Science.gov

Sample records for multilateral development banks

  1. Multilateral development banks and socially responsible investments--the case of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Lal, Pranay

    2012-12-01

    Globally, tobacco kills more people than HIV-related conditions or AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined. In 1991, The World Bank, the world's largest lender, pledged that it would no longer support tobacco-related projects. It was expected that other financial investors would follow, but most did not respond to this call. As a result, several financial institutions continue to invest in tobacco and fuel an epidemic to an unprecedented scale. Using tobacco as a case in point, this review highlights the continuing investments among financial institutions which do not conform to 'socially responsible investments' and calls for monitoring and reporting such unethical practices. The paper also underscores the need to harmonise the numerous criteria, principles and voluntary codes that govern socially responsible investing and ensure that financial institutions comply with them. PMID:24803444

  2. Funding for East Asian energy development: the role of multilateral lending agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.K.

    1982-06-01

    International financial institutions involved in East Asia energy development include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), the Asian Development Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, and the OPEC Fund for International Development. This report is a preliminary examination of the role of these institutions in energy-related investments, project finance, exploration, and technical assistance in East Asia. Some attention is given to the size and direction of current investment flows, the lending policies of the different multilateral agencies, and the future role of these agencies in Asian energy development. The World Bank, despite the possible postponement of an energy affiliate, will continue, albeit slowly, to expand its lending activities for energy projects in developing countries. The Asian Development Bank will also expand its energy programs in East Asia if member contributions are adequate. The role of the UN Development Programme in preinvestment surveys and technical support is focused on the poorest developing countries. The OPEC Fund, in part for political reasons, will most likely continue its energy lending programs.

  3. Bank Community Development Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Commerce and Community Affairs, Springfield.

    This handbook provides a brief overview of bank and bank holding company community development corporations (CDCs), the types of activities for which they can be used, the legal requirements in establishing such an entity, and how they are organized and operated. Case studies, including studies of the Shorebank Corporation of Chicago, the First…

  4. Trade Policies toward Developing Countries: The Multilateral Trade Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lorenzo L., Ed.; Benedick, Gerald R., Ed.

    Proceedings are presented of a 1977 conference about aspects of international trade negotiations of importance to developing countries. Participants included staff from Washington-based international organizations, various United States departments, Congressional staff, and students of the Foreign Service Institute. Transcripts of three addresses…

  5. Advanced multilateration theory, software development, and data processing: The MICRODOT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Gallagher, J. F.; Vonroos, O. H.

    1976-01-01

    The process of geometric parameter estimation to accuracies of one centimeter, i.e., multilateration, is defined and applications are listed. A brief functional explanation of the theory is presented. Next, various multilateration systems are described in order of increasing system complexity. Expected systems accuracy is discussed from a general point of view and a summary of the errors is listed. An outline of the design of a software processing system for multilateration, called MICRODOT, is presented next. The links of this software, which can be used for multilateration data simulations or operational data reduction, are examined on an individual basis. Functional flow diagrams are presented to aid in understanding the software capability. MICRODOT capability is described with respect to vehicle configurations, interstation coordinate reduction, geophysical parameter estimation, and orbit determination. Numerical results obtained from MICRODOT via data simulations are displayed both for hypothetical and real world vehicle/station configurations such as used in the GEOS-3 Project. These simulations show the inherent power of the multilateration procedure.

  6. Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. [Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1992-05-31

    The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This multilateral'' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

  7. Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1992-05-01

    The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985-1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This 'multilateral' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125 mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125 mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250 C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government, and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

  8. Development of tissue bank

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  9. The World Bank Policies: Damned if You Do, Damned if You Don't.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura Castro, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    A former employee of the World Bank discusses the logic behind multilateral development banks and how they operate, bank ideology and the nature of policy formation, educational and other reforms as loan conditions, the inability of development banks to enforce implementation of their policies in countries receiving loans, and whether the banks…

  10. The role of multilateral institutions.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Agi; Castro, Gonzalo; Newcombe, Kenneth

    2002-08-15

    In line with its mission of alleviating poverty through support for environmentally and socially sustainable economic development, The World Bank (along with some other multilateral development banks) is working to help developing countries capture a share of the emerging global market in greenhouse-gas-emissions reductions ('carbon trading'). Under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Joint Implementation instrument and the Clean Development Mechanism now provide an opening for substantial international resource transfers and potential for supporting sustainable development through the transfer of cleaner technologies or sustainable forestry and agro-forestry practices. For example, carbon sequestration represents a non-extractive non-consumptive sustainable use of living natural resources that can be incorporated within a multiple-use 'integrated ecosystem management' approach. The World Bank initiated the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) in April 2000, to help spur the development of a global carbon market and to 'learn by doing' how to use carbon-purchase transactions across a range of energy-sector technologies (and some forestry applications) to achieve environmentally credible and cost-effective emissions reductions that benefit developing countries and economies in transition. Building on the success of the PCF ($145 million raised from public and private-sector investors), The World Bank expects to launch two new funds in 2002: the Biocarbon Fund and the Community Development Carbon Fund. These funds will target synergies between carbon markets and objectives such as biodiversity conservation, combating desertification and small-scale community-driven development. Experience from the PCF shows that developing countries can have a comparative advantage in supplying this global market, as emissions reductions can be achieved in developing countries in the range of $3-$5 per ton of CO(2) equivalent, compared with a marginal abatement cost of $10-$15 per ton of CO(2) equivalent in most countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. However, realizing this economic potential over the next decade, and targeting the market to the rural poor, will require substantial assistance with project development and government legal and institutional capacity building. Specific needs include raising awareness of the potential of carbon markets at all levels (particularly in energy and land-use sectors), clarifying property rights, particularly in the case of communally held land and resources, ensuring the existence of an attractive investment climate, eliminating policies that create perverse incentives and constraints, and mitigating logistical, political and 'reputational' risks that could deter private-sector investors. It will also be necessary to find ways to reconcile the short-term needs of the rural poor and the typically long-term revenue stream associated with carbon sequestration. PMID:12460489

  11. Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).

    PubMed

    Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries. PMID:23276290

  12. Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. Final report, July 1, 1986--May 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, R.; O`Gallagher, J.J.

    1992-05-31

    The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This ``multilateral`` project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

  13. Remote Sensing Education and Development Countries: Multilateral Efforts through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Leslie Bermann

    1998-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is an international organization which coordinates space-based Earth observations world wide. Created in 1984, CEOS now comprises 38 national space agencies, regional organizations and international space-related and research groups. The aim of CEOS is to achieve international coordination in the planning of satellite missions for Earth observation and to maximize the utilization of data from these missions world-wide. With regard to developing countries, the fundamental aim of CEOS is to encourage the creation and maintenance of indigenous capability that is integrated into the local decision-making process, thereby enabling developing countries to obtain the maximum benefit from Earth observation. Obtaining adequate access to remote sensing information is difficult for developing countries and students and teachers alike. High unit data prices, the specialized nature of the technology , difficulty in locating specific data, complexities of copyright provisions, the emphasis on "leading edge" technology and research, and the lack of training materials relating to readily understood application are frequently noted obstacles. CEOS has developed an education CD-ROM which is aimed at increasing the integration of space-based data into school curricula, meeting the heretofore unsatisfied needs of developing countries for information about Earth observation application, data sources and future plans; and raising awareness around the world of the value of Earth observation data from space. The CD-ROM is designed to be used with an Internet web browser, increasing the information available to the user, but it can also be used on a stand-alone machine. It contains suggested lesson plans and additional resources for educators and users in developing countries.

  14. Banking, Technology Workers and Their Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Lesley; West, Jim

    2001-01-01

    An Australian bank developed a four-stage career development strategy for information technology workers: (1) career coaching sessions with executives; (2) career coaching seminars for line managers and team leaders; (3) staff career planning workshops; and (4) online career development support. The program resulted in increased satisfaction,…

  15. Universal Health Coverage's evolving location in the post-2015 development agenda: Key informant perspectives within multilateral and related agencies during the first phase of post-2015 negotiations.

    PubMed

    Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S

    2016-05-01

    In 2001, technocrats from four multilateral organizations selected the Millennium Development Goals mainly from the previous decade of United Nations (UN) summits and conferences. Few accounts are available of that significant yet cloistered synthesis process: none contemporaneous. In contrast, this study examines health's evolving location in the first-phase of the next iteration of global development goal negotiation for the post-2015 era, through the synchronous perspectives of representatives of key multilateral and related organizations. As part of the Go4Health Project, in-depth interviews were conducted in mid-2013 with 57 professionals working on health and the post-2015 agenda within multilaterals and related agencies. Using discourse analysis, this article reports the results and analysis of a Universal Health Coverage (UHC) theme: contextualizing UHC's positioning within the post-2015 agenda-setting process immediately after the Global Thematic Consultation on Health and High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda (High-Level Panel) released their post-2015 health and development goal aspirations in April and May 2013, respectively. After the findings from the interview data analysis are presented, the Results will be discussed drawing on Shiffman and Smith (Generation of political priority for global health initiatives: a framework and case study of maternal mortality.The Lancet2007; 370: : 1370-79) agenda-setting analytical framework (examining ideas, issues, actors and political context), modified by Benzianet al.(2011). Although more participants support the High-Level Panel's May 2013 report's proposal-'Ensure Healthy Lives'-as the next umbrella health goal, they nevertheless still emphasize the need for UHC to achieve this and thus be incorporated as part of its trajectory. Despite UHC's conceptual ambiguity and cursory mention in the High-Level Panel report, its proponents suggest its re-emergence will occur in forthcoming State led post-2015 negotiations. However, the final post-2015 SDG framework for UN General Assembly endorsement in September 2015 confirms UHC's continued distillation in negotiations, as UHC ultimately became one of a litany of targets within the proposed global health goal. PMID:26494847

  16. Educational Development in Thailand: The Role of World Bank Lending. A World Bank Operations Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    The World Bank's Operation Evaluation Department (OED) evaluates educational development in Thailand and assesses the cumulative impact of the Bank's projects on development in that country. From 1966 to date, the Bank supported six education projects with an estimated cost of a half billion dollars. The report covers: (1) economic and educational…

  17. The Asian Development Bank`s role in promoting cleaner production in the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Huq, A.; Lohani, B.N.; Jalal, K.F.; Ouano, E.A.R.

    1999-09-01

    The People`s Republic of China (PRC) has the fastest growing economy in the world and is the third largest producer and consumer of energy. At the same time, the PRC`s industrial sector contributes heavily to air and water pollution. Because of the linkages between the production and use of energy and environmental degradation, the PRC, with the active support of bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, including the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is adopting measures that link economic growth to improvements in the environment. The PRC is pursuing a two-pronged strategy that involves implementing priority investment programs and promoting economic reforms. The ADB`s experience shows that the concept of cleaner production (CP) has been widely accepted, but the widespread adoption of CP requires a new way of thinking and new management capacities. In this regard, the PRC is at an early stage of promoting CP, and inadequacies in coordination among relevant agencies remain a key obstacle. To support CP activities, the ADB is participating in a cluster of activities within China that include policy development, capacity building, and financing environmental investments. This article describes the ADB`s current efforts to promote CP in PRC and analyzes the effectiveness of those efforts.

  18. Development Bank Encourages Natural Disaster Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    In an effort to make countries in Latin America and the Caribbean less vulnerable to natural disasters, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) announced on 21 December 2005 that it has developed a new draft disaster risk management policy to encourage its member countries to plan for these events. The IDB, the major development bank for the region, decided to place a focus on natural disaster risk planning following several devastating disasters in the region in the 1990s, including 1998's Hurricane Mitch, said Caroline Clarke, IDB senior specialist in disaster prevention and risk management. The IDB provides loans, technical assistance, and policy guidance to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  19. Impact of the Bank's rural development lending.

    PubMed

    Yudelman, M

    1979-09-01

    Following the global food crisis of the early 1970s, the World Bank has placed a priority on funding agriculture and rural development projects. These projects have been funded with a view to raising the productivity of low-income groups. Projects aimed at increasing the incomes of rural poor must clearly identify the target group and be designed so that they will benefit directly. Some of these Bank-funded projects have been in the following areas: 1) irrigation; 2) fertilizer; 3) general rural development, e.g., road construction and rural electrification; 4) agricultural extension; 5) credit extension in rural areas; and 6) comprehensive projects. So far, the Bank programs seem to have exerted an influence on government development policies. Experience shows, however, that expansion of the income-employment sector is limited in scope. It is evident also that poverty-oriented programs must be longer-term than more conventional programs. Real success in this field will be measured in terms of community development and self-sufficiency. PMID:12261286

  20. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes. PMID:23663485

  1. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Atun, Rifat

    2013-01-01

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes. PMID:23663485

  2. Multilateral installation from a floating rig

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Troll Olje gas province is approximately 100 km northwest of Bergen, Norway, in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea at a water depth of approximately 315 to 340 m. Troll Olje is part of the Troll gas field, where Norsk Hydro is responsible for developing two areas with thin oil rims. Before spudding the multilateral well described in this paper, 17 wells had been drilled and completed in the Troll Olje oil province. The multilateral-well concept was introduced in the gas province primarily to increase the drainage area for each well. When producing from two separate laterals, a lower drawdown pressure exists throughout the horizontal section. Therefore, gas coning is less likely to occur, and higher production rates can be sustained for a longer period of time. In addition, cost savings are substantial because of reduced well-construction time for each horizontal reservoir-drainage section and because of the reduced number of completion strings, subsea wellheads, and pipelines required for total field development. The full-length paper details design, development, testing, and installation of the first successful multilateral well installed from a floating rig offshore Norway. The paper gives a synopsis.

  3. Multilateral Research Opportunities in Ground Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. International collaboration provides an opportunity to leverage other nations' investments to meet common goals. The Humans In Space Community shares a common goal to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration within and beyond Low Earth Orbit. Meeting this goal requires efficient use of limited resources and International capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) is our primary platform to conduct microgravity research targeted at reducing human health and performance risks for exploration missions. Access to ISS resources, however, is becoming more and more constrained and will only be available through 2020 or 2024. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is actively pursuing methods to effectively utilize the ISS and appropriate ground analogs to understand and mitigate human health and performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. HRP developed a plan to use ground analogs of increasing fidelity to address questions related to exploration missions and is inviting International participation in these planned campaigns. Using established working groups and multilateral panels, the HRP is working with multiple Space Agencies to invite International participation in a series of 30- day missions that HRP will conduct in the US owned and operated Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) during 2016. In addition, the HRP is negotiating access to Antarctic stations (both US and non-US), the German :envihab and Russian NEK facilities. These facilities provide unique capabilities to address critical research questions requiring longer duration simulation or isolation. We are negotiating release of international research opportunities to ensure a multilateral approach to future analog research campaigns, hoping to begin multilateral campaigns in the latter facilities by 2017. Collaborative use of analog facilities and shared investment in the development of spaceflight countermeasures through multilateral campaigns or missions that leverage the global scientific community will focus high quality research and provide sufficient power to accelerate the development of countermeasures and drive sound recommendations for exploration missions. This panel will provide an overview of efforts to encourage and facilitate multilateral collaboration in analog missions or campaigns and describe the facilities currently under consideration to reach the common goal of enabling safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration.

  4. The Ebola Outbreak of 2014-2015: From Coordinated Multilateral Action to Effective Disease Containment, Vaccine Development, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Wojda, Thomas R; Valenza, Pamela L; Cornejo, Kristine; McGinley, Thomas; Galwankar, Sagar C; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Sharpe, Richard P; Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 exacted a terrible toll on major countries of West Africa. Latest estimates from the World Health Organization indicate that over 11,000 lives were lost to the deadly virus since the first documented case was officially recorded. However, significant progress in the fight against Ebola was made thanks to a combination of globally-supported containment efforts, dissemination of key information to the public, the use of modern information technology resources to better track the spread of the outbreak, as well as more effective use of active surveillance, targeted travel restrictions, and quarantine procedures. This article will outline the progress made by the global public health community toward containing and eventually extinguishing this latest outbreak of Ebola. Economic consequences of the outbreak will be discussed. The authors will emphasize policies and procedures thought to be effective in containing the outbreak. In addition, we will outline selected episodes that threatened inter-continental spread of the disease. The emerging topic of post-Ebola syndrome will also be presented. Finally, we will touch on some of the diagnostic (e.g., point-of-care [POC] testing) and therapeutic (e.g., new vaccines and pharmaceuticals) developments in the fight against Ebola, and how these developments may help the global public health community fight future epidemics. PMID:26752867

  5. The Ebola Outbreak of 2014-2015: From Coordinated Multilateral Action to Effective Disease Containment, Vaccine Development, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Wojda, Thomas R; Valenza, Pamela L; Cornejo, Kristine; McGinley, Thomas; Galwankar, Sagar C; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Sharpe, Richard P; Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 exacted a terrible toll on major countries of West Africa. Latest estimates from the World Health Organization indicate that over 11,000 lives were lost to the deadly virus since the first documented case was officially recorded. However, significant progress in the fight against Ebola was made thanks to a combination of globally-supported containment efforts, dissemination of key information to the public, the use of modern information technology resources to better track the spread of the outbreak, as well as more effective use of active surveillance, targeted travel restrictions, and quarantine procedures. This article will outline the progress made by the global public health community toward containing and eventually extinguishing this latest outbreak of Ebola. Economic consequences of the outbreak will be discussed. The authors will emphasize policies and procedures thought to be effective in containing the outbreak. In addition, we will outline selected episodes that threatened inter-continental spread of the disease. The emerging topic of post-Ebola syndrome will also be presented. Finally, we will touch on some of the diagnostic (e.g., point-of-care [POC] testing) and therapeutic (e.g., new vaccines and pharmaceuticals) developments in the fight against Ebola, and how these developments may help the global public health community fight future epidemics. PMID:26752867

  6. Moving from Bilateral to Multilateral Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roden, S.; Polk, J. D.; Janney, R. P.; Volpe, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    When the ISS Integrated Medical Group moved to a multilateral configuration for the ASTROLAB mission, several challenges were encountered and overcome that allowed for a streamlined operational experience. Dating back to the early 1990s, the European Space Agency (ESA) has sent flight surgeon and Biomedical Engineering (BME) personnel to NASA-JSC and Russia to train for space flight operational support. This training was tailored towards the needs of particular Shuttle/Soyuz missions, and more generally for eventual ISS support. With the announcement of the ASTROLAB mission, NASA and ESA personnel worked together to develop a detailed training template for ESA BMEs to ensure successful support of the mission from the European Astronaut Center (EAC). This training included the deployment of ESA BMEs to JSC, as well as the development of a rotation of ISS-certified NASA BMEs to the EAC. In addition to training, NASA, ESA, and the Russian Federal Space Agency (FSA) worked together preflight to develop multilateral flight control support concepts and implementation plans. This resulted in flight control support schedules, operational rules of engagement, and the delineation of responsibilities. NASA also assisted ESA with the development and deployment of workstation displays to allow the ESA medical flight control team to monitor ISS telemetry from the EAC. The goal of this presentation is to provide details of the preflight preparation and in-flight support of the ASTROLAB mission by the ESA, NASA, and FSA medical support teams. In addition, it will identify lessons learned that will be implemented for future multilateral endeavors.

  7. The development and use of a modern data bank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    The modern data bank emphasizes immediate access by a user community which may be large in number, widespread, and having varied needs. Electronic computers have been found very useful in the processing of stored information. The key to the design of a data bank is the optimum mix of human intellectual effort and mechanized processing. The elements of the NASA data bank are presented as one approach to the many trade-off decisions involved in the development of a data bank and integrated information system.

  8. Item Banking for Local Test Development: Practitioner's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arter, Judith A.; Estes, Gary D.

    This handbook is intended for persons who might develop or use an item bank to support their testing program. An item bank is defined as a "large collection of distinguishable test items," with "large" explained as meaning that the number of items available is greater than the number to be used in any one test. The first section of the handbook…

  9. International Multilateral Educational Aid Received by China: History, Characteristics, and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuchi, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years have passed since China began its reform and opening up, to formally accept multilateral educational aid from international organizations, and multilateral educational assistance has made contributions that cannot be overlooked to the reform and development of China's education. This article reviews the history of China's acceptance…

  10. International Multilateral Educational Aid Received by China: History, Characteristics, and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuchi, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years have passed since China began its reform and opening up, to formally accept multilateral educational aid from international organizations, and multilateral educational assistance has made contributions that cannot be overlooked to the reform and development of China's education. This article reviews the history of China's acceptance…

  11. 12 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 24 - CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments 1 Appendix 1 To Part 24 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS Pt. 24, App....

  12. A Game Simulation of Multilateral Trade for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gary L.; Carter, Ronald L.

    An alternative to existing methods for teaching elementary economic geography courses was developed in a game format to teach the basic process of trade through role playing. Simplifying the complexities of multilateral trade to a few basic decisions and acts, the cognitive objectives are to develop in the student: 1) an understanding of regional…

  13. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy. PMID:23959505

  14. 12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 345.25 Section 345.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25 Community development test...

  15. 12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 345.25 Section 345.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25 Community development test...

  16. 12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 345.25 Section 345.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25 Community development test...

  17. 12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 345.25 Section 345.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25 Community development test...

  18. 12 CFR 345.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 345.25 Section 345.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.25 Community development test...

  19. 12 CFR 25.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 25.25 Section 25.25 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT AND INTERSTATE DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance §...

  20. 12 CFR 228.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 228.25 Section 228.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.25 Community...

  1. 12 CFR 228.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 228.25 Section 228.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.25 Community...

  2. 12 CFR 25.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 25.25 Section 25.25 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT AND INTERSTATE DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance §...

  3. 12 CFR 25.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 25.25 Section 25.25 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT AND INTERSTATE DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance §...

  4. 12 CFR 25.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 25.25 Section 25.25 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT AND INTERSTATE DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance §...

  5. 12 CFR 25.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 25.25 Section 25.25 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT AND INTERSTATE DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance §...

  6. 12 CFR 228.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 228.25 Section 228.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.25...

  7. 12 CFR 228.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 228.25 Section 228.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.25...

  8. 12 CFR 228.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks. 228.25 Section 228.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.25 Community...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 24 - CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS Pt. 24, App. 1 Appendix 1 To Part 24—CD-1—National Bank Community Development... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CD-1-National Bank Community Development...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 24 - CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS Pt. 24, App. 1 Appendix 1 To Part 24—CD-1—National Bank Community Development... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false CD-1-National Bank Community Development...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 24 - CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS Pt. 24, App. 1 Appendix 1 To Part 24—CD-1—National Bank Community Development... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CD-1-National Bank Community Development...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 24 - CD-1-National Bank Community Development (Part 24) Investments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS Pt. 24, App. 1 Appendix 1 To Part 24—CD-1—National Bank Community Development... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false CD-1-National Bank Community Development...

  13. The development role of community banks in rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onugu, C U

    2000-02-01

    This paper examined the development role of community banks in rural Nigeria by using the deposit mobilization capability and funding capacity in key sectors of the rural economy as yardsticks. By using a cluster sampling technique, it looks at the achievements of the community banking scheme initiative in terms of economic development. The scheme, established in 1991, has sustained itself and promoted rural development in the country. It is noted that communities have, for the first time, realized that they can advance their own economic fortunes. However, the scheme's performance as supporter of the agricultural sector has not been as well as expected, despite the fact that agriculture dominates Nigeria's rural economy. In view of this, non-banking activities are a welcome development since some of their approaches are proven to be knowledge enhancing and empowering for the rural population. Overall, community banks should attempt to strengthen non-banking approaches by collaborating more with self-help groups or nongovernmental organizations to be more empowering, results-oriented, and sustainable. Moreover, regulatory authorities should ensure that guidelines relate to credit application in terms of volume and sector allocation. PMID:12295957

  14. Turkey: Women in Development. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadler, Sandra

    This report is intended to serve as the basis of the World Bank's support to the government of Turkey in the implementation of its policies to enhance the participation of women in the economic development process. The report provides background information on the situation of women in Turkey, including legal and health issues, and examines…

  15. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene

    1984-01-01

    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  16. Development of A Promis Item Bank to Measure Pain Interference

    PubMed Central

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Cook, Karon F.; Jensen, Mark P.; Chen, Wen-Hung; Choi, Seung; Revicki, Dennis; Cella, David; Rothrock, Nan; Keefe, Francis; Callahan, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the psychometric properties of the PROMIS Pain Interference (PROMIS-PI) bank. An initial candidate item pool (n=644) was developed and evaluated based on review of existing instruments, interviews with patients, and consultation with pain experts. From this pool, a candidate item bank of 56 items was selected and responses to the items were collected from large community and clinical samples. A total of 14,848 participants responded to all or a subset of candidate items. The responses were calibrated using an item response theory (IRT) model. A final 41-item bank was evaluated with respect to IRT assumptions, model fit, differential item function (DIF), precision, and construct and concurrent validity. Items of the revised bank had good fit to the IRT model (CFI and NNFI/TLI ranged from 0.974 to 0.997), and the data were strongly unidimensional (e.g., ratio of first and second eigenvalue = 35). Nine items exhibited statistically significant DIF. However, adjusting for DIF had little practical impact on score estimates and the items were retained without modifying scoring. Scores provided substantial information across levels of pain; for scores in the T-score range 50-80, the reliability was equivalent to 0.96 to 0.99. Patterns of correlations with other health outcomes supported the construct validity of the item bank. The scores discriminated among persons with different numbers of chronic conditions, disabling conditions, levels of self-reported health, and pain intensity (p< 0.0001). The results indicated that the PROMIS-PI items constitute a psychometrically sound bank. Computerized adaptive testing and short forms are available. PMID:20554116

  17. Development of the PROMIS® Social Motivations for Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stucky, Brian D.; Kuhfeld, Megan; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking behavior is influenced by social motivations such as the expected social benefits of smoking and the social cues that induce craving. This paper describes development of the PROMIS® Social Motivations for Smoking item banks, which will serve to standardize assessment of these social motivations among daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers completed an online survey. Item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses were conducted to identify a unidimensional set of items for each group. Short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) were evaluated as tools for more efficiently assessing this construct. Results: A total of 15 items were included in the item banks (9 items common to daily and nondaily smokers, 3 unique to daily, 3 unique to nondaily). Scores based on full item banks are highly reliable (reliability = 0.90–0.91). Additionally, the item banks are strongly unidimensional and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A fixed SF for use with both daily and nondaily smokers consists of 4 items (reliability = 0.80). Results from simulated CATs showed that, on average, fewer than 5 items are needed to assess this construct with adequate precision using the item banks. Conclusions: A new set of items has been identified for assessing the social motivations for smoking in a reliable, standardized manner for daily and nondaily smokers. In addition to using the full item banks, efficient assessment can be achieved by using SFs, employing CATs, or selecting items tailored to specific research or clinical purposes. PMID:25118231

  18. An analysis of GAVI, the Global Fund and World Bank support for human resources for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Marko; Weber, Stephanie E; Nikolic, Irina A; Atun, Rifat; Kumar, Ranjana

    2012-12-01

    Shortages, geographic imbalances and poor performance of health workers pose major challenges for improving health service delivery in developing countries. In response, multilateral agencies have increasingly recognized the need to invest in human resources for health (HRH) to assist countries in achieving their health system goals. In this paper we analyse the HRH-related activities of three agencies: the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI); the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (the Global Fund); and the World Bank. First, we reviewed the type of HRH-related activities that are eligible for financing within each agency. Second, we reviewed the HRH-related activities that each agency is actually financing. Third, we reviewed the literature to understand the impact that GAVI, Global Fund and World Bank investments in HRH have had on the health workforce in developing countries. Our analysis found that by far the most common activity supported across all agencies is short-term, in-service training. There is relatively little investment in expanding pre-service training capacity, despite large health worker shortages in developing countries. We also found that the majority of GAVI and the Global Fund grants finance health worker remuneration, largely through supplemental allowances, with little information available on how payment rates are determined, how the potential negative consequences are mitigated, and how payments are to be sustained at the end of the grant period. Based on the analysis, we argue there is an opportunity for improved co-ordination between the three agencies at the country level in supporting HRH-related activities. Existing initiatives, such as the International Health Partnership and the Health Systems Funding Platform, could present viable and timely vehicles for the three agencies to implement this improved co-ordination. PMID:22333685

  19. Multilateral Sprint Seminar on Evaluating Progress in Sports Development Since 1989. Budapest, Hungary, April 1-2, 1998. Report of the Committee for the Development of Sport (CDDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This report presents the proceedings of a 1998 seminar which focused on four themes related to progress in sports development in Europe since 1989. Each of the four sections includes four papers, one from each of the experts from the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia. "Tours de table" and discussion allowed participation by other…

  20. Multilateral Sprint Seminar on Evaluating Progress in Sports Development Since 1989. Budapest, Hungary, April 1-2, 1998. Report of the Committee for the Development of Sport (CDDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This report presents the proceedings of a 1998 seminar which focused on four themes related to progress in sports development in Europe since 1989. Each of the four sections includes four papers, one from each of the experts from the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia. "Tours de table" and discussion allowed participation by other…

  1. Development of the PROMIS® Nicotine Dependence Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Stucky, Brian D.; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine dependence is a core construct important for understanding cigarette smoking and smoking cessation behavior. This article describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing nicotine dependence among daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of nicotine dependence items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess dependence. Results: A total of 32 items were included in the Nicotine Dependence item banks; 22 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 5 are unique to daily smokers, and 5 are unique to nondaily smokers. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Nicotine Dependence item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.97 and 0.97, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. SFs common to daily and nondaily smokers consist of 8 and 4 items (reliability = 0.91 and 0.81, respectively). Results from simulated CATs showed that dependence can be assessed with very good precision for most respondents using fewer than 6 items adaptively selected from the item banks. Conclusions: Nicotine dependence on cigarettes can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via one of the SFs, by using CATs, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118226

  2. Development of the PROMIS® Health Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Stucky, Brian D.; Cerully, Jennifer; Li, Zhen; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers’ health-related outcome expectancies are associated with a number of important constructs in smoking research, yet there are no measures currently available that focus exclusively on this domain. This paper describes the development and evaluation of item banks for assessing the health expectancies of smoking. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of health expectancies items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated the performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess health expectancies. Results: A total of 24 items were included in the Health Expectancies item banks; 13 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 6 are unique to daily, and 5 are unique to nondaily. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Health Expectancies item banks are unidimensional, reliable (reliability = 0.95 and 0.96, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.87). Results from simulated CATs showed that health expectancies can be assessed with good precision with an average of 5–6 items adaptively selected from the item banks. Conclusions: Health expectancies of smoking can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via SFs, CATs, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118229

  3. Fostering Multilateral Involvement in Analog Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2015-01-01

    International collaboration in space flight research is an effective means for conducting investigations and utilizing limited resources to the fullest extent. Through these multilateral collaborations mutual research questions can be investigated and resources contributed by each international partner to maximize the scientific benefits to all parties. Recently the international partners embraced this approach to initiate collaborations in ground-based space flight analog environments. In 2011, the International Analog Research Working Group was established, and later named the International Human Space Flight Analog Research Coordination Group (HANA). Among the goals of this working group are to 1) establish a framework to coordinate research campaigns, as appropriate, to minimize duplication of effort and enhance synergy; 2) define what analogs are best to use for collaborative interests; and 3) facilitate interaction between discipline experts in order to have the full benefit of international expertise. To accomplish these goals, HANA is currently engaged in developing international research campaigns in ground-based analogs. Plans are being made for an international solicitation for proposals to address research of common interest to all international partners. This solicitation with identify an analog environment that will best accommodate the types of investigations requested. Once selected, studies will be integrated into a campaign and implemented at the analog site. Through these combined efforts, research beneficial to all partners will be conducted efficiently to further address human risks of space exploration.

  4. 22 CFR 140.7 - Multilateral institutions and international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Multilateral institutions and international... TO DRUG TRAFFICKERS Enforcement § 140.7 Multilateral institutions and international organizations. Assistance provided to or through multilateral institutions or international organizations is subject to...

  5. 22 CFR 140.7 - Multilateral institutions and international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multilateral institutions and international... TO DRUG TRAFFICKERS Enforcement § 140.7 Multilateral institutions and international organizations. Assistance provided to or through multilateral institutions or international organizations is subject to...

  6. 22 CFR 140.7 - Multilateral institutions and international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Multilateral institutions and international... TO DRUG TRAFFICKERS Enforcement § 140.7 Multilateral institutions and international organizations. Assistance provided to or through multilateral institutions or international organizations is subject to...

  7. 22 CFR 140.7 - Multilateral institutions and international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Multilateral institutions and international... TO DRUG TRAFFICKERS Enforcement § 140.7 Multilateral institutions and international organizations. Assistance provided to or through multilateral institutions or international organizations is subject to...

  8. 22 CFR 140.7 - Multilateral institutions and international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Multilateral institutions and international... TO DRUG TRAFFICKERS Enforcement § 140.7 Multilateral institutions and international organizations. Assistance provided to or through multilateral institutions or international organizations is subject to...

  9. The World Bank Rural Development Field Staff Distance Learning and Training Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortera-Gutierrez, Fernando

    The Rural Development Distance Learning and Training Strategy targets locally recruited field staff of the World Bank Rural Sector. Field staff at the bank's mission offices worldwide are heterogeneous in terms of culture, ethnicity, race, gender, social class, and religion. However, they have the following in common: they follow the Bank's work…

  10. The Garden Banks 388 horizontal tree design and development

    SciTech Connect

    Granhaug, O.; Soul, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the Horizontal Subsea Production Tree System, later referred to as a SpoolTree{trademark}, developed for the Enserch Garden Banks 388 field in the Gulf of Mexico. The paper starts with a project overview followed by a comparison between the SpoolTree and the Conventional Tree design. A brief discussion explains why Enserch elected to use the SpoolTree for this field development, including available technology, workover frequency, cost etc. The rigorous safety analysis carried out for the subsea production equipment is then explained in depth. The paper continues with a technical discussion of the main features specific to the SpoolTree design and the Garden Banks 388 field development. Issues discussed include the SpoolTree itself, BOP Adapter Plate (for control during installation, workover and production), Tubing Hanger and pressure barrier design, debris cap design, downhole communication (SCSSV, chemical injection, pressure and temperature) ROV intervention, template wellbay insert design and other relevant issues. The use of computer based 3-D modelling tool is also briefly described. The experience and results described in this paper have direct application to numerous subsea development prospects worldwide, particularly in deep water. In addition, the ``system development`` aspect of the project is relevant to most marine equipment development projects. This includes the use of safety analysis techniques, 3-D computer modelling tools and clearly defined engineering procedures. A full account of the final design configuration of the SpoolTree system is given in the paper. A summary of the experience gained during the extensive testing at the factory and during the template integration tests is also provided.

  11. Development of the PROMIS® Coping Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Stucky, Brian D.; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Smoking is a coping strategy for many smokers who then have difficulty finding new ways to cope with negative affect when they quit. This paper describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing the coping expectancies of smoking for daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a large sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses (according to gender, age, and ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) for assessing coping expectancies of smoking. Results: For both daily and nondaily smokers, the unidimensional Coping Expectancies item banks (21 items) are relatively DIF free and are highly reliable (0.96 and 0.97, respectively). A common 4-item SF for daily and nondaily smokers also showed good reliability (0.85). Adaptive tests required an average of 4.3 and 3.7 items for simulated daily and nondaily respondents, respectively, and achieved reliabilities of 0.91 for both when the maximum test length was 10 items. Conclusions: This research provides a new set of items that can be used to reliably assess coping expectancies of smoking, through a SF, CAT, or a tailored set selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118227

  12. Cementing multilateral wells with latex cement

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A multilateral well is a well with one or more branches or lateral sections extending from its main wellbore. The laterals can be openhole or cased hole. When laterals are cased hole, the cement integrity for casing support and zonal isolation is very important. When cementing the lateral sections of multilateral wells, it is important to use a cement with high strength and durability to support the liner throughout the life of the well and to support the lateral section. The cement column is subjected to various stresses when the cemented inner stub is cut. High tensile strength, flexural strength, and crack resistance are required. These properties are necessary to make a clean cut through the cement sheath that does not induce cracks in the cement column. Latex cement is commonly used for its gas-migration-control property.

  13. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    SciTech Connect

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany )

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  14. Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using item banks while providing useful information to those who are considering implementing an item banking project in their school district. The primary advantage of item banking is in test development. Also describes start-up activities in implementing item banking. (SLD)

  15. Banking on Key Reforms for Educational Development: A Critique of the World Bank Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keith

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the review of world education produced by the World Bank in 1995, "Priorities and Strategies of Education." This review is a document created by and for bankers and economists, and may not provide answers educators need. Time will determine whether its approaches are the best responses for educational improvement. (SLD)

  16. Enhancing Multilateral Security in and by Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecher, Sandra

    With the increasing possibilities for interaction between Internet users exceeding pure communication, in multilateral security the research question arises to rethink and extend classical security requirements. Reputation systems are a possible solution to assist new security requirements. But naturally also reputation systems have to be designed in a multilateral secure way. In this paper we discuss both multilateral security by and in reputation systems. An overview on the possibilities how such systems could be realised is given.

  17. World Bank Activities in Library and Documentation Services Provision in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duces, Brigitte

    1991-01-01

    Although the World Bank provides loans primarily for economic development in developing countries, many of its loans include provision for project-related information transfer. Because the Bank is likely to become increasingly involved in lending for information activities, it must determine whether or to what extent there is a need for greater or…

  18. The World Bank, Support for Universities, and Asymmetrical Power Relations in International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of the World Bank in advancing higher education sectors in the developing world, considering in particular the increasing power and strength of a global knowledge-based economy. Given the powerful role that intergovernmental organizations such as the World Bank play in shaping global economic policies, the authors…

  19. The World Bank, Support for Universities, and Asymmetrical Power Relations in International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of the World Bank in advancing higher education sectors in the developing world, considering in particular the increasing power and strength of a global knowledge-based economy. Given the powerful role that intergovernmental organizations such as the World Bank play in shaping global economic policies, the authors…

  20. Guidelines for the Development of Item Banks. An NCME Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Annie W.; Murray-Ward, Mildred

    1994-01-01

    This instructional module presented by the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) provides guidelines for teachers and other test developers to help them construct test item banks. Setting up an item bank and using it are described, with a consideration of software that can be used. (SLD)

  1. Learner Interpretations of Shared Space in Multilateral English Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand how English learners interpret shared space in an online multilateral English blogging context and how their interpretations of shared space contribute to their multilateral exchange experience. Twenty-four Asian learners of English from two different universities--one in Japan and one in…

  2. Multilateral Disarmament: Conspiracy for Common Sense. Occasional Paper 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, C. Maxwell

    This paper outlines the danger of continuing the conventional and nuclear arms races and offers alternatives to ensure both peace and security. There are five major sections to the paper. In the first section, "Mulitlateral Approach," global multilateral accomplishments, regional multilateral activities, and bilateral negotiations are discussed.…

  3. Learner Interpretations of Shared Space in Multilateral English Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand how English learners interpret shared space in an online multilateral English blogging context and how their interpretations of shared space contribute to their multilateral exchange experience. Twenty-four Asian learners of English from two different universities--one in Japan and one in…

  4. Development of protected endorsement for online banking using mobile phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana, Galla; Venkateswarlu, Tammineni; Kumar, G. S. P.; Padmavathamma, Mokkala; Sreekanth, G.; Delhibabu, K.; Prasad, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    Securing Online Banking transactions for customer is the primary goal of financial institutions that provides Internet banking facility. Mobile phones play an important role in our society as more and more functions having been integrated within mobile phones, such as Internet browsing, mobile banking, and shopping. Mobiles phones can be used to secure ATM card pins by sending to the customer directly rather than in emails or by other means which has a possibility of hacking. In this paper we have proposed method of generating a Private Key Security Token by bank authentication servers which uses IMSI registers and IMEI number of client's mobile registered. The key is generated by implementing RIPE MD160 and Hex Encode Algorithm. Token received is valid only for that client mobile only and can be generated upon request by customer dynamically. The client is given a PIN and a Master Key when registered to the Online Banking Services. If in case a client's mobile is lost, authentication is done using Unique Master Key, else the Private Key Token is used there by making transactions secured and simple without the need of carrying any USB Tokens. The additional functionality provides the client more security on their transactions. Due to this Phishing attacks by the hackers is avoided.

  5. Computerized Banking as a Resource for Systematic Program Development and Evaluation in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Robert P.

    1973-01-01

    A discussion of a project concerned with the development of a comprehensive instructional management system, including development work on the banking'' of a new system of objectives in reading instruction. (Author/HB)

  6. Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration

    PubMed Central

    Majarena, Ana C.; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  7. Developing an Initial Physical Function Item Bank from Existing Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Rita K.; Cella, David; Lai, Jin-shei; Heinemann, Allen W.

    2003-01-01

    Illustrates incremental item banking using health-related quality of life data collected from two samples of patients receiving cancer treatment (n=1,755 and n=1,544). Results support findings from previous studies that have equated separate instruments by co-calibrating their items. (SLD)

  8. Multilateral analysis of increasing collective dose and new ALARA programme.

    PubMed

    Oumi, Tadashi; Morii, Yasuki; Imai, Toshirou

    2011-07-01

    JAPC (The Japan Atomic Power Company) is the only electric power company that operates different types of nuclear reactors in Japan; it operates two BWRs (boiling water reactors), one pressurised water reactor and one gas cooled reactor. JAPC has been conducting various activities aimed at reducing radiation dose received by workers for over 45 y. Recently, the collective dose resulting from periodic maintenance has increased at each plant because of the replacement of large equipment and the unexpected extension of the outage period. In particular, the collective dose at Tokai-2 is one of the highest among Japanese BWR plants((1)), owing to the replacement and strengthening of equipment to meet earthquake-proof requirements. In this study, the authors performed a multilateral analysis of unacceptably a large collective dose and devised a new ALARA programme that includes a 3D dose prediction map and the development of machines to assist workers. PMID:21652597

  9. Energy efficiency and conservation in the developing world. World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, R.J.; Gandhi, S.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: evolution of energy efficiency; forces driving increased energy efficiency; why is energy efficiency performance in developing countries so poor; what can be done: country policy priorities; what can be done: sector priorities; strategy for the world bank.

  10. Enhanced Bank-Stability Modeling With Coupled Geotechnical, Hydraulic and Near-Bank Groundwater Sub-Models: Development and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. E.; Simon, A.; Bankhead, N.

    2008-12-01

    Physically-based, deterministic bank-stability models have recently been developed to effectively simulate the driving and resisting forces governing streambank erosion. Significant advances have been made in the manner in which groundwater flow through variably saturated porous media, planar and circular geotechnical failures and fluvial sediment transport are simulated. However, to date, coupling these models has required tedious exporting and conversion of geometries and results and manual remeshing. In this presentation, we introduce the first fully integrated suite of models that deterministically simulate the controlling hydrologic, hydraulic and geotechnical processes that govern streambank erosion and channel-width adjustment. The model suite incorporates routines that: 1. Permit the user to enter between 5 and 23 points to describe the bank cross-sectional geometry; 2. Automatically generate a mesh by which to implicitly discretize the 2-D Richards equation utilizing finite volumes. The resulting pentadiagonal matrix is solved iteratively with Stone's Strongly Implicit Procedure (SIP). Timesteps are automatically adjusted to minimize mass balance and truncation errors; 3. Evaluate the force-equilibrium factor of safety (Fs), permitting the simulation of planar and cantilever shear failures with a horizontal slice method and planar shear failures with tension cracks with a rigorous vertical slice method. A random walk approach is adopted to search for the minimum Fs; 4. Estimate the increase in cohesion due to vegetation with a global load-sharing Fibre Bundle Model; and 5. Simulate the erosion of the bank face and bank toe with an excess shear stress approach. Management options to increase slope stability (through the addition of vegetation) and reduce channel- boundary erodibility (through the addition of natural and artificial structures) are also incorporated. We illustrate the efficacy of the modeling approach with a series of case studies in which the components are validated both separately and in unison. Case studies are presented including those from previously published lysimeter experiments and an actively eroding meander bend on Goodwin Creek, Mississippi. The examples illustrate the use of the model suite to: 1. Understand the rates and importance of geotechnical and hydraulic processes in streambank erosion; 2. Estimate the absolute and relative contribution of geotechnical failures and hydraulic scour to volumetric fluvial sediment loads; and 3. Estimate the impact of potential streambank-erosion management and river restoration strategies.

  11. Assessment of bank gully development and vegetation coverage on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Qingke; He, Yuanmei; Yao, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Gully erosion is a serious environmental problem and the primary source of sediment loss on the Loess Plateau of China, yet previous research focusing on bank gullies is limited. An assessment of bank gully development is needed as a basis for predicting erosion rates under the effects of vegetation cover and land use change. To estimate bank gully retreat rates under different land uses, assess the factors leading to bank gully development and model gully area growth rate at the catchment scale, 30 catchments with an average area of 39.0 ha were selected in the southeastern part of the Loess Plateau. QuickBird images (0.61 m resolution) obtained in 2003 and 2010 were interpreted to delineate bank gully features, and a 5 m resolution digital elevation model was used to extract topographic factors. The results showed that from 2003 to 2010, the maximum retreat rates of bank gully heads in the 30 investigated catchments ranged between 0.23 and 1.08 m yr- 1, with an average of 0.51 m yr- 1. The ratio of bank gully growth area to valley area changed from 0.49 to 9.45%, depending on land use, with average increases of 3.94, 4.00 and 2.09% for the three land use types identified, i.e. mixed use, grassland and forestland, respectively. Correlation analysis indicated that the effects of topographic factors on bank gullies decreased as vegetation coverage increased in upslope drainage areas and that vegetation coverage exceeding 60% in upslope drainage areas can significantly control bank gully development. A model was built to predict the bank gully area growth rate (Ra, m2 yr- 1) with upslope drainage area (Ai, m2), local slope gradient (S, m m- 1) and the proportion of the area with vegetation coverage below 60% in upslope drainage areas (Φ0.6) at the catchment scale. The regression equation is in the form Ra = 0.1540[(Φ0.6Ai)0.24S]3.2588. Compared with previous studies, vegetation is a factor in this model, which would be helpful for assessing the influence of vegetation cover on bank gully development.

  12. Bank accretion and the development of vegetated depositional surfaces along modified alluvial channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.; Simon, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the recovery of stable bank form and development of vegetated depositional surfaces along the banks of channelized West Tennessee streams. Most perennial streams in West Tennessee were straightened and dredged since the turn of the century. Patterns of fluvial ecological responses to channelization have previously been described by a six-stage model. Dendrogeomorphic (tree-ring) techniques allowed the determination of location, timing, amount, and rate of bank-sediment deposition. Channel cross sections and ecological analyses made at 101 locations along 12 streams, encompassing bends and straight reaches, show that channel and bank processes initially react vertically to channelization through downcutting. A depositional surface forms on banks once bed-degradation and heightened bank mass wasting processes have eased or slowed. The formation of this depositional surface marks the beginning of bank recovery from channelization. Dominating lateral processes, characteristic of stable or natural channels, return during the formation and expansion of the depositional surface, suggesting a relation with thalweg deflection, point-bar development, and meanderloop extension. Characteristic woody riparian vegetation begins to grow as this depositional surface develops and becomes part of the process and form of restabilizing banks. The depositional surface initially forms low on the bank and tends to maintain a slope of about 24??. Mean accretion rates ranges from 5.9 cm/yr on inside bends to 0 cm/yr on most outside bends; straight reaches have a mean-accretion rate of 4.2 cm/yr. The relatively stable, convex upward, depositional surface expands and ultimately attaches to the flood plain. The time required for the recovery process to reach equilibrium averaged about 50 years. Indicative pioneer speccies of woody riparian vegetation include black willow, river birch, silver maple, and boxelder. Stem densities generally decrease with time after and initial flush of about 160 stems per 100 m2. Together bank accretion and vegetative regrowth appear to be the most important environmental processes involved in channel bank recovery from channelization or rejuvenation. ?? 1991.

  13. World Bank's Global Development Learning Network: Sharing Knowledge Electronically between Nations To "Fight Poverty."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Global Development Learning Network (GDLN), a satellite-driven global communication system developed by the World Bank to help developing countries fight poverty and share in a global exchange of information. Explains Distance Learning Centers that are used by private and public organizations and institutions for distance education…

  14. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  15. Examples of Item Banks to Support Local Test Development: Two Case Studies With Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Gary D., Ed.

    This report and compilation of papers summarizes information collected by an Assessment Development and Use Project, initiated by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) to assist test development efforts by state and local agencies. Specific item banking applications are reported in two case studies, selected because they represent…

  16. Development, Validation, and Use of an Item Bank for Police Promotion Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enger, John M.

    In Arkansas, in reaction to complaints about traditional methods of selection for promotion, the civil service commission has chosen to base promotions in the police department solely on scores on locally-developed objective tests. Items developed and loaded into a computerized test bank were selected from six areas of responsibility: (1) criminal…

  17. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  18. Using Micros for Test Development: Item Bank Software versus Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullickson, Arlen; Farland, Dale

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the use of microcomputers for developing tests for paper-and-pencil presentation compares two options: item-bank, or test-generator software, and word processing. Tests and test generators supplied by textbook publishers are described, cost effectiveness is considered, and possible future developments are suggested. (10 references)…

  19. A parametric study on the benefits of drilling horizontal and multilateral wells in coalbed methane reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Maricic, N.; Mohaghegh, S.D.; Artun, E.

    2008-12-15

    Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in development of coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs. Optimizing CBM production is of interest to many operators. Drilling horizontal and multilateral wells is gaining Popularity in many different coalbed reservoirs, with varying results. This study concentrates on variations of horizontal and multilateral-well configurations and their potential benefits. In this study, horizontal and several multilateral drilling patterns for CBM reservoirs are studied. The reservoir parameters that have been studied include gas content, permeability, and desorption characteristics. Net present value (NPV) has been used as the yard stick for comparing different drilling configurations. Configurations that have been investigated are single-, dual-, tri-, and quad-lateral wells along with fishbone (also known as pinnate) wells. In these configurations, the total length of horizontal wells and the spacing between laterals (SBL) have been studied. It was determined that in the cases that have been studied in this paper (all other circumstances being equal), quadlateral wells are the optimum well configuration.

  20. Multilateration - A nondegenerate method of obtaining station coordinates and satellite ephemerides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, K. M.; Escobal, P. R.

    1974-01-01

    A technique for the determination of three-dimensional station coordinates and satellite ephemerides is developed which is based on the principle of multilateration. The method makes use of a system of six ground stations which simultaneously measure the slant range between each station and one or two satellites. It is demonstrated that a minimum of six stations is required in order to yield a system which will be free of mathematical degeneracies. It will be seen that the method of multilateration is not dependent upon the position of the satellite or any other dynamical considerations in the equations used to determine the relative station coordinates. In fact, the satellite coordinates are obtained as a direct by-product of the method. Numerical results are presented which indicate that the method of multilateration can determine the relative three-dimensional station coordinates with an accuracy that is limited only by the hardware measurement system. If a highly accurate laser ranging system is used, then accuracies in the 1-cm range can be expected.

  1. Item Bank Development for a Revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Helene; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen; Coster, Wendy; Kramer, Jessica; Kao, Ying-Chia; Moed, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is a useful clinical and research assessment, but it has limitations in content, age range, and efficiency. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of the item bank for a new computer adaptive testing version of the PEDI (PEDI-CAT). An expanded item set and response options…

  2. Development and Calibration of an Item Bank for PE Metrics Assessments: Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Fox, Connie; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Graber, Kim C.; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and calibrate an assessment system, or bank, using the latest measurement theories and methods to promote valid and reliable student assessment in physical education. Using an anchor-test equating design, a total of 30 items or assessments were administered to 5,021 (2,568 boys and 2,453 girls) students in…

  3. Object-Oriented System Development in a Banking Project: Methodology, Experience, and Conclusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkle, Ute; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the development of a successful object-oriented (OO) system designed for use in banking, beginning with initial failure of the project using a traditional life-cycle approach. Three features that made the OO phase successful are identified: employing OO techniques; combining these techniques with a guideline, the tools-and-materials…

  4. Development and Calibration of an Item Bank for PE Metrics Assessments: Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Fox, Connie; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Graber, Kim C.; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and calibrate an assessment system, or bank, using the latest measurement theories and methods to promote valid and reliable student assessment in physical education. Using an anchor-test equating design, a total of 30 items or assessments were administered to 5,021 (2,568 boys and 2,453 girls) students in…

  5. Extractive industries and sustainable development: an evaluation of World Bank Group experience

    SciTech Connect

    Andres Liebenthal; Roland Michelitsch; Ethel Tarazona

    2005-07-01

    How effectively has the World Bank Group assisted its clients in enhancing the contribution of the extractive industries to sustainable development? (Extractive industries include oil, gas, and mining of minerals including coals and metals.) This evaluation finds that with its global mandate and experience, comprehensive country development focus, and overarching mission to fight poverty, the World Bank Group is well positioned to help countries overcome the policy, institutional, and technical challenges that prevent them from transforming resource endowments into sustainable benefits. Furthermore, the World Bank Group's achievements are many. On the whole, its extractive industries projects have produced positive economic and financial results, though compliance with its environmental and social safeguards remains a challenge. Its research has broadened and deepened understanding of the causes for the disappointing performance of resource-rich countries. Its guidelines for the mitigation of adverse environmental and social impacts have been widely used and appreciated. More recently, it has begun to address the challenge of country governance with a variety of instruments. The World Bank Group can, however, do much to improve its performance in enhancing the extractive industry sector's contribution to sustainable development and poverty reduction. The report identifies three main areas for improvement - formulating an integrated strategy, strengthening implementation and engagement of stakeholders. 5 annexes.

  6. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of operational countermeasures, environmental monitoring, medical care, and emergency medical services. MMOP assures the medical readiness of the Station for each subsequent mission or critical event. All boards and panels have functioned effectively and without interruptions even in various challenging circumstances. Based on the experience of the authors, consensus has prevailed as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, at all levels. The six first years of piloted operation have demonstrated the ability of the ISS medical authority groups and the medical infrastructure to implement medical policies and requirements, effectively interface with non-medical groups, and maintain the health and productivity of the crew in an integrated, multilaterally coordinated fashion. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of all Partners roles, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  7. Clean energy for development investment framework: the World Bank Group action plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-03-06

    In September 2005 the Development Committee requested the World Bank to develop an Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development - in the context of the Gleneagles Communique on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development which was issued in July 2005. This Action Plan provides an update of work undertaken to date as well as actions planned by the World Bank Group (WBG) in support of the Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework (CEIF). The Action Plan relies on partnerships, including with the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) and the private sector. While it concentrates on maximizing and extending existing instruments, it provides for continued dialogue with governments and the private sector on new approaches to accelerate the transition to a low carbon economy. In addition to increased investments, the private sector has an important role to play in closing the investment gap in many countries. Projects such as Bujagali (Uganda), Nam Theun II (Laos) and China and India Thermal Power Plant Rehabilitation projects are examples of how partnerships with the private sector can work, both on financing but also on enhancing the overall regulatory framework for enhanced partnerships. The report was prepared for the 15 April 2007 Development Committee meeting, a joint committee of the Board of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the transfer of real resources to developing countries. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 5 annexes.

  8. Development of the PROMIS® Positive Emotional and Sensory Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stucky, Brian D.; Li, Zhen; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The positive emotional and sensory expectancies of cigarette smoking include improved cognitive abilities, positive affective states, and pleasurable sensorimotor sensations. This paper describes development of Positive Emotional and Sensory Expectancies of Smoking item banks that will serve to standardize the assessment of this construct among daily and nondaily cigarette smokers. Methods: Data came from daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers who completed an online survey. To identify a unidimensional set of items, we conducted item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of fixed-item short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess the construct. Results: Eighteen items were included in the item banks (15 common across daily and nondaily smokers, 1 unique to daily, 2 unique to nondaily). The item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.95 for both), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.86). Results from simulated CATs indicated that, on average, less than 8 items are needed to assess the construct with adequate precision using the item banks. Conclusions: These analyses identified a new set of items that can assess the positive emotional and sensory expectancies of smoking in a reliable and standardized manner. Considerable efficiency in assessing this construct can be achieved by using the item bank SF, employing computer adaptive tests, or selecting subsets of items tailored to specific research or clinical purposes. PMID:25118228

  9. Development of the PROMIS® Negative Psychosocial Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Cerully, Jennifer; Kuhfeld, Megan; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Negative psychosocial expectancies of smoking include aspects of social disapproval and disappointment in oneself. This paper describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing psychosocial expectancies among daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of psychosocial expectancies items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess psychosocial expectancies. Results: A total of 21 items were included in the Psychosocial Expectancies item banks: 14 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 6 are unique to daily, and 1 is unique to nondaily. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Psychosocial Expectancies item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.95 and 0.93, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.85). Results from simulated CATs showed that, on average, fewer than 8 items are needed to assess psychosocial expectancies with adequate precision when using the item banks. Conclusions: Psychosocial expectancies of smoking can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via the SF, by using CAT, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118230

  10. Initial adjustments within a new river channel: Interactions between fluvial processes, colonizing vegetation, and bank profile development.

    PubMed

    Gurnell, Angela M; Morrissey, Ian P; Boitsidis, Angela J; Bark, Tony; Clifford, Nicholas J; Petts, Geoffrey E; Thompson, Kenneth

    2006-10-01

    A conceptual model of the morphological development of the riparian margins of newly cut river channels is presented, suggesting early feedbacks between vegetation growth and bank form. To test the model, observations of long and cross profiles, bank sediment and seed deposition, and bank vegetation development were collected over the first 2 years of river flows through a reach of the River Cole, West Midlands, UK. The newly created channel had a sinuous planform and varying asymmetric trapezoidal cross section in sympathy with the planform. No imposed bedforms or bank reseeding were included in the design. Over the 2 years, development of bedforms was rapid, with bed sediment sorting and bank profile adjustment occurring more steadily and progressively. Six classes of bank profile were identified by the end of the study period, illustrating close associations with sediment aggradation, vegetation colonization, and growth patterns. Vegetation colonization of the banks was seeded predominantly from local sources during the summer and from hydrochory (transport by the river) during the winter. Colonizing vegetation on the riverbanks appeared to act as a significant propagule source by the second summer and as an increasingly important roughness element, trapping both propagules and sediment, within the second year and providing early feedback into bank evolution. As a result, the time required for riparian margin development in the conceptual model was found to be considerably longer than observed in the study river. In addition, the role of surface wash/bank failure in modifying the bank profile and transporting seeds onto the upper bank face during the first year of bank development was found to be important in initiating rapid bank vegetation colonization and surface stabilization. This set of processes had not been incorporated in the initial conceptual model. In relation to channel restoration, this research illustrates that in small temperate rivers of modest energy the provision of an initial, sinuous corridor is sufficient to induce rapid development of fluvial features and vegetation cover without the need to construct bed forms or to seed the banks. PMID:16933081

  11. Using PhonBank and Phon in Studies of Phonological Development and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Yvan; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an overview of new tools that can be used to further our understanding of phonological development and disorders. We begin with a summary of the field of child phonology with a focus on databases and methods of analysis and then move to a description of PhonBank, a shared database for the study of phonology, and Phon, a specialised software system capable of performing various types of phonological analyses based on both phonetic transcriptions and acoustic analyses of speech productions. We provide a detailed example of using PhonBank and Phon to examine the use of velar fronting using longitudinal data from one child with typical development and three children with phonological disorder. We conclude with an emphasis on data sharing and its central relevance to further advances in our field. PMID:26035223

  12. Geoecological aspects of comprehensive development of Tomsk left-bank area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seryakov, S.; Seryakova, R.; Baranova, A.; Potseluyev, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the unique geoecological characteristics of the left bank of the river Tom' within Tomsk area (Russia). The authors suggest methodological approaches to land management in regions with intensive interaction of ecosystems and technogenic complexes. It proves the necessity to use the systems approach and estimating method to solve the tasks of urban development and land management. The authors make a conclusion about the most rational land use of the studied area in terms of ecologized land management.

  13. Human Finger-Prick Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Facilitate the Development of Stem Cell Banking

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hong-Kee; Toh, Cheng-Xu Delon; Ma, Dongrui; Yang, Binxia; Liu, Tong Ming; Lu, Jun; Wong, Chee-Wai; Tan, Tze-Kai; Li, Hu; Syn, Christopher; Tan, Eng-Lee; Lim, Bing; Lim, Yoon-Pin; Cook, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients can be a good model for studying human diseases and for future therapeutic regenerative medicine. Current initiatives to establish human iPSC (hiPSC) banking face challenges in recruiting large numbers of donors with diverse diseased, genetic, and phenotypic representations. In this study, we describe the efficient derivation of transgene-free hiPSCs from human finger-prick blood. Finger-prick sample collection can be performed on a “do-it-yourself” basis by donors and sent to the hiPSC facility for reprogramming. We show that single-drop volumes of finger-prick samples are sufficient for performing cellular reprogramming, DNA sequencing, and blood serotyping in parallel. Our novel strategy has the potential to facilitate the development of large-scale hiPSC banking worldwide. PMID:24646489

  14. Enhancing self-report assessment of PTSD: development of an item bank.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Nicole; Elwy, A Rani; Smith, Eric; Bottonari, Kathryn A; Eisen, Susan V

    2011-04-01

    The authors report results of work to enhance self-report posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment by developing an item bank for use in a computer-adapted test. Computer-adapted tests have great potential to decrease the burden of PTSD assessment and outcomes monitoring. The authors conducted a systematic literature review of PTSD instruments, created a database of items, performed qualitative review and readability analysis, and conducted cognitive interviews with veterans diagnosed with PTSD. The systematic review yielded 480 studies in which 41 PTSD instruments comprising 993 items met inclusion criteria. The final PTSD item bank includes 104 items representing each of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994), PTSD symptom clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal), and 3 additional subdomains (depersonalization, guilt, and sexual problems) that expanded the assessment item pool. PMID:21351175

  15. Three-D multilateration: A precision geodetic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Ong, K. M.; Vonroos, O. H.; Shumate, M. S.; Jaffe, R. M.; Fliegel, H. F.; Muller, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A technique of satellite geodesy for determining the relative three dimensional coordinates of ground stations within one centimeter over baselines of 20 to 10,000 kilometers is discussed. The system is referred to as 3-D Multilateration and has applications in earthquake hazard assessment, precision surveying, plate tectonics, and orbital mechanics. The accuracy is obtained by using pulsed lasers to obtain simultaneous slant ranges between several ground stations and a moving retroreflector with known trajectory for aiming the lasers.

  16. Coordination of International Risk-Reduction Investigations by the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bogomolov, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of the unique capabilities of the International Space Station (ISS) for risk reduction on future deep space missions involves preliminary work in analog environments to identify and evaluate the most promising techniques, interventions and treatments. This entails a consolidated multinational approach to biomedical research both on ISS and in ground analogs. The Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) was chartered by the five ISS partners to recommend the best combination of partner investigations on ISS for risk reduction in the relatively short time available for ISS utilization. MHRPE will also make recommendations to funding agencies for appropriate preparatory analog work. In 2011, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Science, acting for MHRPE, developed a joint US-Russian biomedical program for the 2015 one-year ISS mission (1YM) of American and Russian crewmembers. This was to evaluate the possibilities for multilateral research on ISS. An overlapping list of 16 HRP, 9 IBMP, 3 Japanese, 3 European and 1 Canadian investigations were selected to address risk-reduction goals in 7 categories: Functional Performance, Behavioral Health, Visual Impairment, Metabolism, Physical Capacity, Microbial and Human Factors. MHRPE intends to build on this bilateral foundation to recommend more fully-integrated multilateral investigations on future ISS missions commencing after the 1YM. MHRPE has also endorsed an on-going program of coordinated research on 6-month, one-year and 6-week missions ISS expeditions that is now under consideration by ISS managers. Preparatory work for these missions will require coordinated and collaborative campaigns especially in the psychological and psychosocial areas using analog isolation facilities in Houston, Köln and Moscow, and possibly elsewhere. The multilateral Human Analogs research working group (HANA) is the focal point of those planning discussions, with MHRPE coordinating between the national programs and then supporting implementation on ISS. Experience gained during preparations for the 1YM has identified improvements in both American and Russian processes to enable well-integrated investigations on all subsequent ISS expeditions. Among those is that the greatest efficiency is to be gained with investigations that are fully integrated from their conception, with co-principal investigators, a consolidated proposal and integrated plans for crewmember time and other flight-related resources. Analog investigations preceding future ISS expeditions will employ these lessons in efficiency to evaluate the techniques and tools to be validated aboard ISS. In this way, the resources and capabilities of ISS can be applied most efficiently to solving the problems facing astronauts of all nations in missions deep into the solar system.

  17. Developing Educational Resources to Advance Umbilical Cord Blood Banking and Research: A Canadian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pereira Beak, Carla; Chargé, Sophie B; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-05-01

    In 2013 Canadian Blood Services (CBS) launched the National Public Cord Blood Bank (NPCBB), a program to collect, process, test, and store cord blood units donated for use in transplantation. A key component of the creation of the NPCBB is the establishment of a program that enables cord blood not suitable for banking or transplantation to be used for biomedical research purposes. Along with the development of processes and policies to manage the NPCBB and the cord blood research program, CBS-in collaboration with researchers from the Stem Cell Network-have also developed educational tools to provide relevant information for target audiences to aid implementation and operation. We describe here one of these tools, the REB Primer on Research and Cord Blood Donation (the Primer), which highlights key ethical and legal considerations and identifies Canadian documents that are relevant to the use of cord blood in biomedical research. The Primer also introduces the NPCBB and describes the systems CBS is implementing to address ethical issues. The Primer is intended to assist research ethics boards in evaluating the ethical acceptability of research protocols, to facilitate harmonized decision-making by providing a common reference, and to highlight the role of research ethics boards in governance frameworks. With the Primer we hope to illustrate how the development of such educational tools can facilitate the ethical implementation and governance of programs related to stem cell research in Canada and abroad. PMID:26168106

  18. Development of an EtherCAT enabled digital servo controller for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteis, Peter G.; Mello, Melinda J.

    2012-09-01

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is gaining wide spread popularity in the automation industry as a real time field bus based on low cost, Ethernet hardware. EtherCAT maximizes use of 100Mbps Ethernet hardware by using a collision free ring topology, efficient Ethernet frame utilization (> 95%), and data exchange "on the fly". These characteristics enable EtherCAT to achieve Master to Slave node data exchange rates of > 1000 Hz. The Green Bank Telescope, commissioned in 2000, utilizes an analog control system for motion control of 8 elevation and 16 azimuth motors. This architecture, while sufficient for observations at frequencies up to 50GHz, has significant limitations for the current scientific goals of observing at 115GHz. Accordingly, the Green Bank staff has embarked on a servo upgrade project to develop a digital servo system which accommodates development and implementation of advanced control algorithms. This paper describes how the new control system requirements, use of existing infrastructure and budget constraints led us to define a distributed motion control architecture where EtherCAT real-time Ethernet was selected as the communication bus. Finally, design details are provided that describe how NRAO developed a custom EtherCAT-enabled motor controller interface for the GBT's legacy motor drives in order to provide technical benefits and flexibility not available in commercial products.

  19. Multilateral Biomedical Data Sharing in the One-year Joint US-Russian Mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Haven, C.; Johnson-Throop, K.; Van Baalen, M.; McFather, J.

    2014-01-01

    The One Year Mission (1YM) by two astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), starting in March 2015, offers a unique opportunity to expand multilateral collaboration by sharing data and resources among the partner agencies in preparation for planned space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Agreements and protocols will be established for the collection, distribution, analysis and reporting of both research and clinical data. Data will be shared between the agencies sponsoring the investigators, and between the research and clinical medicine communities where common interests are identified. The assignment of only two astronauts, one Russian and the other American, to the 1YM necessitated creativity in bilateral efforts to maximize the biomedical return from the opportunity. Addition of Canadian, European and Japanese investigations make the effort even more integrative. There will be three types of investigations: joint, cross-participation and data-exchange. The joint investigations have US and Russian coprincipal investigators, and the data acquired will be their common responsibility. The other two types must develop data sharing agreements and processes specific to their needs. A multilateral panel of ISS partner space agencies will develop policies for international exchange of scientific information to meet their science objectives and priorities. They will promote archiving of space flight data and will inform each other and the scientific community at large about the results obtained from space life sciences studies. Integration tasks for the 1YM are based on current experience from the ISS and previous efforts on the Russian space station Mir. Closer coordination between international partners requires more common approaches to remove barriers to multilateral resource utilization on the ISS. Greater integration in implementation should increase utilization efficiency to benefit all participants in spaceflight human research. This presentation will describe the overarching principles for multilateral data collection, analysis and sharing and for data security for medical and research data shared between ISS partners prior to release in public forums.

  20. Sediment transport and development of banner banks and sandwaves in an extreme tidal system: Upper Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Michael Z.; Shaw, John; Todd, Brian J.; Kostylev, Vladimir E.; Wu, Yongsheng

    2014-07-01

    Multibeam sonar mapping and geophysical and geological groundtruth surveys were coupled with tidal current and sediment transport model calculations to investigate the sediment transport and formation processes of the complex seabed features off the Cape Split headland in the upper Bay of Fundy. The Cape Split banner bank, composed of coarse to very coarse sand, is a southwest-northeast oriented, large tear-drop shaped sand body with superimposed sand waves that show wavelengths from 15 to 525 m and heights from 0.5 to 19 m. Isolated and chains of barchan dunes occur on top of a shadow bank to the southeast of the banner bank. The barchan dunes are composed of well-sorted medium sand and are oriented northwest-southeast. Their mean height and width are 1.5 and 55 m, respectively. A gravel bank, with an elongated elliptical shape and west-east orientation, lies in the Minas Passage erosional trough east of the headland to form the counterpart to the sandy Cape Split banner bank. The southern face is featureless but the northern face is covered by gravel megaripples. Tidal model predictions and sediment transport calculations show that the formation of the banner bank and the gravel bank are due to the development of the transient counter-clockwise and clockwise tidal eddies respectively to the west and east of the headland. The formation of barchan dunes is controlled by the nearly unidirectional flow regime in outer Scots Bay. Sand waves on the flanks of the Cape Split banner bank show opposite asymmetry and the barchan dunes are asymmetric to the northeast. The tidal current and sediment transport predictions corroborate bedform asymmetry to show that sand wave migration and net sediment transport is to southwest on the northern flank of the banner bank but to northeast on the southern bank. Long-term migration of the Scots Bay barchan dunes is to the northeast. Spring-condition tidal currents can cause frequent mobilization and high-stage transport over the banner bank and barchan dunes. Strong currents in Minas Passage can cause infrequent low-stage transport over the megarippled northern face but are not high enough to mobilize the coarser gravels on the southern face of the gravel bank.

  1. Banking on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

  2. Developing biological resource banks as a supporting tool for wildlife reproduction and conservation The Iberian lynx bank as a model for other endangered species.

    PubMed

    Leon-Quinto, Trinidad; Simon, Miguel A; Cadenas, Rafael; Jones, Jonathan; Martinez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Moreno, Juan M; Vargas, Astrid; Martinez, Fernando; Soria, Bernat

    2009-06-01

    This work presents a Biological Resource Bank generated as a complementary supporting tool for the reproduction and the in situ and ex situ conservation of the Iberian lynx. In its design we prioritized the preservation of a maximum of the current genetic and biological diversity of the population, and the harmless collection of the samples. To provide future reproductive opportunities through any possible technique, we processed and cryopreserved germinal cells and tissues from dead animals, 7 males and 6 females, as well as somatic cells and tissues from 69 different individuals. This somatic cell reserve reflects a very important fraction of the population biodiversity which, furthermore, will allow the development of a wide variety of studies that can be easily extrapolated to the majority of the population. We have developed a new non-destructive method to isolate cells with stem-cell-like properties. If considered convenient in the future, and after proper research, such cells could permit therapeutic applications and perhaps be a good source to be used in somatic cell nuclear transfer. Samples of whole blood and its derivatives, hairs, urine and feces from many different individuals were also preserved. Proper storage of such samples is required to allow epidemiological studies to be performed for the testing of different etiological hypotheses or, in general, to develop any bio-sanitary study to improve conservation strategies within the natural habitat. This work describes the main aspects involved in the practical implementation of the Iberian lynx Biological Resource Bank, as a model that could be useful for the development of similar banks for other endangered species. PMID:18585877

  3. Application of a computerized vibroacoustic data bank for random vibration criteria development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized data bank system was developed for utilization of large amounts of vibration and acoustic data to formulate component random vibration design and test criteria. This system consists of a computer, graphics tablets, and a dry silver hard copier which are all desk top type hardware and occupy minimal space. Currently, the data bank contains data from the Saturn 5 and Titan 3 flight and static test programs. The vibration and acoustic data are stored in the form of power spectral density and one third octave band plots over the frequency range from 20 to 2000 Hz. The data were stored by digitizing each spectral plot by tracing with the graphics tablet. The digitized data were statistically analyzed, and the resulting 97.5 percent confidence levels were stored on tape along with the appropriate structural parameters. Standard extrapolation procedures were programmed for prediction of component random vibration test criteria for new launch vehicle and payload configurations. A user's manual is included to guide potential users through the programs.

  4. Soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal fungi along forest development stages after mining.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Nara, Kazuhide; Zong, Kun; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) propagules play an important role in seedling establishment following disturbance. However, little is known about how the EMF propagule community changes with forest development. In this study, EMF propagules were examined using seedling bioassays in rhizosphere soils collected from a recently closed Pb-Zn tailing (Taolin Pb-Zn tailing (TLT)), a Cu tailing (Dexing Cu No. 2 tailing (DXT)) that had undergone 21 years of restoration, and a mature Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest (DXC) outside the Cu mining areas. The corresponding EMF communities colonizing Masson pine at each site were also investigated for comparison. After 8 months of running bioassays, ectomycorrhizal colonization was poor for seedlings grown in TLT (9.0 % ± 14.9 %) and DXT soils (22.4 % ± 17.7 %), while DXC seedlings were well colonized (47.5 % ± 24.9 %). Internal transcribed spacer sequencing revealed that EMF species richness increased with forest development in both the propagule bank (TLT, 6; DXT, 7; DXC, 12) and in the field (TLT, 8; DXT, 14; DXC, 26), though richness was lower in propagule banks. Several lineages, such as Cenococcum, Rhizopogon, Inocybe, Suillus, and Atheliaceae, were frequently encountered in propagule communities, but species assemblages were different among the three sites. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that several soil parameters, i.e., N, EC, Cu, Pb, Zn, etc., were responsible for the distribution of EMF in the field and bioassay seedlings. The highest overlap in EMF species composition between the propagule bank and the field community was observed at the recently closed tailing (Morisita-Horn similarity = 0.71 for TLT), whereas the lowest overlap occurred at the mature forest (0.26 for DXC). These results indicate that EMF propagules in soil are less frequent and diverse in early primary succession and become more frequent and diverse along forest development, due mainly to the accumulation of dormant spores of Rhizopogon spp. and sclerotia of Cenococcum spp. Thus, EMF propagule communities in soil may diverge from those root-colonizing EMF communities along a gradient of forest development. PMID:25213652

  5. A Multilateral Negotiation Model for Cloud Service Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Dongjin; Sim, Kwang Mong

    Trading cloud services between consumers and providers is a complicated issue of cloud computing. Since a consumer can negotiate with multiple providers to acquire the same service and each provider can receive many requests from multiple consumers, to facilitate the trading of cloud services among multiple consumers and providers, a multilateral negotiation model for cloud market is necessary. The contribution of this work is the proposal of a business model supporting a multilateral price negotiation for trading cloud services. The design of proposed systems for cloud service market includes considering a many-to-many negotiation protocol, and price determining factor from service level feature. Two negotiation strategies are implemented: 1) MDA (Market Driven Agent); and 2) adaptive concession making responding to changes of bargaining position are proposed for cloud service market. Empirical results shows that MDA achieved better performance in some cases that the adaptive concession making strategy, it is noted that unlike the MDA, the adaptive concession making strategy does not assume that an agent has information of the number of competitors (e.g., a consumer agent adopting the adaptive concession making strategy need not know the number of consumer agents competing for the same service).

  6. The management and design of economic development projects: A case study of World Bank electricity projects in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    El Sabaa, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    This study is concerned with the efficiency of World Bank projects in Egypt. The study seeks improvements in the methods of evaluating public sector projects in Egypt. To approaches are employed: (1) project identification to optimally allocate Egypt's and World Bank's resources; (2) project appraisal to assess the economic viability and efficiency of investments. The electricity sector is compared with the agriculture sector as a means of employing project identification for priority ordering of investment for development in Egypt. The key criteria for evaluation are the impacts of developments of each sector upon Egypt's national objectives and needs. These include employment opportunities, growth, alleviation of poverty, cross comparison of per capita consumption in each sector, economic rate of return, national security, balance of payments and foreign debt. The allocation of scarce investments would have been more efficient in agriculture than in electricity in meeting Egypt's national objectives and needs. World Bank lending programs in Egypt reveal a priority ordering of electricity over agriculture and rural development. World Bank development projects in Egypt have not been optimally identified, and its programs have not followed an efficient allocation of World Bank's and Egypt's resources. The key parameters in evaluating economic viability and efficiency of development projects are: (1) the discount rate (the opportunity cost of public funds); (2) the exchange rate; and (3) the cost of major inputs, as approximated by shadow prices of labor, water, electricity, and transportation for development projects. Alternative approaches to estimating the opportunity cost of public funds are made. The parameters in evaluating the efficiency of projects have not been accurately estimated in the appraisal stage of the World Bank projects in Egypt, resulting in false or misleading information concerning the economic viability and efficiency of the projects.

  7. Database Management for Item Banking and Test Development: An Application of dBase II for the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, John J.

    The background and results of an effort to use dBASE II, a microcomputer database management package, to establish, maintain, and update an item bank useful in a complex test development process are presented. The paper explores some of the perspectives and considerations in designing such a database which make the test development process easier,…

  8. Role of development banks in promoting industrial energy efficiency: India case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Gadgil, A.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

    1999-07-01

    The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) is the premier institution in India purveying financial assistance to the industrial-sector projects. Its annual lending amounts to $6 billion. Recognizing the need to increase lending for energy efficiency and environmental management (ee/em) projects, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided a $150 million line of credit to IDBI. These funds were lent to cement, steel, paper, sugar and other industries. Accompanying the line of credit, ADB also provided funds for technical assistance to strengthen IDBI's capability for the assessment of projects related to energy efficiency and environmental management (ee/em). The technical assistance (TA) focused on IDBI's institutional capability, the procedures it follows for lending in this area, studies of ten energy-intensive sectors, and training and data needs to improve its lending. The findings of the TA reveal a need to (1) use ee/em indicators during IDBI's appraisal, approval, and monitoring of projects, (2) increase the ee/em information resource base - in-house and out-house ee/em experts, handbooks, computerized data bases - that IDBI staff can access, and (3) increase awareness of ee/em components among industrial borrowers. The sector studies show that there is at least a 20% lag compared to best practice for energy use, and that a significant potential, $1.0 billion, exists for investment in ee/em activities. These activities include (a) housekeeping measures such as improved lighting, variable-speed motors/drives, improving power factor, etc., (b) installing co-generation and captive power generation units, and (c) changing manufacturing processes to more efficient and less polluting ones. Training and data needs were also identified which would improve IDBI's lending for energy efficiency and environmental management.

  9. Development of small carbonate banks on the south Florida platform margin: Response to sea level and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallinson, D.; Hine, A.; Hallock, P.; Locker, S.; Shinn, E.; Naar, D.; Donahue, B.; Weaver, D.

    2003-01-01

    Geophysical and coring data from the Dry Tortugas, Tortugas Bank, and Riley's Hump on the southwest Florida margin reveal the stratigraphic framework and growth history of these carbonate banks. The Holocene reefs of the Dry Tortugas and Tortugas Bank are approximately 14 and 10 m thick, respectively, and are situated upon Pleistocene reefal edifices. Tortugas Bank consists of the oldest Holocene corals in the Florida Keys with earliest coral recruitment occurring at ???9.6 cal ka. Growth curves for the Tortugas Bank reveal slow growth (<1 mm/yr) until 6.2 cal ka, then a rapid increase to 3.4 mm/yr, until shallow reef demise at ???4.2 cal ka. Coral reef development at the Dry Tortugas began at ???6.4 cal ka. Aggradation at the Dry Tortugas was linear, and rapid (???3.7 mm/yr) and kept pace with sea-level change. The increase in aggradation rate of Tortugas Bank at 6.2 cal ka is attributed to the growth of the Dry Tortugas reefs, which formed a barrier to inimical shelf water. Termination of shallow (<15 m below sea level) reef growth at Tortugas Bank at ???4.2 cal ka is attributed to paleoclimate change in the North American interior that increased precipitation and fluvial discharge. Reef growth rates and characteristics are related to the rate of sea-level rise relative to the position of the reef on the shelf margin, and are additionally modified by hydrographic conditions related to climate change. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Developing the Communicative Participation Item Bank: Rasch Analysis Results from a Spasmodic Dysphonia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct the initial psychometric analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank--a new self-report instrument designed to measure the extent to which communication disorders interfere with communicative participation. This item bank is intended for community-dwelling adults across a range of…

  11. 75 FR 677 - Federal Home Loan Bank Membership for Community Development Financial Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... the provisions of HERA authorizing CDFIs to become members of the Banks. 74 FR 22848 (May 15, 2009... the dollar amount of advances outstanding to that member is apt to be comparatively modest. Thus, even.... Because CDFI applicants are apt to have asset profiles that differ from those that the Banks...

  12. Opportunity, risk, and success recognizing, addressing, and balancing multiple factors crucial to the success of a project management system deployed to support multi-lateral decommissioning programs

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Greg; Longsworth, Paul

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the factors involved in effectively implementing a world-class program/project management information system funded by multiple nations. Along with many other benefits, investing in and utilizing such systems improves delivery and drive accountability for major expenditures. However, there are an equally large number of impediments to developing and using such systems. To be successful, the process requires a dynamic combining of elements and strategic sequencing of initiatives. While program/project-management systems involve information technologies, software and hardware, they represent only one element of the overall system.. Technology, process, people and knowledge must all be integrated and working in concert with one another to assure a fully capable system. Major system implementations occur infrequently, and frequently miss established targets in relatively small organizations (with the risk increasing with greater complexity). The European Bank of Reconstruction (EBRD) is midway through just such an implementation. The EBRD is using funds from numerous donor countries to sponsor development of an overarching program management system. The system will provide the Russian Federation with the tools to effectively manage prioritizing, planning, and physically decommissioning assets{sub i}n northwest Russia to mitigate risks associated the Soviet era nuclear submarine program. Project-management delivery using world-class techniques supported by aligned systems has been proven to increase the probability of delivering on-time and on-budget, assuring those funding such programs optimum value for money. However, systems deployed to manage multi-laterally funded projects must be developed with appropriate levels of consideration given to unique aspects such as: accommodation of existing project management methods, consideration for differences is management structures and organizational behaviors, incorporation of unique strengths, and subtle adjustment to compensate weaknesses. This paper addresses the architecture and sequencing of implementation. (authors)

  13. How developments in cryobiology, reproductive technologies and conservation genomics could shape gene banking strategies for (farm) animals.

    PubMed

    Woelders, H; Windig, J; Hiemstra, S J

    2012-08-01

    Many local breeds are currently at risk because of replacement by a limited number of specialized commercial breeds. Concurrently, for many breeds, allelic diversity within breeds declines because of inbreeding. Gene banking of germplasm may serve to secure the breeds and the alleles for any future use, for instance to recover a lost breed, to address new breeding goals, to support breeding schemes in small populations to minimize inbreeding, and for conservation genetics and genomics research. Developments in cryobiology and reproductive technology have generated several possibilities for preserving germplasm in farm animals. Furthermore, in some mammalian and bird species, gene banking of material is difficult or impossible, requiring development of new alternative methods or improvement of existing methods. Depending on the species, there are interesting possibilities or research developments in the use of epididymal spermatozoa, oocytes and embryos, ovarian and testicular tissue, primordial germ cells, and somatic cells for the conservation of genetic diversity in farm- and other animal species. Rapid developments in genomics research also provide new opportunities to optimize conservation and sampling strategies and to characterize genome-wide genetic variation. With regard to gene banks for farm animals, collaboration between European countries is being developed through a number of organizations, aimed at sharing knowledge and expertise between national programmes. It would be useful to explore further collaboration between countries, within the framework of a European gene banking strategy that should minimize costs of conservation and maximize opportunities for exploitation and sustainable use of genetic diversity. PMID:22827380

  14. BONE BANKS

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Paulo Gilberto Cimbalista; Vieira, Inácio Facó Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Bone banks are necessary for providing biological material for a series of orthopedic procedures. The growing need for musculoskeletal tissues for transplantation has been due to the development of new surgical techniques, and this has led to a situation in which a variety of hospital services have been willing to have their own source of tissue for transplantation. To increase the safety of transplanted tissues, standards for bone bank operation have been imposed by the government, which has limited the number of authorized institutions. The good performance in a bone bank depends on strict control over all stages, including: formation of well-trained harvesting teams; donor selection; conducting various tests on the tissues obtained; and strict control over the processing techniques used. Combination of these factors enables greater scope of use and numbers of recipient patients, while the incidence of tissue contamination becomes statistically insignificant, and there is traceability between donors and recipients. This paper describes technical considerations relating to how a bone bank functions, the use of grafts and orthopedic applications, the ethical issues and the main obstacles encountered.

  15. The development and deployment of Common Data Elements for tissue banks for translational research in cancer – An emerging standard based approach for the Mesothelioma Virtual Tissue Bank

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sambit K; Mistry, Amita T; Amin, Waqas; Parwani, Anil V; Pople, Andrew K; Schmandt, Linda; Winters, Sharon B; Milliken, Erin; Kim, Paula; Whelan, Nancy B; Farhat, Ghada; Melamed, Jonathan; Taioli, Emanuela; Dhir, Rajiv; Pass, Harvey I; Becich, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and the increasing demands for biomarker validation studies have catalyzed changes in the landscape of cancer research, fueling the development of tissue banks for translational research. A result of this transformation is the need for sufficient quantities of clinically annotated and well-characterized biospecimens to support the growing needs of the cancer research community. Clinical annotation allows samples to be better matched to the research question at hand and ensures that experimental results are better understood and can be verified. To facilitate and standardize such annotation in bio-repositories, we have combined three accepted and complementary sets of data standards: the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Cancer Checklists, the protocols recommended by the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology (ADASP) for pathology data, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registry (NAACCR) elements for epidemiology, therapy and follow-up data. Combining these approaches creates a set of International Standards Organization (ISO) – compliant Common Data Elements (CDEs) for the mesothelioma tissue banking initiative supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Methods The purpose of the project is to develop a core set of data elements for annotating mesothelioma specimens, following standards established by the CAP checklist, ADASP cancer protocols, and the NAACCR elements. We have associated these elements with modeling architecture to enhance both syntactic and semantic interoperability. The system has a Java-based multi-tiered architecture based on Unified Modeling Language (UML). Results Common Data Elements were developed using controlled vocabulary, ontology and semantic modeling methodology. The CDEs for each case are of different types: demographic, epidemiologic data, clinical history, pathology data including block level annotation, and follow-up data including treatment, recurrence and vital status. The end result of such an effort would eventually provide an increased sample set to the researchers, and makes the system interoperable between institutions. Conclusion The CAP, ADASP and the NAACCR elements represent widely established data elements that are utilized in many cancer centers. Herein, we have shown these representations can be combined and formalized to create a core set of annotations for banked mesothelioma specimens. Because these data elements are collected as part of the normal workflow of a medical center, data sets developed on the basis of these elements can be easily implemented and maintained. PMID:18397527

  16. Emerging Regions, Persisting Rhetoric of Educational Aid: The Impact of the Asian Development Bank on Educational Policy Making in Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanova, Jazira

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) discourses and practices in the context of its educational sector support in Kazakhstan. Drawing on the document analysis and interviews with the ADB staff and Kazakhstan's education officials, the article examines ADB's discursive and operational frameworks in this Central Asian country. The…

  17. Development of an Item Bank for Assessing Generic Competences in a Higher-Education Institute: A Rasch Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin; Zhong, Xiaoling; Wang, Wen-Chung; Lim, Cher Ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of an item bank designed for students to assess their own achievements across an undergraduate-degree programme in seven generic competences (i.e., problem-solving skills, critical-thinking skills, creative-thinking skills, ethical decision-making skills, effective communication skills, social…

  18. Higher Education in China: Consulting for the Asian Development Bank on Higher Education Reform. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauch, James

    This paper examines the relationship of the Chinese National Academy of Educational Administration, the Asian Development Bank, and a consulting U.S. university in a project to provide technical assistance for senior Chinese university administrators in management training and modernization of facilities. Although the higher education component in…

  19. Development of an Item Bank for Assessing Generic Competences in a Higher-Education Institute: A Rasch Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin; Zhong, Xiaoling; Wang, Wen-Chung; Lim, Cher Ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of an item bank designed for students to assess their own achievements across an undergraduate-degree programme in seven generic competences (i.e., problem-solving skills, critical-thinking skills, creative-thinking skills, ethical decision-making skills, effective communication skills, social…

  20. Bank Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

  1. 31 CFR 103.185 - Summons or subpoena of foreign bank records; Termination of correspondent relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., multilateral agreement, or other request for international law enforcement assistance. (c) Issuance to covered financial institutions. Upon receipt of a written request from a Federal law enforcement officer for... TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Law Enforcement Access to Foreign Bank Records § 103.185 Summons...

  2. Cord Blood Banking in the Arab World: Current Status and Future Developments.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Monica M; Dajani, Rana; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2015-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplants are now used to treat numerous types of immune- and blood-related disorders and genetic diseases. Cord blood (CB) banks play an important role in these transplants by processing and storing CB units. In addition to their therapeutic potential, these banks raise ethical and regulatory questions, especially in emerging markets in the Arab world. In this article, the authors review CB banking in five countries in the region, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, selected for their different CB banking policies and initiatives. In assessing these case studies, the authors present regional trends and issues, including religious perspectives, policies, and demographic risk factors. This research suggests strong incentives for increasing the number of CB units that are collected from and available to Arab populations. In addition, the deficit in knowledge concerning public opinion and awareness in the region should be addressed to ensure educated decision-making. PMID:25687797

  3. Bank Record Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  4. The use of focus groups in the development of the PROMIS Pediatrics Item Bank

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Tasanee R.; Irwin, Debra E.; Meier, Andrea; Varni, James W.; DeWalt, Darren A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To understand differences in perceptions of patient reported outcome domains between children with asthma and children from the general population. We used this information in the development of patient-reported outcome items for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatrics project. Methods We conducted focus groups composed of ethnically, racially, and geographically diverse youth (8-12, 13-17 years) from the general population and youth with asthma. We performed content analysis to identify important themes. Results We identified five unique and different challenges that may confront youth with asthma as compared to general population youth: 1) They experience more difficulties when participating in physical activities; 2) They may experience anxiety about having an asthma attack at anytime and anywhere; 3) They may experience sleep disturbances and fatigue secondary to their asthma symptoms; 4) Their health condition has a greater effect on their emotional well-being and interpersonal relationships; and 5) Youth with asthma report that asthma often leaves them with insufficient energy to complete their school activities, especially physical activities. Conclusions The results confirm unique experiences for children with asthma across a broad range of health domains and enhance the breadth of all domains when creating an item bank. PMID:18427951

  5. Relationship between temperature and development of Galendromus flumenis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a predator of Banks grass mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Ganjisaffar, Fatemeh; Perring, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    The Banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of grains, grasses and dates. In order to develop and optimize biological control strategies against the Banks grass mite, the survival and development of the predator, Galendromus flumenis (Chant) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), at eleven constant temperatures between 12 and 44 °C were determined. The survival rates of G. flumenis (67.4-89.5 %) were highest between 26 and 38 °C although it developed successfully from egg to adult at temperatures ranging from 18 to 42 °C. The lower temperature threshold (T 0 ) and thermal constant (K) for total immature development were 13.3 °C and 145.3 degree-days, respectively. The upper temperature threshold was 44.3 °C, and the optimal temperature for development was calculated to be 37.5 °C. These results indicate that G. flumenis is better adapted to high temperatures than most predators in the Phytoseiidae. In addition, the thermal requirements for total development of G. flumenis was found to be very close to those of O. pratensis which indicates that there should be synchrony between the occurrence of the prey and the predator. Therefore, the lack of predation observed in the field is related to other factors, such as the developmental time between O. pratensis and G. flumenis, or the inability of the predator to establish at the same time, and in the same location, as the prey. PMID:26292634

  6. Automation of vibroacoustic data bank for random vibration criteria development. [for the space shuttle and launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized data bank system was developed for utilization of large amounts of vibration and acoustic data to formulate component random vibration design and test criteria. This system consists of a computer, graphics tablet, and a dry-silver hard copier which are all desk-top type hardware and occupy minimal space. The data bank contains data from the Saturn V and Titan III flight and static test programs. The vibration and acoustic data are stored in the form of power spectral density and one-third octave band plots over the frequency range from 20 to 2000 Hz. The data was stored by digitizing each spectral plot by tracing with the graphics tablet. The digitized data was statistically analyzed and the resulting 97.5% probability levels were stored on tape along with the appropriate structural parameters. Standard extrapolation procedures were programmed for prediction of component random vibration test criteria for new launch vehicle and payload configurations. This automated vibroacoustic data bank system greatly enhances the speed and accuracy of formulating vibration test criteria. In the future, the data bank will be expanded to include all data acquired from the space shuttle flight test program.

  7. 12 CFR 1806.204 - Applications for Bank Enterprise Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for Bank Enterprise Awards. 1806.204 Section 1806.204 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.204 Applications for Bank...

  8. Oceanic Core Complex Development Within the Ductile and Brittle Regimes, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, E. A.; John, B. E.; Frost, B. R.

    2003-12-01

    In slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge environments, both magmatic and tectonic processes accommodate spreading, where the latter can be manifested as detachment fault systems. Atlantis Bank, an oceanic core complex formed ˜12 Ma at the intersection of the ultra-slow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge and the Atlantis II transform, is dissected by transform-parallel normal faults that provide unique cross-sections through all levels of the detachment fault system. Gabbro collected in ODP Hole 735B and with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 from the footwall, hanging wall, and detachment fault surface provide details of the extensional fault system exposed over 36 km normal to the ridge axis, (>3.5 m.y. of crustal accretion). Together the sample suite provides an ideal basis for interpreting the process of strain localization and fabric development associated with formation of long-lived oceanic detachment faults. Continuous core from ODP Hole 735B demonstrates that the main shear zone associated with denudation of the core complex is 200 m thick. The core samples exhibit magmatic fabrics and metamorphic fabrics of submagmatic, granulite (650° - 900° C), amphibolite (450° - 650° C), greenschist (300° - 450° C) and subgreenschist grades. Analysis of the in situ dive samples indicates that the structurally deepest samples collected from the footwall are characterized by a zone of granulite-grade crystal-plastic deformation with varying fabric intensity. Structurally above the granulites lies a zone of amphibolite-grade protomylonitic to mylonitic fabrics overprinted by semi-brittle to brittle greenschist-grade deformation. The amphibolites contain 20 - 30 mm-thick zones of high-strain mylonite that increase in number and decrease in thickness upward toward the detachment fault surface. Samples from the localized slip plane or detachment fault surface are highly altered and deformed in both the ductile and brittle regimes. Thermometry and microstructural analysis of in situ dive samples demonstrates that ductile deformation initiated at 950° C and continued through 600° C. Folded pyroxene porphyroclasts show that ductile deformation began after exsolution. Two-pyroxene thermometry based on mineral composition data from orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene porphyroclast hosts and their exsolution lamellae in gabbro mylonite yield temperatures of 950° C. Equivalent analysis of adjacent recrystallized ortho- and clinopyroxene neoblasts yield temperatures 850° - 950° C, demonstrating that ductile deformation continued through 850° C. Amphibole-plagioclase thermometry based on mineral composition data from recrystallized amphibole and the associated plagioclase porphyroclasts and neoblasts in oxide gabbro mylonite indicates that ductile deformation began around 890° C and continued through 600° C. The greenschist-grade overprint of granulite gabbro mylonite, manifested by the foliation-parallel growth of green amphibole, chlorite and serpentine around plagioclase neoblasts, preserves a subsequent lower-temperature history. The microstructures of the granulite-grade footwall rocks and those of the detachment fault surface breccias suggest that deformation initiated at high temperatures in the ductile regime, and continued to lower temperatures through the semi-brittle and brittle regimes as fault rocks were denuded along the detachment fault system. Models for the development of oceanic core complexes developed purely within the brittle regime clearly do not apply to the well-exposed and sampled Atlantis Bank region of the Southwest Indian Ridge.

  9. Multilateral haptics-based immersive teleoperation for improvised explosive device disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Daly, John

    2013-05-01

    Of great interest to police and military organizations is the development of effective improvised explosive device (IED) disposal (IEDD) technology to aid in activities such as mine field clearing, and bomb disposal. At the same time minimizing risk to personnel. This paper presents new results in the research and development of a next generation mobile immersive teleoperated explosive ordnance disposal system. This system incorporates elements of 3D vision, multilateral teleoperation for high transparency haptic feedback, immersive augmented reality operator control interfaces, and a realistic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) 3D simulation environment incorporating vehicle and manipulator dynamics for both operator training and algorithm development. In the past year, new algorithms have been developed to facilitate incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robotic hardware into the teleoperation system. In particular, a real-time numerical inverse position kinematics algorithm that can be applied to a wide range of manipulators has been implemented, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attitude stabilization system for manipulators has been developed and experimentally validated, and a voice­operated manipulator control system has been developed and integrated into the operator control station. The integration of these components into a vehicle simulation environment with half-car vehicle dynamics has also been successfully carried out. A physical half-car plant is currently being constructed for HIL integration with the simulation environment.

  10. Perspectives of co-operation with the World Bank towards elimination of low emission sources in Krakow

    SciTech Connect

    Goerlich, K.

    1995-12-31

    I am not going to speak about or for the World Bank. More time and a different scope of the conference would be needed in order to more deeply assess the role of the World Bank and other international lenders and donors in the environmental and energy sectors in Poland. I am going to stay within the context of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project financed by the US AID and managed by the US DOE (called here for simplicity the Krakow Programme). However, in order to assess a role of the World Bank and other international lenders and donors in the pro-environment transformation of the energy systems of Krakow, one needs to briefly discuss: the possibilities and confinements related to the {open_quotes}technology{close_quotes} of disbursement of the financial resources by the multilateral development banks (MDB`s) in Poland, the type of results obtained within the {open_quotes}Krakow Programme{close_quotes} and a concept of involving American commercial companies to implement the clean-air policy for Krakow.

  11. From Early Child Development to Human Development: Investing in Our Children's Future. Proceedings of a World Bank Conference (Washington, D.C., April 10-11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming, Ed.

    In April 2000, the World Bank hosted a global conference that addressed the benefits and challenges of investing in early child development (ECD). The landmark conference brought together the world's leading experts, academicians, practitioners, and policymakers to focus on various aspects of ECD. This volume contains the proceedings of the…

  12. Early Child Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: List of Projects with World Bank Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    In recent years the World Bank, currently the largest single funding source for education and health programs in the world, has put new emphasis on reaching children in the years before they enter school. Despite the acknowledged benefits to be gained from investing in education, schooling in Latin America has failed to keep pace with the…

  13. Moving toward multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Panasyuk,A.; Rosenthal,M.; Efremov, G. V.

    2009-04-17

    Multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle are seen as a potentially important way to create an industrial infrastructure that will support a renaissance and at the same time not contribute to the risk of nuclear proliferation. In this way, international nuclear fuel cycle centers for enrichment can help to provide an assurance of supply of nuclear fuel that will reduce the likelihood that individual states will pursue this sensitive technology, which can be used to produce nuclear material directly usable nuclear weapons. Multinational participation in such mechanisms can also potentially promote transparency, build confidence, and make the implementation of IAEA safeguards more effective or more efficient. At the same time, it is important to ensure that there is no dissemination of sensitive technology. The Russian Federation has taken a lead role in this area by establishing an International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC) for the provision of enrichment services at its uranium enrichment plant located at the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex (AECC). This paper describes how the IUEe is organized, who its members are, and the steps that it has taken both to provide an assured supply of nuclear fuel and to ensure protection of sensitive technology. It also describes the relationship between the IUEC and the IAEA and steps that remain to be taken to enhance its assurance of supply. Using the IUEC as a starting point for discussion, the paper also explores more generally the ways in which features of such fuel cycle centers with multinational participation can have an impact on safeguards arrangements, transparency, and confidence-building. Issues include possible lAEA safeguards arrangements or other links to the IAEA that might be established at such fuel cycle centers, impact of location in a nuclear weapon state, and the transition by the IAEA to State Level safeguards approaches.

  14. DORMAN computer program (study 2.5). Volume 2: User's guide and programmer's guide. [development of data bank for computerized information storage of NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, S. T., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The DORMAN program was developed to create and modify a data bank containing data decks which serve as input to the DORCA Computer Program. Via a remote terminal a user can access the bank, extract any data deck, modify that deck, output the modified deck to be input to the DORCA program, and save the modified deck in the data bank. This computer program is an assist in the utilization of the DORCA program. The program is dimensionless and operates almost entirely in integer mode. The program was developed on the CDC 6400/7600 complex for implementation on a UNIVAC 1108 computer.

  15. PROMIS Pediatric Peer Relationships Scale: Development of a Peer Relationships Item Bank as Part of Social Health Measurement

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Thissen, David; Stucky, Brian D.; Langer, Michelle M.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Irwin, Debra E.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Yeatts, Karin B.; Gross, Heather E.; Taylor, Olivia; Varni, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study’s objective was to develop a measure of social health using item response theory as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods After candidate items were generated from review of prior literature, focus groups, expert input, and cognitive interviews, items were administered to youth aged 8–17 as part of the PROMIS pediatric large scale testing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess dimensionality and to identify instances of local dependence. Items that met the unidimensionality criteria were subsequently calibrated using Samejima’s Graded Response Model. Differential item functioning was examined by gender and age. Results The sample included 3,048 youth who completed the questionnaire (51.8% female, 60% white, and 22.7% with chronic illness). The initial conceptualization of social function and sociability did not yield unidimensional item banks. Rather, factor analysis revealed dimensions contrasting peer relationships and adult relationships. The analysis also identified dimensions formed by responses to positively versus negatively worded items. The resulting 15-item bank measures quality of peer relationships and has strong psychometric characteristics as a full bank or an 8-item short form. Conclusions The PROMIS pediatric peer relationships scale demonstrates good psychometric characteristics and addresses an important aspect of child health. PMID:23772887

  16. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test: phases I–III of a cross-cultural item bank development

    PubMed Central

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa; Young, Teresa; Costantini, Anna; Aaronson, Neil; Giesinger, Johannes M; Meraner, Verena; Kemmler, Georg; Holzner, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Background The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item bank for emotional functioning (EF), which is one of the core domains of the QLQ-C30. Methods According to the EORTC guidelines on module development, the development of the EF item bank comprised four phases, of which the phases I–III are reported in the present paper. Phase I involved defining the theoretical framework for the EF item bank and a literature search. Phase II included pre-defined item selection steps and a multi-stage expert review process. In phase III, feedback from cancer patients from different countries was obtained. Results On the basis of literature search in phase I, a list of 1750 items was generated. These were reviewed and further developed in phase II with a focus on relevance, redundancy, clarity, and difficulty. The development and selection steps led to a preliminary list of 41 items. In phase III, patient interviews (N?=?41; Austria, Denmark, Italy, and the UK) were conducted with the preliminary item list, resulting in some minor changes to item wording. The final list comprised 38 items. Discussion The phases I–III of the developmental process have resulted in an EF item list that was well accepted by patients in several countries. The items will be subjected to larger-scale field testing in order to establish their psychometric characteristics and their fit to an item response theory model. PMID:24217943

  17. Research on large spatial coordinate automatic measuring system based on multilateral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Dongjing; Li, Jianshuan; Li, Lianfu; Jiang, Yuanlin; Kang, Yao; He, Mingzhao; Deng, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    To measure the spatial coordinate accurately and efficiently in large size range, a manipulator automatic measurement system which based on multilateral method is developed. This system is divided into two parts: The coordinate measurement subsystem is consists of four laser tracers, and the trajectory generation subsystem is composed by a manipulator and a rail. To ensure that there is no laser beam break during the measurement process, an optimization function is constructed by using the vectors between the laser tracers measuring center and the cat's eye reflector measuring center, then an orientation automatically adjust algorithm for the reflector is proposed, with this algorithm, the laser tracers are always been able to track the reflector during the entire measurement process. Finally, the proposed algorithm is validated by taking the calibration of laser tracker for instance: the actual experiment is conducted in 5m × 3m × 3.2m range, the algorithm is used to plan the orientations of the reflector corresponding to the given 24 points automatically. After improving orientations of some minority points with adverse angles, the final results are used to control the manipulator's motion. During the actual movement, there are no beam break occurs. The result shows that the proposed algorithm help the developed system to measure the spatial coordinates over a large range with efficiency.

  18. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  19. Techno-Political Space Cooperation: A Longitudinal Analysis of NASA's Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudiburg, John J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's international programs are both numerous and successful, with over two thousand international agreements forming a foundation of U.S. government cooperation that involved over half the United Nation's membership. Previous research, by the author, into these agreements has identified five variables underlying NASA's international cooperation efforts and these variables form a framework for explaining international cooperation behavior on a macro-level. This paper builds upon that research to effectively explain lower-level patterns of cooperation in NASA's experience. Two approaches for analyzing the space agency's history are used: aggregation of all agreements and a cluster (disaggregated) analysis of four key segments. While researchers of NASA's international cooperation often considered individual cases first, and then generalize to macro-level explanations. This study, in contrast, begins by considering all agreements together in order to explain as much as possible at the macro level before proceeding to lower tier explanations. These lower tier assessments are important to understanding regional and political influences on bilateral and multilateral cooperation. In order to accomplish this lower-tier analysis, the 2000 agreements are disaggregated into logical groupings enabling an analysis of important questions and clearer focus on key patterns concerning developing states, such as the role of international institutions or privatization on international cooperation in space technology.

  20. The World Bank's Role in Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Education, Training, and Technical Assistance. A World Bank Operations Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridker, Ronald G.

    This study explores the recent trend where African countries have shown a decline in expansion of their school systems and in replacing expatriates engaged in vital public and private activity. The study explores policy options and traces the evolution of World Bank ideas and actions to help practitioners design policies and programs better…

  1. 12 CFR 25.26 - Small bank performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small bank performance standards. 25.26 Section... § 25.26 Small bank performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small banks that are not... community development lending, investment, and services needs. (d) Small bank performance rating. The...

  2. 12 CFR 228.26 - Small bank performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small bank performance standards. 228.26... bank performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small banks that are not intermediate small... community development lending, investment, and services needs. (d) Small bank performance rating. The...

  3. 12 CFR 228.26 - Small bank performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small bank performance standards. 228.26... bank performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small banks that are not intermediate small... community development lending, investment, and services needs. (d) Small bank performance rating. The...

  4. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2016-01-01

    GenBank(®) (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 340 000 formally described species. Recent developments include a new starting page for submitters, a shift toward using accession.version identifiers rather than GI numbers, a wizard for submitting 16S rRNA sequences, and an Identical Protein Report to address growing issues of data redundancy. GenBank organizes the sequence data received from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects into 18 divisions, and GenBank staff assign unique accession.version identifiers upon data receipt. Most submitters use the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the nuccore, nucest, and nucgss databases of the Entrez retrieval system, which integrates these records with a variety of other data including taxonomy nodes, genomes, protein structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:26590407

  5. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 340 000 formally described species. Recent developments include a new starting page for submitters, a shift toward using accession.version identifiers rather than GI numbers, a wizard for submitting 16S rRNA sequences, and an Identical Protein Report to address growing issues of data redundancy. GenBank organizes the sequence data received from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects into 18 divisions, and GenBank staff assign unique accession.version identifiers upon data receipt. Most submitters use the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the nuccore, nucest, and nucgss databases of the Entrez retrieval system, which integrates these records with a variety of other data including taxonomy nodes, genomes, protein structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:26590407

  6. Developing the Communicative Participation Item Bank: Rasch Analysis Results From a Spasmodic Dysphonia Sample

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to conduct the initial psychometric analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank—a new self-report instrument designed to measure the extent to which communication disorders interfere with communicative participation. This item bank is intended for community-dwelling adults across a range of communication disorders. Method A set of 141 candidate items was administered to 208 adults with spasmodic dysphonia. Participants rated the extent to which their condition interfered with participation in various speaking communication situations. Questionnaires were administered online or in a paper version per participant preference. Participants also completed the Voice Handicap Index (B. H. Jacobson et al., 1997) and a demographic questionnaire. Rasch analyses were conducted using Winsteps software (J. M. Linacre, 1991). Results The results show that items functioned better when the 5-category response format was recoded to a 4-category format. After removing 8 items that did not fit the Rasch model, the remaining 133 items demonstrated strong evidence of sufficient unidimensionality, with the model accounting for 89.3% of variance. Item location values ranged from −2.73 to 2.20 logits. Conclusions Preliminary Rasch analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank show strong psychometric properties. Further testing in populations with other communication disorders is needed. PMID:19717652

  7. DNA Banking

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, P.R. )

    1992-11-01

    The author is involved in the ethical, legal, and social issues of banking of DNA and data from DNA analysis. In his attempt to determine the extent of DNA banking in the U.S., the author surveyed some commercial companies performing DNA banking services. This article summarizes the results of that survey, with special emphasis on the procedures the companies use to protect the privacy of individuals. 4 refs.

  8. Paying for Education: How the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund Influence Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nancy C.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the roles of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank from 1980 to the present, distinguishing between two types of impacts they exert in the education sector of borrowing countries (the World Bank's direct involvement in education and economic reform and Structural Adjustment Programs financed by the IMF and World Bank). The…

  9. Sustainable development - lessons from success

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, W.V.C. )

    1989-05-01

    This article examines the push of development agencies and multilateral development banks in developing countries to achieve economic, political and social sustainability without considering long-term environmental costs. A case in point is dams built for irrigation and hydroelectric power; the benefits are outweighed by the environmental costs of salt intrusion, delta erosion, drying of downstream lakes and channel deepening as well as the effects of displacement of people. The information and technologies that form the basis of ecologically sustainable development already exist. Energy efficiency projects could reduce the balance of trade deficits in developing nations. In addition, great advances in agricultural, forest and range productivity could be achieved at very low capital costs through soil and water conservation techniques, intercropping, agroforestry and organic fertilization.

  10. Large-scale carbonate platform development of Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas, and implications for associated reef geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkis, Sam; Kerr, Jeremy; Dempsey, Alexandra; Calhoun, Andrew; Metsamaa, Liisa; Riegl, Bernhard; Kourafalou, Villy; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip

    2014-10-01

    The Bahama Archipelago consists of an arcuate chain of carbonate platforms. Average water depths on the platform-tops, such as the Great Bahama Bank (GBB), are typically 10 m or less, with coral reef-rimmed margins, thick sediment accumulations, and the frequent occurrence of islands. There are, however, exceptions. For example, Cay Sal Bank (CSB), a little studied detached Bahamian carbonate platform with depths ranging from 30 to 7 m, is only slightly deeper than the GBB, but devoid of islands, lacks platform-margin coral reefs and holds little sediment on the platform-top; the platform is incipiently drowned. CSB is interesting as it is conspicuously larger (6000 sq. km) than other incipiently drowned platforms in the region, such as Serranilla Bank (1100 sq. km) and the Cat Island platform (1500 sq. km). Field and remote sensing data are assembled to provide insight into the sedimentology and geomorphology of the CSB. The influence of ocean climate, regional hydrodynamics, and Holocene flooding history are investigated to understand why platform-margin coral reef growth on CSB has been unable to keep pace with Holocene sea-level rise. A decade of regional sea-surface temperature data for the Bahamas report CSB to be situated in the same ocean climate regime as GBB. Temperature cannot explain the platform's different morphologies. The Florida Current has been evoked as a possible reason for the immature development of platform-top processes on the CSB, but numeric modeling suggests its influence to be restricted to the deep flanks of the bank. Further, sediment distribution on CSB, including infill patterns of karst depressions, suggest trade winds (easterlies) to drive platform-top hydrodynamics. By assembling a satellite-derived bathymetry map, it can be shown that CSB flooded earlier and at relatively higher rates of Holocene sea-level rise than its neighboring platforms. Flooding history is identified as the most feasible explanation for the atypical morphology of the CSB. By contrasting the present-day morphology of the CSB and the GBB, the work emphasizes how subtle differences in relative sea-level history can influence the growth of platform-margin coral reefs, features that in turn can conspire to set even closely neighboring carbonate platforms on divergent paths with regard to the development of marine landforms. This insight is relevant to interpreting the morphological diversity of carbonate platforms in the modern ocean and in the rock record.

  11. Effects of vegetation on chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soils developed on a decantation bank from a copper mine.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Beatriz; Vega, Flora A; Silva, Luis F O; Andrade, Luisa

    2012-04-01

    Open cast mining has a strong impact on the environment, the intensity depending on the morphology of the deposit and on the nature of the minerals. At Touro mine (NW Spain) there is a large area covered by tailings, one of which, called the "sedimentation bank", was used to deposit sludge resulting from the extraction of copper in the flotation plant. Three zones were selected and the soils were sampled to analyse the changes brought about by vegetation on the chemical and mineralogical properties of the soils developed over the sedimentation bank and its development over time. The vegetation increased the pH, contents of organic material, nitrogen, clay and free oxides of Fe and Al, and the cationic exchange capacity of the soils. The decrease in the sulphide content, benefited by the vegetation process, led to a reduction in the total content of Cr and Cu. The vegetation also contributed towards the alteration of the primary minerals. The transformation of jarosite, the formation of nanocrystals of hematite, goethite, hydroxypolymers, and amorphous minerals that contained Cu, Cr and Pb were observed. Nevertheless the high Cu and Cr contents indicate that it is advisable to change the restoration process. PMID:22356872

  12. Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters Developed and Demonstrated for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    In-flight sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) is critical to maintaining reliable engine operation during flight. The aircraft engine control system, which computes control commands on the basis of sensor measurements, operates the propulsion systems at the demanded conditions. Any undetected sensor faults, therefore, may cause the control system to drive the engine into an undesirable operating condition. It is critical to detect and isolate failed sensors as soon as possible so that such scenarios can be avoided. A challenging issue in developing reliable sensor FDI systems is to make them robust to changes in engine operating characteristics due to degradation with usage and other faults that can occur during flight. A sensor FDI system that cannot appropriately account for such scenarios may result in false alarms, missed detections, or misclassifications when such faults do occur. To address this issue, an enhanced bank of Kalman filters was developed, and its performance and robustness were demonstrated in a simulation environment. The bank of filters is composed of m + 1 Kalman filters, where m is the number of sensors being used by the control system and, thus, in need of monitoring. Each Kalman filter is designed on the basis of a unique fault hypothesis so that it will be able to maintain its performance if a particular fault scenario, hypothesized by that particular filter, takes place.

  13. TBI-QOL: Development and Calibration of Item Banks to Measure Patient Reported Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Carlozzi, Noelle; Bushnik, Tamara; Sherer, Mark; Choi, Seung W.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Sander, Angelle M.; Englander, Jeffrey; Hanks, Robin; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie; Roth, Elliot; Gershon, Richard; Rosenthal, Mitchell; Cella, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a patient-centered approach or participatory action research design combined with advanced psychometrics to develop a comprehensive patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system specifically for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This TBI Quality-of-Life (TBI-QOL) measurement system expands the work of other large PRO measurement initiatives, that is, the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and the Neurology Quality-of-Life measurement initiative. Setting: Five TBI Model Systems centers across the United States. Participants: Adults with TBI. Design: Classical and modern test development methodologies were used. Qualitative input was obtained from individuals with TBI, TBI clinicians, and caregivers of individuals with TBI through multiple methods, including focus groups, individual interviews, patient consultation, and cognitive debriefing interviews. Item pools were field tested in a large multisite sample (n = 675) and calibrated using item response theory methods. Main Outcomes Measures: Twenty-two TBI-QOL item banks/scales. Results: The TBI-QOL consists of 20 independent calibrated item banks and 2 uncalibrated scales that measure physical, emotional, cognitive, and social aspects of health-related quality of life. Conclusions: The TBI-QOL measurement system has potential as a common data element in TBI research and to enhance collection of health-related quality-of-life and PRO data in rehabilitation research and clinical settings. PMID:25931184

  14. The Feasibility of an International Multilateral UNESCO Convention on the Universal Availability of Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Vladimir

    The adoption of a multilateral international convention on the Universal Availability of Publications (UAP) is the best possible guarantee for the practical implementation of the decisions and recommendations of the UNESCO UAP conference to be held in 1981-82. This convention should declare the principle of UAP and should determine the basic…

  15. Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

  16. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... United States and one or more foreign countries or by an international body or organization in which...

  17. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... United States and one or more foreign countries or by an international body or organization in which...

  18. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... United States and one or more foreign countries or by an international body or organization in which...

  19. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... United States and one or more foreign countries or by an international body or organization in which...

  20. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... United States and one or more foreign countries or by an international body or organization in which...

  1. Heads in the clouds, feet in the sand: Multilateral policy coordination in global environmental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, N.E.

    1994-12-31

    This is a study of how issues that can only be solved through cooperation (such as commons issues) reach the international agenda and how states then form policy on those issues. Extensive primary data are used in analyzing (1) accession of stratospheric ozone depletion and global climate change to the international agenda and (2) the policy formation of ten states on these issues. This study shows that commons issues reach the international agenda through the actions of intergovernmental organizations in defining the problem, and the political activities of a leader state (such as the US on ozone) or a state acting as a policy entrepreneur. In the extensive literature on international cooperation most studies emphasize the importance of system level variables. Adapting the two-level games approach to multilateral issues, this study argues that, as commons issues do not directly threaten the security of most states, state policy on such issues primarily reflects domestic political necessities. In effect, foreign and domestic policy on such issues become unified. Through analysis of secondary and primary data, including more than 30 interviews with representatives of both developed states (the US, Canada, the UK, and Japan) and developing states (Brazil, India, Algeria, Mexico, and Thailand), and the Soviet Union, this study shows how domestic factors influenced foreign policy decisions and actions. The study shows that states seem to be less interested in absolute or relative gains in international negotiations that in maximizing domestic political rewards from its choice of foreign policy. Finally, through study of the accession of the global climate change issue it is appears that knowledge may be politically derived. States required a {open_quotes}consensus{close_quotes} among the technical experts before initiating the international negotiations. Politics seems to have played a large part in forming the technical consensus and in communicating it to states.

  2. Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, A

    2001-08-01

    The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".(1) Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues--which are often not acknowledged by commentators--that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). PMID:11479358

  3. DORMAN computer program (study 2.5). Volume 3: Original data bank listing. [development of data bank for computerized information storage of NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricker, L. T.

    1973-01-01

    A number of analyses have been performed using the DORCA program for several NASA-funded Aerospace Corporation studies in the past few years. The data decks containing the input data for these analyses have been compiled and are submitted, under separate cover. A few of the data decks are full (basic) decks containing every data item and are used as reference decks in the data bank. The other data decks were obtained by differencing a full deck with respect to one of the reference decks. Using the DORMAN program, a full deck can be recreated from the modified deck and its reference deck when and if desired. The content and structure of the data bank are described. A description of each of these data decks is presented. Three of the cases that are included in this volume have become so widely recognized and accepted that additional descriptive material has been provided. The three cases are: Case 500 Costs, Case 506 Costs, and Case 403.

  4. The African Development Bank and women's health: a cross-national analysis of structural adjustment and maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Carolyn; Restivo, Michael; Shandra, John M

    2015-05-01

    We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment lending adversely impacts maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We analyze data for thirty-five Sub-Saharan African nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005) with generalized least squares random effects regression models and modified two-step Heckman models that correct for potential endogeneity regarding whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nations receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We find support for our hypothesis that indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of maternal mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for endogeneity. We conclude by talking about the theoretical and methodological implications along with possible directions for future research. PMID:25769869

  5. The African Development Bank, structural adjustment, and child mortality: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pandolfelli, Lauren E; Shandra, John M

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment adversely impacts child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We use generalized least square random effects regression models and two-step Heckman models that correct for selection bias using data on 35 nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). We find substantial support for our hypothesis, which indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of child mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for selection bias on whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nation receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We conclude by discussing the methodological implications of the article, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research. PMID:23821909

  6. The developmental impact of the financed environmental projects of the development bank of the Philippines in the promotion of equity and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Noli B

    2008-10-01

    The Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP), the first Philippine bank to be ISO 140001 certified, plays a vital role in promoting environmental protection, health, and safety. It continues to play a proactive role in integrating environmental investments into development projects. In order to show its commitment to environmental protection and sustainable development, DBP integrates and implements environmental considerations into all aspects of its operations and services, assets management, and business decisions. It has instituted various credit programs that support the adoption of environmental technologies and continues to provide credit support to environment-friendly industrial operations; this is one of its major thrusts. The environmental credit programs are geared toward the promotion of the protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment. The objective of this research study was to determine the developmental impact of the DBP financed environmental projects in attaining sustainable development. It specifically identifies the number and amount of loan exposures on the different projects financed and the environmental benefits for the period January 2005 to December 2006. PMID:18991901

  7. Cold-water Coral Mound Development Controlled by Sea Level Fluctuation on the Lower Slope of Great Bahama Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, T. B.; Eberli, G. P.; Grasmueck, M.; Reed, J.

    2008-05-01

    Cold-water coral mounds are constructed by a combined mechanism of coral growth and trapping of sediments. The interaction between these factors is complex; changes in the ratio of coral growth to sedimentation rates can result in mound burial or erosion. Thus, in addition to biological and hydrodynamic factors, sediment input is critical to mound formation, growth and senescence. We therefore conducted interdisciplinary Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) and submersible surveys on three coral mound fields on the slope of Great Bahama Bank. Our multibeam maps revealed a high abundance of coral mounds with diverse morphologies. Meanwhile, sub- bottom profiles showed differences on echo-characters; a high-amplitude reflection underlying the mounds is interpreted to have formed during sea level fall, while thick sediment deposits onlapping the strong reflection suggest more recent deposition. The sub-surface data indicate that cold-water coral mound development is controlled by sea level fluctuation. The mechanism proposed is the following: during lowstand period, the platform was exposed resulting in minimal sedimentation rates on slope areas of GBB. Furthermore, faster flow through a more restricted and narrow Straits, contributing to early cementation and exposure of hard substrates. These conditions facilitated colonization of the lower slope areas of GBB by cold-water corals during the last glacial maximum. When sea level began to rise again, flooding occurred on the bank and offbank sediments were transported to slope areas of GBB, contributing to mound growth or burial. Although the submersible samples do not reach the high-amplitude reflection, the sediment samples can be used to test whether or not platform-derived sediments of the GBB contribute to mound development. We are currently analyzing the modal composition and mineralogy of the sediments entrapped in the mounds to verify the provenance of grains and calculating the coral growth rates, so we can affirm that cold-water coral mounds are built up during sea level highstand.

  8. An investigation of errors and data processing techniques for an RF multilateration system. [position and velocity measurements of vertical takeoff aircraft during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, C. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The development of an RF Multilateration system to provide accurate position and velocity measurements during the approach and landing phase of Vertical Takeoff Aircraft operation is discussed. The system uses an angle-modulated ranging signal to provide both range and range rate measurements between an aircraft transponder and multiple ground stations. Range and range rate measurements are converted to coordinate measurements and the coordinate and coordinate rate information is transmitted by an integral data link to the aircraft. Data processing techniques are analyzed to show advantages and disadvantages. Error analyses are provided to permit a comparison of the various techniques.

  9. Learning from All? The World Bank, Aid Agencies and the Construction of Hegemony in Education for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and quality of the participation that characterises the Bank's consultations with external actors and examines the extent to which the Bank is responsive to such feedback when it comes to defining its policy preferences and strategies in the education domain. It draws on a case study of the participatory process…

  10. Development and application of a deterministic bank-stability and toe-erosion model (BSTEM) for stream restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bank-Stability and Toe Erosion Model (BSTEM) is a simple spreadsheet tool to simulate streambank erosion in a completely mechanistic framework. It has been successfully used in a range of alluvial environments in both static mode to simulate bank-stability conditions and design of streambank sta...

  11. Early Childhood Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3869

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schady, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that young children in many developing countries suffer from profound deficits in nutrition, health, fine and gross motor skills, cognitive development, and socio-emotional development. Early childhood development (ECD) outcomes are important markers of the welfare of children. In addition, the deleterious effects of…

  12. Occupational Task Analyses for the Development of Business Education Model Curricula with Emphasis on Banking and Financial Occupations. State Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Board for Vocational Education, Milford.

    This guide, prepared for the Delaware State Board of Education and the State Department of Public Instruction, is intended to assist individuals developing curricula to prepare students for entry-level positions in various banking and financial occupations. It is divided into three sections, each of which consists of a cross-referenced listing of…

  13. Immediate Evaluation of Training Events at the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank Measuring Reaction, Self-Efficacy and Learning in a Worldwide Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Rouzie, Violaine; Cusick, Mary

    The Economic Development Institute of the World Bank (EDI) conducts extensive training events for a variety of audiences throughout the world. Over the years, EDI has used several types of instruments to evaluate these events. Drawing lessons from these experiences, this paper presents a "hierarchy" of training evaluation designs. These are: (1)…

  14. Field testing of new multilateral drilling and completion technology at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center

    SciTech Connect

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1998-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has played an important role in bringing new multilateral well technology to the marketplace. Multilateral technology is more complex than most new technologies being brought to the oilfield. It is very difficult to test new designs in the laboratory or conventional test wells. They must be tested downhole in specialized wells to work out design and procedural details. Most of the applications for multilateral technology are in high cost drilling areas, such as offshore or in remote, environmentally sensitive areas. For this reason, opportunities for testing the new technology in the course of routine drilling and completion operations are scarce. Operators are not willing to risk expensive rig time, or losing a wellbore itself, on a test. RMOTC offers a neutral site where the technology can be tested in a relatively low cost environment. There are two drilling rigs and three workover and completion rigs available. Most associated services such as warehouse, roustabouts, backhoe, welders, and mechanics are also available on site, while specialized oilfield services and machine shops are available in nearby Casper. Technologies such as the hollow whipstock, adjustable stabilizer, downhole kickoff assembly, single trip sidetrack tool, stacked multidrain system, rotary steerable systems, and procedures for abandoning an open hole lateral have benefited through the use of RMOTC`s facilities. This paper details the capabilities of the new technologies and the benefits of testing them in a real oilfield environment before taking them to market.

  15. Evaluation and optimization of multi-lateral wells using MODFLOW unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lux, Marcell; Szanyi, János; Tóth, Tivadar M.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-lateral wells have been increasingly used in recent years by different industries including oil- and gas industry along with coal bed methane- and water production. The common purpose of these wells is to achieve a higher production rate per well. More and more sophisticated well patterns and geometries can be implemented in practice which calls for improved modelling techniques. Complicated well geometries and small lateral diameters require high resolution models in the vicinity of the wells. With structured finite difference grids this can only be achieved by unnecessary refinements even far away from the wellbores. However the model may still suffer from orientation problems if laterals do not coincide with the rows or columns of the rectangular mesh. In the present work, we applied unstructured grids to model multi-lateral wells and compared the results to structured models. We used the MODFLOW-USG code, which simulates groundwater flow using a generalized control volume finite-difference approach, allowing grids other than orthogonal structured grids to be applied. This offers a solution for orientation and resolution problems. The second part of the paper aims to optimize multi-lateral well geometry by evaluating the effect of length, angle and number of laterals.

  16. Development of a National Item Bank for Tests of Driving Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, William T.; McDole, Thomas L.

    Materials intended for driving knowledge test development use by operational licensing and education agencies were prepared. Candidate test items were developed, using literature and operational practice sources, to reflect current state-of-knowledge with respect to principles of safe, efficient driving, to legal regulations, and to traffic…

  17. Education and Development: Evidence for New Priorities. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Wadi D.; And Others

    Education has been recognized as the cornerstone of economic and social development. Now it is even more important as technological change and new methods of production transform the world economy. Development will depend more and more on knowledge-intensive industries, agriculture, and services. The continuing economic crisis, however, is…

  18. Development of a National Item Bank for Tests of Driving Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, William T.; McDole, Thomas L.

    Materials intended for driving knowledge test development use by operational licensing and education agencies were prepared. Candidate test items were developed, using literature and operational practice sources, to reflect current state-of-knowledge with respect to principles of safe, efficient driving, to legal regulations, and to traffic…

  19. Development and application of vibroacoustic structural data banks in predicting vibration design and test criteria for rocket vehicle structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandgren, H. J.; Smith, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    A method of predicting broadband random vibration criteria for components on space vehicles is presented. Large amounts of vibration and acoustic data obtained from flights and static firing tests of space vehicle were formulated into vibroacoustic data banks for structural categories of ring frame, skin stringer, and honeycomb. The vibration spectra with their associated acoustic spectra are normalized to a reference acoustic spectrum. The individual normalized spectra are grouped according to definite structural characteristics and statistically analyzed to form the vibroacoustic data banks described in this report. These data banks represent the reference vibration criteria available for determining the new vehicle vibration criteria.

  20. Methodological Guidelines for Reducing the Complexity of Data Warehouse Development for Transactional Blood Bank Systems

    PubMed Central

    Takecian, Pedro L.; Oikawa, Marcio K.; Braghetto, Kelly R.; Rocha, Paulo; Lucena, Fred; Kavounis, Katherine; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Acker, Susan; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B. F.; Sabino, Ester C.; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P.; Ferreira, João E.

    2013-01-01

    Over time, data warehouse (DW) systems have become more difficult to develop because of the growing heterogeneity of data sources. Despite advances in research and technology, DW projects are still too slow for pragmatic results to be generated. Here, we address the following question: how can the complexity of DW development for integration of heterogeneous transactional information systems be reduced? To answer this, we proposed methodological guidelines based on cycles of conceptual modeling and data analysis, to drive construction of a modular DW system. These guidelines were applied to the blood donation domain, successfully reducing the complexity of DW development. PMID:23729945

  1. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, D.L. ); Khwaja, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Phenological bud bank development of Bouteloua gracilis, Hesperostipa comata, and Pascopyrum smithii during drought in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative reproduction in rangelands relies on tiller recruitment from belowground bud banks. Improved understanding of species-specific bud production and phenology would facilitate timing of aboveground management strategies. Twelve individual plants of the warm season grass (Bouteloua gracilis...

  3. Implications of bank failures and fluvial erosion for gully development: Field observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Bras, Rafael L.; Flores-Cervantes, Homero; Tucker, Gregory E.

    2005-03-01

    Gully erosion is most commonly triggered by fluvial erosion following natural and anthropogenic disturbances or as a response to changes in climate and tectonic forcing and base level drop. Field observations attribute the headward growth and widening of many gully systems to gravitational mass-wasting processes of oversteepened sidewalls. Soil saturation, groundwater sapping, and tension crack development contribute to the instability. Recent landscape evolution models treat such mass failures as slope-dependent continuous sediment transport processes, sometimes conditioned on a slope threshold or with nonlinear dependence on slope gradient. In this study we first present an explicit physically based theory for the stability analysis of gully heads and walls. The theory is based on the force balance equation of an assumed planar failure geometry of a steep gully wall, with a potential failure plane dipping into the incised gully bed and tension cracks developing behind the scarp face. Then, we test the theory against field data collected in our field site in Colorado and against other published data. Second, the theory is implemented in a one-dimensional hillslope profile development model and the three-dimensional channel-hillslope integrated landscape development (CHILD) to study the effects of soil cohesion, erosion thresholds, and stochastic climate on the tempo of gully development and morphology. Preliminary results indicate that wider and shallower gullies develop and integrate, forming wide valleys, when soil cohesion is small. As soil cohesion increases, erosion slows down, gullies become deeper with vertical walls, and episodic mass failures occur. Differences in storm intensity-duration characteristics and erosion thresholds are predicted to have a significant impact on gully development. Vertical gully walls develop rapidly, and gullies enlarge by slab failures in a climate characterized by high-intensity, short-duration storm pulses. However, under low-intensity, long-duration storms, gullies quickly stabilize, and vertical walls are eliminated and rounded, forming diffusion-dominated hilltops. Erosion thresholds have a similar impact on the tempo of gully erosion but in the opposite direction. Lowering the erosion threshold enhances gully widening by slab failures. Gully walls stabilize when the erosion threshold is high due to a reduction in the erosion of the failure material on the toe of gully walls.

  4. Monitoring viability of seeds in gene banks: developing software tools to increase efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the decline of seed viability is essential for effective long term seed storage in ex situ collections. Recent FAO Genebank Standards recommend monitoring intervals at one-third the time predicted for viability to fall to 85% of initial viability. This poster outlines the development of ...

  5. Communications Technologies in Open and Distance Learning in Asia: The Experience of the Asian Development Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Motilal

    In view of financial constraints, large numbers of students to be educated, and rapid changes in information and communication and information technology, open learning (OL) and distance education (DE) systems are being established at an unprecedented rate in almost all developing countries of the Asian and Pacific region. Modern communications,…

  6. Developing an Item Bank for Use in Testing in Africa: Theory and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtuna, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The author describes the steps taken by a research team, of which she was part, to develop a specific methodology for assessing student attainment in primary school, working with the Programme for the Analysis of Education Systems (PASEC) of the Conference of Ministers of Education of French-speaking Countries (CONFEMEN). This methodology provides…

  7. Trends in Private Sector Development in World Bank Education Projects. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosale, Shobhana

    The private sector is playing an increasingly important role in financing and providing educational services in many countries. (Often the term "private sector" encompasses households' out-of-pocket expenses rather than describing for-profit or not-for-profit sectors.) Private sector development has not arisen primarily through public policy…

  8. Radio for Education and Development: Case Studies, Volume I. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 266.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Peter L.; And Others

    Six papers describe use of the radio for in-school and out-of-school formal education in this first volume of working papers on how radio can and is being used for education and development. Part one on in-school education contains: a Nicaraguan project to teach mathematics to first grade children (including curriculum, materials, teacher…

  9. Modeling the implications of fluvial erosion and bank failures on gully development and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istanbulluoglu, E.; Flores, H.; Bras, R.; Tucker, G.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring landscape development due to gully erosion has been an important component in Michael J. Kirkby's scientific career. Gully erosion is most commonly triggered by fluvial erosion due to natural and anthropogenic disturbances, or as a response to changes in climate and tectonic forcing, and base level drop. Field observations suggest that following the development of fluvial incisions, headward growth and widening of many gully systems can be attributed to the instability and collapse of steepened gully walls. Soil saturation, sapping and development of tension cracks contribute to the instability. Recent landscape evolution models treat such mass failures as slope dependent continuous sediment transport processes, sometimes conditioned on a slope threshold or with nonlinear dependence on slope gradient. In this study, first we present a theory for stability analysis of gully head and walls. The theory is based on force balance equation of an assumed planar failure geometry of a steep gully wall, with a potential failure plane dipping to the incised gully bed. We consider development of vertical tension cracks behind the face of the gully head that extend down to the failure plane. In the theory, storm water infiltrates in the tension cracks and generates hydrostatic forces in the vertical crack face, and uplift forces along the failure plane. During storms, water level in the crack is related to steady-state basin hydrology. In our model when tension cracks are either dry or completely filled with runoff water, instability occurs when headcut height exceeds a critical threshold (higher for the dry case). For the case when cracks are partially filled, our theory predicts an inverse relationship between headcut height and drainage area. We used field observations in Colorado and another published data set to test our model. Second, we have implemented this theory in the CHILD landscape evolution model and explored the effects of soil cohesion, erosion thresholds and climate on the tempo of gully development and morphology of eroding gullies. Preliminary results indicate that wider and shallower gullies develop and integrate forming wide valleys, when soil cohesion is small. As soil cohesion increases, gullies become deeper with steeper walls and episodic mass failures occur. Introducing a high runoff erosion threshold produces gentler headcuts. Variations in storm duration and intensity are predicted to have a significant impact on gully morphology.

  10. Air quality management. Considerations for developing countries. Energy series. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Wijetilleke, L.; Karunaratne, S.A.R.

    1995-04-01

    The paper begins by outlining the nature and extent of the problem as well as some basic concepts that are of relevance to developing countries (such as toxicity weighting factors). Chapters 2 and 3 introduce the air pollutants of concern and detail their detrimental effects on the physical environment and on the health of the children and adults. Chapter 4 provides information on the ambient air quailty and emission standards of various countries, including the United States, as well as those established by the World Health Organization. Chapter 5 shows how to evaluate the benefits of reduction of various air pollutants. Chapter 6 looks at some options for mitigating air pollution from stationary and mobile sources. Chapter 7 presents conclusions and recommendations about air quality management strategies that may be helpful to developing countries.

  11. Photovoltaic applications in rural areas of the developing world. World Bank technical paper energy series

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, G.

    1995-12-31

    The report examines the rural energy context within which PV programs must fit. The first chapter reviews the present position of PV technology and briefly describes the kit and systems commercially available for use in the rural areas of the developing world. The second chapter examines the rural energy background, describing how people manage to meet their energy needs across the huge areas of the developing world that remain untouched by conventional rural electrification programs. The next chapter looks at conventional rural electrification programs, their merits, and their inevitably limited scope. The fourth chapter looks at the potential niches for PVs, and how they compare in cost and level of service with their competition. A brief review of PV experience to date and the lessons learned is given in the fifth chapter, and the final chapter looks at the role of governments and funding agencies.

  12. Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, A. W.; Keane, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The goal of ESWIB is to provide a variety of users with free access to high-quality geoscience images and technical art gathered from photographers, government organizations, and scientists. Each image is cataloged by location, author, image rights, and a detailed description of what the image shows. Additionally, images are cataloged using keywords from AGI's precise Georef indexing methodology. Students, teachers, and the general public can search or browse and download these images for use in slide show presentations, lectures, papers, or for other educational and outreach uses. This resource can be used for any age level, in any kind of educational venue. Users can also contribute images of their own to the database through the ESWIB website. AGI is scanning these images at a very high resolution (16 x 20 inches) and depending on the author's rights, is making high-resolution copies (digital or print) available for non-commercial and commercial purposes. This ImageBank is different from other photo sites available in that the scope has more breadth and depth than other image resources, and the images are cataloged with a very high grade of detail and precision, which makes finding needed images fast and easy. The image services offered by ESWIB are also unique, such as the low-cost commercial options and high quality image printouts. AGI plans on adding more features to ESWIB in the future, including connecting this resource to the up-coming online Glossary of Geology, a geospatial search option, using the images to make generic PowerPoint presentations that teachers can use and/or modify for their classes, lesson plans related to using the ImageBank, and a `photo of the day' section that will highlight a particular photo which stands out. AGI began work on this project in August of 2002 with the initial scanning and editing of images. ESWIB currently has over 1,300 images cataloged and searchable through the database homepage. In addition to the cataloged images, there are approximately 6,700 images waiting to be edited and cataloged, and over 10,000 images identified for submission at this point. AGI is constantly soliciting images in an attempt to expand the database. Through press releases, e-mail announcements, and our member societies, AGI publicized the launch of ESWIB in June of 2003. Since the launch, ESWIB has received over 300,000 image views as well as publicity in Space Daily, Russian and German news sites, various links through science websites, and most recently in Science Magazine's NetWatch section (August 29th, 2003).

  13. Energy demand in five major Asian developing countries: Structure and prospects. World Bank discussion paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiguro, M.; Akiyama, T.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study are: (1) to examine the structures and trends in energy demand in five major developing countries of Asia (China, India, Indonesia, Korea and Thailand) by sector and subsector, (2) to evaluate the energy policies of these countries, (3) to evaluate the extent to which energy conservation efforts could be undertaken, (4) to estimate through quantitative analysis key income and price elasticities explore practicable policy measures and technical applications to promote efficient energy use in these countries.

  14. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  15. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  16. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  17. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  18. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  19. Communication Skills for Banking Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

    The communications skills course was developed for bank employees who are non-native speakers of English, to assist them in improving their English and knowledge of the American workplace culture and to increase productivity. It consists of three instructional levels. Topics covered in level 1 reflect concerns of bank managers about basic…

  20. MKID development for SuperSpec: an on-chip, mm-wave, filter-bank spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokoff, E.; Barry, P. S.; Bradford, C. M.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Day, P.; Doyle, S.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Hollister, M. I.; Kovács, A.; McKenney, C.; Leduc, H. G.; Llombart, N.; Marrone, D. P.; Mauskopf, P.; O'Brient, R.; Padin, S.; Reck, T.; Swenson, L. J.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2012-09-01

    SuperSpec is an ultra-compact spectrometer-on-a-chip for millimeter and submillimeter wavelength astronomy. Its very small size, wide spectral bandwidth, and highly multiplexed readout will enable construction of powerful multibeam spectrometers for high-redshift observations. The spectrometer consists of a horn-coupled microstrip feedline, a bank of narrow-band superconducting resonator filters that provide spectral selectivity, and kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) that detect the power admitted by each filter resonator. The design is realized using thin-film lithographic structures on a silicon wafer. The mm-wave microstrip feedline and spectral filters of the first prototype are designed to operate in the band from 195-310 GHz and are fabricated from niobium with at Tc of 9.2K. The KIDs are designed to operate at hundreds of MHz and are fabricated from titanium nitride with a Tc of ~ 2 K. Radiation incident on the horn travels along the mm-wave microstrip, passes through the frequency-selective filter, and is finally absorbed by the corresponding KID where it causes a measurable shift in the resonant frequency. In this proceedings, we present the design of the KIDs employed in SuperSpec and the results of initial laboratory testing of a prototype device. We will also brie describe the ongoing development of a demonstration instrument that will consist of two 500-channel, R=700 spectrometers, one operating in the 1-mm atmospheric window and the other covering the 650 and 850 micron bands.

  1. BioBanking - The Holy Grail of novel drug and diagnostic developments?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The ever increasing social cost that society pays for illness and disease are currently steadily increasing in many countries in the world today. These changes in society becomes a major financial burden that activates politicians and health care organizations in order to find new solutions. Biobanks are becoming the new powerful modality within the field of modern Life Science, that is expected to be important in the proactive awareness of patient health status. Biobanks are also expected to promote the developments of targeted treatments with personalized indicator assays, for effective use of Personalized Medicine treatments in the near future. PMID:21884630

  2. Duke Data Bank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    NASA computerized image processing techniques are an integral part of a cardiovascular data bank at Duke University Medical Center. Developed by Dr. C. F. Starmer and colleagues at Duke, the data bank documents the Center's clinical experience with more than 4,000 heart patients as an aid to diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Data is stored in a computerized system that allows a physician to summon detailed records of former patients whose medical profiles are similar to those of a new patient. A video display (photo) and printed report shows prognostic information for the new patient based on similar past experience.

  3. Banking on it: public policy and the ethics of stem cell research and development.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Mita; Baylis, Francoise; Robert, Jason

    2007-10-01

    If the therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapies is ever realized, demand for stem cells and derivative tissues will be tremendous and will create new challenges for health care systems, especially publicly funded health care systems. We propose a framework for the ethical analysis of stem cell research and development that considers the welfare of communities, tissue recipients, and cell sources in relation to a range of stem cell production and distribution options. Ethical desiderata include: equitable access, maximized potential therapeutic benefit across demographic and disease groups, and reasonable cost. Other ethical priorities include the minimization of stem cell line and tissue wastage, risk of immune rejection, risk of transmitting diseases, the use of human embryos, and risk to those contributing source cells. We array plausible sources of stem cells and distribution strategies to characterize 12 potential models for producing and distributing cells and tissues in the future. We describe "personalized", "matched", and "universalized" models, and compare the ethical acceptability of these models. Popular and scientific discourses about stem cells typically emphasize personalized or matched stem cell distribution models. We show that universalized models may ultimately best serve the interest of taxpayers, communities and patients who hold high stakes in the therapeutic success of stem cell science. They are therefore highly worthy of scientific pursuit. This conclusion is provisional and the framework must be reapplied as scientific knowledge, technological capacity and ethical mores evolve. PMID:17590489

  4. Academic Interventions Bank Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Tom; Torrens, Meg

    This paper describes development of a bank of interventions in response to individual student needs identified by Student Study Teams (SSTs) in the Horry County (South Carolina) school district. It also describes the training of SST members in the selection, application, and monitoring of each intervention. Following a survey that identified basic…

  5. JOINT WORLD BANK INSTITUTE/EPA CHINA WORKSHOP ON ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE - E&C ROLES IN DEALING WITH CURRENT AND PROJECTED MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN CHINA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The World Bank Institute (WBI) provides funding for economic development in China. Modules of this funding are specifically dedicated for environmental protection projects. One of these modules is the development of compliance and enforcement. This is broken down into identifi...

  6. Six decades of educational multilateralism in a globalising world: The history of the UNESCO Institute in Hamburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfert, Maren

    2013-07-01

    Created in 1945 as a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was given, among other mandates, the task of reconstructing education systems devastated during the Second World War. UNESCO, in turn, and after some debate about an engagement in Germany, founded the UNESCO Institute for Education (UIE) in Hamburg in 1952. This paper traces the development of an institute which was founded to contribute to social renewal in war-torn Germany and Europe, functioned as a mediator between Western and Eastern countries during the Cold War and later shifted its geographical focus to developing countries. The institute was instrumental in conceptualising lifelong learning as a global educational paradigm, as well as in shaping the shift from education to learning and the concept of literacy as a "continuum". The author is particularly interested in the nature of the institute's niche which secured its survival in the uncertain domain of educational multilateralism in the past six decades.

  7. 12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....5180 Interest rate risk management by banks—general. The board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank, bank for cooperatives, and agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by...

  8. The HRD Competencies as Perceived by the Human Resource Development Professionals in Banks in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konan, Affoue Zitagisele

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify how Ivorian HRD professionals in banks perceived their current expertise levels of the HRD competencies, and how these professionals perceived the importance of these competencies needed to be successful in their occupations. In addition, this study determined competencies that are perceived to have the…

  9. Water resources management. World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Easter, K.W.; Feder, G.; Le Moigne, G.; Duda, A.M.; Forsyth, E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have not taken sufficient account of environmental concerns in the management of water resources. (Copyright (c) 1993 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  10. Organization and Management of the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The Integrated Medical Group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial fourteen long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  11. Study of feasible and sustainable multilateral approach on nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kuno, Y.; Tazaki, M.; Akiba, M.; Takashima, R.; Izumi, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-07-01

    Despite the Fukushima accident it is undeniable that nuclear power remains one of the most important methods to handle global growth of economic/energy consumption and issues with greenhouse gases. If the demand for nuclear power increases, the demand for not only the generation of power but also for refining uranium (U), conversion, enrichment, re-conversion, and fuel manufacturing should increase. In addition, concerns for the proliferation of 'Sensitive Nuclear Technologies' (SNT) should also increase. We propose a demand-side approach, where nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) activities would be implemented among multiple states. With this approach, NFC services, in particular those using SNTs, are multilaterally executed and controlled, thereby preventing unnecessary proliferation of SNTs, and enabling safe and appropriate control of nuclear technologies and nuclear materials. This proposal would implement nuclear safety and security at an international level and solve transport issues for nuclear fuels. This proposal is based on 3 types of cooperation for each element of NFC: type A: cooperation for 3S only, services received; Type B: cooperation for 3S, MNA (Multilateral Nuclear Activities) without transfer of ownership to MNA; and Type C cooperation for 3S, MNA holding ownership rights. States involved in the 3 types of activity should be referred to as partner states, host states, and site states respectively. The feasibility of the proposal is discussed for the Asian region.

  12. Timing of fire relative to seed development may enable non-serotinous species to recolonize from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaletz, S. T.; Johnson, E. A.; Mell, W. E.; Greene, D. F.

    2013-07-01

    The existence of non-serotinous, non-sprouting species in fire regimes where serotiny confers an adaptive advantage is puzzling, particularly when these species recruit poorly from soil seed banks or from burn edges. In this paper, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) was used to show how the timing of fire relative to seed development may permit non-serotinous species to recolonize burned areas from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees. To estimate survival of seeds within closed cones during crown fires, cone heating was simulated using a one-dimensional conduction model implemented in a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics fire behavior model. To quantify the area burned when germinable seed would be contained within closed cones during a mast year, empirical fire occurrence and seed development (germinability and cone opening) data were compared for multiple locations across the white spruce range. Approximately 12% of cones contained viable seed following crown fire simulations (0.072 m s-1 mean spread rate; 9147 kW m-1 mean intensity), and roughly half of the historical area burned resulted from fires that occurred when closed cones would contain germinable seed. Together, these results suggest that non-serotinous species may recolonize burned areas from in situ aerial seed banks, and that this may be an important cause of their existence in fire regimes to which they otherwise seem poorly suited.

  13. Socioeconomic obstacles to HIV prevention and treatment in developing countries: the roles of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

    PubMed

    Lurie, P; Hintzen, P; Lowe, R A

    1995-06-01

    This paper explores the socioeconomic obstacles to HIV prevention and treatment in developing countries. The opening sections explain the historical origins of structural adjustment programs and their characteristics. Structural adjustment programs undermine the social fabric of many developing countries, and potentially promote behaviors which place people at increased risk of HIV infection. The authors discuss the declining sustainability of the rural subsistence economy, development of a transportation infrastructure, migration and urbanization, and reductions in spending on health and social services. Social and economic interventions are needed to stem the spread of HIV and care for those who are already infected. While a substantial amount of biomedical research has been conducted, socioeconomic aspects of the AIDS epidemic have often been ignored. For HIV transmission in developing countries to be substantially reduced, economic policies which may have promoted the spread of disease must be modified. An alternative development strategy consists of satisfying people's basic human needs, shifting from an export-driven economy to diversified agricultural production in the interest of securing regional self-sufficiency, supporting marginal producers and subsistence farmers, and placing greater emphasis upon human resource development in developing countries. Moreover, the IMF and World Bank need to change their policy to one which is truly about cooperative development, while the charters of the IMF and World Bank need to be altered to permit the cancellation or rescheduling of debt. These institutions should also play a leading role in the restructuring of debt owed to private lenders. PMID:7662190

  14. Development of a 50-T pulsed magnetic field facility by using an 1.5-MJ capacitor bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y. H.; Kim, Yongmin

    2015-09-01

    Because DC magnets consume a huge amount of electricity (resistive DC magnet) or liquid helium (superconducting magnet), a capacitor-bank-driven pulsed magnet is known to be a cost-effective way of generating high magnetic fields. This type of pulsed magnet is normally operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and consumes little electric power to generate over 50 tesla (T) during a short transient time of less than 50 millisecond (ms). With modern fast data acquisition systems, almost all kinds of physical quantities, such as photoluminescence, magnetization or resistance can be measured during a short magnetic field pulse. We report a recently home-built capacitor-bankdriven pulsed magnetic field facility, in which a capacitor bank of 1.5-MJ maximum stored energy is utilized to generate pulsed magnetic fields up to 50 T with transient pulse time of 22 ms.

  15. 24 CFR 81.95 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of..., Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars, this subpart H, and procedures established by the...

  16. 24 CFR 81.95 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of..., Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars, this subpart H, and procedures established by the...

  17. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation. PMID:21933629

  18. DORMAN computer program (study 2.5). Volume 1: Executive summary. [development of data bank for computerized information storage of NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricker, L. T.

    1973-01-01

    The DORCA Applications study has been directed at development of a data bank management computer program identified as DORMAN. Because of the size of the DORCA data files and the manipulations required on that data to support analyses with the DORCA program, automated data techniques to replace time-consuming manual input generation are required. The Dynamic Operations Requirements and Cost Analysis (DORCA) program was developed for use by NASA in planning future space programs. Both programs are designed for implementation on the UNIVAC 1108 computing system. The purpose of this Executive Summary Report is to define for the NASA management the basic functions of the DORMAN program and its capabilities.

  19. Proposing a sequential comparative analysis for assessing multilateral health agency transformation and sustainable capacity: exploring the advantages of institutional theory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article proposes an approach to comparing and assessing the adaptive capacity of multilateral health agencies in meeting country and individual healthcare needs. Most studies comparing multilateral health agencies have failed to clearly propose a method for conducting agency comparisons. Methods This study conducted a qualitative case study methodological approach, such that secondary and primary case study literature was used to conduct case study comparisons of multilateral health agencies. Results Through the proposed Sequential Comparative Analysis (SCA), the author found a more effective way to justify the selection of cases, compare and assess organizational transformative capacity, and to learn from agency success in policy sustainability processes. Conclusions To more affectively understand and explain why some multilateral health agencies are more capable of adapting to country and individual healthcare needs, SCA provides a methodological approach that may help to better understand why these agencies are so different and what we can learn from successful reform processes. As funding challenges continue to hamper these agencies' adaptive capacity, learning from each other will become increasingly important. PMID:24886283

  20. A decade of experience in the development and implementation of tissue banking informatics tools for intra and inter-institutional translational research

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Waqas; Singh, Harpreet; Pople, Andre K.; Winters, Sharon; Dhir, Rajiv; Parwani, Anil V.; Becich, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Tissue banking informatics deals with standardized annotation, collection and storage of biospecimens that can further be shared by researchers. Over the last decade, the Department of Biomedical Informatics (DBMI) at the University of Pittsburgh has developed various tissue banking informatics tools to expedite translational medicine research. In this review, we describe the technical approach and capabilities of these models. Design: Clinical annotation of biospecimens requires data retrieval from various clinical information systems and the de-identification of the data by an honest broker. Based upon these requirements, DBMI, with its collaborators, has developed both Oracle-based organ-specific data marts and a more generic, model-driven architecture for biorepositories. The organ-specific models are developed utilizing Oracle 9.2.0.1 server tools and software applications and the model-driven architecture is implemented in a J2EE framework. Result: The organ-specific biorepositories implemented by DBMI include the Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (http://www.cpctr.info/), Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (http://pcabc.upmc.edu/main.cfm), EDRN Colorectal and Pancreatic Neoplasm Database (http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/) and Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPORE) Head and Neck Neoplasm Database (http://spores.nci.nih.gov/current/hn/index.htm). The model-based architecture is represented by the National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank (http://mesotissue.org/). These biorepositories provide thousands of well annotated biospecimens for the researchers that are searchable through query interfaces available via the Internet. Conclusion: These systems, developed and supported by our institute, serve to form a common platform for cancer research to accelerate progress in clinical and translational research. In addition, they provide a tangible infrastructure and resource for exposing research resources and biospecimen services in collaboration with the clinical anatomic pathology laboratory information system (APLIS) and the cancer registry information systems. PMID:20922029

  1. A Multilateral Use and Processing of A Large Bibliographic Database for Research Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Osamu; Obayashi, Haruo

    In order to explain the multilateral use of bibliographic database in research activities, nuclear fusion research field as the comprehensive science was selected. The processing method of the above mentioned database is mainly described. Considering advantages of the bibliographic and indexed information of such database, its use is classified into three types: 1. To use for reference information, 2. To obtain facts and knowledge from information, and 3. To process and analyse information. Each sample corresponding to the above is introduced as follows, and the usefulness of a large scale database is made clear. 1) Use of online search in research activities, 2) Construction of scientific terms list utilizing keywords and their frequency in the database, and 3) To analyse bibliographic information metrically and evaluate research. This is an application of scientometrics.

  2. The security concern on internet banking adoption among Malaysian banking customers.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Raju; Thiagarajan, A S; Seetharaman, A

    2007-01-01

    The existing literatures highlights that the security is the primary factor which determines the adoption of Internet banking technology. The secondary information on Internet banking development in Malaysia shows a very slow growth rate. Hence, this study aims to study the banking customers perception towards security concern and Internet banking adoption through the information collected from 150 sample respondents. The data analysis reveals that the customers have much concern about security and privacy issue in adoption of Internet banking, whether the customers are adopted Internet banking or not. Hence, it infers that to popularize Internet banking system there is a need for improvement in security and privacy issue among the banking customers. PMID:19069993

  3. The Denver Serum Bank.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Theodore C; Graves, Patricia S

    2015-10-01

    At the University of Colorado, Dr. Gordon Meiklejohn pursed the study of influenza and other respiratory pathogens for an unbroken period of 40 years, under the auspices of the Commission on Influenza of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board through a series of contracts with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. Sera, throat washings, and other specimens for diagnosis were sent to Dr. Meiklejohn's laboratory. After serologic and virologic studies were carried out, aliquots of sera and virus samples were logged in and frozen. Sera were stored at -20°C and virus specimens at -70°C. These specimens became known as the Denver Serum Bank. The Bank supported military research programs and other researchers nationally and internationally until the 1990s when lacking of funding and considerations of administration, space, and cost resulted in the destruction of all specimens. PMID:26444895

  4. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orewa, S. I.

    The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

  5. Effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil development on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years of development drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Michael D.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Pocklington, Patricia; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes effects of drilling with water and synthetic-based drilling muds on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. As such, the paper provides insight on the effects of relatively new synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs), and makes an important contribution to our understanding of the long-term chronic effects of drilling on benthic communities. The Terra Nova Field is located approximately 350 km offshore on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada). Sediment and invertebrate samples were collected in 1997 (baseline) prior to drilling, and subsequently in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations were sampled in each year at distances of less than 1 to approximately 20 km from drill centres. Summary benthic invertebrate community measures examined were total abundance, biomass, richness, diversity and multivariate measures of community composition based on non-Metric Dimensional Scaling (nMDS). Decreases in abundance, biomass and richness were noted at one station located nearest (0.14 km) to a drill centre in some environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years. These decreases coincided with higher levels of tracers of drill muds in sediments (barium and >C10-C21 hydrocarbons). Abundances of selected individual taxa were also examined to help interpret responses when project-related effects on summary measures occurred. Enrichment effects on some tolerant taxa (e.g., the polychaete family Phyllodocidae and the bivalve family Tellinidae) and decreased abundances of sensitive taxa (e.g., the polychaete families Orbiniidae and Paraonidae) were detected to within approximately 1-2 km from discharge source. Lagged responses three to five years after drilling started were noted for Phyllodocidae and Tellinidae, suggesting chronic or indirect effects. Overall, results of benthic community analyses at Terra Nova indicate that effects on summary measures of community composition were spatially limited but, as seen elsewhere, some taxa were more sensitive to drilling discharges.

  6. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  7. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  8. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  9. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  10. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  11. What Do People Think about Disabled Youth and Employment in Developed and Developing Countries? Results from an E-Discussion Hosted by the World Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggero, Paola; Tarricone, Rosanna; Nicoli, Marco; Mangiaterra, Viviana

    2006-01-01

    Even though there are good examples of people with disabilities mainstreamed in the labour market (Bruyere et al., 2004), the situation is still far from being positive, particularly when labour markets are in constant flux due to rapid globalization and technological change, unless new approaches are adopted. In light of this, the World Bank…

  12. Item Banks: What, Where, Why and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzaldua, Ric M.

    This paper discusses item banks calibrated to indicate levels of difficulty to assist in test development. The item bank topics discussed are: (1) purpose; (2) development issues; (3) advantages and disadvantages; and (4) practical issues. The most common issues are content validity, reliability, concerns with software purchase and programming,…

  13. Rural Development: Part 4, S. 2223--The Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act and Amendment No. 153 (To S. 1483), to Establish the Rural Community Development Bank. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 1st Session, July 23; September 21-24, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of Senate hearings on S. 2223 (the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act) and on Amendment No. 153 (to S. 1483) to establish the rural community development bank are presented in this document. In addition to some 25 miscellaneous documents, statements of representatives from municipal, state, and national organizations are…

  14. Capacity building on systems engineering, management and projects control for the nanosatc-br cubesat development program - library & data-bank building up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, Tiago Travi; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Lourencena Caldas Franke, Lucas; Moro, Pietro Fernando; Ramos Manica, Thales; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.; Jaenisch, Guilherme Paul; Escobar B, Eduardo; Zavareze da Costa, Leonardo; Balestrin, Maurício Ricardo; Camargo Silveira, Iago; Francisco Mozzaquatro Wen, João

    The Capacity Building (CB) on Systems Engineering, Management && Projects Control for the Brazilian NANOSATC-BR Cubesat Development Program - library && data-bank building up results are presented. The Program && its CB involves a partnership between the INPE's Southern Regional Space Research - CRS/INPE - MCTI and the Federal University of Santa Maria - UFSM, through the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory LACESM/CT - UFSM. The NANOSATC-BR Program consists of two nanosatellites, the NANOSATC-BR1, a 1U standard CubeSat, that is predicted to be launched in the first semester of 2014 (the first Brazilian CubeSat which will be launched) and the NANOSATC-BR2 - 2U CubeSat, which is expected to be launched in the first semester of 2015. The main goal of this paper is to introduce the application of Systems Engineering, Management && Projects Control documentation methodologies in the library building up and data-bank procedures for the CB, Program and its Projects: NANOSATC-BR 1 && 2. These CB, Program and Projects have support from the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB).

  15. Stream Bank Stability in Eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soenksen, Phillip J.; Turner, Mary J.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Simon, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Dredged and straightened channels in eastern Nebraska have experienced degradation leading to channel widening by bank failure. Degradation has progressed headward and affected the drainage systems upstream from the modified reaches. This report describes a study that was undertaken to analyze bank stability at selected sites in eastern Nebraska and develop a simplified method for estimating the stability of banks at future study sites. Bank cross sections along straight reaches of channel and geotechnical data were collected at approximately 150 sites in 26 counties of eastern Nebraska. The sites were categorized into three groups based on mapped soil permeability. With increasing permeability of the soil groups, the median cohesion values decreased and the median friction angles increased. Three analytical methods were used to determine if banks were stable (should not fail even when saturated), at risk (should not fail unless saturated), or unstable (should have already failed). The Culmann and Agricultural Research Service methods were based on the Coulomb equation and planar failure; an indirect method was developed that was based on Bishop's simplified method of slices and rotational failure. The maximum angle from horizontal at which the bank would be stable for the given soil and bank height conditions also was computed with the indirect method. Because of few soil shear-strength data, all analyses were based on the assumption of homogeneous banks, which was later shown to be atypical, at least for some banks. Using the Culmann method and assuming no soil tension cracks, 67 percent of all 908 bank sections were identified as stable, 32 percent were at risk, and 1 percent were unstable; when tension cracks were assumed, the results changed to 58 percent stable, 40 percent at risk, and 1 percent unstable. Using the Agricultural Research Service method, 67 percent of all bank sections were identified as stable and 33 percent were at risk. Using the indirect method, 62 percent of all bank sections were identified as stable and 31 percent were at risk; 3 percent were unstable, and 3 percent were outside of the range of the tables developed for the method. For each of the methods that were used, the largest percentage of stable banks and the smallest percentage of at risk banks was for the soil group with the lowest soil permeability and highest median cohesion values. A comparison of the expected stable bank angles for saturated conditions and the surveyed bank angles indicated that many of the surveyed bank angles were considerably less than the maximum expected stable bank angles despite the banks being classified as at risk or unstable. For severely degraded channels along straight reaches this was not expected. It was expected that they would have angles close to the maximum stable angle as they should have been failing from an oversteepened condition. Several explanations are possible. The channel reaches of some study sites have not yet been affected to a significant degree by degradation; study sites were selected throughout individual basins and severe degradation has not yet extended to some sites along upper reaches; and some reaches have experienced aggradation as degradation progresses upstream. Another possibility is that some bank sections have been affected by lateral migration processes, which typically result in shallow bank angles on the inside bend of the channel. Another possibility is that the maximum expected stable bank angles are too steep. The stability methods used were well established and in essential agreement with each other, and there was no reason to question the geometry data. This left non-representative soil data as a probable reason for computed stable bank angles that, at least in some cases, are overly steep. Based on an examination of the cohesion data, to which the stable bank-angle calculations were most sensitive, both vertical and horizontal variability in soil properti

  16. State interests and multilateral cooperation: thinking strategically about achieving ‘wise use’ of the Okavango Delta system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatuk, Larry A.

    This paper explores possibilities for achieving ‘wise use’, defined as the sustainable utilisation of resources of the Okavango Delta system, within the framework of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance. The paper argues that while the Ramsar Convention’s wise use strategic plan forms an important basis for collective action toward sustainably managing the Okavango River Basin as a whole, there are numerous barriers to success, the most important of which is the abiding behaviour of the region’s state-makers in defense of sovereignty and pursuit of narrow national interest. In spite of this formidable barrier to success, the paper highlights a number of on-going multilateral activities that may serve to further the aims of wise use of the Okavango River Basin system. It also provides a number of practical suggestions for furthering progressive frameworks of action. The paper is based on a close reading of published and unpublished written materials and the findings of a number of open-ended interviews conducted with stakeholders active in the Okavango River Basin.

  17. Flow dynamics of multi-lateral jets injection into a round pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Chia X.; Kalt, Peter A. M.; Dally, Bassam B.; Birzer, Cristian H.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the mixing field of turbulent jets is an important approach in optimizing practical combustion systems. The use of multi-lateral jets upstream from the nozzle exit to control mixing fields is one particular method. Existing studies have investigated jets into a confined cross-flow (JICCF) for dilution mixing, but there is a paucity of data available on the fundamentals for turbulent mixing capabilities of JICCF. The current study investigates the flow structures and Primary Reynolds number mixing characteristics within a round pipe flow modified by four equi-spaced, lateral side injectors. Experiments are conducted in a primary water jet flow that is modified with smaller jets located one central (axial) jet diameter upstream of the nozzle exit. Flow structures and mixing within the nozzle are non-intrusively characterized using simultaneous planar optical techniques. Planar laser-induced fluorescence is used to measure the scalar mixing of the side and axial jet streams, and particle imaging velocimetry is used to measure the planar velocities. Several cases are investigated with variable primary flow to explore the influence of cross-flow velocity on the induced mixing structures within the nozzle. By varying the momentum ratio, three characteristic flow modes are identified within the primary flow, namely streaming mode, impinging mode, and backflow mode. The impact of these modes on the flow and scalar fields is presented and discussed.

  18. Much Can Be Learned about Addressing Antibiotic Resistance from Multilateral Environmental Agreements.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Steinar; Hoffman, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a common-pool resource challenge. This means that efforts to address ABR can learn from similar collective action problems faced within the environmental sector. Multilateral environmental agreements are the backbone of global environmental governance. Their ability to effectively solve environmental problems depends on the problem structure and the regime's problem-solving capacity. The success or failure of environmental agreements is mainly determined by the problem structure, including the degree of political consensus and scientific certainty. But agreements' institutional design also matter because they can change the problem structure and problem-solving capacity. Based on experiences with environmental agreements, an international ABR agreement should contain robust reporting/verification procedures, sanctions for non-compliance, assistance for implementation, majority vote decision-making rules, a strong secretariat, an independent scientific panel, and specific commitments. More research on global strategies for achieving collective action is needed to help inform future institutional designs that are both effective and politically feasible. PMID:26243243

  19. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  20. Sustainable Competence: A Study of a Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagstrom, Tom; Backstrom, Tomas; Goransson, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Decentralization and company cultures have emerged to master increasing external flexibility, as in a competitive bank in Sweden, raising issues of the sustainability in terms of competence and competence development. The purpose of this paper is to study how the staff members in a bank perceive a company culture and how this perception…

  1. Sustainable Competence: A Study of a Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagstrom, Tom; Backstrom, Tomas; Goransson, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Decentralization and company cultures have emerged to master increasing external flexibility, as in a competitive bank in Sweden, raising issues of the sustainability in terms of competence and competence development. The purpose of this paper is to study how the staff members in a bank perceive a company culture and how this perception…

  2. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  3. Developing a new stream metric for comparing stream function using a bank-floodplain sediment budget: a case study of three Piedmont streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg

    2013-01-01

    A bank and floodplain sediment budget was created for three Piedmont streams tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. The watersheds of each stream varied in land use from urban (Difficult Run) to urbanizing (Little Conestoga Creek) to agricultural (Linganore Creek). The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between geomorphic parameters and sediment dynamics and to develop a floodplain trapping metric for comparing streams with variable characteristics. Net site sediment budgets were best explained by gradient at Difficult Run, floodplain width at Little Conestoga Creek, and the relation of channel cross-sectional area to floodplain width at Linganore Creek. A correlation for all streams indicated that net site sediment budget was best explained by relative floodplain width (ratio of channel width to floodplain width). A new geomorphic metric, the floodplain trapping factor, was used to compare sediment budgets between streams with differing suspended sediment yields. Site sediment budgets were normalized by floodplain area and divided by the stream's sediment yield to provide a unitless measure of floodplain sediment trapping. A floodplain trapping factor represents the amount of upland sediment that a particular floodplain site can trap (e.g. a factor of 5 would indicate that a particular floodplain site traps the equivalent of 5 times that area in upland erosional source area). Using this factor we determined that Linganore Creek had the highest gross and net (floodplain deposition minus bank erosion) floodplain trapping factor (107 and 46, respectively) that Difficult Run the lowest gross floodplain trapping factor (29) and Little Conestoga Creek had the lowest net floodplain trapping factor (–14, indicating that study sites were net contributors to the suspended sediment load). The trapping factor is a robust metric for comparing three streams of varied watershed and geomorphic character, it promises to be a useful tool for future stream assessments.

  4. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in the evolving post-2015 agenda: perspectives from key players from multilateral and related agencies in 2013.

    PubMed

    Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports the views of participants from key multilaterals and related agencies in the evolving global negotiations on the post-2015 development agenda on the strategic location of sexual and reproductive health and rights. The research was carried out in June and July 2013, following the release of the report of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, and comprised 40 semi-structured interviews with 57 participants and two e-mail respondents. All respondents were responsible for the post-2015 health and development agenda, or the post-2015 agenda more broadly, within their organisations. The interviews provide an insight into the intention to ensure that sexual and reproductive health and rights are integrated into the post-2015 trajectory by key players who sit at the interface of UN and Member State interaction. They reveal both an awareness of the shortcomings of the Millennium Development Goal process and its impact on advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights in early post-2015 engagement, as well as the vulnerability of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the remaining phases of post-2015 negotiations. Recent events bear these concerns out. Ensuring sexual and reproductive health and rights are included in the final post-2015 outcome document in the time remaining for negotiations, will be anything but a "doddle". PMID:24908457

  5. Banks: Colleges - A Joint Undertaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordy, Thomas O.

    The banking industry has recognized an increasing need to recruit, hire, and train minorities for positions within the industry. Following this line of thought, the American Bankers Association (ABA) formed a task force composed of bankers and black college educators to develop a program mutually beneficial to industry as well as colleges. A Black…

  6. Banking and Financial Systems. Curriculum Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jan

    This curriculum guide provides course materials for teachers to use in developing a course in banking and financial systems. Following an introductory section that lists the common essential elements of the course, the guide contains six sections that cover the following course topics: (1) introduction to banking and financial systems; (2) banking…

  7. An Item Bank for Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelu, C. J.; Elton, L. R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Provided is information on the development, operation, and evaluation of an item bank for multiple choice questions in physics. While the users of the bank are presently limited, the item banks has saved its members time and provided items and ideas for items. (MA)

  8. Cord Blood Banking Standards: Autologous Versus Altruistic

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) is either donated to public CB banks for use by any patient worldwide for whom it is a match or stored in a private bank for potential autologous or family use. It is a unique cell product that has potential for treating life-threatening diseases. The majority of CB products used today are for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and are accessed from public banks. CB is still evolving as a hematopoietic stem cell source, developing as a source for cellular immunotherapy products, such as natural killer, dendritic, and T-cells, and fast emerging as a non-hematopoietic stem cell source in the field of regenerative medicine. This review explores the regulations, standards, and accreditation schemes that are currently available nationally and internationally for public and private CB banking. Currently, most of private banking is under regulated as compared to public banking. Regulations and standards were initially developed to address the public arena. Early responses from the medical field regarding private CB banking was that at the present time, because of insufficient scientific data to support autologous banking and given the difficulty of making an accurate estimate of the need for autologous transplantation, private storage of CB as “biological insurance” should be discouraged (1, 2, 3). To ensure success and the true realization of the full potential of CB, whether for autologous or allogeneic use, it is essential that each and every product provided for current and future treatments meets high-quality, international standards. PMID:26779485

  9. Cord Blood Banking Standards: Autologous Versus Altruistic.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) is either donated to public CB banks for use by any patient worldwide for whom it is a match or stored in a private bank for potential autologous or family use. It is a unique cell product that has potential for treating life-threatening diseases. The majority of CB products used today are for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and are accessed from public banks. CB is still evolving as a hematopoietic stem cell source, developing as a source for cellular immunotherapy products, such as natural killer, dendritic, and T-cells, and fast emerging as a non-hematopoietic stem cell source in the field of regenerative medicine. This review explores the regulations, standards, and accreditation schemes that are currently available nationally and internationally for public and private CB banking. Currently, most of private banking is under regulated as compared to public banking. Regulations and standards were initially developed to address the public arena. Early responses from the medical field regarding private CB banking was that at the present time, because of insufficient scientific data to support autologous banking and given the difficulty of making an accurate estimate of the need for autologous transplantation, private storage of CB as "biological insurance" should be discouraged (1, 2, 3). To ensure success and the true realization of the full potential of CB, whether for autologous or allogeneic use, it is essential that each and every product provided for current and future treatments meets high-quality, international standards. PMID:26779485

  10. SEED BANKS FOR MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, E S

    2008-05-14

    In recent years the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been conducting experiments that require pulsed high currents to be delivered into inductive loads. The loads fall into two categories (1) pulsed high field magnets and (2) the input stage of Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (MFCG). Three capacitor banks of increasing energy storage and controls sophistication have been designed and constructed to drive these loads. One bank was developed for the magnet driving application (20kV {approx} 30kJ maximum stored energy.) Two banks where constructed as MFCG seed banks (12kV {approx} 43kJ and 26kV {approx} 450kJ). This paper will describe the design of each bank including switching, controls, circuit protection and safety.

  11. Schooling Effects on Cognitive Development in a Difficult Environment: The Case of Refugee Camps in the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabr, Dua; Cahan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Schooling is now considered the major factor underlying the development of cognitive abilities. However, most studies on the effect of schooling on cognitive development have been conducted in free and generally supportive western environments. The possible variability of schooling effects between educational systems differing in the quality of…

  12. Schooling Effects on Cognitive Development in a Difficult Environment: The Case of Refugee Camps in the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabr, Dua; Cahan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Schooling is now considered the major factor underlying the development of cognitive abilities. However, most studies on the effect of schooling on cognitive development have been conducted in free and generally supportive western environments. The possible variability of schooling effects between educational systems differing in the quality of…

  13. Banking: shop and compare.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors. PMID:25108982

  14. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  15. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  16. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  17. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  18. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  19. Rural health and labour supplies: empirical evidence from the World Bank Assisted Agricultural Development Project in the Kwara State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeh, J C

    1991-01-01

    The efforts made in this study are in two areas. First, an effort has been made to determine whether there are any health or labour supply differences between ADP and non-ADP households. Second, an effort has also been made to determine whether differences in health, housing and nutrition, if any, have an effect on labour supply. All the efforts are attempts to focus research attention on the Nigeria's resource endowment factor and at the same time assess the impact of rural infrastructure capital and thus the World Bank Assisted Agricultural Development Projects (ADP) on the rural Nigerian residents and their industry. Using 175 households, 50 from the ADP and 125 from the non-ADP areas, the discriptive statistic indicates strong mean significant differences for the descriptors of nutrition, housing and state of health among the two sample categories. The discriminant function strongly discriminates between the two sample groups while the multiple regression analysis establishes a causal relationship between the discriptors of rural healthy days and labour supply for the two sample data sets. The policy implication of the study is that the implementation of the ADP particularly the Ilorin, leads to the improvement of quality of life and greater infusion of high quality labour into the rural agricultural industry. Higher productivity and increased farm family income and enhanced rural life which results is a useful virile circle necessary for laying the bedrock for the rural development. PMID:1871606

  20. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, D A; Boguski, M; Lipman, D J; Ostell, J

    1996-01-01

    The GenBank sequence database continues to expand its data coverage, quality control, annotation content and retrieval services. GenBank is comprised of DNA sequences submitted directly by authors as well as sequences from the other major public databases. An integrated retrieval system, known as Entrez, contains data from GenBank and from the major protein sequence and structural databases, as well as related MEDLINE abstracts. Users may access GenBank over the Internet through the World Wide Web and through special client-server programs for text and sequence similarity searching. FTP, CD-ROM and e-mail servers are alternate means of access. PMID:8594554

  1. Primary Schooling and Economic Development: A Review of the Evidence. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 399.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher

    By reviewing pertinent studies and data, this paper seeks to define the economic benefits of primary schooling within a worldwide context. The author concludes that investment in primary schooling results in more productivity at work and in the home. The returns from primary schooling in most developing countries are higher than from other forms…

  2. Equity Issues in Public Examinations in Developing Countries. World Bank Technical Paper Number 272. Asia Technical Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent; Kellaghan, Thomas

    Public examinations in developing countries play a critical role in the selection of students for participation in the educational system. The examinations tend to be highly academic, bearing little reference to the everyday lives of students, limited to paper-and-pencil tests, and geared toward discriminating among high achieving students.…

  3. Developing an Open Resource Bank for Interactive Teaching of STEM: Perspecives of School Teachers and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Bjoern; Hennessy, Sara; Knight, Simon; Connolly, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current literature related to Open Educational Resource (OER) development and practice concentrates on higher education, although a growing body of work is also emerging for the primary and secondary school sectors. This article examines the user perspectives of teachers and teacher educators, regarding: discovery of teaching…

  4. Development of a Postacute Hospital Item Bank for the New Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Helene M.

    2010-01-01

    The PEDI-CAT is a new computer adaptive test (CAT) version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Additional PEDI-CAT items specific to postacute pediatric hospital care were recently developed using expert reviews and cognitive interviewing techniques. Expert reviews established face and construct validity, providing positive…

  5. Development of a Postacute Hospital Item Bank for the New Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Helene M.

    2010-01-01

    The PEDI-CAT is a new computer adaptive test (CAT) version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Additional PEDI-CAT items specific to postacute pediatric hospital care were recently developed using expert reviews and cognitive interviewing techniques. Expert reviews established face and construct validity, providing positive…

  6. Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. A World Bank Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutlinger, Shlomo; And Others

    Food security means access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Available data suggest that more than 700 million people in the developing world lack the food necessary for such a life. No problem of underdevelopment may be more serious or have such important implications for the long-term growth of low-income…

  7. Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. A World Bank Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutlinger, Shlomo; And Others

    Food security means access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Available data suggest that more than 700 million people in the developing world lack the food necessary for such a life. No problem of underdevelopment may be more serious or have such important implications for the long-term growth of low-income…

  8. The World Bank's Lending Approaches: A Special World Bank News Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Hugh, Ed.; Coronel, Leandro V., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The World Bank, operating in a complex, diverse, and changing environment, provides financial advice and support to developing nations that range from macro-economic management to project design. Major changes in management systems have occurred during the 1980s and are reflected in the bank's assistance in: (1) analytical support of policy…

  9. Banking on Knowledge: The New Knowledge Projects of the World Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Examines the tensions and debates at the heart of the World Bank's desire to become a knowledge agency. Discusses implications of the Bank's changing priorities towards education, trade-off between knowledge sharing versus knowledge development, and use of information and communications technology to create a global knowledge hypermarket called…

  10. The Porcupine Bank Canyon coral mounds: oceanographic and topographic steering of deep-water carbonate mound development and associated phosphatic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Akhmetzhanov, A.; Monteys, X.; Ivanov, M.

    2012-06-01

    The head of a canyon system extending along the western Porcupine Bank (west of Ireland) and which accommodates a large field of giant carbonate mounds was investigated during two cruises (INSS 2000 and TTR-13). Multibeam and sidescan sonar data (600-1,150 m water depth) suggest that the pre-existing seabed topography acts as a significant factor controlling mound distribution and shape. The mounds are concentrated along the edges of the canyon or are associated with a complex fault system traced around the canyon head, comprising escarpments up to 60 m high and several km long. The sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis of numerous types of authigenic deposits was guided by sidescan sonar and video recordings. Calcite-cemented biogenic rubble was observed at the top and on the flanks of the carbonate mounds, being associated with both living and dead corals ( Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and occasional Desmophyllum cristagalli). This can plausibly be explained by dissolution of coral debris facilitated by strong currents along the mound tops and flanks. In turn, the dissolved carbon is recycled and precipitated as interstitial micrite. Calcite, dolomite and phosphatic hardgrounds were identified in samples from the escarpment framing the eastern part of the survey area. The laterally extensive phosphatic hardgrounds represent a novel discovery in the region, supplying hard substrata for the establishment of new coral colonies. Based on existing knowledge of regional oceanographic conditions, complemented with new CTD measurements, it is suggested that water column stratification, enhanced bottom currents, and upwelling facilitate the deposition of organic matter, followed by phosphatisation leading to the formation of phosphate-glauconite deposits. The occurrence of strong bottom currents was confirmed by means of video observations combined with acoustic and sampling data, providing circumstantial evidence of fine- to medium-grained sand. Evidently, slope breaks such as escarpments and deep-water canyon headwalls are important structural elements in the development of mature carbonate mounds induced by deep-water coral growth. Stable isotope data show no evidence of methane-derived carbon in the carbonates and lithified sediments of the Porcupine Bank Canyon mounds.

  11. Privatization of health services in less developed countries: an empirical response to the proposals of the World Bank and Wharton School.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, Howard; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Iriart, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Academics and World Bank officials argue that, by reducing out-of-pocket expenditures, expanded private insurance may improve access to needed health services in less developed countries. In this empirical response, the authors examine this recommendation through observations from their research on privatization of health services in the United States, Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. Privatization, either through conversion of public sector to private sector insurance or by expansion of private insurance through enhanced participation by corporate entrepreneurs, generally has not succeeded in improving access to health services for vulnerable groups. Although the impact of privatization has differed among the Latin American countries studied, expansion of private insurance often has generated additional co-payments, which have increased rather than decreased out-of-pocket expenditures, thereby worsening access to needed services. Privatization usually has improved conditions for private corporations and has led to higher administrative costs. To address the devastating problems of access to services worldwide, we must find ways to enhance the delivery of public sector services and must move beyond conventional wisdom about market-based policies such as privatization. PMID:17665720

  12. Platy algal banks: Modern and ancient

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Plaly algal banks and associated cycles in the lower Ismay zone of the Paradox Formation are exposed along the walls of the San Juan River canyon, southeastern Utah. These complexes closely resemble algal bank reservoirs in the lower Ismay zone of Ismay and Cache, and possibly other Paradox basin fields. Similarities include facies relationships, lateral and vertical textural variations, and early diagenesis. Extensive algal banks exposed along the San Juan canyon generally have flat bases and mound and swale topographic surfaces, and are separated by interbank channels. The surficial mounds have a regular amplitude and wavelength suggesting a hydrologic rather than biologic influence on topography. The banks themselves, however, are believed to be thick, predominantly in-situ accumulations of platy algae. Distribution of algal banks can be mapped on a field scale; mound and swale topographic features may be identified in core on the basis of depositional and early diagenetic characteristics. Halimeda bioherms (Holocene) cover large areas behind the Great Barrier Reef, developing adjacent to the deep passes that separate the individual reefs. These large in-situ accumulations (20-50 m deep) display similar bank geometries, interbank features, topographic features, vertical textural sequence (including porosity type and distribution), and facies relationships to algal banks observed in the outcropping and subsurface Paradox Formation. Although the hydrodynamic and paleobathymetric settings differ markedly between these two examples, analogies between the mounds themselves are very close. The resemblance lends relevance to exploration and development drilling.

  13. Educational Opportunity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Science Advisory Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report presents a proposal for the establishment of the Educational Opportunity Bank as an agency of the Federal Government, authorized to borrow money at going government rates, and to lend money to postsecondary students regardless of the student's resources. The Bank is to recoup the loans through annual payments collected in conjunction…

  14. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  15. iBank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

    2012-01-01

    iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

  16. Banking on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  17. GenBank: update

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

    2004-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 140 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (web) or Sequin program and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in the UK and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI’s retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI home page at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:14681350

  18. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

    2003-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive sequence database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 119 000 different organisms, obtained primarily through the submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in the UK and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI home page at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:12519940

  19. Space medicine policy development for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Williams, Richard S.; Comtois, Jean-Marc; Damann, Volker; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Pool, Sam L.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Knowingkov, Oleg L.; Doarn, Charles R.

    2009-09-01

    Providing medical care capability in a multinational setting in space is a daunting challenge. As the International Space Station (ISS) has taken shape over the last decade the space medicine community of the ISS partners has established a foundation with which to govern medical policy, medial processes, and medical care during the ISS Program. This foundation was predicated on a rich history of bilateral and multilateral cooperation among space faring nations. Three key organizations were established, they include the agency or senior level Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), and the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP). All three are staffed by senior medical personnel within each of the partner organizations of the ISS and each has specific roles and responsibilities. These three entities strive to protect the human element of spaceflight through highly effective interaction in a multilingual, multicultural program. This paper reviews the creation of this tripartite approach to the development of medical policy for ISS.

  20. Development of a biodynamics work environment (BWE) which integrates a biodynamics data bank, models, and analytical tools.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, J R; Knox, F S

    1997-01-01

    For more than thirty years the Armstrong Laboratory (AL) has studied the response of human volunteers and human surrogates to impact accelerations. Data from these studies form a national resource which should be made available to biodynamics model builders and safety researchers everywhere. Recently AL joined with the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) to develop a multi-media Biodynamics Work Environment (BWE) which will facilitate access to both their respective data bases and provide a means for sharing that access within the scientific community. The BWE concept is sufficiently flexible to allow integration of other databases as well as biodynamics models and tools. The AL data, for example, consists of over 10,000 impact tests which are currently archived on optical media. Each test includes acceleration and motion time histories, subject anthropometry, documentation photos, and high speed video. Among the models to be included are the Articulated Total Body, Head Spine, Dynamic Response Index, Multi-axis Dynamic Response Criteria, and BURNSIM. Complementary analytical tools would involve the use of spreadsheets, statistics, modeling, data analysis, and math packages. This paper will discuss the development, current status, and future plans of the BWE. PMID:9731378

  1. Alterations in bottom sediment physical and chemical characteristics at the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the grand banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes sediment composition at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, at an approximate water depth of 100 m. Surface sediment samples (upper 3 cm) were collected for chemical and particle size analyses at the site pre-development (1997) and in 2000-2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations have been sampled in each program year, with stations extending from less than 1 km to a maximum of 20 km from source (drill centres) along five gradients, extending to the southeast, southwest, northeast, northwest and east of Terra Nova. Results show that Terra Nova sediments were contaminated with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium-the two main constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site. Highest levels of contamination occurred within 1 to 2 km from source, consistent with predictions from drill cuttings dispersion modelling. The strength of distance gradients for >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, and overall levels, generally increased as drilling progressed but decreased from 2006 to 2010, coincident with a reduction in drilling. As seen at other offshore oil development sites, metals other than barium, sulphur and sulphide levels were elevated and sediment fines content was higher in the immediate vicinity (less than 0.5 km) of drill centres in some sampling years; but there was no strong evidence of project-related alterations of these variables. Overall, sediment contamination at Terra Nova was spatially limited and only the two major constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site, >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, showed clear evidence of project-related alternations.

  2. Testing for rational bubbles in banking indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper a simple test for detecting bilinearity in a stochastic unit root process is used to test for the presence of rational bubbles in banking equity indices. The empirical evidence for a set of 39 banking indices for different countries, after adjusting for GARCH effects, suggests that for more than 69% of these indices, the hypothesis of no unit root bilinearity is rejected. Therefore, the dynamics of banking asset prices in most countries are in conformity with rational bubbles and high speculation. This is true for both developed and emerging economies.

  3. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.

    2006-06-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is the world's largest fully steerable telescope. The GBT has now been in routine operation for over two years, observing at frequencies up to 50 GHz. In order to deliver the tracking accuracies required at 50 GHz, we solve simultaneously for gravitational and thermal effects in the development of the static pointing and focus tracking models. A precision temperature sensor system then generates additional real-time corrections to compensate for varying thermal gradients in the antenna. Collimation and surface accuracy requirements are met by an active surface control system which combines initial corrections derived from a finite element model of the antenna with additional terms derived from astronomical phase-retrieval holography measurements. The GBT has a rich suite of instrumentation including receivers which cover almost the complete frequency range from ~ 290 MHz to 50 GHz, and backends for spectroscopy, pulsar observing, broadband continuum, very long baseline interferometry and planetary radar reception. A 64-pixel bolometer camera is under development by a consortium including UPenn, NASA-GSFC, NIST, UCardiff and NRAO. Recent software developments include an extremely flexible application which combines traditional interactive observing, scheduling-block based observing and real-time monitoring and data display in a single, convenient interface. In this paper I will summarize the current performance of the GBT, and review some recent science results. I will also describe how plans changed with time, and review some of the lessons learned in the development of the telescope.

  4. Functional classification of riparian roots for bank stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvi, L. E.; Merritt, D. M.; Wohl, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    It is well established that the roots of riparian vegetation add tensile strength to stream banks, thus reducing bank erosion and undercutting. Bank stability models that add the mechanical strength of riparian roots, based on root tensile strength and density, contribute to the understanding of vegetation-enhanced bank strength. However, for land managers who require a simple method for determining which riparian vegetation species are most suited for bank stabilization (i.e., river restoration), these methods can require time-consuming efforts. The system the United States Forest Service (USFS) currently uses employs a qualitatively-based ranking scheme of riparian vegetation, which also implies that bank stability is an inherent characteristic of a riparian plant species, regardless of bank characteristics. We present a functional classification of riparian species for bank stability that meet the needs of land managers but still acknowledges that bank stability is not an inherent characteristic of vegetation, and that takes into account bank materials (sediment grain size and stratigraphy). The objectives of this research are to (1) develop a functional classification of riparian vegetation based on root morphology and role in stabilizing banks, using a bank stability model (BSTEM) to determine the added bank strength from diverse species for varying bank textures and geometries, and developing a ternary diagram of riparian vegetation based on bank stabilization characteristics (tensile strength, root depth and lateral extent, and root density or branching); and (2) understand the role of riparian indicator species in channel processes and streambank and valley formation. Tensile strength, root morphology and density, and stem density were obtained for 14 riparian species common to the Colorado Front Range (4 trees, 3 shrubs, 3 graminoids, and 4 forbs). We use BSTEM to determine the addition to bank stability for these species for a range of bank textures and geometries, ranging from fine-grained cohesive sediment to gravel and cobble non-cohesive banks. Preliminary results show forbs have the lowest root tensile strengths and graminoids have the highest strengths. Graminoids have significantly higher root densities than shrubs, trees, and forbs. We expect each species to provide a distinct range of additional bank stability, some of which are unique while others overlap. This classification is supplemented with additional root characteristics (depth, lateral extent, sinuosity) to develop the functional classification. This comparison of the bank stability added by species will be more quantitative, objective, and reproducible than the current method used by USFS.

  5. Umbilical cord blood banking in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, H C; Falkenburg, J H

    1998-07-01

    Cord blood banks are being developed in the United States and Europe. In The Netherlands, the EuroCord Nederland Foundation (ECN) has been established to coordinate the development of a national cord blood bank for unrelated transplants. The aim of ECN is to collect at least 5000 transplants for patients who lack an HLA-identical related or unrelated bone marrow donor. Four blood banks in Leiden, Groningen, Nijmegen and Amsterdam, Europdonor Foundation and the Department of Hematology of the Leiden University Medical Center participate in this organization. From March 1995 to November 1997, 720 units have been collected, processed, HLA typed, tested for transmissible diseases and cryopreserved in the Dutch cord blood bank. PMID:9715870

  6. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    GenBank® (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 300 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:25414350

  7. Using GenBank.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Eric W; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene

    2016-01-01

    GenBank(®) is a comprehensive database of publicly available DNA sequences for 300,000 named organisms, more than 110,000 within the embryophyta, obtained through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system that integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, as well as the biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. GenBank usage scenarios ranging from local analyses of the data available via FTP to online analyses supported by the NCBI web-based tools are discussed. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov . PMID:26519398

  8. Accessibility and ergonomic analysis for banking cash.

    PubMed

    Kaizer, A; Ramos, F; Ferro, E

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics and accessibility in banking has been the subject of numerous discussions, and in this work proposed by the partnership of companies and NR TN Mobile Work Safety and Occupational Medicine, aimed to analyze the service box and propose the development of a project to the teller accessible account of both the legal aspects regarding the factors inherent in banking, focusing primarily on the interface of the worker and the client user. PMID:22317433

  9. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  10. 12 CFR 7.2024 - Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board. 7.2024 Section 7.2024 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2024 Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board....

  11. 12 CFR 7.2024 - Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board. 7.2024 Section 7.2024 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2024 Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board....

  12. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lists both public and private blood banks by geographic location The National Marrow Donor Program ( www.bethematch.org ), with information on registered cord-blood facilities that accept donations ...

  13. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  14. Banking on technology.

    PubMed

    Bolster, Carole J

    2007-04-01

    New technology is being used by banks to help providers improve their revenue cycle through: Digital lockbox service. Remote deposit. Web-based payment. Automated payment processing at the point of service. PMID:17427461

  15. World Bank Contribution to Building National HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity in Africa: Going beyond Indicator Development and Conceptual Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David

    2004-01-01

    International commitment to the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has grown rapidly in recent years, stimulated by the leadership of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and its cosponsors and supported by a range of new mechanisms. These include the World Bank's Multi-Country…

  16. World Bank Development Sector Adjustment Operation Life Line to Nigerian Universities: Impact on Information Demand and Supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozowa, Vincent Nnamdi

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of the rationale behind the World Bank credit line to Nigerian universities and examines the impact of the credit facility on the information demand and supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library (Nigeria). Discusses problems, such as poor quantity and quality of books and journals, lack of equipment, and lack of…

  17. World Bank Contribution to Building National HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity in Africa: Going beyond Indicator Development and Conceptual Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David

    2004-01-01

    International commitment to the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has grown rapidly in recent years, stimulated by the leadership of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and its cosponsors and supported by a range of new mechanisms. These include the World Bank's Multi-Country…

  18. Aneurysm location and clipping versus coiling for development of secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Japanese Stroke DataBank.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Ino, Tadashi; Kimura, Toru; Kobayashi, Shotai

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT The present study aimed to investigate aneurysm locations and treatments for ruptured cerebral aneurysms associated with secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus (sNPH) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by using comprehensive data from the Japanese Stroke DataBank. METHODS Among 101,165 patients with acute stroke registered between 2000 and 2013, 4693 patients (1482 men, 3211 women) were registered as having had an SAH caused by a ruptured saccular aneurysm. Of them, 1448 patients (438 men and 1010 women; mean age 61.9 ± 13.4 years) who were confirmed to have or not have coexisting acute hydrocephalus and sNPH were included for statistical analyses. Locations of the ruptured aneurysms were subcategorized into 1 of the following 4 groups: middle cerebral artery (MCA; n = 354), anterior communicating artery and anterior cerebral artery (ACA; n = 496), internal carotid artery (ICA; n = 402), and posterior circulation (n = 130). Locations of 66 of the ruptured aneurysms were unknown/unrecorded. Treatments included craniotomy and clipping alone in 1073 patients, endovascular coil embolization alone in 285 patients, and a combination of coiling and clipping in 17 patients. The age-adjusted and multivariate odds ratios from logistic regression analyses were calculated after stratification using the Fisher CT scale to investigate the effects of the hematoma volume of SAH. RESULTS Acute hydrocephalus was confirmed in 593 patients, and 521 patients developed sNPH. Patients with a ruptured ACA aneurysm had twice the risk for sNPH over those with a ruptured MCA aneurysm. Those with an ACA aneurysm with Fisher Grade 3 SAH had a 9-fold-higher risk for sNPH than those with an MCA aneurysm with Fisher Grade 1 or 2 SAH. Patients with a ruptured posterior circulation aneurysm did not have any significant risk for sNPH. Clipping of the ruptured aneurysm resulted in twice the risk for sNPH over coil embolization alone. CONCLUSIONS Patients with low-grade SAH caused by a ruptured MCA aneurysm had a low risk for the development of sNPH. In contrast, patients with high-grade SAH caused by a ruptured ACA aneurysm had a higher risk for sNPH. Endovascular coiling might confer a lower risk of developing sNPH than microsurgical clipping. PMID:26230474

  19. Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Environmental characteristics and human interaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deslarzes, K.J.P.

    1998-10-01

    This report is a multidisciplinary update of various topics concerning the Banks -- oceanography, meteorology, commercial fishing, recreation, military activities, hydrocarbon development, and potential environmental impacts. The area surrounding the Flower Garden Banks is increasingly active with oil and gas development.

  20. Reducing Fertility in Developing Countries: A Review of Determinants and Policy Levers. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 680 and Population and Development Series, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulatao, Rodolfo A.

    The determinants of fertility and attempts to extract conclusions that are relevant for fertility reduction policies in developing countries are investigated. The paper suggests that socioeconomic development has a decisive effect in lowering fertility in the long run but in the short run, and for specific households, the effect is not as…

  1. Reducing Fertility in Developing Countries: A Review of Determinants and Policy Levers. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 680 and Population and Development Series, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulatao, Rodolfo A.

    The determinants of fertility and attempts to extract conclusions that are relevant for fertility reduction policies in developing countries are investigated. The paper suggests that socioeconomic development has a decisive effect in lowering fertility in the long run but in the short run, and for specific households, the effect is not as…

  2. Tying up lions: multilateral initiative on malaria communications: the first chapter of a malaria research network in Africa.

    PubMed

    Royall, Julia; Bennett, Mark; van Schayk, Ingeborg; Alilio, Martin

    2004-08-01

    "When spider webs unite, they can tie up a lion" (Ethiopian folk adage). The Multilateral Initiative on Malaria Communications Network (MIMCom) facilitates a new way of doing research in Africa and African scientists' participation in the international scientific community. The MIMCom supports full access to the Internet and the resources of the WorldWide Web at 19 research sites in 11 African countries. Furthermore, the MIMCom project comprises two websites: one includes links to resources, databases, and publications as well as a document delivery service for full text journal articles, and the other is a research agenda specific website with a server for a research network desiring to share raw data. Other important components of MIMCom are training and evaluation components. The MIMCom was conceived in 1997 by African researchers and has been designed, implemented, and overseen by the U.S. National Library of Medicine in collaboration with partners in Africa, the United States, and the United Kingdom. This project demonstrates clearly that it can make a positive difference in the functioning of remote research sites in Africa, in terms of site growth and productivity and in the professional lives of individual researchers. This report reviews the project's background, methods of operation with an emphasis on local needs and priorities, cost effectiveness, and local responsibility; results focusing on a technical network; documentation of the system and two-way exchange of information; the MIMCom website; a network approach to research; and financial sustainability. The report concludes with summaries of evaluations by an independent panel, the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria Secretariat, and the U.S. National Library of Medicine. PMID:15331846

  3. On the application of under-decimated filter banks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y.-P.; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    Maximally decimated filter banks have been extensively studied in the past. A filter bank is said to be under-decimated if the number of channels is more than the decimation ratio in the subbands. A maximally decimated filter bank is well known for its application in subband coding. Another application of maximally decimated filter banks is in block filtering. Convolution through block filtering has the advantages that parallelism is increased and data are processed at a lower rate. However, the computational complexity is comparable to that of direct convolution. More recently, another type of filter bank convolver has been developed. In this scheme, the convolution is performed in the subbands. Quantization and bit allocation of subband signals are based on signal variance, as in subband coding. Consequently, for a fixed rate, the result of convolution is more accurate than is direct convolution. This type of filter bank convolver also enjoys the advantages of block filtering, parallelism, and a lower working rate. Nevertheless, like block filtering, there is no computational saving. In this article, under-decimated systems are introduced to solve the problem. The new system is decimated only by half the number of channels. Two types of filter banks can be used in the under-decimated system: the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks. They are well known for their low complexity. In both cases, the system is approximately alias free, and the overall response is equivalent to a tunable multilevel filter. Properties of the DFT filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks can be exploited to simultaneously achieve parallelism, computational saving, and a lower working rate. Furthermore, for both systems, the implementation cost of the analysis or synthesis bank is comparable to that of one prototype filter plus some low-complexity modulation matrices. The individual analysis and synthesis filters have complex coefficients in the DFT filter banks but have real coefficients in the cosine modulated filter banks.

  4. 77 FR 1490 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... shares of Biscayne Bancshares, Inc. and its subsidiary bank, Biscayne Bank, both of Coconut...

  5. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank associations, Federal land credit associations, production credit associations, and agricultural credit associations. 614.4070 Section 614.4070 Banks and Banking FARM...

  6. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  7. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  8. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  9. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  10. An audit of blood bank services

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alok; Sharma, Satish; Ingole, Narayan; Gangane, Nitin

    2014-01-01

    Background: An audit is a written series of simple, direct questions, which when answered and reviewed, tell whether the laboratory is performing its procedures, activities, and policies correctly and on time. Aim: The aim of this study is to briefly highlight the importance of audit in blood bank services. Materials and Methods: An Audit of Blood Bank Services was carried out in a Blood bank of the tertiary care hospital, Central India by using the tool kit, (comprised of checklists) developed by Directorate General of Health Services, Dhaka WHO, July 2008. Results: After going through these checklists, we observed that there is no system for assessing the training needs of staff in the blood bank. There was no provision for duty doctor's room, expert room, medical technologist room and duty care service. There was no checklist for routine check for observation of hemolysis and deterioration of blood and plasma. There was no facility for separate private interview to exclude sexual disease in the donor. Requisition forms were not properly filled for blood transfusion indications. There was no facility for notification of donors who are permanently deferred. There were no records documented for donors who are either temporarily or permanently deferred on the basis of either clinical examination, history, or serological examination. It was found that wearing of apron, cap, and mask was not done properly except in serology laboratory. When the requisition forms for blood transfusions were audited, it was found that many requisition forms were without indications. Conclusion: Regular audit of blood bank services needs to be initiated in all blood banks and the results needs to be discussed among the managements, colleagues, and staffs of blood bank. These results will provide a good opportunity for finding strategies in improving the blood bank services with appropriate and safe use of blood. PMID:24741651

  11. World Bank's support for science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, C. Jr.

    1985-01-18

    The World Bank, the largest aid-granting agency in the world, has played a substantial but largely unsung role in helping the scientific and technological development of developing countries. Its investments, totaling $15.5 billion in fiscal year 1984, involve choosing appropriate technology and financing local technological development. Since 1980, the Bank has lent $0.5 billion for agricultural research and about $1 billion for scientific and technological education. It contributes to and mobilizes finances for large international research programs in agriculture and the health sciences. It supports research on labor-based construction, low-cost sanitation, renewable energy resources, and control of traffic congestion. It provides training in the technological aspects of development policy. As funds for aid become scarce, the Bank is reexamining its approach to science and technology.

  12. Development of item bank to measure deliberate self-harm behaviours: facilitating tailored scales and computer adaptive testing for specific research and clinical purposes.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Shane; Meade, Tanya; Tennant, Alan

    2014-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of item banking to questionnaire items intended to measure Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) behaviours. The Rasch measurement model was used to evaluate behavioural items extracted from seven published DSH scales administered to 568 Australians aged 18-30 years (62% university students, 21% mental health patients, and 17% community members). Ninety four items were calibrated in the item bank (including 12 items with differential item functioning for gender and age). Tailored scale construction was demonstrated by extracting scales covering different combinations of DSH methods but with the same raw score for each person location on the latent DSH construct. A simulated computer adaptive test (starting with common self-harm methods to minimise presentation of extreme behaviours) demonstrated that 11 items (on average) were needed to achieve a standard error of measurement of 0.387 (corresponding to a Cronbach?s Alpha of 0.85). This study lays the groundwork for advancing DSH measurement to an item bank approach with the flexibility to measure a specific definitional orientation (e.g., non-suicidal self-injury) or a broad continuum of self-harmful acts, as appropriate to a particular research/clinical purpose. PMID:24703572

  13. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, D A; Boguski, M; Lipman, D J; Ostell, J

    1994-09-01

    The GenBank sequence database continues to expand its data coverage, quality control, annotation content and retrieval services for the scientific community. Besides handling direct submissions of sequence data from authors, GenBank also incorporates DNA sequences from all available public sources; an integrated retrieval system, known as Entrez, also makes available data from the major protein sequence and structural databases, and from U.S. and European patents. MIDLINE abstracts from published articles describing the sequences are also included as an additional source of biological annotation for sequence entries. GenBank supports distribution of the data via FTP, CD-ROM, and E-mail servers. Network server-client programs provide access to an integrated database for literature retrieval and sequence similarity searching. PMID:7937042

  14. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  15. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  16. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or state bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a national...

  17. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or state bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a national...

  18. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or state bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a national...

  19. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  20. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  1. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  2. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  3. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  4. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  5. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Christian; Cassidy, Maxxwell; Cinkosky, Michael J.; Cumella, Karen E.; Gilna, Paul; Hayden, Jamie E.-D.; Keen, Gifford M.; Kelley, Tom A.; Kelly, Michael; Kristofferson, David; Ryals, Julie

    1991-01-01

    The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 56,000,000 nucleotides in 45,000 entries. The input stream of data coming into the database has largely been shifted to direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media. The data have been installed in a relational database management system and are made available in this form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service. PMID:2041806

  6. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

  7. The World Bank's perspective on global health.

    PubMed

    Claeson, M; De Beyer, J; Jha, P; Feachem, R

    1996-01-01

    Over the next 25 years, as populations age and tobacco consumption increases, most developing regions will likely see noncommunicable diseases become the leading causes of disability and premature mortality. The already existing problems of malnutrition and infectious diseases will remain. In this context, the World Bank is examining its role and contribution to global health. From a small start approximately 25 years ago, the Bank has greatly expanded its role in international health, population, and nutrition to become the largest single external financier of health activities in low- and middle-income countries. Many other Bank-supported activities affect health, including poverty reduction, housing, water and sanitation, and the education of girls. The Bank is also increasingly active in health policy debates, publishing numerous studies annually. Most of these studies focus upon specific countries, but some address key issues of concern to many developing countries. This article explains why the Bank continues to expand its resources devoted to health and the rationale for the changing emphasis of its activities in the field. PMID:12347700

  8. Euro Skin Bank: large scale skin-banking in Europe based on glycerol-preservation of donor skin.

    PubMed

    de Backere, A C

    1994-01-01

    Although skin banking has been well developed through the years as a means of providing sufficient skin which is instantly accessible to the burn patient, the methods of preservation and the scale on which various institutions bank skin vary considerably. In 1984, the Dutch National Skin Bank started using glycerol as a preservant for skin allografts. Since then there has been a marked increase in both the volume of glycerol skin grafts applied and the area over which these have been distributed. The procedure and organizational aspects of the Euro Skin Bank, as our own institution is now called, and its current method of skin preservation are described. PMID:8198742

  9. 76 FR 76412 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... acquire control of First Federal Savings and Loan Bank, both in Olathe, Kansas. Board of Governors of...

  10. 78 FR 36189 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 78 FR 26368 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 76 FR 28435 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 78 FR 35032 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank ] or bank holding company. The...

  14. 77 FR 67816 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 78 FR 5442 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 75 FR 65484 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 77 FR 26280 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 77 FR 14368 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 77 FR 29347 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 75 FR 32779 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  1. 78 FR 70300 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 78 FR 33092 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 78 FR 43203 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 78 FR 20643 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 78 FR 22879 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 77 FR 40058 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank ] Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company....

  7. 77 FR 35386 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 75 FR 17142 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  9. 77 FR 74482 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 75 FR 63183 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 77 FR 31855 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 75 FR 66762 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 ] CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 78 FR 59689 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 77 FR 29643 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 78 FR 67146 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 78 FR 46583 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 75 FR 32778 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  18. 76 FR 40365 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 78 FR 55716 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 78 FR 41063 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 75 FR 26961 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  2. 77 FR 24491 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 75 FR 78705 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 77 FR 32637 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 77 FR 56209 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 76 FR 11781 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank ] Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company....

  7. 78 FR 42522 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 78 FR 25273 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 78 FR 61960 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 77 FR 12584 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 77 FR 4560 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 78 FR 2273 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 75 FR 57023 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  14. 77 FR 49795 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 78 FR 50056 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 76 FR 38178 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 75 FR 1621 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  18. 75 FR 70004 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 75 FR 17407 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  20. 78 FR 23565 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank ] or bank holding company. The...

  1. 78 FR 37222 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 76 FR 41259 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 77 FR 53887 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 77 FR 71793 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 77 FR 63832 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 77 FR 28597 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 77 FR 69454 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 76 FR 39105 - [Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company] The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... Co., and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of Kirkwood Bank and Trust Company, both...

  9. 77 FR 65190 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... 30309: 1. Moishe Gubin, Hillside, Illinois; to acquire additional voting shares of OptimumBank...

  10. 76 FR 10363 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... shares of Cascade Bancorp, and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of Bank of the Cascades, both...

  11. 76 FR 144 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... of the voting shares of Northern Wisconsin Bank Holding Company, Inc., and thereby indirectly...

  12. 77 FR 73466 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... shares of BSA Financial Services, Inc. and thereby indirectly acquire additional voting shares of Bank...

  13. Bank-a-Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Doris; Jordan, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    The article gives procedures for consumer foods teachers to use to actively involve students in making independent food purchasing decisions according to the school foods lab budget and food buying principles. Included are forms used to keep records for each lab: unit bank account, meat lab evaluation, and market order. (MF)

  14. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

  15. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

  16. Banking on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  17. Banking & Financial Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Brenda; Sorrell, Lisa

    This document, which is intended for high school business teachers, outlines the plan for a course in which students gain hands-on experience in operating a bank in which students actually deposit money. The document begins with a brief course description, rationale, and list of 11 course objectives. Presented next is background information about…

  18. Banking on Child Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Margaret; McBride, Andrea M.; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    1997-01-01

    The child-care facility is rapidly growing into the role of gatekeeper on food intake for children. This article describes guidelines for children's nutritional needs, what children are actually eating, how to make menus more nutritious (including recipes), how to strengthen menus and keep food costs low, and the use of food banks. (EV)

  19. Replacing America's Job Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  20. Banking on women's spirit.

    PubMed

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife. PMID:12318521

  1. Using Soil Seed Banks for Ecological Education in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ju, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jae Geun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed an educational programme using soil seed banks to promote ecological literacy among primary school-aged children. The programme consisted of seven student activities, including sampling and setting soil seed banks around the school, watering, identifying seedlings, and making observations about the plants and their…

  2. Six Questions about The World Bank's 2020 Education Sector Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    Based on interviews with World Bank staff in April 2011, this article answers six questions about the World Bank's Education Sector Strategy 2020 (ESS 2020): (1) What is the ESS 2020? (2) What is it not? (3) How was the development process of the ESS 2020 different from that of past Strategies? (4) How are the policy recommendations of the ESS…

  3. Suppose There Were a "World Bank" for American Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    About 120 nations can borrow from an international bank for the purposes of financing domestic educational improvement. The United States is a donor to this bank, but by virtue of its economic development, it cannot borrow. Nevertheless, the virtues of having such a facility might be worth considering within the United States. This article briefly…

  4. 76 FR 18366 - Federal Home Loan Bank Liabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... to authority under section 11(a) of the Bank Act. See 65 FR 36290 (June 7, 2000) (adopting among... Bank Liabilities, 75 FR 68534 (Nov. 8, 2010). FHFA is now adopting these rule changes. These amendments... they relate to the above factors in developing the proposal. 75 FR at 68535. FHFA also...

  5. Using Soil Seed Banks for Ecological Education in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ju, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jae Geun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed an educational programme using soil seed banks to promote ecological literacy among primary school-aged children. The programme consisted of seven student activities, including sampling and setting soil seed banks around the school, watering, identifying seedlings, and making observations about the plants and their…

  6. Leadership Training at First Bank of Nigeria: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawal, Fatai; Thompson, Randall; Thompson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to identify components of an exemplary leadership development program that might serve as a framework for training leaders for banking organizations in Nigeria. We recruited 30 managers, supervisors, and officers with at least 10 years of banking experience to explore leadership…

  7. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.121 Bankers' banks. (a)(1) The Federal Reserve Act, as amended by the...

  8. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.121 Bankers' banks. (a)(1) The Federal Reserve Act, as amended by the...

  9. Relation between repeatability and speed of robot-based systems for composite aircraft production through multilateration sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, M.; Perner, M.; Krombholz, C.; Beykirch, B.

    2015-03-01

    Fiber composites are becoming increasingly important in different fields of lightweight application. To guarantee the estimated demand of components made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the use of industrial robots is suggested in production. High velocity of the layup process is addressed to significantly increase the production rate. Today, the layup of the fiber material is performed by gantry systems. They are heavy weight, slow and the variety of possible part shapes is limited. Articulated robots offer a huge operational area in relation to their construction size. Moreover, they are flexible enough to layup fiber material into different shaped molds. Thus, standard articulated robots are less accurate and more susceptible to vibration than gantry systems. Therefore, this paper illustrates an approach to classify volumetric errors to obtain a relation between the achievable speed in production and precision. The prediction of a precision at a defined speed is the result. Based on the measurement results the repeatability of the robotic unit within the workspace is calculated and presented. At the minimum speed that is applicable in production the repeatability is less than 30 mm. Subsequently, an online strategy for path error compensation is presented. The approach uses a multilateration system that consists of four laser tracer units and measures the current absolute position of a reflector mounted at the end-effector of the robot. By calculating the deviation between the planned and the actual position a compensated motion is applied. The paper concludes with a discussion for further investigations.

  10. Sand banks of finite amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambroni, N.; Blondeaux, P.

    2008-10-01

    The process which leads to the appearance of sand banks in shallow seas is investigated by studying the growth of small-amplitude perturbations of the sea bottom, forced by oscillatory tidal currents. Since the analysis of field data carried out by Dyer and Huntley (1999) suggests that sand banks are likely to occur where the tidal ellipse is circular or characterized by a low ellipticity, attention is focused on small values of ?, where e is the ratio between minor and major axes of the tidal ellipse. The linear analysis, which considers perturbations of small (strictly infinitesimal) amplitude, shows the existence of a critical value rC of the Keulegan-Carpenter number r of the tide (r = U0*/(h0*?*), U0* and ?* being the amplitude and angular frequency of the velocity oscillations induced by the tide propagation and h0* being the averaged water depth) such that for r smaller than rC the flat bottom configuration is stable, while for r larger than rC the sand banks start to appear. Close to the critical condition, the wavelength of the most unstable mode turns out to be finite. Then a weakly nonlinear analysis is developed which allows the evaluation of the equilibrium amplitude of the bottom forms when the parameter r is close to its critical value. The configuration of the sea bottom, when the bottom forms attain their equilibrium, is characterized by the presence of long ridges, almost parallel to the main axis of the tidal ellipse, with crest-to-crest distances similar to those observed during field surveys. The crests of the bottom forms turn out to be flat, and the extensive shallow waters at the crests are compensated by deep troughs between the ridges.

  11. Automated clinical annotation of tissue bank specimens.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, John R; Gupta, Rajnish; Nie, Yimin; Patel, Ashokkumar A; Becich, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    Modern, molecular bio-medicine is driving a growing demand for extensively annotated tissue bank specimens. With careful clinical, pathologic and outcomes annotation, samples can be better matched to the research question at hand and experimental results better understood and verified. However, the difficulty and expense of detailed specimen annotation is well beyond the capability of most banks and has made access to well documented tissue a major limitation in medical re-search. In this context, we have implemented automated annotation of banked tissue by integrating data from three clinical systems--the cancer registry, the pathology LIS and the tissue bank inventory system--through a classical data warehouse environment. The project required modification of clinical systems, development of methods to identify patients between and map data elements across systems and the creation of de-identified data in data marts for use by researchers. The result has been much more extensive and accurate initial tissue annotation with less effort in the tissue bank, as well as dynamic ongoing annotation as the cancer registry follows patients over time. PMID:15360884

  12. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  13. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  14. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  15. Regenerative role of seed banks following an intense soil disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzuriaga, Arantzazu L.; Escudero, Adrián; Olano, José Miguel; Loidi, Javier

    2005-02-01

    Our main aim was to determine the contribution of the seed bank to vegetation regeneration following a disturbance consisting in a deep ploughing and a thorough homogenisation of a perennial grassland. In the seed bank prior to disturbance, seed distribution through the vertical soil profile was evaluated to determine the initial seed species structure. Then, several characteristics of the shallow seed bank and the extant vegetation were evaluated prior and following field disturbance: seed species composition and abundance, and species composition of the aboveground vegetation. The contribution of seed rain versus seed bank was evaluated by means of the comparison of the vegetation developed in plots filled with sterilised soil (seed bank removal) and the vegetation developed in non-sterilised plots in the field. The distribution of seeds through the profile indicated a sharp decline in abundance with depth, and it was probably linked to propagule morphology, with small and rounded seeds proner to being buried deeper than larger seeds. In the grassland prior to disturbance, the aboveground vegetation and seed bank species composition showed very low similarity index, most likely because during the 5 years following field abandonment, sheep pressure had caused a faster change in aboveground vegetation species composition than in seed bank species composition. Ploughing and homogenisation of the grassland led to low seed abundance in the shallow soil layer caused by dilution of the seed bank. Regardless of impoverishment in seed abundance and species richness, comparison between sterilised and non-sterilised plots showed that the seed bank acted as an effective source of colonising species and determined the aboveground species composition. To summarise, this study outlines the importance of considering several characteristics of the seed bank, such as species composition and seed abundance, in the understanding of the function of seed bank and dynamics of the vegetation following a deep ploughing and homogenisation treatment.

  16. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  17. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  18. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  19. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  20. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  1. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... properties used wholly or substantially by any subsidiary bank, is to be read and interpreted, like section 4(c)(5), as applying to shares owned indirectly by a bank holding company through a banking subsidiary... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company's subsidiary banks...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or agricultural credit banks boards of directors ownership investment may be made in...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or agricultural credit banks boards of directors ownership investment may be made in...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or agricultural credit banks boards of directors ownership investment may be made in...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or agricultural credit banks boards of directors ownership investment may be made in...

  6. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or agricultural credit banks boards of directors ownership investment may be made in...

  7. World bank and the environment: A progress report, fiscal year 1993. Annual report; Banque mondiale et l`environnement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This fourth annual report examines how well the World Bank`s environmental policies have worked during fiscal year 1993. It presents an agenda of actions that will help countries manage their environment better and link environmental protection with sustainable development. It describes ways to improve environmental impact studies of Bank-financed projects. The report notes the World Bank`s improved public communications network and increased cofinancing for environmental projects. The Bank`s work in implementing Global Environment Facility (GEF) policies and the Montreal Protocol is also reviewed.

  8. World Bank Atlas. [Twenty-Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This edition of the World Bank Atlas presents curent economic and social data for 185 countries and territories in the world. A number of maps, tables, and graphs highlight key relationships and trends in the development of the countries. The atlas includes data on population, gross national product (GNP), share of agriculture in gross domestic…

  9. Integrated Learning with International Banking Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Sabine; Briault, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The article describes an in-house executive development programme run by the authors in a leading banking group in the CEE region. The programme attempts to follow a systemic approach to learning and contains a mix of elements including action learning, classroom teaching, study, peer support and feedback and "learning visits" to participants'…

  10. A Terminology Data Bank for Translators (TEAM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, J.

    1980-01-01

    The TEAM system is a data bank developed in Germany for translators of specialized technical, economic, and scientific texts. The system is described in nontechnical language, with attention to multilingual terminology, multiword terms, phraseology, definitions and contexts, synonyms, grammatical data, and data organization and retrieval. (MSE)

  11. It is time for IsoBank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was back in 1982, when the United States was mired in the Cold War and a recession, that the National Institutes of Health awarded a five-year, $3.2 million grant to a group of scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop GenBank. It now houses nearly 200 billion bases from 178 mil...

  12. Integrated Learning with International Banking Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Sabine; Briault, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The article describes an in-house executive development programme run by the authors in a leading banking group in the CEE region. The programme attempts to follow a systemic approach to learning and contains a mix of elements including action learning, classroom teaching, study, peer support and feedback and "learning visits" to participants'…

  13. Jodrell Bank Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Jodrell Bank Observatory is part of the University of Manchester and was founded by Bernard Lovell in December 1945. Its prime instrument, the 76 m, MK1 radio-telescope, was completed in 1957. It was given a major upgrade in 1971 and is now known as the Lovell Telescope. In its early years it pioneered the technique of long baseline interferometry which led to the discovery of quasars. A majo...

  14. Bank conflict resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margio, C.; Moriarty, K. J. M.; Plache, B.; Trappenberg, T.

    1994-12-01

    Vector computers are designed for high performance computing. Their efficient utilization depends on fast memory access. In many applications memory access conflicts (bank conflicts) drastically reduce the performance. We propose a method to recognize such problems and suggest strategies to resolve them. Some experiences with an implementation for Fortran programs are outlined. These methods can similarly be used for other scientific computer languages like C or Pascal.

  15. Virtual blood bank

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

  16. Development of stem cells from umbilical cord blood and blood banking: "non-controversial" and "free of political and ethical debate"?

    PubMed

    Skene, Loane

    2012-03-01

    Opponents of human embryo research have understandably welcomed pluripotent stem cells being derived from body cells including cells from umbilical cords after childbirth. The cord would otherwise be discarded and embryos are not destroyed. However, there are other ethical, legal and political issues in cord blood collection, whether for the child's future use, or a public blood bank. Information and consent procedures may be misleading. Some parents have false hopes about potential outcomes. The right of access to stored blood and other benefits is sometimes uncertain for children and their families. Private stem cell repositories may compete with public ones. People may want to impose conditions on donation. Quality control may be an issue. PMID:22558901

  17. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  18. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  19. An Exploratory Study into the Adoption of Internet Banking in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Given that the Chinese economy has experienced rapid growth over the last decade, developing Internet banking and transforming traditional lines of products into web sites beyond "brick and mortar" local branches will be the main drivers for both Chinese banks and foreign banks to tap into the available of Chinese savings. The primary…

  20. 76 FR 10595 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... have applied to acquire M&I Bank N.A., ] upon the conversion of M&I Bank FSB, Las Vegas, Nevada, from a... community development activities, pursuant to section 225.28(b)(12) of Regulation Y; M&I Bank FSB, Las...

  1. Is the World Bank Education Policy Adequate for Fighting Poverty? Some Evidence from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonal, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between the World Bank's education policy and the recent anti-poverty priorities and strategies that shape the present Bank's agenda for development. The paper provides a critical assessment of the explicit strategies of the World Bank's education policies aimed at fighting poverty by identifying the…

  2. Automated Test Item Banking. Final Report for Period January 1977-February 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ree, Malcolm James

    The computer can assist test construction in the following four ways: (1) storage or banking of test items; (2) banking of item attributes; (3) test construction; and (4) test printing. Automated Item Banking (AIB) is a computerized item storage and test construction system which illustrates these capabilities. It was developed, implemented, and…

  3. An Exploratory Study into the Adoption of Internet Banking in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Given that the Chinese economy has experienced rapid growth over the last decade, developing Internet banking and transforming traditional lines of products into web sites beyond "brick and mortar" local branches will be the main drivers for both Chinese banks and foreign banks to tap into the available of Chinese savings. The primary…

  4. Trends in donor milk banking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L D

    2001-01-01

    Modern donor milk banking was conceived in the US in the early 1900s as a medicalized version of wet nursing. Over the course of the century the fortunes of donor milk banking have varied considerably. In the last 20 years donor milk banking has been negatively affected by the development of specialty formulas, safety issues related to viral transmission, and lack of clinical research. To survive, US milk banks have been receptive to clinical uses considered as "alternative medicine," and have cooperated with governmental agencies to develop standards for safety. A qualitative analysis of collected case histories of US donor milk recipients demonstrates that donor human milk banking can be critical to survival and the well-being of at-risk infants, children, and the occasional adult. By analyzing national data collected by survey method and examining the literature, the researcher compared German and US milk banks and distribution data. German milk banks use donor milk exclusively for premature infants and have less stringent operating standards, yet dispense volumes of milk greatly in excess of the US milk banks. While statistics are lacking for the total recipient population in the US, a projected analysis (based on German consumption) of the potential volume that could be dispensed in the US is presented, indicating that the population in need of this crucial public health service is currently under-served in the US. PMID:11787722

  5. Development of a 3D Model for the Assessment of Vulnerability Due to Sea Level Rise on the Historic Strawbery Banke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, M.; Curran, B.; Routhier, M.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Hall, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    The study of climate change is now starting to be widely researched around the world. One prominent exception to this fact is within the discipline of Historic Preservation. With the likelihood of climate change causing sea levels to rise over decades to come, historical preservationists are now looking for data and information which can help them mitigate potential threats to our cultural heritage along our sea coasts. Some such information that can be helpful in understanding these threats includes geographic information such as the locations of artifacts, fossils, and historic structures as well as their vertical elevation above mean sea level. In an effort to build a set of protocols to help preservations study these threats, our work is currently focusing on a historic living history museum site known as Strawbery Banke in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. This poster features a subset of this work that was completed through undergraduate student internships funded by the Joan and James Leitzel Center at the University of New Hampshire. This subset of work focused on the creation a 3D model of the study site. Two aspects of the creation of this model involved the completion of a topographic ground survey and the 3D digital mapping of the site itself. The ground survey was completed with the use of standard surveying techniques and tools and the 3D digital mapping was completed with the use of ArcScene, a software which is part of the ArcGIS suite. This work was completed in conjunction with a larger study funded by the National Geographic Society to better understand how sea level rise and the effects of storm surges are putting the historic structures at Strawbery Banke at risk.

  6. DOE/ANL/HTRI heat exchanger tube vibration data bank

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, H.; Chenoweth, J.M.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1980-02-01

    Development of a new heat exchanger tube vibration data bank at Argonne National Laboratory is described. Comprehensive case histories on heat exchangers that have experienced tube-vibration problems and units that have been trouble-free are accumulated and this information is rendered available for evaluation, improvement, and development of vibration-prediction methods and design guidelines. Discussions include difficulties in generating a data bank, data form development, and solicitation efforts. Also included are 15 case histories upon which the data bank will be built. As new case histories are received, they will be assembled and published as addenda to this report.

  7. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Nicholas; McCaw, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.; Medina, Maximo

    2009-10-06

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Dominican Republic, the GTRI first received contact in 2008 from the Government of Dominican Republic. They requested cooperation that was similar to the tri-partite cooperation between Colombia, Mexico and the United States. Throughout the region it was widely known that the GTRI’s cooperation with the Government of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The Government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. In 2007, Colombia was an integral component of GTRI multi-lateral cooperation initiation in Mexico. As a result, twenty two of Mexico’s largest radioactive sites have been upgraded in the past eighteen months. These two endeavors served as catalysts for cooperation opportunities in the Dominican Republic. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRI’s interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Dominican Republic and to facilitate this cooperation, they traveled to the Dominican Republic and provided briefings and presentations which demonstrated its successful cooperation with the GTRI. Shortly after that visit, the Government of Dominican Republic agreed to move forward and requested that the cooperative efforts in Dominican Republic be performed in a tripartite manner, leveraging the skills, experience, and resources of the Colombians, and the financial and technical support of the United States. As a result, two of Dominican Republic’s largest radioactive sites had security upgrades in place within 90 days of the cooperation visit in December 2008.

  8. 24 CFR 350.10 - Liability of Federal Reserve Banks as Depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 350.10 Liability of Federal Reserve Banks as Depositories....

  9. 24 CFR 350.10 - Liability of Federal Reserve Banks as Depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 350.10 Liability of Federal Reserve Banks as Depositories....

  10. 24 CFR 350.10 - Liability of Federal Reserve Banks as Depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 350.10 Liability of Federal Reserve Banks as Depositories....

  11. 24 CFR 350.10 - Liability of Federal Reserve Banks as Depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 350.10 Liability of Federal Reserve Banks as Depositories....

  12. [Quality Control in Umbilical Cord Blood Bank

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng-Li; Song, Dao-Gang; Shen, Bai-Jun; Pan, Jie

    2001-03-01

    Recent clinical reports have demonstrated that the use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) opened a new source of stem cell for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, leading to the development of cord blood banks world-wide. Prior to the large scale construction of UCB banks, quality control must be performed for health care providers and manufactures. With increasingly stringent regulatory requirement in blood industry, quality control is playing an important role in the operation of blood centers and stem cell laboratories. Reviewed the lectures in the biology of UCB and UCB banks published in recent years, our experiences were discussed in setting up Shandong blood bank to define process variables associated with the collection of UCB, to determine and optimize the procedures and materials used, to ascertain how UCB can be processed in clean room as mononucleated cell preparations, and to analyze using of long-term storage of UCB in research and clinic in the future. Our conclusions are: (1) the establishment of UCB banks for use in transplantation appears to be easy, effective and particularly suitable approach in China under cGMP conditions; (2) the procedures for volume reduction by closed and semi-automated blood processing system, SSP HLA typing, biocode and local computer net, microbiological tests and the 50 ml cryobags for storage constitute a cost efficient system for large-scale UCB banking; (3) the average of 60 ml UCB collection may contain sufficent marrow repopulating cells for children and most of adult recipients; and (4) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in cord blood have a more potent proliferative ability than those derived from bone marrow in cell expansion potentials. PMID:12578654

  13. Cord blood banking for clinical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, P

    2009-11-01

    Cord blood (CB) stem and progenitor cells from related donors have been transplanted for past 20 years and from unrelated donors issued by public CB banks for 16 years. This brief look at public CB banking highlights aspects of its current status to suggest that accomplishing the currently required tasks, though no small undertaking, is not enough: much remains to be contributed. CB banking started in the 1930s, collecting blood for transfusion and showed that CB could be effectively collected, stored and administered intravenously without negative consequences. The realization that it contains hematopoietic 'stem' cells (actually, colony-forming units) followed discoveries elsewhere in hematopoiesis research, while HLA and unrelated BMT were being investigated. Progress in the exploration of ethnically stratified HLA allele frequencies, together with plausible neonatal (partial) immunological tolerance, seemed to predict initially frequent, unavoidable, but sufficiently tolerable HLA mismatching with CB grafts. Gluckman et al. and Boyse et al. proved that HLA-identical sibling CB grafts led to definitive engraftment. Technical developments in processing and freezing enabled public banks to accumulate large inventories and to supply grafts that could succeed despite major HLA incompatibility and low cell doses and provide hope for universal access to unrelated-donor transplantation. Public CB banking has thrived worldwide. Regulation and accreditation defined Good Tissue Practice in the CB banking environment and provided accepted do's, don't's and how to's. Startling advances continue to be made, not only technical, but including the description of molecular regulation in the function of natural killer and other cells involved in allogeneic recognition that will have dramatic effects and will permit further improvement in CB selection and use. PMID:19802017

  14. Multilateral Digital Library Partnerships for Sharing and Preserving Instructional Content and Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Anna Keller

    2003-01-01

    Explores Digital Library development partnering as a strategic response to the problem of competitive convergence, and the value added to information by providing its "context of use." The latter is of strategic interest to libraries as the critical information need of library users shifts from information access to relief from abundance of…

  15. Multilateral Digital Library Partnerships for Sharing and Preserving Instructional Content and Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Anna Keller

    2003-01-01

    Explores Digital Library development partnering as a strategic response to the problem of competitive convergence, and the value added to information by providing its "context of use." The latter is of strategic interest to libraries as the critical information need of library users shifts from information access to relief from abundance of…

  16. Fostering public cord blood banking and research in Canada.

    PubMed

    Isasi, Rosario; Dalpe, Gratien; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2013-12-01

    In June 2013, Canadian Blood Services (CBS) established the National Public Cord Blood Bank (NPCBB) accessible to Canadian and international patients and researchers. The NPCBB promotes efforts that contribute to research and improved clinical care by making units not suitable for banking or transplantation available for research. In the context of the NPCBB of the CBS, this article will focus on the practical tools (e.g., consent protocols) developed to optimize umbilical cord blood (UCB) banking and research while enabling ethical provenance of UCB stem cells. The Canadian approach represents an ideal model for comparison as it is a country in which the national public bank (and other regional/provincial public banks) coexists with private companies. PMID:24304072

  17. 78 FR 33093 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... the Board of Governors. Comments must be received not later than June 18, 2013. A. Federal...

  18. 78 FR 62333 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-17

    ...; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or...

  19. 76 FR 25692 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 77 FR 64338 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors..., Minnesota; to acquire voting shares of Johnson Bancshares, Inc., and thereby indirectly acquire...

  1. 76 FR 35893 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... voting shares of Intermountain Community Bancorp, and thereby indirectly voting shares of Panhandle...

  2. 76 FR 32975 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 77 FR 46762 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... Washington, DC; to acquire voting shares of Middlefield Banc Corp., and thereby indirectly acquire...

  4. 76 FR 15981 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 77 FR 41788 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 77 FR 27061 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors.... Preston D. Pinkett, III, Gladstone, New Jersey; to acquire voting shares of City National...

  7. 77 FR 52737 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... conservator for James A. Brown, to acquire in his representative capacity additional voting shares of...

  8. 76 FR 16776 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... Apple Valley, Minnesota; to acquire voting shares of Bridgewater Bancshares, Inc., and...

  9. 76 FR 14396 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... Ralph C. Stayer, all of Naples, Florida; to acquire voting shares of Hometown Bancorp, Ltd., and...

  10. 76 FR 66719 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... 30309: 1. Guido Edwin Hinojosa Cardoso, La Paz, Bolivia; to acquire additional voting shares of...

  11. 78 FR 69671 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... voting shares of Superior Bancshares, Inc., and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of Superior...

  12. 77 FR 75163 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... acquire voting shares of First of Murphysboro Corp., and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of...

  13. 77 FR 64993 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... 23261-4528: 1. Tamra Wright Thomas, Winston Salem, North Carolina; to acquire voting shares of...

  14. 78 FR 49515 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... group acting in concert, to retain voting shares of Delhi Bancshares, Inc., and thereby...

  15. 75 FR 69666 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 76 FR 38653 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... Wilmington, Delaware; to acquire voting shares of First Mariner Bancorp, and thereby indirectly...

  17. 76 FR 68440 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors..., Minnesota 55480-0291: 1. James E. Gaarder, Ossining, New York; to retain voting shares of Citizens...

  18. 76 FR 42709 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 78 FR 34384 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... Racine, Wisconsin; to join the existing Johnson Family Control Group and acquire voting shares of...

  20. 76 FR 17863 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... or more of the voting shares of Farmers State Corporation, Mankato, Minnesota, and thereby...