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Sample records for multimodal genome-wide screens

  1. Ultrafast laser nanosurgery in microfluidics for genome-wide screenings

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Yakar, Adela; Bourgeois, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Summary The use of ultrafast laser pulses in surgery has allowed for unprecedented precision with minimal collateral damage to surrounding tissues. For these reasons, ultrafast laser nanosurgery, as an injury model, has gained tremendous momentum in experimental biology ranging from in-vitro manipulations of subcellular structures to in-vivo studies in whole living organisms. For example, femtosecond laser nanosurgery on such model organism as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has opened new opportunities for in-vivo nerve regeneration studies. Meanwhile, the development of novel microfluidic devices has brought the control in experimental environment to the level required for precise nanosurgery in various animal models. Merging microfluidics and laser nanosurgery has recently improved the specificities and increased the speed of laser surgeries enabling fast genome-wide screenings that can more readily decode the genetic map of various biological processes. PMID:19278850

  2. Genome-wide screening and identification of antigens for rickettsial vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity to identify immunogens for vaccine development by genome-wide screening has been markedly enhanced by the availability of complete microbial genome sequences coupled to rapid proteomic and bioinformatic analysis. Critical to this genome-wide screening is in vivo testing in the context o...

  3. Integrative analysis of genome-wide RNA interference screens.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Jason D; Biechele, Travis L; Moon, Randall T; Major, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput genetic screens have exponentially increased the functional annotation of the genome over the past 10 years. Likewise, genome-scale efforts to map DNA methylation, chromatin state and occupancy, messenger RNA expression patterns, and disease-associated genetic polymorphisms, and proteome-wide efforts to map protein-protein interactions, have also created vast resources of data. An emerging trend involves combining multiple types of data, referred to as integrative screening. Examples include papers that report integrated data generated from large-scale RNA interference screens on the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway with either genotypic or proteomic data in colorectal cancer. These studies demonstrate the power of data integration to generate focused, validated data sets and to identify high-confidence candidate genes for follow-up experiments. We present the ongoing evolution and new strategies for the integrative screening approach with respect to understanding and treating human disease. PMID:19436058

  4. High-Throughput, Liquid-Based Genome-Wide RNAi Screening in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Linda P; Knoerdel, Ryan R; Silverman, Gary A; Pak, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in which double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules mediate the inhibition of gene expression. RNAi in C. elegans can be achieved by simply feeding animals with bacteria expressing dsRNA against the gene of interest. This "feeding" method has made it possible to conduct genome-wide RNAi experiments for the systematic knockdown and subsequent investigation of almost every single gene in the genome. Historically, these genome-scale RNAi screens have been labor and time intensive. However, recent advances in automated, high-throughput methodologies have allowed the development of more rapid and efficient screening protocols. In this report, we describe a fast and efficient, liquid-based method for genome-wide RNAi screening. PMID:27581291

  5. Genome-Wide Screen Reveals Valosin-Containing Protein Requirement for Coronavirus Exit from Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hui Hui; Kumar, Pankaj; Tay, Felicia Pei Ling; Moreau, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coronaviruses are RNA viruses with a large zoonotic reservoir and propensity for host switching, representing a real threat for public health, as evidenced by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Cellular factors required for their replication are poorly understood. Using genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening, we identified 83 novel genes supporting infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) replication in human cells. Thirty of these hits can be placed in a network of interactions with viral proteins and are involved in RNA splicing, membrane trafficking, and ubiquitin conjugation. In addition, our screen reveals an unexpected role for valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97) in early steps of infection. Loss of VCP inhibits a previously uncharacterized degradation of the nucleocapsid N protein. This inhibition derives from virus accumulation in early endosomes, suggesting a role for VCP in the maturation of virus-loaded endosomes. The several host factors identified in this study may provide avenues for targeted therapeutics. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are RNA viruses representing a real threat for public health, as evidenced by SARS and the emerging MERS. However, cellular factors required for their replication are poorly understood. Using genome-wide siRNA screening, we identified novel genes supporting infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) replication in human cells. The several host factors identified in this study may provide directions for future research on targeted therapeutics. PMID:26311884

  6. A genome-wide RNAi screening method to discover novel genes involved in virus infection.

    PubMed

    Panda, Debasis; Cherry, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Systematic and comprehensive analysis of host cell proteins involved in virus infection has been difficult in large part due to the lack of robust unbiased methods for their identification. Recent technological breakthroughs allowing development of cell-based genetic screens have greatly facilitated our understanding of virus-host interactions. These include instrumentation for processing in microtiter plates (e.g., 384 well), coupled with sensitive readers and off-the-shelf analysis and informatics pipelines. Because viruses are a significant threat to human health, a better understanding of the cellular factors that impact infection would pave the way for the development of new therapeutics. Here we describe the development and implementation of a genome-wide siRNA screen against a virus using human cells. PMID:26164699

  7. A Genome-Wide RNAi Screen to Dissect Centriole Duplication and Centrosome Maturation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dobbelaere, Jeroen; Josué, Filipe; Suijkerbuijk, Saskia; Baum, Buzz; Tapon, Nicolas; Raff, Jordan

    2008-01-01

    Centrosomes comprise a pair of centrioles surrounded by an amorphous pericentriolar material (PCM). Here, we have performed a microscopy-based genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila cells to identify proteins required for centriole duplication and mitotic PCM recruitment. We analysed 92% of the Drosophila genome (13,059 genes) and identified 32 genes involved in centrosome function. An extensive series of secondary screens classified these genes into four categories: (1) nine are required for centriole duplication, (2) 11 are required for centrosome maturation, (3) nine are required for both functions, and (4) three genes regulate centrosome separation. These 32 hits include several new centrosomal components, some of which have human homologs. In addition, we find that the individual depletion of only two proteins, Polo and Centrosomin (Cnn) can completely block centrosome maturation. Cnn is phosphorylated during mitosis in a Polo-dependent manner, suggesting that the Polo-dependent phosphorylation of Cnn initiates centrosome maturation in flies. PMID:18798690

  8. A Drosophila Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Regulators of Steroid Hormone Production and Developmental Timing.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Thomas; Moeller, Morten E; Yamanaka, Naoki; Ou, Qiuxiang; Laursen, Janne M; Soenderholm, Caecilie; Zhuo, Ran; Phelps, Brian; Tang, Kevin; Zeng, Jie; Kondo, Shu; Nielsen, Christian H; Harvald, Eva B; Faergeman, Nils J; Haley, Macy J; O'Connor, Kyle A; King-Jones, Kirst; O'Connor, Michael B; Rewitz, Kim F

    2016-06-20

    Steroid hormones control important developmental processes and are linked to many diseases. To systematically identify genes and pathways required for steroid production, we performed a Drosophila genome-wide in vivo RNAi screen and identified 1,906 genes with potential roles in steroidogenesis and developmental timing. Here, we use our screen as a resource to identify mechanisms regulating intracellular levels of cholesterol, a substrate for steroidogenesis. We identify a conserved fatty acid elongase that underlies a mechanism that adjusts cholesterol trafficking and steroidogenesis with nutrition and developmental programs. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of an autophagosomal cholesterol mobilization mechanism and show that activation of this system rescues Niemann-Pick type C1 deficiency that causes a disorder characterized by cholesterol accumulation. These cholesterol-trafficking mechanisms are regulated by TOR and feedback signaling that couples steroidogenesis with growth and ensures proper maturation timing. These results reveal genes regulating steroidogenesis during development that likely modulate disease mechanisms. PMID:27326933

  9. A human genome-wide loss-of-function screen identifies effective chikungunya antiviral drugs

    PubMed Central

    Karlas, Alexander; Berre, Stefano; Couderc, Thérèse; Varjak, Margus; Braun, Peter; Meyer, Michael; Gangneux, Nicolas; Karo-Astover, Liis; Weege, Friderike; Raftery, Martin; Schönrich, Günther; Klemm, Uwe; Wurzlbauer, Anne; Bracher, Franz; Merits, Andres; Meyer, Thomas F.; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally spreading alphavirus against which there is no commercially available vaccine or therapy. Here we use a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify 156 proviral and 41 antiviral host factors affecting CHIKV replication. We analyse the cellular pathways in which human proviral genes are involved and identify druggable targets. Twenty-one small-molecule inhibitors, some of which are FDA approved, targeting six proviral factors or pathways, have high antiviral activity in vitro, with low toxicity. Three identified inhibitors have prophylactic antiviral effects in mouse models of chikungunya infection. Two of them, the calmodulin inhibitor pimozide and the fatty acid synthesis inhibitor TOFA, have a therapeutic effect in vivo when combined. These results demonstrate the value of loss-of-function screening and pathway analysis for the rational identification of small molecules with therapeutic potential and pave the way for the development of new, host-directed, antiviral agents. PMID:27177310

  10. Genome-wide uniparental disomy screen in human discarded morphologically abnormal embryos

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawei; Zhang, Meixiang; Niu, Wenbin; Yao, Guidong; Sun, Bo; Bao, Xiao; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been shown to be rare in human normal blastocysts, but its frequency in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and its relevance to embryonic self-correction of aneuploid remains unknown. The aim of this study was to detect UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Both discarded morphologically abnormal embryos, including zero-pronuclear zygotes (0PN), one-pronuclear zygotes (1PN), three-pronuclear zygotes (3PN) and 2PN embryos scored as low development potential were cultured into blastocysts then underwent trophectoderm biopsy. Genome-wide UPD screening of the trophectoderm of 241 discarded morphologically abnormal embryo sourced blastocysts showed that UPD occurred in nine embryos. Five embryos exhibited UPDs with euploid chromosomes, and four displayed UPDs with chromosomal aneuploid. The percentage of UPDs among the morphologically abnormal sourced blastocysts was 3.73%, which is significant higher than the percentage observed in normal blastocysts. The frequency of UPD in 3PN-sourced blastocysts was 7.69%, which is significantly higher than that in normal blastocysts. This study provides the first systematic genome-wide profile of UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Our results indicated that UPD may be a common phenomenon in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and may be relevant to human embryonic self-correction. PMID:26194013

  11. Genome-wide uniparental disomy screen in human discarded morphologically abnormal embryos.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawei; Zhang, Meixiang; Niu, Wenbin; Yao, Guidong; Sun, Bo; Bao, Xiao; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been shown to be rare in human normal blastocysts, but its frequency in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and its relevance to embryonic self-correction of aneuploid remains unknown. The aim of this study was to detect UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Both discarded morphologically abnormal embryos, including zero-pronuclear zygotes (0PN), one-pronuclear zygotes (1PN), three-pronuclear zygotes (3PN) and 2PN embryos scored as low development potential were cultured into blastocysts then underwent trophectoderm biopsy. Genome-wide UPD screening of the trophectoderm of 241 discarded morphologically abnormal embryo sourced blastocysts showed that UPD occurred in nine embryos. Five embryos exhibited UPDs with euploid chromosomes, and four displayed UPDs with chromosomal aneuploid. The percentage of UPDs among the morphologically abnormal sourced blastocysts was 3.73%, which is significant higher than the percentage observed in normal blastocysts. The frequency of UPD in 3PN-sourced blastocysts was 7.69%, which is significantly higher than that in normal blastocysts. This study provides the first systematic genome-wide profile of UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Our results indicated that UPD may be a common phenomenon in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and may be relevant to human embryonic self-correction. PMID:26194013

  12. A Genome-Wide Screen with Nicotinamide to Identify Sirtuin-Dependent Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Choy, John S.; Qadri, Bayan; Henry, Leah; Shroff, Kunal; Bifarin, Olatomiwa; Basrai, Munira A.

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins are evolutionarily conserved NAD-dependent deacetylases that catalyze the cleavage of NAD+ into nicotinamide (NAM), which can act as a pan-sirtuin inhibitor in unicellular and multicellular organisms. Sirtuins regulate processes such as transcription, DNA damage repair, chromosome segregation, and longevity extension in yeast and metazoans. The founding member of the evolutionarily conserved sirtuin family, SIR2, was first identified in budding yeast. Subsequent studies led to the identification of four yeast SIR2 homologs HST1, HST2, HST3, and HST4. Understanding the downstream physiological consequences of inhibiting sirtuins can be challenging since most studies focus on single or double deletions of sirtuins, and mating defects in SIR2 deletions hamper genome-wide screens. This represents an important gap in our knowledge of how sirtuins function in highly complex biological processes such as aging, metabolism, and chromosome segregation. In this report, we used a genome-wide screen to explore sirtuin-dependent processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by identifying deletion mutants that are sensitive to NAM. We identified 55 genes in total, 36 of which have not been previously reported to be dependent on sirtuins. We find that genome stability pathways are particularly vulnerable to loss of sirtuin activity. Here, we provide evidence that defects in sister chromatid cohesion renders cells sensitive to growth in the presence of NAM. The results of our screen provide a broad view of the biological pathways sensitive to inhibition of sirtuins, and advance our understanding of the function of sirtuins and NAD+ biology. PMID:26646153

  13. Next-generation libraries for robust RNA interference-based genome-wide screens

    PubMed Central

    Kampmann, Martin; Horlbeck, Max A.; Chen, Yuwen; Tsai, Jordan C.; Bassik, Michael C.; Gilbert, Luke A.; Villalta, Jacqueline E.; Kwon, S. Chul; Chang, Hyeshik; Kim, V. Narry; Weissman, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic screening based on loss-of-function phenotypes is a powerful discovery tool in biology. Although the recent development of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based screening approaches in mammalian cell culture has enormous potential, RNA interference (RNAi)-based screening remains the method of choice in several biological contexts. We previously demonstrated that ultracomplex pooled short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) libraries can largely overcome the problem of RNAi off-target effects in genome-wide screens. Here, we systematically optimize several aspects of our shRNA library, including the promoter and microRNA context for shRNA expression, selection of guide strands, and features relevant for postscreen sample preparation for deep sequencing. We present next-generation high-complexity libraries targeting human and mouse protein-coding genes, which we grouped into 12 sublibraries based on biological function. A pilot screen suggests that our next-generation RNAi library performs comparably to current CRISPR interference (CRISPRi)-based approaches and can yield complementary results with high sensitivity and high specificity. PMID:26080438

  14. A genome-wide screen for genes affecting eisosomes reveals Nce102 function in sphingolipid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Florian; Moreira, Karen; Aguilar, Pablo S.; Hubner, Nina C.; Mann, Matthias; Walter, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The protein and lipid composition of eukaryotic plasma membranes is highly dynamic and regulated according to need. The sphingolipid-responsive Pkh kinases are candidates for mediating parts of this regulation, as they affect a diverse set of plasma membrane functions, such as cortical actin patch organization, efficient endocytosis, and eisosome assembly. Eisosomes are large protein complexes underlying the plasma membrane and help to sort a group of membrane proteins into distinct domains. In this study, we identify Nce102 in a genome-wide screen for genes involved in eisosome organization and Pkh kinase signaling. Nce102 accumulates in membrane domains at eisosomes where Pkh kinases also localize. The relative abundance of Nce102 in these domains compared with the rest of the plasma membrane is dynamically regulated by sphingolipids. Furthermore, Nce102 inhibits Pkh kinase signaling and is required for plasma membrane organization. Therefore, Nce102 might act as a sensor of sphingolipids that regulates plasma membrane function. PMID:19564405

  15. Genome-wide association study of coronary and aortic calcification in lung cancer screening CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Bob D.; van Setten, Jessica; de Jong, Pim A.; Mali, Willem P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Arterial calcification has been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis. However, little is known about the role of genetics and exact pathways leading to arterial calcification and its relation to bone density changes indicating osteoporosis. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study of arterial calcification burden, followed by a look-up of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI), and bone mineral density (BMD) to test for a shared genetic basis between the traits. The study included a subcohort of the Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening trial comprised of 2,561 participants. Participants underwent baseline CT screening in one of two hospitals participating in the trial. Low-dose chest CT images were acquired without contrast enhancement and without ECG-synchronization. In these images coronary and aortic calcifications were identified automatically. Subsequently, the detected calcifications were quantified using coronary artery calcium Agatston and volume scores. Genotype data was available for these participants. A genome-wide association study was conducted on 10,220,814 SNPs using a linear regression model. To reduce multiple testing burden, known CAD/MI and BMD SNPs were specifically tested (45 SNPs from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium and 60 SNPS from the GEFOS consortium). No novel significant SNPs were found. Significant enrichment for CAD/MI SNPs was observed in testing Agatston and coronary artery calcium volume scores. Moreover, a significant enrichment of BMD SNPs was shown in aortic calcium volume scores. This may indicate genetic relation of BMD SNPs and arterial calcification burden.

  16. Genome-wide CRISPR screen in a mouse model of tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sidi; Sanjana, Neville E.; Zheng, Kaijie; Shalem, Ophir; Lee, Kyungheon; Shi, Xi; Scott, David A.; Song, Jun; Pan, Jen Q.; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho; Zhang, Feng; Sharp, Phillip A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genetic screens are powerful tools for identifying genes responsible for diverse phenotypes. Here we describe a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9-mediated loss-of-function screen in tumor growth and metastasis. We mutagenized a non-metastatic mouse cancer cell line using a genome-scale library with 67,405 single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). The mutant cell pool rapidly generates metastases when transplanted into immunocompromised mice. Enriched sgRNAs in lung metastases and late stage primary tumors were found to target a small set of genes, suggesting specific loss-of-function mutations drive tumor growth and metastasis. Individual sgRNAs and a small pool of 624 sgRNAs targeting the top scoring genes from the primary screen dramatically accelerate metastasis. In all of these experiments, the effect of mutations on primary tumor growth positively correlates with the development of metastases. Our study demonstrates Cas9-based screening as a robust method to systematically assay gene phenotypes in cancer evolution in vivo. PMID:25748654

  17. Genome-Wide Synthetic Genetic Screening by Transposon Mutagenesis in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Brooke N.; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Transposon-based mutagenesis is an effective method for genetic screening on a genome-wide scale, with particular applicability in organisms possessing compact genomes where transforming DNA tends to integrate by homologous recombination. Methods for transposon mutagenesis have been applied with great success in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. In C. albicans, we have implemented transposon mutagenesis to generate heterozygous mutations for the analysis of complex haploinsufficiency, a type of synthetic genetic interaction wherein a pair of non-complementing heterozygous mutations results in a stronger phenotype then either individual mutation in isolation. Genes exhibiting complex haploinsufficiency typically function within a regulatory pathway, in parallel pathways, or in parallel branches within a single pathway. Here, we present protocols to implement transposon mutagenesis for complex haploinsufficiency screening in C. albicans, indicating methods for transposon construction, mutagenesis, phenotypic screening, and identification of insertion sites in strains of interest. In total, the approach is a useful means to implement large-scale synthetic genetic screening in the diploid C. albicans. PMID:25636616

  18. Genome-wide RNAi screening identifies genes inhibiting the migration of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Fan, Jing; Li, Ying; Li, Fuhai; Chen, Peikai; Fan, Yubo; Xia, Xiaofeng; Wong, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) cells are highly invasive, infiltrating into the surrounding normal brain tissue, making it impossible to completely eradicate GBM tumors by surgery or radiation. Increasing evidence also shows that these migratory cells are highly resistant to cytotoxic reagents, but decreasing their migratory capability can re-sensitize them to chemotherapy. These evidences suggest that the migratory cell population may serve as a better therapeutic target for more effective treatment of GBM. In order to understand the regulatory mechanism underlying the motile phenotype, we carried out a genome-wide RNAi screen for genes inhibiting the migration of GBM cells. The screening identified a total of twenty-five primary hits; seven of them were confirmed by secondary screening. Further study showed that three of the genes, FLNA, KHSRP and HCFC1, also functioned in vivo, and knocking them down caused multifocal tumor in a mouse model. Interestingly, two genes, KHSRP and HCFC1, were also found to be correlated with the clinical outcome of GBM patients. These two genes have not been previously associated with cell migration. PMID:23593504

  19. Genome-Wide RNAi Screening to Dissect the TGF-β Signal Transduction Pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochu; Xu, Lan

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of cytokines figures prominently in regulation of embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis from Drosophila to mammals. Genetic defects affecting TGF-β signaling underlie developmental disorders and diseases such as cancer in human. Therefore, delineating the molecular mechanism by which TGF-β regulates cell biology is critical for understanding normal biology and disease mechanisms. Forward genetic screens in model organisms and biochemical approaches in mammalian tissue culture were instrumental in initial characterization of the TGF-β signal transduction pathway. With complete sequence information of the genomes and the advent of RNA interference (RNAi) technology, genome-wide RNAi screening emerged as a powerful functional genomics approach to systematically delineate molecular components of signal transduction pathways. Here, we describe a protocol for image-based whole-genome RNAi screening aimed at identifying molecules required for TGF-β signaling into the nucleus. Using this protocol we examined >90 % of annotated Drosophila open reading frames (ORF) individually and successfully uncovered several novel factors serving critical roles in the TGF-β pathway. Thus cell-based high-throughput functional genomics can uncover new mechanistic insights on signaling pathways beyond what the classical genetics had revealed. PMID:26520138

  20. Genome-wide Screen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Identifies New Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zrieq, Rafat; Sana, Thibault G.; Vergin, Sandra; Garvis, Steve; Volfson, Irina; Bleves, Sophie; Voulhoux, Romé; Hegemann, Johannes H.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human opportunistic pathogen that causes mortality in cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. While many virulence factors of this pathogen have already been identified, several remain to be discovered. In this respect we set an unprecedented genome-wide screen of a P. aeruginosa expression library based on a yeast growth phenotype. Fifty-one candidates were selected in athree-round screening process. The robustness of the screen was validated by the selection of three well known secreted proteins including one demonstrated virulence factor, the protease LepA. Further in silico sorting of the 51 candidates highlighted three potential new Pseudomonas effector candidates (Pec). By testing the cytotoxicity of wild type P. aeruginosa vs. pec mutants toward macrophages and the virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans model, we demonstrated that the three selected Pecs are novel virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. Additional cellular localization experiments in the host revealed specific localization for Pec1 and Pec2 that could inform about their respective functions. PMID:26636043

  1. Functional genome-wide siRNA screen identifies KIAA0586 as mutated in Joubert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roosing, Susanne; Hofree, Matan; Kim, Sehyun; Scott, Eric; Copeland, Brett; Romani, Marta; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Rosti, Rasim O; Schroth, Jana; Mazza, Tommaso; Miccinilli, Elide; Zaki, Maha S; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Milisa-Drautz, Joanne; Dobyns, William B; Mikati, Mohamed A; İncecik, Faruk; Azam, Matloob; Borgatti, Renato; Romaniello, Romina; Boustany, Rose-Mary; Clericuzio, Carol L; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Strømme, Petter; Boltshauser, Eugen; Stanzial, Franco; Mirabelli-Badenier, Marisol; Moroni, Isabella; Bertini, Enrico; Emma, Francesco; Steinlin, Maja; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Johnson, Colin A; Freilinger, Michael; Vaux, Keith K; Gabriel, Stacey B; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Ideker, Trey; Dynlacht, Brian D; Lee, Ji Eun; Valente, Enza Maria; Kim, Joon; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2015-01-01

    Defective primary ciliogenesis or cilium stability forms the basis of human ciliopathies, including Joubert syndrome (JS), with defective cerebellar vermis development. We performed a high-content genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen to identify genes regulating ciliogenesis as candidates for JS. We analyzed results with a supervised-learning approach, using SYSCILIA gold standard, Cildb3.0, a centriole siRNA screen and the GTex project, identifying 591 likely candidates. Intersection of this data with whole exome results from 145 individuals with unexplained JS identified six families with predominantly compound heterozygous mutations in KIAA0586. A c.428del base deletion in 0.1% of the general population was found in trans with a second mutation in an additional set of 9 of 163 unexplained JS patients. KIAA0586 is an orthologue of chick Talpid3, required for ciliogenesis and Sonic hedgehog signaling. Our results uncover a relatively high frequency cause for JS and contribute a list of candidates for future gene discoveries in ciliopathies. PMID:26026149

  2. Characterizing protein interactions employing a genome-wide siRNA cellular phenotyping screen.

    PubMed

    Suratanee, Apichat; Schaefer, Martin H; Betts, Matthew J; Soons, Zita; Mannsperger, Heiko; Harder, Nathalie; Oswald, Marcus; Gipp, Markus; Ramminger, Ellen; Marcus, Guillermo; Männer, Reinhard; Rohr, Karl; Wanker, Erich; Russell, Robert B; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Eils, Roland; König, Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Characterizing the activating and inhibiting effect of protein-protein interactions (PPI) is fundamental to gain insight into the complex signaling system of a human cell. A plethora of methods has been suggested to infer PPI from data on a large scale, but none of them is able to characterize the effect of this interaction. Here, we present a novel computational development that employs mitotic phenotypes of a genome-wide RNAi knockdown screen and enables identifying the activating and inhibiting effects of PPIs. Exemplarily, we applied our technique to a knockdown screen of HeLa cells cultivated at standard conditions. Using a machine learning approach, we obtained high accuracy (82% AUC of the receiver operating characteristics) by cross-validation using 6,870 known activating and inhibiting PPIs as gold standard. We predicted de novo unknown activating and inhibiting effects for 1,954 PPIs in HeLa cells covering the ten major signaling pathways of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and made these predictions publicly available in a database. We finally demonstrate that the predicted effects can be used to cluster knockdown genes of similar biological processes in coherent subgroups. The characterization of the activating or inhibiting effect of individual PPIs opens up new perspectives for the interpretation of large datasets of PPIs and thus considerably increases the value of PPIs as an integrated resource for studying the detailed function of signaling pathways of the cellular system of interest. PMID:25255318

  3. An Efficient Genome-Wide Fusion Partner Screening System for Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung-Hoon; Hyun Sung, Bong; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Soon-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Mook; Kim, Mi-Jin; Lee, Cho-Ryong; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    To produce rarely secreted recombinant proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we developed a novel genome-wide optimal translational fusion partner (TFP) screening system that involves recruitment of an optimal secretion signal and fusion partner. A TFP library was constructed from a genomic and truncated cDNA library by using the invertase-based signal sequence trap technique. The efficiency of the system was demonstrated using two rarely secreted proteins, human interleukin (hIL)-2 and hIL-32. Optimal TFPs for secretion of hIL-2 and hIL-32 were easily selected, yielding secretion of these proteins up to hundreds of mg/L. Moreover, numerous uncovered yeast secretion signals and fusion partners were identified, leading to efficient secretion of various recombinant proteins. Selected TFPs were found to be useful for the hypersecretion of other recombinant proteins at yields of up to several g/L. This screening technique could provide new methods for the production of various types of difficult-to-express proteins. PMID:26195161

  4. Genome-wide RNAi screen for nuclear actin reveals a network of cofilin regulators

    PubMed Central

    Dopie, Joseph; Rajakylä, Eeva K.; Joensuu, Merja S.; Huet, Guillaume; Ferrantelli, Evelina; Xie, Tiao; Jäälinoja, Harri; Jokitalo, Eija; Vartiainen, Maria K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear actin plays an important role in many processes that regulate gene expression. Cytoplasmic actin dynamics are tightly controlled by numerous actin-binding proteins, but regulation of nuclear actin has remained unclear. Here, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila cells to identify proteins that influence either nuclear polymerization or import of actin. We validate 19 factors as specific hits, and show that Chinmo (known as Bach2 in mammals), SNF4Aγ (Prkag1 in mammals) and Rab18 play a role in nuclear localization of actin in both fly and mammalian cells. We identify several new regulators of cofilin activity, and characterize modulators of both cofilin kinases and phosphatase. For example, Chinmo/Bach2, which regulates nuclear actin levels also in vivo, maintains active cofilin by repressing the expression of the kinase Cdi (Tesk in mammals). Finally, we show that Nup98 and lamin are candidates for regulating nuclear actin polymerization. Our screen therefore reveals new aspects of actin regulation and links nuclear actin to many cellular processes. PMID:26021350

  5. Genome-wide RNAi screen for nuclear actin reveals a network of cofilin regulators.

    PubMed

    Dopie, Joseph; Rajakylä, Eeva K; Joensuu, Merja S; Huet, Guillaume; Ferrantelli, Evelina; Xie, Tiao; Jäälinoja, Harri; Jokitalo, Eija; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear actin plays an important role in many processes that regulate gene expression. Cytoplasmic actin dynamics are tightly controlled by numerous actin-binding proteins, but regulation of nuclear actin has remained unclear. Here, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila cells to identify proteins that influence either nuclear polymerization or import of actin. We validate 19 factors as specific hits, and show that Chinmo (known as Bach2 in mammals), SNF4Aγ (Prkag1 in mammals) and Rab18 play a role in nuclear localization of actin in both fly and mammalian cells. We identify several new regulators of cofilin activity, and characterize modulators of both cofilin kinases and phosphatase. For example, Chinmo/Bach2, which regulates nuclear actin levels also in vivo, maintains active cofilin by repressing the expression of the kinase Cdi (Tesk in mammals). Finally, we show that Nup98 and lamin are candidates for regulating nuclear actin polymerization. Our screen therefore reveals new aspects of actin regulation and links nuclear actin to many cellular processes. PMID:26021350

  6. A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies a new transcriptional module required for self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang; Kim, Jonghwan; Xu, Qikai; Leng, Yumei; Orkin, Stuart H; Elledge, Stephen J

    2009-04-01

    We performed a genome-wide siRNA screen in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to identify genes essential for self-renewal, and found 148 genes whose down-regulation caused differentiation. Many of the identified genes function in gene regulation and/or development, and are highly expressed in ES cells and embryonic tissues. We further identified target genes of two transcription regulators Cnot3 and Trim28. We discovered that Cnot3 and Trim28 co-occupy many putative gene promoters with c-Myc and Zfx, but not other pluripotency-associated transcription factors. They form a unique module in the self-renewal transcription network, separate from the core module formed by Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2. The transcriptional targets of this module are enriched for genes involved in cell cycle, cell death, and cancer. This supports the idea that regulatory networks controlling self-renewal in stem cells may also be active in certain cancers and may represent novel anti-cancer targets. Our screen has implicated over 100 new genes in ES cell self-renewal, and illustrates the power of RNAi and forward genetics for the systematic study of self-renewal. PMID:19339689

  7. A Genome-wide CRISPR Screen in Toxoplasma Identifies Essential Apicomplexan Genes.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Saima M; Huet, Diego; Ganesan, Suresh M; Huynh, My-Hang; Wang, Tim; Nasamu, Armiyaw S; Thiru, Prathapan; Saeij, Jeroen P J; Carruthers, Vern B; Niles, Jacquin C; Lourido, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Apicomplexan parasites are leading causes of human and livestock diseases such as malaria and toxoplasmosis, yet most of their genes remain uncharacterized. Here, we present the first genome-wide genetic screen of an apicomplexan. We adapted CRISPR/Cas9 to assess the contribution of each gene from the parasite Toxoplasma gondii during infection of human fibroblasts. Our analysis defines ∼200 previously uncharacterized, fitness-conferring genes unique to the phylum, from which 16 were investigated, revealing essential functions during infection of human cells. Secondary screens identify as an invasion factor the claudin-like apicomplexan microneme protein (CLAMP), which resembles mammalian tight-junction proteins and localizes to secretory organelles, making it critical to the initiation of infection. CLAMP is present throughout sequenced apicomplexan genomes and is essential during the asexual stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. These results provide broad-based functional information on T. gondii genes and will facilitate future approaches to expand the horizon of antiparasitic interventions. PMID:27594426

  8. Genome-wide functional screen identifies a compendium of genes affecting sensitivity to tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Pereira, Ana M.; Sims, David; Dexter, Tim; Fenwick, Kerry; Assiotis, Ioannis; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Hakas, Jarle; Zvelebil, Marketa; Lord, Christopher J.; Ashworth, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Therapies that target estrogen signaling have made a very considerable contribution to reducing mortality from breast cancer. However, resistance to tamoxifen remains a major clinical problem. Here we have used a genome-wide functional profiling approach to identify multiple genes that confer resistance or sensitivity to tamoxifen. Combining whole-genome shRNA screening with massively parallel sequencing, we have profiled the impact of more than 56,670 RNA interference reagents targeting 16,487 genes on the cellular response to tamoxifen. This screen, along with subsequent validation experiments, identifies a compendium of genes whose silencing causes tamoxifen resistance (including BAP1, CLPP, GPRC5D, NAE1, NF1, NIPBL, NSD1, RAD21, RARG, SMC3, and UBA3) and also a set of genes whose silencing causes sensitivity to this endocrine agent (C10orf72, C15orf55/NUT, EDF1, ING5, KRAS, NOC3L, PPP1R15B, RRAS2, TMPRSS2, and TPM4). Multiple individual genes, including NF1, a regulator of RAS signaling, also correlate with clinical outcome after tamoxifen treatment. PMID:21482774

  9. Genome-Wide Screening for Genes Associated with FK506 Sensitivity in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Jiang, Weijuan; Liu, Qingbin; Ryuko, Sayomi; Kuno, Takayoshi

    2011-01-01

    We have been studying calcineurin signal transduction pathway in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) by developing a genetic screen for mutants that show hypersensitivity to the immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitor FK506 (tacrolimus). In the present study, to identify nonessential genes that are functionally related to the calcineurin signaling pathway, we performed a genome-wide screen of 3004 haploid deletion strains and confirmed 72 deletion strains to be FK506 sensitive. These 72 genes are classified into nine functional groups to include membrane trafficking (16 genes), signal transduction (10 genes), ubiquitination (8 genes), chromatin remodeling (6 genes), cytokinesis (4 genes), ribosomal protein (3 genes), RNA binding protein (3 genes), and a variety of other known functions (17 genes) or still unknown functions (5 genes) in the biological system. In our previous screening of FK506-sensitive mutants we isolated several membrane-trafficking mutants showing defective cell wall integrity. Here, we further examined the vacuolar fusion, the v-SNARE synaptobrevin Syb1 localization, and the sensitivity to the β-glucan synthase inhibitor micafungin in these 72 FK506-sensitive strains. Results showed that 25 deletion strains exhibited abnormal vacuole fusion, 19 deletion strains exhibited Syb1 mislocalization, and 14 deletion strains exhibited both abnormal vacuole fusion and Syb1 mislocalization, while 42 deletion strains showed both normal vacuole fusion and Syb1 localization. Likewise, 16 deletion strains showed sensitivity to micafungin. Altogether, our present study indicates that calcineurin mediates a plethora of physiological processes in fission yeast, and that calcineurin is extensively involved in cross-talk between signaling pathways. PMID:21850271

  10. From The Cover: Genome-wide RNA interference screen identifies previously undescribed regulators of polyglutamine aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nollen, Ellen A. A.; Garcia, Susana M.; van Haaften, Gijs; Kim, Soojin; Chavez, Alejandro; Morimoto, Richard I.; Plasterk, Ronald H. A.

    2004-04-01

    Protein misfolding and the formation of aggregates are increasingly recognized components of the pathology of human genetic disease and hallmarks of many neurodegenerative disorders. As exemplified by polyglutamine diseases, the propensity for protein misfolding is associated with the length of polyglutamine expansions and age-dependent changes in protein-folding homeostasis, suggesting a critical role for a protein homeostatic buffer. To identify the complement of protein factors that protects cells against the formation of protein aggregates, we tested transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains expressing polyglutamine expansion yellow fluorescent protein fusion proteins at the threshold length associated with the age-dependent appearance of protein aggregation. We used genome-wide RNA interference to identify genes that, when suppressed, resulted in the premature appearance of protein aggregates. Our screen identified 186 genes corresponding to five principal classes of polyglutamine regulators: genes involved in RNA metabolism, protein synthesis, protein folding, and protein degradation; and those involved in protein trafficking. We propose that each of these classes represents a molecular machine collectively comprising the protein homeostatic buffer that responds to the expression of damaged proteins to prevent their misfolding and aggregation. protein misfolding | neurodegenerative diseases

  11. Genome-Wide RNAi Screen Identifies Novel Host Proteins Required for Alphavirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Gwen M.; Kielian, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The enveloped alphaviruses include important and emerging human pathogens such as Chikungunya virus and Eastern equine encephalitis virus. Alphaviruses enter cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and exit by budding from the plasma membrane. While there has been considerable progress in defining the structure and function of the viral proteins, relatively little is known about the host factors involved in alphavirus infection. We used a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify host factors that promote or inhibit alphavirus infection in human cells. Fuzzy homologue (FUZ), a protein with reported roles in planar cell polarity and cilia biogenesis, was required for the clathrin-dependent internalization of both alphaviruses and the classical endocytic ligand transferrin. The tetraspanin membrane protein TSPAN9 was critical for the efficient fusion of low pH-triggered virus with the endosome membrane. FUZ and TSPAN9 were broadly required for infection by the alphaviruses Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, and Chikungunya virus, but were not required by the structurally-related flavivirus Dengue virus. Our results highlight the unanticipated functions of FUZ and TSPAN9 in distinct steps of alphavirus entry and suggest novel host proteins that may serve as targets for antiviral therapy. PMID:24367265

  12. Genome-Wide Screening of Genes Regulated by DNA Methylation in Colon Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Galamb, Orsolya; Wichmann, Barna; Sipos, Ferenc; Péterfia, Bálint; Csabai, István; Kovalszky, Ilona; Semsey, Szabolcs; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2012-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is accompanied by changes in the DNA methylation pattern. Our aim was to test a novel approach for identification of transcripts at whole transcript level which are regulated by DNA methylation. Our approach is based on comparison of data obtained from transcriptome profiling of primary human samples and in vitro cell culture models. Epithelial cells were collected by LCM from normal, adenoma, and tumorous colonic samples. Using gene expression analysis, we identified downregulated genes in the tumors compared to normal tissues. In parallel 3000 upregulated genes were determined in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cell culture model after DNA demethylation treatment. Of the 2533 transcripts showing reduced expression in the tumorous samples, 154 had increased expression as a result of DNA demethylation treatment. Approximately 2/3 of these genes had decreased expression already in the adenoma samples. Expression of five genes (GCG, NMES-1, LRMP, FAM161B and PTGDR), was validated using RT-PCR. PTGDR showed ambiguous results, therefore it was further studied to verify the extent of DNA methylation and its effect on the protein level. Results confirmed that our approach is suitable for genome-wide screening of genes which are regulated or inactivated by DNA methylation. Activity of these genes possibly interferes with tumor progression, therefore genes identified can be key factors in the formation and in the progression of the disease. PMID:23049694

  13. Genome-Wide Screen Reveals Replication Pathway for Quasi-Palindrome Fragility Dependent on Homologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Saini, Natalie; Sheng, Ziwei; Lobachev, Kirill S.

    2013-01-01

    Inverted repeats capable of forming hairpin and cruciform structures present a threat to chromosomal integrity. They induce double strand breaks, which lead to gross chromosomal rearrangements, the hallmarks of cancers and hereditary diseases. Secondary structure formation at this motif has been proposed to be the driving force for the instability, albeit the mechanisms leading to the fragility are not well-understood. We carried out a genome-wide screen to uncover the genetic players that govern fragility of homologous and homeologous Alu quasi-palindromes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that depletion or lack of components of the DNA replication machinery, proteins involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis, the replication-pausing checkpoint pathway, the telomere maintenance complex or the Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 dissolvasome augment fragility at Alu-IRs. Rad51, a component of the homologous recombination pathway, was found to be required for replication arrest and breakage at the repeats specifically in replication-deficient strains. These data demonstrate that Rad51 is required for the formation of breakage-prone secondary structures in situations when replication is compromised while another mechanism operates in DSB formation in replication-proficient strains. PMID:24339793

  14. A Genome-Wide Screen Indicates Correlation between Differentiation and Expression of Metabolism Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shende, Akhilesh; Singh, Anupama; Meena, Anil; Ghosal, Ritika; Ranganathan, Madhav; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated tissues may be considered as materials with distinct properties. The differentiation program of a given tissue ensures that it acquires material properties commensurate with its function. It may be hypothesized that some of these properties are acquired through production of tissue-specific metabolites synthesized by metabolic enzymes. To establish correlation between metabolism and organogenesis we have carried out a genome-wide expression study of metabolism related genes by RNA in-situ hybridization. 23% of the metabolism related genes studied are expressed in a tissue-restricted but not tissue-exclusive manner. We have conducted the screen on whole mount chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from four distinct developmental stages to correlate dynamic changes in expression patterns of metabolic enzymes with spatio-temporally unique developmental events. Our data strongly suggests that unique combinations of metabolism related genes, and not specific metabolic pathways, are upregulated during differentiation. Further, expression of metabolism related genes in well established signaling centers that regulate different aspects of morphogenesis indicates developmental roles of some of the metabolism related genes. The database of tissue-restricted expression patterns of metabolism related genes, generated in this study, should serve as a resource for systematic identification of these genes with tissue-specific functions during development. Finally, comprehensive understanding of differentiation is not possible unless the downstream genes of a differentiation cascade are identified. We propose, metabolic enzymes constitute a significant portion of these downstream target genes. Thus our study should help elucidate different aspects of tissue differentiation. PMID:23717462

  15. Genome-wide screen reveals replication pathway for quasi-palindrome fragility dependent on homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Saini, Natalie; Sheng, Ziwei; Lobachev, Kirill S

    2013-01-01

    Inverted repeats capable of forming hairpin and cruciform structures present a threat to chromosomal integrity. They induce double strand breaks, which lead to gross chromosomal rearrangements, the hallmarks of cancers and hereditary diseases. Secondary structure formation at this motif has been proposed to be the driving force for the instability, albeit the mechanisms leading to the fragility are not well-understood. We carried out a genome-wide screen to uncover the genetic players that govern fragility of homologous and homeologous Alu quasi-palindromes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that depletion or lack of components of the DNA replication machinery, proteins involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis, the replication-pausing checkpoint pathway, the telomere maintenance complex or the Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 dissolvasome augment fragility at Alu-IRs. Rad51, a component of the homologous recombination pathway, was found to be required for replication arrest and breakage at the repeats specifically in replication-deficient strains. These data demonstrate that Rad51 is required for the formation of breakage-prone secondary structures in situations when replication is compromised while another mechanism operates in DSB formation in replication-proficient strains. PMID:24339793

  16. Comprehensive Genome-wide Screen for Genes with Cis-acting Regulatory Elements That Respond to Marek's Disease Virus Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The comprehensive identification of genes underlying phenotypic variation of complex traits such as disease resistance remains one of the greatest challenges in biology despite having genome sequences and more powerful tools. Most genome-wide screens lack sufficient resolving power as they typically...

  17. Human Genome-Wide RNAi Screen for Host Factors That Modulate Intracellular Salmonella Growth

    PubMed Central

    Thornbrough, Joshua M.; Hundley, Tom; Valdivia, Raphael; Worley, Micah J.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen of humans that can proliferate within epithelial cells as well as professional phagocytes of the immune system. While much has been learned about the microbial genes that influence the infectious process through decades of intensive research, relatively little is known about the host factors that affect infection. We performed a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify host genes that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) utilizes to facilitate growth within human epithelial cells. In this screen, with siRNAs targeting every predicted gene in the human genome, we identified 252 new human-host-susceptibility factors (HSFs) for S. typhimurium. We also identified 39 genes whose silencing results in increased intracellular growth of S. typhimurium. The HSFs identified are regulated most centrally by NFκB and associate with each other through an extremely dense network of interactions that center around a group of kinases. Most genes identified were not previously appreciated as playing roles in the intracellular lifecycle of S. enterica. Numerous HSFs identified with interesting characteristics that could play plausible roles in mediating intracellular microbial growth are discussed. Importantly, this study reveals significant overlap between the host network that supports S. typhimurium growth within human epithelial cells and the one that promotes the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within human macrophages. In addition to providing much new information about the molecular mechanisms underlying S. enterica-host cell interplay, all 252 HSFs identified are candidates for new anti-microbial targets for controlling S. enterica infections, and some may provide broad-spectrum anti-microbial activity. PMID:22701604

  18. Genome-wide screening of loci associated with drug resistance to 5-fluorouracil-based drugs.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Akio; Okayama, Yoshihiro; Takechi, Teiji; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Oka, Toshinori; Fukushima, Masakazu

    2007-04-01

    Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents represents the chief cause of mortality in cancer patients with advanced disease. Chromosomal aberration and altered gene expression are the main genetic mechanisms of tumor chemoresistance. In this study, we have established an algorithm to calculate DNA copy number using the Affymetrix 10K array, and performed a genome-wide correlation analysis between DNA copy number and antitumor activity against 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based drugs (S-1, tegafur + uracil [UFT], 5'-DFUR and capecitabine) to screen for loci influencing drug resistance using 27 human cancer xenografts. A correlation analysis confirmed that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing significant associations with drug sensitivity were concentrated in some cytogenetic regions (18p, 17p13.2, 17p12, 11q14.1, 11q11 and 11p11.12), and we identified some genes that have been indicated their relations to drug sensitivity. Among these regions, 18p11.32 at the location of the thymidylate synthase gene (TYMS) was strongly associated with resistance to 5-FU-based drugs. A change in copy number of the TYMS gene was reflected in the TYMS expression level, and showed a significant negative correlation with sensitivity against 5-FU-based drugs. These results suggest that amplification of the TYMS gene is associated with innate resistance, supporting the possibility that TYMS copy number might be a predictive marker of drug sensitivity to fluoropyrimidines. Further study is necessary to clarify the functional roles of other genes coded in significant cytogenetic regions. These promising data suggest that a comprehensive DNA copy number analysis might aid in the quest for optimal markers of drug response. PMID:17425594

  19. Genome-wide siRNA screen for mediators of NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Gewurz, Benjamin E.; Towfic, Fadi; Mar, Jessica C.; Shinners, Nicholas P.; Takasaki, Kaoru; Zhao, Bo; Cahir-McFarland, Ellen D.; Quackenbush, John; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Kieff, Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Although canonical NFκB is frequently critical for cell proliferation, survival, or differentiation, NFκB hyperactivation can cause malignant, inflammatory, or autoimmune disorders. Despite intensive study, mammalian NFκB pathway loss-of-function RNAi analyses have been limited to specific protein classes. We therefore undertook a human genome-wide siRNA screen for novel NFκB activation pathway components. Using an Epstein Barr virus latent membrane protein (LMP1) mutant, the transcriptional effects of which are canonical NFκB-dependent, we identified 155 proteins significantly and substantially important for NFκB activation in HEK293 cells. These proteins included many kinases, phosphatases, ubiquitin ligases, and deubiquinating enzymes not previously known to be important for NFκB activation. Relevance to other canonical NFκB pathways was extended by finding that 118 of the 155 LMP1 NF-κB activation pathway components were similarly important for IL-1β–, and 79 for TNFα–mediated NFκB activation in the same cells. MAP3K8, PIM3, and six other enzymes were uniquely relevant to LMP1-mediated NFκB activation. Most novel pathway components functioned upstream of IκB kinase complex (IKK) activation. Robust siRNA knockdown effects were confirmed for all mRNAs or proteins tested. Although multiple ZC3H-family proteins negatively regulate NFκB, ZC3H13 and ZC3H18 were activation pathway components. ZC3H13 was critical for LMP1, TNFα, and IL-1β NFκB-dependent transcription, but not for IKK activation, whereas ZC3H18 was critical for IKK activation. Down-modulators of LMP1 mediated NFκB activation were also identified. These experiments identify multiple targets to inhibit or stimulate LMP1-, IL-1β–, or TNFα–mediated canonical NFκB activation. PMID:22308454

  20. Characterization of a minimal screening set of 172 microsatellite markers for genome-wide screens of the canine genome.

    PubMed

    Richman, M; Mellersh, C S; André, C; Galibert, F; Ostrander, E A

    2001-01-30

    We have characterized a subset of 172 microsatellite markers from the canine map, termed 'Minimal Screening Set 1' (Canine MSS-1), which we propose be used for initial genome-wide genetic linkage studies. Three hierarchical criteria were used to select markers from the current meiotic linkage and radiation hybrid maps for MSS-1. Markers were selected that (1) provided as complete coverage as possible of the canine genome, (2) were highly informative, and (3) have been ordered in linkage groups with a high degree of statistical support. This resulting screening set spans all reported meiotic linkage and RH groups, leaving only 10 known gaps > or = 20 cM. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value of markers tested is 0.74. Coverage estimates suggest 42% of the genome is within 5 cM of at least one marker in the minimal screening set, 77% of the genome is within 10 cM. This minimal mapping set therefore provides an efficient and cost effective way to begin screening pedigrees of interest for genetic linkage. PMID:11179770

  1. A network-based integrative approach to prioritize reliable hits from multiple genome-wide RNAi screens in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Tu, Zhidong; Sun, Fengzhu

    2009-01-01

    Background The recently developed RNA interference (RNAi) technology has created an unprecedented opportunity which allows the function of individual genes in whole organisms or cell lines to be interrogated at genome-wide scale. However, multiple issues, such as off-target effects or low efficacies in knocking down certain genes, have produced RNAi screening results that are often noisy and that potentially yield both high rates of false positives and false negatives. Therefore, integrating RNAi screening results with other information, such as protein-protein interaction (PPI), may help to address these issues. Results By analyzing 24 genome-wide RNAi screens interrogating various biological processes in Drosophila, we found that RNAi positive hits were significantly more connected to each other when analyzed within a protein-protein interaction network, as opposed to random cases, for nearly all screens. Based on this finding, we developed a network-based approach to identify false positives (FPs) and false negatives (FNs) in these screening results. This approach relied on a scoring function, which we termed NePhe, to integrate information obtained from both PPI network and RNAi screening results. Using a novel rank-based test, we compared the performance of different NePhe scoring functions and found that diffusion kernel-based methods generally outperformed others, such as direct neighbor-based methods. Using two genome-wide RNAi screens as examples, we validated our approach extensively from multiple aspects. We prioritized hits in the original screens that were more likely to be reproduced by the validation screen and recovered potential FNs whose involvements in the biological process were suggested by previous knowledge and mutant phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrated that the NePhe scoring system helped to biologically interpret RNAi results at the module level. Conclusion By comprehensively analyzing multiple genome-wide RNAi screens, we conclude that

  2. A genome-wide RNA interference screen uncovers two p24 proteins as regulators of Wingless secretion.

    PubMed

    Port, Fillip; Hausmann, George; Basler, Konrad

    2011-11-01

    Wnt proteins are secreted, lipid-modified glycoproteins that control animal development and adult tissue homeostasis. Secretion of Wnt proteins is at least partly regulated by a dedicated machinery. Here, we report a genome-wide RNA interference screen for genes involved in the secretion of Wingless (Wg), a Drosophila Wnt. We identify three new genes required for Wg secretion. Of these, Emp24 and Eclair are required for proper export of Wg from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We propose that Emp24 and Eca act as specific cargo receptors for Wg to concentrate it in forming vesicles at sites of ER export. PMID:21886182

  3. An Integrated Genome-Wide Systems Genetics Screen for Breast Cancer Metastasis Susceptibility Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying; Shukla, Anjali; Ha, Ngoc-Han; Doran, Anthony; Faraji, Farhoud; Goldberger, Natalie; Lee, Maxwell P.; Keane, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis remains the primary cause of patient morbidity and mortality in solid tumors and is due to the action of a large number of tumor-autonomous and non-autonomous factors. Here we report the results of a genome-wide integrated strategy to identify novel metastasis susceptibility candidate genes and molecular pathways in breast cancer metastasis. This analysis implicates a number of transcriptional regulators and suggests cell-mediated immunity is an important determinant. Moreover, the analysis identified novel or FDA-approved drugs as potentially useful for anti-metastatic therapy. Further explorations implementing this strategy may therefore provide a variety of information for clinical applications in the control and treatment of advanced neoplastic disease. PMID:27074153

  4. An Integrated Genome-Wide Systems Genetics Screen for Breast Cancer Metastasis Susceptibility Genes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ling; Yang, Howard H; Hu, Ying; Shukla, Anjali; Ha, Ngoc-Han; Doran, Anthony; Faraji, Farhoud; Goldberger, Natalie; Lee, Maxwell P; Keane, Thomas; Hunter, Kent W

    2016-04-01

    Metastasis remains the primary cause of patient morbidity and mortality in solid tumors and is due to the action of a large number of tumor-autonomous and non-autonomous factors. Here we report the results of a genome-wide integrated strategy to identify novel metastasis susceptibility candidate genes and molecular pathways in breast cancer metastasis. This analysis implicates a number of transcriptional regulators and suggests cell-mediated immunity is an important determinant. Moreover, the analysis identified novel or FDA-approved drugs as potentially useful for anti-metastatic therapy. Further explorations implementing this strategy may therefore provide a variety of information for clinical applications in the control and treatment of advanced neoplastic disease. PMID:27074153

  5. A genome-wide CRISPR screen in primary immune cells to dissect regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Parnas, Oren; Jovanovic, Marko; Eisenhaure, Thomas M.; Herbst, Rebecca H.; Dixit, Atray; Ye, Chun Jimmie; Przybylski, Dariusz; Platt, Randall J.; Tirosh, Itay; Sanjana, Neville E.; Shalem, Ophir; Satija, Rahul; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Mertins, Philipp; Carr, Steven A.; Zhang, Feng; Hacohen, Nir; Regev, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    Finding the components of cellular circuits and determining their functions systematically remains a major challenge in mammalian cells. Here, we introduced genome-wide pooled CRISPR-Cas9 libraries into dendritic cells (DCs) to identify genes that control the induction of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a key process in the host response to pathogens, mediated by the Tlr4 pathway. We found many of the known regulators of Tlr4 signaling, as well as dozens of previously unknown candidates that we validated. By measuring protein markers and mRNA profiles in DCs that are deficient in the known or candidate genes, we classified the genes into three functional modules with distinct effects on the canonical responses to LPS, and highlighted functions for the PAF complex and oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex. Our findings uncover new facets of innate immune circuits in primary cells, and provide a genetic approach for dissection of mammalian cell circuits. PMID:26189680

  6. Genome-Wide siRNA Screening Using Forward Transfection: Identification of Modulators of Membrane Trafficking in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Bexiga, Mariana G; Simpson, Jeremy C

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an essential tool for molecular and cellular biologists to dissect cell function. In recent years its application has been extended to genome-wide studies, enabling the systematic identification of new cell regulation mechanisms and drug targets. In this chapter, a protocol for a genome-wide RNAi screen coupled to high-content microscopy is presented. Specifically we describe key features of assay design, plate layout, and a protocol for forward transfection of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in a 384-well plate format. As an example of its application in identifying modulators of membrane trafficking, we also provide a protocol to measure the efficacy of intracellular delivery of the B subunit of Shiga-like toxin to the Golgi complex. Finally we show an automated image analysis routine that can be used to extract single cell data from the screen, thereby providing a quantitative ranking of how a large panel of siRNAs affects this biological process. PMID:27581283

  7. Genome-wide screening for DNA variants associated with reading and language traits.

    PubMed

    Gialluisi, A; Newbury, D F; Wilcutt, E G; Olson, R K; DeFries, J C; Brandler, W M; Pennington, B F; Smith, S D; Scerri, T S; Simpson, N H; Luciano, M; Evans, D M; Bates, T C; Stein, J F; Talcott, J B; Monaco, A P; Paracchini, S; Francks, C; Fisher, S E

    2014-09-01

    Reading and language abilities are heritable traits that are likely to share some genetic influences with each other. To identify pleiotropic genetic variants affecting these traits, we first performed a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis using three richly characterized datasets comprising individuals with histories of reading or language problems, and their siblings. GWAS was performed in a total of 1862 participants using the first principal component computed from several quantitative measures of reading- and language-related abilities, both before and after adjustment for performance IQ. We identified novel suggestive associations at the SNPs rs59197085 and rs5995177 (uncorrected P ≈ 10(-7) for each SNP), located respectively at the CCDC136/FLNC and RBFOX2 genes. Each of these SNPs then showed evidence for effects across multiple reading and language traits in univariate association testing against the individual traits. FLNC encodes a structural protein involved in cytoskeleton remodelling, while RBFOX2 is an important regulator of alternative splicing in neurons. The CCDC136/FLNC locus showed association with a comparable reading/language measure in an independent sample of 6434 participants from the general population, although involving distinct alleles of the associated SNP. Our datasets will form an important part of on-going international efforts to identify genes contributing to reading and language skills. PMID:25065397

  8. Genome-wide screen for miRNA targets using the MISSION target ID library.

    PubMed

    Coussens, Matthew J; Forbes, Kevin; Kreader, Carol; Sago, Jack; Cupp, Carrie; Swarthout, John

    2012-01-01

    The Target ID Library is designed to assist in discovery and identification of microRNA (miRNA) targets. The Target ID Library is a plasmid-based, genome-wide cDNA library cloned into the 3'UTR downstream from the dual-selection fusion protein, thymidine kinase-zeocin (TKzeo). The first round of selection is for stable transformants, followed with introduction of a miRNA of interest, and finally, selecting for cDNAs containing the miRNA's target. Selected cDNAs are identified by sequencing (see Figure 1-3 for Target ID Library Workflow and details). To ensure broad coverage of the human transcriptome, Target ID Library cDNAs were generated via oligo-dT priming using a pool of total RNA prepared from multiple human tissues and cell lines. Resulting cDNA range from 0.5 to 4 kb, with an average size of 1.2 kb, and were cloned into the p3Î"TKzeo dual-selection plasmid (see Figure 4 for plasmid map). The gene targets represented in the library can be found on the Sigma-Aldrich webpage. Results from Illumina sequencing (Table 3), show that the library includes 16,922 of the 21,518 unique genes in UCSC RefGene (79%), or 14,000 genes with 10 or more reads (66%). PMID:22508434

  9. Genome-wide screening for DNA variants associated with reading and language traits

    PubMed Central

    Gialluisi, A; Newbury, D F; Wilcutt, E G; Olson, R K; DeFries, J C; Brandler, W M; Pennington, B F; Smith, S D; Scerri, T S; Simpson, N H; Luciano, M; Evans, D M; Bates, T C; Stein, J F; Talcott, J B; Monaco, A P; Paracchini, S; Francks, C; Fisher, S E

    2014-01-01

    Reading and language abilities are heritable traits that are likely to share some genetic influences with each other. To identify pleiotropic genetic variants affecting these traits, we first performed a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis using three richly characterized datasets comprising individuals with histories of reading or language problems, and their siblings. GWAS was performed in a total of 1862 participants using the first principal component computed from several quantitative measures of reading- and language-related abilities, both before and after adjustment for performance IQ. We identified novel suggestive associations at the SNPs rs59197085 and rs5995177 (uncorrected P ≈ 10–7 for each SNP), located respectively at the CCDC136/FLNC and RBFOX2 genes. Each of these SNPs then showed evidence for effects across multiple reading and language traits in univariate association testing against the individual traits. FLNC encodes a structural protein involved in cytoskeleton remodelling, while RBFOX2 is an important regulator of alternative splicing in neurons. The CCDC136/FLNC locus showed association with a comparable reading/language measure in an independent sample of 6434 participants from the general population, although involving distinct alleles of the associated SNP. Our datasets will form an important part of on-going international efforts to identify genes contributing to reading and language skills. PMID:25065397

  10. Use of genome-wide RNAi screens to identify regulators of embryonic stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaofeng; Hu, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Summary Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterized by two defining features: pluripotency and self-renewal. They hold tremendous promise for both basic research and regenerative medicine. To fully realize their potentials, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating ESC pluripotency and self-renewal. The development of RNA interference (RNAi) technology has revolutionized functional genetic studies in mammalian cells. In recent years, genome-wide RNAi screens have been adopted to systematically study ESC pluripotency and self-renewal, and have uncovered many previously unknown regulators, including transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, and post-transcriptional modulators. Here, we describe a method for the identification of regulators of ESC pluripotency and self-renewal using RNAi screens, as well as assays for further validation and characterization of the identified candidates. With modifications, this method can also be adapted to study the fate specification events during ESC differentiation. PMID:24743997

  11. Genome-wide RNAi Screening Identifies Protein Modules Required for 40S Subunit Synthesis in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Badertscher, Lukas; Wild, Thomas; Montellese, Christian; Alexander, Leila T; Bammert, Lukas; Sarazova, Marie; Stebler, Michael; Csucs, Gabor; Mayer, Thomas U; Zamboni, Nicola; Zemp, Ivo; Horvath, Peter; Kutay, Ulrike

    2015-12-29

    Ribosome biogenesis is a highly complex process requiring many assisting factors. Studies in yeast have yielded comprehensive knowledge of the cellular machinery involved in this process. However, many aspects of ribosome synthesis are different in higher eukaryotes, and the global set of mammalian ribosome biogenesis factors remains unexplored. We used an imaging-based, genome-wide RNAi screen to find human proteins involved in 40S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Our analysis identified ∼ 300 factors, many part of essential protein modules such as the small subunit (SSU) processome, the eIF3 and chaperonin complexes, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. We demonstrate a role for the vertebrate-specific factor RBIS in ribosome synthesis, uncover a requirement for the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase in nucleolar ribosome biogenesis, and reveal that intracellular glutamine synthesis supports 40S subunit production. PMID:26711351

  12. Whole-animal genome-wide RNAi screen identifies networks regulating male germline stem cells in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Ge, Qinglan; Chan, Brian; Liu, Hanhan; Singh, Shree Ram; Manley, Jacob; Lee, Jae; Weideman, Ann Marie; Hou, Gerald; Hou, Steven X.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are regulated both intrinsically and externally, including by signals from the local environment and distant organs. To identify genes and pathways that regulate stem-cell fates in the whole organism, we perform a genome-wide transgenic RNAi screen through ubiquitous gene knockdowns, focusing on regulators of adult Drosophila testis germline stem cells (GSCs). Here we identify 530 genes that regulate GSC maintenance and differentiation. Of these, we further knock down 113 selected genes using cell-type-specific Gal4s and find that more than half were external regulators, that is, from the local microenvironment or more distal sources. Some genes, for example, versatile (vers), encoding a heterochromatin protein, regulates GSC fates differentially in different cell types and through multiple pathways. We also find that mitosis/cytokinesis proteins are especially important for male GSC maintenance. Our findings provide valuable insights and resources for studying stem cell regulation at the organismal level. PMID:27484291

  13. A functional genome-wide genetic screening identifies new pathways controlling the G1/S transcriptional wave.

    PubMed

    Gaspa, Laura; González-Medina, Alberto; Hidalgo, Elena; Ayté, José

    2016-03-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe MBF complex activates the transcription of genes required for DNA synthesis and S phase. The MBF complex contains several proteins, including the core components Cdc10, Res1 and Res2, the co-repressor proteins Yox1 and Nrm1 and the co-activator Rep2. It has recently been shown how MBF is regulated when either the DNA damage or the DNA synthesis checkpoints are activated. However, how MBF is regulated in a normal unperturbed cell cycle is still not well understood. We have set up a genome-wide genomic screen searching for global regulators of MBF. We have crossed our knock-out collection library with a reporter strain that allows the measurement of MBF activity in live cells by flow cytometry. We confirm previously known regulators of MBF and show that COP9/signalosome and tRNA methyltransferases also regulate MBF activity. PMID:26890608

  14. Whole-animal genome-wide RNAi screen identifies networks regulating male germline stem cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Ge, Qinglan; Chan, Brian; Liu, Hanhan; Singh, Shree Ram; Manley, Jacob; Lee, Jae; Weideman, Ann Marie; Hou, Gerald; Hou, Steven X

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are regulated both intrinsically and externally, including by signals from the local environment and distant organs. To identify genes and pathways that regulate stem-cell fates in the whole organism, we perform a genome-wide transgenic RNAi screen through ubiquitous gene knockdowns, focusing on regulators of adult Drosophila testis germline stem cells (GSCs). Here we identify 530 genes that regulate GSC maintenance and differentiation. Of these, we further knock down 113 selected genes using cell-type-specific Gal4s and find that more than half were external regulators, that is, from the local microenvironment or more distal sources. Some genes, for example, versatile (vers), encoding a heterochromatin protein, regulates GSC fates differentially in different cell types and through multiple pathways. We also find that mitosis/cytokinesis proteins are especially important for male GSC maintenance. Our findings provide valuable insights and resources for studying stem cell regulation at the organismal level. PMID:27484291

  15. Genome-wide screen for inositol auxotrophy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae implicates lipid metabolism in stress response signaling

    PubMed Central

    Villa-García, Manuel J.; Choi, Myung Sun; Hinz, Flora I.; Gaspar, María L.; Jesch, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Inositol auxotrophy (Ino− phenotype) in budding yeast has classically been associated with misregulation of INO1 and other genes involved in lipid metabolism. To identify all non-essential yeast genes that are necessary for growth in the absence of inositol, we carried out a genome-wide phenotypic screening for deletion mutants exhibiting Ino− phenotypes under one or more growth conditions. We report the identification of 419 genes, including 385 genes not previously reported, which exhibit this phenotype when deleted. The identified genes are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, but are particularly enriched in those affecting transcription, protein modification, membrane trafficking, diverse stress responses, and lipid metabolism. Among the Ino− mutants involved in stress response, many exhibited phenotypes that are strengthened at elevated temperature and/or when choline is present in the medium. The role of inositol in regulation of lipid metabolism and stress response signaling is discussed. PMID:21136082

  16. Genome-Wide RNAi Screens in C. elegans to Identify Genes Influencing Lifespan and Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit; Rae, Robbie

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference is a rapid, inexpensive, and highly effective tool used to inhibit gene function. In C. elegans, whole genome screens have been used to identify genes involved with numerous traits including aging and innate immunity. RNAi in C. elegans can be carried out via feeding, soaking, or injection. Here we outline protocols used to maintain, grow, and carry out RNAi via feeding in C. elegans and determine whether the inhibited genes are essential for lifespan or innate immunity. PMID:27581293

  17. A Genome-Wide Screen of Genes Involved in Cadmium Tolerance in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Patrick J.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Park, Han-Oh; Hayles, Jacqueline; Russell, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a worldwide environmental toxicant responsible for a range of human diseases including cancer. Cellular injury from cadmium is minimized by stress-responsive detoxification mechanisms. We explored the genetic requirements for cadmium tolerance by individually screening mutants from the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) haploid deletion collection for inhibited growth on agar growth media containing cadmium. Cadmium-sensitive mutants were further tested for sensitivity to oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide) and osmotic stress (potassium chloride). Of 2649 mutants screened, 237 were sensitive to cadmium, of which 168 were cadmium specific. Most were previously unknown to be involved in cadmium tolerance. The 237 genes represent a number of pathways including sulfate assimilation, phytochelatin synthesis and transport, ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q10) biosynthesis, stress signaling, cell wall biosynthesis and cell morphology, gene expression and chromatin remodeling, vacuole function, and intracellular transport of macromolecules. The ubiquinone biosynthesis mutants are acutely sensitive to cadmium but only mildly sensitive to hydrogen peroxide, indicating that Coenzyme Q10 plays a larger role in cadmium tolerance than just as an antioxidant. These and several other mutants turn yellow when exposed to cadmium, suggesting cadmium sulfide accumulation. This phenotype can potentially be used as a biomarker for cadmium. There is remarkably little overlap with a comparable screen of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid deletion collection, indicating that the two distantly related yeasts utilize significantly different strategies for coping with cadmium stress. These strategies and their relation to cadmium detoxification in humans are discussed. PMID:18684775

  18. A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen to Identify Modulators of Insulin Sensitivity and Gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruojing; Lacson, Raul G.; Castriota, Gino; Zhang, Xiaohua D.; Liu, Yaping; Zhao, Wenqing; Einstein, Monica; Camargo, Luiz Miguel; Qureshi, Sajjad; Wong, Kenny K.; Zhang, Bei B.; Ferrer, Marc; Berger, Joel P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatic insulin resistance impairs insulin’s ability to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP) and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although the interests to discover novel genes that modulate insulin sensitivity and HGP are high, it remains challenging to have a human cell based system to identify novel genes. Methodology/Principal Findings To identify genes that modulate hepatic insulin signaling and HGP, we generated a human cell line stably expressing beta-lactamase under the control of the human glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) promoter (AH-G6PC cells). Both beta-lactamase activity and endogenous G6PC mRNA were increased in AH-G6PC cells by a combination of dexamethasone and pCPT-cAMP, and reduced by insulin. A 4-gene High-Throughput-Genomics assay was developed to concomitantly measure G6PC and pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4 (PDK4) mRNA levels. Using this assay, we screened an siRNA library containing pooled siRNA targeting 6650 druggable genes and identified 614 hits that lowered G6PC expression without increasing PDK4 mRNA levels. Pathway analysis indicated that siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of genes known to positively or negatively affect insulin signaling increased or decreased G6PC mRNA expression, respectively, thus validating our screening platform. A subset of 270 primary screen hits was selected and 149 hits were confirmed by target gene KD by pooled siRNA and 7 single siRNA for each gene to reduce G6PC expression in 4-gene HTG assay. Subsequently, pooled siRNA KD of 113 genes decreased PEPCK and/or PGC1alpha mRNA expression thereby demonstrating their role in regulating key gluconeogenic genes in addition to G6PC. Last, KD of 61 of the above 113 genes potentiated insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that they suppress gluconeogenic gene by enhancing insulin signaling. Conclusions/Significance These results support the proposition that the proteins encoded by the genes identified in our cell

  19. Comprehensive Identification Of Specific Genes Controlling Complex Traits Through A Genome-Wide Screen for Cis-Acting Regulatory Elements - An Example Using Marek's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The comprehensive identification of genes underlying phenotypic variation of complex traits remains a major challenge. Most genome-wide screens lack sufficient resolving power as they typically depend on linkage. An alternate method is to screen for allele-specific expression (ASE), a simple yet pow...

  20. Genome-Wide Screen for Oxalate-Sensitive Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, V.; Stotz, H. U.; Hippchen, K.; Bakalinsky, A. T.

    2007-01-01

    Oxalic acid is an important virulence factor produced by phytopathogenic filamentous fungi. In order to discover yeast genes whose orthologs in the pathogen may confer self-tolerance and whose plant orthologs may protect the host, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library consisting of 4,827 haploid mutants harboring deletions in nonessential genes was screened for growth inhibition and survival in a rich medium containing 30 mM oxalic acid at pH 3. A total of 31 mutants were identified that had significantly lower cell yields in oxalate medium than in an oxalate-free medium. About 35% of these mutants had not previously been detected in published screens for sensitivity to sorbic or citric acid. Mutants impaired in endosomal transport, the rgp1Δ, ric1Δ, snf7Δ, vps16Δ, vps20Δ, and vps51Δ mutants, were significantly overrepresented relative to their frequency among all verified yeast open reading frames. Oxalate exposure to a subset of five mutants, the drs2Δ, vps16Δ, vps51Δ, ric1Δ, and rib4Δ mutants, was lethal. With the exception of the rib4Δ mutant, all of these mutants are impaired in vesicle-mediated transport. Indirect evidence is provided suggesting that the sensitivity of the rib4Δ mutant, a riboflavin auxotroph, is due to oxalate-mediated interference with riboflavin uptake by the putative monocarboxylate transporter Mch5. PMID:17644632

  1. Genome-wide screen for Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes that regulate host immunity.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Aimee M; Rath, Poonam; Imhof, Marianne; Siddall, Mark E; Roberts, Julia; Schnappinger, Dirk; Nathan, Carl F

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its highly immunogenic properties, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) establishes persistent infection in otherwise healthy individuals, making it one of the most widespread and deadly human pathogens. Mtb's prolonged survival may reflect production of microbial factors that prevent even more vigorous immunity (quantitative effect) or that divert the immune response to a non-sterilizing mode (qualitative effect). Disruption of Mtb genes has produced a list of several dozen candidate immunomodulatory factors. Here we used robotic fluorescence microscopy to screen 10,100 loss-of-function transposon mutants of Mtb for their impact on the expression of promoter-reporter constructs for 12 host immune response genes in a mouse macrophage cell line. The screen identified 364 candidate immunoregulatory genes. To illustrate the utility of the candidate list, we confirmed the impact of 35 Mtb mutant strains on expression of endogenous immune response genes in primary macrophages. Detailed analysis focused on a strain of Mtb in which a transposon disrupts Rv0431, a gene encoding a conserved protein of unknown function. This mutant elicited much more macrophage TNFα, IL-12p40 and IL-6 in vitro than wild type Mtb, and was attenuated in the mouse. The mutant list provides a platform for exploring the immunobiology of tuberculosis, for example, by combining immunoregulatory mutations in a candidate vaccine strain. PMID:21170273

  2. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-wide mutant screen for altered sensitivity to K1 killer toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Pagé, Nicolas; Gérard-Vincent, Manon; Ménard, Patrice; Beaulieu, Maude; Azuma, Masayuki; Dijkgraaf, Gerrit J P; Li, Huijuan; Marcoux, José; Nguyen, Thuy; Dowse, Tim; Sdicu, Anne-Marie; Bussey, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Using the set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants individually deleted for 5718 yeast genes, we screened for altered sensitivity to the antifungal protein, K1 killer toxin, that binds to a cell wall beta-glucan receptor and subsequently forms lethal pores in the plasma membrane. Mutations in 268 genes, including 42 in genes of unknown function, had a phenotype, often mild, with 186 showing resistance and 82 hypersensitivity compared to wild type. Only 15 of these genes were previously known to cause a toxin phenotype when mutated. Mutants for 144 genes were analyzed for alkali-soluble beta-glucan levels; 63 showed alterations. Further, mutants for 118 genes with altered toxin sensitivity were screened for SDS, hygromycin B, and calcofluor white sensitivity as indicators of cell surface defects; 88 showed some additional defect. There is a markedly nonrandom functional distribution of the mutants. Many genes affect specific areas of cellular activity, including cell wall glucan and mannoprotein synthesis, secretory pathway trafficking, lipid and sterol biosynthesis, and cell surface signal transduction, and offer new insights into these processes and their integration. PMID:12663529

  3. A Genome-Wide Screen for Dendritically Localized RNAs Identifies Genes Required for Dendrite Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Mala; Edmund, Hendia; Ennis, Darragh; Schlueter, Marissa A.; Marot, Jessica E.; Tambasco, Janet; Barlow, Ida; Sigurbjornsdottir, Sara; Mathew, Renjith; Vallés, Ana Maria; Wojciech, Waldemar; Roth, Siegfried; Davis, Ilan; Leptin, Maria; Gavis, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    Localizing messenger RNAs at specific subcellular sites is a conserved mechanism for targeting the synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins to distinct subcellular domains, thereby generating the asymmetric protein distributions necessary for cellular and developmental polarity. However, the full range of transcripts that are asymmetrically distributed in specialized cell types, and the significance of their localization, especially in the nervous system, are not known. We used the EP-MS2 method, which combines EP transposon insertion with the MS2/MCP in vivo fluorescent labeling system, to screen for novel localized transcripts in polarized cells, focusing on the highly branched Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization neurons. Of a total of 541 lines screened, we identified 55 EP-MS2 insertions producing transcripts that were enriched in neuronal processes, particularly in dendrites. The 47 genes identified by these insertions encode molecularly diverse proteins, and are enriched for genes that function in neuronal development and physiology. RNAi-mediated knockdown confirmed roles for many of the candidate genes in dendrite morphogenesis. We propose that the transport of mRNAs encoded by these genes into the dendrites allows their expression to be regulated on a local scale during the dynamic developmental processes of dendrite outgrowth, branching, and/or remodeling. PMID:27260999

  4. A Genome-Wide Screen for Dendritically Localized RNAs Identifies Genes Required for Dendrite Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Mala; Edmund, Hendia; Ennis, Darragh; Schlueter, Marissa A; Marot, Jessica E; Tambasco, Janet; Barlow, Ida; Sigurbjornsdottir, Sara; Mathew, Renjith; Vallés, Ana Maria; Wojciech, Waldemar; Roth, Siegfried; Davis, Ilan; Leptin, Maria; Gavis, Elizabeth R

    2016-01-01

    Localizing messenger RNAs at specific subcellular sites is a conserved mechanism for targeting the synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins to distinct subcellular domains, thereby generating the asymmetric protein distributions necessary for cellular and developmental polarity. However, the full range of transcripts that are asymmetrically distributed in specialized cell types, and the significance of their localization, especially in the nervous system, are not known. We used the EP-MS2 method, which combines EP transposon insertion with the MS2/MCP in vivo fluorescent labeling system, to screen for novel localized transcripts in polarized cells, focusing on the highly branched Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization neurons. Of a total of 541 lines screened, we identified 55 EP-MS2 insertions producing transcripts that were enriched in neuronal processes, particularly in dendrites. The 47 genes identified by these insertions encode molecularly diverse proteins, and are enriched for genes that function in neuronal development and physiology. RNAi-mediated knockdown confirmed roles for many of the candidate genes in dendrite morphogenesis. We propose that the transport of mRNAs encoded by these genes into the dendrites allows their expression to be regulated on a local scale during the dynamic developmental processes of dendrite outgrowth, branching, and/or remodeling. PMID:27260999

  5. Nickel-Resistance Determinants in Acidiphilium sp. PM Identified by Genome-Wide Functional Screening

    PubMed Central

    San Martin-Uriz, Patxi; Mirete, Salvador; Alcolea, Pedro J.; Gomez, Manuel J.; Amils, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Pastor, Jose E.

    2014-01-01

    Acidiphilium spp. are conspicuous dwellers of acidic, metal-rich environments. Indeed, they are among the most metal-resistant organisms; yet little is known about the mechanisms behind the metal tolerance in this genus. Acidiphilium sp. PM is an environmental isolate from Rio Tinto, an acidic, metal-laden river located in southwestern Spain. The characterization of its metal resistance revealed a remarkable ability to tolerate high Ni concentrations. Here we report the screening of a genomic library of Acidiphilium sp. PM to identify genes involved in Ni resistance. This approach revealed seven different genes conferring Ni resistance to E. coli, two of which form an operon encoding the ATP-dependent protease HslVU (ClpQY). This protease was found to enhance resistance to both Ni and Co in E. coli, a function not previously reported. Other Ni-resistance determinants include genes involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the synthesis of branched amino acids. The diversity of molecular functions of the genes recovered in the screening suggests that Ni resistance in Acidiphilium sp. PM probably relies on different molecular mechanisms. PMID:24740277

  6. Genome-wide RNAi Screen Identifies Cohesin Genes as Modifiers of Renewal and Differentiation in Human HSCs.

    PubMed

    Galeev, Roman; Baudet, Aurélie; Kumar, Praveen; Rundberg Nilsson, Alexandra; Nilsson, Björn; Soneji, Shamit; Törngren, Therese; Borg, Åke; Kvist, Anders; Larsson, Jonas

    2016-03-29

    To gain insights into the regulatory mechanisms of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we employed a genome-wide RNAi screen in human cord-blood derived cells and identified candidate genes whose knockdown maintained the HSC phenotype during culture. A striking finding was the identification of members of the cohesin complex (STAG2, RAD21, STAG1, and SMC3) among the top 20 genes from the screen. Upon individual validation of these cohesin genes, we found that their knockdown led to an immediate expansion of cells with an HSC phenotype in vitro. A similar expansion was observed in vivo following transplantation to immunodeficient mice. Transcriptome analysis of cohesin-deficient CD34(+) cells showed an upregulation of HSC-specific genes, demonstrating an immediate shift toward a more stem-cell-like gene expression signature upon cohesin deficiency. Our findings implicate cohesin as a major regulator of HSCs and illustrate the power of global RNAi screens to identify modifiers of cell fate. PMID:26997282

  7. A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies factors required for distinct stages of C. elegans piRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Wee-Siong Sho; Seah, Jun Wen Eugene; Harrison, Emily J.; Chen, Caifu; Hammell, Christopher M.; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In animals, piRNAs and their associated Piwi proteins guard germ cell genomes against mobile genetic elements via an RNAi-like mechanism. In Caenorhabditis elegans, 21U-RNAs comprise the piRNA class, and these collaborate with 22G RNAs via unclear mechanisms to discriminate self from nonself and selectively and heritably silence the latter. Recent work indicates that 21U-RNAs are post-transcriptional processing products of individual transcription units that produce ∼26-nucleotide capped precursors. However, nothing is known of how the expression of precursors is controlled or how primary transcripts give rise to mature small RNAs. We conducted a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify components of the 21U biogenesis machinery. Screening by direct, quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based measurements of mature 21U-RNA levels, we identified 22 genes important for 21U-RNA production, termed TOFUs (Twenty-One-u Fouled Ups). We also identified seven genes that normally repress 21U production. By measuring mature 21U-RNA and precursor levels for the seven strongest hits from the screen, we assigned factors to discrete stages of 21U-RNA production. Our work identifies for the first time factors separately required for the transcription of 21U precursors and the processing of these precursors into mature 21U-RNAs, thereby providing a resource for studying the biogenesis of this important small RNA class. PMID:24696458

  8. Molecular insight into arsenic toxicity via the genome-wide deletion mutant screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Adam J; Veljanoski, Filip; O'Doherty, Patrick J; Zaman, Mohammad S; Petersingham, Gayani; Bailey, Trevor D; Münch, Gerald; Kersaitis, Cindy; Wu, Ming J

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic is omnipresent in soil, air, food and water. Chronic exposure to arsenic is a serious problem to human health. In-depth understanding of this metalloid's toxicity is a fundamental step towards development of arsenic-free foods and measures for bioremediation. By screening the complete set of gene deletion mutants (4873) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this study uncovered 75 sensitive and 39 resistant mutants against arsenite [As(III)]. Functional analysis of the corresponding genes revealed the molecular details for its uptake, toxicity and detoxification. On the basis of the hypersensitivity of yap3Δ, the transcription factor, Yap3p, is for the first time linked to the cell's detoxification against As(III). Apart from confirming the previously described role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1 pathway in combating arsenic toxicity, the results show that the regulatory subunits (Ckb1p and Ckb2p) of protein kinase CK2 are also involved in the process, suggesting possible crosstalk between the two key protein kinases. The sensitivity to As(III) conferred by deletion of the genes involved in protein degradation and chromatin remodelling demonstrates protein damage is the key mode of toxicity for the metalloid. Furthermore, the resistant phenotype of fps1Δ, snf3Δ and pho81Δ against As(III) links arsenic uptake with the corresponding plasma membrane-bound transporters-aquaglyceroporin (Fps1p), hexose (Snf3p) and phosphate transporters. The molecular details obtained in this screen for As(III) uptake, detoxification and toxicity provide the basis for future investigations into arsenic-related problems in the environment, agriculture and human health. PMID:26688044

  9. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a role for the ESCRT complex in rotavirus cell entry.

    PubMed

    Silva-Ayala, Daniela; López, Tomás; Gutiérrez, Michelle; Perrimon, Norbert; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F

    2013-06-18

    Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. This study presents a functional genome-scale analysis of cellular proteins and pathways relevant for RV infection using RNAi. Among the 522 proteins selected in the screen for their ability to affect viral infectivity, an enriched group that participates in endocytic processes was identified. Within these proteins, subunits of the vacuolar ATPase, small GTPases, actinin 4, and, of special interest, components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery were found. Here we provide evidence for a role of the ESCRT complex in the entry of simian and human RV strains in both monkey and human epithelial cells. In addition, the ESCRT-associated ATPase VPS4A and phospholipid lysobisphosphatidic acid, both crucial for the formation of intralumenal vesicles in multivesicular bodies, were also found to be required for cell entry. Interestingly, it seems that regardless of the molecules that rhesus RV and human RV strains use for cell-surface attachment and the distinct endocytic pathway used, all these viruses converge in early endosomes and use multivesicular bodies for cell entry. Furthermore, the small GTPases RHOA and CDC42, which regulate different types of clathrin-independent endocytosis, as well as early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1), were found to be involved in this process. This work reports the direct involvement of the ESCRT machinery in the life cycle of a nonenveloped virus and highlights the complex mechanism that these viruses use to enter cells. It also illustrates the efficiency of high-throughput RNAi screenings as genetic tools for comprehensively studying the interaction between viruses and their host cells. PMID:23733942

  10. Genome-Wide Screening of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma Patients Using Array-CGH Technique: A Czech Multicenter Experience

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Jan; Vallova, Vladimira; Greslikova, Henrieta; Kupska, Renata; Nemec, Pavel; Mikulasova, Aneta; Almasi, Martina; Pour, Ludek; Adam, Zdenek; Sandecka, Viera; Zahradová, Lenka; Hajek, Roman; Kuglik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Characteristic recurrent copy number aberrations (CNAs) play a key role in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis and have important prognostic significance for MM patients. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) provides a powerful tool for genome-wide classification of CNAs and thus should be implemented into MM routine diagnostics. We demonstrate the possibility of effective utilization of oligonucleotide-based aCGH in 91 MM patients. Chromosomal aberrations associated with effect on the prognosis of MM were initially evaluated by I-FISH and were found in 93.4% (85/91). Incidence of hyperdiploidy was 49.5% (45/91); del(13)(q14) was detected in 57.1% (52/91); gain(1)(q21) occurred in 58.2% (53/91); del(17)(p13) was observed in 15.4% (14/91); and t(4;14)(p16;q32) was found in 18.6% (16/86). Genome-wide screening using Agilent 44K aCGH microarrays revealed copy number alterations in 100% (91/91). Most common deletions were found at 13q (58.9%), 1p (39.6%), and 8p (31.1%), whereas gain of whole 1q was the most often duplicated region (50.6%). Furthermore, frequent homozygous deletions of genes playing important role in myeloma biology such as TRAF3, BIRC1/BIRC2, RB1, or CDKN2C were observed. Taken together, we demonstrated the utilization of aCGH technique in clinical diagnostics as powerful tool for identification of unbalanced genomic abnormalities with prognostic significance for MM patients. PMID:24987674

  11. Identification of potential driver genes in human liver carcinoma by genome-wide screening

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hyun Goo; Park, Eun Sung; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lee, Yun-Han; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Yoon Jun; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.

    2009-01-01

    Genomic copy number aberrations and corresponding transcriptional deregulation in the cancer genome have been suggested to have regulatory roles in cancer development and progression. However, functional evaluation of individual genes from lengthy lists of candidate genes from genomic datasets presents a significant challenge. Here we report effective gene selection strategies to identify potential driver genes based on systematic integration of genome scale data of DNA copy numbers and gene expression profiles. Using regional pattern recognition approaches, we discovered the most probable copy number-dependent regions and 50 potential driver genes. At each step of gene selection process, functional relevance of the selected genes was evaluated by estimating the prognostic significance of the selected genes. Further validation using small interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown experiments demonstrated proof-of-principle evidence for the potential driver roles of the genes in HCC progression (i.e., NCSTN and SCRIB). In addition, systemic prediction of drug responses implicated the association of the 50 genes with specific signaling molecules (mTOR, AMPK, and EGFR). In conclusion, the application of an unbiased and integrative analysis of multidimensional genomic datasets can effectively screen for potential driver genes and provides novel mechanistic and clinical insights into pathobiology of HCC. PMID:19366792

  12. A Genome-wide RNAi Screen for Polypeptides that Alter rpS6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Angela; Avruch, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a giant protein kinase that controls cell proliferation, growth, and metabolism. mTOR is regulated by nutrient availability, by mitogens, and by stress, and operates through two independently regulated hetero-oligomeric complexes. We have attempted to identify the cellular components necessary to maintain the activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), the amino acid-dependent, rapamycin-inhibitable complex, using a whole genome approach involving RNAi-induced depletion of cellular polypeptides. We have used a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell line, Mia-PaCa for this screen; as with many pancreatic cancers, these cells exhibit constitutive activation of mTORC1. PDAC is the most common form of pancreatic cancer and the 5-year survival rate remains 3–5% despite current nonspecific and targeted therapies. Although rapamycin-related mTOR inhibitors have yet to demonstrate encouraging clinical responses, it is now evident that this class of compounds is capable of only partial mTORC1 inhibition. Identifying previously unappreciated proteins needed for maintenance of mTORC1 activity may provide new targets and lead to the development of beneficial therapies for pancreatic cancer. PMID:22125066

  13. A genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals Pathways affected By Arsenic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xue; Arita, Adriana; Ellen, Thomas P.; Liu, Xin; Bai, Jingxiang; Rooney, John P.; Kurtz, Adrienne D.; Klein, Catherine B.; Dai, Wei; Begley, Thomas J.; Costa, Max

    2009-01-01

    We have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify toxicologically important proteins and pathways involved in arsenic-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity in humans. We performed a systemic screen of the complete set of 4,733 haploid S. cerevisiae single gene deletion mutants to identify those that have decreased or increased growth, relative to wild-type, after exposure to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2). IC50 values for all mutants were determined to further validate our results. Ultimately we identified 248 mutants sensitive to arsenite and 5 mutants resistant to arsenite exposure. We analyzed the proteins corresponding to arsenite-sensitive mutants and determined that they belonged to functional categories that include protein binding, phosphate metabolism, vacuolar/lysosomal transport, protein targeting, sorting, and translocation, cell growth/morphogenesis, cell polarity and filament formation. Furthermore, these data were mapped onto a protein interactome to identify arsenite toxicity-modulating networks. These networks are associated with the cytoskeleton, ubiquitination, histone acetylation and the MAPK signaling pathway. Our studies have potential implications for understanding toxicity and carcinogenesis in arsenic-induced human conditions, such as cancer and aging. PMID:19631266

  14. Genome-wide gain-of-function screen identifies novel regulators of pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Abujarour, Ramzey; Efe, Jem; Ding, Sheng

    2010-09-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are characterized by the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate into all the cell types of the body. To identify novel regulators of pluripotency, we screened cDNA libraries (>30,000 clones) in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells for factors that modulate the expression of a luciferase reporter driven by the promoter of the pluripotency master regulator Nanog. Ninety confirmed hits activated the reporter and 14 confirmed hits inhibited the reporter by more than two-fold. The identified hits were evaluated by gain- and loss-of-functions approaches. The reporter-activating hits Timp2, Hig2, and Mki67ip promoted embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal when episomally overexpressed in ES cells, whereas the reporter-inhibiting hits PU.1/Spi1, Prkaca, and Jun induced differentiation of ES cells. Conversely, the knockdown of the activating hits Timp2, Mki67ip, Esrrg, and Dusp7 in ES cells induced differentiation, whereas the knockdown of the reporter-inhibiting hit PU.1/Spi1 led to inhibition of differentiation. One of the novel hits, the RNA-binding protein Mki67ip was further characterized, and found to be overexpressed in ES cells and in early development and downregulated during differentiation. The knockdown of Mki67ip led to the differentiation of ES cells, decreased growth rate, reduction in pluripotency markers, and induction of lineage-specific markers. In addition, colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation experiments suggest that Mki67ip promotes ES cell self-renewal via a mechanism involving nucleophosmin, a multifunctional nucleolar protein upregulated in stem cells and cancer. PMID:20629179

  15. A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies proteins modulating aberrant FLT3-ITD signaling

    PubMed Central

    Caldarelli, A; Müller, J P; Paskowski-Rogacz, M; Herrmann, K; Bauer, R; Koch, S; Heninger, A K; Krastev, D; Ding, L; Kasper, S; Fischer, T; Brodhun, M; Böhmer, F-D; Buchholz, F

    2013-01-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 is a commonly mutated gene in acute myeloid leukemia, with about one-third of patients carrying an internal-tandem duplication of the juxtamembrane domain in the receptor (FLT3-ITD). FLT3-ITD exhibits altered signaling quality, including aberrant activation of STAT5. To identify genes affecting FLT3-ITD-mediated STAT5 signaling, we performed an esiRNA-based RNAi screen utilizing a STAT5-driven reporter assay. Knockdowns that caused reduced FLT3-ITD-mediated STAT5 signaling were enriched for genes encoding proteins involved in protein secretion and intracellular protein transport, indicating that modulation of protein transport processes could potentially be used to reduce constitutive STAT5 signaling in FLT3-ITD-positive cells. The relevance of KDELR1, a component involved in the Golgi-ER retrograde transport, was further analyzed. In FLT3-ITD-expressing leukemic MV4-11 cells, downregulation of KDELR1 resulted in reduced STAT5 activation, proliferation and colony-forming capacity. Stable shRNA-mediated depletion of KDELR1 in FLT3-ITD-expressing 32D cells likewise resulted in reduced STAT5 signaling and cell proliferation. Importantly, these cells also showed a reduced capacity to generate a leukemia-like disease in syngeneic C3H/HeJ mice. Together our data suggest intracellular protein transport as a potential target for FLT3-ITD driven leukemias, with KDELR1 emerging as a positive modulator of oncogenic FLT3-ITD activity. PMID:23508117

  16. Feasibility of Genome-Wide Screening for Biosafety Assessment of Probiotics: A Case Study of Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463.

    PubMed

    Senan, S; Prajapati, J B; Joshi, C G

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion in genome sequencing of probiotic strains for accurate identification and characterization. Regulatory bodies are emphasizing on the need for performing phase I safety studies for probiotics. The main hypothesis of this study was to explore the feasibility of using genome databases for safety screening of strains. In this study, we attempted to develop a framework for the safety assessment of a potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 based on genome mining for genes associated with antibiotic resistance, production of harmful metabolites, and virulence. The sequencing of MTCC 5463 was performed using GS-FLX Titanium reagents. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance and virulence were identified using Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database and Virulence Factors Database. Results indicated that MTCC 5463 carried antibiotic resistance genes associated with beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone. There is no threat of transfer of these genes to host gut commensals because the genes are not plasmid encoded. The presence of genes for adhesion, biofilm, surface proteins, and stress-related proteins provides robustness to the strain. The presence of hemolysin gene in the genome revealed a theoretical risk of virulence. The results of in silico analysis complemented the in vitro studies and human clinical trials, confirming the safety of the probiotic strain. We propose that the safety assessment of probiotic strains administered live at high doses using a genome-wide screening could be an effective and time-saving tool for identifying prognostic biomarkers of biosafety. PMID:26223907

  17. Genome-wide RNAi screens in human brain tumor isolates reveal a novel viability requirement for PHF5A

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Christopher G.; Bradley, Robert K.; Ding, Yu; Toledo, Chad M.; Herman, Jacob; Skutt-Kakaria, Kyobi; Girard, Emily J.; Davison, Jerry; Berndt, Jason; Corrin, Philip; Hardcastle, Justin; Basom, Ryan; Delrow, Jeffery J.; Webb, Thomas; Pollard, Steven M.; Lee, Jeongwu; Olson, James M.; Paddison, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    To identify key regulators of human brain tumor maintenance and initiation, we performed multiple genome-wide RNAi screens in patient-derived glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cells (GSCs). These screens identified the plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger domain protein PHF5A as differentially required for GSC expansion, as compared with untransformed neural stem cells (NSCs) and fibroblasts. Given PHF5A's known involvement in facilitating interactions between the U2 snRNP complex and ATP-dependent helicases, we examined cancer-specific roles in RNA splicing. We found that in GSCs, but not untransformed controls, PHF5A facilitates recognition of exons with unusual C-rich 3′ splice sites in thousands of essential genes. PHF5A knockdown in GSCs, but not untransformed NSCs, astrocytes, or fibroblasts, inhibited splicing of these genes, leading to cell cycle arrest and loss of viability. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition of U2 snRNP activity phenocopied PHF5A knockdown in GSCs and also in NSCs or fibroblasts overexpressing MYC. Furthermore, PHF5A inhibition compromised GSC tumor formation in vivo and inhibited growth of established GBM patient-derived xenograft tumors. Our results demonstrate a novel viability requirement for PHF5A to maintain proper exon recognition in brain tumor-initiating cells and may provide new inroads for novel anti-GBM therapeutic strategies. PMID:23651857

  18. Genome-wide RNAi screens in human brain tumor isolates reveal a novel viability requirement for PHF5A.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Christopher G; Bradley, Robert K; Ding, Yu; Toledo, Chad M; Herman, Jacob; Skutt-Kakaria, Kyobi; Girard, Emily J; Davison, Jerry; Berndt, Jason; Corrin, Philip; Hardcastle, Justin; Basom, Ryan; Delrow, Jeffery J; Webb, Thomas; Pollard, Steven M; Lee, Jeongwu; Olson, James M; Paddison, Patrick J

    2013-05-01

    To identify key regulators of human brain tumor maintenance and initiation, we performed multiple genome-wide RNAi screens in patient-derived glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cells (GSCs). These screens identified the plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger domain protein PHF5A as differentially required for GSC expansion, as compared with untransformed neural stem cells (NSCs) and fibroblasts. Given PHF5A's known involvement in facilitating interactions between the U2 snRNP complex and ATP-dependent helicases, we examined cancer-specific roles in RNA splicing. We found that in GSCs, but not untransformed controls, PHF5A facilitates recognition of exons with unusual C-rich 3' splice sites in thousands of essential genes. PHF5A knockdown in GSCs, but not untransformed NSCs, astrocytes, or fibroblasts, inhibited splicing of these genes, leading to cell cycle arrest and loss of viability. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition of U2 snRNP activity phenocopied PHF5A knockdown in GSCs and also in NSCs or fibroblasts overexpressing MYC. Furthermore, PHF5A inhibition compromised GSC tumor formation in vivo and inhibited growth of established GBM patient-derived xenograft tumors. Our results demonstrate a novel viability requirement for PHF5A to maintain proper exon recognition in brain tumor-initiating cells and may provide new inroads for novel anti-GBM therapeutic strategies. PMID:23651857

  19. A genome-wide imaging-based screening to identify genes involved in synphilin-1 inclusion formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Yang, Qian; Zheng, Ju; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hao, Xinxin; Song, Jia; Lebacq, Tom; Franssens, Vanessa; Winderickx, Joris; Nystrom, Thomas; Liu, Beidong

    2016-01-01

    Synphilin-1 is a major component of Parkinson’s disease (PD) inclusion bodies implicated in PD pathogenesis. However, the machinery controlling synphilin-1 inclusion formation remains unclear. Here, we investigated synphilin-1 inclusion formation using a systematic genome-wide, high-content imaging based screening approach (HCI) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By combining with a secondary screening for mutants showing significant changes on fluorescence signal intensity, we filtered out hits that significantly decreased the expression level of synphilin-1. We found 133 yeast genes that didn’t affect synphilin-1 expression but that were required for the formation of synphilin-1 inclusions. Functional enrichment and physical interaction network analysis revealed these genes to encode for functions involved in cytoskeleton organization, histone modification, sister chromatid segregation, glycolipid biosynthetic process, DNA repair and replication. All hits were confirmed by conventional microscopy. Complementation assays were performed with a selected group of mutants, results indicated that the observed phenotypic changes in synphilin-1 inclusion formation were directly caused by the loss of corresponding genes of the deletion mutants. Further growth assays of these mutants showed a significant synthetic sick effect upon synphilin-1 expression, which supports the hypothesis that matured inclusions represent an end stage of several events meant to protect cells against the synphilin-1 cytotoxicity. PMID:27440388

  20. Genome-wide screen identifies novel machineries required for both ciliogenesis and cell cycle arrest upon serum starvation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Ki, Soo Mi; Joung, Je-Gun; Scott, Eric; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Kwon, Chang Hyuk; Kim, Joon; Gleeson, Joseph G; Lee, Ji Eun

    2016-06-01

    Biogenesis of the primary cilium, a cellular organelle mediating various signaling pathways, is generally coordinated with cell cycle exit/re-entry. Although the dynamic cell cycle-associated profile of the primary cilium has been largely accepted, the mechanism governing the link between ciliogenesis and cell cycle progression has been poorly understood. Using a human genome-wide RNAi screen, we identify genes encoding subunits of the spliceosome and proteasome as novel regulators of ciliogenesis. We demonstrate that 1) the mRNA processing-related hits are essential for RNA expression of molecules acting in cilia disassembly, such as AURKA and PLK1, and 2) the ubiquitin-proteasome systems (UPS)-involved hits are necessary for proteolysis of molecules acting in cilia assembly, such as IFT88 and CPAP. In particular, we show that these screen hit-associated mechanisms are crucial for both cilia assembly and cell cycle arrest in response to serum withdrawal. Finally, our data suggest that the mRNA processing mechanism may modulate the UPS-dependent decay of cilia assembly regulators to control ciliary resorption-coupled cell cycle re-entry. PMID:27033521

  1. Screening of Tissue-Specific Genes and Promoters in Tomato by Comparing Genome Wide Expression Profiles of Arabidopsis Orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chan Ju; Lee, Ha Yeon; Kim, Woong Bom; Lee, Bok-Sim; Kim, Jungeun; Ahmad, Raza; Kim, Hyun A; Yi, So Young; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive overexpression of transgenes occasionally interferes with normal growth and developmental processes in plants. Thus, the development of tissue-specific promoters that drive transgene expression has become agriculturally important. To identify tomato tissue-specific promoters, tissue-specific genes were screened using a series of in silico-based and experimental procedures, including genome-wide orthologue searches of tomato and Arabidopsis databases, isolation of tissue-specific candidates using an Arabidopsis microarray database, and validation of tissue specificity by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and promoter assay. Using these procedures, we found 311 tissue-specific candidate genes and validated 10 tissue-specific genes by RT-PCR. Among these identified genes, histochemical analysis of five isolated promoter::GUS transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis plants revealed that their promoters have different but distinct tissue-specific activities in anther, fruit, and root, respectively. Therefore, it appears these in silico-based screening approaches in addition to the identification of new tissue-specific genes and promoters will be helpful for the further development of tailored crop development. PMID:22699756

  2. A Genome-Wide Screen for Machinery Involved in Downregulation of MHC Class I by HIV-1 Nef

    PubMed Central

    Choma, Maja K.; Lumb, Jennifer; Kozik, Patrycja; Robinson, Margaret S.

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1-encoded protein, Nef, plays a key role in the development of AIDS. One of Nef’s functions is to keep MHC class I off the surface of infected cells, a process that requires the host proteins clathrin and AP-1. To identify other proteins involved in this pathway, we carried out a genome-wide siRNA library screen on HeLa cells co-expressing HLA-A2 and an inducible form of Nef. Out of 21,121 siRNA pools, 100 were selected for further analysis, based on their ability to either inhibit or enhance downregulation of MHC-I by Nef. When cells were treated with the same siRNA pools as those used in the screen, 79% produced a similar phenotype. However, when the cells were treated with different siRNA reagents targeting the same genes, only 16% produced a similar phenotype. This indicates that most of the hits found in the original screen are likely to have been off-target, an important concern that is often not taken into account in siRNA screening studies. Nevertheless, we identified novel host factors involved in Nef-induced downregulation of MHC-I, including four genes, MIIP, CAMSAP3, SLC6A3, and KCTD19, where multiple reagents produced a strong inhibitory effect on Nef activity. Other hits slightly below our very high stringency cutoff point may also deserve further study. Thus, our dataset is a valuable resource for scientists investigating the pathogenesis of HIV. PMID:26466362

  3. An Arrayed RNA Interference Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in the MicroRNA 21 Biogenesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shum, David; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Ramirez, Christina N.; Radu, Constantin; Calder, Paul A.; Beauchamp, Lesslie; Farazi, T.; Landthaler, M.; Tuschi, T.; Magdaleno, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionary conserved noncoding molecules that regulate gene expression. They influence a number of diverse biological functions, such as development and differentiation. However, their dysregulation has been shown to be associated with disease states, such as cancer. Genes and pathways regulating their biogenesis remain unknown and are highly sought after. For this purpose, we have validated a multiplexed high-content assay strategy to screen for such modulators. Here, we describe its implementation that makes use of a cell-based gain-of-function reporter assay monitoring enhanced green fluorescent protein expression under the control of miRNA 21 (miR-21); combined with measures of both cell metabolic activities through the use of Alamar Blue and cell death through imaged Hoechst-stained nuclei. The strategy was validated using a panel of known genes and enabled us to successfully progress to and complete an arrayed genome-wide short interfering RNA (siRNA) screen against the Ambion Silencer Select v4.0 library containing 64,755 siRNA duplexes covering 21,565 genes. We applied a high-stringency hit analysis method, referred to as the Bhinder–Djaballah analysis method, leading to the nomination of 1,273 genes as candidate inhibitors of the miR-21 biogenesis pathway; after several iterations eliminating those genes with only one active duplex and those enriched in seed sequence mediated off-target effects. Biological classifications revealed four major control junctions among them vesicular transport via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Altogether, our screen has uncovered a number of novel candidate regulators that are potentially good druggable targets allowing for the discovery and development of small molecules for regulating miRNA function. PMID:23153064

  4. A genome wide screen identifies PAPP-AA mediated IGFR signaling as a novel regulator of habituation learning

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, Marc A.; Jain, Roshan A.; Marsden, Kurt C.; Bell, Hannah; Skinner, Julianne; Hayer, Katharina E.; Hogenesch, John B.; Granato, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary Habituation represents a fundamental form of learning, yet the underlying molecular genetic mechanisms are not well defined. Here we report on a genome-wide genetic screen, coupled with whole genome sequencing, that identified 14 zebrafish startle habituation mutants including mutants of the vertebrate specific gene pregnancy associated plasma protein-aa (pappaa). PAPP-AA encodes an extracellular metalloprotease known to increase IGF bioavailability thereby enhancing IGF receptor signaling. We find that pappaa is expressed by startle circuit neurons, and expression of wildtype, but not a metalloprotease-inactive version of pappaa restores habituation in pappaa mutants. Furthermore, acutely inhibiting IGF1R function in wild-type reduces habituation, while activation of IGF1R downstream effectors in pappaa mutants restores habituation, demonstrating that pappaa promotes learning by acutely and locally increasing IGF bioavailability. In sum, our results define the first functional gene set for habituation learning in a vertebrate, and identify PAPPAA-regulated IGF signaling as a novel mechanism regulating habituation learning. PMID:25754827

  5. A Complex Regulatory Network Coordinating Cell Cycles During C. elegans Development Is Revealed by a Genome-Wide RNAi Screen

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sarah H.; Tobin, David V.; Memar, Nadin; Beltz, Eleanor; Holmen, Jenna; Clayton, Joseph E.; Chiu, Daniel J.; Young, Laura D.; Green, Travis H.; Lubin, Isabella; Liu, Yuying; Conradt, Barbara; Saito, R. Mako

    2014-01-01

    The development and homeostasis of multicellular animals requires precise coordination of cell division and differentiation. We performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to reveal the components of a regulatory network that promotes developmentally programmed cell-cycle quiescence. The 107 identified genes are predicted to constitute regulatory networks that are conserved among higher animals because almost half of the genes are represented by clear human orthologs. Using a series of mutant backgrounds to assess their genetic activities, the RNA interference clones displaying similar properties were clustered to establish potential regulatory relationships within the network. This approach uncovered four distinct genetic pathways controlling cell-cycle entry during intestinal organogenesis. The enhanced phenotypes observed for animals carrying compound mutations attest to the collaboration between distinct mechanisms to ensure strict developmental regulation of cell cycles. Moreover, we characterized ubc-25, a gene encoding an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme whose human ortholog, UBE2Q2, is deregulated in several cancers. Our genetic analyses suggested that ubc-25 acts in a linear pathway with cul-1/Cul1, in parallel to pathways employing cki-1/p27 and lin-35/pRb to promote cell-cycle quiescence. Further investigation of the potential regulatory mechanism demonstrated that ubc-25 activity negatively regulates CYE-1/cyclin E protein abundance in vivo. Together, our results show that the ubc-25-mediated pathway acts within a complex network that integrates the actions of multiple molecular mechanisms to control cell cycles during development. PMID:24584095

  6. A Bow-Tie Genetic Architecture for Morphogenesis Suggested by a Genome-Wide RNAi Screen in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Matthew D.; Zhou, Elinor; Kiontke, Karin; Fradin, Hélène; Maldonado, Grayson; Martin, Daniel; Shah, Khushbu; Fitch, David H. A.

    2011-01-01

    During animal development, cellular morphogenesis plays a fundamental role in determining the shape and function of tissues and organs. Identifying the components that regulate and drive morphogenesis is thus a major goal of developmental biology. The four-celled tip of the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail is a simple but powerful model for studying the mechanism of morphogenesis and its spatiotemporal regulation. Here, through a genome-wide post-embryonic RNAi-feeding screen, we identified 212 components that regulate or participate in male tail tip morphogenesis. We constructed a working hypothesis for a gene regulatory network of tail tip morphogenesis. We found regulatory roles for the posterior Hox genes nob-1 and php-3, the TGF-β pathway, nuclear hormone receptors (e.g. nhr-25), the heterochronic gene blmp-1, and the GATA transcription factors egl-18 and elt-6. The majority of the pathways converge at dmd-3 and mab-3. In addition, nhr-25 and dmd-3/mab-3 regulate each others' expression, thus placing these three genes at the center of a complex regulatory network. We also show that dmd-3 and mab-3 negatively regulate other signaling pathways and affect downstream cellular processes such as vesicular trafficking (e.g. arl-1, rme-8) and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton (e.g. cdc-42, nmy-1, and nmy-2). Based on these data, we suggest that male tail tip morphogenesis is governed by a gene regulatory network with a bow-tie architecture. PMID:21408209

  7. Genome-wide siRNA Screening at Biosafety Level 4 Reveals a Crucial Role for Fibrillarin in Henipavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Chwan Hong; Rootes, Christina L.; Gould, Cathryn M.; Grusovin, Julian; Monaghan, Paul; Lo, Michael K.; Tompkins, S. Mark; Adams, Timothy E.; Lowenthal, John W.; Simpson, Kaylene J.; Stewart, Cameron R.; Bean, Andrew G. D.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Hendra and Nipah viruses (genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae) are highly pathogenic bat-borne viruses. The need for high biocontainment when studying henipaviruses has hindered the development of therapeutics and knowledge of the viral infection cycle. We have performed a genome-wide siRNA screen at biosafety level 4 that identified 585 human proteins required for henipavirus infection. The host protein with the largest impact was fibrillarin, a nucleolar methyltransferase that was also required by measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial viruses for infection. While not required for cell entry, henipavirus RNA and protein syntheses were greatly impaired in cells lacking fibrillarin, indicating a crucial role in the RNA replication phase of infection. During infection, the Hendra virus matrix protein co-localized with fibrillarin in cell nucleoli, and co-associated as a complex in pulldown studies, while its nuclear import was unaffected in fibrillarin-depleted cells. Mutagenesis studies showed that the methyltransferase activity of fibrillarin was required for henipavirus infection, suggesting that this enzyme could be targeted therapeutically to combat henipavirus infections. PMID:27010548

  8. Genome-wide screen uncovers novel pathways for tRNA processing and nuclear–cytoplasmic dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingyan; Bao, Alicia; Chatterjee, Kunal; Wan, Yao; Hopper, Anita K.

    2015-01-01

    Transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs) are essential for protein synthesis. However, key gene products involved in tRNA biogenesis and subcellular movement remain to be discovered. We conducted the first comprehensive unbiased analysis of the role of nearly an entire proteome in tRNA biology and describe 162 novel and 12 previously known Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene products that function in tRNA processing, turnover, and subcellular movement. tRNA nuclear export is of particular interest because it is essential, but the known tRNA exporters (Los1 [exportin-t] and Msn5 [exportin-5]) are unessential. We report that mutations of CRM1 (Exportin-1), MEX67/MTR2 (TAP/p15), and five nucleoporins cause accumulation of unspliced tRNA, a hallmark of defective tRNA nuclear export. CRM1 mutation genetically interacts with los1Δ and causes altered tRNA nuclear–cytoplasmic distribution. The data implicate roles for the protein and mRNA nuclear export machineries in tRNA nuclear export. Mutations of genes encoding actin cytoskeleton components and mitochondrial outer membrane proteins also cause accumulation of unspliced tRNA, likely due to defective splicing on mitochondria. Additional gene products, such as chromatin modification enzymes, have unanticipated effects on pre-tRNA end processing. Thus, this genome-wide screen uncovered putative novel pathways for tRNA nuclear export and extensive links between tRNA biology and other aspects of cell physiology. PMID:26680305

  9. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a role for multipass membrane proteins in endosome-to-golgi retrieval.

    PubMed

    Breusegem, Sophia Y; Seaman, Matthew N J

    2014-12-11

    Endosome-to-Golgi retrieval is an essential membrane trafficking pathway required for many important physiological processes and linked to neurodegenerative disease and infection by bacterial and viral pathogens. The prototypical cargo protein for this pathway is the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR), which delivers lysosomal hydrolases to endosomes. Efficient retrieval of CIMPR to the Golgi requires the retromer complex, but other aspects of the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval pathway are poorly understood. Employing an image-based antibody-uptake assay, we conducted a genome-wide RNAi loss-of-function screen for novel regulators of this trafficking pathway and report ∼90 genes that are required for endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of a CD8-CIMPR reporter protein. Among these regulators of endosome-to-Golgi retrieval are a number of multipass membrane-spanning proteins, a class of proteins often overlooked with respect to a role in membrane trafficking. We further demonstrate a role for three multipass membrane proteins, SFT2D2, ZDHHC5, and GRINA, in endosome-to-Golgi retrieval. PMID:25464851

  10. Suppression of pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis by HMP19 identified through genome-wide shRNA screen.

    PubMed

    Kurahara, Hiroshi; Bohl, Christopher; Natsugoe, Shoji; Nishizono, Yuka; Harihar, Sitaram; Sharma, Rahul; Iwakuma, Tomoo; Welch, Danny R

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic effectiveness against metastatic or even locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is dismal, with 5-year survival less than 5%. Even in patients who undergo potentially curative resection, most patients' tumors recur in the liver. Improving therapies targeting or preventing liver metastases is crucial for improving prognosis. To identify genes suppressing metastasis, a genome-wide shRNA screen was done using the human non-metastatic PDAC cell line, S2-028. After identification of candidates, functional validation was done using intrasplenic and orthotopic injections in athymic mice. HMP19 strongly inhibited metastasis but also partially attenuated tumor growth in the pancreas. Knockdown of HMP19 increased localization of activated ERK1/2 in the nucleus, corresponding to facilitated cell proliferation, decreased p27(Kip1) and increased cyclin E1. Over-expression of HMP19 exerted the opposite effects. Using a tissue microarray of 84 human PDAC, patients with low expression of HMP19 showed significantly higher incidence of liver metastasis (p = 0.0175) and worse prognosis (p = 0.018) after surgery. HMP19, a new metastasis/tumor suppressor in PDAC, appears to alter signaling that leads to cell proliferation and appears to offer prognostic value in human PDAC. PMID:27012470

  11. Genome-wide siRNA Screening at Biosafety Level 4 Reveals a Crucial Role for Fibrillarin in Henipavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Deffrasnes, Celine; Marsh, Glenn A; Foo, Chwan Hong; Rootes, Christina L; Gould, Cathryn M; Grusovin, Julian; Monaghan, Paul; Lo, Michael K; Tompkins, S Mark; Adams, Timothy E; Lowenthal, John W; Simpson, Kaylene J; Stewart, Cameron R; Bean, Andrew G D; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-03-01

    Hendra and Nipah viruses (genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae) are highly pathogenic bat-borne viruses. The need for high biocontainment when studying henipaviruses has hindered the development of therapeutics and knowledge of the viral infection cycle. We have performed a genome-wide siRNA screen at biosafety level 4 that identified 585 human proteins required for henipavirus infection. The host protein with the largest impact was fibrillarin, a nucleolar methyltransferase that was also required by measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial viruses for infection. While not required for cell entry, henipavirus RNA and protein syntheses were greatly impaired in cells lacking fibrillarin, indicating a crucial role in the RNA replication phase of infection. During infection, the Hendra virus matrix protein co-localized with fibrillarin in cell nucleoli, and co-associated as a complex in pulldown studies, while its nuclear import was unaffected in fibrillarin-depleted cells. Mutagenesis studies showed that the methyltransferase activity of fibrillarin was required for henipavirus infection, suggesting that this enzyme could be targeted therapeutically to combat henipavirus infections. PMID:27010548

  12. Genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals novel host factors required for Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin-mediated toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Virreira Winter, Sebastian; Zychlinsky, Arturo; Bardoel, Bart W.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide variety of infections and antibiotic resistant strains are a major problem in hospitals. One of the best studied virulence factors of S. aureus is the pore-forming toxin alpha hemolysin (αHL) whose mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We performed a genome-wide loss-of-function screen using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to identify host targets required for αHL susceptibility in human myeloid cells. We found gRNAs for ten genes enriched after intoxication with αHL and focused on the top five hits. Besides a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10), the host receptor for αHL, we identified three proteins, Sys1 golgi trafficking protein (SYS1), ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARFRP1), and tetraspanin-14 (TSPAN14) which regulate the presentation of ADAM10 on the plasma membrane post-translationally. Interestingly, we also showed that cells lacking sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SGMS1) resist αHL intoxication, but have only a slightly reduced ADAM10 surface expression. SGMS1 regulates lipid raft formation, suggesting that αHL requires these membrane microdomains for attachment and cytotoxicity. PMID:27066838

  13. Genome-wide RNAi Screen Reveals a Role for Multipass Membrane Proteins in Endosome-to-Golgi Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Breusegem, Sophia Y.; Seaman, Matthew N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Endosome-to-Golgi retrieval is an essential membrane trafficking pathway required for many important physiological processes and linked to neurodegenerative disease and infection by bacterial and viral pathogens. The prototypical cargo protein for this pathway is the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR), which delivers lysosomal hydrolases to endosomes. Efficient retrieval of CIMPR to the Golgi requires the retromer complex, but other aspects of the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval pathway are poorly understood. Employing an image-based antibody-uptake assay, we conducted a genome-wide RNAi loss-of-function screen for novel regulators of this trafficking pathway and report ∼90 genes that are required for endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of a CD8-CIMPR reporter protein. Among these regulators of endosome-to-Golgi retrieval are a number of multipass membrane-spanning proteins, a class of proteins often overlooked with respect to a role in membrane trafficking. We further demonstrate a role for three multipass membrane proteins, SFT2D2, ZDHHC5, and GRINA, in endosome-to-Golgi retrieval. PMID:25464851

  14. A Genome-wide CRISPR Screen Identifies CDC25A as a Determinant of Sensitivity to ATR Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Sergio; Mayor-Ruiz, Cristina; Lafarga, Vanesa; Murga, Matilde; Vega-Sendino, Maria; Ortega, Sagrario; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-04-21

    One recurring theme in drug development is to exploit synthetic lethal properties as means to preferentially damage the DNA of cancer cells. We and others have previously developed inhibitors of the ATR kinase, shown to be particularly genotoxic for cells expressing certain oncogenes. In contrast, the mechanisms of resistance to ATR inhibitors remain unexplored. We report here on a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen that identified CDC25A as a major determinant of sensitivity to ATR inhibition. CDC25A-deficient cells resist high doses of ATR inhibitors, which we show is due to their failure to prematurely enter mitosis in response to the drugs. Forcing mitotic entry with WEE1 inhibitors restores the toxicity of ATR inhibitors in CDC25A-deficient cells. With ATR inhibitors now entering the clinic, our work provides a better understanding of the mechanisms by which these compounds kill cells and reveals genetic interactions that could be used for their rational use. PMID:27067599

  15. Identifying Specific Genes Controlling Complex Traits Through A Genome-Wide Screen For cis-Acting Regulatory Elements - An Example Using Marek's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of specific genes underlying phenotypic variation of complex traits remains one of the greatest challenges in biology despite having genome sequences and more powerful tools. Most genome-wide screens lack sufficient resolving power as they typically depend on linkage. One altern...

  16. Genome-wide siRNA Screen Identifies the Radiosensitizing Effect of Downregulation of MASTL and FOXM1 in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Remco; Stigter-van Walsum, Marijke; Buijze, Marijke; van den Berg, Jaap; van der Meulen, Ida H; Hodzic, Jasmina; Piersma, Sander R; Pham, Thang V; Jiménez, Connie R; van Beusechem, Victor W; Brakenhoff, Ruud H

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and on top of that has a very poor prognosis, which is reflected by a 5-year survival rate of 5% to 15%. Radiotherapy is an integral part of most treatment regimens for this type of tumor, often combined with radiosensitizing cytotoxic drugs. In this study, we identified many genes that could potentially be exploited for targeted radiosensitization using a genome-wide siRNA screen in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. The screen identified 433 siRNAs that potentially sensitize lung cancer cells to radiation. Validation experiments showed that knockdown of expression of Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) or microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase-like (MASTL) indeed causes radiosensitization in a panel of NSCLC cells. Strikingly, this effect was not observed in primary human fibroblasts, suggesting that the observed radiosensitization is specific for cancer cells. Phosphoproteomics analyses with and without irradiation showed that a number of cell-cycle-related proteins were significantly less phosphorylated after MASTL knockdown in comparison to the control, while there were no changes in the levels of phosphorylation of DNA damage response proteins. Subsequent analyses showed that MASTL knockdown cells respond differently to radiation, with a significantly shortened G2-M phase arrest and defects in cytokinesis, which are followed by a cell-cycle arrest. In summary, we have identified many potential therapeutic targets that could be used for radiosensitization of NSCLC cells, with MASTL being a very promising and druggable target to combine with radiotherapy. PMID:25808837

  17. Genome-wide screen for modulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) secretion.

    PubMed

    Miles, Rebecca R; Perry, William; Haas, Joseph V; Mosior, Marian K; N'Cho, Mathias; Wang, Jian W J; Yu, Peng; Calley, John; Yue, Yong; Carter, Quincy; Han, Bomie; Foxworthy, Patricia; Kowala, Mark C; Ryan, Timothy P; Solenberg, Patricia J; Michael, Laura F

    2013-03-01

    Control of plasma cholesterol levels is a major therapeutic strategy for management of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) levels decreases morbidity and mortality, this therapeutic intervention only translates into a 25-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high LDL-c level is not the only risk factor for CAD; low HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) is an independent risk factor for CAD. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the major protein component of HDL-c that mediates reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver for excretion. Therefore, increasing ApoA-I levels is an attractive strategy for HDL-c elevation. Using genome-wide siRNA screening, targets that regulate hepatocyte ApoA-I secretion were identified through transfection of 21,789 siRNAs into hepatocytes whereby cell supernatants were assayed for ApoA-I. Approximately 800 genes were identified and triaged using a convergence of information, including genetic associations with HDL-c levels, tissue-specific gene expression, druggability assessments, and pathway analysis. Fifty-nine genes were selected for reconfirmation; 40 genes were confirmed. Here we describe the siRNA screening strategy, assay implementation and validation, data triaging, and example genes of interest. The genes of interest include known and novel genes encoding secreted enzymes, proteases, G-protein-coupled receptors, metabolic enzymes, ion transporters, and proteins of unknown function. Repression of farnesyltransferase (FNTA) by siRNA and the enzyme inhibitor manumycin A caused elevation of ApoA-I secretion from hepatocytes and from transgenic mice expressing hApoA-I and cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenes. In total, this work underscores the power of functional genetic assessment to identify new therapeutic targets. PMID:23322769

  18. Identification of a Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase Affecting Cardiotoxicity of Sunitinib Using a Genome-Wide Screening on S. pombe Deletion Library.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Hanna; Yeon, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Hee; Park, Han-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Drug toxicity is a key issue for drug R&D, a fundamental challenge of which is to screen for the targets genome-wide. The anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is known to induce cardiotoxicity. Here, to understand the molecular insights of cardiotoxicity by sunitinib at the genome level, we used a genome-wide drug target screening technology (GPScreen) that measures drug-induced haploinsufficiency (DIH) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome-wide deletion library and found a mitochondrial DNA polymerase (POG1). In the results, sunitinib induced more severe cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in POG1-deleted heterozygous mutants compared to wild type (WT) of S. pombe. Furthermore, knockdown of the human ortholog POLG of S. pombe POG1 in human cells significantly increased the cytotoxicity of sunitinib. Notably, sunitinib dramatically decreased the levels of POLG mRNAs and proteins, of which downregulation was already known to induce mitochondrial damage of cardiomyocytes, causing cardiotoxicity. These results indicate that POLG might play a crucial role in mitochondrial damage as a gene of which expressional pathway is targeted by sunitinib for cardiotoxicity, and that genome-wide drug target screening with GPScreen can be applied to drug toxicity target discovery to understand the molecular insights regarding drug toxicity. PMID:26385865

  19. Genome-wide Screens for Sensitivity to Ionizing Radiation Identify the Fission Yeast Nonhomologous End Joining Factor Xrc4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Yu, Yang; Suo, Fang; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhao, Dan; Du, Li-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is the main means for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells. Molecular understanding of NHEJ has benefited from analyses in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In human cells, the DNA ligation reaction of the classical NHEJ pathway is carried out by a protein complex composed of DNA ligase IV (LigIV) and XRCC4. In S. cerevisiae, this reaction is catalyzed by a homologous complex composed of Dnl4 and Lif1. Intriguingly, no homolog of XRCC4 has been found in S. pombe, raising the possibility that such a factor may not always be required for classical NHEJ. Here, through screening the ionizing radiation (IR) sensitivity phenotype of a genome-wide fission yeast deletion collection in both the vegetative growth state and the spore state, we identify Xrc4, a highly divergent homolog of human XRCC4. Like other fission yeast NHEJ factors, Xrc4 is critically important for IR resistance of spores, in which no homologous recombination templates are available. Using both extrachromosomal and chromosomal DSB repair assays, we show that Xrc4 is essential for classical NHEJ. Exogenously expressed Xrc4 colocalizes with the LigIV homolog Lig4 at the chromatin region of the nucleus in a mutually dependent manner. Furthermore, like their human counterparts, Xrc4 and Lig4 interact with each other and this interaction requires the inter-BRCT linker and the second BRCT domain of Lig4. Our discovery of Xrc4 suggests that an XRCC4 family protein is universally required for classical NHEJ in eukaryotes. PMID:24847916

  20. A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen in Mammalian Cells for Regulators of S6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Angela; Rapley, Joseph; Mesirov, Jill P.; Tamayo, Pablo; Avruch, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    mTOR complex1, the major regulator of mRNA translation in all eukaryotic cells, is strongly activated in most cancers. We performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in a human cancer cell line, seeking genes that regulate S6 phosphorylation, readout of mTORC1 activity. Applying a stringent selection, we retrieved nearly 600 genes wherein at least two RNAis gave significant reduction in S6-P. This cohort contains known regulators of mTOR complex 1 and is significantly enriched in genes whose depletion affects the proliferation/viability of the large set of cancer cell lines in the Achilles database in a manner paralleling that caused by mTOR depletion. We next examined the effect of RNAi pools directed at 534 of these gene products on S6-P in TSC1 null mouse embryo fibroblasts. 76 RNAis reduced S6 phosphorylation significantly in 2 or 3 replicates. Surprisingly, among this cohort of genes the only elements previously associated with the maintenance of mTORC1 activity are two subunits of the vacuolar ATPase and the CUL4 subunit DDB1. RNAi against a second set of 84 targets reduced S6-P in only one of three replicates. However, an indication that this group also bears attention is the presence of rpS6KB1 itself, Rac1 and MAP4K3, a protein kinase that supports amino acid signaling to rpS6KB1. The finding that S6 phosphorylation requires a previously unidentified, functionally diverse cohort of genes that participate in fundamental cellular processes such as mRNA translation, RNA processing, DNA repair and metabolism suggests the operation of feedback pathways in the regulation of mTORC1 operating through novel mechanisms. PMID:25790369

  1. Genome-wide screen of fission yeast mutants for sensitivity to 6-azauracil, an inhibitor of transcriptional elongation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Liu, Qi; Shi, Tianfang; Yu, Yao; Lu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    6-Azauracil (6 AU) inhibits enzymes in nucleoside synthesis and depletes the intracellular GTP/UTP pool. Mutations in transcriptional elongation machinery, as well as mutations in a variety of other pathways, exaggerate the growth defect of cells in the presence of 6 AU. Thus, identification of mutations that render cells sensitive to 6 AU will benefit study on the basis of 6 AU-sensitive phenotype. Here we performed a genome-wide screen of a fission yeast deletion library. Of 3235 single-gene deletions, 66 mutants displayed at least 50% drop of fitness in the presence of 6 AU and 60 mutants were reported for the first time; five deletions showed synthetic decrease of fitness when combined with deletion of set3(+) , which encodes a transcriptional regulator. Genes conferring tolerance to 6 AU were enriched in various processes, especially in chromosome segregation. Accordingly, genes encoding subunits of CLRC complex and spindle pole body were over-represented. Mutants were subjected to an in vivo transcript length-dependent reporter assay to assess the potential roles of deleted genes in transcriptional elongation. As with the deletions known to affect elongation, nab2Δ, nxt1Δ, rhp18Δ, SPAC24C9.08Δ, clr3Δ and ncs1Δset3Δ mutants exhibited defects in expressing long transcripts. New 6 AU-sensitive mutants identified here will help to elucidate the mechanism of action of 6 AU in the cells. Meanwhile, our study revealed novel genes potentially involved in transcriptional elongation and provided valuable targets for transcription study. PMID:26173815

  2. Institutional Profile: The Sheffield RNAi screening facility: a service for high-throughput, genome-wide Drosophila RNAi screens.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    The Sheffield RNAi Screening Facility (SRSF) was established in November 2008, as Britain's first Drosophila RNAi screening centre, funded by the University of Sheffield, Biomedical Sciences Department and the Wellcome Trust. The SRSF was formed to service the needs of research groups wanting to carry out high-throughput RNAi screens with Drosophila cells. The rationale for the SRSF is to provide RNAi libraries and the specialist equipment and expertise to do such screens. The facility supports both plate reader assays, high-content microscopy as well as the equipment needed to process these samples in a high-throughput fashion. The SRSF can either be used to identify genes involved in disease representing future drug targets, or to identify genes involved in drug resistance and efficacy. PMID:21428803

  3. Genome-wide screening identifies a KCNIP1 copy number variant as a genetic predictor for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Ti; Hsieh, Chia-Shan; Chang, Sheng-Nan; Chuang, Eric Y.; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Feng; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Wu, Cho-Kai; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Lin, Lian-Yu; Wang, Yi-Chih; Yu, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Ling-Ping; Tseng, Chuen-Den; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Previous genome-wide association studies had identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in several genomic regions to be associated with AF. In human genome, copy number variations (CNVs) are known to contribute to disease susceptibility. Using a genome-wide multistage approach to identify AF susceptibility CNVs, we here show a common 4,470-bp diallelic CNV in the first intron of potassium interacting channel 1 gene (KCNIP1) is strongly associated with AF in Taiwanese populations (odds ratio=2.27 for insertion allele; P=6.23 × 10−24). KCNIP1 insertion is associated with higher KCNIP1 mRNA expression. KCNIP1-encoded protein potassium interacting channel 1 (KCHIP1) is physically associated with potassium Kv channels and modulates atrial transient outward current in cardiac myocytes. Overexpression of KCNIP1 results in inducible AF in zebrafish. In conclusions, a common CNV in KCNIP1 gene is a genetic predictor of AF risk possibly pointing to a functional pathway. PMID:26831368

  4. A Genome-Wide Screen for Interactions Reveals a New Locus on 4p15 Modifying the Effect of Waist-to-Hip Ratio on Total Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Karssen, Lennart C.; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka P.; Middelberg, Rita P. S.; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ried, Janina S.; Lamina, Claudia; Mangino, Massimo; Igl, Wilmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Lagou, Vasiliki; van der Harst, Pim; Mateo Leach, Irene; Esko, Tõnu; Kutalik, Zoltán; Wainwright, Nicholas W.; Struchalin, Maksim V.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Kangas, Antti J.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Perola, Markus; Rantanen, Taina; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Soininen, Pasi; Johansson, Åsa; Soranzo, Nicole; Heath, Andrew C.; Papamarkou, Theodore; Prokopenko, Inga; Tönjes, Anke; Kronenberg, Florian; Döring, Angela; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Freimer, Nelson B.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Palotie, Aarno; Sandhu, Manj S.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Metspalu, Andres; Stumvoll, Michael; Uitterlinden, André G.; Jula, Antti; Navis, Gerjan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Spector, Tim D.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Salomaa, Veikko; Oostra, Ben A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Gieger, Christian; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hofman, Albert; McCarthy, Mark I.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Ripatti, Samuli

    2011-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain ∼25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene–environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened for variants that modify the relationship between known epidemiological risk factors and circulating lipid levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) data from 18 population-based cohorts with European ancestry (maximum N = 32,225). We collected 8 further cohorts (N = 17,102) for replication, and rs6448771 on 4p15 demonstrated genome-wide significant interaction with waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) on total cholesterol (TC) with a combined P-value of 4.79×10−9. There were two potential candidate genes in the region, PCDH7 and CCKAR, with differential expression levels for rs6448771 genotypes in adipose tissue. The effect of WHR on TC was strongest for individuals carrying two copies of G allele, for whom a one standard deviation (sd) difference in WHR corresponds to 0.19 sd difference in TC concentration, while for A allele homozygous the difference was 0.12 sd. Our findings may open up possibilities for targeted intervention strategies for people characterized by specific genomic profiles. However, more refined measures of both body-fat distribution and metabolic measures are needed to understand how their joint dynamics are modified by the newly found locus. PMID:22028671

  5. Genome Wide Screening of Candidate Genes for Improving Piglet Birth Weight Using High and Low Estimated Breeding Value Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifan; Zhou, Xiang; Michal, Jennifer J.; Ding, Bo; Li, Rui; Jiang, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    Birth weight is an economically important trait in pig production because it directly impacts piglet growth and survival rate. In the present study, we performed a genome wide survey of candidate genes and pathways associated with individual birth weight (IBW) using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip on 24 high (HEBV) and 24 low estimated breeding value (LEBV) animals. These animals were selected from a reference population of 522 individuals produced by three sires and six dam lines, which were crossbreds with multiple breeds. After quality-control, 43,257 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms), including 42,243 autosomal SNPs and 1,014 SNPs on chromosome X, were used in the data analysis. A total of 27 differentially selected regions (DSRs), including 1 on Sus scrofa chromosome 1 (SSC1), 1 on SSC4, 2 on SSC5, 4 on SSC6, 2 on SSC7, 5 on SSC8, 3 on SSC9, 1 on SSC14, 3 on SSC18, and 5 on SSCX, were identified to show the genome wide separations between the HEBV and LEBV groups for IBW in piglets. A DSR with the most number of significant SNPs (including 7 top 0.1% and 31 top 5% SNPs) was located on SSC6, while another DSR with the largest genetic differences in FST was found on SSC18. These regions harbor known functionally important genes involved in growth and development, such as TNFRSF9 (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9), CA6 (carbonic anhydrase VI) and MDFIC (MyoD family inhibitor domain containing). A DSR rich in imprinting genes appeared on SSC9, which included PEG10 (paternally expressed 10), SGCE (sarcoglycan, epsilon), PPP1R9A (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 9A) and ASB4 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 4). More importantly, our present study provided evidence to support six quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for pig birth weight, six QTL regions for average birth weight (ABW) and three QTL regions for litter birth weight (LBW) reported previously by other groups. Furthermore, gene ontology analysis with 183 genes

  6. A genome-wide screening uncovers the role of CCAR2 as an antagonist of DNA end resection.

    PubMed

    López-Saavedra, Ana; Gómez-Cabello, Daniel; Domínguez-Sánchez, María Salud; Mejías-Navarro, Fernando; Fernández-Ávila, María Jesús; Dinant, Christoffel; Martínez-Macías, María Isabel; Bartek, Jiri; Huertas, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    There are two major and alternative pathways to repair DNA double-strand breaks: non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. Here we identify and characterize novel factors involved in choosing between these pathways; in this study we took advantage of the SeeSaw Reporter, in which the repair of double-strand breaks by homology-independent or -dependent mechanisms is distinguished by the accumulation of green or red fluorescence, respectively. Using a genome-wide human esiRNA (endoribonuclease-prepared siRNA) library, we isolate genes that control the recombination/end-joining ratio. Here we report that two distinct sets of genes are involved in the control of the balance between NHEJ and HR: those that are required to facilitate recombination and those that favour NHEJ. This last category includes CCAR2/DBC1, which we show inhibits recombination by limiting the initiation and the extent of DNA end resection, thereby acting as an antagonist of CtIP. PMID:27503537

  7. A genome-wide screening uncovers the role of CCAR2 as an antagonist of DNA end resection

    PubMed Central

    López-Saavedra, Ana; Gómez-Cabello, Daniel; Domínguez-Sánchez, María Salud; Mejías-Navarro, Fernando; Fernández-Ávila, María Jesús; Dinant, Christoffel; Martínez-Macías, María Isabel; Bartek, Jiri; Huertas, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    There are two major and alternative pathways to repair DNA double-strand breaks: non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. Here we identify and characterize novel factors involved in choosing between these pathways; in this study we took advantage of the SeeSaw Reporter, in which the repair of double-strand breaks by homology-independent or -dependent mechanisms is distinguished by the accumulation of green or red fluorescence, respectively. Using a genome-wide human esiRNA (endoribonuclease-prepared siRNA) library, we isolate genes that control the recombination/end-joining ratio. Here we report that two distinct sets of genes are involved in the control of the balance between NHEJ and HR: those that are required to facilitate recombination and those that favour NHEJ. This last category includes CCAR2/DBC1, which we show inhibits recombination by limiting the initiation and the extent of DNA end resection, thereby acting as an antagonist of CtIP. PMID:27503537

  8. Ex vivo genome-wide RNAi screening of the Drosophila Toll signaling pathway elicited by a larva-derived tissue extract.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, Hirotaka; Kuraishi, Takayuki; Tong, Li-Li; Watanabe, Ryo; Nagata, Shinji; Kurata, Shoichiro

    2015-11-13

    Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), so-called "danger signals," play important roles in host defense and pathophysiology in mammals and insects. In Drosophila, the Toll pathway confers damage responses during bacterial infection and improper cell-fate control. However, the intrinsic ligands and signaling mechanisms that potentiate innate immune responses remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that a Drosophila larva-derived tissue extract strongly elicits Toll pathway activation via the Toll receptor. Using this extract, we performed ex vivo genome-wide RNAi screening in Drosophila cultured cells, and identified several signaling factors that are required for host defense and antimicrobial-peptide expression in Drosophila adults. These results suggest that our larva-derived tissue extract contains active ingredients that mediate Toll pathway activation, and the screening data will shed light on the mechanisms of damage-related Toll pathway signaling in Drosophila. PMID:26427875

  9. A genome-wide approach to screen for genetic variants in broilers (Gallus gallus) with divergent feed conversion ratio.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tejas M; Patel, Namrata V; Patel, Anand B; Upadhyay, Maulik R; Mohapatra, Amitbikram; Singh, Krishna M; Deshpande, Sunil D; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2016-08-01

    Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is an economically important trait in broilers and feed accounts for a significant proportion of the costs involved in broiler production. To explore the contribution of functional variants to FCR trait, we analyzed coding and non-coding single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) across the genome by exome sequencing in seven pairs of full-sibs broilers with divergent FCR and with a sequence coverage at an average depth of fourfold. We identified 192,119 high-quality SNVs, including 30,380 coding SNVs (cSNVs) in the experimental population. We discovered missense SNVs in PGM2, NOX4, TGFBR3, and TMX4, and synonymous SNVs in TSNAX, ITA, HSP90B1, and COL18A1 associated with FCR. Haplotype analyses of genome-wide significant SNVs in PGM2, PHKG1, DGKZ, and SOD2 were also observed with suggestive evidence of haplotype association with FCR. Single-variant and FCR QTL-related genes-based association analyses of SNVs identified newly associated genes for FCR in the regions subjected to targeted exome sequencing. The top seven SNVs were next evaluated in independent replication data sets where SNV chr. 3: 13,990,160 (c. 961G>C) at TMX4 was replicated (p < 0.05). Collectively, we have detected SNVs associated with FCR in broiler as well as identification of SNVs in known FCR QTL region. These findings should facilitate the discovery of causative variants for FCR and contribute to marker-assisted selection. PMID:27174137

  10. Cas-Database: web-based genome-wide guide RNA library design for gene knockout screens using CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongbin; Kim, Jin-Soo; Bae, Sangsu

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: CRISPR-derived RNA guided endonucleases (RGENs) have been widely used for both gene knockout and knock-in at the level of single or multiple genes. RGENs are now available for forward genetic screens at genome scale, but single guide RNA (sgRNA) selection at this scale is difficult. Results: We develop an online tool, Cas-Database, a genome-wide gRNA library design tool for Cas9 nucleases from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9). With an easy-to-use web interface, Cas-Database allows users to select optimal target sequences simply by changing the filtering conditions. Furthermore, it provides a powerful way to select multiple optimal target sequences from thousands of genes at once for the creation of a genome-wide library. Cas-Database also provides a web application programming interface (web API) for advanced bioinformatics users. Availability and implementation: Free access at http://www.rgenome.net/cas-database/. Contact: sangsubae@hanyang.ac.kr or jskim01@snu.ac.kr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153724

  11. Comparative Genome-Wide Screening Identifies a Conserved Doxorubicin Repair Network That Is Diploid Specific in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Westmoreland, Tammy J.; Wickramasekara, Sajith M.; Guo, Andrew Y.; Selim, Alice L.; Winsor, Tiffany S.; Greenleaf, Arno L.; Blackwell, Kimberly L.; Olson, John A.; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Bennett, Craig B.

    2009-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) induces DNA double-strand break (DSB) damage. In order to identify conserved genes that mediate DOX resistance, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid deletion collection and identified 376 deletion strains in which exposure to DOX was lethal or severely reduced growth fitness. This diploid screen identified 5-fold more DOX resistance genes than a comparable screen using the isogenic haploid derivative. Since DSB damage is repaired primarily by homologous recombination in yeast, and haploid cells lack an available DNA homolog in G1 and early S phase, this suggests that our diploid screen may have detected the loss of repair functions in G1 or early S phase prior to complete DNA replication. To test this, we compared the relative DOX sensitivity of 30 diploid deletion mutants identified under our screening conditions to their isogenic haploid counterpart, most of which (n = 26) were not detected in the haploid screen. For six mutants (bem1Δ, ctf4Δ, ctk1Δ, hfi1Δ,nup133Δ, tho2Δ) DOX-induced lethality was absent or greatly reduced in the haploid as compared to the isogenic diploid derivative. Moreover, unlike WT, all six diploid mutants displayed severe G1/S phase cell cycle progression defects when exposed to DOX and some were significantly enhanced (ctk1Δ and hfi1Δ) or deficient (tho2Δ) for recombination. Using these and other “THO2-like” hypo-recombinogenic, diploid-specific DOX sensitive mutants (mft1Δ, thp1Δ, thp2Δ) we utilized known genetic/proteomic interactions to construct an interactive functional genomic network which predicted additional DOX resistance genes not detected in the primary screen. Most (76%) of the DOX resistance genes detected in this diploid yeast screen are evolutionarily conserved suggesting the human orthologs are candidates for mediating DOX resistance by impacting on checkpoint and recombination functions in G1 and/or early S phases. PMID:19503795

  12. Automated cell analysis tool for a genome-wide RNAi screen with support vector machine based supervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmele, Steffen; Ritzerfeld, Julia; Nickel, Walter; Hesser, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    RNAi-based high-throughput microscopy screens have become an important tool in biological sciences in order to decrypt mostly unknown biological functions of human genes. However, manual analysis is impossible for such screens since the amount of image data sets can often be in the hundred thousands. Reliable automated tools are thus required to analyse the fluorescence microscopy image data sets usually containing two or more reaction channels. The herein presented image analysis tool is designed to analyse an RNAi screen investigating the intracellular trafficking and targeting of acylated Src kinases. In this specific screen, a data set consists of three reaction channels and the investigated cells can appear in different phenotypes. The main issue of the image processing task is an automatic cell segmentation which has to be robust and accurate for all different phenotypes and a successive phenotype classification. The cell segmentation is done in two steps by segmenting the cell nuclei first and then using a classifier-enhanced region growing on basis of the cell nuclei to segment the cells. The classification of the cells is realized by a support vector machine which has to be trained manually using supervised learning. Furthermore, the tool is brightness invariant allowing different staining quality and it provides a quality control that copes with typical defects during preparation and acquisition. A first version of the tool has already been successfully applied for an RNAi-screen containing three hundred thousand image data sets and the SVM extended version is designed for additional screens.

  13. Genome-Wide Small Interfering RNA Screens Reveal VAMP3 as a Novel Host Factor Required for Uukuniemi Virus Late Penetration

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Roger; Franceschini, Andrea; Horvath, Peter; Tetard, Marilou; Mancini, Roberta; von Mering, Christian; Helenius, Ari

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Bunyaviridae constitute a large family of enveloped animal viruses, many of which are important emerging pathogens. How bunyaviruses enter and infect mammalian cells remains largely uncharacterized. We used two genome-wide silencing screens with distinct small interfering RNA (siRNA) libraries to investigate host proteins required during infection of human cells by the bunyavirus Uukuniemi virus (UUKV), a late-penetrating virus. Sequence analysis of the libraries revealed that many siRNAs in the screens inhibited infection by silencing not only the intended targets but additional genes in a microRNA (miRNA)-like manner. That the 7-nucleotide seed regions in the siRNAs can cause a perturbation in infection was confirmed by using synthetic miRNAs (miRs). One of the miRs tested, miR-142-3p, was shown to interfere with the intracellular trafficking of incoming viruses by regulating the v-SNARE VAMP3, a strong hit shared by both siRNA screens. Inactivation of VAMP3 by the tetanus toxin led to a block in infection. Using fluorescence-based techniques in fixed and live cells, we found that the viruses enter VAMP3+ endosomal vesicles 5 min after internalization and that colocalization was maximal 15 min thereafter. At this time, LAMP1 was associated with the VAMP3+ virus-containing endosomes. In cells depleted of VAMP3, viruses were mainly trapped in LAMP1-negative compartments. Together, our results indicated that UUKV relies on VAMP3 for penetration, providing an indication of added complexity in the trafficking of viruses through the endocytic network. IMPORTANCE Bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to humans and livestock globally. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about these emerging pathogens. We report here the first human genome-wide siRNA screens for a bunyavirus. The screens resulted in the identification of 562 host cell factors with a potential role in cell entry and virus replication. To demonstrate the robustness of our approach, we

  14. Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 Screens Reveal Loss of Redundancy between PKMYT1 and WEE1 in Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Chad M; Ding, Yu; Hoellerbauer, Pia; Davis, Ryan J; Basom, Ryan; Girard, Emily J; Lee, Eunjee; Corrin, Philip; Hart, Traver; Bolouri, Hamid; Davison, Jerry; Zhang, Qing; Hardcastle, Justin; Aronow, Bruce J; Plaisier, Christopher L; Baliga, Nitin S; Moffat, Jason; Lin, Qi; Li, Xiao-Nan; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Jeongwu; Pollard, Steven M; Zhu, Jun; Delrow, Jeffery J; Clurman, Bruce E; Olson, James M; Paddison, Patrick J

    2015-12-22

    To identify therapeutic targets for glioblastoma (GBM), we performed genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (KO) screens in patient-derived GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) and human neural stem/progenitors (NSCs), non-neoplastic stem cell controls, for genes required for their in vitro growth. Surprisingly, the vast majority GSC-lethal hits were found outside of molecular networks commonly altered in GBM and GSCs (e.g., oncogenic drivers). In vitro and in vivo validation of GSC-specific targets revealed several strong hits, including the wee1-like kinase, PKMYT1/Myt1. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that PKMYT1 acts redundantly with WEE1 to inhibit cyclin B-CDK1 activity via CDK1-Y15 phosphorylation and to promote timely completion of mitosis in NSCs. However, in GSCs, this redundancy is lost, most likely as a result of oncogenic signaling, causing GBM-specific lethality. PMID:26673326

  15. A Genome-wide In Vitro Bacterial-Infection Screen Reveals Human Variation in the Host Response Associated with Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Dennis C.; Shukla, Kajal P.; Fong, Christine; Wasnick, Michael; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Wurfel, Mark M.; Holden, Tarah D.; O'Keefe, Grant E.; Van Yserloo, Brian; Akey, Joshua M.; Miller, Samuel I.

    2009-01-01

    Recent progress in cataloguing common genetic variation has made possible genome-wide studies that are beginning to elucidate the causes and consequences of our genetic differences. Approaches that provide a mechanistic understanding of how genetic variants function to alter disease susceptibility and why they were substrates of natural selection would complement other approaches to human-genome analysis. Here we use a novel cell-based screen of bacterial infection to identify human variation in Salmonella-induced cell death. A loss-of-function allele of CARD8, a reported inhibitor of the proinflammatory protease caspase-1, was associated with increased cell death in vitro (p = 0.013). The validity of this association was demonstrated through overexpression of alternative alleles and RNA interference in cells of varying genotype. Comparison of mammalian CARD8 orthologs and examination of variation among different human populations suggest that the increase in infectious-disease burden associated with larger animal groups (i.e., herds and colonies), and possibly human population expansion, may have naturally selected for loss of CARD8. We also find that the loss-of-function CARD8 allele shows a modest association with an increased risk of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in a small study (p = 0.05). Therefore, a by-product of the selected benefit of loss of CARD8 could be increased inflammatory diseases. These results demonstrate the utility of genome-wide cell-based association screens with microbes in the identification of naturally selected variants that can impact human health. PMID:19664744

  16. A Genome-wide Functional Screen Shows MAGI-1 Is an L1CAM-Dependent Stabilizer of Apical Junctions in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Allison M.; Grana, Theresa; Cox, Elizabeth; Couthier, Annabelle; Cameron, Michel; Chin-Sang, Ian; Pettitt, Jonathan; Hardin, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background In multicellular organisms, cell-cell junctions are involved in many aspects of tissue morphogenesis. α-catenin links the cadherin-catenin complex (CCC) to the actin cytoskeleton, stabilizing cadherin-dependent adhesions. Results To identify modulators of cadherin-based cell adhesion, we conducted a genome-wide RNAi screen in C. elegans and uncovered MAGI-1, a highly conserved protein scaffold. Loss of magi-1 function in wild-type embryos results in disorganized epithelial migration and occasional morphogenetic failure. MAGI-1 physically interacts with the putative actin regulator AFD-1/afadin; knocking down magi-1 or afd-1 function in a hypomorphic α-catenin background leads to complete morphogenetic failure and actin disorganization in the embryonic epidermis. MAGI-1 and AFD-1 localize to a unique domain in the apical junction and normal accumulation of MAGI-1 at junctions requires SAX-7/L1CAM, which can bind MAGI-1 via its C-terminus. Depletion of MAGI-1 leads to loss of spatial segregation and expansion of apical junctional domains and greater mobility of junctional proteins. Conclusions Our screen is the first genome-wide approach to identify proteins that function synergistically with the CCC during epidermal morphogenesis in a living embryo. We demonstrate novel physical interactions between MAGI-1, AFD-1/afadin and SAX-7/L1CAM, which are part of a functional interactome that includes components of the core CCC. Our results further suggest MAGI-1 helps to partition and maintain a stable, spatially ordered apical junction during morphogenesis. PMID:22981773

  17. A Functional Genome-Wide In Vivo Screen Identifies New Regulators of Signalling Pathways during Early Xenopus Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siwei; Li, Jingjing; Lea, Robert; Amaya, Enrique; Dorey, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic development requires exquisite regulation of several essential processes, such as patterning of tissues and organs, cell fate decisions, and morphogenesis. Intriguingly, these diverse processes are controlled by only a handful of signalling pathways, and mis-regulation in one or more of these pathways may result in a variety of congenital defects and diseases. Consequently, investigating how these signalling pathways are regulated at the molecular level is essential to understanding the mechanisms underlying vertebrate embryogenesis, as well as developing treatments for human diseases. Here, we designed and performed a large-scale gain-of-function screen in Xenopus embryos aimed at identifying new regulators of MAPK/Erk, PI3K/Akt, BMP, and TGF-β/Nodal signalling pathways. Our gain-of-function screen is based on the identification of gene products that alter the phosphorylation state of key signalling molecules, which report the activation state of the pathways. In total, we have identified 20 new molecules that regulate the activity of one or more signalling pathways during early Xenopus development. This is the first time that such a functional screen has been performed, and the findings pave the way toward a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the activity of important signalling pathways under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24244509

  18. Quantitative Genome-Wide Genetic Interaction Screens Reveal Global Epistatic Relationships of Protein Complexes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Stewart, Geordie; Samanfar, Bahram; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Wagih, Omar; Vlasblom, James; Phanse, Sadhna; Lad, Krunal; Yeou Hsiung Yu, Angela; Graham, Christopher; Jin, Ke; Brown, Eric; Golshani, Ashkan; Kim, Philip; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Greenblatt, Jack; Houry, Walid A.; Parkinson, John; Emili, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale proteomic analyses in Escherichia coli have documented the composition and physical relationships of multiprotein complexes, but not their functional organization into biological pathways and processes. Conversely, genetic interaction (GI) screens can provide insights into the biological role(s) of individual gene and higher order associations. Combining the information from both approaches should elucidate how complexes and pathways intersect functionally at a systems level. However, such integrative analysis has been hindered due to the lack of relevant GI data. Here we present a systematic, unbiased, and quantitative synthetic genetic array screen in E. coli describing the genetic dependencies and functional cross-talk among over 600,000 digenic mutant combinations. Combining this epistasis information with putative functional modules derived from previous proteomic data and genomic context-based methods revealed unexpected associations, including new components required for the biogenesis of iron-sulphur and ribosome integrity, and the interplay between molecular chaperones and proteases. We find that functionally-linked genes co-conserved among γ-proteobacteria are far more likely to have correlated GI profiles than genes with divergent patterns of evolution. Overall, examining bacterial GIs in the context of protein complexes provides avenues for a deeper mechanistic understanding of core microbial systems. PMID:24586182

  19. Genome-Wide Screens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Highlight a Role for Cardiolipin in Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Multispan Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sauerwald, Julia; Jores, Tobias; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Chuartzman, Silvia Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    A special group of mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) proteins spans the membrane several times via multiple helical segments. Such multispan proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes before their targeting to mitochondria and insertion into the MOM. Previous work recognized the import receptor Tom70 and the mitochondrial import (MIM) complex, both residents of the MOM, as required for optimal biogenesis of these proteins. However, their involvement is not sufficient to explain either the entire import pathway or its regulation. To identify additional factors that are involved in the biogenesis of MOM multispan proteins, we performed complementary high-throughput visual and growth screens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cardiolipin (CL) synthase (Crd1) appeared as a candidate in both screens. Our results indeed demonstrate lower steady-state levels of the multispan proteins Ugo1, Scm4, and Om14 in mitochondria from crd1Δ cells. Importantly, MOM single-span proteins were not affected by this mutation. Furthermore, organelles lacking Crd1 had a lower in vitro capacity to import newly synthesized Ugo1 and Scm4 molecules. Crd1, which is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, condenses phosphatidylglycerol together with CDP-diacylglycerol to obtain de novo synthesized CL molecules. Hence, our findings suggest that CL is an important component in the biogenesis of MOM multispan proteins. PMID:26149385

  20. A Genome-Wide Screen Reveals that the Vibrio cholerae Phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphotransferase System Modulates Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Yves A.; Chao, Michael C.; Sasabe, Jumpei; Davis, Brigid M.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental stimuli and a complex network of regulatory factors are known to modulate expression of Vibrio cholerae's principal virulence factors. However, there is relatively little known about how metabolic factors impinge upon the pathogen's well-characterized cascade of transcription factors that induce expression of cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Here, we used a transposon insertion site (TIS) sequencing-based strategy to identify new factors required for expression of tcpA, which encodes the major subunit of TCP, the organism's chief intestinal colonization factor. Besides identifying most of the genes known to modulate tcpA expression, the screen yielded ptsI and ptsH, which encode the enzyme I (EI) and Hpr components of the V. cholerae phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS). In addition to reduced expression of TcpA, strains lacking EI, Hpr, or the associated EIIAGlc protein produced less cholera toxin (CT) and had a diminished capacity to colonize the infant mouse intestine. The PTS modulates virulence gene expression by regulating expression of tcpPH and aphAB, which themselves control expression of toxT, the central activator of virulence gene expression. One mechanism by which PTS promotes virulence gene expression appears to be by modulating the amounts of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). Our findings reveal that the V. cholerae PTS is an additional modulator of the ToxT regulon and demonstrate the potency of loss-of-function TIS sequencing screens for defining regulatory networks. PMID:26056384

  1. Genome-wide RNAi screening implicates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Sherpa in mediating innate immune signaling by Toll in Drosophila adults.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, Hirotaka; Tong, Li-Li; Kuraishi, Takayuki; Suda, Yamato; Momiuchi, Yoshiki; Shishido, Fumi; Kurata, Shoichiro

    2015-10-27

    The Drosophila Toll pathway plays important roles in innate immune responses against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. To identify previously uncharacterized components of this pathway, we performed comparative, ex vivo, genome-wide RNA interference screening. In four screens, we overexpressed the Toll adaptor protein dMyd88, the downstream kinase Pelle, or the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) homolog Dif, or we knocked down Cactus, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian inhibitor of NF-κB. On the basis of these screens, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Sherpa as being necessary for the activation of Toll signaling. A loss-of-function sherpa mutant fly exhibited compromised production of antimicrobial peptides and enhanced susceptibility to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. In cultured cells, Sherpa mediated ubiquitylation of dMyd88 and Sherpa itself, and Sherpa and Drosophila SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) were required for the proper membrane localization of an adaptor complex containing dMyd88. These findings highlight a role for Sherpa in Drosophila host defense and suggest the SUMOylation-mediated regulation of dMyd88 functions in Toll innate immune signaling. PMID:26508789

  2. A genome-wide siRNA screen reveals positive and negative regulators of the NOD2 and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Warner, Neil; Burberry, Aaron; Franchi, Luigi; Kim, Yun-Gi; McDonald, Christine; Sartor, Maureen A; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-15

    The cytoplasmic receptor NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2) senses peptidoglycan fragments and triggers host defense pathways, including activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, which lead to inflammatory immune responses. Dysregulation of NOD2 signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn's disease and Blau syndrome. We used a genome-wide small interfering RNA screen to identify regulators of the NOD2 signaling pathway. Several genes associated with Crohn's disease risk were identified in the screen. A comparison of candidates from this screen with other "omics" data sets revealed interconnected networks of genes implicated in NF-κB signaling, thus supporting a role for NOD2 and NF-κB pathways in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Many of these regulators were validated in secondary assays, such as measurement of interleukin-8 secretion, which is partially dependent on NF-κB. Knockdown of putative regulators in human embryonic kidney 293 cells followed by stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α revealed that most of the genes identified were general regulators of NF-κB signaling. Overall, the genes identified here provide a resource to facilitate the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate NOD2- and NF-κB-mediated inflammation. PMID:23322906

  3. A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen Reveals Positive and Negative Regulators of the NOD2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Neil; Burberry, Aaron; Franchi, Luigi; Kim, Yun-Gi; McDonald, Christine; Sartor, Maureen A.; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The cytoplasmic receptor NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2) senses peptidoglycan fragments and triggers host defense pathways that lead to inflammatory immune responses. Dysregulation of NOD2 signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and Blau syndrome. We used a genome-wide, small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen to identify regulators of the NOD2 signaling pathway. Several genes associated with Crohn’s disease risk were identified in the screen, supporting a role for NOD2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease. A comparison of hits from this screen with other “omics” data sets revealed interconnected networks of genes implicated in NF-κB signaling. Secondary assays, including the measurement of interleukin-8 secretion, served to validate many of the regulators. Knockdown of putative regulators in HEK293 cells followed by stimulation with tumor necrosis factor α revealed that most of the genes identified were general regulators of NF-κB signaling. Overall, the genes identified here provide a resource to facilitate the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate NOD2- and NF-κB–mediated inflammation. PMID:23322906

  4. Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required to foster tolerance towards industrial wheat straw hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francisco B; Teixeira, Miguel C; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-12-01

    The presence of toxic compounds derived from biomass pre-treatment in fermentation media represents an important drawback in second-generation bio-ethanol production technology and overcoming this inhibitory effect is one of the fundamental challenges to its industrial production. The aim of this study was to systematically identify, in industrial medium and at a genomic scale, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for simultaneous and maximal tolerance to key inhibitors of lignocellulosic fermentations. Based on the screening of EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection, 242 and 216 determinants of tolerance to inhibitory compounds present in industrial wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) and in inhibitor-supplemented synthetic hydrolysate were identified, respectively. Genes associated to vitamin metabolism, mitochondrial and peroxisomal functions, ribosome biogenesis and microtubule biogenesis and dynamics are among the newly found determinants of WSH resistance. Moreover, PRS3, VMA8, ERG2, RAV1 and RPB4 were confirmed as key genes on yeast tolerance and fermentation of industrial WSH. PMID:25287021

  5. A Genome-Wide Screen for Promoter Methylation in Lung Cancer Identifies Novel Methylation Markers for Multiple Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shames, David S; Girard, Luc; Gao, Boning; Sato, Mitsuo; Lewis, Cheryl M; Shivapurkar, Narayan; Jiang, Aixiang; Perou, Charles M; Kim, Young H; Pollack, Jonathan R; Fong, Kwun M; Lam, Chi-Leung; Wong, Maria; Shyr, Yu; Nanda, Rita; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Gerald, William; Euhus, David M; Shay, Jerry W; Gazdar, Adi F; Minna, John D

    2006-01-01

    Background Promoter hypermethylation coupled with loss of heterozygosity at the same locus results in loss of gene function in many tumor cells. The “rules” governing which genes are methylated during the pathogenesis of individual cancers, how specific methylation profiles are initially established, or what determines tumor type-specific methylation are unknown. However, DNA methylation markers that are highly specific and sensitive for common tumors would be useful for the early detection of cancer, and those required for the malignant phenotype would identify pathways important as therapeutic targets. Methods and Findings In an effort to identify new cancer-specific methylation markers, we employed a high-throughput global expression profiling approach in lung cancer cells. We identified 132 genes that have 5′ CpG islands, are induced from undetectable levels by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine in multiple non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, and are expressed in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells. As expected, these genes were also expressed in normal lung, but often not in companion primary lung cancers. Methylation analysis of a subset (45/132) of these promoter regions in primary lung cancer (n = 20) and adjacent nonmalignant tissue (n = 20) showed that 31 genes had acquired methylation in the tumors, but did not show methylation in normal lung or peripheral blood cells. We studied the eight most frequently and specifically methylated genes from our lung cancer dataset in breast cancer (n = 37), colon cancer (n = 24), and prostate cancer (n = 24) along with counterpart nonmalignant tissues. We found that seven loci were frequently methylated in both breast and lung cancers, with four showing extensive methylation in all four epithelial tumors. Conclusions By using a systematic biological screen we identified multiple genes that are methylated with high penetrance in primary lung, breast, colon, and prostate cancers. The cross-tumor methylation

  6. Genome-Wide CRISPR-Cas9 Screen Identifies MicroRNAs That Regulate Myeloid Leukemia Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Jared; Hu, Ruozhen; Mosbruger, Timothy L.; Dahlem, Timothy J.; Stephens, W. Zac; Rao, Dinesh S.; Round, June L.; O’Connell, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian microRNA expression is dysregulated in human cancer. However, the functional relevance of many microRNAs in the context of tumor biology remains unclear. Using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, we performed a global loss-of-function screen to simultaneously test the functions of individual microRNAs and protein-coding genes during the growth of a myeloid leukemia cell line. This approach identified evolutionarily conserved human microRNAs that suppress or promote cell growth, revealing that microRNAs are extensively integrated into the molecular networks that control tumor cell physiology. miR-155 was identified as a top microRNA candidate promoting cellular fitness, which we confirmed with two distinct miR-155-targeting CRISPR-Cas9 lentiviral constructs. Further, we performed anti-correlation functional profiling to predict relevant microRNA-tumor suppressor gene or microRNA-oncogene interactions in these cells. This analysis identified miR-150 targeting of p53, a connection that was experimentally validated. Taken together, our study describes a powerful genetic approach by which the function of individual microRNAs can be assessed on a global level, and its use will rapidly advance our understanding of how microRNAs contribute to human disease. PMID:27081855

  7. Genome-Wide Screening and Identification of New Trypanosoma cruzi Antigens with Potential Application for Chronic Chagas Disease Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; de Almeida Lourdes, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Daihana Rodrigues dos Santos; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo Andrez; de Oliveira Tavares, Maykon; Lemos, Denise Silveira; Câmara, Antônia Cláudia Jácome; Olórtegui, Carlos Chavez; de Lana, Marta; da Cunha Galvão, Lúcia Maria; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira

    2014-01-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, an infection that afflicts approximately 8 million people in Latin America. Diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease is currently based on serological tests because this condition is usually characterized by high anti-T. cruzi IgG titers and low parasitemia. The antigens used in these assays may have low specificity due to cross reactivity with antigens from related parasite infections, such as leishmaniasis, and low sensitivity caused by the high polymorphism among T. cruzi strains. Therefore, the identification of new T. cruzi-specific antigens that are conserved among the various parasite discrete typing units (DTUs) is still required. In the present study, we have explored the hybrid nature of the T. cruzi CL Brener strain using a broad genome screening approach to select new T. cruzi antigens that are conserved among the different parasite DTUs and that are absent in other trypanosomatid species. Peptide arrays containing the conserved antigens with the highest epitope prediction scores were synthesized, and the reactivity of the peptides were tested by immunoblot using sera from C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with T. cruzi strains from the TcI, TcII or TcVI DTU. The two T. cruzi proteins that contained the most promising peptides were expressed as recombinant proteins and tested in ELISA experiments with sera from chagasic patients with distinct clinical manifestations: those infected with T. cruzi from different DTUs and those with cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis. These proteins, named rTc_11623.20 and rTc_N_10421.310, exhibited 94.83 and 89.66% sensitivity, 98.2 and 94.6% specificity, respectively, and a pool of these 2 proteins exhibited 96.55% sensitivity and 98.18% specificity. This work led to the identification of two new antigens with great potential application in the diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease. PMID:25225853

  8. A Genome-Wide Screen to Identify Transcription Factors Expressed in Pelvic Ganglia of the Lower Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Carrie B.; Ireland, Sara; Fleming, Nicole L.; Yu, Jing; Valerius, M. Todd; Georgas, Kylie; Chiu, Han Sheng; Brennan, Jane; Armstrong, Jane; Little, Melissa H.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Relative positions of neurons within mature murine pelvic ganglia based on expression of neurotransmitters have been described. However the spatial organization of developing innervation in the murine urogenital tract (UGT) and the gene networks that regulate specification and maturation of neurons within the pelvic ganglia of the lower urinary tract (LUT) are unknown. We used whole-mount immunohistochemistry and histochemical stains to localize neural elements in 15.5 days post coitus (dpc) fetal mice. To identify potential regulatory factors expressed in pelvic ganglia, we surveyed expression patterns for known or probable transcription factors (TF) annotated in the mouse genome by screening a whole-mount in situ hybridization library of fetal UGTs. Of the 155 genes detected in pelvic ganglia, 88 encode TFs based on the presence of predicted DNA-binding domains. Neural crest (NC)-derived progenitors within the LUT were labeled by Sox10, a well-known regulator of NC development. Genes identified were categorized based on patterns of restricted expression in pelvic ganglia, pelvic ganglia and urethral epithelium, or pelvic ganglia and urethral mesenchyme. Gene expression patterns and the distribution of Sox10+, Phox2b+, Hu+, and PGP9.5+ cells within developing ganglia suggest previously unrecognized regional segregation of Sox10+ progenitors and differentiating neurons in early development of pelvic ganglia. Reverse transcription-PCR of pelvic ganglia RNA from fetal and post-natal stages demonstrated that multiple TFs maintain post-natal expression, although Pax3 is extinguished before weaning. Our analysis identifies multiple potential regulatory genes including TFs that may participate in segregation of discrete lineages within pelvic ganglia. The genes identified here are attractive candidate disease genes that may now be further investigated for their roles in malformation syndromes or in LUT dysfunction. PMID:22988430

  9. Genome-Wide Screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Identifies Vacuolar Protein Sorting, Autophagy, Biosynthetic, and tRNA Methylation Genes Involved in Life Span Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Shamalnasab, Mehrnaz; Galbani, Abdulaye; Wei, Min; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Longo, Valter D.

    2010-01-01

    The study of the chronological life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which measures the survival of populations of non-dividing yeast, has resulted in the identification of homologous genes and pathways that promote aging in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Using a competitive genome-wide approach, we performed a screen of a complete set of approximately 4,800 viable deletion mutants to identify genes that either increase or decrease chronological life span. Half of the putative short-/long-lived mutants retested from the primary screen were confirmed, demonstrating the utility of our approach. Deletion of genes involved in vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, and mitochondrial function shortened life span, confirming that respiration and degradation processes are essential for long-term survival. Among the genes whose deletion significantly extended life span are ACB1, CKA2, and TRM9, implicated in fatty acid transport and biosynthesis, cell signaling, and tRNA methylation, respectively. Deletion of these genes conferred heat-shock resistance, supporting the link between life span extension and cellular protection observed in several model organisms. The high degree of conservation of these novel yeast longevity determinants in other species raises the possibility that their role in senescence might be conserved. PMID:20657825

  10. Genome-wide genetic screen identified the link between dG9a and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shimaji, Kouhei; Konishi, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hideki; Kimura, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2016-08-01

    G9a is one of the histone H3 Lys 9 (H3K9) specific methyltransferases first identified in mammals. Drosophila G9a (dG9a) has been reported to induce H3K9 dimethylation in vivo, and the target genes of dG9a were identified during embryonic and larval stages. Although dG9a is important for a variety of developmental processes, the link between dG9a and signaling pathways are not addressed yet. Here, by genome-wide genetic screen, taking advantage of the rough eye phenotype of flies that over-express dG9a in eye discs, we identified 16 genes that enhanced the rough eye phenotype induced by dG9a over-expression. These 16 genes included Star, anterior open, bereft and F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 6 which are components of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. When dG9a over-expression was combined with mutation of Star, differentiation of R7 photoreceptors in eye imaginal discs as well as cone cells and pigment cells in pupal retinae was severely inhibited. Furthermore, the dG9a over-expression reduced the activated ERK signals in eye discs. These data demonstrate a strong genetic link between dG9a and the EGFR signaling pathway. PMID:27343629

  11. Formation of hydrogen sulfide from cysteine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742: genome wide screen reveals a central role of the vacuole.

    PubMed

    Winter, Gal; Cordente, Antonio G; Curtin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Discoveries on the toxic effects of cysteine accumulation and, particularly, recent findings on the many physiological roles of one of the products of cysteine catabolism, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), are highlighting the importance of this amino acid and sulfur metabolism in a range of cellular activities. It is also highlighting how little we know about this critical part of cellular metabolism. In the work described here, a genome-wide screen using a deletion collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a surprising set of genes associated with this process. In addition, the yeast vacuole, not previously associated with cysteine catabolism, emerged as an important compartment for cysteine degradation. Most prominent among the vacuole-related mutants were those involved in vacuole acidification; we identified each of the eight subunits of a vacuole acidification sub-complex (V1 of the yeast V-ATPase) as essential for cysteine degradation. Other functions identified included translation, RNA processing, folate-derived one-carbon metabolism, and mitochondrial iron-sulfur homeostasis. This work identified for the first time cellular factors affecting the fundamental process of cysteine catabolism. Results obtained significantly contribute to the understanding of this process and may provide insight into the underlying cause of cysteine accumulation and H2S generation in eukaryotes. PMID:25517415

  12. A genome-wide IR-induced RAD51 foci RNAi screen identifies CDC73 involved in chromatin remodeling for DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Patrick; Lundin, Cecilia; Evers, Bastiaan; Ebner, Daniel; Bauerschmidt, Christina; Kingham, Guy; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Frings, Oliver; Sonnhammer, Erik; Helleday, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To identify new regulators of homologous recombination repair, we carried out a genome-wide short-interfering RNA screen combined with ionizing irradiation using RAD51 foci formation as readout. All candidates were confirmed by independent short-interfering RNAs and validated in secondary assays like recombination repair activity and RPA foci formation. Network analysis of the top modifiers identified gene clusters involved in recombination repair as well as components of the ribosome, the proteasome and the spliceosome, which are known to be required for effective DNA repair. We identified and characterized the RNA polymerase II-associated protein CDC73/Parafibromin as a new player in recombination repair and show that it is critical for genomic stability. CDC73 interacts with components of the SCF/Cullin and INO80/NuA4 chromatin-remodeling complexes to promote Histone ubiquitination. Our findings indicate that CDC73 is involved in local chromatin decondensation at sites of DNA damage to promote DNA repair. This function of CDC73 is related to but independent of its role in transcriptional elongation. PMID:27462432

  13. Formation of Hydrogen Sulfide from Cysteine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742: Genome Wide Screen Reveals a Central Role of the Vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Gal; Cordente, Antonio G.; Curtin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Discoveries on the toxic effects of cysteine accumulation and, particularly, recent findings on the many physiological roles of one of the products of cysteine catabolism, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), are highlighting the importance of this amino acid and sulfur metabolism in a range of cellular activities. It is also highlighting how little we know about this critical part of cellular metabolism. In the work described here, a genome-wide screen using a deletion collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a surprising set of genes associated with this process. In addition, the yeast vacuole, not previously associated with cysteine catabolism, emerged as an important compartment for cysteine degradation. Most prominent among the vacuole-related mutants were those involved in vacuole acidification; we identified each of the eight subunits of a vacuole acidification sub-complex (V1 of the yeast V-ATPase) as essential for cysteine degradation. Other functions identified included translation, RNA processing, folate-derived one-carbon metabolism, and mitochondrial iron-sulfur homeostasis. This work identified for the first time cellular factors affecting the fundamental process of cysteine catabolism. Results obtained significantly contribute to the understanding of this process and may provide insight into the underlying cause of cysteine accumulation and H2S generation in eukaryotes. PMID:25517415

  14. A genome-wide RNAi screen draws a genetic framework for transposon control and primary piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Muerdter, Felix; Guzzardo, Paloma M.; Gillis, Jesse; Luo, Yicheng; Yu, Yang; Chen, Caifu; Fekete, Richard; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A large fraction of our genome consists of mobile genetic elements. Governing transposons in germ cells is critically important, and failure to do so compromises genome integrity, leading to sterility. In animals, the piRNA pathway is the key to transposon constraint, yet the precise molecular details of how piRNAs are formed and how the pathway represses mobile elements remain poorly understood. In an effort to identify general requirements for transposon control and novel components of the piRNA pathway, we carried out a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila ovarian somatic sheet cells. We identified and validated 87 genes necessary for transposon silencing. Among these were several novel piRNA biogenesis factors. We also found CG3893 (asterix) to be essential for transposon silencing, most likely by contributing to the effector step of transcriptional repression. Asterix loss leads to decreases in H3K9me3 marks on certain transposons but has no effect on piRNA levels. PMID:23665228

  15. A Genome-Wide RNAi Screen Identifies Opposing Functions of Snai1 and Snai2 on the Nanog Dependency of Establishing Pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Gingold, Julian A.; Fidalgo, Miguel; Guallar, Diana; Lau, Zerlina; Sun, Zhen; Zhou, Hongwei; Faiola, Francesco; Huang, Xin; Lee, Dung-Fang; Waghray, Avinash; Schaniel, Christoph; Felsenfeld, Dan P.; Lemischka, Ihor R.; Wang, Jianlong

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Nanog facilitates ESC self-renewal and iPSC generation during the final stage of reprogramming. From a genome-wide siRNA screen using a Nanog-GFP reporter line we discovered opposing effects of Snai1 and Snai2 depletion on Nanog promoter activity. We further discovered mutually repressive expression profiles and opposing functions of Snai1 and Snai2 during the Nanog-driven final stage of reprogramming. We found that Snai1, but not Snai2, is both a transcriptional target and protein partner of Nanog in reprogramming. Ectopic expression of Snai1 or depletion of Snai2 greatly facilitate the Nanog-driven reprogramming. Snai1 (but not Snai2) and Nanog co-bind to and transcriptionally activate pluripotency-associated genes including Lin28 and miRNA-290-295. Ectopic expression of miRNA-290-295 cluster genes partially rescues reprogramming inefficiency caused by Snai1 depletion. Our studies thus uncover a novel interplay between Nanog and mesenchymal transcription factors Snai1 and Snai2 in the transcriptional regulation of pluripotency-associated genes and miRNAs during the Nanog-driven reprogramming process. PMID:25240402

  16. Identification of a molecular signaling network that regulates a cellular necrotic cell death pathway by a genome wide siRNA screen

    PubMed Central

    Hitomi, Junichi; Christofferson, Dana E.; Ng, Aylwin; Yao, Jianhua; Degterev, Alexei; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Yuan, Junying

    2009-01-01

    Stimulation of death receptors by agonists such as FasL and TNFα activates apoptotic cell death in apoptotic competent conditions or a type of necrotic cell death dependent on RIP1 kinase, termed necroptosis, in apoptotic deficient conditions. In a genome-wide siRNA screen for regulators of necroptosis, we identify a set of 432 genes that regulate necroptosis, a subset of 32 genes that act downstream and/or as regulators of RIP1 kinase, 32 genes required for death receptor mediated apoptosis, and 7 genes involved in both necroptosis and apoptosis. We show that the expression of subsets of the 432 genes are enriched in the immune and nervous systems, and cellular sensitivity to necroptosis is regulated by an extensive signaling network mediating innate immunity. Interestingly, Bmf, a BH3-only Bcl-2 family member, is required for death receptor-induced necroptosis. Our study defines a cellular signaling network that regulates necroptosis and the molecular bifurcation that controls apoptosis and necroptosis. PMID:19109899

  17. Identification of striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) as a novel calmodulin target by a newly developed genome-wide screen.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yusui; Denda, Miwako; Sakane, Kyohei; Ogusu, Tomoko; Takahashi, Sumio; Magari, Masaki; Kanayama, Naoki; Morishita, Ryo; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    To search for novel target(s) of the Ca(2+)-signaling transducer, calmodulin (CaM), we performed a newly developed genome-wide CaM interaction screening of 19,676 GST-fused proteins expressed in human. We identified striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) as a novel CaM target and characterized its CaM binding ability and found that the Ca(2+)/CaM complex interacted stoichiometrically with the N-terminal region (Ala13-Gln35) of STARS in vitro as well as in living cells. Mutagenesis studies identified Ile20 and Trp33 as the essential hydrophobic residues in CaM anchoring. Furthermore, the CaM binding deficient mutant (Ile20Ala, Trp33Ala) of STARS further enhanced its stimulatory effect on SRF-dependent transcriptional activation. These results suggest a connection between Ca(2+)-signaling via excitation-contraction coupling and the regulation of STARS-mediated gene expression in muscles. PMID:27132186

  18. Genome-wide functional genetic screen with the anticancer agent AMPI-109 identifies PRL-3 as an oncogenic driver in triple-negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Gari, Hamid H; Gearheart, Christy M; Fosmire, Susan; DeGala, Gregory D; Fan, Zeying; Torkko, Kathleen C; Edgerton, Susan M; Lucia, M Scott; Ray, Rahul; Thor, Ann D; Porter, Christopher C; Lambert, James R

    2016-03-29

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are among the most aggressive and heterogeneous cancers with a high propensity to invade, metastasize and relapse. Here, we demonstrate that the anticancer compound, AMPI-109, is selectively efficacious in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of multiple TNBC subtype cell lines as assessed by activation of pro-apoptotic caspases-3 and 7, PARP cleavage and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. AMPI-109 had little to no effect on growth in the majority of non-TNBC cell lines examined. We therefore utilized AMPI-109 in a genome-wide shRNA screen in the TNBC cell line, BT-20, to investigate the utility of AMPI-109 as a tool in helping to identify molecular alterations unique to TNBC. Our screen identified the oncogenic phosphatase, PRL-3, as a potentially important driver of TNBC growth, migration and invasion. Through stable lentiviral knock downs and transfection with catalytically impaired PRL-3 in TNBC cells, loss of PRL-3 expression, or functionality, led to substantial growth inhibition. Moreover, AMPI-109 treatment, downregulation of PRL-3 expression or impairment of PRL-3 activity reduced TNBC cell migration and invasion. Histological evaluation of human breast cancers revealed PRL-3 was significantly, though not exclusively, associated with the TNBC subtype and correlated positively with regional and distant metastases, as well as 1 and 3 year relapse free survival. Collectively, our study is proof-of-concept that AMPI-109, a selectively active agent against TNBC cell lines, can be used as a molecular tool to uncover unique drivers of disease progression, such as PRL-3, which we show promotes oncogenic phenotypes in TNBC cells. PMID:26909599

  19. Genome-wide functional genetic screen with the anticancer agent AMPI-109 identifies PRL-3 as an oncogenic driver in triple-negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Hamid H.; Gearheart, Christy M.; Fosmire, Susan; DeGala, Gregory D.; Fan, Zeying; Torkko, Kathleen C.; Edgerton, Susan M.; Lucia, M. Scott; Ray, Rahul; Thor, Ann D.; Porter, Christopher C.; Lambert, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are among the most aggressive and heterogeneous cancers with a high propensity to invade, metastasize and relapse. Here, we demonstrate that the anticancer compound, AMPI-109, is selectively efficacious in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of multiple TNBC subtype cell lines as assessed by activation of pro-apoptotic caspases-3 and 7, PARP cleavage and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. AMPI-109 had little to no effect on growth in the majority of non-TNBC cell lines examined. We therefore utilized AMPI-109 in a genome-wide shRNA screen in the TNBC cell line, BT-20, to investigate the utility of AMPI-109 as a tool in helping to identify molecular alterations unique to TNBC. Our screen identified the oncogenic phosphatase, PRL-3, as a potentially important driver of TNBC growth, migration and invasion. Through stable lentiviral knock downs and transfection with catalytically impaired PRL-3 in TNBC cells, loss of PRL-3 expression, or functionality, led to substantial growth inhibition. Moreover, AMPI-109 treatment, downregulation of PRL-3 expression or impairment of PRL-3 activity reduced TNBC cell migration and invasion. Histological evaluation of human breast cancers revealed PRL-3 was significantly, though not exclusively, associated with the TNBC subtype and correlated positively with regional and distant metastases, as well as 1 and 3 year relapse free survival. Collectively, our study is proof-of-concept that AMPI-109, a selectively active agent against TNBC cell lines, can be used as a molecular tool to uncover unique drivers of disease progression, such as PRL-3, which we show promotes oncogenic phenotypes in TNBC cells. PMID:26909599

  20. A Genome-Wide RNA Interference Screen Identifies a Role for Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling during Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Brooke; Bird, Sara W.; Schudel, Benjamin R.; Hatch, Anson V.; Rasley, Amy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus within the Bunyaviridae family capable of causing serious morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. To identify host factors involved in bunyavirus replication, we employed genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening and identified 381 genes whose knockdown reduced infection. The Wnt pathway was the most represented pathway when gene hits were functionally clustered. With further investigation, we found that RVFV infection activated Wnt signaling, was enhanced when Wnt signaling was preactivated, was reduced with knockdown of β-catenin, and was blocked using Wnt signaling inhibitors. Similar results were found using distantly related bunyaviruses La Crosse virus and California encephalitis virus, suggesting a conserved role for Wnt signaling in bunyaviral infection. We propose a model where bunyaviruses activate Wnt-responsive genes to regulate optimal cell cycle conditions needed to promote efficient viral replication. The findings in this study should aid in the design of efficacious host-directed antiviral therapeutics. IMPORTANCE RVFV is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus that is endemic to Africa but has demonstrated a capacity for emergence in new territories (e.g., the Arabian Peninsula). As a zoonotic pathogen that primarily affects livestock, RVFV can also cause lethal hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis in humans. Currently, there are no treatments or fully licensed vaccines for this virus. Using high-throughput RNAi screening, we identified canonical Wnt signaling as an important host pathway regulating RVFV infection. The beneficial role of Wnt signaling was observed for RVFV, along with other disparate bunyaviruses, indicating a conserved bunyaviral replication mechanism involving Wnt signaling. These studies supplement our knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of bunyavirus infection and provide new avenues for countermeasure development against pathogenic bunyaviruses. PMID:27226375

  1. Identification of a novel, recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 fusion in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma based on a genome-wide screen of exon-level expression data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Motoi, Toru; Khanin, Raya; Olshen, Adam; Mertens, Fredrik; Bridge, Julia; Dal Cin, Paola; Antonescu, Cristina R; Singer, Samuel; Hameed, Meera; Bovee, Judith V M G; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Socci, Nicholas; Ladanyi, Marc

    2012-02-01

    Cancer gene fusions that encode a chimeric protein are often characterized by an intragenic discontinuity in the RNA\\expression levels of the exons that are 5' or 3' to the fusion point in one or both of the fusion partners due to differences in the levels of activation of their respective promoters. Based on this, we developed an unbiased, genome-wide bioinformatic screen for gene fusions using Affymetrix Exon array expression data. Using a training set of 46 samples with different known gene fusions, we developed a data analysis pipeline, the "Fusion Score (FS) model", to score and rank genes for intragenic changes in expression. In a separate discovery set of 41 tumor samples with possible unknown gene fusions, the FS model generated a list of 552 candidate genes. The transcription factor gene NCOA2 was one of the candidates identified in a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. A novel HEY1-NCOA2 fusion was identified by 5' RACE, representing an in-frame fusion of HEY1 exon 4 to NCOA2 exon 13. RT-PCR or FISH evidence of this HEY1-NCOA2 fusion was present in all additional mesenchymal chondrosarcomas tested with a definitive histologic diagnosis and adequate material for analysis (n = 9) but was absent in 15 samples of other subtypes of chondrosarcomas. We also identified a NUP107-LGR5 fusion in a dedifferentiated liposarcoma but analysis of 17 additional samples did not confirm it as a recurrent event in this sarcoma type. The novel HEY1-NCOA2 fusion appears to be the defining and diagnostic gene fusion in mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. PMID:22034177

  2. Genome-Wide High-Throughput Screening to Investigate Essential Genes Involved in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 Survival

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Mette T.; Kaas, Rolf S.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Holmes, Mark A.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) Sequence Type 398 (ST398) is an opportunistic pathogen that is able to colonize and cause disease in several animal species including humans. To better understand the adaptation, evolution, transmission and pathogenic capacity, further investigations into the importance of the different genes harboured by LA-MRSA ST398 are required. In this study we generated a genome-wide transposon mutant library in an LA-MRSA ST398 isolate to evaluate genes important for bacterial survival in laboratory and host-specific environments. The transposon mutant library consisted of approximately 1 million mutants with around 140,000 unique insertion sites and an average number of unique inserts per gene of 44.8. We identified LA-MRSA ST398 essential genes comparable to other high-throughput S. aureus essential gene studies. As ST398 is the most common MRSA isolated from pigs, the transposon mutant library was screened in whole porcine blood. Twenty-four genes were specifically identified as important for bacterial survival in porcine blood. Mutations in 23 of these genes resulted in attenuated bacterial fitness. Seven of the 23 genes were of unknown function, whereas 16 genes were annotated with functions predominantly related to carbon metabolism, pH shock and a variety of regulations and only indirectly to virulence factors. Mutations in one gene of unknown function resulted in a hypercompetitive mutant. Further evaluation of these genes is required to determine their specific relevance in blood survival. PMID:24563689

  3. A genome-wide miRNA screen revealed miR-603 as a MGMT-regulating miRNA in glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kimberly; Steed, Tyler; Nguyen, Thien; Futalan, Diahnn; Akers, Johnny C.; Sarkaria, Jann; Jiang, Tao; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Carter, Bob S.; Chen, Clark C.

    2014-01-01

    MGMT expression is a critical determinant for therapeutic resistance to DNA alkylating agents. We previously demonstrated that MGMT expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR-181d and other miRNAs. Here, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify MGMT regulating miRNAs. Candidate miRNAs were further tested for inverse correlation with MGMT expression in clinical specimens. We identified 15 candidate miRNAs and characterized the top candidate, miR-603. Transfection of miR-603 suppressed MGMT mRNA/protein expression in vitro and in vivo; this effect was reversed by transfection with antimiR-603. miR-603 affinity-precipitated with MGMT mRNA and suppressed luciferase activity in an MGMT-3'UTR-luciferase assay, suggesting direct interaction between miR-603 and MGMT 3'UTR. miR-603 transfection enhanced the temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity of MGMT-expressing glioblastoma cell lines. Importantly, miR-603 mediated MGMT suppression and TMZ resistance were reversed by expression of an MGMT cDNA. In a collection of 74 clinical glioblastoma specimens, both miR-603 and miR-181d levels inversely correlated with MGMT expression. Moreover, a combined index of the two miRNAs better reflected MGMT expression than each individually. These results suggest that MGMT is co-regulated by independent miRNAs. Characterization of these miRNAs should contribute toward strategies for enhancing the efficacy of DNA alkylating agents. PMID:24994119

  4. MR-02A GENOME-WIDE miRNA SCREEN REVEALED MIR-603 AS A MGMT-REGULATING miRNA IN GLIOBLASTOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Deepa; Ramakrishnan, Valya; Ng, Kimberly; Steed, Tyler; Nguyen, Thien; Futalan, Diahnn; Akers, Johnny; Tao, Jiang; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Carter, Bob; Chen, Clark

    2014-01-01

    MGMT expression is a critical determinant for therapeutic resistance to DNA alkylating agents. We previously demonstrated that MGMT expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR-181d and other miRNAs. Here, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify MGMT regulating miRNAs. Candidate miRNAs were further tested for inverse correlation with MGMT expression in clinical specimens. We identified 15 candidate miRNAs. Comparison of these candidates to those predicted computational algorithms, including DIANA micro, Targetscan, miRanda, and microcosm showed poor agreement (3-22%), suggesting the need for empiric validation of in silico predictions. Transfection of miR-603, the top scoring candidate, suppressed MGMT mRNA/protein expression in vitro and in vivo; this effect was reversed by transfection with antimiR-603. miR-603 affinity-precipitated with MGMT mRNA and suppressed luciferase activity in an MGMT-3'UTR-luciferase assay, suggesting direct interaction between miR-603 and MGMT 3'UTR. miR-603 transfection enhanced the temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity of MGMT-expressing glioblastoma cell lines. Importantly, miR-603 mediated MGMT suppression and TMZ resistance were reversed by expression of an MGMT cDNA. miR-603 cooperates with miR-181d to bind to the 3'UTR of MGMT to suppress MGMT expression. In a collection of 74 clinical glioblastoma specimens, both miR-603 and miR-181d levels inversely correlated with MGMT expression. However, a combined index of the two miRNAs better reflected MGMT expression than each individually. These results suggest that MGMT is co-regulated by independent miRNAs. Our results further suggest that these miRNA may regulate MGMT by direct binding of MGMT 3'UTR or through modulation of proteins that regulate MGMT stability/degradation. Characterization of these miRNAs should contribute toward strategies for enhancing the efficacy of DNA alkylating agents.

  5. A genome-wide screening and SNPs-to-genes approach to identify novel genetic risk factors associated with frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Grassi, Mario; Salvi, Erika; Borroni, Barbara; Palluzzi, Fernando; Pepe, Daniele; D'Avila, Francesca; Padovani, Alessandro; Archetti, Silvana; Rainero, Innocenzo; Rubino, Elisa; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luisa; Binetti, Giuliano; Ghidoni, Roberta; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Serpente, Maria; Rossi, Giacomina; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Nacmias, Benedetta; Piaceri, Irene; Bagnoli, Silvia; Bruni, Amalia C; Maletta, Raffaele G; Bernardi, Livia; Postiglione, Alfredo; Milan, Graziella; Franceschi, Massimo; Puca, Annibale A; Novelli, Valeria; Barlassina, Cristina; Glorioso, Nicola; Manunta, Paolo; Singleton, Andrew; Cusi, Daniele; Hardy, John; Momeni, Parastoo

    2015-10-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most prevalent form of early onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). We performed a case-control association study in an Italian FTD cohort (n = 530) followed by the novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-to-genes approach and functional annotation analysis. We identified 2 novel potential loci for FTD. Suggestive SNPs reached p-values ∼10(-7) and odds ratio > 2.5 (2p16.3) and 1.5 (17q25.3). Suggestive alleles at 17q25.3 identified a disease-associated haplotype causing decreased expression of -cis genes such as RFNG and AATK involved in neuronal genesis and differentiation and axon outgrowth, respectively. We replicated this locus through the SNPs-to-genes approach. Our functional annotation analysis indicated significant enrichment for functions of the brain (neuronal genesis, differentiation, and maturation), the synapse (neurotransmission and synapse plasticity), and elements of the immune system, the latter supporting our recent international FTD-genome-wide association study. This is the largest genome-wide study in Italian FTD to date. Although our results are not conclusive, we set the basis for future replication studies and identification of susceptible molecular mechanisms involved in FTD pathogenesis. PMID:26154020

  6. A genome-wide screening and SNPs-to-genes approach to identify novel genetic risk factors associated with frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Grassi, Mario; Salvi, Erika; Borroni, Barbara; Palluzzi, Fernando; Pepe, Daniele; D'Avila, Francesca; Padovani, Alessandro; Archetti, Silvana; Rainero, Innocenzo; Rubino, Elisa; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luisa; Binetti, Giuliano; Ghidoni, Roberta; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Serpente, Maria; Rossi, Giacomina; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Nacmias, Benedetta; Piaceri, Irene; Bagnoli, Silvia; Bruni, Amalia C.; Maletta, Raffaele G.; Bernardi, Livia; Postiglione, Alfredo; Milan, Graziella; Franceschi, Massimo; Puca, Annibale A.; Novelli, Valeria; Barlassina, Cristina; Glorioso, Nicola; Manunta, Paolo; Singleton, Andrew; Cusi, Daniele; Hardy, John; Momeni, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most prevalent form of early onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). We performed a case-control association study in an Italian FTD cohort (n = 530) followed by the novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-to-genes approach and functional annotation analysis. We identified 2 novel potential loci for FTD. Suggestive SNPs reached p-values ∼10−7 and odds ratio > 2.5 (2p16.3) and 1.5 (17q25.3). Suggestive alleles at 17q25.3 identified a disease-associated haplotype causing decreased expression of –cis genes such as RFNG and AATK involved in neuronal genesis and differentiation and axon outgrowth, respectively. We replicated this locus through the SNPs-to-genes approach. Our functional annotation analysis indicated significant enrichment for functions of the brain (neuronal genesis, differentiation, and maturation), the synapse (neurotransmission and synapse plasticity), and elements of the immune system, the latter supporting our recent international FTD–genome-wide association study. This is the largest genome-wide study in Italian FTD to date. Although our results are not conclusive, we set the basis for future replication studies and identification of susceptible molecular mechanisms involved in FTD pathogenesis. PMID:26154020

  7. A Genome-wide Small Interfering RNA (siRNA) Screen Reveals Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB)-independent Regulators of NOD2-induced Interleukin-8 (IL-8) Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Neil; Burberry, Aaron; Pliakas, Maria; McDonald, Christine; Núñez, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    NOD2 encodes an intracellular multidomain pattern recognition receptor that is the strongest known genetic risk factor in the pathogenesis of Crohn disease (CD), a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract. NOD2 functions as a sensor for bacterial cell wall components and activates proinflammatory and antimicrobial signaling pathways. Here, using a genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen, we identify numerous genes that regulate secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 in response to NOD2 activation. Moreover, many of the identified IL-8 regulators are linked by protein-protein interactions, revealing subnetworks of highly connected IL-8 regulators implicated in processes such as vesicle formation, mRNA stability, and protein ubiquitination and trafficking. A TNFα counterscreen to induce IL-8 secretion in an NOD2-independent manner reveals that the majority of the identified regulators affect IL-8 secretion irrespective of the initiating stimuli. Using immortalized macrophages, we validate the ubiquitin protease, USP8, and the endosomal sorting protein, VPS28, as negative regulators of NOD2-induced cytokine secretion. Interestingly, several genes that affect NOD2-induced IL-8 secretion are present in loci associated with CD risk by genome-wide association studies, supporting a role for the NOD2/IL-8 pathway, and not just NOD2, in the pathogenesis of CD. Overall, this screen provides a valuable resource in the advancement of our understanding of the genes that regulate the secretion of IL-8. PMID:25170077

  8. A genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen reveals nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-independent regulators of NOD2-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion.

    PubMed

    Warner, Neil; Burberry, Aaron; Pliakas, Maria; McDonald, Christine; Núñez, Gabriel

    2014-10-10

    NOD2 encodes an intracellular multidomain pattern recognition receptor that is the strongest known genetic risk factor in the pathogenesis of Crohn disease (CD), a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract. NOD2 functions as a sensor for bacterial cell wall components and activates proinflammatory and antimicrobial signaling pathways. Here, using a genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen, we identify numerous genes that regulate secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 in response to NOD2 activation. Moreover, many of the identified IL-8 regulators are linked by protein-protein interactions, revealing subnetworks of highly connected IL-8 regulators implicated in processes such as vesicle formation, mRNA stability, and protein ubiquitination and trafficking. A TNFα counterscreen to induce IL-8 secretion in an NOD2-independent manner reveals that the majority of the identified regulators affect IL-8 secretion irrespective of the initiating stimuli. Using immortalized macrophages, we validate the ubiquitin protease, USP8, and the endosomal sorting protein, VPS28, as negative regulators of NOD2-induced cytokine secretion. Interestingly, several genes that affect NOD2-induced IL-8 secretion are present in loci associated with CD risk by genome-wide association studies, supporting a role for the NOD2/IL-8 pathway, and not just NOD2, in the pathogenesis of CD. Overall, this screen provides a valuable resource in the advancement of our understanding of the genes that regulate the secretion of IL-8. PMID:25170077

  9. Genome-wide lentiviral shRNA screen identifies serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 as a determinant of oncolytic virus activity in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Workenhe, S T; Ketela, T; Moffat, J; Cuddington, B P; Mossman, K L

    2016-05-12

    Oncolytic human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) shows promising treatment efficacy in late-stage clinical trials. The anticancer activity of oncolytic viruses relies on deregulated pathways in cancer cells, which make them permissive to oncolysis. To identify pathways that restrict HSV-1 KM100-mediated oncolysis, this study used a pooled genome-wide short hairpin RNA library and found that depletion of the splicing factor arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) leads to enhanced cytotoxicity of breast cancer cells by KM100. Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are a family of RNA-binding phosphoproteins that control both constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Further characterization showed that KM100 infection of HS578T cells under conditions of low SRSF2 leads to pronounced apoptosis without a corresponding increase in virus replication. As DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors can limit the phosphorylation of SRSF2, we combined a topoisomerase I inhibitor chemotherapeutic with KM100 and observed synergistic anticancer effect in vitro and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice in vivo. PMID:26257065

  10. Genome-wide Mechanosensitive MicroRNA (MechanomiR) Screen Uncovers Dysregulation of Their Regulatory Networks in the mdm Mouse Model of Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Junaith S; Hajira, Ameena; Lopez, Michael A; Boriek, Aladin M

    2015-10-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic and neuromuscular disorders, which result in severe loss of motor ability and skeletal muscle mass and function. Aberrant mechanotransduction and dysregulated-microRNA pathways are often associated with the progression of MD. Here, we hypothesized that dysregulation of mechanosensitive microRNAs (mechanomiRs) in dystrophic skeletal muscle plays a major role in the progression of MD. To test our hypothesis, we performed a genome-wide expression profile of anisotropically regulated mechanomiRs and bioinformatically analyzed their target gene networks. We assessed their functional roles in the advancement of MD using diaphragm muscles from mdm (MD with myositis) mice, an animal model of human tibial MD (titinopathy), and their wild-type littermates. We were able to show that ex vivo anisotropic mechanical stretch significantly alters the miRNA expression profile in diaphragm muscles from WT and mdm mice; as a result, some of the genes associated with MDs are dysregulated in mdm mice due to differential regulation of a distinct set of mechanomiRs. Interestingly, we found a contrasting expression pattern of the highly expressed let-7 family mechanomiRs, let-7e-5p and miR-98-5p, and their target genes associated with the extracellular matrix and TGF-β pathways, respectively, between WT and mdm mice. Gain- and loss-of-function analysis of let-7e-5p in myocytes isolated from the diaphragms of WT and mdm mice confirmed Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, Col24a1, Col27a1, Itga1, Itga4, Scd1, and Thbs1 as target genes of let-7e-5p. Furthermore, we found that miR-98 negatively regulates myoblast differentiation. Our study therefore introduces additional biological players in the regulation of skeletal muscle structure and myogenesis that may contribute to unexplained disorders of MD. PMID:26272747

  11. A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen Implicates Spire1/2 in SipA-Driven Salmonella Typhimurium Host Cell Invasion.

    PubMed

    Andritschke, Daniel; Dilling, Sabrina; Emmenlauer, Mario; Welz, Tobias; Schmich, Fabian; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Rämö, Pauli; Rottner, Klemens; Kerkhoff, Eugen; Wada, Teiji; Penninger, Josef M; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Horvath, Peter; Dehio, Christoph; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Tm) is a leading cause of diarrhea. The disease is triggered by pathogen invasion into the gut epithelium. Invasion is attributed to the SPI-1 type 3 secretion system (T1). T1 injects effector proteins into epithelial cells and thereby elicits rearrangements of the host cellular actin cytoskeleton and pathogen invasion. The T1 effector proteins SopE, SopB, SopE2 and SipA are contributing to this. However, the host cell factors contributing to invasion are still not completely understood. To address this question comprehensively, we used Hela tissue culture cells, a genome-wide siRNA library, a modified gentamicin protection assay and S. TmSipA, a sopBsopE2sopE mutant which strongly relies on the T1 effector protein SipA to invade host cells. We found that S. TmSipA invasion does not elicit membrane ruffles, nor promote the entry of non-invasive bacteria "in trans". However, SipA-mediated infection involved the SPIRE family of actin nucleators, besides well-established host cell factors (WRC, ARP2/3, RhoGTPases, COPI). Stage-specific follow-up assays and knockout fibroblasts indicated that SPIRE1 and SPIRE2 are involved in different steps of the S. Tm infection process. Whereas SPIRE1 interferes with bacterial binding, SPIRE2 influences intracellular replication of S. Tm. Hence, these two proteins might fulfill non-redundant functions in the pathogen-host interaction. The lack of co-localization hints to a short, direct interaction between S. Tm and SPIRE proteins or to an indirect effect. PMID:27627128

  12. Genome-wide microRNA screening reveals that the evolutionary conserved miR-9a regulates body growth by targeting sNPFR1/NPYR.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yoon Seok; Bhat, Shreelatha; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Shin, Minjung; Bahk, Suhyoung; Cho, Kyung Sang; Kim, Seung-Whan; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Young-Joon; Jones, Walton D; Yu, Kweon

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many physiological processes including body growth. Insulin/IGF signalling is the primary regulator of animal body growth, but the extent to which miRNAs act in insulin-producing cells (IPCs) is unclear. Here we generate a UAS-miRNA library of Drosophila stocks and perform a genetic screen to identify miRNAs whose overexpression in the IPCs inhibits body growth in Drosophila. Through this screen, we identify miR-9a as an evolutionarily conserved regulator of insulin signalling and body growth. IPC-specific miR-9a overexpression reduces insulin signalling and body size. Of the predicted targets of miR-9a, we find that loss of miR-9a enhances the level of sNPFR1. We show via an in vitro binding assay that miR-9a binds to sNPFR1 mRNA in insect cells and to the mammalian orthologue NPY2R in rat insulinoma cells. These findings indicate that the conserved miR-9a regulates body growth by controlling sNPFR1/NPYR-mediated modulation of insulin signalling. PMID:26138755

  13. Genome-wide microRNA screening reveals that the evolutionary conserved miR-9a regulates body growth by targeting sNPFR1/NPYR

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Yoon Seok; Bhat, Shreelatha; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Shin, Minjung; Bahk, Suhyoung; Cho, Kyung Sang; Kim, Seung-Whan; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Young-Joon; Jones, Walton D.; Yu, Kweon

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many physiological processes including body growth. Insulin/IGF signalling is the primary regulator of animal body growth, but the extent to which miRNAs act in insulin-producing cells (IPCs) is unclear. Here we generate a UAS-miRNA library of Drosophila stocks and perform a genetic screen to identify miRNAs whose overexpression in the IPCs inhibits body growth in Drosophila. Through this screen, we identify miR-9a as an evolutionarily conserved regulator of insulin signalling and body growth. IPC-specific miR-9a overexpression reduces insulin signalling and body size. Of the predicted targets of miR-9a, we find that loss of miR-9a enhances the level of sNPFR1. We show via an in vitro binding assay that miR-9a binds to sNPFR1 mRNA in insect cells and to the mammalian orthologue NPY2R in rat insulinoma cells. These findings indicate that the conserved miR-9a regulates body growth by controlling sNPFR1/NPYR-mediated modulation of insulin signalling. PMID:26138755

  14. Complete genome-wide screening and subtractive genomic approach revealed new virulence factors, potential drug targets against bio-war pathogen Brucella melitensis 16M

    PubMed Central

    Pradeepkiran, Jangampalli Adi; Sainath, Sri Bhashyam; Kumar, Konidala Kranthi; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2015-01-01

    Brucella melitensis 16M is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that infects both animals and humans. It causes a disease known as brucellosis, which is characterized by acute febrile illness in humans and causes abortions in livestock. To prevent and control brucellosis, identification of putative drug targets is crucial. The present study aimed to identify drug targets in B. melitensis 16M by using a subtractive genomic approach. We used available database repositories (Database of Essential Genes, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Automatic Annotation Server, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) to identify putative genes that are nonhomologous to humans and essential for pathogen B. melitensis 16M. The results revealed that among 3 Mb genome size of pathogen, 53 putative characterized and 13 uncharacterized hypothetical genes were identified; further, from Basic Local Alignment Search Tool protein analysis, one hypothetical protein showed a close resemblance (50%) to Silicibacter pomeroyi DUF1285 family protein (2RE3). A further homology model of the target was constructed using MODELLER 9.12 and optimized through variable target function method by molecular dynamics optimization with simulating annealing. The stereochemical quality of the restrained model was evaluated by PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D, ERRAT, and WHATIF servers. Furthermore, structure-based virtual screening was carried out against the predicted active site of the respective protein using the glycerol structural analogs from the PubChem database. We identified five best inhibitors with strong affinities, stable interactions, and also with reliable drug-like properties. Hence, these leads might be used as the most effective inhibitors of modeled protein. The outcome of the present work of virtual screening of putative gene targets might facilitate design of potential drugs for better treatment against brucellosis. PMID:25834405

  15. Genome-wide Screening of Regulators of Catalase Expression: ROLE OF A TRANSCRIPTION COMPLEX AND HISTONE AND tRNA MODIFICATION COMPLEXES ON ADAPTATION TO STRESS.

    PubMed

    García, Patricia; Encinar Del Dedo, Javier; Ayté, José; Hidalgo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental cues, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Sty1-driven signaling cascade activates hundreds of genes to induce a robust anti-stress cellular response in fission yeast. Thus, upon stress imposition Sty1 transiently accumulates in the nucleus where it up-regulates transcription through the Atf1 transcription factor. Several regulators of transcription and translation have been identified as important to mount an integral response to oxidative stress, such as the Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyl transferase or Elongator complexes, respectively. With the aim of identifying new regulators of this massive gene expression program, we have used a GFP-based protein reporter and screened a fission yeast deletion collection using flow cytometry. We find that the levels of catalase fused to GFP, both before and after a threat of peroxides, are altered in hundreds of strains lacking components of chromatin modifiers, transcription complexes, and modulators of translation. Thus, the transcription elongation complex Paf1, the histone methylase Set1-COMPASS, and the translation-related Trm112 dimers are all involved in full expression of Ctt1-GFP and in wild-type tolerance to peroxides. PMID:26567340

  16. A Genome-Wide RNAi Screen Identifies FOXO4 as a Metastasis-Suppressor through Counteracting PI3K/AKT Signal Pathway in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Su, Bing; Gao, Lingqiu; Baranowski, Catherine; Gillard, Bryan; Wang, Jianmin; Ransom, Ryan; Ko, Hyun-Kyung; Gelman, Irwin H.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the PI3K/AKT signal pathway is a known driving force for the progression to castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CR-CaP), which constitutes the major lethal phenotype of CaP. Here, we identify using a genomic shRNA screen the PI3K/AKT-inactivating downstream target, FOXO4, as a potential CaP metastasis suppressor. FOXO4 protein levels inversely correlate with the invasive potential of a panel of human CaP cell lines, with decreased mRNA levels correlating with increased incidence of clinical metastasis. Knockdown (KD) of FOXO4 in human LNCaP cells causes increased invasion in vitro and lymph node (LN) metastasis in vivo without affecting indices of proliferation or apoptosis. Increased Matrigel invasiveness was found by KD of FOXO1 but not FOXO3. Comparison of differentially expressed genes affected by FOXO4-KD in LNCaP cells in culture, in primary tumors and in LN metastases identified a panel of upregulated genes, including PIP, CAMK2N1, PLA2G16 and PGC, which, if knocked down by siRNA, could decrease the increased invasiveness associated with FOXO4 deficiency. Although only some of these genes encode FOXO promoter binding sites, they are all RUNX2-inducible, and RUNX2 binding to the PIP promoter is increased in FOXO4-KD cells. Indeed, the forced expression of FOXO4 reversed the increased invasiveness of LNCaP/shFOXO4 cells; the forced expression of FOXO4 did not alter RUNX2 protein levels, yet it decreased RUNX2 binding to the PIP promoter, resulting in PIP downregulation. Finally, there was a correlation between FOXO4, but not FOXO1 or FOXO3, downregulation and decreased metastasis-free survival in human CaP patients. Our data strongly suggest that increased PI3K/AKT-mediated metastatic invasiveness in CaP is associated with FOXO4 loss, and that mechanisms to induce FOXO4 re-expression might suppress CaP metastatic aggressiveness. PMID:24983969

  17. Genome-Wide siRNA Screen Identifies Complementary Signaling Pathways Involved in Listeria Infection and Reveals Different Actin Nucleation Mechanisms during Listeria Cell Invasion and Actin Comet Tail Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kühbacher, Andreas; Emmenlauer, Mario; Rämo, Pauli; Kafai, Natasha; Dehio, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Listeria monocytogenes enters nonphagocytic cells by a receptor-mediated mechanism that is dependent on a clathrin-based molecular machinery and actin rearrangements. Bacterial intra- and intercellular movements are also actin dependent and rely on the actin nucleating Arp2/3 complex, which is activated by host-derived nucleation-promoting factors downstream of the cell receptor Met during entry and by the bacterial nucleation-promoting factor ActA during comet tail formation. By genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening for host factors involved in bacterial infection, we identified diverse cellular signaling networks and protein complexes that support or limit these processes. In addition, we could precise previously described molecular pathways involved in Listeria invasion. In particular our results show that the requirements for actin nucleators during Listeria entry and actin comet tail formation are different. Knockdown of several actin nucleators, including SPIRE2, reduced bacterial invasion while not affecting the generation of comet tails. Most interestingly, we observed that in contrast to our expectations, not all of the seven subunits of the Arp2/3 complex are required for Listeria entry into cells or actin tail formation and that the subunit requirements for each of these processes differ, highlighting a previously unsuspected versatility in Arp2/3 complex composition and function. PMID:25991686

  18. Genome-wide analysis correlates Ayurveda Prakriti

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Nizamuddin, Sheikh; Sharath, Anugula; Jyothi, Vuskamalla; Rotti, Harish; Raval, Ritu; Nayak, Jayakrishna; Bhat, Balakrishna K.; Prasanna, B. V.; Shintre, Pooja; Sule, Mayura; Joshi, Kalpana S.; Dedge, Amrish P.; Bharadwaj, Ramachandra; Gangadharan, G. G.; Nair, Sreekumaran; Gopinath, Puthiya M.; Patwardhan, Bhushan; Kondaiah, Paturu; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Valiathan, Marthanda Varma Sankaran; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2015-01-01

    The practice of Ayurveda, the traditional medicine of India, is based on the concept of three major constitutional types (Vata, Pitta and Kapha) defined as “Prakriti”. To the best of our knowledge, no study has convincingly correlated genomic variations with the classification of Prakriti. In the present study, we performed genome-wide SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) analysis (Affymetrix, 6.0) of 262 well-classified male individuals (after screening 3416 subjects) belonging to three Prakritis. We found 52 SNPs (p ≤ 1 × 10−5) were significantly different between Prakritis, without any confounding effect of stratification, after 106 permutations. Principal component analysis (PCA) of these SNPs classified 262 individuals into their respective groups (Vata, Pitta and Kapha) irrespective of their ancestry, which represent its power in categorization. We further validated our finding with 297 Indian population samples with known ancestry. Subsequently, we found that PGM1 correlates with phenotype of Pitta as described in the ancient text of Caraka Samhita, suggesting that the phenotypic classification of India’s traditional medicine has a genetic basis; and its Prakriti-based practice in vogue for many centuries resonates with personalized medicine. PMID:26511157

  19. TeraSCREEN: multi-frequency multi-mode Terahertz screening for border checks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Naomi E.; Alderman, Byron; Allona, Fernando; Frijlink, Peter; Gonzalo, Ramón; Hägelen, Manfred; Ibáñez, Asier; Krozer, Viktor; Langford, Marian L.; Limiti, Ernesto; Platt, Duncan; Schikora, Marek; Wang, Hui; Weber, Marc Andree

    2014-06-01

    The challenge for any security screening system is to identify potentially harmful objects such as weapons and explosives concealed under clothing. Classical border and security checkpoints are no longer capable of fulfilling the demands of today's ever growing security requirements, especially with respect to the high throughput generally required which entails a high detection rate of threat material and a low false alarm rate. TeraSCREEN proposes to develop an innovative concept of multi-frequency multi-mode Terahertz and millimeter-wave detection with new automatic detection and classification functionalities. The system developed will demonstrate, at a live control point, the safe automatic detection and classification of objects concealed under clothing, whilst respecting privacy and increasing current throughput rates. This innovative screening system will combine multi-frequency, multi-mode images taken by passive and active subsystems which will scan the subjects and obtain complementary spatial and spectral information, thus allowing for automatic threat recognition. The TeraSCREEN project, which will run from 2013 to 2016, has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme under the Security Call. This paper will describe the project objectives and approach.

  20. Massively expedited genome-wide heritability analysis (MEGHA)

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Tian; Nichols, Thomas E.; Lee, Phil H.; Holmes, Avram J.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Buckner, Randy L.; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and prioritization of heritable phenotypes is a computational challenge in a variety of settings, including neuroimaging genetics and analyses of the vast phenotypic repositories in electronic health record systems and population-based biobanks. Classical estimates of heritability require twin or pedigree data, which can be costly and difficult to acquire. Genome-wide complex trait analysis is an alternative tool to compute heritability estimates from unrelated individuals, using genome-wide data that are increasingly ubiquitous, but is computationally demanding and becomes difficult to apply in evaluating very large numbers of phenotypes. Here we present a fast and accurate statistical method for high-dimensional heritability analysis using genome-wide SNP data from unrelated individuals, termed massively expedited genome-wide heritability analysis (MEGHA) and accompanying nonparametric sampling techniques that enable flexible inferences for arbitrary statistics of interest. MEGHA produces estimates and significance measures of heritability with several orders of magnitude less computational time than existing methods, making heritability-based prioritization of millions of phenotypes based on data from unrelated individuals tractable for the first time to our knowledge. As a demonstration of application, we conducted heritability analyses on global and local morphometric measurements derived from brain structural MRI scans, using genome-wide SNP data from 1,320 unrelated young healthy adults of non-Hispanic European ancestry. We also computed surface maps of heritability for cortical thickness measures and empirically localized cortical regions where thickness measures were significantly heritable. Our analyses demonstrate the unique capability of MEGHA for large-scale heritability-based screening and high-dimensional heritability profile construction. PMID:25675487

  1. Massively expedited genome-wide heritability analysis (MEGHA).

    PubMed

    Ge, Tian; Nichols, Thomas E; Lee, Phil H; Holmes, Avram J; Roffman, Joshua L; Buckner, Randy L; Sabuncu, Mert R; Smoller, Jordan W

    2015-02-24

    The discovery and prioritization of heritable phenotypes is a computational challenge in a variety of settings, including neuroimaging genetics and analyses of the vast phenotypic repositories in electronic health record systems and population-based biobanks. Classical estimates of heritability require twin or pedigree data, which can be costly and difficult to acquire. Genome-wide complex trait analysis is an alternative tool to compute heritability estimates from unrelated individuals, using genome-wide data that are increasingly ubiquitous, but is computationally demanding and becomes difficult to apply in evaluating very large numbers of phenotypes. Here we present a fast and accurate statistical method for high-dimensional heritability analysis using genome-wide SNP data from unrelated individuals, termed massively expedited genome-wide heritability analysis (MEGHA) and accompanying nonparametric sampling techniques that enable flexible inferences for arbitrary statistics of interest. MEGHA produces estimates and significance measures of heritability with several orders of magnitude less computational time than existing methods, making heritability-based prioritization of millions of phenotypes based on data from unrelated individuals tractable for the first time to our knowledge. As a demonstration of application, we conducted heritability analyses on global and local morphometric measurements derived from brain structural MRI scans, using genome-wide SNP data from 1,320 unrelated young healthy adults of non-Hispanic European ancestry. We also computed surface maps of heritability for cortical thickness measures and empirically localized cortical regions where thickness measures were significantly heritable. Our analyses demonstrate the unique capability of MEGHA for large-scale heritability-based screening and high-dimensional heritability profile construction. PMID:25675487

  2. Genome-wide association interaction analysis for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Gusareva, Elena S.; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Bellenguez, Céline; Cuyvers, Elise; Colon, Samuel; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Mahachie Johna, Jestinah M.; Bessonov, Kyrylo; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Williams, Julie; Amouyel, Philippe; Sleegers, Kristel; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Van Steen, Kristel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a minimal protocol for exhaustive genome-wide association interaction analysis that involves screening for epistasis over large-scale genomic data combining strengths of different methods and statistical tools. The different steps of this protocol are illustrated on a real-life data application for Alzheimer's disease (AD) (2259 patients and 6017 controls from France). Particularly, in the exhaustive genome-wide epistasis screening we identified AD-associated interacting SNPs-pair from chromosome 6q11.1 (rs6455128, the KHDRBS2 gene) and 13q12.11 (rs7989332, the CRYL1 gene) (p = 0.006, corrected for multiple testing). A replication analysis in the independent AD cohort from Germany (555 patients and 824 controls) confirmed the discovered epistasis signal (p = 0.036). This signal was also supported by a meta-analysis approach in 5 independent AD cohorts that was applied in the context of epistasis for the first time. Transcriptome analysis revealed negative correlation between expression levels of KHDRBS2 and CRYL1 in both the temporal cortex (β = −0.19, p = 0.0006) and cerebellum (β = −0.23, p < 0.0001) brain regions. This is the first time a replicable epistasis associated with AD was identified using a hypothesis free screening approach. PMID:24958192

  3. Genome-Wide Approaches to Drosophila Heart Development

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The development of the dorsal vessel in Drosophila is one of the first systems in which key mechanisms regulating cardiogenesis have been defined in great detail at the genetic and molecular level. Due to evolutionary conservation, these findings have also provided major inputs into studies of cardiogenesis in vertebrates. Many of the major components that control Drosophila cardiogenesis were discovered based on candidate gene approaches and their functions were defined by employing the outstanding genetic tools and molecular techniques available in this system. More recently, approaches have been taken that aim to interrogate the entire genome in order to identify novel components and describe genomic features that are pertinent to the regulation of heart development. Apart from classical forward genetic screens, the availability of the thoroughly annotated Drosophila genome sequence made new genome-wide approaches possible, which include the generation of massive numbers of RNA interference (RNAi) reagents that were used in forward genetic screens, as well as studies of the transcriptomes and proteomes of the developing heart under normal and experimentally manipulated conditions. Moreover, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments have been performed with the aim to define the full set of genomic binding sites of the major cardiogenic transcription factors, their relevant target genes, and a more complete picture of the regulatory network that drives cardiogenesis. This review will give an overview on these genome-wide approaches to Drosophila heart development and on computational analyses of the obtained information that ultimately aim to provide a description of this process at the systems level. PMID:27294102

  4. Genome-wide association studies in pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K

    2010-04-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies for pharmacogenomics-related traits are increasingly being performed to identify loci that affect either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Until now, only the largest effects have been detected, partly because of the challenges of obtaining large numbers of cases for pharmacogenomic studies. Since 2007, a range of pharmacogenomics GWA studies have been published that have identified several interesting and novel associations between drug responses or reactions and clinically relevant loci, showing the value of this approach. PMID:20300088

  5. Genome-wide association studies in neurology

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Meng-Shan; Jiang, Teng

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a powerful tool for understanding the genetic underpinnings of human disease. In this article, we briefly review the role and findings of GWAS in common neurological diseases, including Stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, migraine, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, restless legs syndrome, intracranial aneurysm, human prion diseases and moyamoya disease. We then discuss the present and future implications of these findings with regards to disease prediction, uncovering basic biology, and the development of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:25568877

  6. Genome-Wide Association Studies: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Corvin, Aiden; Craddock, Nick; Sullivan, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    There have been nearly 400genome-wide association studies published since 2005. The GWAS approach has been exceptionally successful in identifying common genetic variants that predispose to a variety of complex human diseases and biochemical and anthropometric traits. Although this approach is relatively new, there are many excellent reviews of different aspects of the GWAS method. Here, we provide a primer, an annotated overview of the GWAS method with particular reference to psychiatric genetics. We dissect the GWAS methodology into its components and provide a brief description with citations and links to reviews that cover the topic in detail. PMID:19895722

  7. Genome-wide SNP detection, validation, and development of an 8K SNP array for apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As high-throughput genetic marker screening systems are essential for a range of genetics studies and plant breeding applications, the International RosBREED SNP Consortium (IRSC) has utilized the Illumina Infinium® II system to develop a medium- to high-throughput SNP screening tool for genome-wide...

  8. Genome-wide identification of enhancer elements.

    PubMed

    Tulin, Sarah; Barsi, Julius C; Bocconcelli, Carlo; Smith, Joel

    2016-01-01

    We present a prospective genome-wide regulatory element database for the sea urchin embryo and the modified chromosome capture-related methodology used to create it. The method we developed is termed GRIP-seq for genome-wide regulatory element immunoprecipitation and combines features of chromosome conformation capture, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and paired-end next-generation sequencing with molecular steps that enrich for active cis-regulatory elements associated with basal transcriptional machinery. The first GRIP-seq database, available to the community, comes from S. purpuratus 24 hpf embryos and takes advantage of the extremely well-characterized cis-regulatory elements in this system for validation. In addition, using the GRIP-seq database, we identify and experimentally validate a novel, intronic cis-regulatory element at the onecut locus. We find GRIP-seq signal sensitively identifies active cis-regulatory elements with a high signal-to-noise ratio for both distal and intronic elements. This promising GRIP-seq protocol has the potential to address a rate-limiting step in resolving comprehensive, predictive network models in all systems. PMID:27389984

  9. RNAi Screening in Primary Human Hepatocytes of Genes Implicated in Genome-Wide Association Studies for Roles in Type 2 Diabetes Identifies Roles for CAMK1D and CDKAL1, among Others, in Hepatic Glucose Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Steven; Zhao, Juan; Tiwari, Shiwani; Eng, Kurt; Guey, Lin T.; Tien, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have described a large number of new candidate genes that contribute to of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). In some cases, small clusters of genes are implicated, rather than a single gene, and in all cases, the genetic contribution is not defined through the effects on a specific organ, such as the pancreas or liver. There is a significant need to develop and use human cell-based models to examine the effects these genes may have on glucose regulation. We describe the development of a primary human hepatocyte model that adjusts glucose disposition according to hormonal signals. This model was used to determine whether candidate genes identified in GWA studies regulate hepatic glucose disposition through siRNAs corresponding to the list of identified genes. We find that several genes affect the storage of glucose as glycogen (glycolytic response) and/or affect the utilization of pyruvate, the critical step in gluconeogenesis. Of the genes that affect both of these processes, CAMK1D, TSPAN8 and KIF11 affect the localization of a mediator of both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis regulation, CRTC2, to the nucleus in response to glucagon. In addition, the gene CDKAL1 was observed to affect glycogen storage, and molecular experiments using mutant forms of CDK5, a putative target of CDKAL1, in HepG2 cells show that this is mediated by coordinate regulation of CDK5 and PKA on MEK, which ultimately regulates the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6, a critical step in the insulin signaling pathway. PMID:23840313

  10. Consistency of genome-wide associations across major ancestral groups.

    PubMed

    Ntzani, Evangelia E; Liberopoulos, George; Manolio, Teri A; Ioannidis, John P A

    2012-07-01

    It is not well known whether genetic markers identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) confer similar or different risks across people of different ancestry. We screened a regularly updated catalog of all published GWAS curated at the NHGRI website for GWAS-identified associations that had reached genome-wide significance (p ≤ 5 × 10(-8)) in at least one major ancestry group (European, Asian, African) and for which replication data were available for comparison in at least two different major ancestry groups. These groups were compared for the correlation between and differences in risk allele frequencies and genetic effects' estimates. Data on 108 eligible GWAS-identified associations with a total of 900 datasets (European, n = 624; Asian, n = 217; African, n = 60) were analyzed. Risk-allele frequencies were modestly correlated between ancestry groups, with >10% absolute differences in 75-89% of the three pairwise comparisons of ancestry groups. Genetic effect (odds ratio) point estimates between ancestry groups correlated modestly (pairwise comparisons' correlation coefficients: 0.20-0.33) and point estimates of risks were opposite in direction or differed more than twofold in 57%, 79%, and 89% of the European versus Asian, European versus African, and Asian versus African comparisons, respectively. The modest correlations, differing risk estimates, and considerable between-association heterogeneity suggest that differential ancestral effects can be anticipated and genomic risk markers may need separate further evaluation in different ancestry groups. PMID:22183176

  11. Genome-Wide Mapping of DNA Strand Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Frédéric; Faucher, David; Bikond Nkoma, Geneviève; Grégoire, Marie-Chantal; Arguin, Mélina; Wellinger, Raymund J.; Boissonneault, Guylain

    2011-01-01

    Determination of cellular DNA damage has so far been limited to global assessment of genome integrity whereas nucleotide-level mapping has been restricted to specific loci by the use of specific primers. Therefore, only limited DNA sequences can be studied and novel regions of genomic instability can hardly be discovered. Using a well-characterized yeast model, we describe a straightforward strategy to map genome-wide DNA strand breaks without compromising nucleotide-level resolution. This technique, termed “damaged DNA immunoprecipitation” (dDIP), uses immunoprecipitation and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin end-labeling (TUNEL) to capture DNA at break sites. When used in combination with microarray or next-generation sequencing technologies, dDIP will allow researchers to map genome-wide DNA strand breaks as well as other types of DNA damage and to establish a clear profiling of altered genes and/or intergenic sequences in various experimental conditions. This mapping technique could find several applications for instance in the study of aging, genotoxic drug screening, cancer, meiosis, radiation and oxidative DNA damage. PMID:21364894

  12. GWIDD: Genome-wide protein docking database

    PubMed Central

    Kundrotas, Petras J.; Zhu, Zhengwei; Vakser, Ilya A.

    2010-01-01

    Structural information on interacting proteins is important for understanding life processes at the molecular level. Genome-wide docking database is an integrated resource for structural studies of protein–protein interactions on the genome scale, which combines the available experimental data with models obtained by docking techniques. Current database version (August 2009) contains 25 559 experimental and modeled 3D structures for 771 organisms spanned over the entire universe of life from viruses to humans. Data are organized in a relational database with user-friendly search interface allowing exploration of the database content by a number of parameters. Search results can be interactively previewed and downloaded as PDB-formatted files, along with the information relevant to the specified interactions. The resource is freely available at http://gwidd.bioinformatics.ku.edu. PMID:19900970

  13. Genome-wide Membrane Protein Structure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Stefano; Suku, Eda; Garonzi, Marianna; Giorgetti, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins allow cells to extensively communicate with the external world in a very accurate and specific way. They form principal nodes in several signaling pathways and attract large interest in therapeutic intervention, as the majority pharmaceutical compounds target membrane proteins. Thus, according to the current genome annotation methods, a detailed structural/functional characterization at the protein level of each of the elements codified in the genome is also required. The extreme difficulty in obtaining high-resolution three-dimensional structures, calls for computational approaches. Here we review to which extent the efforts made in the last few years, combining the structural characterization of membrane proteins with protein bioinformatics techniques, could help describing membrane proteins at a genome-wide scale. In particular we analyze the use of comparative modeling techniques as a way of overcoming the lack of high-resolution three-dimensional structures in the human membrane proteome. PMID:24403851

  14. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Zsofia K.; Thom, Peter; Robson, Mark E.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Kauff, Noah D.; Hurley, Karen E.; Devlin, Vincent; Gold, Bert; Klein, Robert J.; Offit, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the inherited risk for cancer is an important component of preventive oncology. In addition to well-established syndromes of cancer predisposition, much remains to be discovered about the genetic variation underlying susceptibility to common malignancies. Increased knowledge about the human genome and advances in genotyping technology have made possible genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of human diseases. These studies have identified many important regions of genetic variation associated with an increased risk for human traits and diseases including cancer. Understanding the principles, major findings, and limitations of GWAS is becoming increasingly important for oncologists as dissemination of genomic risk tests directly to consumers is already occurring through commercial companies. GWAS have contributed to our understanding of the genetic basis of cancer and will shed light on biologic pathways and possible new strategies for targeted prevention. To date, however, the clinical utility of GWAS-derived risk markers remains limited. PMID:20585100

  15. Genome-wide association studies in pediatric chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jayanta; Kanetsky, Peter A; Wuttke, Matthias; Köttgen, Anna; Schaefer, Franz; Wong, Craig S

    2016-08-01

    The genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become an established scientific method that provides an unbiased screen for genetic loci potentially associated with phenotypes of clinical interest, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, GWAS provides opportunities to gain new perspectives regarding the genetic architecture of CKD progression by identifying new candidate genes and targets for intervention. As such, it has become an important arm of translational science providing a complementary line of investigation to identify novel therapeutics to treat CKD. In this review, we describe the method and the challenges of performing GWAS in the pediatric CKD population. We also provide an overview of successful GWAS for kidney disease, and we discuss the established pediatric CKD cohorts in North America and Europe that are poised to identify genetic risk variants associated with CKD progression. PMID:26490952

  16. Identification of Neural Outgrowth Genes using Genome-Wide RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, Katharine J.; Hong, Pengyu; Lizarraga, Sofia B.; Liu, Judy S.; Mejia, Luis A.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    While genetic screens have identified many genes essential for neurite outgrowth, they have been limited in their ability to identify neural genes that also have earlier critical roles in the gastrula, or neural genes for which maternally contributed RNA compensates for gene mutations in the zygote. To address this, we developed methods to screen the Drosophila genome using RNA-interference (RNAi) on primary neural cells and present the results of the first full-genome RNAi screen in neurons. We used live-cell imaging and quantitative image analysis to characterize the morphological phenotypes of fluorescently labelled primary neurons and glia in response to RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. From the full genome screen, we focused our analysis on 104 evolutionarily conserved genes that when downregulated by RNAi, have morphological defects such as reduced axon extension, excessive branching, loss of fasciculation, and blebbing. To assist in the phenotypic analysis of the large data sets, we generated image analysis algorithms that could assess the statistical significance of the mutant phenotypes. The algorithms were essential for the analysis of the thousands of images generated by the screening process and will become a valuable tool for future genome-wide screens in primary neurons. Our analysis revealed unexpected, essential roles in neurite outgrowth for genes representing a wide range of functional categories including signalling molecules, enzymes, channels, receptors, and cytoskeletal proteins. We also found that genes known to be involved in protein and vesicle trafficking showed similar RNAi phenotypes. We confirmed phenotypes of the protein trafficking genes Sec61alpha and Ran GTPase using Drosophila embryo and mouse embryonic cerebral cortical neurons, respectively. Collectively, our results showed that RNAi phenotypes in primary neural culture can parallel in vivo phenotypes, and the screening technique can be used to identify many new genes that have

  17. Genome Wide Association Identifies Novel Loci Involved in Fungal Communication

    PubMed Central

    Kowbel, David; Welch, Juliet; Taylor, John W.; Brem, Rachel B.; Glass, N. Louise

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how genomes encode complex cellular and organismal behaviors has become the outstanding challenge of modern genetics. Unlike classical screening methods, analysis of genetic variation that occurs naturally in wild populations can enable rapid, genome-scale mapping of genotype to phenotype with a medium-throughput experimental design. Here we describe the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) used to identify novel loci underlying trait variation in a microbial eukaryote, harnessing wild isolates of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We genotyped each of a population of wild Louisiana strains at 1 million genetic loci genome-wide, and we used these genotypes to map genetic determinants of microbial communication. In N. crassa, germinated asexual spores (germlings) sense the presence of other germlings, grow toward them in a coordinated fashion, and fuse. We evaluated germlings of each strain for their ability to chemically sense, chemotropically seek, and undergo cell fusion, and we subjected these trait measurements to GWAS. This analysis identified one gene, NCU04379 (cse-1, encoding a homolog of a neuronal calcium sensor), at which inheritance was strongly associated with the efficiency of germling communication. Deletion of cse-1 significantly impaired germling communication and fusion, and two genes encoding predicted interaction partners of CSE1 were also required for the communication trait. Additionally, mining our association results for signaling and secretion genes with a potential role in germling communication, we validated six more previously unknown molecular players, including a secreted protease and two other genes whose deletion conferred a novel phenotype of increased communication and multi-germling fusion. Our results establish protein secretion as a linchpin of germling communication in N. crassa and shed light on the regulation of communication molecules in this fungus. Our study demonstrates the power

  18. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Comb Traits in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Meng; Dou, Taocun; Lu, Jian; Guo, Jun; Hu, Yuping; Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Sun, Congjiao; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The comb, as a secondary sexual character, is an important trait in chicken. Indicators of comb length (CL), comb height (CH), and comb weight (CW) are often selected in production. DNA-based marker-assisted selection could help chicken breeders to accelerate genetic improvement for comb or related economic characters by early selection. Although a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes have been identified with advances in molecular genetics, candidate genes underlying comb traits are limited. The aim of the study was to use genome-wide association (GWA) studies by 600 K Affymetrix chicken SNP arrays to detect genes that are related to comb, using an F2 resource population. For all comb characters, comb exhibited high SNP-based heritability estimates (0.61–0.69). Chromosome 1 explained 20.80% genetic variance, while chromosome 4 explained 6.89%. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each character identified 127, 197, and 268 novel significant SNPs with CL, CH, and CW, respectively. Three candidate genes, VPS36, AR, and WNT11B, were determined to have a plausible function in all comb characters. These genes are important to the initiation of follicle development, gonadal growth, and dermal development, respectively. The current study provides the first GWA analysis for comb traits. Identification of the genetic basis as well as promising candidate genes will help us understand the underlying genetic architecture of comb development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the selection of comb as an index for sexual maturity or reproduction. PMID:27427764

  19. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Comb Traits in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Manman; Qu, Liang; Ma, Meng; Dou, Taocun; Lu, Jian; Guo, Jun; Hu, Yuping; Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Sun, Congjiao; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The comb, as a secondary sexual character, is an important trait in chicken. Indicators of comb length (CL), comb height (CH), and comb weight (CW) are often selected in production. DNA-based marker-assisted selection could help chicken breeders to accelerate genetic improvement for comb or related economic characters by early selection. Although a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes have been identified with advances in molecular genetics, candidate genes underlying comb traits are limited. The aim of the study was to use genome-wide association (GWA) studies by 600 K Affymetrix chicken SNP arrays to detect genes that are related to comb, using an F2 resource population. For all comb characters, comb exhibited high SNP-based heritability estimates (0.61-0.69). Chromosome 1 explained 20.80% genetic variance, while chromosome 4 explained 6.89%. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each character identified 127, 197, and 268 novel significant SNPs with CL, CH, and CW, respectively. Three candidate genes, VPS36, AR, and WNT11B, were determined to have a plausible function in all comb characters. These genes are important to the initiation of follicle development, gonadal growth, and dermal development, respectively. The current study provides the first GWA analysis for comb traits. Identification of the genetic basis as well as promising candidate genes will help us understand the underlying genetic architecture of comb development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the selection of comb as an index for sexual maturity or reproduction. PMID:27427764

  20. Genome-wide linkage in Utah autism pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Allen-Brady, K; Robison, R; Cannon, D; Varvil, T; Villalobos, M; Pingree, C; Leppert, M F; Miller, J; McMahon, W M; Coon, H

    2010-10-01

    Genetic studies of autism over the past decade suggest a complex landscape of multiple genes. In the face of this heterogeneity, studies that include large extended pedigrees may offer valuable insights, as the relatively few susceptibility genes within single large families may be more easily discerned. This genome-wide screen of 70 families includes 20 large extended pedigrees of 6-9 generations, 6 moderate-sized families of 4-5 generations and 44 smaller families of 2-3 generations. The Center for Inherited Disease Research (CIDR) provided genotyping using the Illumina Linkage Panel 12, a 6K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platform. Results from 192 subjects with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 461 of their relatives revealed genome-wide significance on chromosome 15q, with three possibly distinct peaks: 15q13.1-q14 (heterogeneity LOD (HLOD)=4.09 at 29 459 872 bp); 15q14-q21.1 (HLOD=3.59 at 36 837 208 bp); and 15q21.1-q22.2 (HLOD=5.31 at 55 629 733 bp). Two of these peaks replicate earlier findings. There were additional suggestive results on chromosomes 2p25.3-p24.1 (HLOD=1.87), 7q31.31-q32.3 (HLOD=1.97) and 13q12.11-q12.3 (HLOD=1.93). Affected subjects in families supporting the linkage peaks found in this study did not reveal strong evidence for distinct phenotypic subgroups. PMID:19455147

  1. Genome wide association identifies novel loci involved in fungal communication.

    PubMed

    Palma-Guerrero, Javier; Hall, Charles R; Kowbel, David; Welch, Juliet; Taylor, John W; Brem, Rachel B; Glass, N Louise

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how genomes encode complex cellular and organismal behaviors has become the outstanding challenge of modern genetics. Unlike classical screening methods, analysis of genetic variation that occurs naturally in wild populations can enable rapid, genome-scale mapping of genotype to phenotype with a medium-throughput experimental design. Here we describe the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) used to identify novel loci underlying trait variation in a microbial eukaryote, harnessing wild isolates of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We genotyped each of a population of wild Louisiana strains at 1 million genetic loci genome-wide, and we used these genotypes to map genetic determinants of microbial communication. In N. crassa, germinated asexual spores (germlings) sense the presence of other germlings, grow toward them in a coordinated fashion, and fuse. We evaluated germlings of each strain for their ability to chemically sense, chemotropically seek, and undergo cell fusion, and we subjected these trait measurements to GWAS. This analysis identified one gene, NCU04379 (cse-1, encoding a homolog of a neuronal calcium sensor), at which inheritance was strongly associated with the efficiency of germling communication. Deletion of cse-1 significantly impaired germling communication and fusion, and two genes encoding predicted interaction partners of CSE1 were also required for the communication trait. Additionally, mining our association results for signaling and secretion genes with a potential role in germling communication, we validated six more previously unknown molecular players, including a secreted protease and two other genes whose deletion conferred a novel phenotype of increased communication and multi-germling fusion. Our results establish protein secretion as a linchpin of germling communication in N. crassa and shed light on the regulation of communication molecules in this fungus. Our study demonstrates the power

  2. Genome-wide methylation profiling of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rukova, B; Staneva, R; Hadjidekova, S; Stamenov, G; Milanova; Toncheva, D

    2014-12-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the major psychiatric disorders. It is a disorder of complex inheritance, involving both heritable and environmental factors. DNA methylation is an inheritable epigenetic modification that stably alters gene expression. We reasoned that genetic modifications that are a result of environmental stimuli could also make a contribution. We have performed 26 high-resolution genome-wide methylation array analyses to determine the methylation status of 27,627 CpG islands and compared the data between patients and healthy controls. Methylation profiles of DNAs were analyzed in six pools: 220 schizophrenia patients; 220 age-matched healthy controls; 110 female schizophrenia patients; 110 age-matched healthy females; 110 male schizophrenia patients; 110 age-matched healthy males. We also investigated the methylation status of 20 individual patient DNA samples (eight females and 12 males. We found significant differences in the methylation profile between schizophrenia and control DNA pools. We found new candidate genes that principally participate in apoptosis, synaptic transmission and nervous system development (GABRA2, LIN7B, CASP3). Methylation profiles differed between the genders. In females, the most important genes participate in apoptosis and synaptic transmission (XIAP, GABRD, OXT, KRT7), whereas in the males, the implicated genes in the molecular pathology of the disease were DHX37, MAP2K2, FNDC4 and GIPC1. Data from the individual methylation analyses confirmed, the gender-specific pools results. Our data revealed major differences in methylation profiles between schizophrenia patients and controls and between male and female patients. The dysregulated activity of the candidate genes could play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:25937794

  3. Genome-Wide Methylation Profiling of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rukova, B; Staneva, R; Hadjidekova, S; Stamenov, G; Milanova; Toncheva, D

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the major psychiatric disorders. It is a disorder of complex inheritance, involving both heritable and environmental factors. DNA methylation is an inheritable epigenetic modification that stably alters gene expression. We reasoned that genetic modifications that are a result of environmental stimuli could also make a contribution. We have performed 26 high-resolution genome-wide methylation array analyses to determine the methylation status of 27,627 CpG islands and compared the data between patients and healthy controls. Methylation profiles of DNAs were analyzed in six pools: 220 schizophrenia patients; 220 age-matched healthy controls; 110 female schizophrenia patients; 110 age-matched healthy females; 110 male schizophrenia patients; 110 age-matched healthy males. We also investigated the methylation status of 20 individual patient DNA samples (eight females and 12 males. We found significant differences in the methylation profile between schizophrenia and control DNA pools. We found new candidate genes that principally participate in apoptosis, synaptic transmission and nervous system development (GABRA2, LIN7B, CASP3). Methylation profiles differed between the genders. In females, the most important genes participate in apoptosis and synaptic transmission (XIAP, GABRD, OXT, KRT7), whereas in the males, the implicated genes in the molecular pathology of the disease were DHX37, MAP2K2, FNDC4 and GIPC1. Data from the individual methylation analyses confirmed, the gender-specific pools results. Our data revealed major differences in methylation profiles between schizophrenia patients and controls and between male and female patients. The dysregulated activity of the candidate genes could play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:25937794

  4. Genome Wide Methylome Alterations in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mullapudi, Nandita; Ye, Bin; Suzuki, Masako; Fazzari, Melissa; Han, Weiguo; Shi, Miao K; Marquardt, Gaby; Lin, Juan; Wang, Tao; Keller, Steven; Zhu, Changcheng; Locker, Joseph D; Spivack, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant cytosine 5-methylation underlies many deregulated elements of cancer. Among paired non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), we sought to profile DNA 5-methyl-cytosine features which may underlie genome-wide deregulation. In one of the more dense interrogations of the methylome, we sampled 1.2 million CpG sites from twenty-four NSCLC tumor (T)-non-tumor (NT) pairs using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme- based HELP-microarray assay. We found 225,350 differentially methylated (DM) sites in adenocarcinomas versus adjacent non-tumor tissue that vary in frequency across genomic compartment, particularly notable in gene bodies (GB; p<2.2E-16). Further, when DM was coupled to differential transcriptome (DE) in the same samples, 37,056 differential loci in adenocarcinoma emerged. Approximately 90% of the DM-DE relationships were non-canonical; for example, promoter DM associated with DE in the same direction. Of the canonical changes noted, promoter (PR) DM loci with reciprocal changes in expression in adenocarcinomas included HBEGF, AGER, PTPRM, DPT, CST1, MELK; DM GB loci with concordant changes in expression included FOXM1, FERMT1, SLC7A5, and FAP genes. IPA analyses showed adenocarcinoma-specific promoter DMxDE overlay identified familiar lung cancer nodes [tP53, Akt] as well as less familiar nodes [HBEGF, NQO1, GRK5, VWF, HPGD, CDH5, CTNNAL1, PTPN13, DACH1, SMAD6, LAMA3, AR]. The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate methylation sites in both PR and GB regions not previously identified in NSCLC, and many non-canonical relationships to gene expression. These DNA methylation features could potentially be developed as risk or diagnostic biomarkers, or as candidate targets for newer methylation locus-targeted preventive or therapeutic agents. PMID:26683690

  5. Genome Wide Methylome Alterations in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masako; Fazzari, Melissa; Han, Weiguo; Shi, Miao K.; Marquardt, Gaby; Lin, Juan; Wang, Tao; Keller, Steven; Zhu, Changcheng; Locker, Joseph D.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant cytosine 5-methylation underlies many deregulated elements of cancer. Among paired non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), we sought to profile DNA 5-methyl-cytosine features which may underlie genome-wide deregulation. In one of the more dense interrogations of the methylome, we sampled 1.2 million CpG sites from twenty-four NSCLC tumor (T)–non-tumor (NT) pairs using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme- based HELP-microarray assay. We found 225,350 differentially methylated (DM) sites in adenocarcinomas versus adjacent non-tumor tissue that vary in frequency across genomic compartment, particularly notable in gene bodies (GB; p<2.2E-16). Further, when DM was coupled to differential transcriptome (DE) in the same samples, 37,056 differential loci in adenocarcinoma emerged. Approximately 90% of the DM-DE relationships were non-canonical; for example, promoter DM associated with DE in the same direction. Of the canonical changes noted, promoter (PR) DM loci with reciprocal changes in expression in adenocarcinomas included HBEGF, AGER, PTPRM, DPT, CST1, MELK; DM GB loci with concordant changes in expression included FOXM1, FERMT1, SLC7A5, and FAP genes. IPA analyses showed adenocarcinoma-specific promoter DMxDE overlay identified familiar lung cancer nodes [tP53, Akt] as well as less familiar nodes [HBEGF, NQO1, GRK5, VWF, HPGD, CDH5, CTNNAL1, PTPN13, DACH1, SMAD6, LAMA3, AR]. The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate methylation sites in both PR and GB regions not previously identified in NSCLC, and many non-canonical relationships to gene expression. These DNA methylation features could potentially be developed as risk or diagnostic biomarkers, or as candidate targets for newer methylation locus-targeted preventive or therapeutic agents. PMID:26683690

  6. High Quality Genome-Wide Genotyping from Archived Dried Blood Spots without DNA Amplification

    PubMed Central

    St. Julien, Krystal R.; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L.; Shaw, Gary M.; Stevenson, David K.; O’Brodovich, Hugh M.; Krasnow, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Spots of blood are routinely collected from newborn babies onto filter paper called Guthrie cards and used to screen for metabolic and genetic disorders. The archived dried blood spots are an important and precious resource for genomic research. Whole genome amplification of dried blood spot DNA has been used to provide DNA for genome-wide SNP genotyping. Here we describe a 96 well format procedure to extract DNA from a portion of a dried blood spot that provides sufficient unamplified genomic DNA for genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We show that SNP genotyping of the unamplified DNA is more robust than genotyping amplified dried blood spot DNA, is comparable in cost, and can be done with thousands of samples. This procedure can be used for genome-wide association studies and other large-scale genomic analyses that require robust, high-accuracy genotyping of dried blood spot DNA. PMID:23737996

  7. Exploring genome-wide datasets of MHC class II antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Wijdeven, Ruud H; Bakker, Jeroen M; Paul, Petra; Neefjes, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    MHC class II molecules (MHCII) are critical for presenting antigens to CD4(+) T-cells. They control ignition of CD4(+) T cells and are as such involved in most auto-immune diseases. To define proteins and pathways controlling MHCII antigen presentation and expression, we performed a genome-wide flow cytometry based RNAi screen. Hits were subsequently classified by two screens that monitored the intracellular distribution and transcription of MHCII. This multi-dimensional approach allowed subclassification of hits into functional groups as a first step to defining new pathways controlling MHCII antigen presentation. The datasets from this screen are used as a template for several follow-up studies. This overview focuses on how data from genome-wide screens can be used for target-lead finding, data mining, systems biology and systematic cell biology. PMID:23137594

  8. Chronic Periodontitis Genome-wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rhodin, K.; Divaris, K.; North, K.E.; Barros, S.P.; Moss, K.; Beck, J.D.; Offenbacher, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic periodontitis (CP) offer rich data sources for the investigation of candidate genes, functional elements, and pathways. We used GWAS data of CP (n = 4,504) and periodontal pathogen colonization (n = 1,020) from a cohort of adult Americans of European descent participating in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and employed a MAGENTA approach (i.e., meta-analysis gene set enrichment of variant associations) to obtain gene-centric and gene set association results corrected for gene size, number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and local linkage disequilibrium characteristics based on the human genome build 18 (National Center for Biotechnology Information build 36). We used the Gene Ontology, Ingenuity, KEGG, Panther, Reactome, and Biocarta databases for gene set enrichment analyses. Six genes showed evidence of statistically significant association: 4 with severe CP (NIN, p = 1.6 × 10−7; ABHD12B, p = 3.6 × 10−7; WHAMM, p = 1.7 × 10−6; AP3B2, p = 2.2 × 10−6) and 2 with high periodontal pathogen colonization (red complex–KCNK1, p = 3.4 × 10−7; Porphyromonas gingivalis–DAB2IP, p = 1.0 × 10−6). Top-ranked genes for moderate CP were HGD (p = 1.4 × 10−5), ZNF675 (p = 1.5 × 10−5), TNFRSF10C (p = 2.0 × 10−5), and EMR1 (p = 2.0 × 10−5). Loci containing NIN, EMR1, KCNK1, and DAB2IP had showed suggestive evidence of association in the earlier single-nucleotide polymorphism–based analyses, whereas WHAMM and AP2B2 emerged as novel candidates. The top gene sets included severe CP (“endoplasmic reticulum membrane,” “cytochrome P450,” “microsome,” and “oxidation reduction”) and moderate CP (“regulation of gene expression,” “zinc ion binding,” “BMP signaling pathway,” and “ruffle”). Gene-centric analyses offer a promising avenue for efficient interrogation of large-scale GWAS data. These results highlight genes in previously identified loci and

  9. Genome-wide RNAi high-throughput screen identifies proteins necessary for the AHR-dependent induction of CYP1A1 by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Solaimani, Parrisa; Damoiseaux, Robert; Hankinson, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has a plethora of physiological roles, and upon dysregulation, carcinogenesis can occur. One target gene of AHR encodes the xenobiotic and drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1, which is inducible by the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) via the AHR. An siRNA library targeted against over 5600 gene candidates in the druggable genome was used to transfect mouse Hepa-1 cells, which were then treated with TCDD, and subsequently assayed for CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Following redundant siRNA activity (RSA) statistical analysis, we identified 93 hits that reduced EROD activity with a p value ≤ .005 and substantiated 39 of these as positive hits in a secondary screening using endoribonuclease-prepared siRNAs (esiRNAs). Twelve of the corresponding gene products were subsequently confirmed to be necessary for the induction of CYP1A1 messenger RNA by TCDD. None of the candidates were deficient in aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator expression. However 6 gene products including UBE2i, RAB40C, CRYGD, DCTN4, RBM5, and RAD50 are required for the expression of AHR as well as for induction of CYP1A1. We also found 2 gene products, ARMC8 and TCF20, to be required for the induction of CYP1A1, but our data are ambiguous as to whether they are required for the expression of AHR. In contrast, SIN3A, PDC, TMEM5, and CD9 are not required for AHR expression but are required for the induction of CYP1A1, implicating a direct role in Cyp1a1 transcription. Our methods, although applied to Cyp1a1, could be modified for identifying proteins that regulate other inducible genes. PMID:23997114

  10. Genome-Wide RNAi High-Throughput Screen Identifies Proteins Necessary for the AHR-Dependent Induction of CYP1A1 by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has a plethora of physiological roles, and upon dysregulation, carcinogenesis can occur. One target gene of AHR encodes the xenobiotic and drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1, which is inducible by the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) via the AHR. An siRNA library targeted against over 5600 gene candidates in the druggable genome was used to transfect mouse Hepa-1 cells, which were then treated with TCDD, and subsequently assayed for CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Following redundant siRNA activity (RSA) statistical analysis, we identified 93 hits that reduced EROD activity with a p value ≤ .005 and substantiated 39 of these as positive hits in a secondary screening using endoribonuclease-prepared siRNAs (esiRNAs). Twelve of the corresponding gene products were subsequently confirmed to be necessary for the induction of CYP1A1 messenger RNA by TCDD. None of the candidates were deficient in aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator expression. However 6 gene products including UBE2i, RAB40C, CRYGD, DCTN4, RBM5, and RAD50 are required for the expression of AHR as well as for induction of CYP1A1. We also found 2 gene products, ARMC8 and TCF20, to be required for the induction of CYP1A1, but our data are ambiguous as to whether they are required for the expression of AHR. In contrast, SIN3A, PDC, TMEM5, and CD9 are not required for AHR expression but are required for the induction of CYP1A1, implicating a direct role in Cyp1a1 transcription. Our methods, although applied to Cyp1a1, could be modified for identifying proteins that regulate other inducible genes. PMID:23997114

  11. Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiles in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jing; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Kappil, Maya; Wu, Hui-Chen; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Wang, Qiao; Jasmine, Farzana; Ahsan, Habib; Lee, Po-Huang; Yu, Ming-Whei; Chen, Chien-Jen; Santella, Regina M.

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation frequently occur in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). We have previously demonstrated that hypermethylation in candidate genes can be detected in plasma DNA prior to HCC diagnosis. To identify with a genome-wide approach additional genes hypermethylated in HCC that could be used for more accurate analysis of plasma DNA for early diagnosis, we analyzed tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 62 Taiwanese HCC cases using Illumina methylation arrays that screen 26,486 autosomal CpG sites. After Bonferroni adjustment, a total of 2,324 CpG sites significantly differed in methylation level, with 684 CpG sites significantly hypermethylated and 1,640 hypomethylated in tumor compared to non-tumor tissues. Array data were validated with pyrosequencing in a subset of 5 of these genes; correlation coefficients ranged from 0.92 to 0.97. Analysis of plasma DNA from 38 cases demonstrated that 37% to 63% of cases had detectable hypermethylated DNA (≥5% methylation) for these 5 genes individually. At least one of these genes was hypermethylated in 87% of cases, suggesting that measurement of DNA methylation in plasma samples is feasible. The panel of methylated genes indentified in the current study will be further tested in large cohort of prospectively collected samples to determine their utility as early biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22234943

  12. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nobuhisa; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Dohi, Osamu; Gen, Yasuyuki; Tomie, Akira; Kitaichi, Tomoko; Iwai, Naoto; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Sumida, Yoshio; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Umemura, Atsushi; Naito, Yuji; Tanaka, Shinji; Arii, Shigeki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2016-04-01

    Epigenetic changes as well as genetic changes are mechanisms of tumorigenesis. We aimed to identify novel genes that are silenced by DNA hypermethylation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We screened for genes with promoter DNA hypermethylation using a genome-wide methylation microarray analysis in primary HCC (the discovery set). The microarray analysis revealed that there were 2,670 CpG sites that significantly differed in regards to the methylation level between the tumor and non-tumor liver tissues; 875 were significantly hypermethylated and 1,795 were significantly hypomethylated in the HCC tumors compared to the non‑tumor tissues. Further analyses using methylation-specific PCR, combined with expression analysis, in the validation set of primary HCC showed that, in addition to three known tumor-suppressor genes (APC, CDKN2A, and GSTP1), eight genes (AKR1B1, GRASP, MAP9, NXPE3, RSPH9, SPINT2, STEAP4, and ZNF154) were significantly hypermethylated and downregulated in the HCC tumors compared to the non-tumor liver tissues. Our results suggest that epigenetic silencing of these genes may be associated with HCC. PMID:26883180

  13. Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2012 July 2012 (historical) Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma A ... out to see if a technology called whole genome sequencing would help them find other genetic risk ...

  14. Combined analysis of exon splicing and genome wide polymorphism data predict schizophrenia risk loci.

    PubMed

    Oldmeadow, Christopher; Mossman, David; Evans, Tiffany-Jane; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Tooney, Paul A; Cairns, Murray J; Wu, Jingqin; Carr, Vaughan; Attia, John R; Scott, Rodney J

    2014-05-01

    Schizophrenia has a strong genetic basis, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that effect sizes for individual genetic variants which increase disease risk are small, making detection and validation of true disease-associated risk variants extremely challenging. Specifically, we first identify genes with exons showing differential expression between cases and controls, indicating a splicing mechanism that may contribute to variation in disease risk and focus on those showing consistent differential expression between blood and brain tissue. We then perform a genome-wide screen for SNPs associated with both normalised exon intensity of these genes (so called splicing QTLs) as well as association with schizophrenia. We identified a number of significantly associated loci with a biologically plausible role in schizophrenia, including MCPH1, DLG3, ZC3H13, and BICD2, and additional loci that influence splicing of these genes, including YWHAH. Our approach of integrating genome-wide exon intensity with genome-wide polymorphism data has identified a number of plausible SZ associated loci. PMID:24507884

  15. The First Pilot Genome-Wide Gene-Environment Study of Depression in the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Otowa, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawakami, Norito; Kan, Chiemi; Shimada, Takafumi; Umekage, Tadashi; Kasai, Kiyoto; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Stressful events have been identified as a risk factor for depression. Although gene–environment (G × E) interaction in a limited number of candidate genes has been explored, no genome-wide search has been reported. The aim of the present study is to identify genes that influence the association of stressful events with depression. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide G × E interaction analysis in the Japanese population. A genome-wide screen with 320 subjects was performed using the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human Array 6.0. Stressful life events were assessed using the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) and depression symptoms were assessed with self-rating questionnaires using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The p values for interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and stressful events were calculated using the linear regression model adjusted for sex and age. After quality control of genotype data, a total of 534,848 SNPs on autosomal chromosomes were further analyzed. Although none surpassed the level of the genome-wide significance, a marginal significant association of interaction between SRRS and rs10510057 with depression were found (p = 4.5 × 10−8). The SNP is located on 10q26 near Regulators of G-protein signaling 10 (RGS10), which encodes a regulatory molecule involved in stress response. When we investigated a similar G × E interaction between depression (K6 scale) and work-related stress in an independent sample (n = 439), a significant G × E effect on depression was observed (p = 0.015). Our findings suggest that rs10510057, interacting with stressors, may be involved in depression risk. Incorporating G × E interaction into GWAS can contribute to find susceptibility locus that are potentially missed by conventional GWAS. PMID:27529621

  16. The First Pilot Genome-Wide Gene-Environment Study of Depression in the Japanese Population.

    PubMed

    Otowa, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawakami, Norito; Kan, Chiemi; Shimada, Takafumi; Umekage, Tadashi; Kasai, Kiyoto; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Stressful events have been identified as a risk factor for depression. Although gene-environment (G × E) interaction in a limited number of candidate genes has been explored, no genome-wide search has been reported. The aim of the present study is to identify genes that influence the association of stressful events with depression. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide G × E interaction analysis in the Japanese population. A genome-wide screen with 320 subjects was performed using the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human Array 6.0. Stressful life events were assessed using the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) and depression symptoms were assessed with self-rating questionnaires using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The p values for interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and stressful events were calculated using the linear regression model adjusted for sex and age. After quality control of genotype data, a total of 534,848 SNPs on autosomal chromosomes were further analyzed. Although none surpassed the level of the genome-wide significance, a marginal significant association of interaction between SRRS and rs10510057 with depression were found (p = 4.5 × 10-8). The SNP is located on 10q26 near Regulators of G-protein signaling 10 (RGS10), which encodes a regulatory molecule involved in stress response. When we investigated a similar G × E interaction between depression (K6 scale) and work-related stress in an independent sample (n = 439), a significant G × E effect on depression was observed (p = 0.015). Our findings suggest that rs10510057, interacting with stressors, may be involved in depression risk. Incorporating G × E interaction into GWAS can contribute to find susceptibility locus that are potentially missed by conventional GWAS. PMID:27529621

  17. Multimodal confocal mosaics enable high sensitivity and specificity in screening of in situ squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grados Luyando, Maria del Carmen; Bar, Anna; Snavely, Nicholas; Jacques, Steven; Gareau, Daniel S.

    2014-02-01

    Screening cancer in excision margins with confocal microscopy may potentially save time and cost over the gold standard histopathology (H and E). However, diagnostic accuracy requires sufficient contrast and resolution to reveal pathological traits in a growing set of tumor types. Reflectance mode images structural details due to microscopic refractive index variation. Nuclear contrast with acridine orange fluorescence provides enhanced diagnostic value, but fails for in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), where the cytoplasm is important to visualize. Combination of three modes [eosin (Eo) fluorescence, reflectance (R) and acridine orange (AO) fluorescence] enable imaging of cytoplasm, collagen and nuclei respectively. Toward rapid intra-operative pathological margin assessment to guide staged cancer excisions, multimodal confocal mosaics can image wide surgical margins (~1cm) with sub-cellular resolution and mimic the appearance of conventional H and E. Absorption contrast is achieved by alternating the excitation wavelength: 488nm (AO fluorescence) and 532nm (Eo fluorescence). Superposition and false-coloring of these modes mimics H and E, enabling detection of the carcinoma in situ in the epidermal layer The sum mosaic Eo+R is false-colored pink to mimic eosins' appearance in H and E, while the AO mosaic is false-colored purple to mimic hematoxylins' appearance in H and E. In this study, mosaics of 10 Mohs surgical excisions containing SCC in situ and 5 containing only normal tissue were subdivided for digital presentation equivalent to 4X histology. Of the total 16 SCC in situ multimodal mosaics and 16 normal cases presented, two reviewers made 1 and 2 (respectively) type-2 errors (false positives) but otherwise scored perfectly when using the confocal images to screen for the presence of SCC in situ as compared to the gold standard histopathology. Limitations to precisely mimic H and E included occasional elastin staining by AO. These results suggest that

  18. Genome-wide examination of myoblast cell cycle withdrawal duringdifferentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xun; Collier, John Michael; Hlaing, Myint; Zhang, Leanne; Delshad, Elizabeth H.; Bristow, James; Bernstein, Harold S.

    2002-12-02

    Skeletal and cardiac myocytes cease division within weeks of birth. Although skeletal muscle retains limited capacity for regeneration through recruitment of satellite cells, resident populations of adult myocardial stem cells have not been identified. Because cell cycle withdrawal accompanies myocyte differentiation, we hypothesized that C2C12 cells, a mouse myoblast cell line previously used to characterize myocyte differentiation, also would provide a model for studying cell cycle withdrawal during differentiation. C2C12 cells were differentiated in culture medium containing horse serum and harvested at various time points to characterize the expression profiles of known cell cycle and myogenic regulatory factors by immunoblot analysis. BrdU incorporation decreased dramatically in confluent cultures 48 hr after addition of horse serum, as cells started to form myotubes. This finding was preceded by up-regulation of MyoD, followed by myogenin, and activation of Bcl-2. Cyclin D1 was expressed in proliferating cultures and became undetectable in cultures containing 40 percent fused myotubes, as levels of p21(WAF1/Cip1) increased and alpha-actin became detectable. Because C2C12 myoblasts withdraw from the cell cycle during myocyte differentiation following a course that recapitulates this process in vivo, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify other gene products involved in this process. Using microarrays containing approximately 10,000 minimally redundant mouse sequences that map to the UniGene database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, we compared gene expression profiles between proliferating, differentiating, and differentiated C2C12 cells and verified candidate genes demonstrating differential expression by RT-PCR. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed groups of gene products involved in cell cycle withdrawal, muscle differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, we identified several genes, including DDAH2 and Ly

  19. Probabilistic Protein Function Prediction from Heterogeneous Genome-Wide Data

    PubMed Central

    Nariai, Naoki; Kolaczyk, Eric D.; Kasif, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Dramatic improvements in high throughput sequencing technologies have led to a staggering growth in the number of predicted genes. However, a large fraction of these newly discovered genes do not have a functional assignment. Fortunately, a variety of novel high-throughput genome-wide functional screening technologies provide important clues that shed light on gene function. The integration of heterogeneous data to predict protein function has been shown to improve the accuracy of automated gene annotation systems. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a probabilistic approach for protein function prediction that integrates protein-protein interaction (PPI) data, gene expression data, protein motif information, mutant phenotype data, and protein localization data. First, functional linkage graphs are constructed from PPI data and gene expression data, in which an edge between nodes (proteins) represents evidence for functional similarity. The assumption here is that graph neighbors are more likely to share protein function, compared to proteins that are not neighbors. The functional linkage graph model is then used in concert with protein domain, mutant phenotype and protein localization data to produce a functional prediction. Our method is applied to the functional prediction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes, using Gene Ontology (GO) terms as the basis of our annotation. In a cross validation study we show that the integrated model increases recall by 18%, compared to using PPI data alone at the 50% precision. We also show that the integrated predictor is significantly better than each individual predictor. However, the observed improvement vs. PPI depends on both the new source of data and the functional category to be predicted. Surprisingly, in some contexts integration hurts overall prediction accuracy. Lastly, we provide a comprehensive assignment of putative GO terms to 463 proteins that currently have no assigned function. PMID:17396164

  20. AUTOGSCAN: powerful tools for automated genome-wide linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis.

    PubMed

    Hiekkalinna, Tero; Terwilliger, Joseph D; Sammalisto, Sampo; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus

    2005-02-01

    Genome-wide linkage analysis using multiple traits and statistical software packages is a tedious process which requires a significant amount of manual file manipulation. Different linkage analysis programs require different input file formats, making the task of analyzing data with multiple methods even more time-consuming. We have developed a software tool, AUTOGSCAN, that automates file formatting, the running of statistical analyses, and the summarizing of resulting statistics for whole genome scans with a push of a button, using several independent, and often idiosyncratic, statistical software packages such as MERLIN, SOLAR and GENEHUNTER. We also describe a program, ANALYZE, designed to run qualitative linkage analysis with several different statistical strategies and programs to efficiently screen for linkage and linkage disequilibrium for a given discrete trait. The ANALYZE program can also be used by AUTOGSCAN in a genome-wide sense. PMID:15836805

  1. A Genome-Wide Map of AAV-Mediated Human Gene Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Deyle, David R.; Hansen, R. Scott; Cornea, Anda M.; Li, Li B.; Burt, Amber A.; Alexander, Ian E.; Sandstrom, Richard S.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Wei, Chia-Lin; Russell, David W.

    2014-01-01

    To determine which genomic features promote homologous recombination, we created a genome-wide map of gene targeting sites. An adeno-associated virus vector was used to target identical loci introduced as transcriptionally active retroviral vector proviruses. A comparison of ~2,000 targeted and untargeted sites showed that targeting occurred throughout the human genome and was not influenced by the presence of nearby CpG islands, sequence repeats, or DNase I hypersensitive sites. Targeted sites were preferentially found within transcription units, especially when the target loci were transcribed in the opposite orientation to their surrounding chromosomal genes. The impact of DNA replication was determined by mapping replication forks, which revealed a preference for recombination at target loci transcribed towards an incoming fork. Our results constitute the first genome-wide screen of gene targeting in mammalian cells, and they demonstrate a strong recombinogenic effect of colliding polymerases. PMID:25282150

  2. Genome-wide Association Study of Chicken Plumage Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Na; Choi, Jin Ae; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Tae-Hun; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Taeheon

    2013-11-01

    To increase plumage color uniformity and understand the genetic background of Korean chickens, we performed a genome-wide association study of different plumage color in Korean native chickens. We analyzed 60K SNP chips on 279 chickens with GEMMA methods for GWAS and estimated the genetic heritability for plumage color. The estimated heritability suggests that plumage coloration is a polygenic trait. We found new loci associated with feather pigmentation at the genome-wide level and from the results infer that there are additional genetic effect for plumage color. The results will be used for selecting and breeding chicken for plumage color uniformity. PMID:25049737

  3. High-resolution genome-wide scan of genes, gene-networks and cellular systems impacting the yeast ionome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To balance the demand for uptake of essential elements with their potential toxicity living cells have complex regulatory mechanisms. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen to identify genes that impact the elemental composition (‘ionome’) of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using inductively coupled...

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of common genetic variation in schizophrenia in a genome-wide association study of substantial size: a stage 1 discovery sample of 21,856 individuals of European ancestry and a stage 2 replication sample of 29,839 independent subjects. The combined stage 1 and 2 analysis yielded genome-wide significant associations with schizophrenia for seven loci, five of which are new (1p21.3, 2q32.3, 8p23.2, 8q21.3 and 10q24.32-q24.33) and two of which have been previously implicated (6p21.32-p22.1 and 18q21.2). The strongest new finding (P = 1.6 × 10−11) was with rs1625579 within an intron of a putative primary transcript for MIR137 (microRNA 137), a known regulator of neuronal development. Four other schizophrenia loci achieving genome-wide significance contain predicted targets of MIR137, suggesting MIR137-mediated dysregulation as a previously unknown etiologic mechanism in schizophrenia. In a joint analysis with a bipolar disorder sample (16,374 affected individuals and 14,044 controls), three loci reached genome-wide significance: CACNA1C (rs4765905, P = 7.0 × 10−9), ANK3 (rs10994359, P = 2.5 × 10−8) and the ITIH3-ITIH4 region (rs2239547, P = 7.8 × 10−9). PMID:21926974

  5. A super powerful method for genome wide association study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-Wide Association Studies shed light on the identification of genes underlying human diseases and agriculturally important traits. This potential has been shadowed by false positive findings. The Mixed Linear Model (MLM) method is flexible enough to simultaneously incorporate population struct...

  6. Design and bioinformatics analysis of genome-wide CLIP experiments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Xiao, Guanghua; Chu, Yongjun; Zhang, Michael Q.; Corey, David R.; Xie, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed a surge of discoveries revealing RNA regulation as a central player in cellular processes. RNAs are regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) at all post-transcriptional stages, including splicing, transportation, stabilization and translation. Defects in the functions of these RBPs underlie a broad spectrum of human pathologies. Systematic identification of RBP functional targets is among the key biomedical research questions and provides a new direction for drug discovery. The advent of cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (genome-wide CLIP) technology has recently enabled the investigation of genome-wide RBP–RNA binding at single base-pair resolution. This technology has evolved through the development of three distinct versions: HITS-CLIP, PAR-CLIP and iCLIP. Meanwhile, numerous bioinformatics pipelines for handling the genome-wide CLIP data have also been developed. In this review, we discuss the genome-wide CLIP technology and focus on bioinformatics analysis. Specifically, we compare the strengths and weaknesses, as well as the scopes, of various bioinformatics tools. To assist readers in choosing optimal procedures for their analysis, we also review experimental design and procedures that affect bioinformatics analyses. PMID:25958398

  7. Genome-wide association mapping of soybean aphid resistance traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphid is the most damaging insect pest of soybean in the Upper Midwest and is primarily controlled by insecticides. Soybean aphid resistance (i.e., Rag genes) has been documented in some soybean lines at chromosomes 6, 7, 13, and 16, but more sources of resistance are needed. Genome-wide ass...

  8. Genome-wide characterization of maize miRNA genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in plant growth and development. We conducted a genome-wide survey of maize miRNA genes, characterizing their structure, expression, and evolution. Computational approaches based on homology and secondary structure modeling ident...

  9. Genome-wide association analysis to predict optimal antipsychotic dosage in schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Koga, Arthur T; Strauss, John; Zai, Clement; Remington, Gary; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several studies have investigated genetic polymorphisms of antipsychotic drug-metabolizing enzymes and receptors. However, most studies focused on drug response and very few have investigated the genetic influence on antipsychotic dosage. The aim of the present study is to test the association between antipsychotic dosages at genome-wide level. The current dosage of antipsychotic medications was collected from 79 schizophrenia patients. The dosage was standardized using three different methods: chlorpromazine equivalent (CPZe), defined daily dose (DDD), and percentage of maximum dose (PM %). The patients were then genotyped using the Illumina HumanOmni2.5-8 BeadChip Kit. All markers were screened for significance using linear regression, and the p values were visualized using a Manhattan plot. The genome-wide analysis showed that the top Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with dosage variation were rs981975 on chromosome 14 for CPZe, rs4470690 on chromosome 4 for PM %, and rs79323383 on chromosome 8 for DDD. However, no genome-wide significantly associated SNPs were identified. In this pilot sample, we found promising trends for pharmacodynamic targets associated with antipsychotic dosage. Therefore, studies combining large prescription databases may identify genetic predictors to adjust the dose of antipsychotic medication. PMID:26821981

  10. A GENOME-WIDE LINKAGE AND ASSOCIATION SCAN REVEALS NOVEL LOCI FOR AUTISM

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Lauren A.; Arking, Dan E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Although autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, attempts to identify specific susceptibility genes have thus far met with limited success 1. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using half a million or more markers, particularly those with very large sample sizes achieved through meta-analysis, have shown great success in mapping genes for other complex genetic traits (http://www.genome.gov/26525384). Consequently, we initiated a linkage and association mapping study using half a million genome-wide SNPs in a common set of 1,031 multiplex autism families (1,553 affected offspring). We identified regions of suggestive and significant linkage on chromosomes 6q27 and 20p13, respectively. Initial analysis did not yield genome-wide significant associations; however, genotyping of top hits in additional families revealed a SNP on chromosome 5p15 (between SEMA5A and TAS2R1) that was significantly associated with autism (P = 2 × 10−7). We also demonstrated that expression of SEMA5A is reduced in brains from autistic patients, further implicating SEMA5A as an autism susceptibility gene. The linkage regions reported here provide targets for rare variation screening while the discovery of a single novel association demonstrates the action of common variants. PMID:19812673

  11. Genome-wide analysis of Notch signalling in Drosophila by transgenic RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Mummery-Widmer, Jennifer L.; Yamazaki, Masakazu; Stoeger, Thomas; Novatchkova, Maria; Bhalerao, Sheetal; Chen, Doris; Dietzl, Georg; Dickson, Barry J.; Knoblich, Juergen A.

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens have identified near-complete sets of genes involved in cellular processes. However, this methodology has not yet been used to study complex developmental processes in a tissue-specific manner. Here we report the use of a library of Drosophila strains expressing inducible hairpin RNAi constructs to study the Notch signalling pathway during external sensory organ development. We assigned putative loss-of-function phenotypes to 21.2% of the protein-coding Drosophila genes. Using secondary assays, we identified 6 new genes involved in asymmetric cell division and 23 novel genes regulating the Notch signalling pathway. By integrating our phenotypic results with protein interaction data, we constructed a genome-wide, functionally validated interaction network governing Notch signalling and asymmetric cell division. We used clustering algorithms to identify nuclear import pathways and the COP9 signallosome as Notch regulators. Our results show that complex developmental processes can be analysed on a genome-wide level and provide a unique resource for functional annotation of the Drosophila genome. PMID:19363474

  12. Genome-wide scan of healthy human connectome discovers SPON1 gene variant influencing dementia severity

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshad, Neda; Rajagopalan, Priya; Hua, Xue; Hibar, Derrek P.; Nir, Talia M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Green, Robert C.; Weiner, Michael W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Hansell, Narelle K.; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Weiner, Michael; Aisen, Paul; Weiner, Michael; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowski, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Liu, Enchi; Green, Robert C.; Montine, Tom; Petersen, Ronald; Aisen, Paul; Gamst, Anthony; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Beckett, Laurel; Harvey, Danielle; Gamst, Anthony; Donohue, Michael; Kornak, John; Jack, Clifford R.; Dale, Anders; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; DeCarli, Charles; Jagust, William; Bandy, Dan; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chet; Morris, John; Cairns, Nigel J.; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Trojanowki, J.Q.; Shaw, Les; Lee, Virginia M.Y.; Korecka, Magdalena; Toga, Arthur W.; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Saykin, Andrew J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Khachaturian, Zaven; Frank, Richard; Snyder, Peter J.; Molchan, Susan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Lind, Betty; Dolen, Sara; Schneider, Lon S.; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Petersen, Ronald; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Morris, John C.; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Leon, Sue; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; Romirowsky, Aliza; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; Kielb, Stephanie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J.; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Coleman, R. Edward; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Wolk, David; Smith, Charles D.; Jicha, Greg; Hardy, Peter; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Goldstein, Bonnie S.; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; King, Richard; Weiner, Myron; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Apostolova, Liana; Lu, Po H.; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin R.; Hake, Ann Marie; Matthews, Brandy R.; Herring, Scott; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Carson, Richard E.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek Robin; Feldman, Howard; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Kerwin, Diana; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Lipowski, Kristina; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Raymond Scott; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad; Frey, Meghan; Yesavage, Jerome; Taylor, Joy L.; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Sabbagh, Marwan; Belden, Christine; Jacobson, Sandra; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E.; Norbash, Alexander; Johnson, Patricia Lynn; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Wolday, Saba; Bwayo, Salome K.; Lerner, Alan; Hudson, Leon; Ogrocki, Paula; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; DeCarli, Charles; Kittur, Smita; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T.-Y.; Bartha, Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Fleisher, Adam; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Saykin, Andrew J.; Santulli, Robert B.; Schwartz, Eben S.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Longmire, Crystal Flynn; Spicer, Kenneth; Finger, Elizabeth; Rachinsky, Irina; Rogers, John; Kertesz, Andrew; Drost, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant connectivity is implicated in many neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia. However, other than a few disease-associated candidate genes, we know little about the degree to which genetics play a role in the brain networks; we know even less about specific genes that influence brain connections. Twin and family-based studies can generate estimates of overall genetic influences on a trait, but genome-wide association scans (GWASs) can screen the genome for specific variants influencing the brain or risk for disease. To identify the heritability of various brain connections, we scanned healthy young adult twins with high-field, high-angular resolution diffusion MRI. We adapted GWASs to screen the brain’s connectivity pattern, allowing us to discover genetic variants that affect the human brain’s wiring. The association of connectivity with the SPON1 variant at rs2618516 on chromosome 11 (11p15.2) reached connectome-wide, genome-wide significance after stringent statistical corrections were enforced, and it was replicated in an independent subsample. rs2618516 was shown to affect brain structure in an elderly population with varying degrees of dementia. Older people who carried the connectivity variant had significantly milder clinical dementia scores and lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease. As a posthoc analysis, we conducted GWASs on several organizational and topological network measures derived from the matrices to discover variants in and around genes associated with autism (MACROD2), development (NEDD4), and mental retardation (UBE2A) significantly associated with connectivity. Connectome-wide, genome-wide screening offers substantial promise to discover genes affecting brain connectivity and risk for brain diseases. PMID:23471985

  13. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify three loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangdong; Invernizzi, Pietro; Lu, Yue; Kosoy, Roman; Lu, Yan; Bianchi, Ilaria; Podda, Mauro; Xu, Chun; Xie, Gang; Macciardi, Fabio; Selmi, Carlo; Lupoli, Sara; Shigeta, Russell; Ransom, Michael; Lleo, Ana; Lee, Annette T; Mason, Andrew L; Myers, Robert P; Peltekian, Kevork M; Ghent, Cameron N; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Zuin, Massimo; Rosina, Floriano; Borghesio, Elisabetta; Floreani, Annarosa; Lazzari, Roberta; Niro, Grazia; Andriulli, Angelo; Muratori, Luigi; Muratori, Paolo; Almasio, Piero L; Andreone, Pietro; Margotti, Marzia; Brunetto, Maurizia; Coco, Barbara; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria C; Marra, Fabio; Pisano, Alessandro; Rigamonti, Cristina; Colombo, Massimo; Marzioni, Marco; Benedetti, Antonio; Fabris, Luca; Strazzabosco, Mario; Portincasa, Piero; Palmieri, Vincenzo O; Tiribelli, Claudio; Croce, Lory; Bruno, Savino; Rossi, Sonia; Vinci, Maria; Prisco, Cleofe; Mattalia, Alberto; Toniutto, Pierluigi; Picciotto, Antonio; Galli, Andrea; Ferrari, Carlo; Colombo, Silvia; Casella, Giovanni; Morini, Lorenzo; Caporaso, Nicola; Colli, Agostino; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Montanari, Renzo; Gregersen, Peter K; Heathcote, E Jenny; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Amos, Christopher I; Gershwin, M Eric; Seldin, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide association screen for primary biliary cirrhosis risk alleles was performed in an Italian cohort. The results from the Italian cohort replicated IL12A and IL12RB associations, and a combined meta-analysis using a Canadian dataset identified newly associated loci at SPIB (P = 7.9 × 10–11, odds ratio (OR) = 1.46), IRF5-TNPO3 (P = 2.8 × 10–10, OR = 1.63) and 17q12-21 (P = 1.7 × 10–10, OR = 1.38). PMID:20639880

  14. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Iain; Lazaridis, Iosif; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick; Roodenberg, Songül Alpaslan; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fernandes, Daniel; Novak, Mario; Sirak, Kendra; Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R; Llamas, Bastien; Dryomov, Stanislav; Pickrell, Joseph; Arsuaga, Juan Luís; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald; Gerritsen, Fokke; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Lozano, Marina; Meller, Harald; Mochalov, Oleg; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Guerra, Manuel A Rojo; Roodenberg, Jacob; Vergès, Josep Maria; Krause, Johannes; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt W; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Haak, Wolfgang; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2015-12-24

    Ancient DNA makes it possible to observe natural selection directly by analysing samples from populations before, during and after adaptation events. Here we report a genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA, capitalizing on the largest ancient DNA data set yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians who lived between 6500 and 300 bc, including 163 with newly reported data. The new samples include, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide ancient DNA from Anatolian Neolithic farmers, whose genetic material we obtained by extracting from petrous bones, and who we show were members of the population that was the source of Europe's first farmers. We also report a transect of the steppe region in Samara between 5600 and 300 bc, which allows us to identify admixture into the steppe from at least two external sources. We detect selection at loci associated with diet, pigmentation and immunity, and two independent episodes of selection on height. PMID:26595274

  15. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians

    PubMed Central

    Mathieson, Iain; Lazaridis, Iosif; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick; Roodenberg, Songül Alpaslan; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fernandes, Daniel; Novak, Mario; Sirak, Kendra; Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R.; Llamas, Bastien; Dryomov, Stanislav; Pickrel, Joseph; Arsuaga, Juan Luís; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald; Gerritsen, Fokke; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Lozano, Marina; Meller, Harald; Mochalov, Oleg; Moiseyev, Vayacheslav; Rojo Guerra, Manuel A.; Roodenberg, Jacob; Vergès, Josep Maria; Krause, Johannes; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt W.; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Haak, Wolfgang; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA makes it possible to directly witness natural selection by analyzing samples from populations before, during and after adaptation events. Here we report the first scan for selection using ancient DNA, capitalizing on the largest genome-wide dataset yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians dating to between 6500 and 1000 BCE, including 163 with newly reported data. The new samples include the first genome-wide data from the Anatolian Neolithic culture whose genetic material we extracted from the DNA-rich petrous bone and who we show were members of the population that was the source of Europe’s first farmers. We also report a complete transect of the steppe region in Samara between 5500 and 1200 BCE that allows us to recognize admixture from at least two external sources into steppe populations during this period. We detect selection at loci associated with diet, pigmentation and immunity, and two independent episodes of selection on height. PMID:26595274

  16. Genome-Wide Significant Loci: How Important Are They?

    PubMed Central

    Björkegren, Johan L.M.; Kovacic, Jason C.; Dudley, Joel T.; Schadt, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been extensively used to study common complex diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD), revealing 153 suggestive CAD loci, of which at least 46 have been validated as having genome-wide significance. However, these loci collectively explain <10% of the genetic variance in CAD. Thus, we must address the key question of what factors constitute the remaining 90% of CAD heritability. We review possible limitations of GWAS, and contextually consider some candidate CAD loci identified by this method. Looking ahead, we propose systems genetics as a complementary approach to unlocking the CAD heritability and etiology. Systems genetics builds network models of relevant molecular processes by combining genetic and genomic datasets to ultimately identify key “drivers” of disease. By leveraging systems-based genetic approaches, we can help reveal the full genetic basis of common complex disorders, enabling novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities. PMID:25720628

  17. Genome-wide association study of schizophrenia in Ashkenazi Jews.

    PubMed

    Goes, Fernando S; McGrath, John; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Wolyniec, Paula; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Ruczinski, Ingo; Nestadt, Gerald; Kenny, Eimear E; Vacic, Vladimir; Peters, Inga; Lencz, Todd; Darvasi, Ariel; Mulle, Jennifer G; Warren, Stephen T; Pulver, Ann E

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a common, clinically heterogeneous disorder associated with lifelong morbidity and early mortality. Several genetic variants associated with schizophrenia have been identified, but the majority of the heritability remains unknown. In this study, we report on a case-control sample of Ashkenazi Jews (AJ), a founder population that may provide additional insights into genetic etiology of schizophrenia. We performed a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) of 592 cases and 505 controls of AJ ancestry ascertained in the US. Subsequently, we performed a meta-analysis with an Israeli AJ sample of 913 cases and 1640 controls, followed by a meta-analysis and polygenic risk scoring using summary results from Psychiatric GWAS Consortium 2 schizophrenia study. The U.S. AJ sample showed strong evidence of polygenic inheritance (pseudo-R(2) ∼9.7%) and a SNP-heritability estimate of 0.39 (P = 0.00046). We found no genome-wide significant associations in the U.S. sample or in the combined US/Israeli AJ meta-analysis of 1505 cases and 2145 controls. The strongest AJ specific associations (P-values in 10(-6) -10(-7) range) were in the 22q 11.2 deletion region and included the genes TBX1, GLN1, and COMT. Supportive evidence (meta P < 1 × 10(-4) ) was also found for several previously identified genome-wide significant findings, including the HLA region, CNTN4, IMMP2L, and GRIN2A. The meta-analysis of the U.S. sample with the PGC2 results provided initial genome-wide significant evidence for six new loci. Among the novel potential susceptibility genes is PEPD, a gene involved in proline metabolism, which is associated with a Mendelian disorder characterized by developmental delay and cognitive deficits. PMID:26198764

  18. A genome-wide scan for preeclampsia in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Lachmeijer, A M; Arngrímsson, R; Bastiaans, E J; Frigge, M L; Pals, G; Sigurdardóttir, S; Stéfansson, H; Pálsson, B; Nicolae, D; Kong, A; Aarnoudse, J G; Gulcher, J R; Dekker, G A; ten Kate, L P; Stéfansson, K

    2001-10-01

    Preeclampsia, hallmarked by de novo hypertension and proteinuria in pregnancy, has a familial tendency. Recently, a large Icelandic genome-wide scan provided evidence for a maternal susceptibility locus for preeclampsia on chromosome 2p13 which was confirmed by a genome scan from Australia and New Zealand (NZ). The current study reports on a genome-wide scan of Dutch affected sib-pair families. In total 67 Dutch affected sib-pair families, comprising at least two siblings with proteinuric preeclampsia, eclampsia or HELLP-syndrome, were typed for 293 polymorphic markers throughout the genome and linkage analysis was performed. The highest allele sharing lod score of 1.99 was seen on chromosome 12q at 109.5 cM. Two peaks overlapped in the same regions between the Dutch and Icelandic genome-wide scan at chromosome 3p and chromosome 15q. No overlap was seen on 2p. Re-analysis in 38 families without HELLP-syndrome (preeclampsia families) and 34 families with at least one sibling with HELLP syndrome (HELLP families), revealed two peaks with suggestive evidence for linkage in the non-HELLP families on chromosome 10q (lod score 2.38, D10S1432, 93.9 cM) and 22q (lod score 2.41, D22S685, 32.4 cM). The peak on 12q appeared to be associated with HELLP syndrome; it increased to a lod score of 2.1 in the HELLP families and almost disappeared in the preeclampsia families. A nominal peak on chromosome 11 in the preeclampsia families showed overlap with the second highest peak in the Australian/NZ study. Results from our Dutch genome-wide scan indicate that HELLP syndrome might have a different genetic background than preeclampsia. PMID:11781687

  19. Genome-Wide Detection and Analysis of Multifunctional Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pritykin, Yuri; Ghersi, Dario; Singh, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Many genes can play a role in multiple biological processes or molecular functions. Identifying multifunctional genes at the genome-wide level and studying their properties can shed light upon the complexity of molecular events that underpin cellular functioning, thereby leading to a better understanding of the functional landscape of the cell. However, to date, genome-wide analysis of multifunctional genes (and the proteins they encode) has been limited. Here we introduce a computational approach that uses known functional annotations to extract genes playing a role in at least two distinct biological processes. We leverage functional genomics data sets for three organisms—H. sapiens, D. melanogaster, and S. cerevisiae—and show that, as compared to other annotated genes, genes involved in multiple biological processes possess distinct physicochemical properties, are more broadly expressed, tend to be more central in protein interaction networks, tend to be more evolutionarily conserved, and are more likely to be essential. We also find that multifunctional genes are significantly more likely to be involved in human disorders. These same features also hold when multifunctionality is defined with respect to molecular functions instead of biological processes. Our analysis uncovers key features about multifunctional genes, and is a step towards a better genome-wide understanding of gene multifunctionality. PMID:26436655

  20. Genome-Wide Detection and Analysis of Multifunctional Genes.

    PubMed

    Pritykin, Yuri; Ghersi, Dario; Singh, Mona

    2015-10-01

    Many genes can play a role in multiple biological processes or molecular functions. Identifying multifunctional genes at the genome-wide level and studying their properties can shed light upon the complexity of molecular events that underpin cellular functioning, thereby leading to a better understanding of the functional landscape of the cell. However, to date, genome-wide analysis of multifunctional genes (and the proteins they encode) has been limited. Here we introduce a computational approach that uses known functional annotations to extract genes playing a role in at least two distinct biological processes. We leverage functional genomics data sets for three organisms--H. sapiens, D. melanogaster, and S. cerevisiae--and show that, as compared to other annotated genes, genes involved in multiple biological processes possess distinct physicochemical properties, are more broadly expressed, tend to be more central in protein interaction networks, tend to be more evolutionarily conserved, and are more likely to be essential. We also find that multifunctional genes are significantly more likely to be involved in human disorders. These same features also hold when multifunctionality is defined with respect to molecular functions instead of biological processes. Our analysis uncovers key features about multifunctional genes, and is a step towards a better genome-wide understanding of gene multifunctionality. PMID:26436655

  1. Genome-wide association study of periodontal pathogen colonization.

    PubMed

    Divaris, K; Monda, K L; North, K E; Olshan, A F; Lange, E M; Moss, K; Barros, S P; Beck, J D; Offenbacher, S

    2012-07-01

    Pathological shifts of the human microbiome are characteristic of many diseases, including chronic periodontitis. To date, there is limited evidence on host genetic risk loci associated with periodontal pathogen colonization. We conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) study among 1,020 white participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, whose periodontal diagnosis ranged from healthy to severe chronic periodontitis, and for whom "checkerboard" DNA-DNA hybridization quantification of 8 periodontal pathogens was performed. We examined 3 traits: "high red" and "high orange" bacterial complexes, and "high" Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) colonization. Genotyping was performed on the Affymetrix 6.0 platform. Imputation to 2.5 million markers was based on HapMap II-CEU, and a multiple-test correction was applied (genome-wide threshold of p < 5 × 10(-8)). We detected no genome-wide significant signals. However, 13 loci, including KCNK1, FBXO38, UHRF2, IL33, RUNX2, TRPS1, CAMTA1, and VAMP3, provided suggestive evidence (p < 5 × 10(-6)) of association. All associations reported for "red" and "orange" complex microbiota, but not for Aa, had the same effect direction in a second sample of 123 African-American participants. None of these polymorphisms was associated with periodontitis diagnosis. Investigations replicating these findings may lead to an improved understanding of the complex nature of host-microbiome interactions that characterizes states of health and disease. PMID:22699663

  2. Genome-wide polymorphisms show unexpected targets of natural selection.

    PubMed

    Pespeni, Melissa H; Garfield, David A; Manier, Mollie K; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2012-04-01

    Natural selection can act on all the expressed genes of an individual, leaving signatures of genetic differentiation or diversity at many loci across the genome. New power to assay these genome-wide effects of selection comes from associating multi-locus patterns of polymorphism with gene expression and function. Here, we performed one of the first genome-wide surveys in a marine species, comparing purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, from two distant locations along the species' wide latitudinal range. We examined 9112 polymorphic loci from upstream non-coding and coding regions of genes for signatures of selection with respect to gene function and tissue- and ontogenetic gene expression. We found that genetic differentiation (F(ST)) varied significantly across functional gene classes. The strongest enrichment occurred in the upstream regions of E3 ligase genes, enzymes known to regulate protein abundance during development and environmental stress. We found enrichment for high heterozygosity in genes directly involved in immune response, particularly NALP genes, which mediate pro-inflammatory signals during bacterial infection. We also found higher heterozygosity in immune genes in the southern population, where disease incidence and pathogen diversity are greater. Similar to the major histocompatibility complex in mammals, balancing selection may enhance genetic diversity in the innate immune system genes of this invertebrate. Overall, our results show that how genome-wide polymorphism data coupled with growing databases on gene function and expression can combine to detect otherwise hidden signals of selection in natural populations. PMID:21993504

  3. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshis, Erin; Baumert, Jens; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Marciante, Kristin; Meirelles, Osorio; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Yu, Lei; Bandinelli, Stefania; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bennett, David A.; Boomsma, Dorret; Cannas, Alessandra; Coker, Laura H.; de Geus, Eco; De Jager, Philip L.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Purcell, Shaun; Hu, Frank B.; Rimma, Eric B.; Hunter, David J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary; Rice, Kenneth; Penman, Alan D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Emeny, Rebecca; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Kardia, Sharon; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Koenen, Karestan; Kraft, Peter; Kuningas, Maris; Massaro, Joseph M.; Melzer, David; Mulas, Antonella; Mulder, Cornelis L.; Murray, Anna; Oostra, Ben A.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Petersmann, Astrid; Pilling, Luke C.; Psaty, Bruce; Rawal, Rajesh; Reiman, Eric M.; Schulz, Andrea; Shulman, Joshua M.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Albert V.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Völzke, Henry; Widen, Elisabeth; Yaffe, Kristine; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cucca, Francesco; Harris, Tamara; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Llewellyn, David J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Tanaka, Toshiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms. Methods In this genome-wide association study, we combined the results of 17 population-based studies assessing depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Replication of the independent top hits (p < 1 × 10−5) was performed in five studies assessing depressive symptoms with other instruments. In addition, we performed a combined meta-analysis of all 22 discovery and replication studies. Results The discovery sample comprised 34,549 individuals (mean age of 66.5) and no loci reached genome-wide significance (lowest p = 1.05 × 10−7). Seven independent single nucleotide polymorphisms were considered for replication. In the replication set (n = 16,709), we found suggestive association of one single nucleotide polymorphism with depressive symptoms (rs161645, 5q21, p = 9.19 × 10−3). This 5q21 region reached genome-wide significance (p = 4.78 × 10−8) in the overall meta-analysis combining discovery and replication studies (n = 51,258). Conclusions The results suggest that only a large sample comprising more than 50,000 subjects may be sufficiently powered to detect genes for depressive symptoms. PMID:23290196

  4. Genome-wide association discoveries of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Lu, Lingeng; Tan, Yunlong; Pan, Xinghua; Cai, Yiqiang; Wang, Xiaoping; Hong, Jiang; Zhong, Chunlong; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Xiang-yang; Vanderlinden, Lauren A.; Tabakoff, Boris; Luo, Xingguang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report the genome-wide significant and/or replicable risk variants for alcohol dependence and explore their potential biological functions. Methods We searched in PubMed for all genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of alcohol dependence. The following three types of the results were extracted: (1) genome-wide significant associations in an individual sample, the combined samples, or the meta-analysis (p<5×10−8); (2) top-ranked associations in an individual sample (p<10−5) that were nominally replicated in other samples (p<0.05); and (3) nominally replicable associations across at least three independent GWAS samples (p<0.05). These results were meta-analyzed. cis-eQTLs in human, RNA expression in rat and mouse brain and bioinformatics properties of all of these risk variants were analyzed. Results The variants located within ADH cluster were significantly associated with alcohol dependence at genome-wide level (p<5×10−8) in at least one sample. Some associations with the ADH cluster were replicable across six independent GWAS samples. The variants located within or near SERINC2, KIAA0040, MREG-PECR or PKNOX2 were significantly associated with alcohol dependence at genome-wide level (p<5×10−8) in meta-analysis or combined samples, and these associations were replicable across at least one sample. The associations with the variants within NRD1, GPD1L-CMTM8 or MAP3K9-PCNX were suggestive (5×10−8

  5. Genome-wide assessment of Parkinson's disease in a Southern Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Bandrés-Ciga, Sara; Price, Timothy Ryan; Barrero, Francisco Javier; Escamilla-Sevilla, Francisco; Pelegrina, Javier; Arepalli, Sampath; Hernández, Dena; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Cervilla, Jorge; Rivera, Margarita; Rivera, Alberto; Ding, Jing-Hui; Vives, Francisco; Nalls, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Durán, Raquel

    2016-09-01

    Here, we set out to study the genetic architecture of Parkinson's disease (PD) through a Genome-Wide Association Study in a Southern Spanish population. About 240 PD cases and 192 controls were genotyped on the NeuroX array. We estimated genetic variation associated with PD risk and age at onset (AAO). Risk profile analyses for PD and AAO were performed using a weighted genetic risk score. Total heritability was estimated by genome-wide complex trait analysis. Rare variants were screened with single-variant and burden tests. We also screened for variation in known PD genes. Finally, we explored runs of homozygosity and structural genomic variations. We replicate PD association (uncorrected p-value < 0.05) at the following loci: ACMSD/TMEM163, MAPT, STK39, MIR4697, and SREBF/RAI1. Subjects in the highest genetic risk score quintile showed significantly increased risk of PD versus the lowest quintile (odds ratio = 3.6, p-value < 4e(-7)), but no significant difference in AAO. We found evidence of runs of homozygosity in 2 PD-associated regions: one intersecting the HLA-DQB1 gene in 6 patients and 1 control; and another intersecting the GBA-SYT11 gene in PD case. The GBA N370S and the LRRK2 G2019S variants were found in 8 and 7 cases, respectively, replicating previous work. A structural variant was found in 1 case in the PARK2 gene locus. This current work represents a comprehensive assessment at a genome-wide level characterizing a novel population in PD genetics. PMID:27393345

  6. A genome-wide DNA methylation study in colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We performed a genome-wide scan of 27,578 CpG loci covering 14,475 genes to identify differentially methylated loci (DML) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Methods We used Illumina's Infinium methylation assay in paired DNA samples extracted from 24 fresh frozen CRC tissues and their corresponding normal colon tissues from 24 consecutive diagnosed patients at a tertiary medical center. Results We found a total of 627 DML in CRC covering 513 genes, of which 535 are novel DML covering 465 genes. We also validated the Illumina Infinium methylation data for top-ranking genes by non-bisulfite conversion q-PCR-based methyl profiler assay in a subset of the same samples. We also carried out integration of genome-wide copy number and expression microarray along with methylation profiling to see the functional effect of methylation. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) showed that among the major "gene sets" that are hypermethylated in CRC are the sets: "inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by G-protein signaling", "Rac guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity", "regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway" and "estrogen receptor activity". Two-level nested cross validation showed that DML-based predictive models may offer reasonable sensitivity (around 89%), specificity (around 95%), positive predictive value (around 95%) and negative predictive value (around 89%), suggesting that these markers may have potential clinical application. Conclusion Our genome-wide methylation study in CRC clearly supports most of the previous findings; additionally we found a large number of novel DML in CRC tissue. If confirmed in future studies, these findings may lead to identification of genomic markers for potential clinical application. PMID:21699707

  7. Voxelwise genome-wide association study (vGWAS)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jason L.; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Ho, April J.; Leow, Alex D.; Toga, Arthur W.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Foroud, Tatiana; Pankratz, Nathan; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Craig, David W.; Gerber, Jill D.; Allen, April N.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; DeChairo, Bryan M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the human brain is highly heritable, and is thought to be influenced by many common genetic variants, many of which are currently unknown. Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics have allowed collection of both highly detailed structural brain scans and genome-wide genotype information. This wealth of information presents a new opportunity to find the genes influencing brain structure. Here we explore the relation between 448,293 single nucleotide polymorphisms in each of 31,622 voxels of the entire brain across 740 elderly subjects (mean age±s.d.: 75.52±6.82 years; 438 male) including subjects with Alzheimer's disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and healthy elderly controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We used tensor-based morphometry to measure individual differences in brain structure at the voxel level relative to a study-specific template based on healthy elderly subjects. We then conducted a genome-wide association at each voxel to identify genetic variants of interest. By studying only the most associated variant at each voxel, we developed a novel method to address the multiple comparisons problem and computational burden associated with the unprecedented amount of data. No variant survived the strict significance criterion, but several genes worthy of further exploration were identified, including CSMD2 and CADPS2. These genes have high relevance to brain structure. This is the first voxelwise genome wide association study to our knowledge, and offers a novel method to discover genetic influences on brain structure. PMID:20171287

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of Metabolic Syndrome in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seok Won; Chung, Myungguen; Park, Soo-Jung; Cho, Seong Beom

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (METS) is a disorder of energy utilization and storage and increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To identify the genetic risk factors of METS, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 2,657 cases and 5,917 controls in Korean populations. As a result, we could identify 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with genome-wide significance level p-values (<5 × 10-8), 8 SNPs with genome-wide suggestive p-values (5 × 10-8 ≤ p < 1 × 10-5), and 2 SNPs of more functional variants with borderline p-values (5 × 10-5 ≤ p < 1 × 10-4). On the other hand, the multiple correction criteria of conventional GWASs exclude false-positive loci, but simultaneously, they discard many true-positive loci. To reconsider the discarded true-positive loci, we attempted to include the functional variants (nonsynonymous SNPs [nsSNPs] and expression quantitative trait loci [eQTL]) among the top 5,000 SNPs based on the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by genotypic variance. In total, 159 eQTLs and 18 nsSNPs were presented in the top 5,000 SNPs. Although they should be replicated in other independent populations, 6 eQTLs and 2 nsSNP loci were located in the molecular pathways of LPL, APOA5, and CHRM2, which were the significant or suggestive loci in the METS GWAS. Conclusively, our approach using the conventional GWAS, reconsidering functional variants and pathway-based interpretation, suggests a useful method to understand the GWAS results of complex traits and can be expanded in other genomewide association studies. PMID:25705157

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of Parity in Bangladeshi Women

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Argos, Maria; Pierce, Brandon L.; Tong, Lin; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-01-01

    Human fertility is a complex trait determined by gene-environment interactions in which genetic factors represent a significant component. To better understand inter-individual variability in fertility, we performed one of the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of common fertility phenotypes, lifetime number of pregnancies and number of children in a developing country population. The fertility phenotype data and DNA samples were obtained at baseline recruitment from individuals participating in a large prospective cohort study in Bangladesh. GWAS analyses of fertility phenotypes were conducted among 1,686 married women. One SNP on chromosome 4 was non-significantly associated with number of children at P <10-7 and number of pregnancies at P <10-6. This SNP is located in a region without a gene within 1 Mb. One SNP on chromosome 6 was non-significantly associated with extreme number of children at P <10-6. The closest gene to this SNP is HDGFL1, a hepatoma-derived growth factor. When we excluded hormonal contraceptive users, a SNP on chromosome 5 was non-significantly associated at P <10-5 for number of children and number of pregnancies. This SNP is located near C5orf64, an open reading frame, and ZSWIM6, a zinc ion binding gene. We also estimated the heritability of these phenotypes from our genotype data using GCTA (Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis) for number of children (hg2 = 0.149, SE = 0.24, p-value = 0.265) and number of pregnancies (hg2 = 0.007, SE = 0.22, p-value = 0.487). Our genome-wide association study and heritability estimates of number of pregnancies and number of children in Bangladesh did not confer strong evidence of common variants for parity variation. However, our results suggest that future studies may want to consider the role of 3 notable SNPs in their analysis. PMID:25742292

  10. Genome-wide association study of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S E; Yu, D; Scharf, J M; Neale, B M; Fagerness, J A; Mathews, C A; Arnold, P D; Evans, P D; Gamazon, E R; Davis, L K; Osiecki, L; McGrath, L; Haddad, S; Crane, J; Hezel, D; Illman, C; Mayerfeld, C; Konkashbaev, A; Liu, C; Pluzhnikov, A; Tikhomirov, A; Edlund, C K; Rauch, S L; Moessner, R; Falkai, P; Maier, W; Ruhrmann, S; Grabe, H-J; Lennertz, L; Wagner, M; Bellodi, L; Cavallini, M C; Richter, M A; Cook, E H; Kennedy, J L; Rosenberg, D; Stein, D J; Hemmings, S M J; Lochner, C; Azzam, A; Chavira, D A; Fournier, E; Garrido, H; Sheppard, B; Umaña, P; Murphy, D L; Wendland, J R; Veenstra-VanderWeele, J; Denys, D; Blom, R; Deforce, D; Van Nieuwerburgh, F; Westenberg, H G M; Walitza, S; Egberts, K; Renner, T; Miguel, E C; Cappi, C; Hounie, A G; Conceição do Rosário, M; Sampaio, A S; Vallada, H; Nicolini, H; Lanzagorta, N; Camarena, B; Delorme, R; Leboyer, M; Pato, C N; Pato, M T; Voyiaziakis, E; Heutink, P; Cath, D C; Posthuma, D; Smit, J H; Samuels, J; Bienvenu, O J; Cullen, B; Fyer, A J; Grados, M A; Greenberg, B D; McCracken, J T; Riddle, M A; Wang, Y; Coric, V; Leckman, J F; Bloch, M; Pittenger, C; Eapen, V; Black, D W; Ophoff, R A; Strengman, E; Cusi, D; Turiel, M; Frau, F; Macciardi, F; Gibbs, J R; Cookson, M R; Singleton, A; Hardy, J; Crenshaw, A T; Parkin, M A; Mirel, D B; Conti, D V; Purcell, S; Nestadt, G; Hanna, G L; Jenike, M A; Knowles, J A; Cox, N; Pauls, D L

    2013-07-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, debilitating neuropsychiatric illness with complex genetic etiology. The International OCD Foundation Genetics Collaborative (IOCDF-GC) is a multi-national collaboration established to discover the genetic variation predisposing to OCD. A set of individuals affected with DSM-IV OCD, a subset of their parents, and unselected controls, were genotyped with several different Illumina SNP microarrays. After extensive data cleaning, 1465 cases, 5557 ancestry-matched controls and 400 complete trios remained, with a common set of 469,410 autosomal and 9657 X-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ancestry-stratified case-control association analyses were conducted for three genetically-defined subpopulations and combined in two meta-analyses, with and without the trio-based analysis. In the case-control analysis, the lowest two P-values were located within DLGAP1 (P=2.49 × 10(-6) and P=3.44 × 10(-6)), a member of the neuronal postsynaptic density complex. In the trio analysis, rs6131295, near BTBD3, exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold with a P-value=3.84 × 10(-8). However, when trios were meta-analyzed with the case-control samples, the P-value for this variant was 3.62 × 10(-5), losing genome-wide significance. Although no SNPs were identified to be associated with OCD at a genome-wide significant level in the combined trio-case-control sample, a significant enrichment of methylation QTLs (P<0.001) and frontal lobe expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) (P=0.001) was observed within the top-ranked SNPs (P<0.01) from the trio-case-control analysis, suggesting these top signals may have a broad role in gene expression in the brain, and possibly in the etiology of OCD. PMID:22889921

  11. Genome-wide mapping of DNA hydroxymethylation in osteoarthritic chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sarah E. B.; Li, Ye Henry; Wong, Wing H.; Bhutani, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine genome-wide 5hmC distribution in osteoarthritic (OA) and normal chondrocytes to investigate the effect on OA-specific gene expression. Methods Cartilage was obtained from OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty or control patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Genome-wide sequencing of 5hmC-enriched DNA (5hmC-seq) was performed for a small cohort of normal and OA chondrocytes to identify differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DhMRs) in OA chondrocytes. 5hmC-seq data was intersected with global OA gene expression data to define subsets of genes and pathways potentially affected by increased 5hmC levels in OA chondrocytes. Results 70591 DhMRs were identified in OA chondrocytes compared to normal chondrocytes, 44288 (63%) of which were increased in OA chondrocytes. The majority of DhMRs (66%) were gained in gene bodies. Increased DhMRs were observed in ~50% of genes previously implicated in OA pathology including MMP3, LRP5, GDF5 and COL11A1. Furthermore, analyses of gene expression data revealed gene body gain of 5hmC appears to be preferentially associated with activated but not repressed genes in OA chondrocytes. Conclusion This study provides the first genome-wide profiling of 5hmC distribution in OA chondrocytes. We had previously reported a global increase in 5hmC levels in OA chondrocytes. Gain of 5hmC in the gene body is found to be characteristic of activated genes in OA chondrocytes, highlighting the influence of 5hmC as an epigenetic mark in OA. In addition, this study identifies multiple OA-associated genes that are potentially regulated either singularly by gain of DNA hydroxymethylation or in combination with loss of DNA methylation. PMID:25940674

  12. Genome-wide association study of parity in Bangladeshi women.

    PubMed

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Argos, Maria; Pierce, Brandon L; Tong, Lin; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-01-01

    Human fertility is a complex trait determined by gene-environment interactions in which genetic factors represent a significant component. To better understand inter-individual variability in fertility, we performed one of the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of common fertility phenotypes, lifetime number of pregnancies and number of children in a developing country population. The fertility phenotype data and DNA samples were obtained at baseline recruitment from individuals participating in a large prospective cohort study in Bangladesh. GWAS analyses of fertility phenotypes were conducted among 1,686 married women. One SNP on chromosome 4 was non-significantly associated with number of children at P <10(-7) and number of pregnancies at P <10(-6). This SNP is located in a region without a gene within 1 Mb. One SNP on chromosome 6 was non-significantly associated with extreme number of children at P <10(-6). The closest gene to this SNP is HDGFL1, a hepatoma-derived growth factor. When we excluded hormonal contraceptive users, a SNP on chromosome 5 was non-significantly associated at P <10(-5) for number of children and number of pregnancies. This SNP is located near C5orf64, an open reading frame, and ZSWIM6, a zinc ion binding gene. We also estimated the heritability of these phenotypes from our genotype data using GCTA (Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis) for number of children (hg2 = 0.149, SE = 0.24, p-value = 0.265) and number of pregnancies (hg2 = 0.007, SE = 0.22, p-value = 0.487). Our genome-wide association study and heritability estimates of number of pregnancies and number of children in Bangladesh did not confer strong evidence of common variants for parity variation. However, our results suggest that future studies may want to consider the role of 3 notable SNPs in their analysis. PMID:25742292

  13. [Genome-wide association study for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoji; Kou, Ikuyo; Scoliosis, Japan; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS)is a polygenic disease. Genome-wide association studies(GWASs)have been performed for a lot of polygenic diseases. For AIS, we conducted GWAS and identified the first AIS locus near LBX1. After the discovery, we have extended our study by increasing the numbers of subjects and SNPs. In total, our Japanese GWAS has identified four susceptibility genes. GWASs for AIS have also been performed in the USA and China, which identified one and three susceptibility genes, respectively. Here we review GWASs in Japan and abroad and functional analysis to clarify the pathomechanism of AIS. PMID:27013625

  14. Genome-wide profiling of alternative splicing in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Mitchell K.P.; Esiri, Margaret M.; Tan, Michelle G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a highly regulated process which generates transcriptome and proteome diversity through the skipping or inclusion of exons within gene loci. Identification of aberrant alternative splicing associated with human diseases has become feasible with the development of new genomic technologies and powerful bioinformatics. We have previously reported genome-wide gene alterations in the neocortex of a well-characterized cohort of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and matched elderly controls using a commercial exon microarray platform [1]. Here, we provide detailed description of analyses aimed at identifying differential alternative splicing events associated with AD. PMID:26484111

  15. Genome-wide association studies in diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Noah A; Huang, Lucy; Jewett, Ethan M; Szpiech, Zachary A; Jankovic, Ivana; Boehnke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified a large number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease phenotypes. As most GWA studies have been performed primarily in populations of European descent, this review examines the issues involved in extending consideration of GWA studies to diverse worldwide populations. Although challenges exist with such issues as imputation, admixture, and replication, investigation of diverse populations in GWA studies has significant potential to advance the project of mapping the genetic determinants of complex diseases for the human population as a whole. PMID:20395969

  16. [New insight of genome-wide association study (GWAS)].

    PubMed

    Hotta, Kikuko

    2013-02-01

    The number of obese patients is increasing in Japan, due to the westernization of lifestyle. Obesity, especially visceral fat obesity, is important for the development of metabolic syndrome. Genetic factors are important for the development of obesity as well as environmental factors. Importance of genetic factors of fat distribution is also reported. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed the obesity and fat distribution-related polymorphisms. GWAS will highlight a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms in the regulation of obesity and distribution of body fat. PMID:23631198

  17. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin; Zhao, Han; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Over the past several years, the field of reproductive medicine has witnessed great advances in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), leading to identification of several promising genes involved in hormone action, type 2 diabetes, and cell proliferation. This review summarizes the key findings and discusses their potential implications with regard to genetic mechanisms of PCOS. Limitations of GWAS are evaluated, emphasizing the understanding of the reasons for variability in results between individual studies. Root causes of misinterpretations of GWASs are also addressed. Finally, the impact of GWAS on future directions of multi- and interdisciplinary studies is discussed. PMID:27513023

  18. Longitudinal Genome-Wide Association of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Wei; Kähönen, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes; Lehtimäki, Terho; Peltonen, Leena; Raitakari, Olli T.; Salem, Rany M.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shaw, Marian; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Topol, Eric J.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Murray, Sarah S.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have pinpointed many loci associated with CVD risk factors in adults. It is unclear, however, if these loci predict trait levels at all ages, if they are associated with how a trait develops over time, or if they could be used to screen individuals who are pre-symptomatic to provide the opportunity for preventive measures before disease onset. We completed a genome-wide association study on participants in the longitudinal Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS) and have characterized the association between genetic factors and the development of CVD risk factors from childhood to adulthood. We report 7 genome-wide significant associations involving CVD risk factors, two of which have been previously reported. Top regions were tested for replication in the Young Finns Study (YF) and two associations strongly replicated: rs247616 in CETP with HDL levels (combined P = 9.7×10−24), and rs445925 at APOE with LDL levels (combined P = 8.7×10−19). We show that SNPs previously identified in adult cross-sectional studies tend to show age-independent effects in the BHS with effect sizes consistent with previous reports. Previously identified variants were associated with adult trait levels above and beyond those seen in childhood; however, variants with time-dependent effects were also promising predictors. This is the first GWA study to evaluate the role of common genetic variants in the development of CVD risk factors in children as they advance through adulthood and highlights the utility of using longitudinal studies to identify genetic predictors of adult traits in children. PMID:20838585

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study in Immunocompetent Patients with Delayed Hypersensitivity to Sulfonamide Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Dickey, Allison; Yale, Steven; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypersensitivity (HS) reactions to sulfonamide antibiotics occur uncommonly, but with potentially severe clinical manifestations. A familial predisposition to sulfonamide HS is suspected, but robust predictive genetic risk factors have yet to be identified. Strongly linked genetic polymorphisms have been used clinically as screening tests for other HS reactions prior to administration of high-risk drugs. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate for genetic risk of sulfonamide HS in the immunocompetent population using genome-wide association. Methods Ninety-one patients with symptoms after trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) attributable to “probable” drug HS based on medical record review and the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale, and 184 age- and sex-matched patients who tolerated a therapeutic course of TMP-SMX, were included in a genome-wide association study using both common and rare variant techniques. Additionally, two subgroups of HS patients with a more refined clinical phenotype (fever and rash; or fever, rash and eosinophilia) were evaluated separately. Results For the full dataset, no single nucleotide polymorphisms were suggestive of or reached genome-wide significance in the common variant analysis, nor was any genetic locus significant in the rare variant analysis. A single, possible gene locus association (COL12A1) was identified in the rare variant analysis for patients with both fever and rash, but the sample size was very small in this subgroup (n = 16), and this may be a false positive finding. No other significant associations were found for the subgroups. Conclusions No convincing genetic risk factors for sulfonamide HS were identified in this population. These negative findings may be due to challenges in accurately confirming the phenotype in exanthematous drug eruptions, or to unidentified gene-environment interactions influencing sulfonamide HS. PMID:27272151

  20. Ion Torrent sequencing for conducting genome-wide scans for mutation mapping analysis.

    PubMed

    Damerla, Rama Rao; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Li, You; Francis, Richard J B; Fatakia, Sarosh N; Lo, Cecilia W

    2014-04-01

    Mutation mapping in mice can be readily accomplished by genome wide segregation analysis of polymorphic DNA markers. In this study, we showed the efficacy of Ion Torrent next generation sequencing for conducting genome-wide scans to map and identify a mutation causing congenital heart disease in a mouse mutant, Bishu, recovered from a mouse mutagenesis screen. The Bishu mutant line generated in a C57BL/6J (B6) background was intercrossed with another inbred strain, C57BL/10J (B10), and the resulting B6/B10 hybrid offspring were intercrossed to generate mutants used for the mapping analysis. For each mutant sample, a panel of 123 B6/B10 polymorphic SNPs distributed throughout the mouse genome was PCR amplified, bar coded, and then pooled to generate a single library used for Ion Torrent sequencing. Sequencing carried out using the 314 chip yielded >600,000 usable reads. These were aligned and mapped using a custom bioinformatics pipeline. Each SNP was sequenced to a depth >500×, allowing accurate automated calling of the B6/B10 genotypes. This analysis mapped the mutation in Bishu to an interval on the proximal region of mouse chromosome 4. This was confirmed by parallel capillary sequencing of the 123 polymorphic SNPs. Further analysis of genes in the map interval identified a splicing mutation in Dnaic1(c.204+1G>A), an intermediate chain dynein, as the disease causing mutation in Bishu. Overall, our experience shows Ion Torrent amplicon sequencing is high throughput and cost effective for conducting genome-wide mapping analysis and is easily scalable for other high volume genotyping analyses. PMID:24306492

  1. FVGWAS: Fast voxelwise genome wide association analysis of large-scale imaging genetic data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meiyan; Nichols, Thomas; Huang, Chao; Yu, Yang; Lu, Zhaohua; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Feng, Qianjin; Zhu, Hongtu

    2015-09-01

    More and more large-scale imaging genetic studies are being widely conducted to collect a rich set of imaging, genetic, and clinical data to detect putative genes for complexly inherited neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Several major big-data challenges arise from testing genome-wide (NC>12 million known variants) associations with signals at millions of locations (NV~10(6)) in the brain from thousands of subjects (n~10(3)). The aim of this paper is to develop a Fast Voxelwise Genome Wide Association analysiS (FVGWAS) framework to efficiently carry out whole-genome analyses of whole-brain data. FVGWAS consists of three components including a heteroscedastic linear model, a global sure independence screening (GSIS) procedure, and a detection procedure based on wild bootstrap methods. Specifically, for standard linear association, the computational complexity is O (nNVNC) for voxelwise genome wide association analysis (VGWAS) method compared with O ((NC+NV)n(2)) for FVGWAS. Simulation studies show that FVGWAS is an efficient method of searching sparse signals in an extremely large search space, while controlling for the family-wise error rate. Finally, we have successfully applied FVGWAS to a large-scale imaging genetic data analysis of ADNI data with 708 subjects, 193,275voxels in RAVENS maps, and 501,584 SNPs, and the total processing time was 203,645s for a single CPU. Our FVGWAS may be a valuable statistical toolbox for large-scale imaging genetic analysis as the field is rapidly advancing with ultra-high-resolution imaging and whole-genome sequencing. PMID:26025292

  2. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in hepatoblastoma tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ximao; Liu, Baihui; Zheng, Shan; Dong, Kuiran; Dong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation has a crucial role in cancer biology. In the present study, a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in hepatoblastoma (HB) tissues was performed to verify differential methylation levels between HB and normal tissues. As alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has a critical role in HB, AFP methylation levels were also detected using pyrosequencing. Normal and HB liver tissue samples (frozen tissue) were obtained from patients with HB. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in these tissues was performed using an Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, and the results were confirmed with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip demonstrated distinctively less methylation in HB tissues than in non-tumor tissues. In addition, methylation enrichment was observed in positions near the transcription start site of AFP, which exhibited lower methylation levels in HB tissues than in non-tumor liver tissues. Lastly, a significant negative correlation was observed between AFP messenger RNA expression and DNA methylation percentage, using linear Pearson's R correlation coefficients. The present results demonstrate differential methylation levels between HB and normal tissues, and imply that aberrant methylation of AFP in HB could reflect HB development. Expansion of these findings could provide useful insight into HB biology. PMID:27446465

  3. Genome-wide association study of Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scharf, J M; Yu, D; Mathews, C A; Neale, B M; Stewart, S E; Fagerness, J A; Evans, P; Gamazon, E; Edlund, C K; Service, S K; Tikhomirov, A; Osiecki, L; Illmann, C; Pluzhnikov, A; Konkashbaev, A; Davis, L K; Han, B; Crane, J; Moorjani, P; Crenshaw, A T; Parkin, M A; Reus, V I; Lowe, T L; Rangel-Lugo, M; Chouinard, S; Dion, Y; Girard, S; Cath, D C; Smit, J H; King, R A; Fernandez, T V; Leckman, J F; Kidd, K K; Kidd, J R; Pakstis, A J; State, M W; Herrera, L D; Romero, R; Fournier, E; Sandor, P; Barr, C L; Phan, N; Gross-Tsur, V; Benarroch, F; Pollak, Y; Budman, C L; Bruun, R D; Erenberg, G; Naarden, A L; Lee, P C; Weiss, N; Kremeyer, B; Berrío, G B; Campbell, D D; Cardona Silgado, J C; Ochoa, W C; Mesa Restrepo, S C; Muller, H; Valencia Duarte, A V; Lyon, G J; Leppert, M; Morgan, J; Weiss, R; Grados, M A; Anderson, K; Davarya, S; Singer, H; Walkup, J; Jankovic, J; Tischfield, J A; Heiman, G A; Gilbert, D L; Hoekstra, P J; Robertson, M M; Kurlan, R; Liu, C; Gibbs, J R; Singleton, A; Hardy, J; Strengman, E; Ophoff, R A; Wagner, M; Moessner, R; Mirel, D B; Posthuma, D; Sabatti, C; Eskin, E; Conti, D V; Knowles, J A; Ruiz-Linares, A; Rouleau, G A; Purcell, S; Heutink, P; Oostra, B A; McMahon, W M; Freimer, N B; Cox, N J; Pauls, D L

    2013-06-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder that has one of the highest familial recurrence rates among neuropsychiatric diseases with complex inheritance. However, the identification of definitive TS susceptibility genes remains elusive. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TS in 1285 cases and 4964 ancestry-matched controls of European ancestry, including two European-derived population isolates, Ashkenazi Jews from North America and Israel and French Canadians from Quebec, Canada. In a primary meta-analysis of GWAS data from these European ancestry samples, no markers achieved a genome-wide threshold of significance (P<5 × 10(-8)); the top signal was found in rs7868992 on chromosome 9q32 within COL27A1 (P=1.85 × 10(-6)). A secondary analysis including an additional 211 cases and 285 controls from two closely related Latin American population isolates from the Central Valley of Costa Rica and Antioquia, Colombia also identified rs7868992 as the top signal (P=3.6 × 10(-7) for the combined sample of 1496 cases and 5249 controls following imputation with 1000 Genomes data). This study lays the groundwork for the eventual identification of common TS susceptibility variants in larger cohorts and helps to provide a more complete understanding of the full genetic architecture of this disorder. PMID:22889924

  4. Genome-Wide Patterns of Nucleotide Polymorphism in Domesticated Rice

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Ryan D; Boyko, Adam; Fledel-Alon, Adi; York, Thomas L; Polato, Nicholas R; Olsen, Kenneth M; Nielsen, Rasmus; McCouch, Susan R; Bustamante, Carlos D; Purugganan, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the oldest domesticated crop species in the world, having fed more people than any other plant in human history. We report the patterns of DNA sequence variation in rice and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, across 111 randomly chosen gene fragments, and use these to infer the evolutionary dynamics that led to the origins of rice. There is a genome-wide excess of high-frequency derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in O. sativa varieties, a pattern that has not been reported for other crop species. We developed several alternative models to explain contemporary patterns of polymorphisms in rice, including a (i) selectively neutral population bottleneck model, (ii) bottleneck plus migration model, (iii) multiple selective sweeps model, and (iv) bottleneck plus selective sweeps model. We find that a simple bottleneck model, which has been the dominant demographic model for domesticated species, cannot explain the derived nucleotide polymorphism site frequency spectrum in rice. Instead, a bottleneck model that incorporates selective sweeps, or a more complex demographic model that includes subdivision and gene flow, are more plausible explanations for patterns of variation in domesticated rice varieties. If selective sweeps are indeed the explanation for the observed nucleotide data of domesticated rice, it suggests that strong selection can leave its imprint on genome-wide polymorphism patterns, contrary to expectations that selection results only in a local signature of variation. PMID:17907810

  5. Genome-wide signals of positive selection in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Enard, David; Messer, Philipp W.; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2014-01-01

    The role of positive selection in human evolution remains controversial. On the one hand, scans for positive selection have identified hundreds of candidate loci, and the genome-wide patterns of polymorphism show signatures consistent with frequent positive selection. On the other hand, recent studies have argued that many of the candidate loci are false positives and that most genome-wide signatures of adaptation are in fact due to reduction of neutral diversity by linked deleterious mutations, known as background selection. Here we analyze human polymorphism data from the 1000 Genomes Project and detect signatures of positive selection once we correct for the effects of background selection. We show that levels of neutral polymorphism are lower near amino acid substitutions, with the strongest reduction observed specifically near functionally consequential amino acid substitutions. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions are associated with signatures of recent adaptation that should not be generated by background selection, such as unusually long and frequent haplotypes and specific distortions in the site frequency spectrum. We use forward simulations to argue that the observed signatures require a high rate of strongly adaptive substitutions near amino acid changes. We further demonstrate that the observed signatures of positive selection correlate better with the presence of regulatory sequences, as predicted by the ENCODE Project Consortium, than with the positions of amino acid substitutions. Our results suggest that adaptation was frequent in human evolution and provide support for the hypothesis of King and Wilson that adaptive divergence is primarily driven by regulatory changes. PMID:24619126

  6. Genome-wide association study of Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A; Evans, Patrick; Gamazon, Eric; Edlund, Christopher K.; Service, Susan; Tikhomirov, Anna; Osiecki, Lisa; Illmann, Cornelia; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Davis, Lea K; Han, Buhm; Crane, Jacquelyn; Moorjani, Priya; Crenshaw, Andrew T.; Parkin, Melissa A.; Reus, Victor I.; Lowe, Thomas L.; Rangel-Lugo, Martha; Chouinard, Sylvain; Dion, Yves; Girard, Simon; Cath, Danielle C; Smit, Jan H; King, Robert A.; Fernandez, Thomas; Leckman, James F.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Kidd, Judith R.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; State, Matthew; Herrera, Luis Diego; Romero, Roxana; Fournier, Eduardo; Sandor, Paul; Barr, Cathy L; Phan, Nam; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Benarroch, Fortu; Pollak, Yehuda; Budman, Cathy L.; Bruun, Ruth D.; Erenberg, Gerald; Naarden, Allan L; Lee, Paul C; Weiss, Nicholas; Kremeyer, Barbara; Berrío, Gabriel Bedoya; Campbell, Desmond; Silgado, Julio C. Cardona; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Restrepo, Sandra C. Mesa; Muller, Heike; Duarte, Ana V. Valencia; Lyon, Gholson J; Leppert, Mark; Morgan, Jubel; Weiss, Robert; Grados, Marco A.; Anderson, Kelley; Davarya, Sarah; Singer, Harvey; Walkup, John; Jankovic, Joseph; Tischfield, Jay A.; Heiman, Gary A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Robertson, Mary M.; Kurlan, Roger; Liu, Chunyu; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Strengman, Eric; Ophoff, Roel; Wagner, Michael; Moessner, Rainald; Mirel, Daniel B.; Posthuma, Danielle; Sabatti, Chiara; Eskin, Eleazar; Conti, David V.; Knowles, James A.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Rouleau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Heutink, Peter; Oostra, Ben A.; McMahon, William; Freimer, Nelson; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder that has one of the highest familial recurrence rates among neuropsychiatric diseases with complex inheritance. However, the identification of definitive TS susceptibility genes remains elusive. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TS in 1285 cases and 4964 ancestry-matched controls of European ancestry, including two European-derived population isolates, Ashkenazi Jews from North America and Israel, and French Canadians from Quebec, Canada. In a primary meta-analysis of GWAS data from these European ancestry samples, no markers achieved a genome-wide threshold of significance (p<5 × 10−8); the top signal was found in rs7868992 on chromosome 9q32 within COL27A1 (p=1.85 × 10−6). A secondary analysis including an additional 211 cases and 285 controls from two closely-related Latin-American population isolates from the Central Valley of Costa Rica and Antioquia, Colombia also identified rs7868992 as the top signal (p=3.6 × 10−7 for the combined sample of 1496 cases and 5249 controls following imputation with 1000 Genomes data). This study lays the groundwork for the eventual identification of common TS susceptibility variants in larger cohorts and helps to provide a more complete understanding of the full genetic architecture of this disorder. PMID:22889924

  7. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three psoriasis susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Philip E.; Nair, Rajan P.; Ellinghaus, Eva; Ding, Jun; Tejasvi, Trilokraj; Gudjonsson, Johann E.; Li, Yun; Weidinger, Stephan; Eberlein, Bernadette; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H. Erich; Kunz, Manfred; Ike, Robert; Krueger, Gerald G.; Bowcock, Anne M.; Mroweitz, Ulrich; Lim, Henry W.; Voorhees, John J.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Weichenthal, Michael; Franke, Andre; Rahman, Proton; Gladman, Dafna D.; Elder, James T.

    2010-01-01

    To identify novel psoriasis susceptibility loci, we carried out a meta-analysis of two recent genome-wide association studies 1,2, yielding a discovery sample of 1,831 cases and 2,546 controls. 102 of the most promising loci in the discovery analysis were followed up in a three-stage replication study using 4,064 cases and 4,685 controls from Michigan, Toronto, Newfoundland, and Germany. Association at a genome-wide level of significance for the combined discovery and replication samples was found for three genomic regions. One contains NOS2 (rs4795067, p = 4 × 10−11), another contains FBXL19 (rs10782001, p = 9 × 10−10), and a third contains PSMA6 and NFKBIA (rs12586317, p = 2 × 10−8). All three loci were also strongly associated with the subphenotypes of psoriatic arthritis and purely cutaneous psoriasis. Finally, we confirmed a recently identified3 association signal near RNF114. PMID:20953189

  8. Genome-wide gene-based association study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Chou; Liang, Yu-Jen; Chung, Chia-Min; Chen, Jia-Wei; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies, which analyzes hundreds of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms to identify disease susceptibility genes, are challenging because the work involves intensive computation and complex modeling. We propose a two-stage genome-wide association scanning procedure, consisting of a single-locus association scan for the first stage and a gene-based association scan for the second stage. Marginal effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms are examined by using the exact Armitage trend test or logistic regression, and gene effects are examined by using a p-value combination method. Compared with some existing single-locus and multilocus methods, the proposed method has the following merits: 1) convenient for definition of biologically meaningful regions, 2) powerful for detection of minor-effect genes, 3) helpful for alleviation of a multiple-testing problem, and 4) convenient for result interpretation. The method was applied to study Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 Problem 1 rheumatoid arthritis data, and strong association signals were found. The results show that the human major histocompatibility complex region is the most important genomic region associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, previously reported genes including PTPN22, C5, and IL2RB were confirmed; novel genes including HLA-DRA, BTNL2, C6orf10, NOTCH4, TAP2, and TNXB were identified by our analysis. PMID:20018002

  9. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Atzmon, Gil; Demerath, Ellen W.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kumari, Meena; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tranah, Gregory J.; Völker, Uwe; Yu, Lei; Arnold, Alice; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Biffar, Reiner; Buchman, Aron S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Couper, David; De Jager, Philip L.; Evans, Denis A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kocher, Thomas; Kuningas, Maris; Launer, Lenore J.; Lohman, Kurt K.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Mackenbach, Johan; Marciante, Kristin; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiman, Eric M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shardell, Michelle D.; Smith, Albert V.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Walston, Jeremy; Zillikens, M. Carola; Bandinelli, Stefania; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Bennett, David A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Liu, Yongmei; Murabito, Joanne M.; Newman, Anne B.; Tiemeier, Henning; Franceschini, Nora

    2011-01-01

    Human longevity and healthy aging show moderate heritability (20–50%). We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from nine studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium for two outcomes: a) all-cause mortality and b) survival free of major disease or death. No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was a genome-wide significant predictor of either outcome (p < 5 × 10−8). We found fourteen independent SNPs that predicted risk of death, and eight SNPs that predicted event-free survival (p < 10−5). These SNPs are in or near genes that are highly expressed in the brain (HECW2, HIP1, BIN2, GRIA1), genes involved in neural development and function (KCNQ4, LMO4, GRIA1, NETO1) and autophagy (ATG4C), and genes that are associated with risk of various diseases including cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to considerable overlap between the traits, pathway and network analysis corroborated these findings. These findings indicate that variation in genes involved in neurological processes may be an important factor in regulating aging free of major disease and achieving longevity. PMID:21782286

  10. Phenome-wide analysis of genome-wide polygenic scores.

    PubMed

    Krapohl, E; Euesden, J; Zabaneh, D; Pingault, J-B; Rimfeld, K; von Stumm, S; Dale, P S; Breen, G; O'Reilly, P F; Plomin, R

    2016-09-01

    Genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS), which aggregate the effects of thousands of DNA variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), have the potential to make genetic predictions for individuals. We conducted a systematic investigation of associations between GPS and many behavioral traits, the behavioral phenome. For 3152 unrelated 16-year-old individuals representative of the United Kingdom, we created 13 GPS from the largest GWAS for psychiatric disorders (for example, schizophrenia, depression and dementia) and cognitive traits (for example, intelligence, educational attainment and intracranial volume). The behavioral phenome included 50 traits from the domains of psychopathology, personality, cognitive abilities and educational achievement. We examined phenome-wide profiles of associations for the entire distribution of each GPS and for the extremes of the GPS distributions. The cognitive GPS yielded stronger predictive power than the psychiatric GPS in our UK-representative sample of adolescents. For example, education GPS explained variation in adolescents' behavior problems (~0.6%) and in educational achievement (~2%) but psychiatric GPS were associated with neither. Despite the modest effect sizes of current GPS, quantile analyses illustrate the ability to stratify individuals by GPS and opportunities for research. For example, the highest and lowest septiles for the education GPS yielded a 0.5 s.d. difference in mean math grade and a 0.25 s.d. difference in mean behavior problems. We discuss the usefulness and limitations of GPS based on adult GWAS to predict genetic propensities earlier in development. PMID:26303664

  11. Genome-wide identification of hypoxia-induced enhancer regions

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jessica L.; Randel, Melissa A.; Johnson, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a genome-wide method for de novo identification of enhancer regions. This approach enables massively parallel empirical investigation of DNA sequences that mediate transcriptional activation and provides a platform for discovery of regulatory modules capable of driving context-specific gene expression. The method links fragmented genomic DNA to the transcription of randomer molecule identifiers and measures the functional enhancer activity of the library by massively parallel sequencing. We transfected a Drosophila melanogaster library into S2 cells in normoxia and hypoxia, and assayed 4,599,881 genomic DNA fragments in parallel. The locations of the enhancer regions strongly correlate with genes up-regulated after hypoxia and previously described enhancers. Novel enhancer regions were identified and integrated with RNAseq data and transcription factor motifs to describe the hypoxic response on a genome-wide basis as a complex regulatory network involving multiple stress-response pathways. This work provides a novel method for high-throughput assay of enhancer activity and the genome-scale identification of 31 hypoxia-activated enhancers in Drosophila. PMID:26713262

  12. Advances in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Romi; Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    The covalent DNA modification of cytosine at position 5 (5-methylcytosine; 5mC) has emerged as an important epigenetic mark most commonly present in the context of CpG dinucleotides in mammalian cells. In pluripotent stem cells and plants, it is also found in non-CpG and CpNpG contexts, respectively. 5mC has important implications in a diverse set of biological processes, including transcriptional regulation. Aberrant DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of human ailments and thus is the focus of active investigation. Methods used for detecting DNA methylation have revolutionized our understanding of this epigenetic mark and provided new insights into its role in diverse biological functions. Here we describe recent technological advances in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and discuss their relative utility and drawbacks, providing specific examples from studies that have used these technologies for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis to address important biological questions. Finally, we discuss a newly identified covalent DNA modification, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), and speculate on its possible biological function, as well as describe a new methodology that can distinguish 5hmC from 5mC. PMID:20964631

  13. Measuring genome-wide nucleosome turnover using CATCH-IT.

    PubMed

    Teves, Sheila S; Deal, Roger B; Henikoff, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic interplay between DNA-binding proteins and nucleosomes underlies essential nuclear processes such as transcription, replication, and DNA repair. Manifestations of this interplay include the assembly, eviction, and replacement of nucleosomes. Hence, measurements of nucleosome turnover kinetics can lead to insights into the regulation of dynamic chromatin processes. In this chapter, we describe a genome-wide method for measuring nucleosome turnover that uses metabolic labeling followed by capture of newly synthesized histones, which we have termed Covalent Attachment of Tagged Histones to Capture and Identify Turnover (CATCH-IT). Although CATCH-IT can be used with any genome-wide mapping procedure, high-resolution profiling is attainable using paired-end sequencing of native chromatin. Our protocol also includes an efficient Solexa DNA sequencing library preparation protocol that can be used for single base-pair resolution mapping of both nucleosome and subnucleosomal particles. We not only describe the use of these protocols in the context of a Drosophila cell line but also provide the necessary changes for adaptation to other model systems. PMID:22929769

  14. Establishing an analytic pipeline for genome-wide DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle L; Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Wolen, Aaron R; Jackson-Cook, Colleen; Starkweather, Angela R; Lyon, Debra E; York, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    The need for research investigating DNA methylation (DNAm) in clinical studies has increased, leading to the evolution of new analytic methods to improve accuracy and reproducibility of the interpretation of results from these studies. The purpose of this article is to provide clinical researchers with a summary of the major data processing steps routinely applied in clinical studies investigating genome-wide DNAm using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip. In most studies, the primary goal of employing DNAm analysis is to identify differential methylation at CpG sites among phenotypic groups. Experimental design considerations are crucial at the onset to minimize bias from factors related to sample processing and avoid confounding experimental variables with non-biological batch effects. Although there are currently no de facto standard methods for analyzing these data, we review the major steps in processing DNAm data recommended by several research studies. We describe several variations available for clinical researchers to process, analyze, and interpret DNAm data. These insights are applicable to most types of genome-wide DNAm array platforms and will be applicable for the next generation of DNAm array technologies (e.g., the 850K array). Selection of the DNAm analytic pipeline followed by investigators should be guided by the research question and supported by recently published methods. PMID:27127542

  15. A Pooled Genome-Wide Association Study of Asperger Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Varun; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Murphy, Laura; Chan, Allen; Craig, Ian; Mallya, Uma; Lakatošová, Silvia; Rehnstrom, Karola; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie; Fisher, Simon E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, alongside the presence of unusually repetitive, restricted interests and stereotyped behaviour. Individuals with AS have no delay in cognitive and language development. It is a subset of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), which are highly heritable and has a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Few studies have investigated the genetic basis of AS. To address this gap in the literature, we performed a genome-wide pooled DNA association study to identify candidate loci in 612 individuals (294 cases and 318 controls) of Caucasian ancestry, using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping version 6.0 array. We identified 11 SNPs that had a p-value below 1x10-5. These SNPs were independently genotyped in the same sample. Three of the SNPs (rs1268055, rs7785891 and rs2782448) were nominally significant, though none remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Two of our top three SNPs (rs7785891 and rs2782448) lie in loci previously implicated in ASC. However, investigation of the three SNPs in the ASC genome-wide association dataset from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium indicated that these three SNPs were not significantly associated with ASC. The effect sizes of the variants were modest, indicating that our study was not sufficiently powered to identify causal variants with precision. PMID:26176695

  16. Genome-Wide Scan for Methylation Profiles in Keloids

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lamont R.; Young, William; Divine, George; Datta, Indrani; Chen, Kang Mei; Ozog, David; Worsham, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Keloids are benign fibroproliferative tumors of the skin which commonly occur after injury mainly in darker skinned patients. Medical treatment is fraught with high recurrence rates mainly because of an incomplete understanding of the biological mechanisms that lead to keloids. The purpose of this project was to examine keloid pathogenesis from the epigenome perspective of DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling used the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip to interrogate DNA from 6 fresh keloid and 6 normal skin samples from 12 anonymous donors. A 3-tiered approach was used to call out genes most differentially methylated between keloid and normal. When compared to normal, of the 685 differentially methylated CpGs at Tier 3, 510 were hypomethylated and 175 were hypermethylated with 190 CpGs in promoter and 495 in nonpromoter regions. The 190 promoter region CpGs corresponded to 152 genes: 96 (63%) were hypomethylated and 56 (37%) hypermethylated. This exploratory genome-wide scan of the keloid methylome highlights a predominance of hypomethylated genomic landscapes, favoring nonpromoter regions. DNA methylation, as an additional mechanism for gene regulation in keloid pathogenesis, holds potential for novel treatments that reverse deleterious epigenetic changes. As an alternative mechanism for regulating genes, epigenetics may explain why gene mutations alone do not provide definitive mechanisms for keloid formation. PMID:26074660

  17. Detecting Gene-Environment Interactions for a Quantitative Trait in a Genome-Wide Association Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingye; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Conti, David; Morrison, John L; Gauderman, W James

    2016-07-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) typically is focused on detecting marginal genetic effects. However, many complex traits are likely to be the result of the interplay of genes and environmental factors. These SNPs may have a weak marginal effect and thus unlikely to be detected from a scan of marginal effects, but may be detectable in a gene-environment (G × E) interaction analysis. However, a genome-wide interaction scan (GWIS) using a standard test of G × E interaction is known to have low power, particularly when one corrects for testing multiple SNPs. Two 2-step methods for GWIS have been previously proposed, aimed at improving efficiency by prioritizing SNPs most likely to be involved in a G × E interaction using a screening step. For a quantitative trait, these include a method that screens on marginal effects [Kooperberg and Leblanc, 2008] and a method that screens on variance heterogeneity by genotype [Paré et al., 2010] In this paper, we show that the Paré et al. approach has an inflated false-positive rate in the presence of an environmental marginal effect, and we propose an alternative that remains valid. We also propose a novel 2-step approach that combines the two screening approaches, and provide simulations demonstrating that the new method can outperform other GWIS approaches. Application of this method to a G × Hispanic-ethnicity scan for childhood lung function reveals a SNP near the MARCO locus that was not identified by previous marginal-effect scans. PMID:27230133

  18. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association of Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J.L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schäfer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although twin and family studies have shown attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus, additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method We used case-control analyses of 896 cases with DSM-IV ADHD genotyped using the Affymetrix 5.0 array and 2,455 repository controls screened for psychotic and bipolar symptoms genotyped using Affymetrix 6.0 arrays. A consensus SNP set was imputed using BEAGLE 3.0, resulting in an analysis dataset of 1,033,244 SNPs. The data were analyzed using a generalized linear model. Results No genome-wide significant associations were found. The most significant results implicated the following genes: PRKG1, FLNC, TCERG1L, PPM1H, NXPH1, PPM1H, CDH13, HK1 and HKDC1. Conclusions The current analyses are a useful addition to the present literature and will make a valuable contribution to future meta-analyses. The candidate gene findings are consistent with a prior meta-analysis in suggesting that the effects of ADHD risk variants must, individually, be very small and/or include multiple rare alleles. PMID:20732627

  19. Natural CMT2 Variation Is Associated With Genome-Wide Methylation Changes and Temperature Seasonality

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xia; De Jonge, Jennifer; Forsberg, Simon K. G.; Pettersson, Mats E.; Sheng, Zheya; Hennig, Lars; Carlborg, Örjan

    2014-01-01

    As Arabidopsis thaliana has colonized a wide range of habitats across the world it is an attractive model for studying the genetic mechanisms underlying environmental adaptation. Here, we used public data from two collections of A. thaliana accessions to associate genetic variability at individual loci with differences in climates at the sampling sites. We use a novel method to screen the genome for plastic alleles that tolerate a broader climate range than the major allele. This approach reduces confounding with population structure and increases power compared to standard genome-wide association methods. Sixteen novel loci were found, including an association between Chromomethylase 2 (CMT2) and temperature seasonality where the genome-wide CHH methylation was different for the group of accessions carrying the plastic allele. Cmt2 mutants were shown to be more tolerant to heat-stress, suggesting genetic regulation of epigenetic modifications as a likely mechanism underlying natural adaptation to variable temperatures, potentially through differential allelic plasticity to temperature-stress. PMID:25503602

  20. Genome-wide detection of gene extinction in early mammalian evolution.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Detecting gene losses is a novel aspect of evolutionary genomics that has been made feasible by whole-genome sequencing. However, research to date has concentrated on elucidating evolutionary patterns of genomic components shared between species, rather than identifying disparities between genomes. In this study, we searched for gene losses in the lineage leading to eutherian mammals. First, as a pilot analysis, we selected five gene families (Wnt, Fgf, Tbx, TGFβ, and Frizzled) for molecular phylogenetic analyses, and identified mammalian lineage-specific losses of Wnt11b, Tbx6L/VegT/tbx16, Nodal-related, ADMP1, ADMP2, Sizzled, and Crescent. Second, automated genome-wide phylogenetic screening was implemented based on this pilot analysis. As a result, we detected 147 chicken genes without eutherian orthologs, which resulted from 141 gene loss events. Our inventory contained a group of regulatory genes governing early embryonic axis formation, such as Noggins, and multiple members of the opsin and prolactin-releasing hormone receptor ("PRLHR") gene families. Our findings highlight the potential of genome-wide gene phylogeny ("phylome") analysis in detecting possible rearrangement of gene networks and the importance of identifying losses of ancestral genomic components in analyzing the molecular basis underlying phenotypic evolution. PMID:22094861

  1. Genome-Wide Expression of MicroRNAs Is Regulated by DNA Methylation in Hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jing; Wang, Shuang; Siegel, Abby B.; Remotti, Helen; Wang, Qiao; Sirosh, Iryna; Santella, Regina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous studies, including ours, have examined the regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) by DNA methylation, but whether this regulation occurs at a genome-wide level in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. Subjects/Methods. Using a two-phase study design, we conducted genome-wide screening for DNA methylation and miRNA expression to explore the potential role of methylation alterations in miRNAs regulation. Results. We found that expressions of 25 miRNAs were statistically significantly different between tumor and nontumor tissues and perfectly differentiated HCC tumor from nontumor. Six miRNAs were overexpressed, and 19 were repressed in tumors. Among 133 miRNAs with inverse correlations between methylation and expression, 8 miRNAs (6%) showed statistically significant differences in expression between tumor and nontumor tissues. Six miRNAs were validated in 56 additional paired HCC tissues, and significant inverse correlations were observed for miR-125b and miR-199a, which is consistent with the inactive chromatin pattern found in HepG2 cells. Conclusion. These data suggest that the expressions of miR-125b and miR-199a are dramatically regulated by DNA hypermethylation that plays a key role in hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:25861255

  2. Genome-wide characterization of microsatellites in Triticeae species: abundance, distribution and evolution.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pingchuan; Wang, Meng; Feng, Kewei; Cui, Licao; Tong, Wei; Song, Weining; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites are an important constituent of plant genome and distributed across entire genome. In this study, genome-wide analysis of microsatellites in 8 Triticeae species and 9 model plants revealed that microsatellite characteristics were similar among the Triticeae species. Furthermore, genome-wide microsatellite markers were designed in wheat and then used to analyze the evolutionary relationship of wheat and other Triticeae species. Results displayed that Aegilops tauschii was found to be the closest species to Triticum aestivum, followed by Triticum urartu, Triticum turgidum and Aegilops speltoides, while Triticum monococcum, Aegilops sharonensis and Hordeum vulgare showed a relatively lower PCR amplification effectivity. Additionally, a significantly higher PCR amplification effectivity was found in chromosomes at the same subgenome than its homoeologous when these markers were subjected to search against different chromosomes in wheat. After a rigorous screening process, a total of 20,666 markers showed high amplification and polymorphic potential in wheat and its relatives, which were integrated with the public available wheat markers and then anchored to the genome of wheat (CS). This study not only provided the useful resource for SSR markers development in Triticeae species, but also shed light on the evolution of polyploid wheat from the perspective of microsatellites. PMID:27561724

  3. Genome-wide characterization of microsatellites in Triticeae species: abundance, distribution and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Pingchuan; Wang, Meng; Feng, Kewei; Cui, Licao; Tong, Wei; Song, Weining; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites are an important constituent of plant genome and distributed across entire genome. In this study, genome-wide analysis of microsatellites in 8 Triticeae species and 9 model plants revealed that microsatellite characteristics were similar among the Triticeae species. Furthermore, genome-wide microsatellite markers were designed in wheat and then used to analyze the evolutionary relationship of wheat and other Triticeae species. Results displayed that Aegilops tauschii was found to be the closest species to Triticum aestivum, followed by Triticum urartu, Triticum turgidum and Aegilops speltoides, while Triticum monococcum, Aegilops sharonensis and Hordeum vulgare showed a relatively lower PCR amplification effectivity. Additionally, a significantly higher PCR amplification effectivity was found in chromosomes at the same subgenome than its homoeologous when these markers were subjected to search against different chromosomes in wheat. After a rigorous screening process, a total of 20,666 markers showed high amplification and polymorphic potential in wheat and its relatives, which were integrated with the public available wheat markers and then anchored to the genome of wheat (CS). This study not only provided the useful resource for SSR markers development in Triticeae species, but also shed light on the evolution of polyploid wheat from the perspective of microsatellites. PMID:27561724

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study of Copy Number Variations (CNVs) with Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dawei; Zhao, Hongyu; Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ming D; Jensen, Kevin P; Zayats, Tetyana; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been associated with opioid dependence (OD) altogether account for only a small proportion of the known heritability. Most of the genetic risk factors are unknown. Some of the ‘missing heritability' might be explained by copy number variations (CNVs) in the human genome. We used Illumina HumanOmni1 arrays to genotype 5152 African-American and European-American OD cases and screened controls and implemented combined CNV calling methods. After quality control measures were applied, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of CNVs with OD was performed. For common CNVs, two deletions and one duplication were significantly associated with OD genome-wide (eg, P=2 × 10−8 and OR (95% CI)=0.64 (0.54–0.74) for a chromosome 18q12.3 deletion). Several rare or unique CNVs showed suggestive or marginal significance with large effect sizes. This study is the first GWAS of OD using CNVs. Some identified CNVs harbor genes newly identified here to be of biological importance in addiction, whereas others affect genes previously known to contribute to substance dependence risk. Our findings augment our specific knowledge of the importance of genomic variation in addictive disorders, and provide an addiction CNV pool for further research. These findings require replication. PMID:25345593

  5. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry Individuals with Diabetes and Prediabetes from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pheiffer, Carmen; Humphries, Stephen E.; Gamieldien, Junaid; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA). Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97%) and 124 (43.20%), respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27555869

  6. Off-Target Effects of Psychoactive Drugs Revealed by Genome-Wide Assays in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Elke; Gebbia, Marinella; Heisler, Lawrence E.; Wildenhain, Jan; Tyers, Mike; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2008-01-01

    To better understand off-target effects of widely prescribed psychoactive drugs, we performed a comprehensive series of chemogenomic screens using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. Because the known human targets of these drugs do not exist in yeast, we could employ the yeast gene deletion collections and parallel fitness profiling to explore potential off-target effects in a genome-wide manner. Among 214 tested, documented psychoactive drugs, we identified 81 compounds that inhibited wild-type yeast growth and were thus selected for genome-wide fitness profiling. Many of these drugs had a propensity to affect multiple cellular functions. The sensitivity profiles of half of the analyzed drugs were enriched for core cellular processes such as secretion, protein folding, RNA processing, and chromatin structure. Interestingly, fluoxetine (Prozac) interfered with establishment of cell polarity, cyproheptadine (Periactin) targeted essential genes with chromatin-remodeling roles, while paroxetine (Paxil) interfered with essential RNA metabolism genes, suggesting potential secondary drug targets. We also found that the more recently developed atypical antipsychotic clozapine (Clozaril) had no fewer off-target effects in yeast than the typical antipsychotics haloperidol (Haldol) and pimozide (Orap). Our results suggest that model organism pharmacogenetic studies provide a rational foundation for understanding the off-target effects of clinically important psychoactive agents and suggest a rational means both for devising compound derivatives with fewer side effects and for tailoring drug treatment to individual patient genotypes. PMID:18688276

  7. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Optic Disc Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Isaacs, Aaron; Amin, Najaf; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Oostra, Ben A.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hysi, Pirro; Hammond, Christopher J.; Lemij, Hans G.; Vingerling, Johannes R.

    2010-01-01

    The optic nerve head is involved in many ophthalmic disorders, including common diseases such as myopia and open-angle glaucoma. Two of the most important parameters are the size of the optic disc area and the vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR). Both are highly heritable but genetically largely undetermined. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) data to identify genetic variants associated with optic disc area and VCDR. The gene discovery included 7,360 unrelated individuals from the population-based Rotterdam Study I and Rotterdam Study II cohorts. These cohorts revealed two genome-wide significant loci for optic disc area, rs1192415 on chromosome 1p22 (p = 6.72×10−19) within 117 kb of the CDC7 gene and rs1900004 on chromosome 10q21.3-q22.1 (p = 2.67×10−33) within 10 kb of the ATOH7 gene. They revealed two genome-wide significant loci for VCDR, rs1063192 on chromosome 9p21 (p = 6.15×10−11) in the CDKN2B gene and rs10483727 on chromosome 14q22.3-q23 (p = 2.93×10−10) within 40 kbp of the SIX1 gene. Findings were replicated in two independent Dutch cohorts (Rotterdam Study III and Erasmus Rucphen Family study; N = 3,612), and the TwinsUK cohort (N = 843). Meta-analysis with the replication cohorts confirmed the four loci and revealed a third locus at 16q12.1 associated with optic disc area, and four other loci at 11q13, 13q13, 17q23 (borderline significant), and 22q12.1 for VCDR. ATOH7 was also associated with VCDR independent of optic disc area. Three of the loci were marginally associated with open-angle glaucoma. The protein pathways in which the loci of optic disc area are involved overlap with those identified for VCDR, suggesting a common genetic origin. PMID:20548946

  8. Genome-wide association study of antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, M-R; Paunio, T; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Ollila, H M; Sulkava, S; Jolanki, O; Palotie, A; Tiihonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) remains unclear. Although the most consistent biological finding is reduced grey matter volume in the frontal cortex, about 50% of the total liability to developing ASPD has been attributed to genetic factors. The contributing genes remain largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to study the genetic background of ASPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a replication analysis of Finnish criminal offenders fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for ASPD (N=370, N=5850 for controls, GWAS; N=173, N=3766 for controls and replication sample). The GWAS resulted in suggestive associations of two clusters of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 6p21.2 and at 6p21.32 at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Imputation of HLA alleles revealed an independent association with DRB1*01:01 (odds ratio (OR)=2.19 (1.53-3.14), P=1.9 × 10(-5)). Two polymorphisms at 6p21.2 LINC00951-LRFN2 gene region were replicated in a separate data set, and rs4714329 reached genome-wide significance (OR=1.59 (1.37-1.85), P=1.6 × 10(-9)) in the meta-analysis. The risk allele also associated with antisocial features in the general population conditioned for severe problems in childhood family (β=0.68, P=0.012). Functional analysis in brain tissue in open access GTEx and Braineac databases revealed eQTL associations of rs4714329 with LINC00951 and LRFN2 in cerebellum. In humans, LINC00951 and LRFN2 are both expressed in the brain, especially in the frontal cortex, which is intriguing considering the role of the frontal cortex in behavior and the neuroanatomical findings of reduced gray matter volume in ASPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing genome-wide significant and replicable findings on genetic variants associated with any personality disorder. PMID:27598967

  9. Composing on the Screen: Student Perceptions of Traditional and Multimodal Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker Beard, Jeannie

    2012-01-01

    When college composition teachers carefully consider the role and function of multimodal composition in their classrooms, they can enhance the teaching of writing and communication, engage and empower students, and better prepare students for the challenges and possibilities of life in our rapidly changing digital age. To meet this teaching…

  10. Infection and Inflammation in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Genome Wide Study for Interactions with Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Pearce, Brad D.; McGrath, John; Wolyniec, Paula; Wang, Ruihua; Eckart, Nicole; Hatzimanolis, Alexandros; Goes, Fernando S.; Nestadt, Gerald; Mulle, Jennifer; Coneely, Karen; Hopkins, Myfanwy; Ruczinski, Ingo; Yolken, Robert; Pulver, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and maternal or fetal infections have been suggested as risk factors for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP). It is likely that such environmental effects are contingent on genetic background. Here, in a genome-wide approach, we test the hypothesis that such exposures increase the risk for SZ and BP and that the increase is dependent on genetic variants. We use genome-wide genotype data, plasma IgG antibody measurements against Toxoplasma gondii, Herpes simplex virus type 1, Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpes Virus 6 and the food antigen gliadin as well as measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), a peripheral marker of inflammation. The subjects are SZ cases, BP cases, parents of cases and screened controls. We look for higher levels of our immunity/infection variables and interactions between them and common genetic variation genome-wide. We find many of the antibody measurements higher in both disorders. While individual tests do not withstand correction for multiple comparisons, the number of nominally significant tests and the comparisons showing the expected direction are in significant excess (permutation p=0.019 and 0.004 respectively). We also find CRP levels highly elevated in SZ, BP and the mothers of BP cases, in agreement with existing literature, but possibly confounded by our inability to correct for smoking or body mass index. In our genome-wide interaction analysis no signal reached genome-wide significance, yet many plausible candidate genes emerged. In a hypothesis driven test, we found multiple interactions among SZ-associated SNPs in the HLA region on chromosome 6 and replicated an interaction between CMV infection and genotypes near the CTNNA3 gene reported by a recent GWAS. Our results support that inflammatory processes and infection may modify the risk for psychosis and suggest that the genotype at SZ-associated HLA loci modifies the effect of these variables on the risk to develop SZ. PMID:25781172

  11. Genome-wide nucleosome positioning during embryonic stem cell development.

    PubMed

    Teif, Vladimir B; Vainshtein, Yevhen; Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Mallm, Jan-Philipp; Marth, Caroline; Höfer, Thomas; Rippe, Karsten

    2012-11-01

    We determined genome-wide nucleosome occupancies in mouse embryonic stem cells and their neural progenitor and embryonic fibroblast counterparts to assess features associated with nucleosome positioning during lineage commitment. Cell-type- and protein-specific binding preferences of transcription factors to sites with either low (Myc, Klf4 and Zfx) or high (Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2) nucleosome occupancy as well as complex patterns for CTCF were identified. Nucleosome-depleted regions around transcription start and transcription termination sites were broad and more pronounced for active genes, with distinct patterns for promoters classified according to CpG content or histone methylation marks. Throughout the genome, nucleosome occupancy was correlated with certain histone methylation or acetylation modifications. In addition, the average nucleosome repeat length increased during differentiation by 5-7 base pairs, with local variations for specific regions. Our results reveal regulatory mechanisms of cell differentiation that involve nucleosome repositioning. PMID:23085715

  12. Quantitative prediction of genome-wide resource allocation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Goelzer, Anne; Muntel, Jan; Chubukov, Victor; Jules, Matthieu; Prestel, Eric; Nölker, Rolf; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Aymerich, Stéphane; Hecker, Michael; Noirot, Philippe; Becher, Dörte; Fromion, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    Predicting resource allocation between cell processes is the primary step towards decoding the evolutionary constraints governing bacterial growth under various conditions. Quantitative prediction at genome-scale remains a computational challenge as current methods are limited by the tractability of the problem or by simplifying hypotheses. Here, we show that the constraint-based modeling method Resource Balance Analysis (RBA), calibrated using genome-wide absolute protein quantification data, accurately predicts resource allocation in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis for a wide range of growth conditions. The regulation of most cellular processes is consistent with the objective of growth rate maximization except for a few suboptimal processes which likely integrate more complex objectives such as coping with stressful conditions and survival. As a proof of principle by using simulations, we illustrated how calibrated RBA could aid rational design of strains for maximizing protein production, offering new opportunities to investigate design principles in prokaryotes and to exploit them for biotechnological applications. PMID:26498510

  13. Progress of genome wide association study in domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Domestic animals are invaluable resources for study of the molecular architecture of complex traits. Although the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for economically important traits in domestic animals has achieved remarkable results in recent decades, not all of the genetic variation in the complex traits has been captured because of the low density of markers used in QTL mapping studies. The genome wide association study (GWAS), which utilizes high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), provides a new way to tackle this issue. Encouraging achievements in dissection of the genetic mechanisms of complex diseases in humans have resulted from the use of GWAS. At present, GWAS has been applied to the field of domestic animal breeding and genetics, and some advances have been made. Many genes or markers that affect economic traits of interest in domestic animals have been identified. In this review, advances in the use of GWAS in domestic animals are described. PMID:22958308

  14. Metabolite-based genome-wide association studies in plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie

    2015-04-01

    The plant metabolome is the readout of plant physiological status and is regarded as the bridge between the genome and the phenome of plants. Unraveling the natural variation and the underlying genetic basis of plant metabolism has received increasing interest from plant biologists. Enabled by the recent advances in high-throughput profiling and genotyping technologies, metabolite-based genome-wide association study (mGWAS) has emerged as a powerful alternative forward genetics strategy to dissect the genetic and biochemical bases of metabolism in model and crop plants. In this review, recent progress and applications of mGWAS in understanding the genetic control of plant metabolism and in interactive functional genomics and metabolomics are presented. Further directions and perspectives of mGWAS in plants are also discussed. PMID:25637954

  15. Genome-wide genetic changes during modern breeding of maize.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yinping; Zhao, Hainan; Ren, Longhui; Song, Weibin; Zeng, Biao; Guo, Jinjie; Wang, Baobao; Liu, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Mei; Xie, Shaojun; Lai, Jinsheng

    2012-07-01

    The success of modern maize breeding has been demonstrated by remarkable increases in productivity over the last four decades. However, the underlying genetic changes correlated with these gains remain largely unknown. We report here the sequencing of 278 temperate maize inbred lines from different stages of breeding history, including deep resequencing of 4 lines with known pedigree information. The results show that modern breeding has introduced highly dynamic genetic changes into the maize genome. Artificial selection has affected thousands of targets, including genes and non-genic regions, leading to a reduction in nucleotide diversity and an increase in the proportion of rare alleles. Genetic changes during breeding happen rapidly, with extensive variation (SNPs, indels and copy-number variants (CNVs)) occurring, even within identity-by-descent regions. Our genome-wide assessment of genetic changes during modern maize breeding provides new strategies as well as practical targets for future crop breeding and biotechnology. PMID:22660547

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P J; Cairns, B R

    2016-01-01

    Genomic DNA methylation functions to repress gene expression by interfering with transcription factor binding and/or recruiting repressive chromatin machinery. Recent data support contribution of regulated DNA methylation to embryonic pluripotency, development, and tissue differentiation; this important epigenetic mark is chemically stable yet enzymatically reversible-and heritable through the germline. Importantly, all the major components involved in dynamic DNA methylation are conserved in zebrafish, including the factors that "write, read, and erase" this mark. Therefore, the zebrafish has become an excellent model for studying most biological processes associated with DNA methylation in mammals. Here we briefly review the zebrafish model for studying DNA methylation and describe a series of methods for performing genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. We address and provide methods for methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (MeDIP-Seq), bisulfite sequencing (BS-Seq), and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS-Seq). PMID:27443935

  17. Quality control procedures for genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Turner, Stephen; Armstrong, Loren L; Bradford, Yuki; Carlson, Christopher S; Crawford, Dana C; Crenshaw, Andrew T; de Andrade, Mariza; Doheny, Kimberly F; Haines, Jonathan L; Hayes, Geoffrey; Jarvik, Gail; Jiang, Lan; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Li, Rongling; Ling, Hua; Manolio, Teri A; Matsumoto, Martha; McCarty, Catherine A; McDavid, Andrew N; Mirel, Daniel B; Paschall, Justin E; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Rasmussen, Luke V; Wilke, Russell A; Zuvich, Rebecca L; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are being conducted at an unprecedented rate in population-based cohorts and have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of complex disease. Regardless of context, the practical utility of this information will ultimately depend upon the quality of the original data. Quality control (QC) procedures for GWAS are computationally intensive, operationally challenging, and constantly evolving. Here we enumerate some of the challenges in QC of GWAS data and describe the approaches that the electronic MEdical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network is using for quality assurance in GWAS data, thereby minimizing potential bias and error in GWAS results. We discuss common issues associated with QC of GWAS data, including data file formats, software packages for data manipulation and analysis, sex chromosome anomalies, sample identity, sample relatedness, population substructure, batch effects, and marker quality. We propose best practices and discuss areas of ongoing and future research. PMID:21234875

  18. Systems-Level Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Data

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have emerged as the method of choice for identifying common variants affecting complex disease. In a GWAS, particular attention is placed, for obvious reasons, on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that exceed stringent genome-wide significance thresholds. However, it is expected that many SNPs with only nominal evidence of association (e.g., P < 0.05) truly influence disease. Efforts to extract additional biological information from entire GWAS datasets have primarily focused on pathway-enrichment analyses. However, these methods suffer from a number of limitations and typically fail to lead to testable hypotheses. To evaluate alternative approaches, we performed a systems-level analysis of GWAS data using weighted gene coexpression network analysis. A weighted gene coexpression network was generated for 1918 genes harboring SNPs that displayed nominal evidence of association (P ≤ 0.05) from a GWAS of bone mineral density (BMD) using microarray data on circulating monocytes isolated from individuals with extremely low or high BMD. Thirteen distinct gene modules were identified, each comprising coexpressed and highly interconnected GWAS genes. Through the characterization of module content and topology, we illustrate how network analysis can be used to discover disease-associated subnetworks and characterize novel interactions for genes with a known role in the regulation of BMD. In addition, we provide evidence that network metrics can be used as a prioritizing tool when selecting genes and SNPs for replication studies. Our results highlight the advantages of using systems-level strategies to add value to and inform GWAS. PMID:23316444

  19. The genome-wide structure of the Jewish people.

    PubMed

    Behar, Doron M; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Rosset, Saharon; Parik, Jüri; Rootsi, Siiri; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kutuev, Ildus; Yudkovsky, Guennady; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Balanovsky, Oleg; Semino, Ornella; Pereira, Luisa; Comas, David; Gurwitz, David; Bonne-Tamir, Batsheva; Parfitt, Tudor; Hammer, Michael F; Skorecki, Karl; Villems, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Contemporary Jews comprise an aggregate of ethno-religious communities whose worldwide members identify with each other through various shared religious, historical and cultural traditions. Historical evidence suggests common origins in the Middle East, followed by migrations leading to the establishment of communities of Jews in Europe, Africa and Asia, in what is termed the Jewish Diaspora. This complex demographic history imposes special challenges in attempting to address the genetic structure of the Jewish people. Although many genetic studies have shed light on Jewish origins and on diseases prevalent among Jewish communities, including studies focusing on uniparentally and biparentally inherited markers, genome-wide patterns of variation across the vast geographic span of Jewish Diaspora communities and their respective neighbours have yet to be addressed. Here we use high-density bead arrays to genotype individuals from 14 Jewish Diaspora communities and compare these patterns of genome-wide diversity with those from 69 Old World non-Jewish populations, of which 25 have not previously been reported. These samples were carefully chosen to provide comprehensive comparisons between Jewish and non-Jewish populations in the Diaspora, as well as with non-Jewish populations from the Middle East and north Africa. Principal component and structure-like analyses identify previously unrecognized genetic substructure within the Middle East. Most Jewish samples form a remarkably tight subcluster that overlies Druze and Cypriot samples but not samples from other Levantine populations or paired Diaspora host populations. In contrast, Ethiopian Jews (Beta Israel) and Indian Jews (Bene Israel and Cochini) cluster with neighbouring autochthonous populations in Ethiopia and western India, respectively, despite a clear paternal link between the Bene Israel and the Levant. These results cast light on the variegated genetic architecture of the Middle East, and trace the origins

  20. A genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Boraska, V; Franklin, C S; Floyd, J A B; Thornton, L M; Huckins, L M; Southam, L; Rayner, N W; Tachmazidou, I; Klump, K L; Treasure, J; Lewis, C M; Schmidt, U; Tozzi, F; Kiezebrink, K; Hebebrand, J; Gorwood, P; Adan, R A H; Kas, M J H; Favaro, A; Santonastaso, P; Fernández-Aranda, F; Gratacos, M; Rybakowski, F; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Kaprio, J; Keski-Rahkonen, A; Raevuori, A; Van Furth, E F; Slof-Op 't Landt, M C T; Hudson, J I; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Knudsen, G P S; Monteleone, P; Kaplan, A S; Karwautz, A; Hakonarson, H; Berrettini, W H; Guo, Y; Li, D; Schork, N J; Komaki, G; Ando, T; Inoko, H; Esko, T; Fischer, K; Männik, K; Metspalu, A; Baker, J H; Cone, R D; Dackor, J; DeSocio, J E; Hilliard, C E; O'Toole, J K; Pantel, J; Szatkiewicz, J P; Taico, C; Zerwas, S; Trace, S E; Davis, O S P; Helder, S; Bühren, K; Burghardt, R; de Zwaan, M; Egberts, K; Ehrlich, S; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Herzog, W; Imgart, H; Scherag, A; Scherag, S; Zipfel, S; Boni, C; Ramoz, N; Versini, A; Brandys, M K; Danner, U N; de Kovel, C; Hendriks, J; Koeleman, B P C; Ophoff, R A; Strengman, E; van Elburg, A A; Bruson, A; Clementi, M; Degortes, D; Forzan, M; Tenconi, E; Docampo, E; Escaramís, G; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Lissowska, J; Rajewski, A; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Slopien, A; Hauser, J; Karhunen, L; Meulenbelt, I; Slagboom, P E; Tortorella, A; Maj, M; Dedoussis, G; Dikeos, D; Gonidakis, F; Tziouvas, K; Tsitsika, A; Papezova, H; Slachtova, L; Martaskova, D; Kennedy, J L; Levitan, R D; Yilmaz, Z; Huemer, J; Koubek, D; Merl, E; Wagner, G; Lichtenstein, P; Breen, G; Cohen-Woods, S; Farmer, A; McGuffin, P; Cichon, S; Giegling, I; Herms, S; Rujescu, D; Schreiber, S; Wichmann, H-E; Dina, C; Sladek, R; Gambaro, G; Soranzo, N; Julia, A; Marsal, S; Rabionet, R; Gaborieau, V; Dick, D M; Palotie, A; Ripatti, S; Widén, E; Andreassen, O A; Espeseth, T; Lundervold, A; Reinvang, I; Steen, V M; Le Hellard, S; Mattingsdal, M; Ntalla, I; Bencko, V; Foretova, L; Janout, V; Navratilova, M; Gallinger, S; Pinto, D; Scherer, S W; Aschauer, H; Carlberg, L; Schosser, A; Alfredsson, L; Ding, B; Klareskog, L; Padyukov, L; Courtet, P; Guillaume, S; Jaussent, I; Finan, C; Kalsi, G; Roberts, M; Logan, D W; Peltonen, L; Ritchie, G R S; Barrett, J C; Estivill, X; Hinney, A; Sullivan, P F; Collier, D A; Zeggini, E; Bulik, C M

    2014-10-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14 860 ancestrally matched controls as part of the Genetic Consortium for AN (GCAN) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). Individual association analyses were conducted in each stratum and meta-analyzed across all 15 discovery data sets. Seventy-six (72 independent) single nucleotide polymorphisms were taken forward for in silico (two data sets) or de novo (13 data sets) replication genotyping in 2677 independent AN cases and 8629 European ancestry controls along with 458 AN cases and 421 controls from Japan. The final global meta-analysis across discovery and replication data sets comprised 5551 AN cases and 21 080 controls. AN subtype analyses (1606 AN restricting; 1445 AN binge-purge) were performed. No findings reached genome-wide significance. Two intronic variants were suggestively associated: rs9839776 (P=3.01 × 10(-7)) in SOX2OT and rs17030795 (P=5.84 × 10(-6)) in PPP3CA. Two additional signals were specific to Europeans: rs1523921 (P=5.76 × 10(-)(6)) between CUL3 and FAM124B and rs1886797 (P=8.05 × 10(-)(6)) near SPATA13. Comparing discovery with replication results, 76% of the effects were in the same direction, an observation highly unlikely to be due to chance (P=4 × 10(-6)), strongly suggesting that true findings exist but our sample, the largest yet reported, was underpowered for their detection. The accrual of large genotyped AN case-control samples should be an immediate priority for the field. PMID:24514567

  1. A genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Franklin, Christopher S; Floyd, James AB; Thornton, Laura M; Huckins, Laura M; Southam, Lorraine; Rayner, N William; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Klump, Kelly L; Treasure, Janet; Lewis, Cathryn M; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tozzi, Federica; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Hebebrand, Johannes; Gorwood, Philip; Adan, Roger AH; Kas, Martien JH; Favaro, Angela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Gratacos, Monica; Rybakowski, Filip; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Raevuori, Anu; Van Furth, Eric F; Landt, Margarita CT Slof-Op t; Hudson, James I; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun Peggy S; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kaplan, Allan S; Karwautz, Andreas; Hakonarson, Hakon; Berrettini, Wade H; Guo, Yiran; Li, Dong; Schork, Nicholas J.; Komaki, Gen; Ando, Tetsuya; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Esko, Tõnu; Fischer, Krista; Männik, Katrin; Metspalu, Andres; Baker, Jessica H; Cone, Roger D; Dackor, Jennifer; DeSocio, Janiece E; Hilliard, Christopher E; O'Toole, Julie K; Pantel, Jacques; Szatkiewicz, Jin P; Taico, Chrysecolla; Zerwas, Stephanie; Trace, Sara E; Davis, Oliver SP; Helder, Sietske; Bühren, Katharina; Burghardt, Roland; de Zwaan, Martina; Egberts, Karin; Ehrlich, Stefan; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Imgart, Hartmut; Scherag, André; Scherag, Susann; Zipfel, Stephan; Boni, Claudette; Ramoz, Nicolas; Versini, Audrey; Brandys, Marek K; Danner, Unna N; de Kovel, Carolien; Hendriks, Judith; Koeleman, Bobby PC; Ophoff, Roel A; Strengman, Eric; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Bruson, Alice; Clementi, Maurizio; Degortes, Daniela; Forzan, Monica; Tenconi, Elena; Docampo, Elisa; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rajewski, Andrzej; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Slopien, Agnieszka; Hauser, Joanna; Karhunen, Leila; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Slagboom, P Eline; Tortorella, Alfonso; Maj, Mario; Dedoussis, George; Dikeos, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Tziouvas, Konstantinos; Tsitsika, Artemis; Papezova, Hana; Slachtova, Lenka; Martaskova, Debora; Kennedy, James L.; Levitan, Robert D.; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Huemer, Julia; Koubek, Doris; Merl, Elisabeth; Wagner, Gudrun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Breen, Gerome; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Cichon, Sven; Giegling, Ina; Herms, Stefan; Rujescu, Dan; Schreiber, Stefan; Wichmann, H-Erich; Dina, Christian; Sladek, Rob; Gambaro, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Julia, Antonio; Marsal, Sara; Rabionet, Raquel; Gaborieau, Valerie; Dick, Danielle M; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Widén, Elisabeth; Andreassen, Ole A; Espeseth, Thomas; Lundervold, Astri; Reinvang, Ivar; Steen, Vidar M; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Mattingsdal, Morten; Ntalla, Ioanna; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Gallinger, Steven; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen; Aschauer, Harald; Carlberg, Laura; Schosser, Alexandra; Alfredsson, Lars; Ding, Bo; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Finan, Chris; Kalsi, Gursharan; Roberts, Marion; Logan, Darren W; Peltonen, Leena; Ritchie, Graham RS; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Estivill, Xavier; Hinney, Anke; Sullivan, Patrick F; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2,907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14,860 ancestrally matched controls as part of the Genetic Consortium for AN (GCAN) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). Individual association analyses were conducted in each stratum and meta-analyzed across all 15 discovery datasets. Seventy-six (72 independent) SNPs were taken forward for in silico (two datasets) or de novo (13 datasets) replication genotyping in 2,677 independent AN cases and 8,629 European ancestry controls along with 458 AN cases and 421 controls from Japan. The final global meta-analysis across discovery and replication datasets comprised 5,551 AN cases and 21,080 controls. AN subtype analyses (1,606 AN restricting; 1,445 AN binge-purge) were performed. No findings reached genome-wide significance. Two intronic variants were suggestively associated: rs9839776 (P=3.01×10-7) in SOX2OT and rs17030795 (P=5.84×10-6) in PPP3CA. Two additional signals were specific to Europeans: rs1523921 (P=5.76×10-6) between CUL3 and FAM124B and rs1886797 (P=8.05×10-6) near SPATA13. Comparing discovery to replication results, 76% of the effects were in the same direction, an observation highly unlikely to be due to chance (P=4×10-6), strongly suggesting that true findings exist but that our sample, the largest yet reported, was underpowered for their detection. The accrual of large genotyped AN case-control samples should be an immediate priority for the field. PMID:24514567

  2. A genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Franklin, Christopher S; Floyd, James AB; Thornton, Laura M; Huckins, Laura M; Southam, Lorraine; Rayner, N William; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Klump, Kelly L; Treasure, Janet; Lewis, Cathryn M; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tozzi, Federica; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Hebebrand, Johannes; Gorwood, Philip; Adan, Roger AH; Kas, Martien JH; Favaro, Angela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Gratacos, Monica; Rybakowski, Filip; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Raevuori, Anu; Van Furth, Eric F; Slof-Op t Landt, Margarita CT; Hudson, James I; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun Peggy S; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kaplan, Allan S; Karwautz, Andreas; Hakonarson, Hakon; Berrettini, Wade H; Guo, Yiran; Li, Dong; Schork, Nicholas J.; Komaki, Gen; Ando, Tetsuya; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Esko, Tõnu; Fischer, Krista; Männik, Katrin; Metspalu, Andres; Baker, Jessica H; Cone, Roger D; Dackor, Jennifer; DeSocio, Janiece E; Hilliard, Christopher E; O’Toole, Julie K; Pantel, Jacques; Szatkiewicz, Jin P; Taico, Chrysecolla; Zerwas, Stephanie; Trace, Sara E; Davis, Oliver SP; Helder, Sietske; Bühren, Katharina; Burghardt, Roland; de Zwaan, Martina; Egberts, Karin; Ehrlich, Stefan; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Imgart, Hartmut; Scherag, André; Scherag, Susann; Zipfel, Stephan; Boni, Claudette; Ramoz, Nicolas; Versini, Audrey; Brandys, Marek K; Danner, Unna N; de Kovel, Carolien; Hendriks, Judith; Koeleman, Bobby PC; Ophoff, Roel A; Strengman, Eric; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Bruson, Alice; Clementi, Maurizio; Degortes, Daniela; Forzan, Monica; Tenconi, Elena; Docampo, Elisa; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rajewski, Andrzej; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Slopien, Agnieszka; Hauser, Joanna; Karhunen, Leila; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Slagboom, P Eline; Tortorella, Alfonso; Maj, Mario; Dedoussis, George; Dikeos, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Tziouvas, Konstantinos; Tsitsika, Artemis; Papezova, Hana; Slachtova, Lenka; Martaskova, Debora; Kennedy, James L.; Levitan, Robert D.; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Huemer, Julia; Koubek, Doris; Merl, Elisabeth; Wagner, Gudrun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Breen, Gerome; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Cichon, Sven; Giegling, Ina; Herms, Stefan; Rujescu, Dan; Schreiber, Stefan; Wichmann, H-Erich; Dina, Christian; Sladek, Rob; Gambaro, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Julia, Antonio; Marsal, Sara; Rabionet, Raquel; Gaborieau, Valerie; Dick, Danielle M; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Widén, Elisabeth; Andreassen, Ole A; Espeseth, Thomas; Lundervold, Astri; Reinvang, Ivar; Steen, Vidar M; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Mattingsdal, Morten; Ntalla, Ioanna; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Gallinger, Steven; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen; Aschauer, Harald; Carlberg, Laura; Schosser, Alexandra; Alfredsson, Lars; Ding, Bo; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Finan, Chris; Kalsi, Gursharan; Roberts, Marion; Logan, Darren W; Peltonen, Leena; Ritchie, Graham RS; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Estivill, Xavier; Hinney, Anke; Sullivan, Patrick F; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2,907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14,860 ancestrally matched controls as part of the Genetic Consortium for AN (GCAN) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). Individual association analyses were conducted in each stratum and meta-analyzed across all 15 discovery datasets. Seventy-six (72 independent) SNPs were taken forward for in silico (two datasets) or de novo (13 datasets) replication genotyping in 2,677 independent AN cases and 8,629 European ancestry controls along with 458 AN cases and 421 controls from Japan. The final global meta-analysis across discovery and replication datasets comprised 5,551 AN cases and 21,080 controls. AN subtype analyses (1,606 AN restricting; 1,445 AN binge-purge) were performed. No findings reached genome-wide significance. Two intronic variants were suggestively associated: rs9839776 (P=3.01×10−7) in SOX2OT and rs17030795 (P=5.84×10−6) in PPP3CA. Two additional signals were specific to Europeans: rs1523921 (P=5.76×10−6) between CUL3 and FAM124B and rs1886797 (P=8.05×10−6) near SPATA13. Comparing discovery to replication results, 76% of the effects were in the same direction, an observation highly unlikely to be due to chance (P= 4×10−6), strongly suggesting that true findings exist but that our sample, the largest yet reported, was underpowered for their detection. The accrual of large genotyped AN case-control samples should be an immediate priority for the field. PMID:21079607

  3. Comparative analysis of genome-wide divergence, domestication footprints and genome-wide association study of root traits for Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of 10,129 singleton SNPs of known genomic location in tetraploid cotton provided unique opportunities to characterize genome-wide diversity among 440 Gossypium hirsutum and 219 G. barbadense cultivars and landrace accessions of widespread origin. Using genome-wide distributed SNPs, we examined ...

  4. Prediction of a time-to-event trait using genome wide SNP data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A popular objective of many high-throughput genome projects is to discover various genomic markers associated with traits and develop statistical models to predict traits of future patients based on marker values. Results In this paper, we present a prediction method for time-to-event traits using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also propose a MaxTest associating between a time-to-event trait and a SNP accounting for its possible genetic models. The proposed MaxTest can help screen out nonprognostic SNPs and identify genetic models of prognostic SNPs. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated through simulations. Conclusions In conjunction with the MaxTest, the proposed method provides more parsimonious prediction models but includes more prognostic SNPs than some naive prediction methods. The proposed method is demonstrated with real GWAS data. PMID:23418752

  5. Genome-wide pathway analysis of genome-wide association studies on systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ho; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Choi, Sung Jae; Ji, Jong Dae; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and candidate mechanisms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two SLE genome-wide association studies (GWASs) datasets were included in this study. Meta-analysis was conducted using 737,984 SNPs in 1,527 SLE cases and 3,421 controls of European ancestry, and 4,429 SNPs that met a threshold of p < 0.01 in a Korean RA GWAS dataset was used. ICSNPathway (identify candidate causal SNPs and pathways) analysis was applied to the meta-analysis results of the SLE GWAS datasets, and a RA GWAS dataset. The most significant result of SLE GWAS meta-analysis concerned rs2051549 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region (p = 3.36E-22). In the non-HLA region, meta-analysis identified 6 SNPs associated with SLE with genome-wide significance (STAT4, TNPO3, BLK, FAM167A, and IRF5). ICSNPathway identified five candidate causal SNPs and 13 candidate causal pathways. This pathway-based analysis provides three hypotheses of the biological mechanism involved. First, rs8084 and rs7192 → HLA-DRA → bystander B cell activation. Second, rs1800629 → TNF → cytokine network. Third, rs1150752 and rs185819 → TNXB → collagen metabolic process. ICSNPathway analysis identified three candidate causal non-HLA SNPs and four candidate causal pathways involving the PADI4, MTR, PADI2, and TPH2 genes of RA. We identified five candidate SNPs and thirteen pathways, involving bystander B cell activation, cytokine network, and collagen metabolic processing, which may contribute to SLE susceptibility, and we revealed candidate causal non-HLA SNPs, genes, and pathways of RA. PMID:23053960

  6. Heritability and genome-wide analyses of problematic peer relationships during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    St Pourcain, Beate; Haworth, C M A; Davis, O S P; Wang, Kai; Timpson, Nicholas J; Evans, David M; Kemp, John P; Ronald, Angelica; Price, Tom; Meaburn, Emma; Ring, Susan M; Golding, Jean; Hakonarson, Hakon; Plomin, R; Davey Smith, George

    2015-06-01

    Peer behaviour plays an important role in the development of social adjustment, though little is known about its genetic architecture. We conducted a twin study combined with a genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) and a genome-wide screen to characterise genetic influences on problematic peer behaviour during childhood and adolescence. This included a series of longitudinal measures (parent-reported Strengths-and-Difficulties Questionnaire) from a UK population-based birth-cohort (ALSPAC, 4-17 years), and a UK twin sample (TEDS, 4-11 years). Longitudinal twin analysis (TEDS; N ≤ 7,366 twin pairs) showed that peer problems in childhood are heritable (4-11 years, 0.60 < twin-h(2) ≤ 0.71) but genetically heterogeneous from age to age (4-11 years, twin-r(g) = 0.30). GCTA (ALSPAC: N ≤ 5,608, TEDS: N ≤ 2,691) provided furthermore little support for the contribution of measured common genetic variants during childhood (4-12 years, 0.02 < GCTA-h(2)(Meta) ≤ 0.11) though these influences become stronger in adolescence (13-17 years, 0.14 < GCTA-h (2)(ALSPAC) ≤ 0.27). A subsequent cross-sectional genome-wide screen in ALSPAC (N ≤ 6,000) focussed on peer problems with the highest GCTA-heritability (10, 13 and 17 years, 0.0002 < GCTA-P ≤ 0.03). Single variant signals (P ≤ 10(-5)) were followed up in TEDS (N ≤ 2835, 9 and 11 years) and, in search for autism quantitative trait loci, explored within two autism samples (AGRE: N Pedigrees = 793; ACC: N Cases = 1,453/N Controls = 7,070). There was, however, no evidence for association in TEDS and little evidence for an overlap with the autistic continuum. In summary, our findings suggest that problematic peer relationships are heritable but genetically complex and heterogeneous from age to age, with an increase in common measurable genetic variation during adolescence. PMID:25515860

  7. Pharmacogenomics in colorectal cancer: a genome-wide association study to predict toxicity after 5-fluorouracil or FOLFOX administration.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rozadilla, C; Cazier, J B; Moreno, V; Crous-Bou, M; Guinó, E; Durán, G; Lamas, M J; López, R; Candamio, S; Gallardo, E; Paré, L; Baiget, M; Páez, D; López-Fernández, L A; Cortejoso, L; García, M I; Bujanda, L; González, D; Gonzalo, V; Rodrigo, L; Reñé, J M; Jover, R; Brea-Fernández, A; Andreu, M; Bessa, X; Llor, X; Xicola, R; Palles, C; Tomlinson, I; Castellví-Bel, S; Castells, A; Ruiz-Ponte, C; Carracedo, A

    2013-06-01

    The development of genotyping technologies has allowed for wider screening for inherited causes of variable outcomes following drug administration. We have performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 221 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients that had been treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), either alone or in combination with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). A validation set of 791 patients was also studied. Seven SNPs (rs16857540, rs2465403, rs10876844, rs10784749, rs17626122, rs7325568 and rs4243761) showed evidence of association (pooled P-values 0.020, 9.426E-03, 0.010, 0.017, 0.042, 2.302E-04, 2.803E-03) with adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This is the first study to explore the genetic basis of inter-individual variation in toxicity responses to the administration of 5-FU or FOLFOX in CRC patients on a genome-wide scale. PMID:22310351

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study for Endothelial Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Wolfgang; Chen, Ming-Huei; Larson, Martin G.; Safa, Radwan; Teumer, Alexander; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Lin, Honghuang; Smith, Holly M.; Koch, Manja; Lorbeer, Roberto; Völker, Uwe; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endothelial growth factors including angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), its soluble receptor Tie-2 (sTie-2) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) play important roles in angiogenesis, vascular remodeling, local tumor growth and metastatic potential of various cancers. Circulating levels of these biomarkers have a heritable component (between 13% and 56%), but the underlying genetic variation influencing these biomarker levels is largely unknown. Methods and Results We performed a genome-wide association study for circulating Ang-2, sTie-2, and HGF in 3571 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants and assessed replication of the top hits for Ang-2 and sTie-2 in 3184 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). In multivariable-adjusted models, sTie-2 and HGF concentrations were associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding the respective biomarkers (top p=2.40×10−65 [rs2273720] and 3.64×10−19 [rs5745687], respectively). Likewise, rs2442517 in the MCPH1 gene (in which the Ang-2 gene is embedded) was associated with Ang-2 levels (p=5.05×10−8 in FHS and 8.39×10−5 in SHIP). Furthermore, SNPs in the AB0 gene were associated with sTie-2 (top SNP rs8176693 with p=1.84×10−33 in FHS; p=2.53×10−30 in SHIP) and Ang-2 (rs8176746 with p=2.07×10−8 in FHS; p=0.001 in SHIP) levels on a genome-wide significant level. The top genetic loci explained between 1.7% (Ang-2) and 11.2% (sTie-2) of the inter-individual variation in biomarker levels. Conclusions Genetic variation contributes to the inter-individual variation in growth factor levels and explains a modest proportion of circulating HGF, Ang-2, and Tie-2. This may potentially contribute to the familial susceptibility to cancer, a premise that warrants further studies. PMID:25552591

  9. Minimalist ensemble algorithms for genome-wide protein localization prediction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Computational prediction of protein subcellular localization can greatly help to elucidate its functions. Despite the existence of dozens of protein localization prediction algorithms, the prediction accuracy and coverage are still low. Several ensemble algorithms have been proposed to improve the prediction performance, which usually include as many as 10 or more individual localization algorithms. However, their performance is still limited by the running complexity and redundancy among individual prediction algorithms. Results This paper proposed a novel method for rational design of minimalist ensemble algorithms for practical genome-wide protein subcellular localization prediction. The algorithm is based on combining a feature selection based filter and a logistic regression classifier. Using a novel concept of contribution scores, we analyzed issues of algorithm redundancy, consensus mistakes, and algorithm complementarity in designing ensemble algorithms. We applied the proposed minimalist logistic regression (LR) ensemble algorithm to two genome-wide datasets of Yeast and Human and compared its performance with current ensemble algorithms. Experimental results showed that the minimalist ensemble algorithm can achieve high prediction accuracy with only 1/3 to 1/2 of individual predictors of current ensemble algorithms, which greatly reduces computational complexity and running time. It was found that the high performance ensemble algorithms are usually composed of the predictors that together cover most of available features. Compared to the best individual predictor, our ensemble algorithm improved the prediction accuracy from AUC score of 0.558 to 0.707 for the Yeast dataset and from 0.628 to 0.646 for the Human dataset. Compared with popular weighted voting based ensemble algorithms, our classifier-based ensemble algorithms achieved much better performance without suffering from inclusion of too many individual predictors. Conclusions We

  10. Genome wide identification of regulatory motifs in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mwangi, Michael M; Siggia, Eric D

    2003-01-01

    Background To explain the vastly different phenotypes exhibited by the same organism under different conditions, it is essential that we understand how the organism's genes are coordinately regulated. While there are many excellent tools for predicting sequences encoding proteins or RNA genes, few algorithms exist to predict regulatory sequences on a genome wide scale with no prior information. Results To identify motifs involved in the control of transcription, an algorithm was developed that searches upstream of operons for improbably frequent dimers. The algorithm was applied to the B. subtilis genome, which is predicted to encode for approximately 200 DNA binding proteins. The dimers found to be over-represented could be clustered into 317 distinct groups, each thought to represent a class of motifs uniquely recognized by some transcription factor. For each cluster of dimers, a representative weight matrix was derived and scored over the regions upstream of the operons to predict the sites recognized by the cluster's factor, and a putative regulon of the operons immediately downstream of the sites was inferred. The distribution in number of operons per predicted regulon is comparable to that for well characterized transcription factors. The most highly over-represented dimers matched σA, the T-box, and σW sites. We have evidence to suggest that at least 52 of our clusters of dimers represent actual regulatory motifs, based on the groups' weight matrix matches to experimentally characterized sites, the functional similarity of the component operons of the groups' regulons, and the positional biases of the weight matrix matches. All predictions are assigned a significance value, and thresholds are set to avoid false positives. Where possible, we examine our false negatives, drawing examples from known regulatory motifs and regulons inferred from RNA expression data. Conclusions We have demonstrated that in the case of B. subtilis our algorithm allows for the

  11. Comparative analysis of methods for genome-wide nucleosome cartography.

    PubMed

    Quintales, Luis; Vázquez, Enrique; Antequera, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Nucleosomes contribute to compacting the genome into the nucleus and regulate the physical access of regulatory proteins to DNA either directly or through the epigenetic modifications of the histone tails. Precise mapping of nucleosome positioning across the genome is, therefore, essential to understanding the genome regulation. In recent years, several experimental protocols have been developed for this purpose that include the enzymatic digestion, chemical cleavage or immunoprecipitation of chromatin followed by next-generation sequencing of the resulting DNA fragments. Here, we compare the performance and resolution of these methods from the initial biochemical steps through the alignment of the millions of short-sequence reads to a reference genome to the final computational analysis to generate genome-wide maps of nucleosome occupancy. Because of the lack of a unified protocol to process data sets obtained through the different approaches, we have developed a new computational tool (NUCwave), which facilitates their analysis, comparison and assessment and will enable researchers to choose the most suitable method for any particular purpose. NUCwave is freely available at http://nucleosome.usal.es/nucwave along with a step-by-step protocol for its use. PMID:25296770

  12. Genome-Wide Association Studies of the Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Emily R; Cusanovich, Darren A; Michelini, Katelyn; Barreiro, Luis B; Ober, Carole; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial composition of the human fecal microbiome is influenced by many lifestyle factors, notably diet. It is less clear, however, what role host genetics plays in dictating the composition of bacteria living in the gut. In this study, we examined the association of ~200K host genotypes with the relative abundance of fecal bacterial taxa in a founder population, the Hutterites, during two seasons (n = 91 summer, n = 93 winter, n = 57 individuals collected in both). These individuals live and eat communally, minimizing variation due to environmental exposures, including diet, which could potentially mask small genetic effects. Using a GWAS approach that takes into account the relatedness between subjects, we identified at least 8 bacterial taxa whose abundances were associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the host genome in each season (at genome-wide FDR of 20%). For example, we identified an association between a taxon known to affect obesity (genus Akkermansia) and a variant near PLD1, a gene previously associated with body mass index. Moreover, we replicate a previously reported association from a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study of fecal microbiome abundance in mice (genus Lactococcus, rs3747113, P = 3.13 x 10-7). Finally, based on the significance distribution of the associated microbiome QTLs in our study with respect to chromatin accessibility profiles, we identified tissues in which host genetic variation may be acting to influence bacterial abundance in the gut. PMID:26528553

  13. Assessing Predictive Properties of Genome-Wide Selection in Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Alencar; Muir, William M; Rainey, Katy Martin

    2016-01-01

    Many economically important traits in plant breeding have low heritability or are difficult to measure. For these traits, genomic selection has attractive features and may boost genetic gains. Our goal was to evaluate alternative scenarios to implement genomic selection for yield components in soybean (Glycine max L. merr). We used a nested association panel with cross validation to evaluate the impacts of training population size, genotyping density, and prediction model on the accuracy of genomic prediction. Our results indicate that training population size was the factor most relevant to improvement in genome-wide prediction, with greatest improvement observed in training sets up to 2000 individuals. We discuss assumptions that influence the choice of the prediction model. Although alternative models had minor impacts on prediction accuracy, the most robust prediction model was the combination of reproducing kernel Hilbert space regression and BayesB. Higher genotyping density marginally improved accuracy. Our study finds that breeding programs seeking efficient genomic selection in soybeans would best allocate resources by investing in a representative training set. PMID:27317786

  14. Genome wide association scan for chronic periodontitis implicates novel locus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is evidence for a genetic contribution to chronic periodontitis. In this study, we conducted a genome wide association study among 866 participants of the University of Pittsburgh Dental Registry and DNA Repository, whose periodontal diagnosis ranged from healthy (N = 767) to severe chronic periodontitis (N = 99). Methods Genotypingi of over half-million single nucleotide polymorphisms was determined. Analyses were done twice, first in the complete dataset of all ethnicities, and second including only samples defined as self-reported Whites. From the top 100 results, twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms had consistent results in both analyses (borderline p-values ranging from 1E-05 to 1E-6) and were selected to be tested in two independent datasets derived from 1,460 individuals from Porto Alegre, and 359 from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Meta-analyses of the Single nucleotide polymorphisms showing a trend for association in the independent dataset were performed. Results The rs1477403 marker located on 16q22.3 showed suggestive association in the discovery phase and in the Porto Alegre dataset (p = 0.05). The meta-analysis suggested the less common allele decreases the risk of chronic periodontitis. Conclusions Our data offer a clear hypothesis to be independently tested regarding the contribution of the 16q22.3 locus to chronic periodontitis. PMID:25008200

  15. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826

  16. Genome-Wide Discriminatory Information Patterns of Cytosine DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a highly abundant, heritable but reversible chemical modification to the genome. Herein, a machine learning approach was applied to analyze the accumulation of epigenetic marks in methylomes of 152 ecotypes and 85 silencing mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In an information-thermodynamics framework, two measurements were used: (1) the amount of information gained/lost with the CDM changes I R and (2) the uncertainty of not observing a SNP L C R . We hypothesize that epigenetic marks are chromosomal footprints accounting for different ontogenetic and phylogenetic histories of individual populations. A machine learning approach is proposed to verify this hypothesis. Results support the hypothesis by the existence of discriminatory information (DI) patterns of CDM able to discriminate between individuals and between individual subpopulations. The statistical analyses revealed a strong association between the topologies of the structured population of Arabidopsis ecotypes based on I R and on LCR, respectively. A statistical-physical relationship between I R and L C R was also found. Results to date imply that the genome-wide distribution of CDM changes is not only part of the biological signal created by the methylation regulatory machinery, but ensures the stability of the DNA molecule, preserving the integrity of the genetic message under continuous stress from thermal fluctuations in the cell environment. PMID:27322251

  17. Imputing Phenotypes for Genome-wide Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Hormozdiari, Farhad; Kang, Eun Yong; Bilow, Michael; Ben-David, Eyal; Vulpe, Chris; McLachlan, Stela; Lusis, Aldons J; Han, Buhm; Eskin, Eleazar

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been successful in detecting variants correlated with phenotypes of clinical interest. However, the power to detect these variants depends on the number of individuals whose phenotypes are collected, and for phenotypes that are difficult to collect, the sample size might be insufficient to achieve the desired statistical power. The phenotype of interest is often difficult to collect, whereas surrogate phenotypes or related phenotypes are easier to collect and have already been collected in very large samples. This paper demonstrates how we take advantage of these additional related phenotypes to impute the phenotype of interest or target phenotype and then perform association analysis. Our approach leverages the correlation structure between phenotypes to perform the imputation. The correlation structure can be estimated from a smaller complete dataset for which both the target and related phenotypes have been collected. Under some assumptions, the statistical power can be computed analytically given the correlation structure of the phenotypes used in imputation. In addition, our method can impute the summary statistic of the target phenotype as a weighted linear combination of the summary statistics of related phenotypes. Thus, our method is applicable to datasets for which we have access only to summary statistics and not to the raw genotypes. We illustrate our approach by analyzing associated loci to triglycerides (TGs), body mass index (BMI), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort dataset. PMID:27292110

  18. Genome-Wide Association Studies of the Human Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Emily R.; Cusanovich, Darren A.; Michelini, Katelyn; Barreiro, Luis B.; Ober, Carole; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial composition of the human fecal microbiome is influenced by many lifestyle factors, notably diet. It is less clear, however, what role host genetics plays in dictating the composition of bacteria living in the gut. In this study, we examined the association of ~200K host genotypes with the relative abundance of fecal bacterial taxa in a founder population, the Hutterites, during two seasons (n = 91 summer, n = 93 winter, n = 57 individuals collected in both). These individuals live and eat communally, minimizing variation due to environmental exposures, including diet, which could potentially mask small genetic effects. Using a GWAS approach that takes into account the relatedness between subjects, we identified at least 8 bacterial taxa whose abundances were associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the host genome in each season (at genome-wide FDR of 20%). For example, we identified an association between a taxon known to affect obesity (genus Akkermansia) and a variant near PLD1, a gene previously associated with body mass index. Moreover, we replicate a previously reported association from a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study of fecal microbiome abundance in mice (genus Lactococcus, rs3747113, P = 3.13 x 10−7). Finally, based on the significance distribution of the associated microbiome QTLs in our study with respect to chromatin accessibility profiles, we identified tissues in which host genetic variation may be acting to influence bacterial abundance in the gut. PMID:26528553

  19. Quality Control Procedures for Genome Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Stephen; Armstrong, Loren L.; Bradford, Yuki; Carlson, Christopher S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Crenshaw, Andrew T.; de Andrade, Mariza; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hayes, Geoffrey; Jarvik, Gail; Jiang, Lan; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Li, Rongling; Ling, Hua; Manolio, Teri A.; Matsumoto, Martha; McCarty, Catherine A.; McDavid, Andrew N.; Mirel, Daniel B.; Paschall, Justin E.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Rasmussen, Luke V.; Wilke, Russell A.; Zuvich, Rebecca L.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are being conducted at an unprecedented rate in population-based cohorts and have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of complex disease. The recent application of GWAS to clinic-based cohorts has also yielded genetic predictors of clinical outcomes. Regardless of context, the practical utility of this information will ultimately depend upon the quality of the original data. Quality control (QC) procedures for GWAS are computationally intensive, operationally challenging, and constantly evolving. With each new dataset, new realities are discovered about GWAS data and best practices continue to be developed. The Genomics Workgroup of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) funded electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network has invested considerable effort in developing strategies for QC of these data. The lessons learned by this group will be valuable for other investigators dealing with large scale genomic datasets. Here we enumerate some of the challenges in QC of GWAS data and describe the approaches that the eMERGE network is using for quality assurance in GWAS data, thereby minimizing potential bias and error in GWAS results. In this protocol we discuss common issues associated with QC of GWAS data, including data file formats, software packages for data manipulation and analysis, sex chromosome anomalies, sample identity, sample relatedness, population substructure, batch effects, and marker quality. We propose best practices and discuss areas of ongoing and future research. PMID:21234875

  20. Insights into kidney diseases from genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Matthias; Köttgen, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have considerably improved our understanding of the genetic basis of kidney function and disease. Population-based studies, used to investigate traits that define chronic kidney disease (CKD), have identified >50 genomic regions in which common genetic variants associate with estimated glomerular filtration rate or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Case-control studies, used to study specific CKD aetiologies, have yielded risk loci for specific kidney diseases such as IgA nephropathy and membranous nephropathy. In this Review, we summarize important findings from GWAS and clinical and experimental follow-up studies. We also compare risk allele frequency, effect sizes, and specificity in GWAS of CKD-defining traits and GWAS of specific CKD aetiologies and the implications for study design. Genomic regions identified in GWAS of CKD-defining traits can contain causal genes for monogenic kidney diseases. Population-based research on kidney function traits can therefore generate insights into more severe forms of kidney diseases. Experimental follow-up studies have begun to identify causal genes and variants, which are potential therapeutic targets, and suggest mechanisms underlying the high allele frequency of causal variants. GWAS are thus a useful approach to advance knowledge in nephrology. PMID:27477491

  1. Reconstructing Roma History from Genome-Wide Data

    PubMed Central

    Moorjani, Priya; Patterson, Nick; Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Bela I.; Bonin, Michael; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Rieß, Olaf; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David; Melegh, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The Roma people, living throughout Europe and West Asia, are a diverse population linked by the Romani language and culture. Previous linguistic and genetic studies have suggested that the Roma migrated into Europe from South Asia about 1,000–1,500 years ago. Genetic inferences about Roma history have mostly focused on the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. To explore what additional information can be learned from genome-wide data, we analyzed data from six Roma groups that we genotyped at hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We estimate that the Roma harbor about 80% West Eurasian ancestry–derived from a combination of European and South Asian sources–and that the date of admixture of South Asian and European ancestry was about 850 years before present. We provide evidence for Eastern Europe being a major source of European ancestry, and North-west India being a major source of the South Asian ancestry in the Roma. By computing allele sharing as a measure of linkage disequilibrium, we estimate that the migration of Roma out of the Indian subcontinent was accompanied by a severe founder event, which appears to have been followed by a major demographic expansion after the arrival in Europe. PMID:23516520

  2. Assessing Predictive Properties of Genome-Wide Selection in Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Alencar; Muir, William M.; Rainey, Katy Martin

    2016-01-01

    Many economically important traits in plant breeding have low heritability or are difficult to measure. For these traits, genomic selection has attractive features and may boost genetic gains. Our goal was to evaluate alternative scenarios to implement genomic selection for yield components in soybean (Glycine max L. merr). We used a nested association panel with cross validation to evaluate the impacts of training population size, genotyping density, and prediction model on the accuracy of genomic prediction. Our results indicate that training population size was the factor most relevant to improvement in genome-wide prediction, with greatest improvement observed in training sets up to 2000 individuals. We discuss assumptions that influence the choice of the prediction model. Although alternative models had minor impacts on prediction accuracy, the most robust prediction model was the combination of reproducing kernel Hilbert space regression and BayesB. Higher genotyping density marginally improved accuracy. Our study finds that breeding programs seeking efficient genomic selection in soybeans would best allocate resources by investing in a representative training set. PMID:27317786

  3. Optical mapping discerns genome wide DNA methylation profiles

    PubMed Central

    Ananiev, Gene E; Goldstein, Steve; Runnheim, Rod; Forrest, Dan K; Zhou, Shiguo; Potamousis, Konstantinos; Churas, Chris P; Bergendahl, Veit; Thomson, James A; Schwartz, David C

    2008-01-01

    Background Methylation of CpG dinucleotides is a fundamental mechanism of epigenetic regulation in eukaryotic genomes. Development of methods for rapid genome wide methylation profiling will greatly facilitate both hypothesis and discovery driven research in the field of epigenetics. In this regard, a single molecule approach to methylation profiling offers several unique advantages that include elimination of chemical DNA modification steps and PCR amplification. Results A single molecule approach is presented for the discernment of methylation profiles, based on optical mapping. We report results from a series of pilot studies demonstrating the capabilities of optical mapping as a platform for methylation profiling of whole genomes. Optical mapping was used to discern the methylation profile from both an engineered and wild type Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the methylation status of selected loci within the genome of human embryonic stem cells was profiled using optical mapping. Conclusion The optical mapping platform effectively detects DNA methylation patterns. Due to single molecule detection, optical mapping offers significant advantages over other technologies. This advantage stems from obviation of DNA modification steps, such as bisulfite treatment, and the ability of the platform to assay repeat dense regions within mammalian genomes inaccessible to techniques using array-hybridization technologies. PMID:18667073

  4. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Linda E.; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan; Li, Qiyuan; M. Lee, Janet; Seo, Ji-Heui; Phelan, Catherine M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqin; Spindler, Tassja J.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wlodzimierz, Sawicki; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Berchuck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas (OC) but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOC). Genotypes from OC cases and controls were imputed into the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. Analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls identified three novel risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10−8), rs711830 at 2q31.1 (P = 7.5 × 10−12) and rs688187 at 19q13.2 (P = 6.8 × 10−13). Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis in ovarian and colorectal tumors (which are histologically similar to MOC) identified significant eQTL associations for HOXD9 at 2q31.1 in ovarian (P = 4.95 × 10−4, FDR = 0.003) and colorectal (P = 0.01, FDR = 0.09) tumors, and for PAX8 at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease. PMID:26075790

  5. Genome-Wide Mapping of Yeast RNA Polymerase II Termination

    PubMed Central

    Schaughency, Paul; Merran, Jonathan; Corden, Jeffry L.

    2014-01-01

    Yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) terminates transcription of coding transcripts through the polyadenylation (pA) pathway and non-coding transcripts through the non-polyadenylation (non-pA) pathway. We have used PAR-CLIP to map the position of Pol II genome-wide in living yeast cells after depletion of components of either the pA or non-pA termination complexes. We show here that Ysh1, responsible for cleavage at the pA site, is required for efficient removal of Pol II from the template. Depletion of Ysh1 from the nucleus does not, however, lead to readthrough transcription. In contrast, depletion of the termination factor Nrd1 leads to widespread runaway elongation of non-pA transcripts. Depletion of Sen1 also leads to readthrough at non-pA terminators, but in contrast to Nrd1, this readthrough is less processive, or more susceptible to pausing. The data presented here provide delineation of in vivo Pol II termination regions and highlight differences in the sequences that signal termination of different classes of non-pA transcripts. PMID:25299594

  6. Reconstructing Roma history from genome-wide data.

    PubMed

    Moorjani, Priya; Patterson, Nick; Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Bela I; Bonin, Michael; Kádaši, Ludevít; Rieß, Olaf; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David; Melegh, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The Roma people, living throughout Europe and West Asia, are a diverse population linked by the Romani language and culture. Previous linguistic and genetic studies have suggested that the Roma migrated into Europe from South Asia about 1,000-1,500 years ago. Genetic inferences about Roma history have mostly focused on the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. To explore what additional information can be learned from genome-wide data, we analyzed data from six Roma groups that we genotyped at hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We estimate that the Roma harbor about 80% West Eurasian ancestry-derived from a combination of European and South Asian sources-and that the date of admixture of South Asian and European ancestry was about 850 years before present. We provide evidence for Eastern Europe being a major source of European ancestry, and North-west India being a major source of the South Asian ancestry in the Roma. By computing allele sharing as a measure of linkage disequilibrium, we estimate that the migration of Roma out of the Indian subcontinent was accompanied by a severe founder event, which appears to have been followed by a major demographic expansion after the arrival in Europe. PMID:23516520

  7. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. Results We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Conclusions Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding. PMID:26083354

  8. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826

  9. A SUPER Powerful Method for Genome Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuchun; Buckler, Edward S.; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2014-01-01

    Genome-Wide Association Studies shed light on the identification of genes underlying human diseases and agriculturally important traits. This potential has been shadowed by false positive findings. The Mixed Linear Model (MLM) method is flexible enough to simultaneously incorporate population structure and cryptic relationships to reduce false positives. However, its intensive computational burden is prohibitive in practice, especially for large samples. The newly developed algorithm, FaST-LMM, solved the computational problem, but requires that the number of SNPs be less than the number of individuals to derive a rank-reduced relationship. This restriction potentially leads to less statistical power when compared to using all SNPs. We developed a method to extract a small subset of SNPs and use them in FaST-LMM. This method not only retains the computational advantage of FaST-LMM, but also remarkably increases statistical power even when compared to using the entire set of SNPs. We named the method SUPER (Settlement of MLM Under Progressively Exclusive Relationship) and made it available within an implementation of the GAPIT software package. PMID:25247812

  10. cgmisc: enhanced genome-wide association analyses and visualization

    PubMed Central

    Kierczak, Marcin; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Forsberg, Simon K. G.; Bianchi, Matteo; Tengvall, Katarina; Pettersson, Mats; Scholz, Veronika; Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Jern, Patric; Carlborg, Örjan; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Summary: High-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies facilitate studies of complex genetic traits and provide new research opportunities. The increasing popularity of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) leads to the discovery of new associated loci and a better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying not only diseases, but also other monogenic and complex phenotypes. Several softwares are available for performing GWAS analyses, R environment being one of them. Results: We present cgmisc, an R package that enables enhanced data analysis and visualization of results from GWAS. The package contains several utilities and modules that complement and enhance the functionality of the existing software. It also provides several tools for advanced visualization of genomic data and utilizes the power of the R language to aid in preparation of publication-quality figures. Some of the package functions are specific for the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) data. Availability and implementation: The package is operating system-independent and is available from: https://github.com/cgmisc-team/cgmisc Contact: marcin.kierczak@imbim.uu.se Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26249815

  11. Genome-wide association study of selenium concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Fornage, Myriam; Foy, Millennia; Xun, Pengcheng; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Morris, Steve; Chasman, Daniel I.; Hu, Frank B.; Rimm, Eric B.; Kraft, Peter; Jordan, Joanne M.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in human nutrition, but its role in certain health conditions, particularly among Se sufficient populations, is controversial. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of blood Se concentrations previously identified a locus at 5q14 near BHMT. We performed a GW meta-analysis of toenail Se concentrations, which reflect a longer duration of exposure than blood Se concentrations, including 4162 European descendants from four US cohorts. Toenail Se was measured using neutron activation analysis. We identified a GW-significant locus at 5q14 (P < 1 × 10−16), the same locus identified in the published GWAS of blood Se based on independent cohorts. The lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) explained ∼1% of the variance in toenail Se concentrations. Using GW-summary statistics from both toenail and blood Se, we observed statistical evidence of polygenic overlap (P < 0.001) and meta-analysis of results from studies of either trait (n = 9639) yielded a second GW-significant locus at 21q22.3, harboring CBS (P < 4 × 10−8). Proteins encoded by genes at 5q14 and 21q22.3 function in homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism, and index SNPs for each have previously been associated with betaine and Hcy levels in GWAS. Our findings show evidence of a genetic link between Se and Hcy pathways, both involved in cardiometabolic disease. PMID:25343990

  12. Realizing privacy preserving genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Sean; Berger, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: As genomics moves into the clinic, there has been much interest in using this medical data for research. At the same time the use of such data raises many privacy concerns. These circumstances have led to the development of various methods to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on patient records while ensuring privacy. In particular, there has been growing interest in applying differentially private techniques to this challenge. Unfortunately, up until now all methods for finding high scoring SNPs in a differentially private manner have had major drawbacks in terms of either accuracy or computational efficiency. Results: Here we overcome these limitations with a substantially modified version of the neighbor distance method for performing differentially private GWAS, and thus are able to produce a more viable mechanism. Specifically, we use input perturbation and an adaptive boundary method to overcome accuracy issues. We also design and implement a convex analysis based algorithm to calculate the neighbor distance for each SNP in constant time, overcoming the major computational bottleneck in the neighbor distance method. It is our hope that methods such as ours will pave the way for more widespread use of patient data in biomedical research. Availability and implementation: A python implementation is available at http://groups.csail.mit.edu/cb/DiffPriv/. Contact: bab@csail.mit.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26769317

  13. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Linda E; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan; Li, Qiyuan; Lee, Janet M; Seo, Ji-Heui; Phelan, Catherine M; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Spindler, Tassja J; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia

    2015-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOCs). Our analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls with imputation identified 3 new risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10(-8)), rs711830 at 2q31.1 (P = 7.5 × 10(-12)) and rs688187 at 19q13.2 (P = 6.8 × 10(-13)). We identified significant expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) associations for HOXD9 at 2q31.1 in ovarian (P = 4.95 × 10(-4), false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.003) and colorectal (P = 0.01, FDR = 0.09) tumors and for PAX8 at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk-associated SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease. PMID:26075790

  14. Genome wide association study on early puberty in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A V; Matos, M C; Seno, L O; Romero, A R S; Garcia, J F; Grisolia, A B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fertility traits (early puberty) in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus). Fifty-five Nellore cows were selected from a herd monitored for early puberty onset (positive pregnancy at 18 months of age). Extremes of this phenotype were selected; 30 and 25 individuals were pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively, at that age. DNA samples were genotyped using a high-density SNP chip (>777.000 SNP). GWAS using a case-control strategy highlighted a number of significant markers based on their proximity with the Bonferroni correction line. Results indicated that chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 10, and 22 were associated with the traits of interest. The most significant SNPs on these chromosomes were rs133039577, rs110013280, rs134702839, rs109551605, and rs41639155. Candidate genes, as well as quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously reported in the Ensembl and Cattle QTLdb databases, were further investigated. Analysis of the regions close to the SNP on chromosomes 9 and 10 revealed that four QTL had been previously classified under the reproduction category. In conclusion, we have identified SNPs in close proximity to genes associated with reproductive traits. Moreover, U6 spliceosomal RNA was present on three different chromosomes, which is possibly associated with age at first calving, suggesting that it might be a strong candidate for future studies. PMID:26909970

  15. Genome-wide footprinting: ready for prime time?

    PubMed

    Sung, Myong-Hee; Baek, Songjoon; Hager, Gordon L

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have allowed many gene locus-level molecular biology assays to become genome-wide profiling methods. DNA-cleaving enzymes such as DNase I have been used to probe accessible chromatin. The accessible regions contain functional regulatory sites, including promoters, insulators and enhancers. Deep sequencing of DNase-seq libraries and computational analysis of the cut profiles have been used to infer protein occupancy in the genome at the nucleotide level, a method introduced as 'digital genomic footprinting'. The approach has been proposed as an attractive alternative to the analysis of transcription factors (TFs) by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq), and in theory it should overcome antibody issues, poor resolution and batch effects. Recent reports point to limitations of the DNase-based genomic footprinting approach and call into question the scope of detectable protein occupancy, especially for TFs with short-lived chromatin binding. The genomics community is grappling with issues concerning the utility of genomic footprinting and is reassessing the proposed approaches in terms of robust deliverables. Here we summarize the consensus as well as different views emerging from recent reports, and we describe the remaining issues and hurdles for genomic footprinting. PMID:26914206

  16. Genome-wide association study of selenium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C; Fornage, Myriam; Foy, Millennia; Xun, Pengcheng; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Morris, Steve; Chasman, Daniel I; Hu, Frank B; Rimm, Eric B; Kraft, Peter; Jordan, Joanne M; Mozaffarian, Dariush; He, Ka

    2015-03-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in human nutrition, but its role in certain health conditions, particularly among Se sufficient populations, is controversial. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of blood Se concentrations previously identified a locus at 5q14 near BHMT. We performed a GW meta-analysis of toenail Se concentrations, which reflect a longer duration of exposure than blood Se concentrations, including 4162 European descendants from four US cohorts. Toenail Se was measured using neutron activation analysis. We identified a GW-significant locus at 5q14 (P < 1 × 10(-16)), the same locus identified in the published GWAS of blood Se based on independent cohorts. The lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) explained ∼1% of the variance in toenail Se concentrations. Using GW-summary statistics from both toenail and blood Se, we observed statistical evidence of polygenic overlap (P < 0.001) and meta-analysis of results from studies of either trait (n = 9639) yielded a second GW-significant locus at 21q22.3, harboring CBS (P < 4 × 10(-8)). Proteins encoded by genes at 5q14 and 21q22.3 function in homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism, and index SNPs for each have previously been associated with betaine and Hcy levels in GWAS. Our findings show evidence of a genetic link between Se and Hcy pathways, both involved in cardiometabolic disease. PMID:25343990

  17. Genome-wide association studies in pharmacogenetics research debate

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kent R; Cheng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Will genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ‘work’ for pharmacogenetics research? This question was the topic of a staged debate, with pro and con sides, aimed to bring out the strengths and weaknesses of GWAS for pharmacogenetics studies. After a full day of seminars at the Fifth Statistical Analysis Workshop of the Pharmacogenetics Research Network, the lively debate was held – appropriately – at Goonies Comedy Club in Rochester (MN, USA). The pro side emphasized that the many GWAS successes for identifying genetic variants associated with disease risk show that it works; that the current genotyping platforms are efficient, with good imputation methods to fill in missing data; that its global assessment is always a success even if no significant associations are detected; and that genetic effects are likely to be large because humans have not evolved in a drug-therapy environment. By contrast, the con side emphasized that we have limited knowledge of the complexity of the genome; limited clinical phenotypes compromise studies; the likely multifactorial nature of drug response clouding the small genetic effects; and limitations of sample size and replication studies in pharmacogenetic studies. Lively and insightful discussions emphasized further research efforts that might benefit GWAS in pharmacogenetics. PMID:20235786

  18. Genome-Wide Association Studies in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Gulamhusein, Aliya F; Juran, Brian D; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2015-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been a significant technological advance in our ability to evaluate the genetic architecture of complex diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). To date, six large-scale studies have been performed that have identified 27 risk loci in addition to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associated with PBC. The identified risk variants emphasize important disease concepts; namely, that disturbances in immunoregulatory pathways are important in the pathogenesis of PBC and that such perturbations are shared among a diverse number of autoimmune diseases-suggesting the risk architecture may confer a generalized propensity to autoimmunity not necessarily specific to PBC. Furthermore, the impact of non-HLA risk variants, particularly in genes involved with interleukin-12 signaling, and ethnic variation in conferring susceptibility to PBC have been highlighted. Although GWASs have been a critical stepping stone in understanding common genetic variation contributing to PBC, limitations pertaining to power, sample availability, and strong linkage disequilibrium across genes have left us with an incomplete understanding of the genetic underpinnings of disease pathogenesis. Future efforts to gain insight into this missing heritability, the genetic variation that contributes to important disease outcomes, and the functional consequences of associated variants will be critical if practical clinical translation is to be realized. PMID:26676814

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis of Human Metapneumovirus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Il; Park, Sehee; Lee, Ilseob; Park, Kwang Sook; Kwak, Eun Jung; Moon, Kwang Mee; Lee, Chang Kyu; Bae, Joon-Yong; Park, Man-Seong; Song, Ki-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has been described as an important etiologic agent of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, especially in young children and the elderly. Most of school-aged children might be introduced to HMPVs, and exacerbation with other viral or bacterial super-infection is common. However, our understanding of the molecular evolution of HMPVs remains limited. To address the comprehensive evolutionary dynamics of HMPVs, we report a genome-wide analysis of the eight genes (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G, and L) using 103 complete genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that the eight genes from one HMPV strain grouped into the same genetic group among the five distinct lineages (A1, A2a, A2b, B1, and B2). A few exceptions of phylogenetic incongruence might suggest past recombination events, and we detected possible recombination breakpoints in the F, SH, and G coding regions. The five genetic lineages of HMPVs shared quite remote common ancestors ranging more than 220 to 470 years of age with the most recent origins for the A2b sublineage. Purifying selection was common, but most protein genes except the F and M2-2 coding regions also appeared to experience episodic diversifying selection. Taken together, these suggest that the five lineages of HMPVs maintain their individual evolutionary dynamics and that recombination and selection forces might work on shaping the genetic diversity of HMPVs. PMID:27046055

  20. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human epidermal melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Haltaufderhyde, Kirk D.; Oancea, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Because human epidermal melanocytes (HEMs) provide critical protection against skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging, a genome-wide perspective of gene expression in these cells is vital to understanding human skin physiology. In this study we performed high throughput sequencing of HEMs to obtain a complete data set of transcript sizes, abundances, and splicing. As expected, we found that melanocyte specific genes that function in pigmentation were among the highest expressed genes. We analyzed receptor, ion channel and transcription factor gene families to get a better understanding of the cell signalling pathways used by melanocytes. We also performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of lightly versus darkly pigmented HEMs and found 16 genes differentially expressed in the two pigmentation phenotypes; of those, only one putative melanosomal transporter (SLC45A2) has known function in pigmentation. In addition, we found 166 genes with splice isoforms expressed exclusively in one pigmentation phenotype, 17 of which are genes involved in signal transduction. Our melanocyte transcriptome study provides a comprehensive view and may help identify novel pigmentation genes and potential pharmacological targets. PMID:25451175

  1. Genome-wide linkage-disequilibrium profiles from single individuals.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; Xu, Sen; Maruki, Takahiro; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Pfaffelhuber, Peter; Haubold, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Although the analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) plays a central role in many areas of population genetics, the sampling variance of LD is known to be very large with high sensitivity to numbers of nucleotide sites and individuals sampled. Here we show that a genome-wide analysis of the distribution of heterozygous sites within a single diploid genome can yield highly informative patterns of LD as a function of physical distance. The proposed statistic, the correlation of zygosity, is closely related to the conventional population-level measure of LD, but is agnostic with respect to allele frequencies and hence likely less prone to outlier artifacts. Application of the method to several vertebrate species leads to the conclusion that >80% of recombination events are typically resolved by gene-conversion-like processes unaccompanied by crossovers, with the average lengths of conversion patches being on the order of one to several kilobases in length. Thus, contrary to common assumptions, the recombination rate between sites does not scale linearly with distance, often even up to distances of 100 kb. In addition, the amount of LD between sites separated by <200 bp is uniformly much greater than can be explained by the conventional neutral model, possibly because of the nonindependent origin of mutations within this spatial scale. These results raise questions about the application of conventional population-genetic interpretations to LD on short spatial scales and also about the use of spatial patterns of LD to infer demographic histories. PMID:24948778

  2. Genome-Wide Discriminatory Information Patterns of Cytosine DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a highly abundant, heritable but reversible chemical modification to the genome. Herein, a machine learning approach was applied to analyze the accumulation of epigenetic marks in methylomes of 152 ecotypes and 85 silencing mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In an information-thermodynamics framework, two measurements were used: (1) the amount of information gained/lost with the CDM changes IR and (2) the uncertainty of not observing a SNP LCR. We hypothesize that epigenetic marks are chromosomal footprints accounting for different ontogenetic and phylogenetic histories of individual populations. A machine learning approach is proposed to verify this hypothesis. Results support the hypothesis by the existence of discriminatory information (DI) patterns of CDM able to discriminate between individuals and between individual subpopulations. The statistical analyses revealed a strong association between the topologies of the structured population of Arabidopsis ecotypes based on IR and on LCR, respectively. A statistical-physical relationship between IR and LCR was also found. Results to date imply that the genome-wide distribution of CDM changes is not only part of the biological signal created by the methylation regulatory machinery, but ensures the stability of the DNA molecule, preserving the integrity of the genetic message under continuous stress from thermal fluctuations in the cell environment. PMID:27322251

  3. Genome-wide identification and quantification of cis- and trans-regulated genes responding to Marek's disease virus infection via analysis of allele-specific expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Marek’s disease (MD) is a commercially important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), a naturally-occurring oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. We attempted to identify genes conferring MD resistance, by completing a genome-wide screen for allele-specific expr...

  4. Genome-Wide Prediction of Vaccine Candidates for Leishmania major: An Integrated Approach

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satarudra Prakash; Roopendra, Kriti; Mishra, Bhartendu Nath

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wealth of information regarding genetics of the causative parasite and experimental immunology of the cutaneous leishmaniasis, there is currently no licensed vaccine against it. In the current study, a two-level data mining strategy was employed, to screen the Leishmania major genome for promising vaccine candidates. First, we screened a set of 25 potential antigens from 8312 protein coding sequences, based on presence of signal peptides, GPI anchors, and consensus antigenicity predictions. Second, we conducted a comprehensive immunogenic analysis of the 25 antigens based on epitopes predicted by NetCTL tool. Interestingly, results revealed that candidate antigen number 1 (LmjF.03.0550) had greater number of potential T cell epitopes, as compared to five well-characterized control antigens (CSP-Plasmodium falciparum, M1 and NP-Influenza A virus, core protein-Hepatitis B virus, and PSTA1-Mycobacterium tuberculosis). In order to determine an optimal set of epitopes among the highest scoring predicted epitopes, the OptiTope tool was employed for populations susceptible to cutaneous leishmaniasis. The epitope (127SLWSLLAGV) from antigen number 1, found to bind with the most prevalent allele HLA-A⁎0201 (25% frequency in Southwest Asia), was predicted as most immunogenic for all the target populations. Thus, our study reasserts the potential of genome-wide screening of pathogen antigens and epitopes, for identification of promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26681959

  5. Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Bharucha, Nikë; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis is an effective method for generating large sets of random mutations in target DNA, with applicability toward numerous types of genetic screens in prokaryotes, single-celled eukaryotes, and metazoans alike. Relative to methods of random mutagenesis by chemical/UV treatment, transposon insertions can be easily identified in mutants with phenotypes of interest. The construction of transposon insertion mutants is also less labor-intensive on a genome-wide scale than methods for targeted gene replacement, although transposon insertions are not precisely targeted to a specific residue, and thus coverage of the target DNA can be problematic. The collective advantages of transposon mutagenesis have been well demonstrated in studies of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, as transposon mutagenesis has been used extensively for phenotypic screens in both yeasts. Consequently, we present here protocols for the generation and utilization of transposon-insertion DNA libraries in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans. Specifically, we present methods for the large-scale introduction of transposon insertion alleles in a desired strain of S. cerevisiae. Methods are also presented for transposon mutagenesis of C. albicans, encompassing both the construction of the plasmid-based transposon-mutagenized DNA library and its introduction into a desired strain of Candida. In total, these methods provide the necessary information to implement transposon mutagenesis in yeast, enabling the construction of large sets of identifiable gene disruption mutations, with particular utility for phenotypic screening in nonstandard genetic backgrounds. PMID:21815095

  6. Genome-wide promoter methylation analysis in neuroblastoma identifies prognostic methylation biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate outcome prediction in neuroblastoma, which is necessary to enable the optimal choice of risk-related therapy, remains a challenge. To improve neuroblastoma patient stratification, this study aimed to identify prognostic tumor DNA methylation biomarkers. Results To identify genes silenced by promoter methylation, we first applied two independent genome-wide methylation screening methodologies to eight neuroblastoma cell lines. Specifically, we used re-expression profiling upon 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) treatment and massively parallel sequencing after capturing with a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD-seq). Putative methylation markers were selected from DAC-upregulated genes through a literature search and an upfront methylation-specific PCR on 20 primary neuroblastoma tumors, as well as through MBD- seq in combination with publicly available neuroblastoma tumor gene expression data. This yielded 43 candidate biomarkers that were subsequently tested by high-throughput methylation-specific PCR on an independent cohort of 89 primary neuroblastoma tumors that had been selected for risk classification and survival. Based on this analysis, methylation of KRT19, FAS, PRPH, CNR1, QPCT, HIST1H3C, ACSS3 and GRB10 was found to be associated with at least one of the classical risk factors, namely age, stage or MYCN status. Importantly, HIST1H3C and GNAS methylation was associated with overall and/or event-free survival. Conclusions This study combines two genome-wide methylation discovery methodologies and is the most extensive validation study in neuroblastoma performed thus far. We identified several novel prognostic DNA methylation markers and provide a basis for the development of a DNA methylation-based prognostic classifier in neuroblastoma. PMID:23034519

  7. Perspectives Do Matter: "Joint Screen", a Promising Methodology for Multimodal Interaction Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Béatrice; Sunnen, Patrick; Fixmer, Pierre; Sujbert, Monika

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses theoretical and methodological issues arising from a video-based research design and the emergent tool "Joint Screen'"when grasping joint activity. We share our reflections regarding the combined reading of four synchronised camera perspectives combined in one screen. By these means we reconstruct and analyse…

  8. Improved Statistics for Genome-Wide Interaction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Masao; Cordell, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Wu and colleagues [1] proposed two novel statistics for genome-wide interaction analysis using case/control or case-only data. In computer simulations, their proposed case/control statistic outperformed competing approaches, including the fast-epistasis option in PLINK and logistic regression analysis under the correct model; however, reasons for its superior performance were not fully explored. Here we investigate the theoretical properties and performance of Wu et al.'s proposed statistics and explain why, in some circumstances, they outperform competing approaches. Unfortunately, we find minor errors in the formulae for their statistics, resulting in tests that have higher than nominal type 1 error. We also find minor errors in PLINK's fast-epistasis and case-only statistics, although theory and simulations suggest that these errors have only negligible effect on type 1 error. We propose adjusted versions of all four statistics that, both theoretically and in computer simulations, maintain correct type 1 error rates under the null hypothesis. We also investigate statistics based on correlation coefficients that maintain similar control of type 1 error. Although designed to test specifically for interaction, we show that some of these previously-proposed statistics can, in fact, be sensitive to main effects at one or both loci, particularly in the presence of linkage disequilibrium. We propose two new “joint effects” statistics that, provided the disease is rare, are sensitive only to genuine interaction effects. In computer simulations we find, in most situations considered, that highest power is achieved by analysis under the correct genetic model. Such an analysis is unachievable in practice, as we do not know this model. However, generally high power over a wide range of scenarios is exhibited by our joint effects and adjusted Wu statistics. We recommend use of these alternative or adjusted statistics and urge caution when using Wu et al

  9. Genome-wide association study of sleep in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep is a highly conserved behavior, yet its duration and pattern vary extensively among species and between individuals within species. The genetic basis of natural variation in sleep remains unknown. Results We used the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to perform a genome-wide association (GWA) study of sleep in D. melanogaster. We identified candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with differences in the mean as well as the environmental sensitivity of sleep traits; these SNPs typically had sex-specific or sex-biased effects, and were generally located in non-coding regions. The majority of SNPs (80.3%) affecting sleep were at low frequency and had moderately large effects. Additive models incorporating multiple SNPs explained as much as 55% of the genetic variance for sleep in males and females. Many of these loci are known to interact physically and/or genetically, enabling us to place them in candidate genetic networks. We confirmed the role of seven novel loci on sleep using insertional mutagenesis and RNA interference. Conclusions We identified many SNPs in novel loci that are potentially associated with natural variation in sleep, as well as SNPs within genes previously known to affect Drosophila sleep. Several of the candidate genes have human homologues that were identified in studies of human sleep, suggesting that genes affecting variation in sleep are conserved across species. Our discovery of genetic variants that influence environmental sensitivity to sleep may have a wider application to all GWA studies, because individuals with highly plastic genotypes will not have consistent phenotypes. PMID:23617951

  10. Genome-wide activities of Polycomb complexes control pervasive transcription.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hun-Goo; Kahn, Tatyana G; Simcox, Amanda; Schwartz, Yuri B; Pirrotta, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes PRC1 and PRC2 are well known for silencing specific developmental genes. PRC2 is a methyltransferase targeting histone H3K27 and producing H3K27me3, essential for stable silencing. Less well known but quantitatively much more important is the genome-wide role of PRC2 that dimethylates ∼70% of total H3K27. We show that H3K27me2 occurs in inverse proportion to transcriptional activity in most non-PcG target genes and intergenic regions and is governed by opposing roaming activities of PRC2 and complexes containing the H3K27 demethylase UTX. Surprisingly, loss of H3K27me2 results in global transcriptional derepression proportionally greatest in silent or weakly transcribed intergenic and genic regions and accompanied by an increase of H3K27ac and H3K4me1. H3K27me2 therefore sets a threshold that prevents random, unscheduled transcription all over the genome and even limits the activity of highly transcribed genes. PRC1-type complexes also have global roles. Unexpectedly, we find a pervasive distribution of histone H2A ubiquitylated at lysine 118 (H2AK118ub) outside of canonical PcG target regions, dependent on the RING/Sce subunit of PRC1-type complexes. We show, however, that H2AK118ub does not mediate the global PRC2 activity or the global repression and is predominantly produced by a new complex involving L(3)73Ah, a homolog of mammalian PCGF3. PMID:25986499

  11. Genome-wide signatures of convergent evolution in echolocating mammals

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Joe; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Cotton, James A.; Liu, Yuan; Provero, Paolo; Stupka, Elia; Rossiter, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Evolution is typically thought to proceed through divergence of genes, proteins, and ultimately phenotypes1-3. However, similar traits might also evolve convergently in unrelated taxa due to similar selection pressures4,5. Adaptive phenotypic convergence is widespread in nature, and recent results from a handful of genes have suggested that this phenomenon is powerful enough to also drive recurrent evolution at the sequence level6-9. Where homoplasious substitutions do occur these have long been considered the result of neutral processes. However, recent studies have demonstrated that adaptive convergent sequence evolution can be detected in vertebrates using statistical methods that model parallel evolution9,10 although the extent to which sequence convergence between genera occurs across genomes is unknown. Here we analyse genomic sequence data in mammals that have independently evolved echolocation and show for the first time that convergence is not a rare process restricted to a handful of loci but is instead widespread, continuously distributed and commonly driven by natural selection acting on a small number of sites per locus. Systematic analyses of convergent sequence evolution in 805,053 amino acids within 2,326 orthologous coding gene sequences compared across 22 mammals (including four new bat genomes) revealed signatures consistent with convergence in nearly 200 loci. Strong and significant support for convergence among bats and the dolphin was seen in numerous genes linked to hearing or deafness, consistent with an involvement in echolocation. Surprisingly we also found convergence in many genes linked to vision: the convergent signal of many sensory genes was robustly correlated with the strength of natural selection. This first attempt to detect genome-wide convergent sequence evolution across divergent taxa reveals the phenomenon to be much more pervasive than previously recognised. PMID:24005325

  12. Genome-wide signatures of convergent evolution in echolocating mammals.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joe; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Cotton, James A; Liu, Yuan; Provero, Paolo; Stupka, Elia; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2013-10-10

    Evolution is typically thought to proceed through divergence of genes, proteins and ultimately phenotypes. However, similar traits might also evolve convergently in unrelated taxa owing to similar selection pressures. Adaptive phenotypic convergence is widespread in nature, and recent results from several genes have suggested that this phenomenon is powerful enough to also drive recurrent evolution at the sequence level. Where homoplasious substitutions do occur these have long been considered the result of neutral processes. However, recent studies have demonstrated that adaptive convergent sequence evolution can be detected in vertebrates using statistical methods that model parallel evolution, although the extent to which sequence convergence between genera occurs across genomes is unknown. Here we analyse genomic sequence data in mammals that have independently evolved echolocation and show that convergence is not a rare process restricted to several loci but is instead widespread, continuously distributed and commonly driven by natural selection acting on a small number of sites per locus. Systematic analyses of convergent sequence evolution in 805,053 amino acids within 2,326 orthologous coding gene sequences compared across 22 mammals (including four newly sequenced bat genomes) revealed signatures consistent with convergence in nearly 200 loci. Strong and significant support for convergence among bats and the bottlenose dolphin was seen in numerous genes linked to hearing or deafness, consistent with an involvement in echolocation. Unexpectedly, we also found convergence in many genes linked to vision: the convergent signal of many sensory genes was robustly correlated with the strength of natural selection. This first attempt to detect genome-wide convergent sequence evolution across divergent taxa reveals the phenomenon to be much more pervasive than previously recognized. PMID:24005325

  13. Genome-wide characteristics of de novo mutations in autism

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Ryan K C; Merico, Daniele; Cao, Hongzhi; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Alipanahi, Babak; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Tong, Xin; Sun, Yuhui; Cao, Dandan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Xueli; Jin, Xin; Zhou, Ze; Liu, Xiaomin; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Walker, Susan; Howe, Jennifer L.; Wang, Zhuozhi; MacDonald, Jeffrey R.; Chan, Ada; D’Abate, Lia; Deneault, Eric; Siu, Michelle T.; Tammimies, Kristiina; Uddin, Mohammed; Zarrei, Mehdi; Wang, Mingbang; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Bookman, Matt; Bingham, Jonathan; Gross, Samuel S.; Loy, Dion; Pletcher, Mathew; Marshall, Christian R.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Weksberg, Rosanna; Fernandez, Bridget A; Roberts, Wendy; Szatmari, Peter; Glazer, David; Frey, Brendan J.; Ring, Robert H.; Xu, Xun; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    De novo mutations (DNMs) are important in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but so far analyses have mainly been on the ~1.5% of the genome encoding genes. Here, we performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 200 ASD parent-child trios and characterized germline and somatic DNMs. We confirmed that the majority of germline DNMs (75.6%) originated from the father, and these increased significantly with paternal age only (p=4.2×10−10). However, when clustered DNMs (those within 20kb) were found in ASD, not only did they mostly originate from the mother (p=7.7×10−13), but they could also be found adjacent to de novo copy number variations (CNVs) where the mutation rate was significantly elevated (p=2.4×10−24). By comparing DNMs detected in controls, we found a significant enrichment of predicted damaging DNMs in ASD cases (p=8.0×10−9; OR=1.84), of which 15.6% (p=4.3×10−3) and 22.5% (p=7.0×10−5) were in the non-coding or genic non-coding, respectively. The non-coding elements most enriched for DNM were untranslated regions of genes, boundaries involved in exon-skipping and DNase I hypersensitive regions. Using microarrays and a novel outlier detection test, we also found aberrant methylation profiles in 2/185 (1.1%) of ASD cases. These same individuals carried independently identified DNMs in the ASD risk- and epigenetic- genes DNMT3A and ADNP. Our data begins to characterize different genome-wide DNMs, and highlight the contribution of non-coding variants, to the etiology of ASD. PMID:27525107

  14. Multicentric Genome-Wide Association Study for Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Inês; Abrantes, Patrícia; Francisco, Vânia; Teixeira, Gilberto; Monteiro, Marta; Neves, João; Norte, Ana; Robalo Cordeiro, Carlos; Moura E Sá, João; Reis, Ernestina; Santos, Patrícia; Oliveira, Manuela; Sousa, Susana; Fradinho, Marta; Malheiro, Filipa; Negrão, Luís; Feijó, Salvato; Oliveira, Sofia A

    2016-01-01

    Despite elevated incidence and recurrence rates for Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax (PSP), little is known about its etiology, and the genetics of idiopathic PSP remains unexplored. To identify genetic variants contributing to sporadic PSP risk, we conducted the first PSP genome-wide association study. Two replicate pools of 92 Portuguese PSP cases and of 129 age- and sex-matched controls were allelotyped in triplicate on the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 arrays. Markers passing quality control were ranked by relative allele score difference between cases and controls (|RASdiff|), by a novel cluster method and by a combined Z-test. 101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected using these three approaches for technical validation by individual genotyping in the discovery dataset. 87 out of 94 successfully tested SNPs were nominally associated in the discovery dataset. Replication of the 87 technically validated SNPs was then carried out in an independent replication dataset of 100 Portuguese cases and 425 controls. The intergenic rs4733649 SNP in chromosome 8 (between LINC00824 and LINC00977) was associated with PSP in the discovery (P = 4.07E-03, ORC[95% CI] = 1.88[1.22-2.89]), replication (P = 1.50E-02, ORC[95% CI] = 1.50[1.08-2.09]) and combined datasets (P = 8.61E-05, ORC[95% CI] = 1.65[1.29-2.13]). This study identified for the first time one genetic risk factor for sporadic PSP, but future studies are warranted to further confirm this finding in other populations and uncover its functional role in PSP pathogenesis. PMID:27203581

  15. Genome-Wide Architecture of Disease Resistance Genes in Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Christopoulou, Marilena; Wo, Sebastian Reyes-Chin; Kozik, Alex; McHale, Leah K; Truco, Maria-Jose; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Michelmore, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Genome-wide motif searches identified 1134 genes in the lettuce reference genome of cv. Salinas that are potentially involved in pathogen recognition, of which 385 were predicted to encode nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat receptor (NLR) proteins. Using a maximum-likelihood approach, we grouped the NLRs into 25 multigene families and 17 singletons. Forty-one percent of these NLR-encoding genes belong to three families, the largest being RGC16 with 62 genes in cv. Salinas. The majority of NLR-encoding genes are located in five major resistance clusters (MRCs) on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 and cosegregate with multiple disease resistance phenotypes. Most MRCs contain primarily members of a single NLR gene family but a few are more complex. MRC2 spans 73 Mb and contains 61 NLRs of six different gene families that cosegregate with nine disease resistance phenotypes. MRC3, which is 25 Mb, contains 22 RGC21 genes and colocates with Dm13. A library of 33 transgenic RNA interference tester stocks was generated for functional analysis of NLR-encoding genes that cosegregated with disease resistance phenotypes in each of the MRCs. Members of four NLR-encoding families, RGC1, RGC2, RGC21, and RGC12 were shown to be required for 16 disease resistance phenotypes in lettuce. The general composition of MRCs is conserved across different genotypes; however, the specific repertoire of NLR-encoding genes varied particularly of the rapidly evolving Type I genes. These tester stocks are valuable resources for future analyses of additional resistance phenotypes. PMID:26449254

  16. Genome-wide survey for biologically functional pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Orjan; Arvestad, Lars; Lagergren, Jens

    2006-05-01

    According to current estimates there exist about 20,000 pseudogenes in a mammalian genome. The vast majority of these are disabled and nonfunctional copies of protein-coding genes which, therefore, evolve neutrally. Recent findings that a Makorin1 pseudogene, residing on mouse Chromosome 5, is, indeed, in vivo vital and also evolutionarily preserved, encouraged us to conduct a genome-wide survey for other functional pseudogenes in human, mouse, and chimpanzee. We identify to our knowledge the first examples of conserved pseudogenes common to human and mouse, originating from one duplication predating the human-mouse species split and having evolved as pseudogenes since the species split. Functionality is one possible way to explain the apparently contradictory properties of such pseudogene pairs, i.e., high conservation and ancient origin. The hypothesis of functionality is tested by comparing expression evidence and synteny of the candidates with proper test sets. The tests suggest potential biological function. Our candidate set includes a small set of long-lived pseudogenes whose unknown potential function is retained since before the human-mouse species split, and also a larger group of primate-specific ones found from human-chimpanzee searches. Two processed sequences are notable, their conservation since the human-mouse split being as high as most protein-coding genes; one is derived from the protein Ataxin 7-like 3 (ATX7NL3), and one from the Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 protein (ATX1). Our approach is comparative and can be applied to any pair of species. It is implemented by a semi-automated pipeline based on cross-species BLAST comparisons and maximum-likelihood phylogeny estimations. To separate pseudogenes from protein-coding genes, we use standard methods, utilizing in-frame disablements, as well as a probabilistic filter based on Ka/Ks ratios. PMID:16680195

  17. Mosaic paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Diana; Atwal, Paldeep Singh; Angell, Cathy; Gadi, Inder; Wallerstein, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We report on a 6-month-old girl with two apparent cell lines; one with trisomy 21, and the other with paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy (GWUPiD), identified using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based microarray and microsatellite analysis of polymorphic loci. The patient has Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) due to paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) at chromosome location 11p15 (UPD 11p15), which was confirmed through methylation analysis. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is present, which is associated with paternal UPD 11p15.5; and she likely has medullary nephrocalcinosis, which is associated with paternal UPD 20, although this was not biochemically confirmed. Angelman syndrome (AS) analysis was negative but this testing is not completely informative; she has no specific features of AS. Clinical features of this patient include: dysmorphic features consistent with trisomy 21, tetralogy of Fallot, hemihypertrophy, swirled skin hyperpigmentation, hepatoblastoma, and Wilms tumor. Her karyotype is 47,XX,+21[19]/46,XX[4], and microarray results suggest that the cell line with trisomy 21 is biparentally inherited and represents 40-50% of the genomic material in the tested specimen. The difference in the level of cytogenetically detected mosaicism versus the level of mosaicism observed via microarray analysis is likely caused by differences in the test methodologies. While a handful of cases of mosaic paternal GWUPiD have been reported, this patient is the only reported case that also involves trisomy 21. Other GWUPiD patients have presented with features associated with multiple imprinted regions, as does our patient. PMID:26219535

  18. Genome-wide metabolic (re-) annotation of Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even before having its genome sequence published in 2004, Kluyveromyces lactis had long been considered a model organism for studies in genetics and physiology. Research on Kluyveromyces lactis is quite advanced and this yeast species is one of the few with which it is possible to perform formal genetic analysis. Nevertheless, until now, no complete metabolic functional annotation has been performed to the proteins encoded in the Kluyveromyces lactis genome. Results In this work, a new metabolic genome-wide functional re-annotation of the proteins encoded in the Kluyveromyces lactis genome was performed, resulting in the annotation of 1759 genes with metabolic functions, and the development of a methodology supported by merlin (software developed in-house). The new annotation includes novelties, such as the assignment of transporter superfamily numbers to genes identified as transporter proteins. Thus, the genes annotated with metabolic functions could be exclusively enzymatic (1410 genes), transporter proteins encoding genes (301 genes) or have both metabolic activities (48 genes). The new annotation produced by this work largely surpassed the Kluyveromyces lactis currently available annotations. A comparison with KEGG’s annotation revealed a match with 844 (~90%) of the genes annotated by KEGG, while adding 850 new gene annotations. Moreover, there are 32 genes with annotations different from KEGG. Conclusions The methodology developed throughout this work can be used to re-annotate any yeast or, with a little tweak of the reference organism, the proteins encoded in any sequenced genome. The new annotation provided by this study offers basic knowledge which might be useful for the scientific community working on this model yeast, because new functions have been identified for the so-called metabolic genes. Furthermore, it served as the basis for the reconstruction of a compartmentalized, genome-scale metabolic model of Kluyveromyces lactis, which is

  19. Genome-wide analyses of human perisylvian cerebral cortical patterning

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, B. S.; Tentler, D.; Perederiy, J. V.; Oldham, M. C.; Coppola, G.; Geschwind, D. H.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the well established role of the frontal and posterior perisylvian cortices in many facets of human-cognitive specializations, including language, little is known about the developmental patterning of these regions in the human brain. We performed a genome-wide analysis of human cerebral patterning during midgestation, a critical epoch in cortical regionalization. A total of 345 genes were identified as differentially expressed between superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the remaining cerebral cortex. Gene ontology categories representing transcription factors were enriched in STG, whereas cell-adhesion and extracellular matrix molecules were enriched in the other cortical regions. Quantitative RT-PCR or in situ hybridization was performed to validate differential expression in a subset of 32 genes, most of which were confirmed. LIM domain-binding 1 (LDB1), which we show to be enriched in the STG, is a recently identified interactor of LIM domain only 4 (LMO4), a gene known to be involved in the asymmetric pattering of the perisylvian region in the developing human brain. Protocadherin 17 (PCDH17), a neuronal cell adhesion molecule, was highly enriched in focal regions of the human prefrontal cortex. Contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2), in which mutations are known to cause autism, epilepsy, and language delay, showed a remarkable pattern of anterior-enriched cortical expression in human that was not observed in mouse or rat. These data highlight the importance of expression analysis of human brain and the utility of cross-species comparisons of gene expression. Genes identified here provide a foundation for understanding molecular aspects of human-cognitive specializations and the disorders that disrupt them. PMID:17978184

  20. Genome-Wide Approaches for RNA Structure Probing.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ian M; Berkowitz, Nathan D; Gosai, Sager J; Gregory, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    RNA molecules of all types fold into complex secondary and tertiary structures that are important for their function and regulation. Structural and catalytic RNAs such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) are central players in protein synthesis, and only function through their proper folding into intricate three-dimensional structures. Studies of messenger RNA (mRNA) regulation have also revealed that structural elements embedded within these RNA species are important for the proper regulation of their total level in the transcriptome. More recently, the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has shed light on the importance of RNA structure to genome, transcriptome, and proteome regulation. Due to the relatively small number, high conservation, and importance of structural and catalytic RNAs to all life, much early work in RNA structure analysis mapped out a detailed view of these molecules. Computational and physical methods were used in concert with enzymatic and chemical structure probing to create high-resolution models of these fundamental biological molecules. However, the recent expansion in our knowledge of the importance of RNA structure to coding and regulatory RNAs has left the field in need of faster and scalable methods for high-throughput structural analysis. To address this, nuclease and chemical RNA structure probing methodologies have been adapted for genome-wide analysis. These methods have been deployed to globally characterize thousands of RNA structures in a single experiment. Here, we review these experimental methodologies for high-throughput RNA structure determination and discuss the insights gained from each approach. PMID:27256381

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study of Proneness to Anger

    PubMed Central

    Mick, Eric; McGough, James; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Frazier, Jean A.; Kennedy, David; Goldberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Community samples suggest that approximately 1 in 20 children and adults exhibit clinically significant anger, hostility, and aggression. Individuals with dysregulated emotional control have a greater lifetime burden of psychiatric morbidity, severe impairment in role functioning, and premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Methods With publically available data secured from dbGaP, we conducted a genome-wide association study of proneness to anger using the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Scale in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (n = 8,747). Results Subjects were, on average, 54 (range 45–64) years old at baseline enrollment, 47% (n = 4,117) were male, and all were of European descent by self-report. The mean Angry Temperament and Angry Reaction scores were 5.8±1.8 and 7.6±2.2. We observed a nominally significant finding (p = 2.9E-08, λ = 1.027 - corrected pgc = 2.2E-07, λ = 1.0015) on chromosome 6q21 in the gene coding for the non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase, Fyn. Conclusions Fyn interacts with NDMA receptors and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-gated channels to regulate calcium influx and intracellular release in the post-synaptic density. These results suggest that signaling pathways regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis, which are relevant to memory, learning, and neuronal survival, may in part underlie the expression of Angry Temperament. PMID:24489884

  2. Bioinformatics challenges for genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jason H.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: The sequencing of the human genome has made it possible to identify an informative set of >1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome that can be used to carry out genome-wide association studies (GWASs). The availability of massive amounts of GWAS data has necessitated the development of new biostatistical methods for quality control, imputation and analysis issues including multiple testing. This work has been successful and has enabled the discovery of new associations that have been replicated in multiple studies. However, it is now recognized that most SNPs discovered via GWAS have small effects on disease susceptibility and thus may not be suitable for improving health care through genetic testing. One likely explanation for the mixed results of GWAS is that the current biostatistical analysis paradigm is by design agnostic or unbiased in that it ignores all prior knowledge about disease pathobiology. Further, the linear modeling framework that is employed in GWAS often considers only one SNP at a time thus ignoring their genomic and environmental context. There is now a shift away from the biostatistical approach toward a more holistic approach that recognizes the complexity of the genotype–phenotype relationship that is characterized by significant heterogeneity and gene–gene and gene–environment interaction. We argue here that bioinformatics has an important role to play in addressing the complexity of the underlying genetic basis of common human diseases. The goal of this review is to identify and discuss those GWAS challenges that will require computational methods. Contact: jason.h.moore@dartmouth.edu PMID:20053841

  3. Genome-Wide Architecture of Disease Resistance Genes in Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Christopoulou, Marilena; Wo, Sebastian Reyes-Chin; Kozik, Alex; McHale, Leah K.; Truco, Maria-Jose; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Michelmore, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide motif searches identified 1134 genes in the lettuce reference genome of cv. Salinas that are potentially involved in pathogen recognition, of which 385 were predicted to encode nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat receptor (NLR) proteins. Using a maximum-likelihood approach, we grouped the NLRs into 25 multigene families and 17 singletons. Forty-one percent of these NLR-encoding genes belong to three families, the largest being RGC16 with 62 genes in cv. Salinas. The majority of NLR-encoding genes are located in five major resistance clusters (MRCs) on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 and cosegregate with multiple disease resistance phenotypes. Most MRCs contain primarily members of a single NLR gene family but a few are more complex. MRC2 spans 73 Mb and contains 61 NLRs of six different gene families that cosegregate with nine disease resistance phenotypes. MRC3, which is 25 Mb, contains 22 RGC21 genes and colocates with Dm13. A library of 33 transgenic RNA interference tester stocks was generated for functional analysis of NLR-encoding genes that cosegregated with disease resistance phenotypes in each of the MRCs. Members of four NLR-encoding families, RGC1, RGC2, RGC21, and RGC12 were shown to be required for 16 disease resistance phenotypes in lettuce. The general composition of MRCs is conserved across different genotypes; however, the specific repertoire of NLR-encoding genes varied particularly of the rapidly evolving Type I genes. These tester stocks are valuable resources for future analyses of additional resistance phenotypes. PMID:26449254

  4. Multicentric Genome-Wide Association Study for Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, Patrícia; Francisco, Vânia; Teixeira, Gilberto; Monteiro, Marta; Neves, João; Norte, Ana; Robalo Cordeiro, Carlos; Moura e Sá, João; Reis, Ernestina; Santos, Patrícia; Oliveira, Manuela; Sousa, Susana; Fradinho, Marta; Malheiro, Filipa; Negrão, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Despite elevated incidence and recurrence rates for Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax (PSP), little is known about its etiology, and the genetics of idiopathic PSP remains unexplored. To identify genetic variants contributing to sporadic PSP risk, we conducted the first PSP genome-wide association study. Two replicate pools of 92 Portuguese PSP cases and of 129 age- and sex-matched controls were allelotyped in triplicate on the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 arrays. Markers passing quality control were ranked by relative allele score difference between cases and controls (|RASdiff|), by a novel cluster method and by a combined Z-test. 101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected using these three approaches for technical validation by individual genotyping in the discovery dataset. 87 out of 94 successfully tested SNPs were nominally associated in the discovery dataset. Replication of the 87 technically validated SNPs was then carried out in an independent replication dataset of 100 Portuguese cases and 425 controls. The intergenic rs4733649 SNP in chromosome 8 (between LINC00824 and LINC00977) was associated with PSP in the discovery (P = 4.07E-03, ORC[95% CI] = 1.88[1.22–2.89]), replication (P = 1.50E-02, ORC[95% CI] = 1.50[1.08–2.09]) and combined datasets (P = 8.61E-05, ORC[95% CI] = 1.65[1.29–2.13]). This study identified for the first time one genetic risk factor for sporadic PSP, but future studies are warranted to further confirm this finding in other populations and uncover its functional role in PSP pathogenesis. PMID:27203581

  5. Assessing statistical significance in multivariable genome wide association analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buzdugan, Laura; Kalisch, Markus; Navarro, Arcadi; Schunk, Daniel; Fehr, Ernst; Bühlmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Although Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) genotype a very large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the data are often analyzed one SNP at a time. The low predictive power of single SNPs, coupled with the high significance threshold needed to correct for multiple testing, greatly decreases the power of GWAS. Results: We propose a procedure in which all the SNPs are analyzed in a multiple generalized linear model, and we show its use for extremely high-dimensional datasets. Our method yields P-values for assessing significance of single SNPs or groups of SNPs while controlling for all other SNPs and the family wise error rate (FWER). Thus, our method tests whether or not a SNP carries any additional information about the phenotype beyond that available by all the other SNPs. This rules out spurious correlations between phenotypes and SNPs that can arise from marginal methods because the ‘spuriously correlated’ SNP merely happens to be correlated with the ‘truly causal’ SNP. In addition, the method offers a data driven approach to identifying and refining groups of SNPs that jointly contain informative signals about the phenotype. We demonstrate the value of our method by applying it to the seven diseases analyzed by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC). We show, in particular, that our method is also capable of finding significant SNPs that were not identified in the original WTCCC study, but were replicated in other independent studies. Availability and implementation: Reproducibility of our research is supported by the open-source Bioconductor package hierGWAS. Contact: peter.buehlmann@stat.math.ethz.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153677

  6. Genome-wide profiling of Populus small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Short RNAs, and in particular microRNAs, are important regulators of gene expression both within defined regulatory pathways and at the epigenetic scale. We investigated the short RNA (sRNA) population (18-24 nt) of the transcriptome of green leaves from the sequenced Populus trichocarpa using a concatenation strategy in combination with 454 sequencing. Results The most abundant size class of sRNAs were 24 nt. Long Terminal Repeats were particularly associated with 24 nt sRNAs. Additionally, some repetitive elements were associated with 22 nt sRNAs. We identified an sRNA hot-spot on chromosome 19, overlapping a region containing both the proposed sex-determining locus and a major cluster of NBS-LRR genes. A number of phased siRNA loci were identified, a subset of which are predicted to target PPR and NBS-LRR disease resistance genes, classes of genes that have been significantly expanded in Populus. Additional loci enriched for sRNA production were identified and characterised. We identified 15 novel predicted microRNAs (miRNAs), including miRNA*sequences, and identified a novel locus that may encode a dual miRNA or a miRNA and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Conclusions The short RNA population of P. trichocarpa is at least as complex as that of Arabidopsis thaliana. We provide a first genome-wide view of short RNA production for P. trichocarpa and identify new, non-conserved miRNAs. PMID:20021695

  7. Occurrence of Breast Cancer After Chest Wall Irradiation for Pediatric Cancer, as Detected by a Multimodal Screening Program

    SciTech Connect

    Terenziani, Monica; Casalini, Patrizia; Scaperrotta, Gianfranco; Gandola, Lorenza; Trecate, Giovanna; Catania, Serena; Cefalo, Graziella; Conti, Alberto; Massimino, Maura; Meazza, Cristina; Podda, Marta; Spreafico, Filippo; Suman, Laura; Gennaro, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the occurrence of breast cancer (BC) after exposure to ionizing radiation for pediatric cancer, by means of a multimodal screening program. Patients and Methods: We identified 86 patients who had received chest wall radiation therapy for pediatric cancer. Clinical breast examination (CBE), ultrasound (US), and mammography (MX) were performed yearly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added as of October 2007. We calculated the risk of developing BC by radiation therapy dose, patient age, and menarche before or after primary treatment. Results: Eleven women developed a BC from July 2002-February 2010. The sensitivity of the screening methods was 36% for CBE, 73% for MX, 55% for US, and 100% for MRI; the specificity was 91%, 99%, 95%, and 80% for CBE, MX, US, and MRI, respectively. The annual BC detection rate was 2.9%. The median age at BC diagnosis was 33 years. Although age had no influence, menarche before as opposed to after radiation therapy correlated significantly with BC (P=.027): the annual BC detection rate in the former subgroup was 5.3%. Conclusions: Mammography proved more sensitive and specific in our cohort of young women than CBE or US. Magnetic resonance imaging proved 100% sensitive (but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed). Our cohort of patients carries a 10-fold BC risk at an age more than 20 years younger than in the general population.

  8. Methodological Issues in Multistage Genome-wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duncan C.; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V.; Haile, Robert W.; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Stram, Daniel O.

    2010-01-01

    Because of the high cost of commercial genotyping chip technologies, many investigations have used a two-stage design for genome-wide association studies, using part of the sample for an initial discovery of “promising” SNPs at a less stringent significance level and the remainder in a joint analysis of just these SNPs using custom genotyping. Typical cost savings of about 50% are possible with this design to obtain comparable levels of overall type I error and power by using about half the sample for stage I and carrying about 0.1% of SNPs forward to the second stage, the optimal design depending primarily upon the ratio of costs per genotype for stages I and II. However, with the rapidly declining costs of the commercial panels, the generally low observed ORs of current studies, and many studies aiming to test multiple hypotheses and multiple endpoints, many investigators are abandoning the two-stage design in favor of simply genotyping all available subjects using a standard high-density panel. Concern is sometimes raised about the absence of a “replication” panel in this approach, as required by some high-profile journals, but it must be appreciated that the two-stage design is not a discovery/replication design but simply a more efficient design for discovery using a joint analysis of the data from both stages. Once a subset of highly-significant associations has been discovered, a truly independent “exact replication” study is needed in a similar population of the same promising SNPs using similar methods. This can then be followed by (1) “generalizability” studies to assess the full scope of replicated associations across different races, different endpoints, different interactions, etc.; (2) fine-mapping or re-sequencing to try to identify the causal variant; and (3) experimental studies of the biological function of these genes. Multistage sampling designs may be more useful at this stage, say for selecting subsets of subjects for deep re

  9. Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Schmit, Stephanie L; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Edlund, Christopher K; Conti, David V; Ihenacho, Ugonna; Wan, Peggy; Van Den Berg, David; Casey, Graham; Fortini, Barbara K; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia; Ordóñez-Sánchez, María Luisa; Rodríguez-Guillén, Rosario; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Muñóz-Hernández, Linda Liliana; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Gómez, Donají; Alvirde, Ulices; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; González-Villalpando, María Elena; Le Marchand, Loic; Haiman, Christopher A; Figueiredo, Jane C

    2016-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 58 susceptibility alleles across 37 regions associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) with P < 5×10(-8) Most studies have been conducted in non-Hispanic whites and East Asians; however, the generalizability of these findings and the potential for ethnic-specific risk variation in Hispanic and Latino (HL) individuals have been largely understudied. We describe the first GWAS of common genetic variation contributing to CRC risk in HL (1611 CRC cases and 4330 controls). We also examine known susceptibility alleles and implement imputation-based fine-mapping to identify potential ethnicity-specific association signals in known risk regions. We discovered 17 variants across 4 independent regions that merit further investigation due to suggestive CRC associations (P < 1×10(-6)) at 1p34.3 (rs7528276; Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.86 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47-2.36); P = 2.5×10(-7)], 2q23.3 (rs1367374; OR = 1.37 (95% CI: 1.21-1.55); P = 4.0×10(-7)), 14q24.2 (rs143046984; OR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.36-2.01); P = 4.1×10(-7)) and 16q12.2 [rs142319636; OR = 1.69 (95% CI: 1.37-2.08); P=7.8×10(-7)]. Among the 57 previously published CRC susceptibility alleles with minor allele frequency ≥1%, 76.5% of SNPs had a consistent direction of effect and 19 (33.3%) were nominally statistically significant (P < 0.05). Further, rs185423955 and rs60892987 were identified as novel secondary susceptibility variants at 3q26.2 (P = 5.3×10(-5)) and 11q12.2 (P = 6.8×10(-5)), respectively. Our findings demonstrate the importance of fine mapping in HL. These results are informative for variant prioritization in functional studies and future risk prediction modeling in minority populations. PMID:27207650

  10. Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer in Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Schmit, Stephanie L.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Conti, David V.; Ihenacho, Ugonna; Wan, Peggy; Van Den Berg, David; Casey, Graham; Fortini, Barbara K.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia; Ordóñez-Sánchez, María Luisa; Rodríguez-Guillén, Rosario; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Muñóz-Hernández, Linda Liliana; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Gómez, Donají; Alvirde, Ulices; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; González-Villalpando, María Elena; Le Marchand, Loic; Haiman, Christopher A.; Figueiredo, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 58 susceptibility alleles across 37 regions associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) with P < 5×10−8. Most studies have been conducted in non-Hispanic whites and East Asians; however, the generalizability of these findings and the potential for ethnic-specific risk variation in Hispanic and Latino (HL) individuals have been largely understudied. We describe the first GWAS of common genetic variation contributing to CRC risk in HL (1611 CRC cases and 4330 controls). We also examine known susceptibility alleles and implement imputation-based fine-mapping to identify potential ethnicity-specific association signals in known risk regions. We discovered 17 variants across 4 independent regions that merit further investigation due to suggestive CRC associations (P < 1×10−6) at 1p34.3 (rs7528276; Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.86 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–2.36); P = 2.5×10−7], 2q23.3 (rs1367374; OR = 1.37 (95% CI: 1.21–1.55); P = 4.0×10−7), 14q24.2 (rs143046984; OR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.36–2.01); P = 4.1×10−7) and 16q12.2 [rs142319636; OR = 1.69 (95% CI: 1.37–2.08); P=7.8×10−7]. Among the 57 previously published CRC susceptibility alleles with minor allele frequency ≥1%, 76.5% of SNPs had a consistent direction of effect and 19 (33.3%) were nominally statistically significant (P < 0.05). Further, rs185423955 and rs60892987 were identified as novel secondary susceptibility variants at 3q26.2 (P = 5.3×10–5) and 11q12.2 (P = 6.8×10−5), respectively. Our findings demonstrate the importance of fine mapping in HL. These results are informative for variant prioritization in functional studies and future risk prediction modeling in minority populations. PMID:27207650

  11. A Genome-wide Pleiotropy Scan for Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotou, Orestis A; Travis, Ruth C; Campa, Daniele; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Siddiq, Afshan; Papatheodorou, Stefania I.; Stanford, Janet L.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Krogh, Vittorio; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Le Marchand, Loic; Gaziano, J. Michael; Hunter, DavidJ.; Koutros, Stella; Yeager, Meredith; Hoover, Robert N.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Wacholder, Sholom; Key, Timothy J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K

    2014-01-01

    Background No single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific for aggressive prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Objective To test if SNPs associated with other traits may also affect the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Design, setting, and participants SNPs implicated in any phenotype other than prostate cancer (p ≤ 10−7) were identified through the catalog of published GWAS and tested in 2891 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4592 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The 40 most significant SNPs were followed up in 4872 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 24 534 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aggressive prostate cancer were estimated. Results and limitations A total of 4666 SNPs were evaluated by the BPC3. Two signals were seen in regions already reported for prostate cancer risk. rs7014346 at 8q24.21 was marginally associated with aggressive prostate cancer in the BPC3 trial (p = 1.6 × 10-6), whereas after meta-analysis by PRACTICAL the summary OR was 1.21 (95%CI 1.16–1.27; p = 3.22 × 10−18). rs9900242 at 17q24.3 was also marginally associated with aggressive disease in the meta-analysis (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86–0.94; p = 2.5 × 10−6). Neither of these SNPs remained statistically significant when conditioning on correlated known prostate cancer SNPs. The meta-analysis by BPC3 and PRACTICAL identified a third promising signal, marked by rs16844874 at 2q34, independent of known prostate cancer loci (OR 1.12,95% CI 1.06–1.19; p = 4.67 × 10−5); it has been shown that SNPs correlated with this signal affect glycine concentrations. The main limitation is the heterogeneity in the definition of aggressive prostate cancer between BPC3 and PRACTICAL. Conclusions We did

  12. Elastic-net regularization approaches for genome-wide association studies of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seoae; Kim, Haseong; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Kyunga; Park, Taesung

    2009-01-01

    The current trend in genome-wide association studies is to identify regions where the true disease-causing genes may lie by evaluating thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the whole genome. However, many challenges exist in detecting disease-causing genes among the thousands of SNPs. Examples include multicollinearity and multiple testing issues, especially when a large number of correlated SNPs are simultaneously tested. Multicollinearity can often occur when predictor variables in a multiple regression model are highly correlated, and can cause imprecise estimation of association. In this study, we propose a simple stepwise procedure that identifies disease-causing SNPs simultaneously by employing elastic-net regularization, a variable selection method that allows one to address multicollinearity. At Step 1, the single-marker association analysis was conducted to screen SNPs. At Step 2, the multiple-marker association was scanned based on the elastic-net regularization. The proposed approach was applied to the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) case-control data set of Genetic Analysis Workshop 16. While the selected SNPs at the screening step are located mostly on chromosome 6, the elastic-net approach identified putative RA-related SNPs on other chromosomes in an increased proportion. For some of those putative RA-related SNPs, we identified the interactions with sex, a well known factor affecting RA susceptibility. PMID:20018015

  13. Genome-wide analyses of small non-coding RNAs in streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Patenge, Nadja; Pappesch, Roberto; Khani, Afsaneh; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Streptococci represent a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria, which colonize a wide range of hosts among animals and humans. Streptococcal species occur as commensal as well as pathogenic organisms. Many of the pathogenic species can cause severe, invasive infections in their hosts leading to a high morbidity and mortality. The consequence is a tremendous suffering on the part of men and livestock besides the significant financial burden in the agricultural and healthcare sectors. An environmentally stimulated and tightly controlled expression of virulence factor genes is of fundamental importance for streptococcal pathogenicity. Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) modulate the expression of genes involved in stress response, sugar metabolism, surface composition, and other properties that are related to bacterial virulence. Even though the regulatory character is shared by this class of RNAs, variation on the molecular level results in a high diversity of functional mechanisms. The knowledge about the role of sRNAs in streptococci is still limited, but in recent years, genome-wide screens for sRNAs have been conducted in an increasing number of species. Bioinformatics prediction approaches have been employed as well as expression analyses by classical array techniques or next generation sequencing. This review will give an overview of whole genome screens for sRNAs in streptococci with a focus on describing the different methods and comparing their outcome considering sRNA conservation among species, functional similarities, and relevance for streptococcal infection. PMID:26042151

  14. Multimodality breast cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Trop, I.; Lalonde, L.; Mayrand, M.H.; David, J.; Larouche, N.; Provencher, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Women with a predisposition for breast cancer require a tailored screening program for early cancer detection. We evaluated the performance of mammography (mg), ultrasonography (us), and magnetic resonance imaging (mri) screening in these women. Patients and Methods In asymptomatic women either confirmed as BRCA1/2 carriers, or having a greater than 30% probability of being so as estimated by brcapro [Berry D, Parmigiani G. Duke spore (Specialized Program of Research Excellence) in Breast Cancer. 1999], we conducted a prospective comparative trial consisting of annual mri and mg, and biannual us and clinical breast examination. All evaluations were done within 30 days of one another. For each screening round, imaging tests were independently interpreted by three radiologists. Results The study enrolled 184 women, and 387 screening rounds were performed, detecting 12 cancers (9 infiltrating, 3 in situ), for an overall cancer yield of 6.5%. At diagnosis, 7 infiltrating cancers were smaller than 2 cm (T1); only 1 woman presented with axillary nodal metastases. All tumours were negative for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Of the 12 cancers, mri detected 10, and mg, 7; us did not identify any additional cancers. The overall recall rate after mri was 21.8%, as compared with 11.4% for us and 16.1% for mg. Recall rates declined with successive screening rounds. In total, 45 biopsies were performed: 21 as a result of an us abnormality; 17, because of an mri lesion; and 7, because of a mg anomaly. Interpretation In high-risk women, mri offers the best sensitivity for breast cancer screening. The combination of yearly mri and mg reached a negative predictive value of 100%. The recall rate is greatest with mri, but declines for all modalities with successive screening rounds. PMID:20567624

  15. Family-Based Genome-Wide Association Scan of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Todorov, Alexandre; Smalley, Susan; Hu, Xiaolan; Loo, Sandra; Todd, Richard D.; Biederman, Joseph; Byrne, Deirdre; Dechairo, Bryan; Guiney, Allan; McCracken, James; McGough, James; Nelson, Stanley F.; Reiersen, Angela M.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Wozniak, Janet; Neale, Benjamin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Genes likely play a substantial role in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the genetic architecture of the disorder is unknown, and prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not identified a genome-wide significant association. We have conducted a third, independent, multisite GWAS of…

  16. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases…

  17. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Asherson, Philip; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Holmans, Peter; Daly, Mark; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Buitelaar, Jan; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Gill, Michael; Anney, Richard J. L.; Langely, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Kent, Lindsey; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa; Smalley, Susan; Loo, Sandra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elia, Josephine; Todorov, Alexandre; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ebstein, Richard P.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McGough, James; Nisenbaum, Laura; Middleton, Frank; Hu, Xiaolan; Nelson, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of…

  18. Genome Wide Association Analysis of Copy Number Variation in Recurrent Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, James J.H.; Breen, Gerome; Pinto, Dalila; Pedroso, Inti; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Uher, Rudolf; Schosser, Alexandra; Rivera, Margarita; Aitchison, Katherine J.; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J.; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Korszun, Ania; Muglia, Pierandrea; Barnes, Michael R.; Preisig, Martin; Mors, Ole; Gill, Mike; Maier, Wolfgang; Rice, John; Rietschel, Marcella; Holsboer, Florian; Farmer, Anne E.; Craig, Ian W.; Scherer, Stephen W.; McGuffin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Large, rare copy number variants (CNV) have been implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders, but the role of CNVs in recurrent depression is unclear. We performed a genome-wide analysis of large, rare CNVs in 3,106 cases of recurrent depression, 459 controls screened for lifetime-absence of psychiatric disorder and 5,619 unscreened controls from phase 2 of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC2). We compared the frequency of cases with CNVs against the frequency observed in each control group, analysing CNVs over the whole genome, genic, intergenic, intronic and exonic regions. We found that deletion CNVs were associated with recurrent depression while duplications were not. The effect was significant when comparing cases to WTCCC2 controls (p=7.7×10−6, OR =1.25 (95% CI 1.13 - 1.37)) and to screened controls (p=5.6×10−4, OR=1.52 (95% CI 1.20 - 1.93). Further analysis showed that CNVs deleting protein coding regions were largely responsible for the association. Within an analysis of regions previously implicated in schizophrenia, we found an overall enrichment of CNVs in our cases when compared to screened controls (p=0.019). We observe an ordered increase of samples with deletion CNVs, with the lowest proportion seen in screened controls, the next highest in unscreened controls and the highest in cases. This may suggest that the absence of deletion CNVs, especially in genes, is associated with resilience to recurrent depression. PMID:22042228

  19. Potential role of HE4 in multimodal screening for epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Urban, Nicole; Thorpe, Jason D; Bergan, Lindsay A; Forrest, Robin M; Kampani, Archana V; Scholler, Nathalie; O'Briant, Kathy C; Anderson, Garnet L; Cramer, Daniel W; Berg, Christine D; McIntosh, Martin W; Hartge, Patricia; Drescher, Charles W

    2011-11-01

    In screening for epithelial ovarian cancer, unnecessary surgery can be reduced by limiting use of transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) to women with increasing CA125 serum levels. Replacing or augmenting TVU with measurement of a serum marker specific for malignancy might further improve screening performance. Serum samples from 112 invasive ovarian cancer patients and 706 matched control subjects from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian trial were used to evaluate human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), mesothelin, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), SLPI, Spondin2, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) for their potential use in screening. TVU results were available for a subset of 84 patients and 516 control subjects used to compare the best marker with TVU. HE4 was found to perform better than TVU as a second-line screen, confirming 27 of 39 cancers with increasing CA125 serum levels compared with 17 cancers confirmed by TVU (P = .03). Serum HE4 levels were found to increase with age and smoking status, suggesting that a longitudinal algorithm might improve its performance. PMID:21917606

  20. An Efficient Nonlinear Regression Approach for Genome-wide Detection of Marginal and Interacting Genetic Variations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghak; Lozano, Aurélie; Kambadur, Prabhanjan; Xing, Eric P

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed individual genetic variants associated with phenotypic traits such as disease risk and gene expressions. However, detecting pairwise interaction effects of genetic variants on traits still remains a challenge due to a large number of combinations of variants (∼10(11) SNP pairs in the human genome), and relatively small sample sizes (typically <10(4)). Despite recent breakthroughs in detecting interaction effects, there are still several open problems, including: (1) how to quickly process a large number of SNP pairs, (2) how to distinguish between true signals and SNPs/SNP pairs merely correlated with true signals, (3) how to detect nonlinear associations between SNP pairs and traits given small sample sizes, and (4) how to control false positives. In this article, we present a unified framework, called SPHINX, which addresses the aforementioned challenges. We first propose a piecewise linear model for interaction detection, because it is simple enough to estimate model parameters given small sample sizes but complex enough to capture nonlinear interaction effects. Then, based on the piecewise linear model, we introduce randomized group lasso under stability selection, and a screening algorithm to address the statistical and computational challenges mentioned above. In our experiments, we first demonstrate that SPHINX achieves better power than existing methods for interaction detection under false positive control. We further applied SPHINX to late-onset Alzheimer's disease dataset, and report 16 SNPs and 17 SNP pairs associated with gene traits. We also present a highly scalable implementation of our screening algorithm, which can screen ∼118 billion candidates of associations on a 60-node cluster in <5.5 hours. PMID:27159633

  1. Genome-wide Analysis of AP-3–dependent Protein Transport in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vikram C.; Daboussi, Lydia; Lorenz, Todd C.

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex mediates cargo-selective transport to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. To identify proteins that function in AP-3–mediated transport, we performed a genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for defects in the vacuolar maturation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a cargo of the AP-3 pathway. Forty-nine gene deletion strains were identified that accumulated precursor ALP, many with established defects in vacuolar protein transport. Maturation of a vacuolar membrane protein delivered via a separate, clathrin-dependent pathway, was affected in all strains except those with deletions of YCK3, encoding a vacuolar type I casein kinase; SVP26, encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export receptor for ALP; and AP-3 subunit genes. Subcellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy revealed ALP transport defects in yck3Δ cells. Characterization of svp26Δ cells revealed a role for Svp26p in ER export of only a subset of type II membrane proteins. Finally, ALP maturation kinetics in vac8Δ and vac17Δ cells suggests that vacuole inheritance is important for rapid generation of proteolytically active vacuolar compartments in daughter cells. We propose that the cargo-selective nature of the AP-3 pathway in yeast is achieved by AP-3 and Yck3p functioning in concert with machinery shared by other vacuolar transport pathways. PMID:19116312

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression of Xenopus F-Box Family of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Saritas-Yildirim, Banu; Pliner, Hannah A.; Ochoa, Angelica; Silva, Elena M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein degradation via the multistep ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway is a rapid way to alter the protein profile and drive cell processes and developmental changes. Many key regulators of embryonic development are targeted for degradation by E3 ubiquitin ligases. The most studied family of E3 ubiquitin ligases is the SCF ubiquitin ligases, which use F-box adaptor proteins to recognize and recruit target proteins. Here, we used a bioinformatics screen and phylogenetic analysis to identify and annotate the family of F-box proteins in the Xenopus tropicalis genome. To shed light on the function of the F-box proteins, we analyzed expression of F-box genes during early stages of Xenopus development. Many F-box genes are broadly expressed with expression domains localized to diverse tissues including brain, spinal cord, eye, neural crest derivatives, somites, kidneys, and heart. All together, our genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the Xenopus F-box family of proteins provide a foundation for future research aimed to identify the precise role of F-box dependent E3 ubiquitin ligases and their targets in the regulatory circuits of development. PMID:26327321

  3. Genome-wide analysis reveals a cell cycle–dependent mechanism controlling centromere propagation

    PubMed Central

    Erhardt, Sylvia; Mellone, Barbara G.; Betts, Craig M.; Zhang, Weiguo; Karpen, Gary H.; Straight, Aaron F.

    2008-01-01

    Centromeres are the structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation, spindle attachment, and chromosome segregation. In this study, we isolated factors required for centromere propagation using genome-wide RNA interference screening for defects in centromere protein A (CENP-A; centromere identifier [CID]) localization in Drosophila melanogaster. We identified the proteins CAL1 and CENP-C as essential factors for CID assembly at the centromere. CID, CAL1, and CENP-C coimmunoprecipitate and are mutually dependent for centromere localization and function. We also identified the mitotic cyclin A (CYCA) and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) inhibitor RCA1/Emi1 as regulators of centromere propagation. We show that CYCA is centromere localized and that CYCA and RCA1/Emi1 couple centromere assembly to the cell cycle through regulation of the fizzy-related/CDH1 subunit of the APC. Our findings identify essential components of the epigenetic machinery that ensures proper specification and propagation of the centromere and suggest a mechanism for coordinating centromere inheritance with cell division. PMID:19047461

  4. Clinical Features of Three Girls With Mosaic Genome-Wide Paternal Uniparental Isodisomy

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, Jennifer M.; Conlin, Laura K.; Bhatti, Tricia R.; Dubbs, Holly A.; Harris, Mary Catherine; Izumi, Kosuke; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Saitta, Sulagna; States, Lisa J.; Swarr, Daniel T.; Wilkens, Alisha B.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Zelley, Kristin; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Nichols, Kim E.; Palladino, Andrew A.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Deardorff, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe three subjects with mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental isodisomy (GWpUPD) each of whom presented initially with overgrowth, hemihyperplasia (HH), and hyperinsulinism (HI). Due to the severity of findings and the presence of additional features, SNP array testing was performed, which demonstrated mosaic GWpUPD. Comparing these individuals to 10 other live-born subjects reported in the literature, the predominant phenotype is that of pUPD11 and notable for a very high incidence of tumor development. Our subjects developed non-metastatic tumors of the adrenal gland, kidney, and/or liver.AllthreesubjectshadpancreatichyperplasiaresultinginHI. Notably, our subjects to date display minimal features of other diseases associated with paternal UPD loci. Both children who survived the neonatal period have displayed near-normal cognitive development, likely due to a favorable tissue distribution of the mosaicism.Tounderstandthe rangeofUPDmosaicismlevels, we studied multiple tissues using SNP array analysis and detected levels of 5–95%, roughly correlating with the extent of tissue involvement.Giventherapidityoftumorgrowthandthedifficulty distinguishing malignant and benign tumors in these GWpUPD subjects, we have utilized increased frequency of ultrasound (US) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening in the first years of life. Because of a later age of onset of additional tumors, continued tumor surveillance into adolescence may need to be considered in these rare patients. PMID:23804593

  5. A genome-wide linkage analysis of dementia in the Amish

    PubMed Central

    Hahs, Daniel W.; McCauley, Jacob L.; Crunk, Amy E.; McFarland, Lynne L.; Gaskell, Perry C.; Jiang, Lan; Slifer, Susan H.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Scott, William K.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Stephanie R.; Jackson, Charles E.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility genes for Alzheimer's disease are proving to be highly challenging to detect and verify. Population heterogeneity may be a significant confounding factor contributing to this difficulty. To increase the power for disease susceptibility gene detection we conducted a genome-wide genetic linkage screen using individuals from the relatively isolated, genetically homogeneous, Amish population. Our genome linkage analysis used a 407 microsatellite marker map (average density 7 cM) to search for autosomal genes linked to dementia in five Amish families from four Midwestern U.S. counties. Our highest two-point lod score (3.01) was observed at marker D4S1548 on chromosome 4q31. Five other regions (10q22, 3q28, 11p13, 4q28, 19p13) also demonstrated suggestive linkage with markers having two-point lod scores >2.0. While two of these regions are novel (4q31 and 11p13), the other regions lie close to regions identified in previous genome scans in other populations. Our results identify regions of the genome that may harbor genes involved in a subset of dementia patients, in particular the North American Amish community. PMID:16389594

  6. Candidate Essential Genes in Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 Identified by Genome-Wide TraDIS

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yee-Chin; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Naeem, Raeece; Lee, Kok-Wei; Tan, Yung-Chie; Pain, Arnab; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia infection often leads to fatal cepacia syndrome in cystic fibrosis patients. However, antibiotic therapy rarely results in complete eradication of the pathogen due to its intrinsic resistance to many clinically available antibiotics. Recent attention has turned to the identification of essential genes as the proteins encoded by these genes may serve as potential targets for development of novel antimicrobials. In this study, we utilized TraDIS (Transposon Directed Insertion-site Sequencing) as a genome-wide screening tool to facilitate the identification of B. cenocepacia genes essential for its growth and viability. A transposon mutant pool consisting of approximately 500,000 mutants was successfully constructed, with more than 400,000 unique transposon insertion sites identified by computational analysis of TraDIS datasets. The saturated library allowed for the identification of 383 genes that were predicted to be essential in B. cenocepacia. We extended the application of TraDIS to identify conditionally essential genes required for in vitro growth and revealed an additional repertoire of 439 genes to be crucial for B. cenocepacia growth under nutrient-depleted conditions. The library of B. cenocepacia mutants can subsequently be subjected to various biologically related conditions to facilitate the discovery of genes involved in niche adaptation as well as pathogenicity and virulence. PMID:27597847

  7. Candidate Essential Genes in Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 Identified by Genome-Wide TraDIS.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yee-Chin; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Naeem, Raeece; Lee, Kok-Wei; Tan, Yung-Chie; Pain, Arnab; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia infection often leads to fatal cepacia syndrome in cystic fibrosis patients. However, antibiotic therapy rarely results in complete eradication of the pathogen due to its intrinsic resistance to many clinically available antibiotics. Recent attention has turned to the identification of essential genes as the proteins encoded by these genes may serve as potential targets for development of novel antimicrobials. In this study, we utilized TraDIS (Transposon Directed Insertion-site Sequencing) as a genome-wide screening tool to facilitate the identification of B. cenocepacia genes essential for its growth and viability. A transposon mutant pool consisting of approximately 500,000 mutants was successfully constructed, with more than 400,000 unique transposon insertion sites identified by computational analysis of TraDIS datasets. The saturated library allowed for the identification of 383 genes that were predicted to be essential in B. cenocepacia. We extended the application of TraDIS to identify conditionally essential genes required for in vitro growth and revealed an additional repertoire of 439 genes to be crucial for B. cenocepacia growth under nutrient-depleted conditions. The library of B. cenocepacia mutants can subsequently be subjected to various biologically related conditions to facilitate the discovery of genes involved in niche adaptation as well as pathogenicity and virulence. PMID:27597847

  8. Age-related macular degeneration: genome-wide association studies to translation

    PubMed Central

    Black, James R. M.; Clark, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which are able to analyze the contribution to disease of genetic variations that are common within a population, have attracted considerable investment. Despite identifying genetic variants for many conditions, they have been criticized for yielding data with minimal clinical utility. However, in this regard, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common form of blindness in the Western world, is a striking exception. Through GWAS, common genetic variants at a number of loci have been discovered. Two loci in particular, including genes of the complement cascade on chromosome 1 and the ARMS2/HTRA1 genes on chromosome 10, have been shown to convey significantly increased susceptibility to developing AMD. Today, although it is possible to screen individuals for a genetic predisposition to the disease, effective interventional strategies for those at risk of developing AMD are scarce. Ongoing research in this area is nonetheless promising. After providing brief overviews of AMD and common disease genetics, we outline the main recent advances in the understanding of AMD, particularly those made through GWAS. Finally, the true merit of these findings and their current and potential translational value is examined. Genet Med 18 4, 283–289. PMID:26020418

  9. Age-related macular degeneration: genome-wide association studies to translation.

    PubMed

    Black, James R M; Clark, Simon J

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which are able to analyze the contribution to disease of genetic variations that are common within a population, have attracted considerable investment. Despite identifying genetic variants for many conditions, they have been criticized for yielding data with minimal clinical utility. However, in this regard, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common form of blindness in the Western world, is a striking exception. Through GWAS, common genetic variants at a number of loci have been discovered. Two loci in particular, including genes of the complement cascade on chromosome 1 and the ARMS2/HTRA1 genes on chromosome 10, have been shown to convey significantly increased susceptibility to developing AMD. Today, although it is possible to screen individuals for a genetic predisposition to the disease, effective interventional strategies for those at risk of developing AMD are scarce. Ongoing research in this area is nonetheless promising. After providing brief overviews of AMD and common disease genetics, we outline the main recent advances in the understanding of AMD, particularly those made through GWAS. Finally, the true merit of these findings and their current and potential translational value is examined.Genet Med 18 4, 283-289. PMID:26020418

  10. Assessing Disease Risk in Genome-wide Association Studies Using Family History

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arpita; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Wacholder, Sholom

    2012-01-01

    We show how to use reports of cancer in family members to discover additional genetic associations or confirm previous findings in genome-wide association (GWA) studies conducted in case-control, cohort, or cross-sectional studies. Our novel family-history-based approach allows economical association studies for multiple cancers, without genotyping of relatives (as required in family studies), follow-up of participants (as required in cohort studies), or oversampling of specific cancer cases, (as required in case-control studies). We empirically evaluate the performance of the proposed family-history-based approach in studying associations with prostate and ovarian cancers, using data from GWA studies previously conducted within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. The family-history-based method may be particularly useful for investigating genetic susceptibility to rare diseases, for which accruing cases may be very difficult, by using disease information from non-genotyped relatives of participants in multiple case-control and cohort studies designed primarily for other purposes. PMID:22575968

  11. Genome-wide mutational spectra analysis reveals significant cancer-specific heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hua; Bao, Jiguang; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is widely recognized as a genetic disease in which somatic mutations are sequentially accumulated to drive tumor progression. Although genomic landscape studies are informative for individual cancer types, a comprehensive comparative study of tumorigenic mutations across cancer types based on integrative data sources is still a pressing need. We systematically analyzed ~106 non-synonymous mutations extracted from COSMIC, involving ~8000 genome-wide screened samples across 23 major human cancers at both the amino acid and gene levels. Our analysis identified cancer-specific heterogeneity that traditional nucleotide variation analysis alone usually overlooked. Particularly, the amino acid arginine (R) turns out to be the most favorable target of amino acid alteration in most cancer types studied (P < 10−9, binomial test), reflecting its important role in cellular physiology. The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is mutated exclusively with the HYDIN, KRAS, and PTEN genes in large intestine, lung, and endometrial cancers respectively, indicating that TP53 takes part in different signaling pathways in different cancers. While some of our analyses corroborated previous observations, others indicated relevant candidates with high priority for further experimental validation. Our findings have many ramifications in understanding the etiology of cancer and the underlying molecular mechanisms in particular cancers. PMID:26212640

  12. Genome-Wide Fitness and Expression Profiling Implicate Mga2 in Adaptation to Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Ryan; Ideker, Trey

    2009-01-01

    Caloric restriction extends lifespan, an effect once thought to involve attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by aerobic metabolism. However, recent evidence suggests that caloric restriction may in fact raise ROS levels, which in turn provides protection from acute doses of oxidant through a process called adaptation. To shed light on the molecular mechanisms of adaptation, we designed a series of genome-wide deletion fitness and mRNA expression screens to identify genes involved in adaptation to hydrogen peroxide. Combined with known transcriptional interactions, the integrated data implicate Yap1 and Skn7 as central transcription factors of both the adaptive and acute oxidative responses. They also identify the transcription factors Mga2 and Rox1 as active exclusively in the adaptive response and show that Mga2 is essential for adaptation. These findings are striking because Mga2 and Rox1 have been thought to control the response to hypoxic, not oxidative, conditions. Expression profiling of mga2Δ and rox1Δ knockouts shows that these factors most strongly regulate targets in ergosterol, fatty-acid, and zinc metabolic pathways. Direct quantitation of ergosterol reveals that its basal concentration indeed depends on Mga2, but that Mga2 is not required for the decrease in ergosterol observed during adaptation. PMID:19503593

  13. Exploiting Linkage Disequilibrium for Ultrahigh-Dimensional Genome-Wide Data with an Integrated Statistical Approach.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Michelle; Fu, Guifang; Bushman, Shaun; Corcoran, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    Genome-wide data with millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be highly correlated due to linkage disequilibrium (LD). The ultrahigh dimensionality of big data brings unprecedented challenges to statistical modeling such as noise accumulation, the curse of dimensionality, computational burden, spurious correlations, and a processing and storing bottleneck. The traditional statistical approaches lose their power due to [Formula: see text] (n is the number of observations and p is the number of SNPs) and the complex correlation structure among SNPs. In this article, we propose an integrated distance correlation ridge regression (DCRR) approach to accommodate the ultrahigh dimensionality, joint polygenic effects of multiple loci, and the complex LD structures. Initially, a distance correlation (DC) screening approach is used to extensively remove noise, after which LD structure is addressed using a ridge penalized multiple logistic regression (LRR) model. The false discovery rate, true positive discovery rate, and computational cost were simultaneously assessed through a large number of simulations. A binary trait of Arabidopsis thaliana, the hypersensitive response to the bacterial elicitor AvrRpm1, was analyzed in 84 inbred lines (28 susceptibilities and 56 resistances) with 216,130 SNPs. Compared to previous SNP discovery methods implemented on the same data set, the DCRR approach successfully detected the causative SNP while dramatically reducing spurious associations and computational time. PMID:26661113

  14. Genome-wide analysis reveals mechanisms modulating autophagy in normal brain aging and in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, Marta M.; Zheng, Bin; Lu, Tao; Yan, Zhenyu; Py, Bénédicte F.; Ng, Aylwin; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Li, Cheng; Yankner, Bruce A.; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Yuan, Junying

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulation of autophagy, a cellular catabolic mechanism essential for degradation of misfolded proteins, has been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms that lead to the autophagy dysfunction are still not clear. Based on the results of a genome-wide screen, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as common mediators upstream of the activation of the type III PI3 kinase, which is critical for the initiation of autophagy. Furthermore, ROS play an essential function in the induction of the type III PI3 kinase and autophagy in response to amyloid β peptide, the main pathogenic mediator of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, lysosomal blockage also caused by Aβ is independent of ROS. In addition, we demonstrate that autophagy is transcriptionally down-regulated during normal aging in the human brain. Strikingly, in contrast to normal aging, we observe transcriptional up-regulation of autophagy in the brains of AD patients, suggesting that there might be a compensatory regulation of autophagy. Interestingly, we show that an AD drug and an AD drug candidate have inhibitory effects on autophagy, raising the possibility that decreasing input into the lysosomal system may help to reduce cellular stress in AD. Finally, we provide a list of candidate drug targets that can be used to safely modulate levels of autophagy without causing cell death. PMID:20660724

  15. Clinical features of three girls with mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental isodisomy.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Jennifer M; Conlin, Laura K; Bhatti, Tricia R; Dubbs, Holly A; Harris, Mary Catherine; Izumi, Kosuke; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Saitta, Sulagna; States, Lisa J; Swarr, Daniel T; Wilkens, Alisha B; Zackai, Elaine H; Zelley, Kristin; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Nichols, Kim E; Palladino, Andrew A; Spinner, Nancy B; Deardorff, Matthew A

    2013-08-01

    Here we describe three subjects with mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental isodisomy (GWpUPD) each of whom presented initially with overgrowth, hemihyperplasia (HH), and hyperinsulinism (HI). Due to the severity of findings and the presence of additional features, SNP array testing was performed, which demonstrated mosaic GWpUPD. Comparing these individuals to 10 other live-born subjects reported in the literature, the predominant phenotype is that of pUPD11 and notable for a very high incidence of tumor development. Our subjects developed non-metastatic tumors of the adrenal gland, kidney, and/or liver. All three subjects had pancreatic hyperplasia resulting in HI. Notably, our subjects to date display minimal features of other diseases associated with paternal UPD loci. Both children who survived the neonatal period have displayed near-normal cognitive development, likely due to a favorable tissue distribution of the mosaicism. To understand the range of UPD mosaicism levels, we studied multiple tissues using SNP array analysis and detected levels of 5-95%, roughly correlating with the extent of tissue involvement. Given the rapidity of tumor growth and the difficulty distinguishing malignant and benign tumors in these GWpUPD subjects, we have utilized increased frequency of ultrasound (US) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening in the first years of life. Because of a later age of onset of additional tumors, continued tumor surveillance into adolescence may need to be considered in these rare patients. PMID:23804593

  16. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis and Epigenetic Variations Associated with Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS).

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, Uppala; Albayrak, Samet; Alpay-Savasan, Zeynep; Zeb, Amna; Turkoglu, Onur; Sobolewski, Paul; Bahado-Singh, Ray O

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common cause of death from congenital anomaly. Among several candidate epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation may play an important role in the etiology of CHDs. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Illumina Infinium 450k human methylation assay in a cohort of 24 newborns who had aortic valve stenosis (AVS), with gestational-age matched controls. The study identified significantly-altered CpG methylation at 59 sites in 52 genes in AVS subjects as compared to controls (either hypermethylated or demethylated). Gene Ontology analysis identified biological processes and functions for these genes including positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Consistent with prior clinical data, the molecular function categories as determined using DAVID identified low-density lipoprotein receptor binding, lipoprotein receptor binding and identical protein binding to be over-represented in the AVS group. A significant epigenetic change in the APOA5 and PCSK9 genes known to be involved in AVS was also observed. A large number CpG methylation sites individually demonstrated good to excellent diagnostic accuracy for the prediction of AVS status, thus raising possibility of molecular screening markers for this disorder. Using epigenetic analysis we were able to identify genes significantly involved in the pathogenesis of AVS. PMID:27152866

  17. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis and Epigenetic Variations Associated with Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS)

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishna, Uppala; Albayrak, Samet; Alpay-Savasan, Zeynep; Zeb, Amna; Turkoglu, Onur; Sobolewski, Paul; Bahado-Singh, Ray O.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common cause of death from congenital anomaly. Among several candidate epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation may play an important role in the etiology of CHDs. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Illumina Infinium 450k human methylation assay in a cohort of 24 newborns who had aortic valve stenosis (AVS), with gestational-age matched controls. The study identified significantly-altered CpG methylation at 59 sites in 52 genes in AVS subjects as compared to controls (either hypermethylated or demethylated). Gene Ontology analysis identified biological processes and functions for these genes including positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Consistent with prior clinical data, the molecular function categories as determined using DAVID identified low-density lipoprotein receptor binding, lipoprotein receptor binding and identical protein binding to be over-represented in the AVS group. A significant epigenetic change in the APOA5 and PCSK9 genes known to be involved in AVS was also observed. A large number CpG methylation sites individually demonstrated good to excellent diagnostic accuracy for the prediction of AVS status, thus raising possibility of molecular screening markers for this disorder. Using epigenetic analysis we were able to identify genes significantly involved in the pathogenesis of AVS. PMID:27152866

  18. A genome-wide scan identifies variants in NFIB associated with metastasis in patients with osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mirabello, Lisa; Koster, Roelof; Moriarity, Branden S.; Spector, Logan G.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Gary, Joy; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Pankratz, Nathan; Panagiotou, Orestis A.; Largaespada, David; Wang, Zhaoming; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gorlick, Richard; Khanna, Chand; de Toledo, Silvia Regina Caminada; Petrilli, Antonio S.; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Lecanda, Fernando; Andrulis, Irene L.; Wunder, Jay S.; Gokgoz, Nalan; Serra, Massimo; Hattinger, Claudia; Picci, Piero; Scotlandi, Katia; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Tirabosco, Roberto; Amary, Maria Fernanda; Halai, Dina; Ballinger, Mandy L.; Thomas, David M.; Davis, Sean; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Marina, Neyssa; Helman, Lee; Otto, George M.; Becklin, Kelsie L.; Wolf, Natalie K.; Weg, Madison T.; Tucker, Margaret; Wacholder, Sholom; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Boland, Joseph F.; Hicks, Belynda D.; Vogt, Aurelie; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Hoover, Robert N.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Savage, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of death in osteosarcoma patients, the most common pediatric bone malignancy. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study of osteosarcoma metastasis at diagnosis in 935 osteosarcoma patients to determine whether germline genetic variation contributes to risk of metastasis. We identified a SNP, rs7034162, in NFIB significantly associated with metastasis in European osteosarcoma cases, as well as in cases of African and Brazilian ancestry (meta-analysis of all cases: P=1.2×10−9, OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.83–3.24). The risk allele was significantly associated with lowered NFIB expression, which led to increased osteosarcoma cell migration, proliferation, and colony formation. Additionally, a transposon screen in mice identified a significant proportion of osteosarcomas harboring inactivating insertions in Nfib, and had lowered Nfib expression. These data suggest that germline genetic variation at rs7034162 is important in osteosarcoma metastasis, and that NFIB is an osteosarcoma metastasis susceptibility gene. PMID:26084801

  19. Genome wide expression profiling of two accession of G. herbaceum L. in response to drought

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide gene expression profiling and detailed physiological investigation were used for understanding the molecular mechanism and physiological response of Gossypium herbaceum, which governs the adaptability of plants in drought conditions. Recently, microarray-based gene expression analysis is commonly used to decipher genes and genetic networks controlling the traits of interest. However, the results of such an analysis are often plagued due to a limited number of genes (probe sets) on microarrays. On the other hand, pyrosequencing of a transcriptome has the potential to detect rare as well as a large number of transcripts in the samples quantitatively. We used Affymetrix microarray as well as Roche's GS-FLX transcriptome sequencing for a comparative analysis of cotton transcriptome in leaf tissues under drought conditions. Results Fourteen accessions of Gossypium herbaceum were subjected to mannitol stress for preliminary screening; two accessions, namely Vagad and RAHS-14, were selected as being the most tolerant and most sensitive to osmotic stress, respectively. Affymetrix cotton arrays containing 24,045 probe sets and Roche's GS-FLX transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissue were used to analyze the gene expression profiling of Vagad and RAHS-14 under drought conditions. The analysis of physiological measurements and gene expression profiling showed that Vagad has the inherent ability to sense drought at a much earlier stage and to respond to it in a much more efficient manner than does RAHS-14. Gene Ontology (GO) studies showed that the phenyl propanoid pathway, pigment biosynthesis, polyketide biosynthesis, and other secondary metabolite pathways were enriched in Vagad under control and drought conditions as compared with RAHS-14. Similarly, GO analysis of transcriptome sequencing showed that the GO terms responses to various abiotic stresses were significantly higher in Vagad. Among the classes of transcription factors (TFs) uniquely

  20. Genome-wide association study for host response to bovine leukemia virus in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Brym, P; Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Oleński, K; Hering, D M; Ruść, A; Kaczmarczyk, E; Kamiński, S

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and the processes underlying the phenomenon of differential host response to BLV infection still remain poorly understood. The aim of the study was to screen the entire cattle genome to identify markers and candidate genes that might be involved in host response to bovine leukemia virus infection. A genome-wide association study was performed using Holstein cows naturally infected by BLV. A data set included 43 cows (BLV positive) and 30 cows (BLV negative) genotyped for 54,609 SNP markers (Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip). The BLV status of cows was determined by serum ELISA, nested-PCR and hematological counts. Linear Regression Analysis with a False Discovery Rate and kinship matrix (computed on the autosomal SNPs) was calculated to find out which SNP markers significantly differentiate BLV-positive and BLV-negative cows. Nine markers reached genome-wide significance. The most significant SNPs were located on chromosomes 23 (rs41583098), 3 (rs109405425, rs110785500) and 8 (rs43564499) in close vicinity of a patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1 (PNPLA1); adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit (AP4B1); tripartite motif-containing 45 (TRIM45) and cell division cycle associated 2 (CDCA2) genes, respectively. Furthermore, a list of 41 candidate genes was composed based on their proximity to significant markers (within a distance of ca. 1 Mb) and functional involvement in processes potentially underlying BLV-induced pathogenesis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that host response to BLV infection involves nine sub-regions of the cattle genome (represented by 9 SNP markers), containing many genes which, based on the literature, could be involved to enzootic bovine leukemia progression. New group of promising candidate genes associated with the host response to BLV infection were identified and could therefore be a target for future studies. The functions of candidate genes

  1. [Genome-wide association study on complex diseases: study design and genetic markers].

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei-Li

    2008-04-01

    Genome-wide association study used to be a dream of geneticists years ago, but now it came true. Since the first paper reported the finding of genetic variation contributing to human age-related macular degeneration by genome-wide association study in 2005, a numbers of whole genome studies have been published. The present paper reviewed some common comments in whole genome association study on complex diseases, including achievements of genome-wide association studies on complex traits or diseases, principles of study design, selection of genetic marker in genome, and comparisons of different commercial products for whole genome association study. Finally a newly defined genetic variation, copy number variation, was briefly introduced. This paper also summarized the shortcomings of current genome-wide association studies and perspectives of its future. PMID:18424408

  2. A Genome Wide Survey of SNP Variation Reveals the Genetic Structure of Sheep Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic structure of sheep reflects their domestication and subsequent formation into discrete breeds. Understanding genetic structure is essential for achieving genetic improvement through genome-wide association studies, genomic selection and the dissection of quantitative traits. After identi...

  3. Promising Loci and Genes for Yolk and Ovary Weight in Chickens Revealed by a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Because it serves as the cytoplasm of the oocyte and provides a large amount of reserves, the egg yolk has biological significance for developing embryos. The ovary and its hierarchy of follicles are the main reproductive organs responsible for yolk deposition in chickens. However, the genetic architecture underlying the yolk and ovarian follicle weights remains elusive. Here, we measured the yolk weight (YW) at 11 age points from onset of egg laying to 72 weeks of age and measured the follicle weight (FW) and ovary weight (OW) at 73 weeks as part of a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,534 F2 hens derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn (WL) and Dongxiang chickens (DX). For all ages, YWs exhibited moderate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates (0.25–0.38), while the estimates for FW (0.16) and OW (0.20) were relatively low. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each trait identified 12, 3, and 31 novel significant associations with YW, FW, and OW, respectively. A list of candidate genes such as ZAR1, STARD13, ACER1b, ACSBG2, and DHRS12 were identified for having a plausible function in yolk and follicle development. These genes are important to the initiation of embryogenesis, lipid transport, lipoprotein synthesis, lipid droplet promotion, and steroid hormone metabolism, respectively. Our study provides for the first time a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for follicle and ovary weight. Identification of the promising loci as well as potential candidate genes will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying dynamic yolk weight and ovarian follicle development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the alteration of yolk weight at different age points. PMID:26332579

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies a maternal copy-number deletion in PSG11 enriched among preeclampsia patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Specific genetic contributions for preeclampsia (PE) are currently unknown. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) aims to identify maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy-number variants (CNVs) involved in the etiology of PE. Methods A genome-wide scan was performed on 177 PE cases (diagnosed according to National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute guidelines) and 116 normotensive controls. White female study subjects from Iowa were genotyped on Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays. CNV calls made using a combination of four detection algorithms (Birdseye, Canary, PennCNV, and QuantiSNP) were merged using CNVision and screened with stringent prioritization criteria. Due to limited DNA quantities and the deleterious nature of copy-number deletions, it was decided a priori that only deletions would be selected for assay on the entire case-control dataset using quantitative real-time PCR. Results The top four SNP candidates had an allelic or genotypic p-value between 10-5 and 10-6, however, none surpassed the Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold. Three recurrent rare deletions meeting prioritization criteria detected in multiple cases were selected for targeted genotyping. A locus of particular interest was found showing an enrichment of case deletions in 19q13.31 (5/169 cases and 1/114 controls), which encompasses the PSG11 gene contiguous to a highly plastic genomic region. All algorithm calls for these regions were assay confirmed. Conclusions CNVs may confer risk for PE and represent interesting regions that warrant further investigation. Top SNP candidates identified from the GWAS, although not genome-wide significant, may be useful to inform future studies in PE genetics. PMID:22748001

  5. Dating the age of admixture via wavelet transform analysis of genome-wide data.

    PubMed

    Pugach, Irina; Matveyev, Rostislav; Wollstein, Andreas; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We describe a PCA-based genome scan approach to analyze genome-wide admixture structure, and introduce wavelet transform analysis as a method for estimating the time of admixture. We test the wavelet transform method with simulations and apply it to genome-wide SNP data from eight admixed human populations. The wavelet transform method offers better resolution than existing methods for dating admixture, and can be applied to either SNP or sequence data from humans or other species. PMID:21352535

  6. Dating the age of admixture via wavelet transform analysis of genome-wide data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We describe a PCA-based genome scan approach to analyze genome-wide admixture structure, and introduce wavelet transform analysis as a method for estimating the time of admixture. We test the wavelet transform method with simulations and apply it to genome-wide SNP data from eight admixed human populations. The wavelet transform method offers better resolution than existing methods for dating admixture, and can be applied to either SNP or sequence data from humans or other species. PMID:21352535

  7. Genome-wide Association Study and Meta-Analysis Identify ISL1 as Genome-wide Significant Susceptibility Gene for Bladder Exstrophy

    PubMed Central

    Draaken, Markus; Knapp, Michael; Pennimpede, Tracie; Schmidt, Johanna M.; Ebert, Anne-Karolin; Rösch, Wolfgang; Stein, Raimund; Utsch, Boris; Hirsch, Karin; Boemers, Thomas M.; Mangold, Elisabeth; Heilmann, Stefanie; Ludwig, Kerstin U.; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Zwink, Nadine; Moebus, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernhard G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Nöthen, Markus M.

    2015-01-01

    The bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) represents the severe end of the uro-rectal malformation spectrum, and is thought to result from aberrant embryonic morphogenesis of the cloacal membrane and the urorectal septum. The most common form of BEEC is isolated classic bladder exstrophy (CBE). To identify susceptibility loci for CBE, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 110 CBE patients and 1,177 controls of European origin. Here, an association was found with a region of approximately 220kb on chromosome 5q11.1. This region harbors the ISL1 (ISL LIM homeobox 1) gene. Multiple markers in this region showed evidence for association with CBE, including 84 markers with genome-wide significance. We then performed a meta-analysis using data from a previous GWAS by our group of 98 CBE patients and 526 controls of European origin. This meta-analysis also implicated the 5q11.1 locus in CBE risk. A total of 138 markers at this locus reached genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis, and the most significant marker (rs9291768) achieved a P value of 2.13 × 10−12. No other locus in the meta-analysis achieved genome-wide significance. We then performed murine expression analyses to follow up this finding. Here, Isl1 expression was detected in the genital region within the critical time frame for human CBE development. Genital regions with Isl1 expression included the peri-cloacal mesenchyme and the urorectal septum. The present study identified the first genome-wide significant locus for CBE at chromosomal region 5q11.1, and provides strong evidence for the hypothesis that ISL1 is the responsible candidate gene in this region. PMID:25763902

  8. SNPLims: a data management system for genome wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Orro, Alessandro; Guffanti, Guia; Salvi, Erika; Macciardi, Fabio; Milanesi, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent progresses in genotyping technologies allow the generation high-density genetic maps using hundreds of thousands of genetic markers for each DNA sample. The availability of this large amount of genotypic data facilitates the whole genome search for genetic basis of diseases. We need a suitable information management system to efficiently manage the data flow produced by whole genome genotyping and to make it available for further analyses. Results We have developed an information system mainly devoted to the storage and management of SNP genotype data produced by the Illumina platform from the raw outputs of genotyping into a relational database. The relational database can be accessed in order to import any existing data and export user-defined formats compatible with many different genetic analysis programs. After calculating family-based or case-control association study data, the results can be imported in SNPLims. One of the main features is to allow the user to rapidly identify and annotate statistically relevant polymorphisms from the large volume of data analyzed. Results can be easily visualized either graphically or creating ASCII comma separated format output files, which can be used as input to further analyses. Conclusions The proposed infrastructure allows to manage a relatively large amount of genotypes for each sample and an arbitrary number of samples and phenotypes. Moreover, it enables the users to control the quality of the data and to perform the most common screening analyses and identify genes that become “candidate” for the disease under consideration. PMID:18387201

  9. Cognitive Endophenotypes Inform Genome-Wide Expression Profiling in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zheutlin, Amanda B.; Viehman, Rachael W.; Fortgang, Rebecca; Borg, Jacqueline; Smith, Desmond J.; Suvisaari, Jaana; Therman, Sebastian; Hultman, Christina M.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We performed a whole-genome expression study to clarify the nature of the biological processes mediating between inherited genetic variations and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. METHOD Gene expression was assayed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using Illumina Human WG6 v3.0 chips in twins discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and control twins. After quality control, expression levels of 18,559 genes were screened for association with California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) performance, and any memory-related probes were then evaluated for variation by diagnostic status in the discovery sample (N = 190), and in an independent replication sample (N = 73). Heritability of gene expression using the twin design was also assessed. RESULTS After Bonferroni correction (p < 2.69 × 10−6), CVLT performance was significantly related to expression levels for 76 genes, 43 of which were differentially expressed in schizophrenia patients, with comparable effect sizes in the same direction in the replication sample. For 41 of these 43 transcripts, expression levels were heritable. Nearly all identified genes contain common or de novo mutations associated with schizophrenia in prior studies. CONCLUSION Genes increasing risk for schizophrenia appear to do so in part via effects on signaling cascades influencing memory. The genes implicated in these processes are enriched for those related to RNA processing and DNA replication and include genes influencing G-protein coupled signal transduction, cytokine signaling, and oligodendrocyte function. PMID:26710095

  10. Genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder: new results, meta-analysis, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Wray, N R; Pergadia, M L; Blackwood, D H R; Penninx, B W J H; Gordon, S D; Nyholt, D R; Ripke, S; MacIntyre, D J; McGhee, K A; Maclean, A W; Smit, J H; Hottenga, J J; Willemsen, G; Middeldorp, C M; de Geus, E J C; Lewis, C M; McGuffin, P; Hickie, I B; van den Oord, E J C G; Liu, J Z; Macgregor, S; McEvoy, B P; Byrne, E M; Medland, S E; Statham, D J; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Boomsma, D I; Madden, P A F; Sullivan, P F

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complex disorder with a partly genetic etiology. We conducted a genome-wide association study of the MDD2000+ sample (2431 cases, 3673 screened controls and >1 M imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)). No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance either in the MDD2000+ study, or in meta-analysis with two other studies totaling 5763 cases and 6901 controls. These results imply that common variants of intermediate or large effect do not have main effects in the genetic architecture of MDD. Suggestive but notable results were (a) gene-based tests suggesting roles for adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3, 2p23.3) and galanin (GAL, 11q13.3); published functional evidence relates both of these to MDD and serotonergic signaling; (b) support for the bipolar disorder risk variant SNP rs1006737 in CACNA1C (P=0.020, odds ratio=1.10); and (c) lack of support for rs2251219, a SNP identified in a meta-analysis of affective disorder studies (P=0.51). We estimate that sample sizes 1.8- to 2.4-fold greater are needed for association studies of MDD compared with those for schizophrenia to detect variants that explain the same proportion of total variance in liability. Larger study cohorts characterized for genetic and environmental risk factors accumulated prospectively are likely to be needed to dissect more fully the etiology of MDD. PMID:21042317

  11. Genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder: new results, meta-analysis, and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Wray, N R; Pergadia, M L; Blackwood, D H R; Penninx, B W J H; Gordon, S D; Nyholt, D R; Ripke, S; MacIntyre, D J; McGhee, K A; Maclean, A W; Smit, J H; Hottenga, J J; Willemsen, G; Middeldorp, C M; de Geus, E J C; Lewis, C M; McGuffin, P; Hickie, I B; van den Oord, E J C G; Liu, J Z; Macgregor, S; McEvoy, B P; Byrne, E M; Medland, S E; Statham, D J; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Boomsma, D I; Madden, P A F; Sullivan, P F

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complex disorder with a partly genetic etiology. We conducted a genome-wide association study of the MDD2000+ sample (2431 cases, 3673 screened controls and >1 M imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)). No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance either in the MDD2000+ study, or in meta-analysis with two other studies totaling 5763 cases and 6901 controls. These results imply that common variants of intermediate or large effect do not have main effects in the genetic architecture of MDD. Suggestive but notable results were (a) gene-based tests suggesting roles for adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3, 2p23.3) and galanin (GAL, 11q13.3); published functional evidence relates both of these to MDD and serotonergic signaling; (b) support for the bipolar disorder risk variant SNP rs1006737 in CACNA1C (P=0.020, odds ratio=1.10); and (c) lack of support for rs2251219, a SNP identified in a meta-analysis of affective disorder studies (P=0.51). We estimate that sample sizes 1.8- to 2.4-fold greater are needed for association studies of MDD compared with those for schizophrenia to detect variants that explain the same proportion of total variance in liability. Larger study cohorts characterized for genetic and environmental risk factors accumulated prospectively are likely to be needed to dissect more fully the etiology of MDD. PMID:21042317

  12. Family based genome-wide copy number scan identifies complex rearrangements at 17q21.31 in dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Veerappa, Avinash M; Saldanha, Marita; Padakannaya, Prakash; Ramachandra, Nallur B

    2014-10-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a complex heritable disorder with unexpected difficulty in learning to read and spell despite adequate intelligence, education, environment, and normal senses. We performed genome-wide screening for copy number variations (CNVs) in 10 large Indian dyslexic families using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. Results revealed the complex genomic rearrangements due to one non-contiguous deletion and five contiguous micro duplications and micro deletions at 17q21.31 region in three dyslexic families. CNVs in this region harbor the genes KIAA1267, LRRC37A, ARL17A/B, NSFP1, and NSF. The CNVs in case 1 and case 2 at this locus were found to be in homozygous state and case 3 was a de novo CNV. These CNVs were found with at least one CNV having a common break and end points in the parents. This cluster of genes containing NSF is implicated in learning, cognition, and memory, though not formally associated with dyslexia. Molecular network analysis of these and other dyslexia related module genes suggests NSF and other genes to be associated with cellular/vesicular membrane fusion and synaptic transmission. Thus, we suggest that NSF in this cluster would be the nearest gene responsible for the learning disability phenotype. PMID:25139666

  13. TEX11 is mutated in infertile men with azoospermia and regulates genome-wide recombination rates in mouse.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Silber, Sherman; Leu, N Adrian; Oates, Robert D; Marszalek, Janet D; Skaletsky, Helen; Brown, Laura G; Rozen, Steve; Page, David C; Wang, P Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    Genome-wide recombination is essential for genome stability, evolution, and speciation. Mouse Tex11, an X-linked meiosis-specific gene, promotes meiotic recombination and chromosomal synapsis. Here, we report that TEX11 is mutated in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and that an analogous mutation in the mouse impairs meiosis. Genetic screening of a large cohort of idiopathic infertile men reveals that TEX11 mutations, including frameshift and splicing acceptor site mutations, cause infertility in 1% of azoospermic men. Functional evaluation of three analogous human TEX11 missense mutations in transgenic mouse models identified one mutation (V748A) as a potential infertility allele and found two mutations non-causative. In the mouse model, an intronless autosomal Tex11 transgene functionally substitutes for the X-linked Tex11 gene, providing genetic evidence for the X-to-autosomal retrotransposition evolution phenomenon. Furthermore, we find that TEX11 protein levels modulate genome-wide recombination rates in both sexes. These studies indicate that TEX11 alleles affecting expression level or substituting single amino acids may contribute to variations in recombination rates between sexes and among individuals in humans. PMID:26136358

  14. A genome-wide sib-pair scan for quantitative language traits reveals linkage to chromosomes 10 and 13

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P. D.; Mueller, K. L.; Gamazon, E. R.; Cox, N. J.; Tomblin, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that individual differences in language development are highly heritable, there have been few genome-wide scans to locate genes associated with the trait. Previous analyses of language impairment have yielded replicable evidence for linkage to regions on chromosomes 16q, 19q, 13q (within lab) and at 13q (between labs). Here we report the first linkage study to screen the continuum of language ability, from normal to disordered, as found in the general population. 383 children from 147 sib-ships (214 sib-pairs) were genotyped on the Illumina® Linkage IVb Marker Panel using three composite language-related phenotypes and a measure of phonological memory (PM). Two regions (10q23.33; 13q33.3) yielded genome-wide significant peaks for linkage with PM. A peak suggestive of linkage was also found at 17q12 for the overall language composite. This study presents two novel genetic loci for the study of language development and disorders, but fails to replicate findings by previous groups. Possible reasons for this are discussed. PMID:25997078

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Jian, Hongju; Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS. PMID:26673885

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS. PMID:26673885

  17. Innovative Strategies to Identify M. tuberculosis Antigens and Epitopes Using Genome-Wide Analyses.

    PubMed

    Geluk, Annemieke; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Joosten, Simone A; Commandeur, Susanna; Ottenhoff, Tom H M

    2014-01-01

    In view of the fact that only a small part of the Mtb expressome has been explored for identification of antigens capable of activating human T-cell responses, which is critically required for the design of better TB vaccination strategies, more emphasis should be placed on innovative ways to discover new Mtb antigens and explore their function at the several stages of infection. Better protective antigens for TB-vaccines are urgently needed, also in view of the disappointing results of the MVA85 vaccine, which failed to induce additional protection in BCG-vaccinated infants (1). Moreover, immune responses to relevant antigens may be useful to identify TB-specific biomarker signatures. Here, we describe the potency of novel tools and strategies to reveal such Mtb antigens. Using proteins specific for different Mtb infection phases, many new antigens of the latency-associated Mtb DosR-regulon as well as resuscitation promoting factor proteins, associated with resuscitating TB, were discovered that were recognized by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells. Furthermore, by employing MHC binding algorithms and bioinformatics combined with high-throughput human T-cell screens and tetramers, HLA-class Ia restricted polyfunctional CD8(+) T-cells were identified in TB patients. Comparable methods, led to the identification of HLA-E-restricted Mtb epitopes recognized by CD8(+) T-cells. A genome-wide unbiased antigen discovery approach was applied to analyze the in vivo Mtb gene expression profiles in the lungs of mice, resulting in the identification of IVE-TB antigens, which are expressed during infection in the lung, the main target organ of Mtb. IVE-TB antigens induce strong T-cell responses in long-term latently Mtb infected individuals, and represent an interesting new group of TB antigens for vaccination. In summary, new tools have helped expand our view on the Mtb antigenome involved in human cellular immunity and provided new candidates for TB vaccination. PMID:25009541

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies a Novel Canine Glaucoma Locus

    PubMed Central

    Ahonen, Saija J.; Pietilä, Elina; Mellersh, Cathryn S.; Tiira, Katriina; Hansen, Liz; Johnson, Gary S.; Lohi, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy and one of the leading causes of blindness. Its hereditary forms are classified into primary closed-angle (PCAG), primary open-angle (POAG) and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Although many loci have been mapped in human, only a few genes have been identified that are associated with the development of glaucoma and the genetic basis of the disease remains poorly understood. Glaucoma has also been described in many dog breeds, including Dandie Dinmont Terriers (DDT) in which it is a late-onset (>7 years) disease. We designed clinical and genetic studies to better define the clinical features of glaucoma in the DDT and to identify the genetic cause. Clinical diagnosis was based on ophthalmic examinations of the affected dogs and 18 additionally investigated unaffected DDTs. We collected DNA from over 400 DTTs and a genome wide association study was performed in a cohort of 23 affected and 23 controls, followed by a fine mapping, a replication study and candidate gene sequencing. The clinical study suggested that ocular abnormalities including abnormal iridocorneal angles and pectinate ligament dysplasia are common (50% and 72%, respectively) in the breed and the disease resembles human PCAG. The genetic study identified a novel 9.5 Mb locus on canine chromosome 8 including the 1.6 Mb best associated region (p = 1.63×10−10, OR = 32 for homozygosity). Mutation screening in five candidate genes did not reveal any causative variants. This study indicates that although ocular abnormalities are common in DDTs, the genetic risk for glaucoma is conferred by a novel locus on CFA8. The canine locus shares synteny to a region in human chromosome 14q, which harbors several loci associated with POAG and PCG. Our study reveals a new locus for canine glaucoma and ongoing molecular studies will likely help to understand the genetic etiology of the disease. PMID:23951034

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Zuiderveen, Grady H.; Padder, Bilal A.; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  20. miRNA Digger: a comprehensive pipeline for genome-wide novel miRNA mining.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Shao, Chaogang; Ye, Xinghuo; Meng, Yijun; Zhou, Yincong; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression. The recent advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technique have greatly facilitated large-scale detection of the miRNAs. However, thoroughly discovery of novel miRNAs from the available HTS data sets remains a major challenge. In this study, we observed that Dicer-mediated cleavage sites for the processing of the miRNA precursors could be mapped by using degradome sequencing data in both animals and plants. In this regard, a novel tool, miRNA Digger, was developed for systematical discovery of miRNA candidates through genome-wide screening of cleavage signals based on degradome sequencing data. To test its sensitivity and reliability, miRNA Digger was applied to discover miRNAs from four organs of Arabidopsis. The results revealed that a majority of already known mature miRNAs along with their miRNA*s expressed in these four organs were successfully recovered. Notably, a total of 30 novel miRNA-miRNA* pairs that have not been registered in miRBase were discovered by miRNA Digger. After target prediction and degradome sequencing data-based validation, eleven miRNA-target interactions involving six of the novel miRNAs were identified. Taken together, miRNA Digger could be applied for sensitive detection of novel miRNAs and it could be freely downloaded from http://www.bioinfolab.cn/miRNA_Digger/index.html. PMID:26732371

  1. Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping.

    PubMed

    Berger, Gregory L; Liu, Shuyu; Hall, Marla D; Brooks, Wynse S; Chao, Shiaoman; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Baik, B-K; Steffenson, Brian; Griffey, Carl A

    2013-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an opportunity to examine the genetic architecture of quantitatively inherited traits in breeding populations. The objectives of this study were to use GWAS to identify chromosome regions governing traits of importance in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers that can be implemented in a marker-assisted breeding program. Advanced hulled and hulless lines (329 total) were screened using 3,072 SNPs as a part of the US. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP). Phenotypic data collected over 4 years for agronomic and food quality traits and resistance to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei G. Otth), powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. hordei Em. Marchal], net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres), and spot blotch [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechsler ex Dastur] were analyzed with SNP genotypic data in a GWAS to determine marker-trait associations. Significant SNPs associated with previously described quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes were identified for heading date on chromosome 3H, test weight on 2H, yield on 7H, grain protein on 5H, polyphenol oxidase activity on 2H and resistance to leaf rust on 2H and 3H, powdery mildew on 1H, 2H and 4H, net blotch on 5H, and spot blotch on 7H. Novel QTL also were identified for agronomic, quality, and disease resistance traits. These SNP-trait associations provide the opportunity to directly select for QTL contributing to multiple traits in breeding programs. PMID:23139143

  2. Innovative Strategies to Identify M. tuberculosis Antigens and Epitopes Using Genome-Wide Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Geluk, Annemieke; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Joosten, Simone A.; Commandeur, Susanna; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the fact that only a small part of the Mtb expressome has been explored for identification of antigens capable of activating human T-cell responses, which is critically required for the design of better TB vaccination strategies, more emphasis should be placed on innovative ways to discover new Mtb antigens and explore their function at the several stages of infection. Better protective antigens for TB-vaccines are urgently needed, also in view of the disappointing results of the MVA85 vaccine, which failed to induce additional protection in BCG-vaccinated infants (1). Moreover, immune responses to relevant antigens may be useful to identify TB-specific biomarker signatures. Here, we describe the potency of novel tools and strategies to reveal such Mtb antigens. Using proteins specific for different Mtb infection phases, many new antigens of the latency-associated Mtb DosR-regulon as well as resuscitation promoting factor proteins, associated with resuscitating TB, were discovered that were recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Furthermore, by employing MHC binding algorithms and bioinformatics combined with high-throughput human T-cell screens and tetramers, HLA-class Ia restricted polyfunctional CD8+ T-cells were identified in TB patients. Comparable methods, led to the identification of HLA-E-restricted Mtb epitopes recognized by CD8+ T-cells. A genome-wide unbiased antigen discovery approach was applied to analyze the in vivo Mtb gene expression profiles in the lungs of mice, resulting in the identification of IVE-TB antigens, which are expressed during infection in the lung, the main target organ of Mtb. IVE-TB antigens induce strong T-cell responses in long-term latently Mtb infected individuals, and represent an interesting new group of TB antigens for vaccination. In summary, new tools have helped expand our view on the Mtb antigenome involved in human cellular immunity and provided new candidates for TB vaccination. PMID:25009541

  3. A Genome-Wide Methylation Approach Identifies a New Hypermethylated Gene Panel in Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Keunsoo; Bae, Jin-Han; Han, Kyudong; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Tae-Oh; Yi, Joo Mi

    2016-01-01

    The cause of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unknown, but there is growing evidence that environmental factors such as epigenetic changes can contribute to the disease etiology. The aim of this study was to identify newly hypermethylated genes in ulcerative colitis (UC) using a genome-wide DNA methylation approach. Using an Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, we screened the DNA methylation changes in three normal colon controls and eight UC patients. Using these methylation profiles, 48 probes associated with CpG promoter methylation showed differential hypermethylation between UC patients and normal controls. Technical validations for methylation analyses in a larger series of UC patients (n = 79) were performed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite sequencing analysis. We finally found that three genes (FAM217B, KIAA1614 and RIBC2) that were significantly elevating the promoter methylation levels in UC compared to normal controls. Interestingly, we confirmed that three genes were transcriptionally silenced in UC patient samples by qRT-PCR, suggesting that their silencing is correlated with the promoter hypermethylation. Pathway analyses were performed using GO and KEGG databases with differentially hypermethylated genes in UC. Our results highlight that aberrant hypermethylation was identified in UC patients which can be a potential biomarker for detecting UC. Moreover, pathway-enriched hypermethylated genes are possibly implicating important cellular function in the pathogenesis of UC. Overall, this study describes a newly hypermethylated gene panel in UC patients and provides new clinical information that can be used for the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of IBD. PMID:27517910

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  5. A Genome-Wide Methylation Approach Identifies a New Hypermethylated Gene Panel in Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Keunsoo; Bae, Jin-Han; Han, Kyudong; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Tae-Oh; Yi, Joo Mi

    2016-01-01

    The cause of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unknown, but there is growing evidence that environmental factors such as epigenetic changes can contribute to the disease etiology. The aim of this study was to identify newly hypermethylated genes in ulcerative colitis (UC) using a genome-wide DNA methylation approach. Using an Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, we screened the DNA methylation changes in three normal colon controls and eight UC patients. Using these methylation profiles, 48 probes associated with CpG promoter methylation showed differential hypermethylation between UC patients and normal controls. Technical validations for methylation analyses in a larger series of UC patients (n = 79) were performed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite sequencing analysis. We finally found that three genes (FAM217B, KIAA1614 and RIBC2) that were significantly elevating the promoter methylation levels in UC compared to normal controls. Interestingly, we confirmed that three genes were transcriptionally silenced in UC patient samples by qRT-PCR, suggesting that their silencing is correlated with the promoter hypermethylation. Pathway analyses were performed using GO and KEGG databases with differentially hypermethylated genes in UC. Our results highlight that aberrant hypermethylation was identified in UC patients which can be a potential biomarker for detecting UC. Moreover, pathway-enriched hypermethylated genes are possibly implicating important cellular function in the pathogenesis of UC. Overall, this study describes a newly hypermethylated gene panel in UC patients and provides new clinical information that can be used for the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of IBD. PMID:27517910

  6. First WNK4-Hypokalemia Animal Model Identified by Genome-Wide Association in Burmese Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gandolfi, Barbara; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Malik, Richard; Cortes, Alejandro; Jones, Boyd R.; Helps, Chris R.; Prinzenberg, Eva M.; Erhardt, George; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Burmese is an old and popular cat breed, however, several health concerns, such as hypokalemia and a craniofacial defect, are prevalent, endangering the general health of the breed. Hypokalemia, a subnormal serum potassium ion concentration ([K+]), most often occurs as a secondary problem but can occur as a primary problem, such as hypokalaemic periodic paralysis in humans, and as feline hypokalaemic periodic polymyopathy primarily in Burmese. The most characteristic clinical sign of hypokalemia in Burmese is a skeletal muscle weakness that is frequently episodic in nature, either generalized, or sometimes localized to the cervical and thoracic limb girdle muscles. Burmese hypokalemia is suspected to be a single locus autosomal recessive trait. A genome wide case-control study using the illumina Infinium Feline 63K iSelect DNA array was performed using 35 cases and 25 controls from the Burmese breed that identified a locus on chromosome E1 associated with hypokalemia. Within approximately 1.2 Mb of the highest associated SNP, two candidate genes were identified, KCNH4 and WNK4. Direct sequencing of the genes revealed a nonsense mutation, producing a premature stop codon within WNK4 (c.2899C>T), leading to a truncated protein that lacks the C-terminal coiled-coil domain and the highly conserved Akt1/SGK phosphorylation site. All cases were homozygous for the mutation. Although the exact mechanism causing hypokalemia has not been determined, extrapolation from the homologous human and mouse genes suggests the mechanism may involve a potassium-losing nephropathy. A genetic test to screen for the genetic defect within the active breeding population has been developed, which should lead to eradication of the mutation and improved general health within the breed. Moreover, the identified mutation may help clarify the role of the protein in K+ regulation and the cat represents the first animal model for WNK4-associated hypokalemia. PMID:23285264

  7. Genome-wide association study using whole-genome sequencing rapidly identifies new genes influencing agronomic traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Yano, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Aya, Koichiro; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Lo, Pei-Ching; Hu, Li; Yamasaki, Masanori; Yoshida, Shinya; Kitano, Hidemi; Hirano, Ko; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be a powerful tool for the identification of genes associated with agronomic traits in crop species, but it is often hindered by population structure and the large extent of linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we identified agronomically important genes in rice using GWAS based on whole-genome sequencing, followed by the screening of candidate genes based on the estimated effect of nucleotide polymorphisms. Using this approach, we identified four new genes associated with agronomic traits. Some genes were undetectable by standard SNP analysis, but we detected them using gene-based association analysis. This study provides fundamental insights relevant to the rapid identification of genes associated with agronomic traits using GWAS and will accelerate future efforts aimed at crop improvement. PMID:27322545

  8. Genome-wide analyses of proliferation-important genes of Iridovirus-tiger frog virus by RNAi.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun-Feng; Lai, Yu-Xiong; Huang, Li-Jie; Huang, Run-Qing; Yang, Shao-Wei; Shi, Yan; Weng, Shao-Ping; Zhang, Yong; He, Jian-Guo

    2014-08-30

    Tiger frog virus (TFV), a species of genus Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae, is a nuclear cytoplasmic large DNA virus that infects aquatic vertebrates such as tiger frog (Rana tigrina rugulosa) and Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx sinensis). Based on the available genome sequences of TFV, the well-developed RNA interference (RNAi) technique, and the reliable cell line for infection model, we decided to analyze the functional importance of all predicted genes. Firstly, a relative quantitative cytopathogenic effect (Q-CPE) assay was established to monitor the viral proliferation in fish cells. Then, genome-wide RNAi screens of 95 small interference (si) RNAs against TFV were performed to characterize the functional importance of nearly all (95%) predicted TFV genes by Q-CPE scaling system. We identified 32 (33.7%) genes as essential, 50 (52.6%) genes as semi-essential and 13 (13.7%) genes as nonessential for TFV proliferation. Quantitative RT-PCR and titer assays of selected genes were performed to verify the screen results. Furthermore, the screened essential genes were analyzed for their genome distribution and conservative comparison within Ranavirus. Such a systematic screen for viral functional genes by cell phenotypes should provide further insights into understanding of the information in antiviral targets, and in viral replication and pathogenesis of iridovirus. PMID:24886972

  9. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis: advances and recent applications for genome-wide interaction studies

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Won-Ki; Park, Hay-Oak

    2015-01-01

    Complex protein networks are involved in nearly all cellular processes. To uncover these vast networks of protein interactions, various high-throughput screening technologies have been developed. Over the last decade, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay has been widely used to detect protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in living cells. This technique is based on the reconstitution of a fluorescent protein in vivo. Easy quantification of the BiFC signals allows effective cell-based high-throughput screenings for protein-binding partners and drugs that modulate PPIs. Recently, with the development of large screening libraries, BiFC has been effectively applied for genome-wide PPI studies and has uncovered novel protein interactions, providing new insight into protein functions. In this review, we describe the development of reagents and methods used for BiFC-based screens in yeast, plants, and mammalian cells. We also discuss the advantages and drawbacks of these methods and highlight the application of BiFC in large-scale studies. PMID:25772494

  10. What are genome-wide association studies telling us about B-cell tumor development?

    PubMed Central

    Sherborne, Amy L; Houlston, Richard S

    2010-01-01

    It has long been speculated that common genetic variation influences the development of B-cell malignancy, however until recently evidence for this assertion was lacking. The advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has allowed the search for this class of susceptibility allele to be conducted on a genome-wide basis. Recent GWAS of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have identified novel disease genes for CLL and ALL and underscore the importance of polymorphic variation in B-cell development genes as determinants of leukemia risk. PMID:21307401

  11. VaccineDA: Prediction, design and genome-wide screening of oligodeoxynucleotide-based vaccine adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Gandharva; Gupta, Sudheer; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar Dhanda, Sandeep; Prakash, Satya; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory oligodeoxynucleotides (IMODNs) are the short DNA sequences that activate the innate immune system via toll-like receptor 9. These sequences predominantly contain unmethylated CpG motifs. In this work, we describe VaccineDA (Vaccine DNA adjuvants), a web-based resource developed to design IMODN-based vaccine adjuvants. We collected and analyzed 2193 experimentally validated IMODNs obtained from the literature. Certain types of nucleotides (e.g., T, GT, TC, TT, CGT, TCG, TTT) are dominant in IMODNs. Based on these observations, we developed support vector machine-based models to predict IMODNs using various compositions. The developed models achieved the maximum Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.75 with an accuracy of 87.57% using the pentanucleotide composition. The integration of motif information further improved the performance of our model from the MCC of 0.75 to 0.77. Similarly, models were developed to predict palindromic IMODNs and attained a maximum MCC of 0.84 with the accuracy of 91.94%. These models were evaluated using a five-fold cross-validation technique as well as validated on an independent dataset. The models developed in this study were integrated into VaccineDA to provide a wide range of services that facilitate the design of DNA-based vaccine adjuvants (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/vaccineda/). PMID:26212482

  12. [Genome-wide molecular screening for the identification of new targets in human hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Longerich, T

    2012-11-01

    Molecular hepatocarcinogenesis represents a step-wise process which in most cases is associated with a well-defined chronic liver disease. By meta-analysis of classical comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data an oncogenetic progression model could be generated (1q gain→ 8q gain → 4q loss → 16q loss → 13q loss). Array-based CGH allows the identification of etiology-dependent and independent genomic alterations. The Mouse Double Minute homologue 4 (MDM4) was shown to act as an oncogene of 1q32.1 gains in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Integration of genomic and epigenomic data facilitated the identification of tumor suppressor gene candidates in human HCC. For instance, Polo-like kinase 3 (PLK3) is frequently inactivated via promoter hypermethylation in combination with a loss of the second allele at 1p34.1. Both MDM4 overexpression and methylation-dependent inactivation of PLK3 represent potential targets for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:22948473

  13. A Genome-Wide Screen in Yeast to Identify Potential Targets of Trichothecene Mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum infection contaminates wheat and barley grain with the potent trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Trichothecene mycotoxins are known to target cytosolic ribosomes and can cause cell death by permanently disruption translation. In addition to the inhibition of protein...

  14. Genome-Wide Screening of mRNA Expression in Leprosy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Belone, Andrea de Faria F.; Rosa, Patrícia S.; Trombone, Ana P. F.; Fachin, Luciana R. V.; Guidella, Cássio C.; Ura, Somei; Barreto, Jaison A.; Pinilla, Mabel G.; de Carvalho, Alex F.; Carraro, Dirce M.; Soares, Fernando A.; Soares, Cleverson T.

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects millions of people worldwide. However, little is known regarding its molecular pathophysiological mechanisms. In this study, a comprehensive assessment of human mRNA was performed on leprosy skin lesions by using DNA chip microarrays, which included the entire spectrum of the disease along with its reactional states. Sixty-six samples from leprotic lesions (10TT, 10BT, 10BB, 10BL, 4LL, 14R1, and 10R2) and nine skin biopsies from healthy individuals were used as controls (CC) (ages ranged from 06 to 83 years, 48 were male and 29 female). The evaluation identified 1580 differentially expressed mRNAs [Fold Change (FC) ≥ 2.0, p ≤ 0.05] in diseased lesions vs. healthy controls. Some of these genes were observed in all forms of the disease (CD2, CD27, chit1, FA2H, FAM26F, GZMB, MMP9, SLAMF7, UBD) and others were exclusive to reactional forms (Type “1” reaction: GPNMB, IL1B, MICAL2, FOXQ1; Type “2” reaction: AKR1B10, FAM180B, FOXQ1, NNMT, NR1D1, PTX3, TNFRSF25). In literature, these mRNAs have been associated with numerous pathophysiological processes and signaling pathways and are present in a large number of diseases. The role of these mRNAs maybe studied in the context of developing new diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for leprosy. PMID:26635870

  15. The clinical application of genome-wide sequencing for monogenic diseases in Canada: Position Statement of the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists

    PubMed Central

    Boycott, Kym; Hartley, Taila; Adam, Shelin; Bernier, Francois; Chong, Karen; Fernandez, Bridget A; Friedman, Jan M; Geraghty, Michael T; Hume, Stacey; Knoppers, Bartha M; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Majewski, Jacek; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Meyn, M Stephen; Michaud, Jacques L; Nelson, Tanya N; Richer, Julie; Sadikovic, Bekim; Skidmore, David L; Stockley, Tracy; Taylor, Sherry; van Karnebeek, Clara; Zawati, Ma'n H; Lauzon, Julie; Armour, Christine M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and scope The aim of this Position Statement is to provide recommendations for Canadian medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors and other physicians regarding the use of genome-wide sequencing of germline DNA in the context of clinical genetic diagnosis. This statement has been developed to facilitate the clinical translation and development of best practices for clinical genome-wide sequencing for genetic diagnosis of monogenic diseases in Canada; it does not address the clinical application of this technology in other fields such as molecular investigation of cancer or for population screening of healthy individuals. Methods of statement development Two multidisciplinary groups consisting of medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors, ethicists, lawyers and genetic researchers were assembled to review existing literature and guidelines on genome-wide sequencing for clinical genetic diagnosis in the context of monogenic diseases, and to make recommendations relevant to the Canadian context. The statement was circulated for comment to the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) membership-at-large and, following incorporation of feedback, approved by the CCMG Board of Directors. The CCMG is a Canadian organisation responsible for certifying medical geneticists and clinical laboratory geneticists, and for establishing professional and ethical standards for clinical genetics services in Canada. Results and conclusions Recommendations include (1) clinical genome-wide sequencing is an appropriate approach in the diagnostic assessment of a patient for whom there is suspicion of a significant monogenic disease that is associated with a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, or where specific genetic tests have failed to provide a diagnosis; (2) until the benefits of reporting incidental findings are established, we do not endorse the intentional clinical analysis of disease-associated genes

  16. Signatures of positive selection in East African Shorthorn Zebu: a genome-wide SNP analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small East African Shorthorn Zebu is the main indigenous cattle across East Africa. A recent genome wide SNPs analysis has revealed their ancient stable African taurine x Asian zebu admixture. Here, we assess the presence of candidate signature of positive selection in their genome, with the aim...

  17. Performance of single nucleotide polymorphisms versus haplotypes for genome-wide association analysis in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may benefit from using haplotype information for making marker-phenotype associations. Several rationales for grouping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) into haplotype blocks exist, but any advantage may depend on the genetic architecture of traits, patter...

  18. Genome Wide Scan for Loci influencing Warner Bratzler Shear Force in Five Bos taurus Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic tests for beef tenderness are currently limited to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within µ-calpain (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) and explain little of the phenotypic variation in Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). We performed a genome-wide association study for WBSF by genotyping...

  19. Mixed linear model approach adapted for genome-wide association studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixed linear model (MLM) methods have proven useful in controlling for population structure and relatedness within genome-wide association studies. However, MLM-based methods can be computationally challenging for large datasets. We report a compression approach, called ‘compressed MLM,’ that decrea...

  20. Genetic Variation Between Two Cucumber Genotypes Inferred from Genome-wide Microsatellite Polymorphism Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variability at microsatellite loci has been used widely to infer the extent of genetic diversity among related plant taxa. However, typically, only the most polymorphic loci in the genome were analyzed that may result in a biased, and generally overestimated picture of genome-wide microsatellite div...

  1. A genome-wide association study platform built on iPlant cyber-infrastructure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We demonstrated a flexible Genome-Wide Association (GWA) Study (GWAS) platform built upon the iPlant Collaborative Cyber-infrastructure. The platform supports big data management, sharing, and large scale study of both genotype and phenotype data on clusters. End users can add their own analysis too...

  2. Methods for meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A limitation of many genome-wide association studies (GWA) in animal breeding is that there are many loci with small effect sizes; thus, larger sample sizes (N) are required to guarantee suitable power of detection. For increasing N, results from different GWA can be combined in a meta-analysis (MA-...

  3. Genome-wide linkage scan of quantitative traits representing symptom dimensions in multiplex schizophrenia families.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seunghyong; Won, Hong-Hee; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Jong-Won; Park, Taesung; Cho, Eun-Young; Cho, Youngah; Park, Dong Yeon; Lee, Yu-Sang; Kwon, Jun Soo; Hong, Kyung Sue

    2013-12-30

    Symptom dimensions of schizophrenia are likely to be the intermediate phenotypes under the control of disease-susceptibility genes, or separate traits related to disease-modifier genes. This study aimed to identify chromosomal loci linked to symptom dimensions of schizophrenia through genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage analysis. The study subjects consisted of 56 families with 183 members including 123 affected individuals. Symptom evaluations were performed on lifetime basis. Through principal component factor analysis, eight quantitative phenotypes representing symptom dimensions were identified. Genotyping was done for 6008 SNP markers, and genome-wide QTL linkage analysis was performed. No symptom dimension showed a significant linkage attaining genome-wide empirical thresholds. We observed seven regions yielding linkage signals attaining genome-wide empirical thresholds for suggestive linkage (NPL Z score = 2.78-3.49); chromosome 15q26.1 for 'non-paranoid delusion factor', 2p24.3 and 7q31.1 for 'prodromal impairment factor', 1q32.1, 9p21.3, and 9q31.2 for 'negative symptom factor', and 10p13 for 'disorganization factor'. Among these loci, chromosome 2p24.3 and 1q32.1 overlap with susceptibility loci of schizophrenia identified in our previous linkage studies. This study suggests the existence of genetic loci related to various clinical features of schizophrenia. Further genetic analyses for these dimensional phenotypes are warranted. PMID:24035701

  4. Genome-wide computational prediction and analysis of core promoter elements across plant monocots and dicots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcription initiation, essential to gene expression regulation, involves recruitment of basal transcription factors to the core promoter elements (CPEs). The distribution of currently known CPEs across plant genomes is largely unknown. This is the first large scale genome-wide report on the compu...

  5. Linkage Disequilibrium And Genome-Wide Association Studies In O. sativa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association studies provide a powerful approach to find the genetic basis of complex phenotypic variation in all kinds of species. For this purpose, we developed the first generation 44K Affymetrix SNP array in rice (see Tung et al. poster). We genotyped...

  6. Genome-wide association as a means to understanding the mammary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next-generation sequencing and related technologies have facilitated the creation of enormous public databases that catalogue genomic variation. These databases have facilitated a variety of approaches to discover new genes that regulate normal biology as well as disease. Genome wide association (...

  7. A genome-wide SNP panel for genetic diversity, mapping and breeding studies in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide SNP resource was developed for rice using the GoldenGate assay and used to genotype 400 landrace accessions of O. sativa. SNPs were originally discovered using Perlegen re-sequencing technology in 20 diverse landraces of O. sativa as part of OryzaSNP project (http://irfgc.irri.org). An...

  8. Genome-wide association study of agronomic traits in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a global Andean diversity panel (ADP) of 237 genotypes of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris was conducted to gain insight into the genetic architecture of several agronomic traits controlling phenology, biomass, yield components and seed yield. The panel wa...

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of Intelligence: Additive Effects of Novel Brain Expressed Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Shtir, Corina; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Smalley, Susan L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with human intelligence or general cognitive ability. Method: We performed a genome-wide association analysis with a dense set of 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative intelligence scores within an ancestrally…

  10. Genome-wide association study of swine farrowing traits. Part II: Bayesian analysis of marker data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive efficiency has a great impact on the economic success of pork production. Number born alive (NBA) and average piglet birth weight (ABW) contribute greatly to reproductive efficiency. To better understand the underlying genetics of birth traits, a genome wide association study (GWAS) w...

  11. Implementing meta-analysis from genome-wide association studies for pork quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality plays an important role in the meat processing industry, thus different methodologies have been implemented to elucidate the genetic architecture of traits affecting meat quality. One of the most common and widely used approaches is to perform genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Howe...

  12. Genome-wide association analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to explore the genetic basis of variation for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) and related traits in the Andean diversity panel (ADP) comprised of 259 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes. The ADP was evaluated for SNF and related traits in...

  13. Sparse principal component analysis for identifying ancestry-informative markers in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seokho; Epstein, Michael P; Duncan, Richard; Lin, Xihong

    2012-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) routinely apply principal component analysis (PCA) to infer population structure within a sample to correct for confounding due to ancestry. GWAS implementation of PCA uses tens of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to infer structure, despite the fact that only a small fraction of such SNPs provides useful information on ancestry. The identification of this reduced set of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) from a GWAS has practical value; for example, researchers can genotype the AIM set to correct for potential confounding due to ancestry in follow-up studies that utilize custom SNP or sequencing technology. We propose a novel technique to identify AIMs from genome-wide SNP data using sparse PCA. The procedure uses penalized regression methods to identify those SNPs in a genome-wide panel that significantly contribute to the principal components while encouraging SNPs that provide negligible loadings to vanish from the analysis. We found that sparse PCA leads to negligible loss of ancestry information compared to traditional PCA analysis of genome-wide SNP data. We further demonstrate the value of sparse PCA for AIM selection using real data from the International HapMap Project and a genomewide study of inflammatory bowel disease. We have implemented our approach in open-source R software for public use. PMID:22508067

  14. CNV-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitudes. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variant that may influence meat quality. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine....

  15. A genome-wide regulatory framework identifies maize Pericarp Color1 (P1) controlled genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    P1 encodes an R2R3-MYB transcription factor responsible for the accumulation of insecticidal flavones in maize silks and red phlobaphene pigments in pericarps and other floral tissues. Using genome-wide expression analyses (RNA-Seq) in pericarps and silks of plants with contrasting P1 alleles combin...

  16. Genome-wide association of meat quality traits and tenderness in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality has a large impact on consumer preference and perception of eating quality. A genome-wide association was performed for pork quality traits [intramuscular fat (IMF)], slice shear force (SSF), color attributes, purge, cooking loss, and pH] from 531 to 1,237 records on barrows and gilts o...

  17. A genome-wide association study for blood lipid phenotypes in the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Background: Blood lipid levels including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) are highly heritable. Genome-wide association is a promising approach to map genetic loci related to these heritable phenotypes. Metho...

  18. Application of genome-wide expression analysis to human health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, J. Perren; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Calvano, Steve E.; Baker, Henry V.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Laudanski, Krzysztof; Brownstein, Bernard H.; Elson, Constance M.; Hayden, Douglas L.; Herndon, David N.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Maier, Ronald V.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Davis, Ronald W.; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2005-01-01

    The application of genome-wide expression analysis to a large-scale, multicentered program in critically ill patients poses a number of theoretical and technical challenges. We describe here an analytical and organizational approach to a systematic evaluation of the variance associated with genome-wide expression analysis specifically tailored to study human disease. We analyzed sources of variance in genome-wide expression analyses performed with commercial oligonucleotide arrays. In addition, variance in gene expression in human blood leukocytes caused by repeated sampling in the same subject, among different healthy subjects, among different leukocyte subpopulations, and the effect of traumatic injury, were also explored. We report that analytical variance caused by sample processing was acceptably small. Blood leukocyte gene expression in the same individual over a 24-h period was remarkably constant. In contrast, genome-wide expression varied significantly among different subjects and leukocyte subpopulations. Expectedly, traumatic injury induced dramatic changes in apparent gene expression that were greater in magnitude than the analytical noise and interindividual variance. We demonstrate that the development of a nation-wide program for gene expression analysis with careful attention to analytical details can reduce the variance in the clinical setting to a level where patterns of gene expression are informative among different healthy human subjects, and can be studied with confidence in human disease. PMID:15781863

  19. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association from genomic prediction models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A limitation of many genome-wide association studies (GWA) in animal breeding is that there are many loci with small effect sizes; thus, larger sample sizes (N) are required to guarantee suitable power of detection. To increase sample size, results from different GWA can be combined in a meta-analys...

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Receptive Language Ability of 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…

  1. Genome-wide significant predictors of metabolites in the one-carbon metabolism pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low plasma B-vitamin levels and elevated homocysteine have been associated with cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Common variants in FUT2 on chromosome 19q13 were associated with plasma vitamin B12 levels among women in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the Nur...

  2. Genome-wide scan revealed genetic loci for energy metabolism in Hispanic children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide scans were conducted in a search for genetic locations linked to energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in children. Pedigreed data of 1030 Hispanic children and adolescents were from the Viva La Familia Study, which was designed to investigate genetic and environmental risk factors ...

  3. Software engineering the mixed model for genome-wide association studies on large samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixed models improve the ability to detect phenotype-genotype associations in the presence of population stratification and multiple levels of relatedness in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but for large data sets the resource consumption becomes impractical. At the same time, the sample siz...

  4. Genome-wide identification and characterization of simple sequence repeat loci in grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide sequence search was conducted to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), a key grape pest throughout the world. Collectively, 1,524 SSR loci containing mono, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide motifs were identified. Among...

  5. Genome-wide association study of maize identifies genes affecting leaf architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. maize yield has increased eightfold in the past 80 years with half of the improvement attributed to genetics. Changes in maize leaf angle and size provided a basis for more efficient light capture as plant densities increased. Through a genome wide association study (GWAS) of the maize nested a...

  6. Genome-wide meta-analysis of cerebral white matter hyperintensities in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cathy R.; Adib-Samii, Poneh; Devan, William J.; Parsons, Owen E.; Lanfranconi, Silvia; Gregory, Sarah; Cloonan, Lisa; Falcone, Guido J.; Radmanesh, Farid; Fitzpatrick, Kaitlin; Kanakis, Allison; Barrick, Thomas R.; Moynihan, Barry; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Boncoraglio, Giorgio B.; Lemmens, Robin; Thijs, Vincent; Sudlow, Cathie; Wardlaw, Joanna; Rothwell, Peter M.; Meschia, James F.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Levi, Christopher; Bevan, Steve; Furie, Karen L.; Dichgans, Martin; Rosand, Jonathan; Markus, Hugh S.; Rost, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: For 3,670 stroke patients from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, Belgium, and Italy, we performed a genome-wide meta-analysis of white matter hyperintensity volumes (WMHV) on data imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference dataset to provide insights into disease mechanisms. Methods: We first sought to identify genetic associations with white matter hyperintensities in a stroke population, and then examined whether genetic loci previously linked to WMHV in community populations are also associated in stroke patients. Having established that genetic associations are shared between the 2 populations, we performed a meta-analysis testing which associations with WMHV in stroke-free populations are associated overall when combined with stroke populations. Results: There were no associations at genome-wide significance with WMHV in stroke patients. All previously reported genome-wide significant associations with WMHV in community populations shared direction of effect in stroke patients. In a meta-analysis of the genome-wide significant and suggestive loci (p < 5 × 10−6) from community populations (15 single nucleotide polymorphisms in total) and from stroke patients, 6 independent loci were associated with WMHV in both populations. Four of these are novel associations at the genome-wide level (rs72934505 [NBEAL1], p = 2.2 × 10−8; rs941898 [EVL], p = 4.0 × 10−8; rs962888 [C1QL1], p = 1.1 × 10−8; rs9515201 [COL4A2], p = 6.9 × 10−9). Conclusions: Genetic associations with WMHV are shared in otherwise healthy individuals and patients with stroke, indicating common genetic susceptibility in cerebral small vessel disease. PMID:26674333

  7. Genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in elite sugar beet germplasm

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Characterization of population structure and genetic diversity of germplasm is essential for the efficient organization and utilization of breeding material. The objectives of this study were to (i) explore the patterns of population structure in the pollen parent heterotic pool using different methods, (ii) investigate the genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity, and (iii) assess the extent and genome-wide distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in elite sugar beet germplasm. Results A total of 264 and 238 inbred lines from the yield type and sugar type inbreds of the pollen parent heterotic gene pools, respectively, which had been genotyped with 328 SNP markers, were used in this study. Two distinct subgroups were detected based on different statistical methods within the elite sugar beet germplasm set, which was in accordance with its breeding history. MCLUST based on principal components, principal coordinates, or lapvectors had high correspondence with the germplasm type information as well as the assignment by STRUCTURE, which indicated that these methods might be alternatives to STRUCTURE for population structure analysis. Gene diversity and modified Roger's distance between the examined germplasm types varied considerably across the genome, which might be due to artificial selection. This observation indicates that population genetic approaches could be used to identify candidate genes for the traits under selection. Due to the fact that r2 >0.8 is required to detect marker-phenotype association explaining less than 1% of the phenotypic variance, our observation of a low proportion of SNP loci pairs showing such levels of LD suggests that the number of markers has to be dramatically increased for powerful genome-wide association mapping. Conclusions We provided a genome-wide distribution map of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium for the elite sugar beet germplasm, which is useful for the application of genome-wide association

  8. A genome-wide approach to children's aggressive behavior: The EAGLE consortium.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Irene; St Pourcain, Beate; Benke, Kelly; Cavadino, Alana; Hakulinen, Christian; Nivard, Michel G; Nolte, Ilja M; Tiesler, Carla M T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Davies, Gareth E; Evans, David M; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Grallert, Harald; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Hudziak, James J; Kemp, John P; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; McMahon, George; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Motazedi, Ehsan; Power, Christine; Raitakari, Olli T; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rodriguez, Alina; Scheet, Paul A; Seppälä, Ilkka; Snieder, Harold; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Timpson, Nicholas J; Veenstra, René; Velders, Fleur P; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Smith, George Davey; Heinrich, Joachim; Hypponen, Elina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Middeldorp, Christel M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pennell, Craig E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-07-01

    Individual differences in aggressive behavior emerge in early childhood and predict persisting behavioral problems and disorders. Studies of antisocial and severe aggression in adulthood indicate substantial underlying biology. However, little attention has been given to genome-wide approaches of aggressive behavior in children. We analyzed data from nine population-based studies and assessed aggressive behavior using well-validated parent-reported questionnaires. This is the largest sample exploring children's aggressive behavior to date (N = 18,988), with measures in two developmental stages (N = 15,668 early childhood and N = 16,311 middle childhood/early adolescence). First, we estimated the additive genetic variance of children's aggressive behavior based on genome-wide SNP information, using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). Second, genetic associations within each study were assessed using a quasi-Poisson regression approach, capturing the highly right-skewed distribution of aggressive behavior. Third, we performed meta-analyses of genome-wide associations for both the total age-mixed sample and the two developmental stages. Finally, we performed a gene-based test using the summary statistics of the total sample. GCTA quantified variance tagged by common SNPs (10-54%). The meta-analysis of the total sample identified one region in chromosome 2 (2p12) at near genome-wide significance (top SNP rs11126630, P = 5.30 × 10(-8) ). The separate meta-analyses of the two developmental stages revealed suggestive evidence of association at the same locus. The gene-based analysis indicated association of variation within AVPR1A with aggressive behavior. We conclude that common variants at 2p12 show suggestive evidence for association with childhood aggression. Replication of these initial findings is needed, and further studies should clarify its biological meaning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26087016

  9. ReplicationDomain: a visualization tool and comparative database for genome-wide replication timing data

    PubMed Central

    Weddington, Nodin; Stuy, Alexander; Hiratani, Ichiro; Ryba, Tyrone; Yokochi, Tomoki; Gilbert, David M

    2008-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic DNA replication is regulated at the level of large chromosomal domains (0.5–5 megabases in mammals) within which replicons are activated relatively synchronously. These domains replicate in a specific temporal order during S-phase and our genome-wide analyses of replication timing have demonstrated that this temporal order of domain replication is a stable property of specific cell types. Results We have developed ReplicationDomain as a web-based database for analysis of genome-wide replication timing maps (replication profiles) from various cell lines and species. This database also provides comparative information of transcriptional expression and is configured to display any genome-wide property (for instance, ChIP-Chip or ChIP-Seq data) via an interactive web interface. Our published microarray data sets are publicly available. Users may graphically display these data sets for a selected genomic region and download the data displayed as text files, or alternatively, download complete genome-wide data sets. Furthermore, we have implemented a user registration system that allows registered users to upload their own data sets. Upon uploading, registered users may choose to: (1) view their data sets privately without sharing; (2) share with other registered users; or (3) make their published or "in press" data sets publicly available, which can fulfill journal and funding agencies' requirements for data sharing. Conclusion ReplicationDomain is a novel and powerful tool to facilitate the comparative visualization of replication timing in various cell types as well as other genome-wide chromatin features and is considerably faster and more convenient than existing browsers when viewing multi-megabase segments of chromosomes. Furthermore, the data upload function with the option of private viewing or sharing of data sets between registered users should be a valuable resource for the scientific community. PMID:19077204

  10. Genome-wide analysis of signal peptide functionality in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    PubMed Central

    Mathiesen, Geir; Sveen, Anita; Brurberg, May Bente; Fredriksen, Lasse; Axelsson, Lars; Eijsink, Vincent GH

    2009-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus plantarum is a normal, potentially probiotic, inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The bacterium has great potential as food-grade cell factory and for in situ delivery of biomolecules. Since protein secretion is important both for probiotic activity and in biotechnological applications, we have carried out a genome-wide experimental study of signal peptide (SP) functionality. Results We have constructed a library of 76 Sec-type signal peptides from L. plantarum WCFS1 that were predicted to be cleaved by signal peptidase I. SP functionality was studied using staphylococcal nuclease (NucA) as a reporter protein. 82% of the SPs gave significant extracellular NucA activity. Levels of secreted NucA varied by a dramatic 1800-fold and this variation was shown not to be the result of different mRNA levels. For the best-performing SPs all produced NucA was detected in the culture supernatant, but the secretion efficiency decreased for the less well performing SPs. Sequence analyses of the SPs and their cognate proteins revealed four properties that correlated positively with SP performance for NucA: high hydrophobicity, the presence of a transmembrane helix predicted by TMHMM, the absence of an anchoring motif in the cognate protein, and the length of the H+C domain. Analysis of a subset of SPs with a lactobacillal amylase (AmyA) showed large variation in production levels and secretion efficiencies. Importantly, there was no correlation between SP performance with NucA and the performance with AmyA. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive experimental study showing that predicted SPs in the L. plantarum genome actually are capable of driving protein secretion. The results reveal considerable variation between the SPs that is at least in part dependent on the protein that is secreted. Several SPs stand out as promising candidates for efficient secretion of heterologous proteins in L. plantarum. The results for NucA provide some

  11. Genome-wide transcription analysis of histidine-related cataract in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L)

    PubMed Central

    Waagbø, Rune; Breck, Olav; Stavrum, Anne-Kristin; Petersen, Kjell; Olsvik, Pål A.

    2009-01-01

    progression in cataract formation. Conclusions Dietary histidine regimes affected cataract formation and lens gene expression in adult Atlantic salmon. Regulated transcripts selected from the results of this genome-wide transcription analysis might be used as possible biological markers for cataract development in Atlantic salmon. PMID:19597568

  12. Insight in Genome-Wide Association of Metabolite Quantitative Traits by Exome Sequence Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Aswin; Dharuri, Harish; Amin, Najaf; van Klinken, Jan Bert; Karssen, Lennart C.; de Vries, Boukje; Meissner, Axel; Göraler, Sibel; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Deelder, André M.; C ’t Hoen, Peter A.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2015-01-01

    Metabolite quantitative traits carry great promise for epidemiological studies, and their genetic background has been addressed using Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Thus far, the role of less common variants has not been exhaustively studied. Here, we set out a GWAS for metabolite quantitative traits in serum, followed by exome sequence analysis to zoom in on putative causal variants in the associated genes. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy experiments yielded successful quantification of 42 unique metabolites in 2,482 individuals from The Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study. Heritability of metabolites were estimated by SOLAR. GWAS was performed by linear mixed models, using HapMap imputations. Based on physical vicinity and pathway analyses, candidate genes were screened for coding region variation using exome sequence data. Heritability estimates for metabolites ranged between 10% and 52%. GWAS replicated three known loci in the metabolome wide significance: CPS1 with glycine (P-value  = 1.27×10−32), PRODH with proline (P-value  = 1.11×10−19), SLC16A9 with carnitine level (P-value  = 4.81×10−14) and uncovered a novel association between DMGDH and dimethyl-glycine (P-value  = 1.65×10−19) level. In addition, we found three novel, suggestively significant loci: TNP1 with pyruvate (P-value  = 1.26×10−8), KCNJ16 with 3-hydroxybutyrate (P-value  = 1.65×10−8) and 2p12 locus with valine (P-value  = 3.49×10−8). Exome sequence analysis identified potentially causal coding and regulatory variants located in the genes CPS1, KCNJ2 and PRODH, and revealed allelic heterogeneity for CPS1 and PRODH. Combined GWAS and exome analyses of metabolites detected by high-resolution 1H-NMR is a robust approach to uncover metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTL), and the likely causative variants in these loci. It is anticipated that insight in the genetics of intermediate phenotypes will provide additional

  13. Genome-Wide Microsatellite Identification in the Fungus Anisogramma anomala Using Illumina Sequencing and Genome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guohong; Leadbetter, Clayton W.; Muehlbauer, Megan F.; Molnar, Thomas J.; Hillman, Bradley I.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has been dramatically accelerating the discovery of microsatellite markers (also known as Simple Sequence Repeats). Both 454 and Illumina reads have been used directly in microsatellite discovery and primer design (the “Seq-to-SSR” approach). However, constraints of this approach include: 1) many microsatellite-containing reads do not have sufficient flanking sequences to allow primer design, and 2) difficulties in removing microsatellite loci residing in longer, repetitive regions. In the current study, we applied the novel “Seq-Assembly-SSR” approach to overcome these constraints in Anisogramma anomala. In our approach, Illumina reads were first assembled into a draft genome, and the latter was then used in microsatellite discovery. A. anomala is an obligate biotrophic ascomycete that causes eastern filbert blight disease of commercial European hazelnut. Little is known about its population structure or diversity. Approximately 26 M 146 bp Illumina reads were generated from a paired-end library of a fungal strain from Oregon. The reads were assembled into a draft genome of 333 Mb (excluding gaps), with contig N50 of 10,384 bp and scaffold N50 of 32,987 bp. A bioinformatics pipeline identified 46,677 microsatellite motifs at 44,247 loci, including 2,430 compound loci. Primers were successfully designed for 42,923 loci (97%). After removing 2,886 loci close to assembly gaps and 676 loci in repetitive regions, a genome-wide microsatellite database of 39,361 loci was generated for the fungus. In experimental screening of 236 loci using four geographically representative strains, 228 (96.6%) were successfully amplified and 214 (90.7%) produced single PCR products. Twenty-three (9.7%) were found to be perfect polymorphic loci. A small-scale population study using 11 polymorphic loci revealed considerable gene diversity. Clustering analysis grouped isolates of this fungus into two clades in accordance with their geographic origins

  14. Balanced into array: genome-wide array analysis in 54 patients with an apparently balanced de novo chromosome rearrangement and a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feenstra, Ilse; Hanemaaijer, Nicolien; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Yntema, Helger; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Verheij, Joke; Green, Andrew; Hordijk, Roel; Reardon, William; Vries, Bert de; Brunner, Han; Bongers, Ernie; Leeuw, Nicole de; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution genome-wide array analysis enables detailed screening for cryptic and submicroscopic imbalances of microscopically balanced de novo rearrangements in patients with developmental delay and/or congenital abnormalities. In this report, we added the results of genome-wide array analysis in 54 patients to data on 117 patients from seven other studies. A chromosome imbalance was detected in 37% of all patients with two-breakpoint rearrangements. In 49% of these patients, the imbalances were located in one or both breakpoint regions. Imbalances were more frequently (90%) found in complex rearrangements, with the majority (81%) having deletions in the breakpoint regions. The size of our own cohort enabled us to relate the presence of an imbalance to the clinical features of the patients by using a scoring system, the De Vries criteria, that indicates the complexity of the phenotype. The median De Vries score was significantly higher (P=0.002) in those patients with an imbalance (5, range 1–9) than in patients with a normal array result (3, range 0–7). This study provides accurate percentages of cryptic imbalances that can be detected by genome-wide array analysis in simple and complex de novo microscopically balanced chromosome rearrangements and confirms that these imbalances are more likely to occur in patients with a complex phenotype. PMID:21712853

  15. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  16. Genome-Wide Mapping of Susceptibility to Coronary Artery Disease Identifies a Novel Replicated Locus on Chromosome 17

    PubMed Central

    Peden, John F; Olsson, Per G; Clarke, Robert; Hellenius, Mai-Lis; Rust, Stephan; Lagercrantz, Jacob; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Schulte, Helmut; Carey, Alisoun; Olsson, Gunnar; Assmann, Gerd; Tognoni, Gianni; Collins, Rory; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh

    2006-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death world-wide, and most cases have a complex, multifactorial aetiology that includes a substantial heritable component. Identification of new genes involved in CAD may inform pathogenesis and provide new therapeutic targets. The PROCARDIS study recruited 2,658 affected sibling pairs (ASPs) with onset of CAD before age 66 y from four European countries to map susceptibility loci for CAD. ASPs were defined as having CAD phenotype if both had CAD, or myocardial infarction (MI) phenotype if both had a MI. In a first study, involving a genome-wide linkage screen, tentative loci were mapped to Chromosomes 3 and 11 with the CAD phenotype (1,464 ASPs), and to Chromosome 17 with the MI phenotype (739 ASPs). In a second study, these loci were examined with a dense panel of grid-tightening markers in an independent set of families (1,194 CAD and 344 MI ASPs). This replication study showed a significant result on Chromosome 17 (MI phenotype; p = 0.009 after adjustment for three independent replication tests). An exclusion analysis suggests that further genes of effect size λsib > 1.24 are unlikely to exist in these populations of European ancestry. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide linkage analysis to map, and replicate, a CAD locus. The region on Chromosome 17 provides a compelling target within which to identify novel genes underlying CAD. Understanding the genetic aetiology of CAD may lead to novel preventative and/or therapeutic strategies. PMID:16710446

  17. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world’s most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  18. Evidence-based development and first usability testing of a social serious game based multi-modal system for early screening for atypical socio-cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Gyori, Miklos; Borsos, Zsófia; Stefanik, Krisztina

    2015-01-01

    At current, screening for, and diagnosis of, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are based on purely behavioral data; established screening tools rely on human observation and ratings of relevant behaviors. The research and development project in the focus of this paper is aimed at designing, creating and evaluating a social serious game based multi-modal, interactive software system for screening for high functioning cases of ASD at kindergarten age. The aims of this paper are (1) to summarize the evidence-based design process and (2) to present results from the first usability test of the system. Game topic, candidate responses, and candidate game contents were identified via an iterative literature review. On this basis, the 1st partial prototype of the fully playable game has been created, with complete data recording functionality but without the decision making component. A first usability test was carried out on this prototype (n=13). Overall results were unambiguously promising. Although sporadic difficulties in, and slightly negative attitudes towards, using the game occasionally arose, these were confined to non-target-group children only. The next steps of development include (1) completing the game design; (2) carrying out first large-n field test; (3) creating the first prototype of the decision making component. PMID:26294452

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies 14 novel risk alleles associated with basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Harvind S.; Wu, Wenting; Ransohoff, Katherine J.; Yang, Lingyao; Hedlin, Haley; Desai, Manisha; Lin, Yuan; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Hinds, David A.; Tang, Jean Y.; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y.

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer worldwide with an annual incidence of 2.8 million cases in the United States alone. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between 21 distinct genetic loci and BCC risk. Here, we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of BCC, totalling 17,187 cases and 287,054 controls. We confirm 17 previously reported loci and identify 14 new susceptibility loci reaching genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8, logistic regression). These newly associated SNPs lie within predicted keratinocyte regulatory elements and in expression quantitative trait loci; furthermore, we identify candidate genes and non-coding RNAs involved in telomere maintenance, immune regulation and tumour progression, providing deeper insight into the pathogenesis of BCC. PMID:27539887

  20. Genome-wide association study for semen quality traits in German Warmblood stallions.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Metzger, Julia; Martinsson, Gunilla; Sieme, Harald; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-08-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study for semen quality traits in 139 German Warmblood stallions. Stallions were genotyped using the Illumina equine SNP50 Beadchip. Traits analysed were de-regressed estimated breeding values (EBVs) for gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility and the total number of progressively motile sperm. The GWAS revealed 29 SNPs on 12 different chromosomes as genome-wide significantly associated with semen quality traits. For ten genomic regions we could retrieve candidate genes influencing stallion fertility. Among the candidate genes, we could find the genes encoding cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP1, CRISP2 and CRISP3). This was the first GWAS in horses performed for semen quality traits. PMID:27334685

  1. Partitioning heritability by functional annotation using genome-wide association summary statistics

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Hilary K.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Gusev, Alexander; Trynka, Gosia; Reshef, Yakir; Loh, Po-Ru; Anttila, Verneri; Xu, Han; Zang, Chongzhi; Farh, Kyle; Ripke, Stephan; Day, Felix R.; Consortium, ReproGen; Purcell, Shaun; Stahl, Eli; Lindstrom, Sara; Perry, John R. B.; Okada, Yukinori; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Daly, Mark; Patterson, Nick; Neale, Benjamin M.; Price, Alkes L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that some functional categories of the genome contribute disproportionately to the heritability of complex diseases. Here, we analyze a broad set of functional elements, including cell-type-specific elements, to estimate their polygenic contributions to heritability in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 17 complex diseases and traits with an average sample size of 73,599. To enable this analysis, we introduce a new method, stratified LD score regression, for partitioning heritability from GWAS summary statistics while accounting for linked markers. This new method is computationally tractable at very large sample sizes, and leverages genome-wide information. Our results include a large enrichment of heritability in conserved regions across many traits; a very large immunological disease-specific enrichment of heritability in FANTOM5 enhancers; and many cell-type-specific enrichments including significant enrichment of central nervous system cell types in body mass index, age at menarche, educational attainment, and smoking behavior. PMID:26414678

  2. Genome-wide association study identifies 14 novel risk alleles associated with basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Harvind S; Wu, Wenting; Ransohoff, Katherine J; Yang, Lingyao; Hedlin, Haley; Desai, Manisha; Lin, Yuan; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Hinds, David A; Tang, Jean Y; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer worldwide with an annual incidence of 2.8 million cases in the United States alone. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between 21 distinct genetic loci and BCC risk. Here, we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of BCC, totalling 17,187 cases and 287,054 controls. We confirm 17 previously reported loci and identify 14 new susceptibility loci reaching genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8), logistic regression). These newly associated SNPs lie within predicted keratinocyte regulatory elements and in expression quantitative trait loci; furthermore, we identify candidate genes and non-coding RNAs involved in telomere maintenance, immune regulation and tumour progression, providing deeper insight into the pathogenesis of BCC. PMID:27539887

  3. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies five new susceptibility loci for cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Law, Matthew H; Bishop, D Timothy; Lee, Jeffrey E; Brossard, Myriam; Martin, Nicholas G; Moses, Eric K; Song, Fengju; Barrett, Jennifer H; Kumar, Rajiv; Easton, Douglas F; Pharoah, Paul D P; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Kypreou, Katerina P; Taylor, John C; Harland, Mark; Randerson-Moor, Juliette; Akslen, Lars A; Andresen, Per A; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Azizi, Esther; Scarrà, Giovanna Bianchi; Brown, Kevin M; Dȩbniak, Tadeusz; Duffy, David L; Elder, David E; Fang, Shenying; Friedman, Eitan; Galan, Pilar; Ghiorzo, Paola; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Goldstein, Alisa M; Gruis, Nelleke A; Hansson, Johan; Helsing, Per; Hočevar, Marko; Höiom, Veronica; Ingvar, Christian; Kanetsky, Peter A; Chen, Wei V; Landi, Maria Teresa; Lang, Julie; Lathrop, G Mark; Lubiński, Jan; Mackie, Rona M; Mann, Graham J; Molven, Anders; Montgomery, Grant W; Novaković, Srdjan; Olsson, Håkan; Puig, Susana; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Qureshi, Abrar A; Radford-Smith, Graham L; van der Stoep, Nienke; van Doorn, Remco; Whiteman, David C; Craig, Jamie E; Schadendorf, Dirk; Simms, Lisa A; Burdon, Kathryn P; Nyholt, Dale R; Pooley, Karen A; Orr, Nick; Stratigos, Alexander J; Cust, Anne E; Ward, Sarah V; Hayward, Nicholas K; Han, Jiali; Schulze, Hans-Joachim; Dunning, Alison M; Bishop, Julia A Newton; Demenais, Florence; Amos, Christopher I; MacGregor, Stuart; Iles, Mark M

    2015-09-01

    Thirteen common susceptibility loci have been reproducibly associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). We report the results of an international 2-stage meta-analysis of CMM genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This meta-analysis combines 11 GWAS (5 previously unpublished) and a further three stage 2 data sets, totaling 15,990 CMM cases and 26,409 controls. Five loci not previously associated with CMM risk reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)), as did 2 previously reported but unreplicated loci and all 13 established loci. Newly associated SNPs fall within putative melanocyte regulatory elements, and bioinformatic and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data highlight candidate genes in the associated regions, including one involved in telomere biology. PMID:26237428

  4. Singular value decomposition for genome-wide expression data processing and modeling

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Orly; Brown, Patrick O.; Botstein, David

    2000-01-01

    We describe the use of singular value decomposition in transforming genome-wide expression data from genes × arrays space to reduced diagonalized “eigengenes” × “eigenarrays” space, where the eigengenes (or eigenarrays) are unique orthonormal superpositions of the genes (or arrays). Normalizing the data by filtering out the eigengenes (and eigenarrays) that are inferred to represent noise or experimental artifacts enables meaningful comparison of the expression of different genes across different arrays in different experiments. Sorting the data according to the eigengenes and eigenarrays gives a global picture of the dynamics of gene expression, in which individual genes and arrays appear to be classified into groups of similar regulation and function, or similar cellular state and biological phenotype, respectively. After normalization and sorting, the significant eigengenes and eigenarrays can be associated with observed genome-wide effects of regulators, or with measured samples, in which these regulators are overactive or underactive, respectively. PMID:10963673

  5. Quality control and conduct of genome-wide association meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Thomas W; Day, Felix R; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Wood, Andrew R; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Ferreira, Teresa; Fall, Tove; Graff, Mariaelisa; Justice, Anne E; Luan, Jian'an; Gustafsson, Stefan; Randall, Joshua C; Vedantam, Sailaja; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Scherag, André; Esko, Tonu; Kutalik, Zoltán; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF

    2014-01-01

    Rigorous organization and quality control (QC) are necessary to facilitate successful genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMAs) of statistics aggregated across multiple genome-wide association studies. This protocol provides guidelines for [1] organizational aspects of GWAMAs, and for [2] QC at the study file level, the meta-level across studies, and the meta-analysis output level. Real–world examples highlight issues experienced and solutions developed by the GIANT Consortium that has conducted meta-analyses including data from 125 studies comprising more than 330,000 individuals. We provide a general protocol for conducting GWAMAs and carrying out QC to minimize errors and to guarantee maximum use of the data. We also include details for use of a powerful and flexible software package called EasyQC. For consortia of comparable size to the GIANT consortium, the present protocol takes a minimum of about 10 months to complete. PMID:24762786

  6. Genome-Wide Studies of Type 2 Diabetes and Lipid Traits in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Below, Jennifer E; Parra, Esteban J

    2016-05-01

    Although disproportionately affected by increasing rates of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemias, Hispanic populations are underrepresented in efforts to understand genetic susceptibility to these disorders. Where research has been undertaken, these populations have provided substantial insight into identification of novel risk-associated genes and have aided in the ability to fine map previously described risk loci. Genome-wide analyses in Hispanic and trans-ethnic populations have resulted in identification of more than 40 replicated or novel genes with significant effects for type 2 diabetes or lipid traits. Initial investigations into rare variant effects have identified new risk-associated variants private to Hispanic populations, and preliminary results suggest metagenomic approaches in Hispanic populations, such as characterizing the gut microbiome, will enable the development of new predictive tools and therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes. Future genome-wide studies in expanded cohorts of Hispanics are likely to result in new insights into the genetic etiology of metabolic health. PMID:27007718

  7. Novel R tools for analysis of genome-wide population genetic data with emphasis on clonality

    PubMed Central

    Kamvar, Zhian N.; Brooks, Jonah C.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    2015-01-01

    To gain a detailed understanding of how plant microbes evolve and adapt to hosts, pesticides, and other factors, knowledge of the population dynamics and evolutionary history of populations is crucial. Plant pathogen populations are often clonal or partially clonal which requires different analytical tools. With the advent of high throughput sequencing technologies, obtaining genome-wide population genetic data has become easier than ever before. We previously contributed the R package poppr specifically addressing issues with analysis of clonal populations. In this paper we provide several significant extensions to poppr with a focus on large, genome-wide SNP data. Specifically, we provide several new functionalities including the new function mlg.filter to define clone boundaries allowing for inspection and definition of what is a clonal lineage, minimum spanning networks with reticulation, a sliding-window analysis of the index of association, modular bootstrapping of any genetic distance, and analyses across any level of hierarchies. PMID:26113860

  8. The HapMap and Genome-Wide Association Studies in Diagnosis and Therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Manolio, Teri A.; Collins, Francis S.

    2009-01-01

    The International HapMap Project produced a genome-wide database of human genetic variation for use in genetic association studies of common diseases. The initial output of these studies has been overwhelming, with over 150 risk loci identified in studies of more than 60 common diseases and traits. These associations have suggested previously unsuspected etiologic pathways for common diseases that will be of use in identifying new therapeutic targets and developing targeted interventions based on genetically defined risk. Here we examine the development and application of the HapMap to genome-wide association (GWA) studies; present and future technologies for GWA research; current major efforts in GWA studies; successes and limitations of the GWA approach in identifying polymorphisms related to complex diseases; data release and privacy polices; use of these findings by clinicians, the public, and academic physicians; and sources of ongoing authoritative information on this rapidly evolving field. PMID:19630580

  9. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Oud, Bart; Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-01-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. PMID:22152095

  10. Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Daan W.; Artigas, María Soler; Gharib, Sina A.; Wain, Louise V.; Franceschini, Nora; Koch, Beate; Pottinger, Tess; Smith, Albert Vernon; Duan, Qing; Oldmeadow, Chris; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Strachan, David P.; James, Alan L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Vitart, Veronique; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wang, Xin-Qun; Trochet, Holly; Kähönen, Mika; Flexeder, Claudia; Albrecht, Eva; Lopez, Lorna M.; de Jong, Kim; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Enroth, Stefan; Omenaas, Ernst; Joshi, Peter K.; Fall, Tove; Viňuela, Ana; Launer, Lenore J.; Loehr, Laura R.; Fornage, Myriam; Li, Guo; Wilk, Jemma B.; Tang, Wenbo; Manichaikul, Ani; Lahousse, Lies; Harris, Tamara B.; North, Kari E.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Hui, Jennie; Gu, Xiangjun; Lumley, Thomas; Wright, Alan F.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Campbell, Susan; Kumar, Rajesh; Pin, Isabelle; Scott, Robert A.; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Surakka, Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schulz, Holger; Heinrich, Joachim; Davies, Gail; Vonk, Judith M.; Wojczynski, Mary; Pouta, Anneli; Johansson, Åsa; Wild, Sarah H.; Ingelsson, Erik; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Völzke, Henry; Hysi, Pirro G.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Morrison, Alanna C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Gao, Wei; Postma, Dirkje S.; White, Wendy B.; Rich, Stephen S.; Hofman, Albert; Aspelund, Thor; Couper, David; Smith, Lewis J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Lohman, Kurt; Burchard, Esteban G.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Garcia, Melissa; Joubert, Bonnie R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Musk, A. Bill; Hansel, Nadia; Heckbert, Susan R.; Zgaga, Lina; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Navarro, Pau; Rudan, Igor; Oh, Yeon-Mok;