01

337

IMF, World Bank programs hinder AIDS prevention.  

PubMed

International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank structural adjustment programs (SAPs) imposed on developing nations in the 1980s inadvertently helped set the stage for the AIDS epidemic. These programs continue to hinder efforts to prevent HIV transmission. SAPs resulted in the following phenomena which place populations at risk of HIV infection: increased rural-urban migration of cheap labor sparked by a shift to an export-oriented economy, the development of transportation infrastructures in the 1980s to support the changed economy, increased migration and urbanization, and reduced government spending upon health and social services necessitated by the SAPs. For HIV transmission in developing countries to be substantially reduced, the SAP economic policies which may have promoted disease must be modified. An alternative development strategy must satisfy basic human needs such as food, housing, and transport; shift emphasis from the production of a small number of primary commodities for export to diversified agricultural production; support marginal producers and subsistence farmers; emphasize human resource development; end the top-down approach favored by the IMF and World Bank in favor of a truly cooperative development policy; alter the charters of the IMF and World Bank to permit the cancellation or restructuring of debt; and require AIDS Impact Reports of the IMF and World Bank. PMID:12289894

Denoon, D J

1995-07-10

338

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

339

MolBank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MolBank, an interesting resource for chemists, "is an electronic journal where very short notes of searchable experimental data records for individual molecules are published." Affiliated with the magazine Molecules and Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), MolBank is particularly interested in unconventional, experimental data such as starting materials and synthetic intermediates. Adhering to a single page, single structure format, the up-to-date, refereed papers are searchable by substructure or chemical and physical characteristics. Submission guidelines are also available at the site.

2007-06-07

340

GenBank.  

PubMed

The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 56,000,000 nucleotides in 45,000 entries. The input stream of data coming into the database has largely been shifted to direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media. The data have been installed in a relational database management system and are made available in this form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service. PMID:2041806

Burks, C; Cassidy, M; Cinkosky, M J; Cumella, K E; Gilna, P; Hayden, J E; Keen, G M; Kelley, T A; Kelly, M; Kristofferson, D

1991-04-25

341

profile: The Wold bank | 1 february 2013  

E-print Network

in the form of loans and grants, the bank also provides macroeconomic and financial analysis and adviceprofile: The Wold bank | 1 february 2013 About the World Bank as of 2012, the World bank. The World bank lending arms providing global health funding to governments are the International Bank

Klein, Ophir

342

The importance of service quality in bank selection for mortgage loans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This project aims to offer an in-depth understanding of bank customers' buying behaviour in relation to the selection process, and provide bank managers with useful insight into the development of high quality relationships with customers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research involved a review of available literature on bank choice criteria, the fieldwork, the identification of factors that affect customers'

Constantine Lymperopoulos; Ioannis E. Chaniotakis; Magdalini Soureli

2006-01-01

343

A multivariate analysis of the determinants of Moody’s bank financial strength ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995 Moody’s Investors Services inaugurated a new rating service, bank financial strength ratings (BFSRs), that assesses the safety and soundness of banks in over 50 countries. Our study sets out to do some preliminary investigations of this new type of credit rating. We develop logistic regression models to help explain or predict BFSRs. Using bank-specific accounting and financial data

Winnie P. H. Poon; Michael Firth; Hung-Gay Fung

1999-01-01

344

Banking Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Growth: International Evidence from Industry Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the empirical relevance of banking market structure on growth. There is substantial evidence of a positive relationship between the level of development of the banking sector of an economy and its long-run output growth. Little is known, however, about the role played by the market structure of the banking sector on the dynamics of capital accumulation. This

Nicola Cetorelli; Michele Gambera

2001-01-01

345

Reaction of European Bank stock prices to events of the Asian and Russian Financial crises  

E-print Network

1 Reaction of European Bank stock prices to events of the Asian and Russian Financial crises Céline of the Asian and Russian financial crises for a sample of European banks. This issue is of importance regarding financial fragility and contagion effects within the banking industry. We develop an event study methodology

Boyer, Edmond

346

Innovation in the Service Sector: Exploring the Adoption of Internet Banking Services in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet has become the latest technology to be utilised by the banks to attract new customers and develop new markets. Internet banking offers great opportunities for banks to increase their transactions, extend their customer bases and to decrease their operational costs. It also provides some benefits to consumers such as convenience (i.e. time saving), personalization, freedom (i.e. accessibility) and

S. Ozdemir; P. Trott; A. Hoecht

2006-01-01

347

An empirical assessment of customer satisfaction with Internet Banking applications: An Australian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Internet-based banking (IB) applications are gaining popularity among retail banking customers. The long term success of these applications is however influenced by customer satisfaction because it affects customers' perceptions about banks' innovative ability and customer caring intentions. Hence, measuring customer satisfaction with IB applications is important. In this article, we report the development of an instrument to

JieYing Li

2009-01-01

348

Phishing Attacks and Perceptions of Service Quality: A Content Analysis of Internet Banking in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Internet banking, which is a trust-based system, phishing attacks and Internet fraud can affect the customers' view of the service quality provided by the banks. Theft of the customers' personal identity information can cause the customers to lose their confidence in the system and their banks. Within this context, content analysis was used to develop an examination of the

Murat Hakan

349

Evaluation Systems, Ethics, and Development Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After some 65 years of international development assistance, it is still difficult to show the effectiveness of aid in ways that are fully convincing. In part, this reflects inadequacies in the evaluation systems of the bilateral, multilateral, and global organizations that provide official development aid. Underlying these weaknesses often are a…

Thomas, Vinod

2010-01-01

350

Volume reduction in routine cord blood banking.  

PubMed

Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an alternative source of hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation in the treatment of haematological malignancies, marrow failure, immunodeficiencies, hemoglobinopathies and inherited metabolic diseases. It has greatly contributed to increase the feasibility to transplantation for many patients in need. To date, more than 20,000 UCB transplants have been performed on children and adults, and more than 400,000 UCB units are available in more than 50 public CB banks. One of the most important objectives of banks is to cryopreserve and store high quality UCB units. Volume reduction is a usual process in cord blood banking that has some advantages as reducing the storage space and the DMSO quantity in final product. Volume reduction methodology must guarantee high cell recovery and red blood cell (RBC) depletion by reducing the UCB units to a standard volume. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) sedimentation was the first method developed for this purpose by the New York Cord Blood Bank and implemented in many banks worldwide. The semi-automated top and bottom system, usually used for blood fractionation was further developed to simplify and short the process. Later, automatic devices as SEPAX and AXP have been developed in last years specifically for UCB volume reduction purpose. This review critically analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the different procedures. All of them have been used in Valencia Cord Blood Bank along 10 years. In general, automatic devices are preferred because of compliance with cGTP, closed systems, higher reproducibility and less influence of technician. PMID:20528760

Solves, Pilar; Mirabet, Vicente; Roig, Roberto

2010-12-01

351

Integrated Framework for Information Security in Mobile Banking Service Based on Smart Phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since Apple launched the iPhone service in November 2009 in Korea, smartphone banking users are increasing dramatically, forcing\\u000a lenders to develop new products to deal with such demand. The bank of korea took the lead in jointing together to create a\\u000a mobile banking application that each bank can adapt for its own use. In providing smartphone services, it is of

Yong-Nyuo Shin; Myung Geun Chun

2010-01-01

352

Do Banks Provide Financial Slack?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the decision to choose bank debt rather than public securities in a firm's marginal financing choice. Using a sample of 500 firms over the 1980 to 1993 time period, we find that firms are relatively more likely to choose bank loans when variables that measure asymmetric information problems are elevated. The sensitivity of the likelihood of choosing bank

Charles J. Hadlock; Christopher M. James

2002-01-01

353

Banking Competition and European Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess how banking competition will be affected by the process of deregulation and integration in European financial markets, drawing on the lessons of recent research in finance, banking and industrial organization. Our central thesis contends that the main effect of integration will be to change the focus of banks' strategic behaviour from collusion and regulatory capture to competition. Nevertheless,

Xavier Vives

1990-01-01

354

DO BOARDS AND CEOs MATTER FOR BANK PERFORMANCE?: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BANKS IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate governance has dominated the development agenda of most developed and developing economies due to the fact that corporate governance structure of a firm has critical impact on the responsive ability of a firm to external factors that impinge on its performance. Well governed firms have been noted to have higher firm performance. On the backdrop that Banks do play

Anthony Kyereboah-Coleman; Nicholas Biekpe

355

78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...directly competitive with call center services'' and that PNC Bank has advertised for a ``Project Manager for PNC Bank at Tata Consultancy Services'' in India. The request also states that the ``other facilities within the United States'' to...

2013-02-22

356

Trade in banking services and the role of GATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which was concluded by participating countries in the Uruguay Round of negotiations, is the first multilateral effort to establish rules governing the conduct of international trade in services, including financial services. The GATS also provides the framework for multilateral negotiations on improved market access for foreign services and service suppliers. This article

Ernando S. de Leon; Teodora I. San Pedro

2003-01-01

357

Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, published by ARRAY Development, is a bimonthly ezine devoted to all aspects of electronic commerce. Though published in Canada, it has an international flavor. Articles are of varying length and complexity, and reader submissions are solicited. The present issue (Vol. 1 No. 5) contains articles on stored-value cards, 2560 bit encryption keys, and the possible future role of Central Banks in Internet payments, among others. A complete archive of all issues (browsable only) is available at the site.

1996-01-01

358

Federal government initiates National Practitioner Data Bank.  

PubMed

The formulation of the data bank will require the exchange of data and merging of information from a number of sources. The development and the implementation of this computerized system will be the work of the UNISYS Corporation in concert with the Bureau of Health Professions' Office of Quality Assurance, a part of the Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. The assurance of the quality of the data on each nurse--correct, up-to-date, etc.--is the responsibility of the parties reporting to the data bank. In addition, each and every pediatric nurse practitioner will need to become knowledgeable regarding the data base and periodically ascertain that the information regarding himself or herself is correct. As additional information is received on the process by which you can monitor the bank's data on you, it will be published. PMID:2724023

Bodenhorn, K; Hardy-Havens, D

1989-01-01

359

22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01... Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL...more foreign countries or by an international body or organization in...

2013-04-01

360

22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01... Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL...more foreign countries or by an international body or organization in...

2012-04-01

361

National Curve Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Curve Bank displays representations of two- and three-dimensional curves. Geometrical, algebraic, and historical aspects of curves are included. Educators and students have access to animations, interactions, java applets, Mathematica code, and more. Users may submit curves. Materials are reveiwed and selected by faculty at Cal State Los Angeles.

2009-03-01

362

How Banks Create Money.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching module explains how the U.S. banking system uses excess reserves to create money in the form of new deposits for borrowers. The module is part of a computer-animated series of four-to-five-minute modules illustrating standard concepts in high school economics. Although the module is designed to accompany the video program, it may be…

Beale, Lyndi

363

Needs Assessment Statements Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This needs assessment statements bank has been prepared as a resource for school districts that are engaged in the Local Planning and Assessment Process. Its purpose is to provide local educators with a variety of statements that can be used directly or with modification in preparing a needs assessment survey. Under each of eight broad goal…

Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Bureau of Technical Assistance.

364

Optimal Bank Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports estimates of the long-run costs and benefits of banks funding more of their assets with loss-absorbing capital, or equity. Measuring those costs requires careful consideration of a wide range of issues about how shifts in funding affect required rates of return and on how costs are influenced by the tax system; it also requires a clear distinction

Gilberto Marcheggiano; David K Miles; Jing Yang

2011-01-01

365

Money with Bank Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We allow banks to choose between two networks in a simple version of the Cavalcanti and Wallace (1999) model of inside money. Members of a network have access to credit but must redeem banknotes issued by other members in random meetings. We find equilibria in which members of a particular network issue more valuable notes, but face the same ex-ante

Ricardo de Oliveira Cavalcanti; Henrique Dezemone Forno

2004-01-01

366

Banking & Financial Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for high school business teachers, outlines the plan for a course in which students gain hands-on experience in operating a bank in which students actually deposit money. The document begins with a brief course description, rationale, and list of 11 course objectives. Presented next is background information about…

Warren, Brenda; Sorrell, Lisa

367

Snow Bank Detectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

368

Blood Bank Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentially, blood banks are facilities which procure, store, process, and dispense blood. To operate effectively in the face of both random supply and random demand, sizable buffer stocks of blood are maintained. The resulting inventory control problem is an extremely complex one for several reasons: (1) both supply and demand are random; (2) approximately 50 percent of all bloods demanded,

John B. Jennings

1973-01-01

369

Human milk banking.  

PubMed

Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing. PMID:23666187

O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

370

National Trade Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

371

The Global Talent Search Andrew Banks  

E-print Network

The Global Talent Search Andrew Banks Managing Director, Talent2 International The Global Talent, University of Melbourne on Developing Job-ready Graduates Anne Moore Chief Executive Officer, SydneyTalent The Global Talent Search and Challenge ABN: 15 211 513 464 RSVP: by Friday 29 May 2009 to Betty De Leon Email

Viglas, Anastasios

372

World Bank Teachers and Students Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank Site (reviewed in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business and Economics) now has a section specifically devoted to educational resources. Educational material found here relates to topics relevant to the World Bank's larger mission of reducing international poverty and raising the standard of living for people in developing nations. For instance, the Learning Materials area focuses on sustainable development, with learning modules on Population Growth Rate and Access to Safe Water, as well as graphs, charts, and questions for students and teachers to explore. Students have the opportunity to get their own work published in the Sustainable Development Post, an online newspaper with student contributors from around the world. Other areas of the site offer resources on specific issues, such as AIDS, climate change, and gender, or on particular regions and countries. Teachers and students can also use the site to learn more about the World Bank and its mission, read views on development from people around the world, and learn how to use data and other tools available at the World Bank site. Sections of the site are yet to be completed, but on the whole, there are plenty of resources to keep classrooms busy.

373

Integrated Learning with International Banking Executives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes an in-house executive development programme run by the authors in a leading banking group in the CEE region. The programme attempts to follow a systemic approach to learning and contains a mix of elements including action learning, classroom teaching, study, peer support and feedback and "learning visits" to participants'…

Zinke, Sabine; Briault, Steve

2007-01-01

374

World Bank Atlas. [Twenty-Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This edition of the World Bank Atlas presents curent economic and social data for 185 countries and territories in the world. A number of maps, tables, and graphs highlight key relationships and trends in the development of the countries. The atlas includes data on population, gross national product (GNP), share of agriculture in gross domestic…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

375

Banking Crises and Exchange Rate Regimes: Is There a Link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 2000Pursuing a policy of exchange rate stability reduces the probability of banking crises, particularly in developing countries.Doma? and Peria investigate the links between banking crises and exchange rate regimes, using a comprehensive data set that includes developed and developing countries over the last two decades.In particular, they examine whether the choice of exchange rate regime affects the likelihood, cost,

Maria Peria

1999-01-01

376

Cord blood banking in France: reorganising the national network.  

PubMed

Paradoxically, France is one of the leading exporters of cord blood units worldwide, but ranks only 17th in terms of cord blood units per inhabitant, and imports 64% of cord blood grafts to meet national transplantation demands. With three operational banks in 2008, the French allogeneic cord blood network is now entering an important phase of development with the creation of seven new banks collecting from local clusters of maternities. Although the French network of public banks is demonstrating a strong commitment to reorganise and scale up its activities, the revision of France's bioethics law in 2010 has sparked a debate concerning the legalisation of commercial autologous banking. The paper discusses key elements for a comprehensive national plan that would strengthen the allogeneic banking network through which France could meet its national medical needs and guarantee equal access to healthcare. PMID:20395177

Katz, Gregory; Mills, Antonia

2010-06-01

377

12 CFR 225.121 - Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding...of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding...Federal Banking law applicable to State member banks is concerned, the...

2010-01-01

378

Development of stem cells from umbilical cord blood and blood banking: "non-controversial" and "free of political and ethical debate"?  

PubMed

Opponents of human embryo research have understandably welcomed pluripotent stem cells being derived from body cells including cells from umbilical cords after childbirth. The cord would otherwise be discarded and embryos are not destroyed. However, there are other ethical, legal and political issues in cord blood collection, whether for the child's future use, or a public blood bank. Information and consent procedures may be misleading. Some parents have false hopes about potential outcomes. The right of access to stored blood and other benefits is sometimes uncertain for children and their families. Private stem cell repositories may compete with public ones. People may want to impose conditions on donation. Quality control may be an issue. PMID:22558901

Skene, Loane

2012-03-01

379

Bank Erosion as a Desirable Attribute of Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank erosion is integral to the functioning of river ecosystems. It is a geomorphic process that promotes riparian vegetation succession and creates dynamic habitats crucial for aquatic and riparian plants and animals. River managers and policymakers, however, generally regard bank erosion as a process to be halted or minimized in order to create landscape and economic stability. Here, we recognize bank erosion as a desirable attribute of rivers. Recent advances in our understanding of bank erosion processes and of associated ecological functions, as well as of the effects and failure of channel bank infrastructure for erosion control, suggest that alternatives to current management approaches are greatly needed. In this article, we develop a conceptual framework for alternatives that address bank erosion issues. The alternatives conserve riparian linkages at appropriate temporal and spatial scales, consider integral relationships between physical bank processes and ecological functions, and avoid secondary and cumulative effects that lead to the progressive channelization of rivers. By linking geomorphologic processes with ecological functions, we address the significance of channel bank erosion in sustainable river and watershed management.

Joan L. Florsheim (University of California at Davis;)

2008-06-01

380

Development of a 3D Model for the Assessment of Vulnerability Due to Sea Level Rise on the Historic Strawbery Banke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of climate change is now starting to be widely researched around the world. One prominent exception to this fact is within the discipline of Historic Preservation. With the likelihood of climate change causing sea levels to rise over decades to come, historical preservationists are now looking for data and information which can help them mitigate potential threats to our cultural heritage along our sea coasts. Some such information that can be helpful in understanding these threats includes geographic information such as the locations of artifacts, fossils, and historic structures as well as their vertical elevation above mean sea level. In an effort to build a set of protocols to help preservations study these threats, our work is currently focusing on a historic living history museum site known as Strawbery Banke in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. This poster features a subset of this work that was completed through undergraduate student internships funded by the Joan and James Leitzel Center at the University of New Hampshire. This subset of work focused on the creation a 3D model of the study site. Two aspects of the creation of this model involved the completion of a topographic ground survey and the 3D digital mapping of the site itself. The ground survey was completed with the use of standard surveying techniques and tools and the 3D digital mapping was completed with the use of ArcScene, a software which is part of the ArcGIS suite. This work was completed in conjunction with a larger study funded by the National Geographic Society to better understand how sea level rise and the effects of storm surges are putting the historic structures at Strawbery Banke at risk.

Jefferson, M.; Curran, B.; Routhier, M.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Hall, C. L.

2011-12-01

381

Italian Development Cooperation: the commitment for the struggle against malaria in Africa.  

PubMed

The Italian Development Cooperation (DGCS) support the health reform process in Developing Countries, with the aim to provide populations in greatest need with access to decentralized health services. DGCS acts in close coordination with the donor community, United Nations' system and the World Bank, in agreement with sector-wide approach (SWAP) for health sector development. Since malaria control in endemic countries is a relevant component of the health system, DGCS is actively involved in the struggle against malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, supporting control activities and research capability strengthening. The following African countries are presently receiving bilateral support for antimalaria activities: Burkina Faso, Centre de Lutte contre le Paludisme in Ouagadougou; Ethiopia, community-based malaria control in Tigray; Eritrea, malaria control at national level in the framework of the Public Health and Rehabilitation Programme for Eritrea (PHARPE) initiative; Madagascar, malaria surveillance at national level; Tanzania, feasibility study for the support to the national malaria control programme. Support is provided by technical/financial assistance involving Italian academic and research institutions. On the multilateral channel, DGCS has provided regular contribution for WHO's work in malaria control and participates to the WHO Roll Back Malaria initiative. A new commitment to malaria is the trilateral joint scientific endeavour USA-Italy-Burkina Faso for the development and field testing of a candidate vaccine suitable for African populations. PMID:10697884

Masala, G; Racalbuto, V; Gentile, G; Procacci, P

1999-09-01

382

PhysioBank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PhsyioBank is an impressive archive of digital recordings of physiologic signals and related data for use by the biomedical research community. The website is maintained by the National Institute of Biomedical Imagining and Bioengineering and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and new material is being added on a regular basis. Currently, the site includes biomedical signals and reports from healthy subjects and patients with a range of conditions, including congestive heart failure, epilepsy, gait disorders, and sleep apnea. First-time visitors would do well to take the interactive tour and then use the Getting Started section for locating resources. Also, visitors should make sure to look at the PhysioBank Archives. Here they will find a complete listing of all the currently available databases, organized according to the types of signals and annotations contained in each database. Finally, visitors can send queries about the site and its database via a contact form on the site's homepage.

383

World Bank Integrity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the World Bank Group, the Integrity Vice Presidency "independently investigates allegations of corruption and fraud." On their homepage, much of the material is covered within three primary sections: "Fighting Fraud & Corruption", "Investigating Staff Misconduct", and "Allegations". In the "Fighting Fraud & Corruption" area, visitors can learn about completed investigations and learn about the outcomes, which in many cases include sanctions and debarments. Moving on, the "Investigating Staff Misconduct" area includes information about recent investigations into partner organizations who have worked with the World Bank in the past and alleged abuses regarding travel fraud, abuse of authority, and corruption within infrastructure projects. Visitors may also wish to scroll down on the homepage to look over their annual report and check out news updates.

384

GenBank.  

PubMed

The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 85,000,000 nucleotides in 67,000 entries from a total of 3,000 organisms. The input stream of data coming into the database is primarily as direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media, with little or no data being keyboarded from the printed page by the databank staff. The data are maintained in a relational database management system and are made available in flatfile form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. The data are also distributed in relational form through satellite copies at a number of institutions in the U.S. and elsewhere. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service. PMID:1598235

Burks, C; Cinkosky, M J; Fischer, W M; Gilna, P; Hayden, J E; Keen, G M; Kelly, M; Kristofferson, D; Lawrence, J

1992-05-11

385

32 CFR 231.5 - Procedures-domestic banks.  

...institutions and the Department to improve the military banking program. Free discussion among the attendees gives an excellent forum for planning, developing, and reviewing programs that improve financial services made available to DoD personnel and...

2014-07-01

386

The Changing Role of the WORLD BANK in Global Health  

PubMed Central

The World Bank began operations on June 25, 1946. Although it was established to finance European reconstruction after World War II, the bank today is a considerable force in the health, nutrition, and population (HNP) sector in developing countries. Indeed, it has evolved from having virtually no presence in global health to being the world’s largest financial contributor to health-related projects, now committing more than $1 billion annually for new HNP projects. It is also one of the world’s largest supporters in the fight against HIV/AIDS, with commitments of more than $1.6 billion over the past several years. I have mapped this transformation in the World Bank’s role in global health, illustrating shifts in the bank’s mission and financial orientation, as well as the broader changes in development theory and practice. Through a deepened understanding of the complexities of development, the World Bank now regards investments in HNP programs as fundamental to its role in the global economy. PMID:15623860

Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2005-01-01

387

Virtual blood bank.  

PubMed

Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

Wong, Kit Fai

2011-01-01

388

Virtual blood bank  

PubMed Central

Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

Wong, Kit Fai

2011-01-01

389

Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.  

PubMed

The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them. PMID:23130743

Aznar Lucea, Justo

2012-01-01

390

Essays in applied microeconomics: measuring the multilateral allocation of rent and dual tests of market power  

SciTech Connect

The first essay develops a general econometric procedure for the join estimation of rents in a bilateral monopoly/oligopoly market for an intermediate good. This procedure is utilized to measure the rent-gathering success of firms involved in the extraction, transportation, and consumption of Wyoming coal. Statistical results indicate that railroads and coal producers capture 23% of potential rent, while taxing authorities and utilities capture 7 and 47%, respectively. Further statistical tests indicate that rents have shifted towards railroads since their deregulation in 1980 and that railroads and coal producers engage in price discrimination. The second essay estimates the extent to which regulated electric utilities are inefficient in the use of base-load fossil fuels. Utilities are assumed to be shadow profit maximizers acting as if they face shadow prices which may diverge from observed prices because of monopoly power in output markets, monopsony power in input markets, or distortions induced by fuel-adjustment-clause rate making. Supply, demand, and actual profit equations are derived from a behavioral profit function, and the model is estimated for a sample of utilities using Wyoming and Montana coal. Results indicate that this group of utilities uses fuel inefficiently.

Kerkvliet, J.

1986-01-01

391

The effects of culture on banking strategy : a study of three banks in three countries  

E-print Network

Every company pursues a different strategy, and banks are no different. In the banking industry, each bank performs its business based on its own business strategies. Japanese banks have different strategies, but in terms ...

Kuroiwa, Seiichi

2006-01-01

392

The local knowledge bank : uncovering the processes and networks of social innovation at Brazil's first community bank  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I apply a case study method to examine the processes of knowledge management both within the neighborhood, and in institutional partnerships, by Banco Palmas, Brazil's first community development bank, as ...

Gao, Ying, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

393

BANK LEVERAGE, FINANCIAL FRAGILITY AND PRUDENTIAL REGULATION  

E-print Network

Stability Forum and Committee on the Global Financial System Joint Working Group (2009)). This excess of the autumn of 2008, in particular for the major European banks and for US investment banks. The increase and the crisis, the top 50 major global banks, of the US investment banks and European universal banks, had

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

Banking antitrust: are the assumptions still valid?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In bank antitrust analyses, banking regulators rely on certain assumptions about products and services of banks, the markets in which they operate, competitors within those markets, and the effects of mergers or acquisitions on those markets. During the 1990s, financial innovation and changes in banking regulations changed the landscape in which banks compete. Consequently, the assumptions behind antitrust analyses have

R. Alton Gilbert; Adam M. Zaretsky

2003-01-01

395

Bank Competition and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the traditional “competition-fragility” view, more bank competition erodes market power, decreases profit margins, and\\u000a results in reduced franchise value that encourages bank risk taking. Under the alternative “competition-stability” view, more\\u000a market power in the loan market may result in higher bank risk as the higher interest rates charged to loan customers make\\u000a it harder to repay loans, and exacerbate

Allen N. Berger; Leora F. Klapper; Rima Turk-Ariss

2009-01-01

396

78 FR 53146 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...acquire voting shares of The Bank of Delmarva, Seaford, Delaware. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (Colette A. Fried...Liam Foster Hodgson, Beaver Island, Michigan; all as members...voting shares of Charlevoix State Bank, both in Charlevoix,...

2013-08-28

397

75 FR 39259 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...views in writing to the Reserve Bank indicated for that notice or...2010. A. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Kenneth Binning...Limited, Tortola, British Virgin Islands, and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of Oceanic Bank Holdings, Inc., and...

2010-07-08

398

76 FR 11781 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...voting shares of North Alabama Bank, both of Hazel Green, Alabama...voting shares of Northside Bank, both of Adairsville, Georgia...Michael Hull Erdman, Merritt Island, Florida; to retain voting shares of Sunrise Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida....

2011-03-03

399

76 FR 72705 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Minnesota, and Jenny Lynn Verner, Victoria, Minnesota, Zachary Miller Zacek...Minnwest Bank, M.V., Redwood Falls, Minnesota; Minnwest Bank South...Minnesota, and Minnwest Bank Sioux Falls, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Board of...

2011-11-25

400

78 FR 11647 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...voting shares of Cornerstone Bank, both in Mt. Laurel, New Jersey. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (Chapelle Davis...Bruce T. and Sheba Lucas; Universal Finance & Investments LLC...voting shares of First Home Bank, both in Seminole,...

2013-02-19

401

AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. AIMS: The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. MAIN CONTRIBUTION: AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. CONCLUSIONS: AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

Macwhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

2011-01-01

402

AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse  

PubMed Central

Background AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. Aims The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. Methods & Procedures We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. Main Contribution AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. Conclusions AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

2011-01-01

403

Tissue banking training courses: Polish experience.  

PubMed

Personnel directly involved in the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells should be appropriately qualified and provided with timely and relevant training according to EU directives. In the time of new tissue and cells regulations implementation such a training system existed in Poland only at a local level. The first training programme outlines for various groups of health professionals engaged in tissue banking practice was created in co-operation with the Institute for LifeLong Learning at University of Barcelona in 2006. This initial training courses were financially supported by EU Transition Facility Programme 2004. Then, starting from 2006, based on previous experience, system of advanced training courses was created. This training programme was financially supported by the National Programme for the Development of Transplantation Medicine 2006-2009-POLGRAFT financed by Polish Ministry of Health. During 2006 and 2007 first set of tissue banking initial training courses were provided according to TF 2004 project. Over 200 pathologists, forensic medicine specialists and other medical doctors responsible for donor screening and classification, medical directors of tissue establishments, technical staff; tissue graft users: orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, cardiosurgeons and ophthalmologists were trained. Between 2006 and 2009 there were organized 8 advanced tissue banking training courses according to POLGRAFT programme. There were organized both theoretical and practical courses on various aspects of tissue for over 350 persons. We present our experience in organisation of international and national tissue banking training courses. PMID:22318653

Kaminski, Artur; Gut, Grzegorz; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, Izabela; Olender, Ewa

2013-03-01

404

The World Bank: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change continues to be of grave concern to many, and the World Bank is particularly concerned with the ramifications it will have on people in the developing world. Their Climate Change site is designed to provide an overview of their work on this vexing problem including information about their current projects, data sets, research papers, and books. Visitors should start by looking over their weblog, and then take a look at their "News" area. Here, they can learn about innovative carbon trading programs, engineering projects, and international agreements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change. The "Research" area has dozens of free publications, including the very relevant "Climate Resilient Cities" work, which discusses how city governments can better understand how to plan for the impact of climate change through sound urban planning.

405

Using Banks: Teaching Banking Skills to Low-Income Consumers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…

Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

406

UConn Behavioral Gene Bank The UConn Behavioral Gene Bank  

E-print Network

illness? Mental illnesses include disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety affected by these disorders as well. What is a Gene Bank? Information and tissue samples such as blood to establish a Gene Bank to support research to find causes of illnesses or behavioral disorders. Participation

Oliver, Douglas L.

407

12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...regarded as a bankers' bank is specified in paragraph...the Act and the bankers' bank exemption. Second...of total liabilities (or net worth if the institution does...regarded as a bankers' bank and will be required...

2010-01-01

408

[Current status of cord blood banks in the world].  

PubMed

Since the first successful transplantation of placental/umbilical cord blood (PCB) in 1988 at St. Louis Hospital in Paris, the effort has been made to establish large scale cord blood banks for allogeneic transplantation around the world. Recent reports from New York Blood Center which stocks 9000 units and shipped 700 units to US and other countries indicates that PCB transplantation is as effective as bone marrow transplantation. There are many cord blood banks in the world now and the number of PCB units stocked in the world are increasing rapidly. The methods for collection and processing of PCB, and test items for screening for viral infections, etc. differ greatly among banks. Therefore, the quality of PCB units stocked worldwide has become an important issue and some major banks are trying to introduce GMP or ISO system for the quality assurance of PCB. In this chapter, we introduce the activities of major cord blood banks in the world. Guidelines or regulation for hematopoietic stem cell processing including PCB has been enacted in some countries though the situation of support from their governments differ. International registry for PCB transplantation have been developed by EUROCORD. The international network of cord blood banks, NETCORD, has been established recently with major banks in Europe, United States and Japan to ensure the rapid supply of safe and efficient PCB units to the patients throughout the world. Obtaining information of international activities of cord blood banks in the world and cooperation with them should bring the National Cord Blood Bank in Japan into concordance with a developing world standards. PMID:10475029

Takahashi, T A; Xu, Y

1999-05-01

409

Doha merchandise trade reform : what's at stake for developing countries ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides new estimates of the global gains from multilateral trade reform and their distribution among developing countries in the presence of trade preferences. Particular attention is given to agriculture, as farmers constitute the poorest households in developing countries but are the most assisted in rich countries. The latest GTAP database (Version 6.05) and the LINKAGE model of the

Kym Anderson; Will Martin; Dominique van der Mensbrugghe

2006-01-01

410

15 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Officials Authorized To Deny Requests for Records Under the Freedom of Information Act, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Administration Chief Financial Officer and Director...Multilateral Development Bank Operations Director...Administration: Chief Financial Officer/Chief Administrative... Senior Counsel for Internet Technology National...Administration and Chief Financial Officer; Chief,...

2010-01-01

411

Idea Bank: Changing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.

Holzmiller, Tara

2008-12-01

412

Economic Efficiency of Texas Country Banks.  

E-print Network

banks, and 3) from capital, surplus, and undivided profits of the itself. But since bankers usually borrow from other banks only in t gencies and since a large portion of the bank's own funds are invest1 the bank building, deposits are the chief... banks, and 3) from capital, surplus, and undivided profits of the itself. But since bankers usually borrow from other banks only in t gencies and since a large portion of the bank's own funds are invest1 the bank building, deposits are the chief...

Lee, Virgil P. (Virgil Porter)

1932-01-01

413

The Children's Development Commission Act--H.R. 3637. Field Hearing before the Subcommittee on Capital Markets, Securities and Government Sponsored Enterprises of the Committee on Banking and Financial Services. U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents testimony from the June 1998 hearing on the Children's Development Act (H.R. 3637) held before the Subcommittee on Capital Markets, Securities and Government Sponsored Enterprises. H.R. 3637 encourages the lending of resources to child care facilities by allowing a bank or lender access to a federal reinsurance program that…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Banking and Financial Services.

414

Bank erosion in cold regions  

SciTech Connect

River and lake bank erosion is caused by multiple processes and influenced by many conditions that interact in complex ways. Their importance will vary spatially and temporally due in large part to regional and seasonal differences in climate, hydrology and soils. In cold areas, these normally complex interactions are further complicated because the same process or condition may cause erosion at one time and prevent erosion at another. Bank sediments when frozen may be more resistant to erosion than when unfrozen. However, during the process of freezing, soil structure can be disrupted and sediment pore water can be drawn to the freezing zone within the soil; ice formation may make bank sediment more susceptible to erosion during spring thaw. Ice that has been forced onto and piled upon a shore by wind or thermal expansion can cause considerable localized damage and yet can also protect shores against winter waves and nearshore currents. Ice push can form sediment ramparts that protect the toe of a bank. Spray from winds and waves can freeze to banks, covering them with a protective layer of ice. When river or lake water levels are high enough, however, ice can erode banks by shoving, gouging and disrupting bank sediment. This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding the importance of cold regions factors in determining the erodibility and erosion of bank sediments. Ongoing investigations to improve methods of erosion prediction in cold climates will also be detailed.

Gatto, L.W. (Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States). Geological Sciences Branch)

1993-03-01

415

Tumour Banking: The Spanish Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can

M. M. Morente; E. de Alava; P. L. Fernandez

2007-01-01

416

The Central Bank in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade the issue of the optimal degree of central bank independence has been at the center of attention of academics and policymakers in many countries. The direction of institutional reform has almost universally been toward making central banks more independent from political pressure. The motivation of this move is linked to an increased emphasis on price stability

Alberto Alesina; Alberto Carrasquilla; RobertoSteiner

2000-01-01

417

Determinants of banks selection in USA, Taiwan and Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate bank choice\\/selection criteria in a range of cultural and country economic scenarios. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to understand international consumers' selection criteria of banks using the USA, Taiwan, and Ghana as illustrations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Following a literature review, the paper adopts the classical multi-step scale development

Charles Blankson; Julian Ming-Sung Cheng; Nancy Spears

2007-01-01

418

Trade Credit, Bank Loans, and Monitoring: Evidence from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firms in modern developed economies can choose to borrow from banks or from trade partners. Using first-difference and difference-in-differences regressions on Japanese manufacturing data, we explore the way they make that choice. Whether small or large, they do borrow from their trade partners heavily, and apparently at implicit rates that track the explicit rates banks would charge them. Nonetheless, they

Yoshiro Miwa; J. Mark Ramseyer

2005-01-01

419

The World Bank: HIV and AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UNAIDS (The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) and the World Bank worked together to create the AIDS Economics site to help improve understanding of the economics of HIV/AIDS and to "help researchers and policymakers in developing countries to define and implement humane, cost-effective policies to fight the disease." The highlight of the site is the summary of the findings and statistical appendices from Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic, a World Bank report. The full text of the report will be available shortly. The site also features a toolkit to assist consultants in assessing the implications of HIV/AIDS in the distribution of development assistance. Visitors to the site can also sign up for AIDS Economics, a free electronic newsletter.

1998-01-01

420

World Bank Annual Report 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Fiscal year 1999 (FY99) was a year of continued -- and formidable -- challenges," begins the World Bank Annual Report 1999. It goes on to list the financial crises in Brazil, Asia, and Russia and the natural disasters that struck the Caribbean, Asia, and Central America. And through it all, the World Bank was there. This report charts global economic progress and explains the World Bank's involvement in many aspects of the world economy. Broken into smaller reports, World Bank's annual report looks at the surprising rise of poverty, the issues surrounding Y2K and banking assistance, and the progress in anti-corruption efforts, among other issues. Also included are letters from the chairman, highlights, and summaries of improved projects.

Bank., World

421

The role of bank credit for cattle raising in financing tropical deforestation: An economic case study from Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panama's rapid deforestation for cattle pasture is causing serious environmental problems, as well as negative economic and social consequences. Bank credit encourages deforestation by making cattle pasture expansion more affordable, more profitable, or less risky. Two governmental banks in Panama supply most of the institutional credit provided to small- and medium-scale ranchers, through loans from the Inter-American Development Bank and

Ledec

1992-01-01

422

12 CFR 989.4 - Requirement for voluntary bank disclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for voluntary bank disclosure. 989.4 Section 989.4 Banks and Banking...STATEMENTS OF THE BANKS § 989.4 Requirement for voluntary bank disclosure. Any financial statements...

2010-01-01

423

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

2013-01-01

424

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

2011-01-01

425

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

2012-01-01

426

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

...Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

2014-01-01

427

12 CFR 345.44 - Public notice by banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Public notice by banks. 345.44 Section 345.44 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS...Requirements § 345.44 Public notice by banks. A bank shall provide in...

2010-01-01

428

12 CFR 345.44 - Public notice by banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Public notice by banks. 345.44 Section 345.44 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS...Requirements § 345.44 Public notice by banks. A bank shall provide in...

2011-01-01

429

12 CFR 1261.13 - Ineligible Bank directors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible Bank directors. 1261.13 Section 1261.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan...

2011-01-01

430

12 CFR 1261.13 - Ineligible Bank directors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible Bank directors. 1261.13 Section 1261.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan...

2010-01-01

431

12 CFR 1261.12 - Reporting requirements for Bank directors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting requirements for Bank directors. 1261.12 Section 1261.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan...

2011-01-01

432

12 CFR 977.2 - Transfer of funds between Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of funds between Banks. 977.2 Section 977.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD MISCELLANEOUS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK OPERATIONS AND AUTHORITIES MISCELLANEOUS BANK...

2011-01-01

433

12 CFR 977.2 - Transfer of funds between Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of funds between Banks. 977.2 Section 977.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD MISCELLANEOUS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK OPERATIONS AND AUTHORITIES MISCELLANEOUS BANK...

2010-01-01

434

12 CFR 1261.12 - Reporting requirements for Bank directors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting requirements for Bank directors. 1261.12 Section 1261.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan...

2010-01-01

435

Forensic DNA data banking by state crime labortaories  

SciTech Connect

This article reports the results of a survey of the responsible crime laboratories in the first 19 states with legislation establishing forensic DNA data banks. The survey inquired into the labs` policies and procedures regarding the collection, storage, and analysis of samples; the retention of samples and data; search protocols; access to samples and data by third parties; and related matters. The research suggests that (1) the number of samples collected from convicted offenders for DNA data banking has far surpassed the number that have been analyzed; (2) data banks have already been used in a small but growing number of cases, to locate suspects and to identify associations between unresolved cases; (3) crime labs currently plan to retain indefinitely the samples collected for their data banks; and (4) the nature and extent of security safeguards that crime labs have implemented for their data banks vary among states. The recently enacted DNA Identification Act (1994) will provide $40 million in federal matching grants to states for DNA analysis activities, so long as states comply with specified quality-assurance standards, submit to external proficiency testing, and limit access to DNA information. Although these additional funds should help to ease some sample backlogs, it remains unclear how labs will allocate the funds, as between analyzing samples for their data banks and testing evidence samples in cases without suspects. The DNA Identification Act provides penalties for the disclosure or obtaining of DNA data held by data banks that participate in CODIS, the FBI`s evolving national network of DNA data banks, but individual crime labs must also develop stringent internal safeguards to prevent breaches of data-bank security. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

McEwen, J.E. [Eunice Kennedy Shrive Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)

1995-06-01

436

DNA banking and DNA databanking by academic and commercial laboratories  

SciTech Connect

The advent of DNA-based testing is giving rise to DNA banking (the long-term storage of cells, transformed cell lines, or extracted DNA for subsequent retrieval and analysis) and DNA data banking (the indefinite storage of information derived from DNA analysis). Large scale acquisition and storage of DNA and DNA data has important implications for the privacy rights of individuals. A survey of 148 academically based and commercial DNA diagnostic laboratories was conducted to determine: (1) the extent of their DNA banking activities; (2) their policies and experiences regarding access to DNA samples and data; (3) the quality assurance measures they employ; and (4) whether they have written policies and/or depositor`s agreements addressing specific issues. These issues include: (1) who may have access to DNA samples and data; (2) whether scientists may have access to anonymous samples or data for research use; (3) whether they have plans to contact depositors or retest samples if improved tests for a disorder become available; (4) disposition of samples at the end of the contract period if the laboratory ceases operations, if storage fees are unpaid, or after a death or divorce; (5) the consequence of unauthorized release, loss, or accidental destruction of samples; and (6) whether depositors may share in profits from the commercialization of tests or treatments developed in part from studies of stored DNA. The results suggest that many laboratories are banking DNA, that many have already amassed a large number of samples, and that a significant number plan to further develop DNA banking as a laboratory service over the next two years. Few laboratories have developed written policies governing DNA banking, and fewer still have drafted documents that define the rights and obligations of the parties. There may be a need for increased regulation of DNA banking and DNA data banking and for better defined policies with respect to protecting individual privacy.

McEwen, J.E. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center, Waltham, MA (United States)]|[Boston College Law School, Newton, MA (United States); Reilly, P.R. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center, Waltham, MA (United States)

1994-09-01

437

The biomedical discourse relation bank  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB), in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB), which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89). These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28), mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57). Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more annotated data. The poor performance of a classifier trained in the open domain and tested in the biomedical domain suggests significant differences in the semantic usage of connectives across these domains, and provides robust evidence for a biomedical sublanguage for discourse and the need to develop a specialized biomedical discourse annotated corpus. The results of our cross-domain experiments are consistent with related work on identifying connectives in BioDRB. PMID:21605399

2011-01-01

438

Bioinformatics Activity Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is designed for educators hoping to teach students about the world of biotechnology and bioinformatics, and the lesson plans here are top-notch. The lessons span a variety of topics, including applied mathematics, DNA, and genetics. Visitors can scroll through six sections, including Organisms and Evolution or Proteins and Proteomics. Visitors can scroll through each area, keeping in mind that each activity is categorized by grade level, subject area, and type. For those looking for specific areas, they will find a set of activity filters that can be used to easily identify specific resources. Some of the activity offerings here include "Genetic Disorder Research," "What is Cloning?," and "DNA Detectives: Extract your Own DNA." Finally, visitors can visit In The News to learn more about ongoing activities at the Bioinformatics Activities Bank.

2013-04-30

439

Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

1994-01-01

440

China's Banking Reform: The Remaining Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1994, China has endeavoured to establish a banking system that works more closely to commercial principles by transforming the specialized banks (SBs) into state-owned commercial banks (SOCBs). However, lending decisions of the SOCBs were still determined by state directives instead of profitability consideration. This paper argues that although the post-WTO banking reforms have accomplished staggering results, China's SOCBs need

Charles C. L. Kwong

2011-01-01

441

The Organisational Structure of Banking Supervision  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I try to address the question of whether, and why, it matters whether banking supervision is undertaken in-house in the Central Bank or in a separate specialised supervisory institution. After all, the bank supervisors and those in the Central Bank concerned with systemic stability must continue to work closely together wherever the supervisors are physically located. Nevertheless

Charles Goodhart

2000-01-01

442

Determinants of behavioral intention to mobile banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the improvement of mobile technologies and devices, banking users are able to conduct banking services at anyplace and at anytime. Recently, many banks in the world have provided mobile access to financial information. The reason to understand what factors contribute to users’ intention to use mobile banking is important issue of research. The purpose of this research is to

Ja-chul Gu; Sang-chul Lee; Yung-Ho Suh

2009-01-01

443

Bank regulation and the credit crunch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the direct link between regulatory enforcement actions and the shrinkage of bank loans to sectors likely to be bank dependent. We partition the shrinkage due to loan supply into the component due to explicit regulatory enforcement actions and that due to a voluntary response by bank management to low capital-to-asset ratios. We find that banks with formal

Joe Peek; Eric Rosengren

1995-01-01

444

The Implementation of Mobile Bank Usage from marketing point of view of bank managers in Jordan.  

E-print Network

The Implementation of Mobile Bank Usage from marketing point of view of bank managers in Jordan. The study aims at determine the effect of the implementation of Mobile Bank Usage from marketing point of view in Jordan on the different dimensions of the study (Gender of bank managers, Age of bank managers

445

Introduction Operations Management of Blood Banking Systems Blood Banking Systems Network Design Supply Chain Network  

E-print Network

Supply Chain Network Operations Management and Design of A Sustainable Blood Banking System Amir Masoumi Operations Management of Blood Banking Systems Blood Banking Systems Network Design Supply Chain Management Management of Blood Banking Systems Blood Banking Systems Network Design Supply Chain Management Supply

Nagurney, Anna

446

Do foreign banks increase competition? Evidence from emerging Asian and Latin American banking markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the impact of foreign bank penetration on the competitive structure of domestic banking sectors in host emerging economies. We focus our analysis on Asia and Latin America during the period 1997–2008. Using bank-level panel data to identify foreign banks and to estimate measures of banking competition, we are able to provide robust empirical evidence that

Bang Nam Jeon; María Pía Olivero; Ji Wu

2011-01-01

447

Changes in the banking sector – the case of Internet banking in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is gaining popularity as a delivery channel in the banking sector. At the same time, customer needs are changing. A total of 12 Internet banking operations in the UK are analysed under customer empowerment functions and Internet banking Web attributes. Internet banking renders location and time irrelevant, and empowers customers with greater control of their accounts. Banks achieve

Chanaka Jayawardhena; Paul Foley

2000-01-01

448

Constitutional Prospects for the Implementation of Funding and Governance Reforms in Latin American Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rationale for comprehensive reform of Latin American higher education crystallized in the mid-1990s in policy documents published by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. This "Washington consensus" of the multilateral banks advocated, among other measures, greater reliance on private sources of funding, increased…

Bernasconi, Andres

2007-01-01

449

The Practice of Islamic Credit Cards: A Comparative Look between Bank Danamon Indonesia's Dirham Card and Bank Islam Malaysia's BI Card 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of technology has enabled banks to issue products that satisfy the need of its clients. Credit card is one of the latest banking gadgets. It facilitates people to make spot transaction without carrying cash as well as on-line transaction since the credit card issuer pays the proceeds of the transaction on behalf of the buyer. However, for Muslim

Ilham Reza Ferdian; Miranti Kartika Dewi; Faried Kurnia Rahman

450

Uncommon Knowledge: World Bank Policy and the Unmaking of the Knowledge Economy in Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Bank is clearly one of the most influential global intergovernmental operators for international development assistance. In recent decades, the Bank and other agencies have invested immense technical and financial resources in a troubled and unprecedented mission of revitalizing and restructuring the development of education in Africa. A…

Obamba, Milton O.

2013-01-01

451

Water Sector -Aid Funded Business with the World Bank  

E-print Network

-Saharan Africa are the largest recipients of Bank financing for WSS and WRM. Many developing countries face. The World Commission on Water has estimated that investments in water infrastructure in developing countries, and countries. Projects support developing and maintaining appropriate stocks of well-performing hydraulic

Glasgow, University of

452

Regulation and Bank Stability: Canada and the United States, 1870 - 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 1995Three lessons for developing and transition economies from a historical comparison of U.S. and Canadian banking. First, restricting nationwide branch banking is a mistake. Second, the benefits of long-run stability and efficiency outweigh the cost of concentrated economic power. Third, efficiency can be promoted by permitting competition from foreign banking systems as well as domestic and foreign nonbank financial

Michael Bordo

1995-01-01

453

BANKS, FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION AND THE 'INTEREST RATE PREMIUM PUZZLE' IN EAST ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a simple theoretical framework to explorethe role of banks, bank inefficiencies and financial liberalization inexplaining the sustained interest rate premium offered in a number ofemerging economies in East Asia despite evidence of fairly credibleex-ante fixed exchange rates (Thailand in particular).Key words: banks, currency crisis, East Asia, financial liberalization,interest rates, ThailandJEL Classification: F30, F32, F4121. Background and Introduction...

Ramkishen S. Rajan

1999-01-01

454

Deregulation, technological change, and the business-lending performance of large and small banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to DeYoung et al. [Journal of Financial Services Research, 2004] deregulation and technological change has divided the US banking industry into two primary size-based groups: very large banks, specializing in the use of “hard” information to make standardized loans and smaller banks, specializing in the use of “soft” information and relationship development to make non-standardized loans. We evaluate business-lending

David A. Carter; James E. McNulty

2005-01-01

455

Idea Bank: Explaining Biological Phenomena  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Idea Bank, the author provides two classroom activities that integrate argumentation, explanation, and the use of evidence with biology content. The first example fits within an ecology unit; the second works well in one on evolution. These exampl

Levin, Daniel M.

2010-09-01

456

Blood Banking in Living Droplets  

E-print Network

Blood banking has a broad public health impact influencing millions of lives daily. It could potentially benefit from emerging biopreservation technologies. However, although vitrification has shown advantages over traditional ...

Samot, Josh

457

The Role of Bank Advisors in Mergers and Acquisitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the role of commercial banks and investment banks as financial advisor's. Unlike some areas of investment banking, commercial banks have always been allowed to compete directly with traditional investment banks in this area. In their role as lenders and advisor's, banks can be viewed as serving a certification function. However, banks acting as both lenders and

Linda Allen; Julapa Jagtiani; Stavros Peristiani; Anthony Saunders

2001-01-01

458

How Do Banks Determine Capital? Empirical Evidence for Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how capital is determined by German banks. We analyse whether the determinants found in the previous empirical literature hold for the special German banking sector with its three characteristic banking groups of savings banks, cooperative banks and other banks. On the basis of a unique data set of nearly all German banks between 1992 and 2001 provided

Martin Weber; Volker Kleff

2003-01-01

459

Development in the shadows : how the World Bank and the Frente Clandestina almost built a new government in Timor-Leste  

E-print Network

The failures of post-violent conflict development projects have so far outweighed the successes. In response, international aid organizations have deepened and broadened their dedication to state-building projects across ...

Totilo, Matthew Alan

2009-01-01

460

Chemical Bank: Financing Arms Exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The credit-policy committee of Chemical Bank must decide whether to retain, revise, or reject the bank's long-standing policy against financing the export of military and police equipment. Account officers closely involved with the defense industry have requested that the policy be revised to permit financing of any government-approved sales. The case describes the history of the policy and the ethical,

Henry Tulloch; Lynn Paine; Susan Woodward

461

Featured Research: Bank of America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank of America has made available its collection of economic and technical research reports. The reports include a weekly economic briefing on the US economy, a survey of Wall Street economists, an analysis of payroll employment and CPI; and occasional reports on business and economics. Bank of America also provides a weekly international economic briefing; a technical analyses of the yen, mark and pound exchange rates; and the Stock and Bond Investment Overview & Strategy.

1999-01-01

462

Cash efficiency for bank branches.  

PubMed

Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50. PMID:24010026

Cabello, Julia García

2013-01-01

463

12 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards D Appendix D to Part 229 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D to Part 229—Indorsement,...

2012-01-01

464

12 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards D Appendix D to Part 229 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D to Part 229—Indorsement, Reconverting...

2013-01-01

465

12 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards D Appendix D to Part 229 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D to Part 229—Indorsement,...

2011-01-01

466

12 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards  

...Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards D Appendix D to Part 229 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D to Part 229—Indorsement, Reconverting...

2014-01-01

467

12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank...ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 552.2-7 Conversion to National banking association or State...

2010-01-01

468

The effects of customers' mobile experience and technical support on the intention to use mobile banking.  

PubMed

While mobile banking has become an integral part of banking activities, it has also caused systems-related stress and consequent distrust among mobile banking users. This study looks into the phenomenon of technology adoption for mobile banking users and identifies potential factors that nurture positive intentions toward mobile banking usage. It examines the effects of a customer's mobile experience and technical support on mobile banking acceptance and explains how some variables affect this intention. After a literature review, the method of empirical analysis using a structured questionnaire is developed. Hierarchical Moderated Regression Analyses (HMRA) is used to examine the model. We find that mobile experience and technical support tend to strengthen the relationship between technological characteristics and a customer's intention to use the mobile technology. PMID:19772441

Chung, Namho; Kwon, Soon Jae

2009-10-01

469

Bank Capital Standards for Market Risk: A Welfare Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We propose a simple model that is suitable for evaluating alternative bank capital regulatoryproposals for market risk. Our model formalizes the conflict between bank objectives andregulatory goals. Banks\\

David A. Marshall; Subu Venkataraman

1999-01-01

470

The Potential Impact of Changes in Fertility on Infant, Child, and Maternal Mortality. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 698 and Population and Development Series No. 23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between changes in the timing and quantity of fertility, such as those that might result from an effective family planning program in developing countries, and changes in child and maternal mortality is examined. Results from five multivariate studies estimate the changes in mortality that might occur from altering maternal age,…

Trussell, James; Pebley, Anne R.

471

Rapid Population Growth and Human Carrying Capacity: Two Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 690 and Population and Development Series No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…

Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others

472

Attacking Rural Poverty: How Nonformal Education Can Help. A Research Report for the World Bank Prepared by the International Council for Educational Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist rural planners and policy makers of developing countries in the use of nonformal education programs, this book analyzes the findings of a two-year irternational research study. Emphasizing a functional view of education and equating education with learning, the focus is on: (1) preplanning diagnosis, (2) educational delivery…

Coombs, Philip H.; Ahmed, Manzoor

473

Developments and New Approaches Concerning the Special and Differential Treatment Within GATTand World Trade Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to evaluate the efficiency of the Special and Differential Treatment which hasbeen developed for increasing the benefits of the multilateral trade system for the developing countries. In the first part of the paper, the Special and Differential Treatment within GATTand World Trade Organization were examined and the problems concerning them were determined. In the second part, new

Elif Uckan Dagdemir

2007-01-01

474

Specification of a Human Reliability Data Bank for conducting HRA segments of PRAs for nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and General Physics Corporation have conducted a research program to develop a Human Reliability Data Bank for nuclear power industry probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). As part of this program, a survey of existing human reliability data banks from other industries was conducted and a concept of a Data Bank for the nuclear industry was developed. The results of these efforts were published in the two volumes of NUREG/CR-2744: ''Human Reliability Data Bank for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Volume 1, A Review of Existing Human Reliability Data Banks, and Volume 2, A Data Bank Concept and System Description.'' This document, NUREG/CR-4010, is the revised technical specification for the Human Reliability Data Bank. The organization of the Data Bank and a description of a data publication, the Human Reliability Data Manual, are provided. Details of the administration and operation of the Data Bank are discussed. Appendices present the detailed procedures for processing data, revising the Data Manual, operating the Data Bank, and reviewing data for the Data Bank. The final appendix is a skeleton version (structure only) of the Data Manual.

Comer, M.K.; Donovan, M.D.

1985-02-01

475

Correlates of customer loyalty to their bank: a case study in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine how customer expectations, perceived service quality and satisfaction predict loyalty among bank customers in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey research was conducted that included qualitative technique to explore customers' expectations from bank services on the basis of which measurement scales were developed to measure the variables of the study. Respondents for the qualitative

Benjamin Osayawe Ehigie

2006-01-01

476

Financial Systems and the Role of Banks in Monetary Policy Transmission in the Euro Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a comprehensive comparison of the structure of banking and financial markets in the euro area. Based on this, several hypotheses about the role of banks in monetary policy transmission are developed. Many of the predictions that have been proposed for the U.S. are deemed unlikely to apply in Europe. Testing these hypotheses we find that monetary policy

Patrick Sevestre; Jorge Martinez-Pages; Andreas Worms

2001-01-01

477

Episodes of Large Capital Inflows and the Likelihood of Banking and Currency Crises and Sudden Stops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between surges in capital inflows and the probability of subsequent banking, currency and balance-of-payment crises. Using a panel of developed and emerging economies from 1970 to 2007, it is shown that a large capital inflow episode increases substantially the probability of having a banking or a currency crisis in the two

Davide Furceri; Stéphanie Guichard; Elena Rusticelli

2011-01-01

478

The Impact of Information Technology on the Banking Industry: Theory and Empirics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops and tests a model to examine the effects of information tech- nology (IT) in the US banking industry. It is believed that IT can improve bank's performance in two ways: IT can reduce operational cost (cost effect), and facilitate transactions among customers within the same network (network effect). The empir- ical studies, however, have shown inconsistency on

Shirley J. Ho; Sushanta K. Mallick

479

Domestic Bank Regulation and Financial Crises: Theory and Empirical Evidence from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the domestic financial intermediation of foreign capital inflows based on agency costs is developed for studying financial crises in emerging markets. In equilibrium, the banking system becomes progressively more fragile under imperfect prudential regulation and public sector loan guarantees until a crisis occurs with a sudden reversal of capital flows. The crisis evolves endogenously as the banking

Robert Dekle; Kenneth Kletzer

2002-01-01

480

Standards and Assessment Resource Bank, Version 2.5 [CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Colorado "Standards and Assessment Resource Bank" on CD-ROM contains updated information about the Colorado Student Assessment Program, the text of the "Standards-Based Classroom Operator's Manual," and a bank of standards-based units, assessments, and staff development materials submitted by Colorado teachers and school district…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

481

Culture, convenience or efficiency : Customer behaviour in choosing local or foreign banks in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to define and test a supplier selection model for Chinese and foreign banks in China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 12 reasons affecting customers' choice in selecting Chinese or foreign banks are developed and their respective importance are tested through 2,000 questionnaires which were distributed over the city-zones of Hangzhou. Findings – Supplier

Coen Heijes

2008-01-01

482

Flood induced infiltration affecting a bank filtrate well at the River Enns, Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bank filtration employs a natural filtration process of surface water on its flow path from the river to the well. The development of a stable filter layer is of major importance to the quality of the delivered water. Flooding is expected to destabilise the riverbed, to reduce the filter efficiency of the bank and therefore to endanger the operation of

Bernhard Wett; Hannes Jarosch; Kurt Ingerle

2002-01-01

483

Commercial Bank Behavior in Local Markets: Theory and Evidence from New England.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a study of the history and development of private growth and public regulation of the commercial banking industry, comparing the U.S. as a whole with the New England region. Commercial banks are the principal source of debt finance for small, loca...

E. W. Hill

1981-01-01

484

April 8/9, 2003 Green Bank GBT PTCS Conceptual Design Review  

E-print Network

April 8/9, 2003 Green Bank GBT PTCS Conceptual Design Review Richard Prestage SPIE, May 2006 The Green Bank Telescope: Science Results and Lessons Learned #12;2 Overview · Brief summary of telescope, quality assurance, hardware prototyping and testing · Development work must clearly lead to concrete

Groppi, Christopher

485

Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure: the case of Islamic banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a theoretical model of the determinants of Islamic banks' social disclosures. In testing the hypotheses, the level of social disclosure in Islamic banks' annual reports is gauged based on a benchmark derived from Islamic principles. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Applying the principles of systems-oriented theories such as political economy, legitimacy

Sayd Farook; M. Kabir Hassan; Roman Lanis

2011-01-01

486

Education in the 1980s: World Bank Perspectives--The Myth and the Reality--.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In reviewing and analyzing the World Bank's "Education Sector Policy Paper" of April 1980, the author concentrates, first, on the report's description of worldwide issues and trends in educational development and, second, on the report's assessment of past and future World Bank lending for educational programs. The discussion of worldwide issues…

Saraf, S. N.

487

How the World Bank Can Contribute to Basic Education Given Formal Schooling Will Not Go Away.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the potential of the World Bank scheme, outlined in its 1980 Education Sector Policy Paper, for helping Bangladesh achieve universal basic education. Considers such issues as formal vs. nonformal schooling, costs, and teacher training. Part of a theme issue on the World Bank Paper and Third World educational development. (SJL)

Dove, Linda A.

1981-01-01

488

Savings-led Microfinance to Bank the UnbankablesSharing of Global Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the ‘Grameen Bank Model’ evolved and developed in Bangladesh, several countries in Asia, including India, and elsewhere in the world have emulated, replicated and modified the original model of micro-finance to suit local conditions and enhance mass acceptability. In India, among various models tried and tested, the one evolved and successfully demonstrated by the National Bank for Agriculture

A. N. Sarkar; Jagjit Singh

2006-01-01

489

75 FR 49493 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commerce Corporation, and thereby indirectly acquire additional voting shares of Peoples Bank and Trust Company, both of North Carrollton, Mississippi. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (E. Ann Worthy, Vice President) 2200 North Pearl Street,...

2010-08-13

490

76 FR 66719 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assistant Vice President) 1000 Peachtree Street, NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30309: 1. Guido Edwin Hinojosa Cardoso, La Paz, Bolivia; to acquire additional voting shares of Sunrise Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (E....

2011-10-27

491

76 FR 4896 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...retain voting shares of Biscayne Bancshares, Inc., and thereby indirectly retain voting shares of Biscayne Bank, both in Coconut Grove, Florida. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City (Dennis Denney, Assistant Vice President) 1 Memorial Drive,...

2011-01-27

492

77 FR 58141 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Haerr, Fairfield, Iowa, to increase control to more than 25 percent of Perry Investment Company, Perry, Iowa, and thereby indirectly control Raccoon Valley Bank, Perry, Iowa. B. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (Glenda Wilson,...

2012-09-19

493

76 FR 44914 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reserve Bank of Minneapolis (Jacqueline G. King, Community Affairs Officer) 90 Hennepin...Minneapolis, Minnesota 55480-0291: 1. Stephen L. Grobel, Tabb, Virginia; to individually...Bank, Glasgow, Montana. In addition, Stephen L. Grobel and Peter J. Grobel,...

2011-07-27

494

The RadioAstron Green Bank Earth Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design, commissioning, and initial results of the Green Bank Earth Station (GBES), a RadioAstron data downlink station located at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. The GBES uses the modernized and refurbished NRAO 140ft telescope. Antenna optics were refurbished with new motors and drives fitted to the secondary mirror positioning system, and the deformable subreflector was refurbished with a new digital controller and new actuators. A new monitor and control system was developed for the 140ft and is based on that of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), allowing satellite tracking via a simple scheduling block. Tools were developed to automate antenna pointing during tracking. Data from the antenna control systems and logs are retained and delivered with the science and telemetry data for processing at the Astro Space Center (ASC) of the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the mission control centre, Lavochkin Association.

Ford, H. Alyson; Anderson, Robert; Belousov, Konstantin; Brandt, Joseph J.; Ford, John M.; Kanevsky, Boris; Kovalenko, Anatoly; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Sergeev, Sergei; Smirnov, Alexander; Watts, Galen; Weadon, Timothy Lee

2014-07-01

495

Financial Education for Teachers: The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Banks around the country produce a great number of educational resources for the general public, students, and teachers. The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis has developed a section of their site dedicated to financial education resources specifically for teachers. Located within the "Teaching Aids" area, the site includes a curriculum unit on United States money and a link to the "What is a Dollar Worth" calculator. This interactive calculator helps people understand the relative value of a dollar, and it also provides a bit of background on how the calculator works and what it measures exactly. Additionally, the site contains a link to "The Economic Literacy Project: Seeking a Blueprint for America". Here visitors can review a report on economic literacy and also learn more about recent studies on banking failures and early childhood development.

496

Financial Education for Teachers: The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Banks around the country produce a great number of educational resources for the general public, students, and teachers. The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis has developed a section of their site dedicated to financial education resources specifically for teachers. Located within the "Teaching Aids" area, the site includes a curriculum unit on United States money and a link to the "What is a Dollar Worth" calculator. This interactive calculator helps people understand the relative value of a dollar, and it also provides a bit of background on how the calculator works and what it measures exactly. Additionally, the site contains a link to "The Economic Literacy Project: Seeking a Blueprint for America". Here visitors can review a report on economic literacy and also learn more about recent studies on banking failures and early childhood development.

2010-03-26

497

Identifying the effects of parameter uncertainty on the reliability of modeling the stability of overhanging, multi-layered, river banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite river banks consist of a basal layer of non-cohesive material overlain by a cohesive layer of fine-grained material. In such banks, fluvial erosion of the lower, non-cohesive, layer typically occurs at a much higher rate than erosion of the upper part of the bank. Consequently, such banks normally develop a cantilevered bank profile, with bank retreat of the upper part of the bank taking place predominantly by the failure of these cantilevers. To predict the undesirable impacts of this type of bank retreat, a number of bank stability models have been presented in the literature. These models typically express bank stability by defining a factor of safety as the ratio of resisting and driving forces acting on the incipient failure block. These forces are affected by a range of controlling factors that include such aspects as the overhanging block geometry, and the geotechnical properties of the bank materials. In this paper, we introduce a new bank stability relation (for shear-type cantilever failures) that considers the hydrological status of cantilevered riverbanks, while beam-type failures are analyzed using a previously proposed relation. We employ these stability models to evaluate the effects of parameter uncertainty on the reliability of riverbank stability modeling of overhanging banks. This is achieved by employing a simple model of overhanging failure with respect to shear and beam failure mechanisms in a series of sensitivity tests and Monte Carlo analyses to identify, for each model parameter, the range of values that induce significant changes in the simulated factor of safety. The results show that care is required in parameterising (i) the geometrical shape of the overhanging-block and (ii) the bank material cohesion and unit weight, as predictions of bank stability are sensitive to variations of these factors.

Samadi, A.; Amiri-Tokaldany, E.; Davoudi, M. H.; Darby, S. E.

2011-11-01

498

12 CFR 210.4 - Sending items to Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Sending items to Reserve Banks. 210.4 Section 210.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COLLECTION OF CHECKS AND OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS...

2010-01-01

499

12 CFR 209.3 - Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bank stock. 209.3 Section 209.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.3...

2010-01-01

500

12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...Activities closely related to banking. Courier...

2013-01-01