Science.gov

Sample records for multimodal route navigation

  1. Multimodal cognitive interface for robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Elmogy, Mohammed; Habel, Christopher; Zhang, Jianwei

    2011-02-01

    To build effective interactions between humans and robots, they should have common ground of understanding that creates realistic expectations and forms the basis communications. An emerging approach to doing this is to create cognitive models of human reasoning and behavior selection. We have developed a robot navigation system that uses both spatial language and graphical representation to describe route-based navigation tasks for a mobile robot. Our proposed route instruction language (RIL) is intended as a semi-formal language for instructing the robot to execute a route in an indoor environment. We implemented an instruction interpreter to process the route description and generate its equivalent symbolic and topological map representations. A topological map is generated to describe relationships among features of the environment in a more abstract form without any absolute reference system to treat the ambiguity which can occur when the robot cannot recognize the current landmark. The symbolic and topological map representations are supplied to other system components as an initial path estimation to guide the robot while it plans its navigation task. We conducted some experiments to evaluate the routes which are written by using the RIL instructions. PMID:21203798

  2. Pigeon Navigation: Different Routes Lead to Frankfurt

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner, Ingo; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2014-01-01

    Background Tracks of pigeons homing to the Frankfurt loft revealed an odd phenomenon: whereas birds returning from the North approach their loft more or less directly in a broad front, pigeons returning from the South choose, from 25 km from home onward, either of two corridors, a direct one and one with a considerable detour to the West. This implies differences in the navigational process. Methodology/Principle Findings Pigeons released at sites at the beginning of the westerly corridor and in this corridor behave just like pigeons returning from farther south, deviating to the west before turning towards their loft. Birds released at sites within the straight corridors, in contrast, take more or less straight routes. The analysis of the short-term correlation dimension, a quantity reflecting the complexity of the system and with it, the number of factors involved in the navigational process, reveals that it is significantly larger in pigeons choosing the westerly corridor than in the birds flying straight - 3.03 vs. 2.85. The difference is small, however, suggesting a different interpretation of the same factors, with some birds apparently preferring particular factors over others. Conclusions The specific regional distribution of the factors which pigeons use to determine their home course seems to provide ambiguous information in the area 25 km south of the loft, resulting in the two corridors. Pigeons appear to navigate by deriving their routes directly from the locally available navigational factors which they interpret in an individual way. The fractal nature of the correlation dimensions indicates that the navigation process of pigeons is chaotic-deterministic; published tracks of migratory birds suggest that this may apply to avian navigation in general. PMID:25391144

  3. Osm-Oriented Method of Multimodal Route Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wu, Q.; Chen, L.; Xiong, W.; Jing, N.

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing pervasiveness of basic facilitate of transportation and information, the need of multimodal route planning is becoming more essential in the fields of communication and transportation, urban planning, logistics management, etc. This article mainly described an OSM-oriented method of multimodal route planning. Firstly, it introduced how to extract the information we need from OSM data and build proper network model and storage model; then it analysed the accustomed cost standard adopted by most travellers; finally, we used shortest path algorithm to calculate the best route with multiple traffic means.

  4. A multimodal location and routing model for hazardous materials transportation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuanchang; Lu, Wei; Wang, Wen; Quadrifoglio, Luca

    2012-08-15

    The recent US Commodity Flow Survey data suggest that transporting hazardous materials (HAZMAT) often involves multiple modes, especially for long-distance transportation. However, not much research has been conducted on HAZMAT location and routing on a multimodal transportation network. Most existing HAZMAT location and routing studies focus exclusively on single mode (either highways or railways). Motivated by the lack of research on multimodal HAZMAT location and routing and the fact that there is an increasing demand for it, this research proposes a multimodal HAZMAT model that simultaneously optimizes the locations of transfer yards and transportation routes. The developed model is applied to two case studies of different network sizes to demonstrate its applicability. The results are analyzed and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:22633882

  5. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  6. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  7. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  8. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  9. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  10. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  11. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  12. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  13. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  14. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  15. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  16. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  17. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  18. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  19. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  20. Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging and Multimodal Surgical Navigation Using Goggle System.

    PubMed

    Mela, Christopher A; Papay, Francis A; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative imaging is an invaluable tool in many surgical procedures. We have developed a wearable stereoscopic imaging and display system entitled Integrated Imaging Goggle, which can provide real-time multimodal image guidance. With the Integrated Imaging Goggle, wide field-of-view fluorescence imaging is tracked and registered with intraoperative ultrasound imaging and preoperative tomography-based surgical navigation, to provide integrated multimodal imaging capabilities in real-time. Herein we describe the system instrumentation and the methods of using the Integrated Imaging Goggle to guide surgeries. PMID:27283420

  1. Iconic memory-based omnidirectional route panorama navigation.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Yasushi; Imai, Kousuke; Tsuji, Kentaro; Yachida, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    A route navigation method for a mobile robot with an omnidirectional image sensor is described. The route is memorized from a series of consecutive omnidirectional images of the horizon when the robot moves to its goal. While the robot is navigating to the goal point, input is matched against the memorized spatio-temporal route pattern by using dual active contour models and the exact robot position and orientation is estimated from the converged shape of the active contour models. PMID:15628270

  2. Detection of navigation route in greenhouse environment with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiqing; Ji, Changying; An, Qiu; Ding, Qishuo

    2011-12-01

    A route detecting algorithm was proposed for the cucumber picking robot navigation in greenhouse environment. Possible navigation route was determined from the additive value of the column scanning results. Color difference between cucumber plants and the mid row soil was analyzed through combining the RGB elements segregations with extra-green (ExG) value and extra-red (ExR) value. The obtained gray image was segmented with OTSU threshold method, which made the gray-color abruptly changed pixels along the two sides of the central line identified. Mean value of these selected pixels in each line was calculated to provide the discrete points along the navigation route. Finally least square method was used to fit these discrete points to provide the navigation lines, from which, the route for current navigation scheme can be determined. The proposed algorithm was applied to multiple images for its high speed and anti-noise verification.

  3. Detection of navigation route in greenhouse environment with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiqing; Ji, Changying; An, Qiu; Ding, Qishuo

    2012-01-01

    A route detecting algorithm was proposed for the cucumber picking robot navigation in greenhouse environment. Possible navigation route was determined from the additive value of the column scanning results. Color difference between cucumber plants and the mid row soil was analyzed through combining the RGB elements segregations with extra-green (ExG) value and extra-red (ExR) value. The obtained gray image was segmented with OTSU threshold method, which made the gray-color abruptly changed pixels along the two sides of the central line identified. Mean value of these selected pixels in each line was calculated to provide the discrete points along the navigation route. Finally least square method was used to fit these discrete points to provide the navigation lines, from which, the route for current navigation scheme can be determined. The proposed algorithm was applied to multiple images for its high speed and anti-noise verification.

  4. Time optimal route planning algorithm of LBS online navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Bao, Shitai; Su, Kui; Fang, Qiushui; Yang, Jingfeng

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes a time optimal route planning optimization algorithm in the mode of LBS online navigation based on the improved Dijkstra algorithms. Combined with the returning real-time location information by on-line users' handheld terminals, the algorithm can satisfy requirement of the optimal time in the mode of LBS online navigation. A navigation system is developed and applied in actual navigation operations. Operating results show that the algorithm could form a reasonable coordination on the basis of shortest route and fastest velocity in the requirement of optimal time. The algorithm could also store the calculated real-time route information in the cache to improve the efficiency of route planning and to reduce the planning time-consuming.

  5. A model of ant route navigation driven by scene familiarity.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints. PMID:22241975

  6. A Model of Ant Route Navigation Driven by Scene Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints. PMID:22241975

  7. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  8. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  9. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  10. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  11. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  12. New Trans-Arctic shipping routes navigable by midcentury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laurence C; Stephenson, Scott R

    2013-03-26

    Recent historic observed lows in Arctic sea ice extent, together with climate model projections of additional ice reductions in the future, have fueled speculations of potential new trans-Arctic shipping routes linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. However, numerical studies of how projected geophysical changes in sea ice will realistically impact ship navigation are lacking. To address this deficiency, we analyze seven climate model projections of sea ice properties, assuming two different climate change scenarios [representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5] and two vessel classes, to assess future changes in peak season (September) Arctic shipping potential. By midcentury, changing sea ice conditions enable expanded September navigability for common open-water ships crossing the Arctic along the Northern Sea Route over the Russian Federation, robust new routes for moderately ice-strengthened (Polar Class 6) ships over the North Pole, and new routes through the Northwest Passage for both vessel classes. Although numerous other nonclimatic factors also limit Arctic shipping potential, these findings have important economic, strategic, environmental, and governance implications for the region. PMID:23487747

  13. 14 CFR 121.347 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 121.347 Section 121.347 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.347 Communication and navigation equipment...

  14. 14 CFR 121.347 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 121.347 Section 121.347 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.347 Communication and navigation equipment...

  15. 14 CFR 121.347 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 121.347 Section 121.347 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.347 Communication and navigation equipment...

  16. 14 CFR 121.347 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 121.347 Section 121.347 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.347 Communication and navigation equipment...

  17. 14 CFR 121.347 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 121.347 Section 121.347 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.347 Communication and navigation equipment...

  18. 14 CFR 135.161 - Communication and navigation equipment for aircraft operations under VFR over routes navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for aircraft operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 135.161 Section 135.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS...

  19. 77 FR 71492 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...-1 by adding two new waypoints to the route (77 FR 65461). Subsequent to publication, an error was... published in the Federal Register on October 29, 2012 (77 FR 65461) for RNAV route Q-1 is corrected as... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1;...

  20. Active route learning in virtual environments: disentangling movement control from intention, instruction specificity, and navigation control.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2013-09-01

    Active navigation research examines how physiological and psychological involvement in navigation benefits spatial learning. However, existing conceptualizations of active navigation comprise separable, distinct factors. This research disentangles the contributions of movement control (i.e., self-contained vs. observed movement) as a central factor from learning intention (Experiment 1), instruction specificity and instruction control (Experiment 2), as well as navigation control (Experiment 3) to spatial learning in virtual environments. We tested the effects of these factors on landmark recognition (landmark knowledge), tour-integration and route navigation (route knowledge). Our findings suggest that movement control leads to robust advantages in landmark knowledge as compared to observed movement. Advantages in route knowledge do not depend on learning intention, but on the need to elaborate spatial information. Whenever the necessary level of elaboration is assured for observed movement, too, the development of route knowledge is not inferior to that for self-contained movement. PMID:22922991

  1. Navigating the fifth dimension: new concepts in interactive multimodality and multidimensional image navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman; Rosset, Antoine; Dahlbom, Magnus; Czernin, Johannes

    2005-04-01

    Display and interpretation of multi dimensional data obtained from the combination of 3D data acquired from different modalities (such as PET-CT) require complex software tools allowing the user to navigate and modify the different image parameters. With faster scanners it is now possible to acquire dynamic images of a beating heart or the transit of a contrast agent adding a fifth dimension to the data. We developed a DICOM-compliant software for real time navigation in very large sets of 5 dimensional data based on an intuitive multidimensional jog-wheel widely used by the video-editing industry. The software, provided under open source licensing, allows interactive, single-handed, navigation through 3D images while adjusting blending of image modalities, image contrast and intensity and the rate of cine display of dynamic images. In this study we focused our effort on the user interface and means for interactively navigating in these large data sets while easily and rapidly changing multiple parameters such as image position, contrast, intensity, blending of colors, magnification etc. Conventional mouse-driven user interface requiring the user to manipulate cursors and sliders on the screen are too cumbersome and slow. We evaluated several hardware devices and identified a category of multipurpose jogwheel device that is used in the video-editing industry that is particularly suitable for rapidly navigating in five dimensions while adjusting several display parameters interactively. The application of this tool will be demonstrated in cardiac PET-CT imaging and functional cardiac MRI studies.

  2. Transportation routing analysis geographic information system -- TRAGIS, a multimodal transportation routing tool

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.

    1995-12-31

    Over 15 years ago, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed two transportation routing models: HIGHWAY, which predicts truck transportation routes, and INTERLINE, which predicts rail transportation routes. Subsequent modifications have been made to enhance each of these models. Some of these changes include population density information for routes, HM-164 routing regulations for highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) truck shipments, and inclusion of waterway routing into INTERLINE. The AIRPORT model, developed 2 years after the HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models, serves as an emergency response tool. This model identifies the nearest airports from a designated location. Currently, the AIRPORT model is inactive. The Transportation Management Division of the US Department of Energy held a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models in April 1994 to bring together many users of these models and other experts in the transportation routing field to discuss these models and to decide on the capabilities that needed to be added. Of the many needs discussed, the primary one was to have the network databases within a geographic information system (GIS). As a result of the Baseline Requirements Session, the development of a new GIS model has been initiated. This paper will discuss the development of the new Transportation Routing Analysis GIS (TRAGIS) model at ORNL.

  3. 76 FR 57910 - Regulated Navigation Area; Route 24 Bridge Construction, Tiverton and Portsmouth, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Route 24 Bridge Construction... waters of the Sakonnet River under and surrounding construction of the new Route 24 bridge that...

  4. 75 FR 68701 - Establishment and Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Navigation Routes in Alaska (75 FR 32120). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... one Q-route in Alaska. In response to comments received for a NPRM published February 12, 2009, (74 FR... Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979);...

  5. Virtual environment to evaluate multimodal feedback strategies for augmented navigation of the visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masayuki; Shokur, Solaiman; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Gassert, Roger; Bleuler, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel experimental environment to evaluate multimodal feedback strategies for augmented navigation of the visually impaired. The environment consists of virtual obstacles and walls, an optical tracking system and a simple device with audio and vibrotactile feedback that interacts with the virtual environment, and presents many advantages in terms of safety, flexibility, control over experimental parameters and cost. The subject can freely move in an empty room, while the position of head and arm are tracked in real time. A virtual environment (walls, obstacles) is randomly generated, and audio and vibrotactile feedback are given according to the distance from the subjects arm to the virtual walls/objects. We investigate the applicability of our environment using a simple, commercially available feedback device. Experiments with unimpaired subjects show that it is possible to use the setup to "blindly" navigate in an unpredictable virtual environment. This validates the environment as a test platform to investigate navigation and exploration strategies of the visually impaired, and to evaluate novel technologies for augmented navigation. PMID:21096984

  6. Multimodal sensory integration and concurrent navigation strategies for spatial cognition in real and artificial organisms.

    PubMed

    Arleo, Angelo; Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2007-09-01

    Flexible spatial behavior requires the ability to orchestrate the interaction of multiple parallel processes. At the sensory level, multimodal inputs must be combined to produce a robust description of the spatiotemporal properties of the environment. At the action-selection level, multiple concurrent navigation policies must be dynamically weighted in order to adopt the strategy that is the most adapted to the complexity of the task. Different neural substrates mediate the processing of spatial information. Elucidating their anatomo-functional interrelations is fundamental to unravel the overall spatial memory function. Here we first address the multisensory integration issue and we review a series of experimental findings (both behavioral and electrophysiological) concerning the neural bases of spatial learning and the way the brain builds unambiguous spatial representations from incoming multisensory streams. Second, we move at the navigation strategy level and present an overview of experimental data that begin to explain the cooperation-competition between the brain areas involved in spatial navigation. Third, we introduce the spatial cognition function from a computational neuroscience and neuro-robotics viewpoint. We provide an example of neuro-computational model that focuses on the importance of combining multisensory percepts to enable a robot to acquire coherent (spatial) memories of its interaction with the environment. PMID:17933016

  7. Memory and navigation: Compression of space varies with route length and turns.

    PubMed

    Bonasia, Kyra; Blommesteyn, Joseph; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    For memory to be efficient and useful during recall, problem-solving, and planning, retrieval must be compressed in time. Evidence from rodents suggests that neural compression during replay of spatial memories varies widely, with a range of compression ratios reported from 6:1 to 64:1. Anecdotal evidence suggests that similar compression occurs during mental navigation in humans: we recall how to get from one place to another countless times almost every day of our lives, and this recall never takes as long as physically travelling those routes would take. In this experiment we sought to determine whether this behavioural compression could be measured during mental navigation in humans (spatial memory replay), and which factors might affect the compression of such spatial memories. To this end, thirty participants mentally navigated routes between two landmarks, which varied in length and number of turns, as we measured replay times and recorded ratings of familiarity, detail, and presence. A multi-level model was used to determine which factors were associated with variation in compression. Route length and number of turns emerged from this model as significantly correlated with compression, such that longer routes were more compressed while compression was attenuated as the number of turns in a route increased. This suggests that compression during recall may be affected by specific features of a route, especially those that may act to segment the space or event being represented. PMID:26418606

  8. Honeybee navigation: following routes using polarized-light cues

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, P.; Evangelista, C.; Dacke, M.; Labhart, T.; Srinivasan, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that honeybees (Apis mellifera) are capable of using the pattern of polarized light in the sky to navigate to a food source, there is little or no direct behavioural evidence that they actually do so. We have examined whether bees can be trained to find their way through a maze composed of four interconnected tunnels, by using directional information provided by polarized light illumination from the ceilings of the tunnels. The results show that bees can learn this task, thus demonstrating directly, and for the first time, that bees are indeed capable of using the polarized-light information in the sky as a compass to steer their way to a food source. PMID:21282174

  9. 75 FR 8286 - Proposed Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-15; California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Area Navigation Route...

  10. 77 FR 65253 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route T-240; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Area Navigation Route T-240; AK AGENCY: Federal...

  11. 77 FR 65461 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14... Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final...

  12. 77 FR 30883 - Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-130; UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 ; Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-130;...

  13. 77 FR 40490 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... the southwestern United States (77 FR 35618). Subsequent to publication, an error was found in the... June 14, 2012 (77 FR 35618) (FR Doc. 2012-14406) for RNAV route T- 310, is corrected under the... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Establishment of Area Navigation...

  14. 75 FR 6319 - Proposed Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) route T-254 in the Houston, TX, terminal area by eliminating the...

  15. 76 FR 52229 - Establishment of Area Navigation Route Q-37; Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...) to establish area navigation route Q-37 (74 FR 54943). Interested parties were invited to participate... Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  16. Establishment criteria, routing algorithms and probability of use of inter-satellite links in mixed navigation constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songhui; Gui, Qingming; Li, Jianwen

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the establishment criteria, routing algorithm and the probability of use of ISLs (inter-satellite links) in the mixed navigation constellation of GEO satellites, IGSO satellites and MEO satellites are analyzed. Firstly, the general criteria of ISL establishment in mixed navigation constellation are proposed from the perspective of geometry, and the influences of these criteria on routing algorithms and the probability of use of ISLs are discussed. Then, from the perspective of autonomous orbit determination, the routing algorithm in mixed navigation constellation is designed. Thirdly, a stochastic study of ISLs load in mixed navigation constellation is proposed, and the formulae of probability of use of ISLs are given. Finally, in the simulation, the establishment criteria, routing algorithm and the probability of use of ISLs in a specific mixed navigation constellation of 3GEO + 3IGSO + 24MEO are discussed in detail. The findings of this paper provide a basis for the ISL establishment and routing algorithm, and offer the quantitative indicators for the use of ISL in the mixed navigation constellation.

  17. This Place Looks Familiar—How Navigators Distinguish Places with Ambiguous Landmark Objects When Learning Novel Routes

    PubMed Central

    Strickrodt, Marianne; O'Malley, Mary; Wiener, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    We present two experiments investigating how navigators deal with ambiguous landmark information when learning unfamiliar routes. In the experiments we presented landmark objects repeatedly along a route, which allowed us to manipulate how informative single landmarks were (1) about the navigators' location along the route and (2) about the action navigators had to take at that location. Experiment 1 demonstrated that reducing location informativeness alone did not affect route learning performance. While reducing both location and action informativeness led to decreased route learning performance, participants still performed well above chance level. This demonstrates that they used other information than just the identity of landmark objects at their current position to disambiguate their location along the route. To investigate how navigators distinguish between visually identical intersections, we systematically manipulated the identity of landmark objects and the actions required at preceding intersections in Experiment 2. Results suggest that the direction of turn at the preceding intersections was sufficient to tell two otherwise identical intersections apart. Together, results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that route knowledge is more complex than simple stimulus-response associations and that neighboring places are tightly linked. These links not only encompass sequence information but also directional information which is used to identify the correct direction of travel at subsequent locations, but can also be used for self-localization. PMID:26733921

  18. Do Humans Integrate Routes Into a Cognitive Map? Map- Versus Landmark-Based Navigation of Novel Shortcuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Patrick; Warren, William H.; Duchon, Andrew; Tarr, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Do humans integrate experience on specific routes into metric survey knowledge of the environment, or do they depend on a simpler strategy of landmark navigation? The authors tested this question using a novel shortcut paradigm during walking in a virtual environment. The authors find that participants could not take successful shortcuts in a…

  19. 78 FR 68777 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Atlanta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...This action proposes to establish nine low-altitude RNAV routes (T-routes) in the Atlanta, GA area. The new routes would support the Atlanta Optimization of Airspace and Procedures in a Metroplex (OAPM) project. The proposed routes would have connectivity to the current airway structure and would provide routing through, around and over the busy Atlanta Metroplex...

  20. Route optimisation and solving Zermelo's navigation problem during long distance migration in cross flows.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Christensen, Asbjørn; Fossette, Sabrina; Schofield, Gail; Talbot, Julian; Mariani, Patrizio

    2014-02-01

    The optimum path to follow when subjected to cross flows was first considered over 80 years ago by the German mathematician Ernst Zermelo, in the context of a boat being displaced by ocean currents, and has become known as the 'Zermelo navigation problem'. However, the ability of migrating animals to solve this problem has received limited consideration, even though wind and ocean currents cause the lateral displacement of flyers and swimmers, respectively, particularly during long-distance journeys of 1000s of kilometres. Here, we examine this problem by combining long-distance, open-ocean marine turtle movements (obtained via long-term GPS tracking of sea turtles moving 1000s of km), with a high resolution basin-wide physical ocean model to estimate ocean currents. We provide a robust mathematical framework to demonstrate that, while turtles eventually arrive at their target site, they do not follow the optimum (Zermelo's) route. Even though adult marine turtles regularly complete incredible long-distance migrations, these vertebrates primarily rely on course corrections when entering neritic waters during the final stages of migration. Our work introduces a new perspective in the analysis of wildlife tracking datasets, with different animal groups potentially exhibiting different levels of complexity in goal attainment during migration. PMID:24304813

  1. Insect navigation en route to the goal: multiple strategies for the use of landmarks

    PubMed

    Collett

    1996-01-01

    There are at least four distinct ways in which familiar landmarks aid an insect on its trips between nest and foraging site. Recognising scenes: when bees are displaced unexpectedly from their hive to one of several familiar locations, they are able to head in the direction of home as though they had previously linked an appropriate directional vector to a view of the scene at the release site. Biased detours: ants recognise familiar landmarks en route and will correct their path by steering consistently to the left or to the right around them. Aiming at beacons: bees and ants also guide their path by approaching familiar landmarks lying on or close to the direct line between start and finish. Simulations suggest that such mechanisms acting together may suffice to account for the routes taken by desert ants through a landmark-strewn environment: the stereotyped trajectories of individual ants can be modelled by a weighted combination of dead reckoning, biased detours and beacon-aiming. These mechanisms guide an insect sufficiently close to an inconspicuous goal for image matching to be successfully employed to locate it. Insects then move until their current retinal image matches a stored view of the surrounding panorama seen from a vantage point close to the goal. Bees and wasps perform learning flights on their first departure from a site to which they will return. These flights seem to be designed to pick up the information needed for several navigational strategies. Thus, a large portion of the learning flight of a bee leaving a feeder tends to be spent close to the feeder so aiding the acquisition of a view from that vantage point, as is needed for image matching. Bees and social wasps also tend to inspect their surroundings while facing along preferred directions and to adopt similar bearings before landing, thereby making it easy to employ retinotopically stored patterns in image matching. Aiming at beacons, in contrast, requires a landmark to be familiar to

  2. Navigating toward a novel environment from a route or survey perspective: neural correlates and context-dependent connectivity.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Guariglia, C; Sabatini, U; Nemmi, F

    2016-05-01

    When we move toward a novel environment we may learn it in different ways, i.e., by walking around or studying a map. Both types of learning seem to be very effective in daily life navigation and correspond to two different types of mental representation of space: route and survey representation. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of route and survey perspectives during learning and retrieval of novel environments. The study was carried out over 5 days, during which participants learned two paths from a different perspective (i.e., route learning and survey learning). Then participants had to retrieve these paths using a survey or route perspective during fMRI scans, on the first and fifth day. We found that the left inferior temporal lobe and right angular gyrus (AG) were activated more during recall of paths learned in a survey perspective than in a route perspective. We also found a session by perspective interaction effect on neural activity in brain areas classically involved in navigation such as the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC). A set of frontal, parietal and temporal areas showed different patterns of activity according to the type of retrieval perspective. We tested the context-dependent connectivity of right PPA, RSC and AG, finding that these areas showed different patterns of connectivity in relation to the learning and recalling perspective. Our results shed more light on the segregation of neural circuits involved in the acquisition of a novel environment and navigational strategies. PMID:25739692

  3. a New Multimodal Multi-Criteria Route Planning Model by Integrating a Fuzzy-Ahp Weighting Method and a Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderi, F.; Pahlavani, P.

    2015-12-01

    A multimodal multi-criteria route planning (MMRP) system provides an optimal multimodal route from an origin point to a destination point considering two or more criteria in a way this route can be a combination of public and private transportation modes. In this paper, the simulate annealing (SA) and the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP) were combined in order to find this route. In this regard, firstly, the effective criteria that are significant for users in their trip were determined. Then the weight of each criterion was calculated using the fuzzy AHP weighting method. The most important characteristic of this weighting method is the use of fuzzy numbers that aids the users to consider their uncertainty in pairwise comparison of criteria. After determining the criteria weights, the proposed SA algorithm were used for determining an optimal route from an origin to a destination. One of the most important problems in a meta-heuristic algorithm is trapping in local minima. In this study, five transportation modes, including subway, bus rapid transit (BRT), taxi, walking, and bus were considered for moving between nodes. Also, the fare, the time, the user's bother, and the length of the path were considered as effective criteria for solving the problem. The proposed model was implemented in an area in centre of Tehran in a GUI MATLAB programming language. The results showed a high efficiency and speed of the proposed algorithm that support our analyses.

  4. Bi-Objective Modelling for Hazardous Materials Road-Rail Multimodal Routing Problem with Railway Schedule-Based Space-Time Constraints.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Lang, Maoxiang; Wang, Danzhu

    2016-01-01

    The transportation of hazardous materials is always accompanied by considerable risk that will impact public and environment security. As an efficient and reliable transportation organization, a multimodal service should participate in the transportation of hazardous materials. In this study, we focus on transporting hazardous materials through the multimodal service network and explore the hazardous materials multimodal routing problem from the operational level of network planning. To formulate this problem more practicably, minimizing the total generalized costs of transporting the hazardous materials and the social risk along the planned routes are set as the optimization objectives. Meanwhile, the following formulation characteristics will be comprehensively modelled: (1) specific customer demands; (2) multiple hazardous material flows; (3) capacitated schedule-based rail service and uncapacitated time-flexible road service; and (4) environmental risk constraint. A bi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming model is first built to formulate the routing problem that combines the formulation characteristics above. Then linear reformations are developed to linearize and improve the initial model so that it can be effectively solved by exact solution algorithms on standard mathematical programming software. By utilizing the normalized weighted sum method, we can generate the Pareto solutions to the bi-objective optimization problem for a specific case. Finally, a large-scale empirical case study from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods in dealing with the practical problem. Various scenarios are also discussed in the case study. PMID:27483294

  5. Bi-Objective Modelling for Hazardous Materials Road–Rail Multimodal Routing Problem with Railway Schedule-Based Space–Time Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Lang, Maoxiang; Wang, Danzhu

    2016-01-01

    The transportation of hazardous materials is always accompanied by considerable risk that will impact public and environment security. As an efficient and reliable transportation organization, a multimodal service should participate in the transportation of hazardous materials. In this study, we focus on transporting hazardous materials through the multimodal service network and explore the hazardous materials multimodal routing problem from the operational level of network planning. To formulate this problem more practicably, minimizing the total generalized costs of transporting the hazardous materials and the social risk along the planned routes are set as the optimization objectives. Meanwhile, the following formulation characteristics will be comprehensively modelled: (1) specific customer demands; (2) multiple hazardous material flows; (3) capacitated schedule-based rail service and uncapacitated time-flexible road service; and (4) environmental risk constraint. A bi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming model is first built to formulate the routing problem that combines the formulation characteristics above. Then linear reformations are developed to linearize and improve the initial model so that it can be effectively solved by exact solution algorithms on standard mathematical programming software. By utilizing the normalized weighted sum method, we can generate the Pareto solutions to the bi-objective optimization problem for a specific case. Finally, a large-scale empirical case study from the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region in China is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods in dealing with the practical problem. Various scenarios are also discussed in the case study. PMID:27483294

  6. 78 FR 37104 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Federal Register establishing five RNAV routes in the Washington, DC area (78 FR 29615). Subsequent to... (78 FR 29615; FR Doc. 2013-11969) for RNAV routes T-291 and T-295, is corrected under the descriptions... points in radio communications and onboard Flight Management System data entry. To resolve this...

  7. 78 FR 4353 - Proposed Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route T-266; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Alaska by removing two non-directional beacons (NDB) as the navigation signal source and replacing...

  8. 75 FR 39149 - Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route (T-284); Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Register a final rule to establish RNAV route T-284 for the Houston, TX, terminal area (75 FR... Federal Register April 1, 2010 (75 FR 16336) . Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Issued in Washington, DC, on June 29, 2010....

  9. 78 FR 29615 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... altitude RNAV routes, designated T-291 and T-295, in the Washington, DC area (78 FR 10562, February 14... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  10. 76 FR 12643 - Proposed Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by... Identification and Charting The proposed helicopter RNAV routes would be identified by the prefix ``TK''...

  11. 77 FR 65254 - Amendment of Area Navigation Routes Q-42 and Q-480; PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... alignment or operating requirements of the routes. DATES: Effective Dates: 0901 UTC, January 10, 2013....

  12. 75 FR 32120 - Proposed Establishment and Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...-routes in Alaska. In response to comments received for a NPRM published February 12, 2009, (74 FR 7012... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  13. 77 FR 35618 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... routes in the southwestern United States (77 FR 24157). Interested parties were invited to participate in... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...

  14. 77 FR 22473 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish nine new RNAV routes (76 FR 79137). Interested... Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  15. 77 FR 5733 - Proposed Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) serving the Chicago O'Hare International Airport, IL, terminal area...

  16. 78 FR 76784 - Proposed Modification, Revocation, and Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Charlotte, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by.... The proposed routes, in combination with existing VOR Federal airways, would provide...

  17. Multimodal Literacy Practices in the Indigenous Sámi Classroom: Children Navigating in a Complex Multilingual Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietikäinen, Sari; Pitkänen-Huhta, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This article explores multimodal literacy practices in a transforming multilingual context of an indigenous and endangered Sámi language classroom. Looking at literacy practices as embedded in a complex and shifting terrain of language ideologies, language norms, and individual experiences and attitudes, we examined how multilingual Sámi children…

  18. Visualisation of very high resolution Martian topographic data and its application on landing site selection and rover route navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Lin, S.; Hong, J.; Park, D.; Yoon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    High resolution satellite imagery acquired from orbiters are able to provide detailed topographic information and therefore are recognised as an important tool for investigating planetary and terrestrial topography. The heritage of in-orbit high resolution imaging technology is now implemented in a series of Martian Missions, such as HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) onboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter). In order to fully utilise the data derived from image systems carried on various Mars orbiters, the generalised algorithms of image processing and photogrammetric Mars DTM extraction have been developed and implemented by Kim and Muller (2009), in which non-rigorous sensor model and hierarchical geomatics control were employed. Due to the successful “from medium to high” control strategy performed during processing, stable horizontal and vertical photogrammetric accuracy of resultant Mars DTM was achievable when compared with MOLA (Mars Obiter Laser Altimeter) DTM. Recently, the algorithms developed in Kim and Muller (2009) were further updated by employing advanced image matcher and improved sensor model. As the photogrammetric qualities of the updated topographic products are verified and the spatial solution can be up to sub-meter scale, they are of great value to be exploited for Martian rover landing site selection and rover route navigation. To this purpose, the DTMs and ortho-rectified imagery obtained from CTX and HiRISE covering potential future rovers and existing MER (Mars Exploration Rover) landing sites were firstly processed. For landing site selection, the engineering constraints such as slope and surface roughness were computed from DTMs. In addition, the combination of virtual topography and the estimated rover location was able to produce a sophisticated environment simulation of rover’s landing site. Regarding the rover navigation, the orbital DTMs and the images taken from cameras

  19. Multi-modal assessment of on-road demand of voice and manual phone calling and voice navigation entry across two embedded vehicle systems

    PubMed Central

    Mehler, Bruce; Kidd, David; Reimer, Bryan; Reagan, Ian; Dobres, Jonathan; McCartt, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One purpose of integrating voice interfaces into embedded vehicle systems is to reduce drivers’ visual and manual distractions with ‘infotainment’ technologies. However, there is scant research on actual benefits in production vehicles or how different interface designs affect attentional demands. Driving performance, visual engagement, and indices of workload (heart rate, skin conductance, subjective ratings) were assessed in 80 drivers randomly assigned to drive a 2013 Chevrolet Equinox or Volvo XC60. The Chevrolet MyLink system allowed completing tasks with one voice command, while the Volvo Sensus required multiple commands to navigate the menu structure. When calling a phone contact, both voice systems reduced visual demand relative to the visual–manual interfaces, with reductions for drivers in the Equinox being greater. The Equinox ‘one-shot’ voice command showed advantages during contact calling but had significantly higher error rates than Sensus during destination address entry. For both secondary tasks, neither voice interface entirely eliminated visual demand. Practitioner Summary: The findings reinforce the observation that most, if not all, automotive auditory–vocal interfaces are multi-modal interfaces in which the full range of potential demands (auditory, vocal, visual, manipulative, cognitive, tactile, etc.) need to be considered in developing optimal implementations and evaluating drivers’ interaction with the systems. Social Media: In-vehicle voice-interfaces can reduce visual demand but do not eliminate it and all types of demand need to be taken into account in a comprehensive evaluation. PMID:26269281

  20. Multi-modal assessment of on-road demand of voice and manual phone calling and voice navigation entry across two embedded vehicle systems.

    PubMed

    Mehler, Bruce; Kidd, David; Reimer, Bryan; Reagan, Ian; Dobres, Jonathan; McCartt, Anne

    2016-03-01

    One purpose of integrating voice interfaces into embedded vehicle systems is to reduce drivers' visual and manual distractions with 'infotainment' technologies. However, there is scant research on actual benefits in production vehicles or how different interface designs affect attentional demands. Driving performance, visual engagement, and indices of workload (heart rate, skin conductance, subjective ratings) were assessed in 80 drivers randomly assigned to drive a 2013 Chevrolet Equinox or Volvo XC60. The Chevrolet MyLink system allowed completing tasks with one voice command, while the Volvo Sensus required multiple commands to navigate the menu structure. When calling a phone contact, both voice systems reduced visual demand relative to the visual-manual interfaces, with reductions for drivers in the Equinox being greater. The Equinox 'one-shot' voice command showed advantages during contact calling but had significantly higher error rates than Sensus during destination address entry. For both secondary tasks, neither voice interface entirely eliminated visual demand. Practitioner Summary: The findings reinforce the observation that most, if not all, automotive auditory-vocal interfaces are multi-modal interfaces in which the full range of potential demands (auditory, vocal, visual, manipulative, cognitive, tactile, etc.) need to be considered in developing optimal implementations and evaluating drivers' interaction with the systems. Social Media: In-vehicle voice-interfaces can reduce visual demand but do not eliminate it and all types of demand need to be taken into account in a comprehensive evaluation. PMID:26269281

  1. Multimodal navigated skull base tumor resection using image-based vascular and cranial nerve segmentation: A prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dolati, Parviz; Gokoglu, Abdulkerim; Eichberg, Daniel; Zamani, Amir; Golby, Alexandra; Al-Mefty, Ossama

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skull base tumors frequently encase or invade adjacent normal neurovascular structures. For this reason, optimal tumor resection with incomplete knowledge of patient anatomy remains a challenge. Methods: To determine the accuracy and utility of image-based preoperative segmentation in skull base tumor resections, we performed a prospective study. Ten patients with skull base tumors underwent preoperative 3T magnetic resonance imaging, which included thin section three-dimensional (3D) space T2, 3D time of flight, and magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequences. Imaging sequences were loaded in the neuronavigation system for segmentation and preoperative planning. Five different neurovascular landmarks were identified in each case and measured for accuracy using the neuronavigation system. Each segmented neurovascular element was validated by manual placement of the navigation probe, and errors of localization were measured. Results: Strong correspondence between image-based segmentation and microscopic view was found at the surface of the tumor and tumor-normal brain interfaces in all cases. The accuracy of the measurements was 0.45 ± 0.21 mm (mean ± standard deviation). This information reassured the surgeon and prevented vascular injury intraoperatively. Preoperative segmentation of the related cranial nerves was possible in 80% of cases and helped the surgeon localize involved cranial nerves in all cases. Conclusion: Image-based preoperative vascular and neural element segmentation with 3D reconstruction is highly informative preoperatively and could increase the vigilance of neurosurgeons for preventing neurovascular injury during skull base surgeries. Additionally, the accuracy found in this study is superior to previously reported measurements. This novel preliminary study is encouraging for future validation with larger numbers of patients. PMID:26674155

  2. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  3. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  4. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  5. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  6. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  7. A Brief Nap Is Beneficial for Human Route-Learning: The Role of Navigation Experience and EEG Spectral Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Erin J.; Tucker, Matthew A.; Payne, Jessica D.; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Here, we examined the effect of a daytime nap on changes in virtual maze performance across a single day. Participants either took a short nap or remained awake following training on a virtual maze task. Post-training sleep provided a clear performance benefit at later retest, but only for those participants with prior experience navigating in a…

  8. 33 CFR 165.T01-0868 - Regulated Navigation Area; Route 24 Bridge Construction, Sakonnet River, Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply within the RNA, and in addition: (1) Each person or... regulations including but not limited to the Rules of the Road (33 CFR Subchapter E, Inland Navigational Rules... 24 Bridge Construction, Sakonnet River, Rhode Island. 165.T01-0868 Section 165.T01-0868...

  9. Visual influence on path integration in darkness indicates a multimodal representation of large-scale space

    PubMed Central

    Tcheang, Lili; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Burgess, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to return to the start of a route recently performed in darkness is thought to reflect path integration of motion-related information. Here we provide evidence that motion-related interoceptive representations (proprioceptive, vestibular, and motor efference copy) combine with visual representations to form a single multimodal representation guiding navigation. We used immersive virtual reality to decouple visual input from motion-related interoception by manipulating the rotation or translation gain of the visual projection. First, participants walked an outbound path with both visual and interoceptive input, and returned to the start in darkness, demonstrating the influences of both visual and interoceptive information in a virtual reality environment. Next, participants adapted to visual rotation gains in the virtual environment, and then performed the path integration task entirely in darkness. Our findings were accurately predicted by a quantitative model in which visual and interoceptive inputs combine into a single multimodal representation guiding navigation, and are incompatible with a model of separate visual and interoceptive influences on action (in which path integration in darkness must rely solely on interoceptive representations). Overall, our findings suggest that a combined multimodal representation guides large-scale navigation, consistent with a role for visual imagery or a cognitive map. PMID:21199934

  10. Multimodal Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Arnold A.

    The multimodal therapy (MMT) approach provides a framework that facilitates systematic treatment selection in a broad-based, comprehensive and yet highly focused manner. It respects science, and data driven findings, and endeavors to use empirically supported methods when possible. Nevertheless, it recognizes that many issues still fall into the…

  11. Self-navigating robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Rangefinding equipment and onboard navigation system determine best route from point to point. Research robot has two TV cameras and laser for scanning and mapping its environment. Path planner finds most direct, unobstructed route that requires minimum expenditure of energy. Distance is used as measure of energy expense, although other measures such as time or power consumption (which would depend on the topography of the path) may be used.

  12. Multimodality Neuromonitoring.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Smith, Martin

    2016-09-01

    The monitoring of systemic and central nervous system physiology is central to the management of patients with neurologic disease in the perioperative and critical care settings. There exists a range of invasive and noninvasive and global and regional monitors of cerebral hemodynamics, oxygenation, metabolism, and electrophysiology that can be used to guide treatment decisions after acute brain injury. With mounting evidence that a single neuromonitor cannot comprehensively detect all instances of cerebral compromise, multimodal neuromonitoring allows an individualized approach to patient management based on monitored physiologic variables rather than a generic one-size-fits-all approach targeting predetermined and often empirical thresholds. PMID:27521195

  13. Railroad Routing Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-01-05

    INTERLINE/PC is an interactive program designed to simulate the routing practices of the United States rail system. The rail industry is divided into a large number of independent competing companies. The INTERLINE data base represents these rail companies as 94 separate subnetworks. An additional two subnetworks represent navigable inland/intracoastal and deep draft marine routes. Interchange points between individual rail systems and waterway systems are also identified.

  14. 14 CFR 125.357 - Communication and navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... § 125.357 Communication and navigation facilities. No person may release an airplane over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation facilities equal to those required by § 125.51 are...

  15. 14 CFR 125.357 - Communication and navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... § 125.357 Communication and navigation facilities. No person may release an airplane over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation facilities equal to those required by § 125.51 are...

  16. 14 CFR 125.357 - Communication and navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... § 125.357 Communication and navigation facilities. No person may release an airplane over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation facilities equal to those required by § 125.51 are...

  17. 14 CFR 125.357 - Communication and navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... § 125.357 Communication and navigation facilities. No person may release an airplane over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation facilities equal to those required by § 125.51 are...

  18. 14 CFR 125.357 - Communication and navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... § 125.357 Communication and navigation facilities. No person may release an airplane over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation facilities equal to those required by § 125.51 are...

  19. Odometry and insect navigation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Harald

    2011-05-15

    Animals have needed to find their way about almost since a free-living life style evolved. Particularly, if an animal has a home--shelter or nesting site--true navigation becomes necessary to shuttle between this home and areas of other activities, such as feeding. As old as navigation is in the animal kingdom, as diverse are its mechanisms and implementations, depending on an organism's ecology and its endowment with sensors and actuators. The use of landmarks for piloting or the use of trail pheromones for route following have been examined in great detail and in a variety of animal species. The same is true for senses of direction--the compasses for navigation--and the construction of vectors for navigation from compass and distance cues. The measurement of distance itself--odometry--has received much less attention. The present review addresses some recent progress in the understanding of odometers in invertebrates, after outlining general principles of navigation to put odometry in its proper context. Finally, a number of refinements that increase navigation accuracy and safety are addressed. PMID:21525309

  20. Indoor inertial waypoint navigation for the blind.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Whalen, William E; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction and evaluation of an inertial dead reckoning navigation system that provides real-time auditory guidance along mapped routes. Inertial dead reckoning is a navigation technique coupling step counting together with heading estimation to compute changes in position at each step. The research described here outlines the development and evaluation of a novel navigation system that utilizes information from the mapped route to limit the problematic error accumulation inherent in traditional dead reckoning approaches. The prototype system consists of a wireless inertial sensor unit, placed at the users' hip, which streams readings to a smartphone processing a navigation algorithm. Pilot human trials were conducted assessing system efficacy by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system with real-time guidance, versus offline verbal directions. PMID:24110904

  1. Event based self-supervised temporal integration for multimodal sensor data.

    PubMed

    Barakova, Emilia I; Lourens, Tino

    2005-06-01

    A method for synergistic integration of multimodal sensor data is proposed in this paper. This method is based on two aspects of the integration process: (1) achieving synergistic integration of two or more sensory modalities, and (2) fusing the various information streams at particular moments during processing. Inspired by psychophysical experiments, we propose a self-supervised learning method for achieving synergy with combined representations. Evidence from temporal registration and binding experiments indicates that different cues are processed individually at specific time intervals. Therefore, an event-based temporal co-occurrence principle is proposed for the integration process. This integration method was applied to a mobile robot exploring unfamiliar environments. Simulations showed that integration enhanced route recognition with many perceptual similarities; moreover, they indicate that a perceptual hierarchy of knowledge about instant movement contributes significantly to short-term navigation, but that visual perceptions have bigger impact over longer intervals. PMID:15988800

  2. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT PLEASURE CRAFTS ENTERING THE NAVIGATION LOCK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST AT PLEASURE CRAFTS ENTERING THE NAVIGATION LOCK. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Navigation Lock, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  3. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M. Levy, Elliot Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  4. Multimodality Image Fusion Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Levy, Elliot; Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care; Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization, and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. PET, MRI and contrast enhanced CT may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image guided procedures such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided. PMID:22851166

  5. The Intersection of Multimodality and Critical Perspective: Multimodality as Subversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shin-ying

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relevance of multimodality to critical media literacy. It is based on the understanding that communication is intrinsically multimodal and multimodal communication is inherently social and ideological. By analysing two English-language learners' multimodal ensembles, the study reports on how multimodality contributes to a…

  6. Micro Navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B. R.; Kia, T.; Chau, S. N.

    2001-01-01

    Miniature high-performance low-mass space avionics systems are desired for planned future outer planetary exploration missions (i.e. Europa Orbiter/Lander, Pluto-Kuiper Express). The spacecraft fuel and mass requirements enabling orbit insertion is the driving requirement. The Micro Navigator is an integrated autonomous Guidance, Navigation & Control (GN&C)micro-system that would provide the critical avionics function for navigation, pointing, and precision landing. The Micro Navigator hardware and software allow fusion of data from multiple sensors to provide a single integrated vehicle state vector necessary for six degrees of freedom GN&C. The benefits of this MicroNavigator include: 1) The Micro Navigator employs MEMS devices that promise orders of magnitude reductions in mass power and volume of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes), celestial sensing devices (startracker, sun sensor), and computing element; 2) The highly integrated nature of the unit will reduce the cost of flight missions. a) The advanced miniaturization technologies employed by the Micro Navigator lend themselves to mass production, and therefore will reduce production cost of spacecraft. b) The integral approach simplifies interface issues associated with discrete components and reduces cost associated with integration and test of multiple components; and 3) The integration of sensors and processing elements into a single unit will allow the Micro Navigator to encapsulate attitude information and determination functions into a single object. This is particularly beneficial for object-oriented software architectures that are used in advanced spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Interplanetary navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of NASA's planetary navigation techniques is traced, and radiometric and optical data types are described. Doppler navigation; the Deep Space Network; differenced two-way range techniques; differential very long base interferometry; and optical navigation are treated. The Doppler system enables a spacecraft in cruise at high absolute declination to be located within a total angular uncertainty of 1/4 microrad. The two-station range measurement provides a 1 microrad backup at low declinations. Optical data locate the spacecraft relative to the target to an angular accuracy of 5 microrad. Earth-based radio navigation and its less accurate but target-relative counterpart, optical navigation, thus form complementary measurement sources, which provide a powerful sensory system to produce high-precision orbit estimates.

  8. Design of a 3D Navigation Technique Supporting VR Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudoin, Pierre; Otmane, Samir; Mallem, Malik

    2008-06-01

    Multimodality is a powerful paradigm to increase the realness and the easiness of the interaction in Virtual Environments (VEs). In particular, the search for new metaphors and techniques for 3D interaction adapted to the navigation task is an important stage for the realization of future 3D interaction systems that support multimodality, in order to increase efficiency and usability. In this paper we propose a new multimodal 3D interaction model called Fly Over. This model is especially devoted to the navigation task. We present a qualitative comparison between Fly Over and a classical navigation technique called gaze-directed steering. The results from preliminary evaluation on the IBISC semi-immersive Virtual Reality/Augmented Realty EVR@ platform show that Fly Over is a user friendly and efficient navigation technique.

  9. 77 FR 19302 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For access to the docket to read documents or comments related to this... measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. The meeting will be open to..., routing measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. Agenda The...

  10. Multimodal Learning Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal learning clubs link principles of motivation and engagement with 21st century technological tools and texts to support content area learning. The author describes how a sixth grade health teacher and his class incorporated multimodal learning clubs into a unit of study on human body systems. The students worked collaboratively online…

  11. Untangled modes in multimode waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöschner, Martin; Tyc, TomáÅ.¡; Čižmár, TomáÅ.¡

    2016-03-01

    Small, fibre-based endoscopes have already improved our ability to image deep within the human body. A novel approach introduced recently utilised disordered light within a standard multimode optical fibre for lensless imaging. Importantly, this approach brought very significant reduction of the instruments footprint to dimensions below 100 μm. The most important limitations of this exciting technology is the lack of bending flexibility - imaging is only possible as long as the fibre remains stationary. The only route to allow flexibility of such endoscopes is in trading-in all the knowledge about the optical system we have, particularly the cylindrical symmetry of refractive index distribution. In perfect straight step-index cylindrical waveguides we can find optical modes that do not change their spatial distribution as they propagate through. In this paper we present a theoretical background that provides description of such modes in more realistic model of real-life step-index multimode fibre taking into account common deviations in distribution of the refractive index from its ideal step-index profile. Separately, we discuss how to include the influence of fibre bending.

  12. 76 FR 33773 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... the Road, navigation regulations and equipment, routing measures, marine information, diving safety..., diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. The NAVSAC is expected to meet at least twice each year... navigation, maritime law, vessel safety, port safety, or commercial diving safety. Each member shall...

  13. Celestial Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkrantz, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    In the unit described in this article, students discover the main principles of navigation, build tools to observe celestial bodies, and apply their new skills to finding their position on Earth. Along the way students see how science, mathematics, technology, and history are intertwined.

  14. 14 CFR 135.165 - Communication and navigation equipment: Extended over-water or IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. 135.165 Section 135.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. Except as...-water unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating the aircraft along the route...

  15. 14 CFR 135.165 - Communication and navigation equipment: Extended over-water or IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. 135.165 Section 135.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. Except as...-water unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating the aircraft along the route...

  16. 14 CFR 135.165 - Communication and navigation equipment: Extended over-water or IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. 135.165 Section 135.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. Except as...-water unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating the aircraft along the route...

  17. Multimode Directional Coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multimode directional coupler is provided. In some embodiments, the multimode directional coupler is configured to receive a primary signal and a secondary signal at a first port of a primary waveguide. The primary signal is configured to propagate through the primary waveguide and be outputted at a second port of the primary waveguide. The multimode directional coupler also includes a secondary waveguide configured to couple the secondary signal from the primary waveguide with no coupling of the primary signal into the secondary waveguide. The secondary signal is configured to propagate through the secondary waveguide and be outputted from a port of the secondary waveguide.

  18. Viking navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, W. J.; Rudd, R. P.; Farless, D. L.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Mitchell, R. T.; Rourke, K. H.; Euler, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the navigation of the Viking spacecraft throughout their flight from Earth launch to Mars landing is given. The flight path design, actual inflight control, and postflight reconstruction are discussed in detail. The preflight analyses upon which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based are discussed. The inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions and, finally, the results of any postflight analyses are presented.

  19. Spatial Database Modeling for Indoor Navigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotlib, Dariusz; Gnat, Miłosz

    2013-12-01

    For many years, cartographers are involved in designing GIS and navigation systems. Most GIS applications use the outdoor data. Increasingly, similar applications are used inside buildings. Therefore it is important to find the proper model of indoor spatial database. The development of indoor navigation systems should utilize advanced teleinformation, geoinformatics, geodetic and cartographical knowledge. The authors present the fundamental requirements for the indoor data model for navigation purposes. Presenting some of the solutions adopted in the world they emphasize that navigation applications require specific data to present the navigation routes in the right way. There is presented original solution for indoor data model created by authors on the basis of BISDM model. Its purpose is to expand the opportunities for use in indoor navigation.

  20. A greedy-navigator approach to navigable city plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Holme, Petter

    2013-01-01

    We use a set of four theoretical navigability indices for street maps to investigate the shape of the resulting street networks, if they are grown by optimizing these indices. The indices compare the performance of simulated navigators (having a partial information about the surroundings, like humans in many real situations) to the performance of optimally navigating individuals. We show that our simple greedy shortcut construction strategy generates the emerging structures that are different from real road network, but not inconceivable. The resulting city plans, for all navigation indices, share common qualitative properties such as the tendency for triangular blocks to appear, while the more quantitative features, such as degree distributions and clustering, are characteristically different depending on the type of metrics and routing strategies. We show that it is the type of metrics used which determines the overall shapes characterized by structural heterogeneity, but the routing schemes contribute to more subtle details of locality, which is more emphasized in case of unrestricted connections when the edge crossing is allowed.

  1. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  2. The knowledge base of bee navigation

    PubMed

    Menzel; Geiger; Chittka; Joerges; Kunze; MÜLler

    1996-01-01

    Navigation in honeybees is discussed against the background of the types of memories employed in the navigational task. Two questions are addressed. Do bees have goal-specific expectations, and when are novel routes travelled? Expectations are deduced from (1) context stimuli as determinants for local cue memories, (2) landmark-dependent path integration, (3) sequential learning of landmarks, and (4) motivation- and context-dependent memory retrieval. Novel routes are travelled under two conditions: (1) goal-cue-based piloting and (2) integration of simultaneously activated vector memories. Our data do not support the conclusion that memory integration in bees is organised by a cognitive map. The assumption of purely separate memories that are only retrieved according to the chain of events during navigational performance also appears to be inadequate. We favour the view that multiple memories are integrated using external and internal sources of information. Such configural memories lead to both specific expectations and novel routes. PMID:9317505

  3. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  4. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following apply: (a) An Air Traffic Service (ATS) route is based on a centerline that extends from one navigation...

  5. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following apply: (a) An Air Traffic Service (ATS) route is based on a centerline that extends from one navigation...

  6. "Recalculating Route".

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Can you imagine going to a doctor who uses a paper chart, sends you a bill on a ledger card, and handwrites a prescription? You wouldn't have a great deal of confidence that the clinical skills of the doctor were up to date. This would be an example of a doctor who did not "recalculate his or her route." This article provides 10 examples of adjustments that have been made in medicine where the route has been recalculated. PMID:26399043

  7. On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Lucas H; Liu, David; Johnson, Steven G; Lipson, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Current optical communication systems rely almost exclusively on multimode fibres for short- and medium-haul transmissions, and are now expanding into the long-haul arena. Ultra-high bandwidth applications are the main drive for this expansion, based on the ability to spatially multiplex data channels in multimode systems. Integrated photonics, on the other hand, although largely responsible for today's telecommunications, continues to operate almost strictly in the single-mode regime. This is because multimode waveguides cannot be compactly routed on-chip without significant inter-mode coupling, which impairs their data rate and prevents the use of modal multiplexing. Here we propose a platform for on-chip multimode devices with minimal inter-mode coupling, opening up the possibilities for integrated multimode optics. Our work combines a novel theoretical approach--large-scale inverse design of transformation optics to maximize performance within fabrication constraints-with unique grayscale-lithography fabrication of an exemplary device: a low-crosstalk multimode waveguide bend. PMID:23169058

  8. Navigating Discourses in Place in the World of Webkinz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlwend, Karen E.; Zanden, Sarah Vander; Husbye, Nicholas E.; Kuby, Candace R.

    2011-01-01

    Geosemiotics (Scollon and Scollon, 2003) frames this analysis of play, multimodal collaboration, and peer mediation as players navigate barriers to online connectivity in a children's social network and gaming site. A geosemiotic perspective enables examination of children's web play as "discourses in place": fluidly converging and diverging…

  9. Neural encoding of objects relevant for navigation and resting state correlations with navigational ability.

    PubMed

    Wegman, Joost; Janzen, Gabriele

    2011-12-01

    Objects along a route can help us to successfully navigate through our surroundings. Previous neuroimaging research has shown that the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) distinguishes between objects that were previously encountered at navigationally relevant locations (decision points) and irrelevant locations (nondecision points) during simple object recognition. This study aimed at unraveling how this neural marking of objects relevant for navigation is established during learning and postlearning rest. Twenty-four participants were scanned using fMRI while they were viewing a route through a virtual environment. Eye movements were measured, and brain responses were time-locked to viewing each object. The PHG showed increased responses to decision point objects compared with nondecision point objects during route learning. We compared functional connectivity between the PHG and the rest of the brain in a resting state scan postlearning with such a scan prelearning. Results show that functional connectivity between the PHG and the hippocampus is positively related to participants' self-reported navigational ability. On the other hand, connectivity with the caudate nucleus correlated negatively with navigational ability. These results are in line with a distinction between egocentric and allocentric spatial representations in the caudate nucleus and the hippocampus, respectively. Our results thus suggest a relation between navigational ability and a neural preference for a specific type of spatial representation. Together, these results show that the PHG is immediately involved in the encoding of navigationally relevant object information. Furthermore, they provide insight into the neural correlates of individual differences in spatial ability. PMID:21671733

  10. Indoor waypoint navigation via magnetic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Condon, John P; Sheikh, Suneel I; Hedin, Daniel S

    2011-01-01

    A wide assortment of technologies have been proposed to construct indoor navigation services for the blind and vision impaired. Proximity-based systems and multilateration systems have been successfully demonstrated and employed. Despite the technical success of these technologies, broad adoption has been limited due to their significant infrastructure and maintenance costs. An alternative approach utilizing the indoor magnetic signatures inherent to steel-frame buildings solves the infrastructure cost problem; in effect the existing building is the location system infrastructure. Although magnetic indoor navigation does not require the installation of dedicated hardware, the dedication of resources to produce precise survey maps of magnetic anomalies represents a further barrier to adoption. In the present work an alternative leader-follower form of waypoint-navigation system has been developed that works without surveyed magnetic maps of a site. Instead the wayfarer's magnetometer readings are compared to a pre-recorded magnetic "leader" trace containing magnetic data collected along a route and annotated with waypoint information. The goal of the navigation system is to correlate the follower's magnetometer data with the leader's to trigger audio cues at precise points along the route, thus providing location-based guidance to the user. The system should also provide early indications of off-route conditions. As part of the research effort a smartphone based application was created to record and annotate leader traces with audio and numeric data at waypoints of interest, and algorithms were developed to determine (1) when the follower reaches a waypoint and (2) when the follower goes off-route. A navigation system utilizing this technology would enable a low-cost indoor navigation system capable of replaying audio annotations at precise locations along pre-recorded routes. PMID:22255538

  11. Private Graphs - Access Rights on Graphs for Seamless Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorner, W.; Hau, F.; Pagany, R.

    2016-06-01

    After the success of GNSS (Global Navigational Satellite Systems) and navigation services for public streets, indoor seems to be the next big development in navigational services, relying on RTLS - Real Time Locating Services (e.g. WIFI) and allowing seamless navigation. In contrast to navigation and routing services on public streets, seamless navigation will cause an additional challenge: how to make routing data accessible to defined users or restrict access rights for defined areas or only to parts of the graph to a defined user group? The paper will present case studies and data from literature, where seamless and especially indoor navigation solutions are presented (hospitals, industrial complexes, building sites), but the problem of restricted access rights was only touched from a real world, but not a technical perspective. The analysis of case studies will show, that the objective of navigation and the different target groups for navigation solutions will demand well defined access rights and require solutions, how to make only parts of a graph to a user or application available to solve a navigational task. The paper will therefore introduce the concept of private graphs, which is defined as a graph for navigational purposes covering the street, road or floor network of an area behind a public street and suggest different approaches how to make graph data for navigational purposes available considering access rights and data protection, privacy and security issues as well.

  12. Assessing Multimodal Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Anne; Rowsell, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine how to assess multimodal reading practices with a group of middle school students attending an elementary school in Eastern Canada. They argue that to assess new reading practices, we need a fine-grained account of what students do, when they do it, with whom, why they do it, and finally, where they go in web space. The authors…

  13. Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana; Mayer, Richard

    2007-01-01

    What are interactive multimodal learning environments and how should they be designed to promote students' learning? In this paper, we offer a cognitive-affective theory of learning with media from which instructional design principles are derived. Then, we review a set of experimental studies in which we found empirical support for five design…

  14. Multimodal Information Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Oliviero; Zancanaro, Massimo; Strapparava, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of information exploration and software design in computer-based educational systems focuses on the integration of hypermedia and natural language dialog. AlFRESCO is described, an interactive natural language-centered multimodal system that was developed for users interested in frescoes and paintings. (LRW)

  15. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  16. Multimode optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  17. On-chip Microfluidic Multimodal Swimmer toward 3D Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Antoine; Decanini, Dominique; Hwang, Gilgueng

    2016-01-01

    Mobile microrobots have a promising future in various applications. These include targeted drug delivery, local measurement, biopsy or microassembly. Studying mobile microrobots inside microfluidics is an essential step towards such applications. But in this environment that was not designed for the robot, integration process and propulsion robustness still pose technological challenges. In this paper, we present a helical microrobot with three different motions, designed to achieve these goals. These motions are rolling, spintop motion and swimming. Through these multiple motions, microrobots are able to selectively integrate a chip through a microfluidic channel. This enables them to perform propulsion characterizations, 3D (Three Dimensional) maneuverability, particle cargo transport manipulation and exit from the chip. The microrobot selective integration inside microfluidics could lead to various in-vitro biologic or in-vivo biomedical applications. PMID:26791433

  18. On-chip Microfluidic Multimodal Swimmer toward 3D Navigation.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Antoine; Decanini, Dominique; Hwang, Gilgueng

    2016-01-01

    Mobile microrobots have a promising future in various applications. These include targeted drug delivery, local measurement, biopsy or microassembly. Studying mobile microrobots inside microfluidics is an essential step towards such applications. But in this environment that was not designed for the robot, integration process and propulsion robustness still pose technological challenges. In this paper, we present a helical microrobot with three different motions, designed to achieve these goals. These motions are rolling, spintop motion and swimming. Through these multiple motions, microrobots are able to selectively integrate a chip through a microfluidic channel. This enables them to perform propulsion characterizations, 3D (Three Dimensional) maneuverability, particle cargo transport manipulation and exit from the chip. The microrobot selective integration inside microfluidics could lead to various in-vitro biologic or in-vivo biomedical applications. PMID:26791433

  19. On-chip Microfluidic Multimodal Swimmer toward 3D Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbot, Antoine; Decanini, Dominique; Hwang, Gilgueng

    2016-01-01

    Mobile microrobots have a promising future in various applications. These include targeted drug delivery, local measurement, biopsy or microassembly. Studying mobile microrobots inside microfluidics is an essential step towards such applications. But in this environment that was not designed for the robot, integration process and propulsion robustness still pose technological challenges. In this paper, we present a helical microrobot with three different motions, designed to achieve these goals. These motions are rolling, spintop motion and swimming. Through these multiple motions, microrobots are able to selectively integrate a chip through a microfluidic channel. This enables them to perform propulsion characterizations, 3D (Three Dimensional) maneuverability, particle cargo transport manipulation and exit from the chip. The microrobot selective integration inside microfluidics could lead to various in-vitro biologic or in-vivo biomedical applications.

  20. Memory consolidation of landmarks in good navigators.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Gabriele; Jansen, Clemens; van Turennout, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    Landmarks play an important role in successful navigation. To successfully find your way around an environment, navigationally relevant information needs to be stored and become available at later moments in time. Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies shows that the human parahippocampal gyrus encodes the navigational relevance of landmarks. In the present event-related fMRI experiment, we investigated memory consolidation of navigationally relevant landmarks in the medial temporal lobe after route learning. Sixteen right-handed volunteers viewed two film sequences through a virtual museum with objects placed at locations relevant (decision points) or irrelevant (nondecision points) for navigation. To investigate consolidation effects, one film sequence was seen in the evening before scanning, the other one was seen the following morning, directly before scanning. Event-related fMRI data were acquired during an object recognition task. Participants decided whether they had seen the objects in the previously shown films. After scanning, participants answered standardized questions about their navigational skills, and were divided into groups of good and bad navigators, based on their scores. An effect of memory consolidation was obtained in the hippocampus: Objects that were seen the evening before scanning (remote objects) elicited more activity than objects seen directly before scanning (recent objects). This increase in activity in bilateral hippocampus for remote objects was observed in good navigators only. In addition, a spatial-specific effect of memory consolidation for navigationally relevant objects was observed in the parahippocampal gyrus. Remote decision point objects induced increased activity as compared with recent decision point objects, again in good navigators only. The results provide initial evidence for a connection between memory consolidation and navigational ability that can provide a basis for successful

  1. 78 FR 19277 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... SECURITY United States Coast Guard Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Meeting AGENCY: United States Coast... Safety Advisory Council (NAVSAC) will meet April 10-11, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia to discuss matters...; navigation regulations and equipment; routing measures; marine information; diving safety; and aids...

  2. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  3. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  4. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  5. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  6. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  7. Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Shuhua; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Because each nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging modality is sensitive to specific molecules or structures, multimodal NLO imaging capitalizes the potential of NLO microscopy for studies of complex biological tissues. The coupling of multiphoton fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) has allowed investigation of a broad range of biological questions concerning lipid metabolism, cancer development, cardiovascular disease, and skin biology. Moreover, recent research shows the great potential of using CARS microscope as a platform to develop more advanced NLO modalities such as electronic-resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing, stimulated Raman scattering, and pump-probe microscopy. This article reviews the various approaches developed for realization of multimodal NLO imaging as well as developments of new NLO modalities on a CARS microscope. Applications to various aspects of biological and biomedical research are discussed. PMID:24353747

  8. Indoor magnetic navigation for the blind.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Giudice, Nicholas A; Sheikh, Suneel I; Knuesel, Robert J; Kollmann, Daniel T; Hedin, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction of and evaluation of a navigation system that infers the users' location using only magnetic sensing. It is well known that the environments within steel frame structures are subject to significant magnetic distortions. Many of these distortions are persistent and have sufficient strength and spatial characteristics to allow their use as the basis for a location technology. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a prototype magnetic navigation system consisting of a wireless magnetometer placed at the users' hip streaming magnetic readings to a smartphone processing location algorithms. Human trials were conducted to assess the efficacy of the system by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system for real-time guidance. PMID:23366303

  9. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  10. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality. PMID:26491835

  11. Spatial Navigation in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Allison, Samantha L; Fagan, Anne M; Morris, John C; Head, Denise

    2016-02-01

    Although several previous studies have demonstrated navigational deficits in early-stage symptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD), navigational abilities in preclinical AD have not been examined. The present investigation examined the effects of preclinical AD and early-stage symptomatic AD on spatial navigation performance. Performance on tasks of wayfinding and route learning in a virtual reality environment were examined. Comparisons were made across the following three groups: Clinically normal without preclinical AD (n = 42), clinically normal with preclinical AD (n = 13), and early-stage symptomatic AD (n = 16) groups. Preclinical AD was defined based on cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 levels below 500 pg/ml. Preclinical AD was associated with deficits in the use of a wayfinding strategy, but not a route learning strategy. Moreover, post-hoc analyses indicated that wayfinding performance had moderate sensitivity and specificity. Results also confirmed early-stage symptomatic AD-related deficits in the use of both wayfinding and route learning strategies. The results of this study suggest that aspects of spatial navigation may be particularly sensitive at detecting the earliest cognitive deficits of AD. PMID:26967209

  12. 33 CFR 167.173 - Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.173 Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route. The Two-Way Traffic Route is recommended for use predominantly by tug and tow traffic...

  13. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  14. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  15. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  16. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  17. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  18. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    PubMed

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition. PMID:21307045

  19. Multimodality image display station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, H. Joseph

    1990-07-01

    The Multi-modality Image Display Station (MIDS) is designed for the use of physicians outside of the radiology department. Connected to a local area network or a host computer, it provides speedy access to digitized radiology images and written diagnostics needed by attending and consulting physicians near the patient bedside. Emphasis has been placed on low cost, high performance and ease of use. The work is being done as a joint study with the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and as part of a joint development effort with the Mayo Clinic. MIDS is a prototype, and should not be assumed to be an IBM product.

  20. A Multimodal Theory of Affect Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kim; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-09-01

    There is broad consensus in the literature that affect diffuses through social networks (such that a person may "acquire" or "catch" an affective state from his or her social contacts). It is further assumed that affect diffusion primarily occurs as the result of people's tendencies to synchronize their affective actions (such as smiles and frowns). However, as we show, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the substrate and scope of affect diffusion. One consequence of this is a difficulty in distinguishing between affect diffusion and several other affective influence phenomena that look similar but have very different consequences. There is also a growing body of evidence that action synchrony is unlikely to be the only, or indeed the most important, pathway for affect diffusion. This paper has 2 key aims: (a) to craft a formal definition of affect diffusion that does justice to the core of the phenomenon while distinguishing it from other phenomena with which it is frequently confounded and (b) to advance a theory of the mechanisms of affect diffusion. This theory, which we call the multimodal theory of affect diffusion, identifies 3 parallel multimodal mechanisms that may act as routes for affect diffusion. It also provides a basis for novel predictions about the conditions under which affect is most likely to diffuse. PMID:26011791

  1. Navigation Flight Operations for Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Robin M.; Kallemeyn, Pieter H., Jr.; Spencer, David A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    On July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder became the first spacecraft to land on the surface of Mars in 21 years. Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 and spent seven months en route to the red planet. This report discusses the navigation flight experience for the Mars Pathfinder interplanetary cruise. In particular, orbit determination and maneuver design and execution results are presented. Special emphasis is given to the navigation role in the days and hours leading up to and including the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase.

  2. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  3. Emergency navigation without an infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  4. [Multimodal pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Böger, A

    2014-06-01

    Chronic pain has both high prevalence and a significant economic impact in Germany. The most common chronic pain types are low back pain and headache. On the one hand, the management of chronic pain patients is incomplete, yet it is often overtreated in orthopaedic surgical settings with interventional procedures. The reason for this is the structure of outpatient management and the way it is paid for in Germany. Pain management of patients with private insurance cover is no better because of "doctor shopping". Medical guidelines could be of some help in improving the situation, but they are widely unknown, and have still to demonstrate whether they have any impact on GP treatment pathways. The "gold standard" multimodal pain therapy shows significant improvement in many studies compared to monomodal therapy regimes and interventional regimes, but is too rarely recommended by the patients' physicians, whether GPs or specialists. Because of the huge number of institutions nowadays that, for the sake of form, offer such multimodal therapies, these need to be differentiated in terms of their structural and process quality. A first step is the "k edoq" project. It is essential to improve knowledge of the principles of modern pain management. This includes better networking and communication between doctors, physiotherapists and psychologists, and at the grassroots level, providing the public with more detailed and better information. PMID:25000627

  5. Learning multimodal latent attributes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2014-02-01

    The rapid development of social media sharing has created a huge demand for automatic media classification and annotation techniques. Attribute learning has emerged as a promising paradigm for bridging the semantic gap and addressing data sparsity via transferring attribute knowledge in object recognition and relatively simple action classification. In this paper, we address the task of attribute learning for understanding multimedia data with sparse and incomplete labels. In particular, we focus on videos of social group activities, which are particularly challenging and topical examples of this task because of their multimodal content and complex and unstructured nature relative to the density of annotations. To solve this problem, we 1) introduce a concept of semilatent attribute space, expressing user-defined and latent attributes in a unified framework, and 2) propose a novel scalable probabilistic topic model for learning multimodal semilatent attributes, which dramatically reduces requirements for an exhaustive accurate attribute ontology and expensive annotation effort. We show that our framework is able to exploit latent attributes to outperform contemporary approaches for addressing a variety of realistic multimedia sparse data learning tasks including: multitask learning, learning with label noise, N-shot transfer learning, and importantly zero-shot learning. PMID:24356351

  6. Microcomputers and astronomical navigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin-Jouan, Y.

    1996-04-01

    Experienced navigators remember ancient astronomical navigation and its limitations. Using microcomputers in small packages and selecting up-to-date efficient methods will overcome many of these limitations. Both features lead to focus on observations, and encourage an increase in their numbers. With no intention of competing with satellite navigation, sextant navigation in the open sea can then be accessed again by anybody. It can be considered for demonstrative use or as a complement to the GPS.

  7. Navigating the Internet.

    PubMed Central

    Powsner, S M; Roderer, N K

    1994-01-01

    Navigating any complex set of information resources requires tools for both browsing and searching. A number of tools are available today for using Internet resources, and more are being developed. This article reviews existing navigational tools, including two developed at the Yale University School of Medicine, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. A major shortcoming of the present Internet navigation methods is the lack of controlled descriptions of the available resources. As a result, navigating the Internet is very difficult. PMID:7841913

  8. Evolution of patient navigation.

    PubMed

    Shockney, Lillie D

    2010-08-01

    The role of nurses in patient navigation has evolved over more than four decades. Navigators in cancer care can guide patients through the physical, emotional, and financial challenges that come with a diagnosis of cancer and facilitate communication among healthcare providers. Navigation has the potential to improve patient outcomes and system efficiency. Oncology nurses are well suited to help patients with cancer navigate the healthcare system from diagnosis and treatment through survivorship and palliative care. PMID:20682496

  9. Systems for the Intermodal Routing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K; Liu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The safe and secure movement of spent nuclear fuel from shutdown and active reactor facilities to intermediate or long term storage sites may, in some instances, require the use of several modes of transportation to accomplish the move. To that end, a fully operable multi-modal routing system is being developed within Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System). This study aims to provide an overview of multi-modal routing, the existing state of the TRAGIS networks, the source data needs, and the requirements for developing structural relationships between various modes to create a suitable system for modeling the transport of spent nuclear fuel via a multimodal network. Modern transportation systems are comprised of interconnected, yet separate, modal networks. Efficient transportation networks rely upon the smooth transfer of cargoes at junction points that serve as connectors between modes. A key logistical impediment to the shipment of spent nuclear fuel is the absence of identified or designated transfer locations between transport modes. Understanding the potential network impacts on intermodal transportation of spent nuclear fuel is vital for planning transportation routes from origin to destination. By identifying key locations where modes intersect, routing decisions can be made to prioritize cost savings, optimize transport times and minimize potential risks to the population and environment. In order to facilitate such a process, ORNL began the development of a base intermodal network and associated routing code. The network was developed using previous intermodal networks and information from publicly available data sources to construct a database of potential intermodal transfer locations with likely capability to handle spent nuclear fuel casks. The coding development focused on modifying the existing WebTRAGIS routing code to accommodate intermodal transfers and the selection of

  10. Construction of a multimodal CT-video chest model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Patrick D.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    Bronchoscopy enables a number of minimally invasive chest procedures for diseases such as lung cancer and asthma. For example, using the bronchoscope's continuous video stream as a guide, a physician can navigate through the lung airways to examine general airway health, collect tissue samples, or administer a disease treatment. In addition, physicians can now use new image-guided intervention (IGI) systems, which draw upon both three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) chest scans and bronchoscopic video, to assist with bronchoscope navigation. Unfortunately, little use is made of the acquired video stream, a potentially invaluable source of information. In addition, little effort has been made to link the bronchoscopic video stream to the detailed anatomical information given by a patient's 3D MDCT chest scan. We propose a method for constructing a multimodal CT-video model of the chest. After automatically computing a patient's 3D MDCT-based airway-tree model, the method next parses the available video data to generate a positional linkage between a sparse set of key video frames and airway path locations. Next, a fusion/mapping of the video's color mucosal information and MDCT-based endoluminal surfaces is performed. This results in the final multimodal CT-video chest model. The data structure constituting the model provides a history of those airway locations visited during bronchoscopy. It also provides for quick visual access to relevant sections of the airway wall by condensing large portions of endoscopic video into representative frames containing important structural and textural information. When examined with a set of interactive visualization tools, the resulting fused data structure provides a rich multimodal data source. We demonstrate the potential of the multimodal model with both phantom and human data.

  11. Two-photon quantum walk in a multimode fiber

    PubMed Central

    Defienne, Hugo; Barbieri, Marco; Walmsley, Ian A.; Smith, Brian J.; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton propagation in connected structures—a quantum walk—offers the potential of simulating complex physical systems and provides a route to universal quantum computation. Increasing the complexity of quantum photonic networks where the walk occurs is essential for many applications. We implement a quantum walk of indistinguishable photon pairs in a multimode fiber supporting 380 modes. Using wavefront shaping, we control the propagation of the two-photon state through the fiber in which all modes are coupled. Excitation of arbitrary output modes of the system is realized by controlling classical and quantum interferences. This report demonstrates a highly multimode platform for multiphoton interference experiments and provides a powerful method to program a general high-dimensional multiport optical circuit. This work paves the way for the next generation of photonic devices for quantum simulation, computing, and communication. PMID:27152325

  12. Two-photon quantum walk in a multimode fiber.

    PubMed

    Defienne, Hugo; Barbieri, Marco; Walmsley, Ian A; Smith, Brian J; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton propagation in connected structures-a quantum walk-offers the potential of simulating complex physical systems and provides a route to universal quantum computation. Increasing the complexity of quantum photonic networks where the walk occurs is essential for many applications. We implement a quantum walk of indistinguishable photon pairs in a multimode fiber supporting 380 modes. Using wavefront shaping, we control the propagation of the two-photon state through the fiber in which all modes are coupled. Excitation of arbitrary output modes of the system is realized by controlling classical and quantum interferences. This report demonstrates a highly multimode platform for multiphoton interference experiments and provides a powerful method to program a general high-dimensional multiport optical circuit. This work paves the way for the next generation of photonic devices for quantum simulation, computing, and communication. PMID:27152325

  13. 76 FR 57902 - Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... intersection (SPARTA, NJ 253 radial and the Broadway, NJ 295 radial) to be moved 0.58 nautical miles to the... route J-60, area navigation (RNAV) route Q-42, and VOR Federal airways V-16, V-229 and V-449 (76 FR... noise analysis is required. (See 65 FR 76339; December 6, 2000.) Route Q-62 is a new high altitude...

  14. Change in Child Multimodal Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keat, Donald B., II

    1990-01-01

    Examines some of the effective ingredients of change in multimodal counseling with children: personal relationships; emotions; guidance of actions, behaviors, and consequences; imagery; health; learning; and need to know. (ABL)

  15. A Multistage Method for Multiobjective Route Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng; Gen, Mitsuo

    The multiobjective route selection problem (m-RSP) is a key research topic in the car navigation system (CNS) for ITS (Intelligent Transportation System). In this paper, we propose an interactive multistage weight-based Dijkstra genetic algorithm (mwD-GA) to solve it. The purpose of the proposed approach is to create enough Pareto-optimal routes with good distribution for the car driver depending on his/her preference. At the same time, the routes can be recalculated according to the driver's preferences by the multistage framework proposed. In the solution approach proposed, the accurate route searching ability of the Dijkstra algorithm and the exploration ability of the Genetic algorithm (GA) are effectively combined together for solving the m-RSP problems. Solutions provided by the proposed approach are compared with the current research to show the effectiveness and practicability of the solution approach proposed.

  16. The Stability of Multi-modal Traffic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ling-Hui; Sun, Hui-Jun; Zhu, Cheng-Juan; Wu, Jian-Jun; Jia, Bin

    2013-07-01

    There is an explicit and implicit assumption in multimodal traffic equilibrium models, that is, if the equilibrium exists, then it will also occur. The assumption is very idealized; in fact, it may be shown that the quite contrary could happen, because in multimodal traffic network, especially in mixed traffic conditions the interaction among traffic modes is asymmetric and the asymmetric interaction may result in the instability of traffic system. In this paper, to study the stability of multimodal traffic system, we respectively present the travel cost function in mixed traffic conditions and in traffic network with dedicated bus lanes. Based on a day-to-day dynamical model, we study the evolution of daily route choice of travelers in multimodal traffic network using 10000 random initial values for different cases. From the results of simulation, it can be concluded that the asymmetric interaction between the cars and buses in mixed traffic conditions can lead the traffic system to instability when traffic demand is larger. We also study the effect of travelers' perception error on the stability of multimodal traffic network. Although the larger perception error can alleviate the effect of interaction between cars and buses and improve the stability of traffic system in mixed traffic conditions, the traffic system also become instable when the traffic demand is larger than a number. For all cases simulated in this study, with the same parameters, traffic system with dedicated bus lane has better stability for traffic demand than that in mixed traffic conditions. We also find that the network with dedicated bus lane has higher portion of travelers by bus than it of mixed traffic network. So it can be concluded that building dedicated bus lane can improve the stability of traffic system and attract more travelers to choose bus reducing the traffic congestion.

  17. Using Grid Cells for Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Daniel; Barry, Caswell; Manson, Daniel; Burgess, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mammals are able to navigate to hidden goal locations by direct routes that may traverse previously unvisited terrain. Empirical evidence suggests that this “vector navigation” relies on an internal representation of space provided by the hippocampal formation. The periodic spatial firing patterns of grid cells in the hippocampal formation offer a compact combinatorial code for location within large-scale space. Here, we consider the computational problem of how to determine the vector between start and goal locations encoded by the firing of grid cells when this vector may be much longer than the largest grid scale. First, we present an algorithmic solution to the problem, inspired by the Fourier shift theorem. Second, we describe several potential neural network implementations of this solution that combine efficiency of search and biological plausibility. Finally, we discuss the empirical predictions of these implementations and their relationship to the anatomy and electrophysiology of the hippocampal formation. PMID:26247860

  18. Guidance by odors in honeybee navigation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Randolf; Greggers, Uwe

    2013-10-01

    Animal navigation is guided by multiple sensory cues. Here, we ask whether and how olfactory stimuli emanating from places other than the trained feeding site redirect the flight paths of honeybees. The flight trajectories of individual bees were registered using harmonic radar tracking. Sensory cues (compass direction, distance, visual cues en route and close to the feeding site) associated with the trained flight route dominated wayfinding, but a learned odorant carried by air flow induced excursions into the wind. These redirections were largely restricted to rather small deviations from the trained route (<60°, <200 m) and occurred only if the animal did not receive the trained odorant stimulus at the trained feeding site. Under certain conditions, larger excursions were observed. These findings are discussed in the context of odor guidance of honeybees over longer distances (>300 m from the hive). PMID:23974855

  19. [Multimodal iatrogenic apathy].

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Souza, R D; Figueiredo, W M

    1996-06-01

    The present paper reports on five patients who developed apathy as a peculiar side effect of antidepressants. Their behavioral and psychopathological changes were primarily due to the near-absence of emotional experience, a key characteristic that distinguishes apathy from avolition and abulia. The emergence of apathy in the course of an antidepressant treatment should raise the suspicion of an adverse effect of the drug and lead to its prompt withdrawal. A sample of the relevant clinical evidence favoring the distinction of apathy confined to a single sensory domain ("unimodal apathy") from apathy confined to more than one sensory realm ("multimodal apathy") is reviewed. From a pathophysiological standpoint, it would appear that neural nets centered in the amygdala-temporo polar cortex are critical for the integration of sensory perceptions and mental imagery with appropriate emotional tone and quality as well as with their accompanying somatic markers, as they receive afferents from the major projection systems of the prosencephalon and lie in nodes strategic to modify the ongoing activity of multiple parallel brain systems. The fact that one common symptom can be produced by such a heterogeneous family of substances points to a shared neurochemical mechanism of action. At present, discrete cerebral serotoninergic circuits would appear to be suitable candidates for such a role. Cases as these may be critical for the understanding of the cerebral organization of emotions in man, lending support to the notion that distinct neurochemical systems mediate discrete psychopathological symptoms. PMID:8984978

  20. Multimode silicon nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Glassner, Sebastian; Zeiner, Clemens; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2014-11-12

    The combined capabilities of both a nonplanar design and nonconventional carrier injection mechanisms are subject to recent scientific investigations to overcome the limitations of silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In this Letter, we present a multimode field effect transistors device using silicon nanowires that feature an axial n-type/intrinsic doping junction. A heterostructural device design is achieved by employing a self-aligned nickel-silicide source contact. The polymorph operation of the dual-gate device enabling the configuration of one p- and two n-type transistor modes is demonstrated. Not only the type but also the carrier injection mode can be altered by appropriate biasing of the two gate terminals or by inverting the drain bias. With a combined band-to-band and Schottky tunneling mechanism, in p-type mode a subthreshold swing as low as 143 mV/dec and an ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(4) is found. As the device operates in forward bias, a nonconventional tunneling transistor is realized, enabling an effective suppression of ambipolarity. Depending on the drain bias, two different n-type modes are distinguishable. The carrier injection is dominated by thermionic emission in forward bias with a maximum ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(7) whereas in reverse bias a Schottky tunneling mechanism dominates the carrier transport. PMID:25303290

  1. NAVIGATING A QUALITY ROUTE TO A NATIONAL SAFETY AWARD

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE SS

    2009-05-26

    Deming quality methodologies applied to safety are recognized with the National Safety Council's annual Robert W. Campbell Award. Over the last ten years, the implementation of Statistical Process Control and quality methodologies at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site have contributed to improved safety. Improvements attributed to Statistical Process Control are evidenced in Occupational Safety and Health records and documented through several articles in Quality Progress and the American Society of Safety Engineers publication, Professional Safety. Statistical trending of safety, quality, and occurrence data continues to playa key role in improving safety and quality at what has been called the world's largest environmental cleanup project. DOE's Hanford Site played a pivotal role in the nation's defense beginning in the 1940s, when it was established as part of the Manhattan Project. After more than 50 years of producing material for nuclear weapons, Hanford, which covers 586 square miles in southeastern Washington state, is now focused on three outcomes: (1) Restoring the Columbia River corridor for multiple uses; (2) Transitioning the central plateau to support long-term waste management; and (3) Putting DOE assets to work for the future. The current environmental cleanup mission faces challenges of overlapping technical, political, regulatory, environmental, and cultural interests. From Oct. 1, 1996 through Sept. 30, 2008, Fluor Hanford was a prime contractor to the Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office. In this role, Fluor Hanford managed several major cleanup activities that included dismantling former nuclear-processing facilities, cleaning up the Site's contaminated groundwater, retrieving and processing transuranic waste for shipment and disposal off-site, maintaining the Site's infrastructure, providing security and fire protection, and operating the Volpentest HAMMER Training and Education Center. On October 1,2008, a transition occurred that changed Fluor's role at Hanford. Fluor's work at Hanford was split in two with the technical scope being assumed by the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) CHPRC is now spearheading much of the cleanup work associated with former nuclear-processing facilities, contaminated groundwater, and transuranic waste. Fluor is an integrated subcontractor to CH PRC in this effort. In addition, at the time of this writing, while the final outcome is being determined for the new Mission Support Contract, Fluor Hanford has had its contract extended to provide site-wide services that include security, fire protection, infrastructure, and operating the HAMMER facility. The emphasis has to be on doing work safely, delivering quality work, controlling costs, and meeting deadlines. Statistical support is provided by Fluor to the PRC, within Fluor Hanford, and to a third contractor, Washington Closure Hanford, which is tasked with cleaning up approximately 210 square miles designated as the Columbia River corridor along the outer edge of the Hanford Site. The closing months of Fluor Hanford's 12 year contract were busy, characterized by special events that capped its work as a prime cleanup contractor, transitions of work scope and personnel, and the completion numerous activities. At this time, Fluor's work and approach to safety were featured in state and national forums. A 'Blockbuster' presentation at the Washington State Governor's Industrial Safety Conference in September 2008 featured Fluor Hanford's Chief Operating Officer, a company Safety Representative, and me. Simultaneously, an award ceremony in Anaheim, Calif. recognized Fluor Hanford as the winner of the 2008 Robert W. Campbell Award. The Robert W. Campbell Award is co-sponsored by Exxon Mobil Corporation and the National Safety Council. Named after a pioneer of industrial safety, the Campbell Award recognizes organizations that demonstrate how integration of environmental, health and safety (EHS) management into business operations is a cornerstone of their corporate success. Fluor Hanford rec

  2. 78 FR 22189 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... establish T-302 and T-304 in the state of Oregon (78 FR 4354, January 22, 2013). Interested parties were... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  3. Multimodal system for the planning and guidance of bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, William E.; Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Zang, Xiaonan; Byrnes, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Many technical innovations in multimodal radiologic imaging and bronchoscopy have emerged recently in the effort against lung cancer. Modern X-ray computed-tomography (CT) scanners provide three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution chest images, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners give complementary molecular imaging data, and new integrated PET/CT scanners combine the strengths of both modalities. State-of-the-art bronchoscopes permit minimally invasive tissue sampling, with vivid endobronchial video enabling navigation deep into the airway-tree periphery, while complementary endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) reveals local views of anatomical structures outside the airways. In addition, image-guided intervention (IGI) systems have proven their utility for CT-based planning and guidance of bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, no IGI system exists that integrates all sources effectively through the complete lung-cancer staging work flow. This paper presents a prototype of a computer-based multimodal IGI system that strives to fill this need. The system combines a wide range of automatic and semi-automatic image-processing tools for multimodal data fusion and procedure planning. It also provides a flexible graphical user interface for follow-on guidance of bronchoscopy/EBUS. Human-study results demonstrate the system's potential.

  4. Navigation strategy training using virtual reality in six chronic stroke patients: A novel and explorative approach to the rehabilitation of navigation impairment.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Michiel H G; van der Ham, Ineke J M; Jagersma, Elbrich; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that navigation impairment is a common complaint after brain injury. Effective training programmes aiming to improve navigation ability in neurological patients are, however, scarce. The few reported programmes are merely focused on recalling specific routes rather than encouraging brain-damaged patients to use an alternative navigation strategy, applicable to any route. Our aim was therefore to investigate the feasibility of a (virtual reality) navigation training as a tool to instruct chronic stroke patients to adopt an alternative navigation strategy. Navigation ability was systematically assessed before the training. The training approach was then determined based on the individual pattern of navigation deficits of each patient. The use of virtual reality in the navigation strategy training in six middle-aged stroke patients was found to be highly feasible. Furthermore, five patients learned to (partially) apply an alternative navigation strategy in the virtual environment, suggesting that navigation strategies are mouldable rather than static. In the evaluation of their training experiences, the patients judged the training as valuable and proposed some suggestions for further improvement. The notion that the navigation strategy people use can be influenced after a short training procedure is a novel finding and initiates a direction for future studies. PMID:26040931

  5. Navigator program risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Padilla, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, program risk management as applied to the Navigator Program: In Search of New Worlds will be discussed. The Navigator Program's goals are to learn how planetary systems form and to search for those worlds that could or do harbor life.

  6. Maps and navigation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, A

    1922-01-01

    Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

  7. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  8. Oncology nurse navigator.

    PubMed

    Case, Mary Ann B

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to explore the presence of the oncology nurse as navigator on measurable patient outcomes. Eighteen primary nursing research studies were found using combinations of the following key words: advocate, cancer, case manager, coach, certification, guide, navigator, nurse, oncology, patient navigator, pivot nurse, and continuity of care. Nurse researchers identified nursing-sensitive patient outcomes related to the time to diagnosis and appropriate treatment, effect on mood states, satisfaction, support, continuity of care, and cost outcomes. Navigator roles are expanding globally, and nurses should continue to embrace opportunities to ensure the safe passage of patients with cancer along the entire trajectory of illness and to evaluate the implications for educational preparation, research, and practice of navigators of all kinds. PMID:21278039

  9. Multimodal integration of time.

    PubMed

    Bausenhart, Karin M; de la Rosa, Maria Dolores; Ulrich, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the accuracy of duration discrimination for visually presented intervals is strongly impaired by concurrently presented auditory intervals of different duration, but not vice versa. Because these studies rely mostly on accuracy measures, it remains unclear whether this impairment results from changes in perceived duration or rather from a decrease in perceptual sensitivity. We therefore assessed complete psychometric functions in a duration discrimination task to disentangle effects on perceived duration and sensitivity. Specifically, participants compared two empty intervals marked by either visual or auditory pulses. These pulses were either presented unimodally, or accompanied by task-irrelevant pulses in the respective other modality, which defined conflicting intervals of identical, shorter, or longer duration. Participants were instructed to base their temporal judgments solely on the task-relevant modality. Despite this instruction, perceived duration was clearly biased toward the duration of the intervals marked in the task-irrelevant modality. This was not only found for the discrimination of visual intervals, but also, to a lesser extent, for the discrimination of auditory intervals. Discrimination sensitivity, however, was similar between all multimodal conditions, and only improved compared to the presentation of unimodal visual intervals. In a second experiment, evidence for multisensory integration was even found when the task-irrelevant modality did not contain any duration information, thus excluding noncompliant attention allocation as a basis of our results. Our results thus suggest that audiovisual integration of temporally discrepant signals does not impair discrimination sensitivity but rather alters perceived duration, presumably by means of a temporal ventriloquism effect. PMID:24351985

  10. Multimodal Neuroelectric Interface Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Totah, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project aims to improve performance of NASA missions by developing multimodal neuroelectric technologies for augmented human-system interaction. Neuroelectric technologies will add completely new modes of interaction that operate in parallel with keyboards, speech, or other manual controls, thereby increasing the bandwidth of human-system interaction. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of real-time electromyographic (EMG) pattern recognition for a direct neuroelectric human-computer interface. We recorded EMG signals from an elastic sleeve with dry electrodes, while a human subject performed a range of discrete gestures. A machine-teaming algorithm was trained to recognize the EMG patterns associated with the gestures and map them to control signals. Successful applications now include piloting two Class 4 aircraft simulations (F-15 and 757) and entering data with a "virtual" numeric keyboard. Current research focuses on on-line adaptation of EMG sensing and processing and recognition of continuous gestures. We are also extending this on-line pattern recognition methodology to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This will allow us to bypass muscle activity and draw control signals directly from the human brain. Our system can reliably detect P-rhythm (a periodic EEG signal from motor cortex in the 10 Hz range) with a lightweight headset containing saline-soaked sponge electrodes. The data show that EEG p-rhythm can be modulated by real and imaginary motions. Current research focuses on using biofeedback to train of human subjects to modulate EEG rhythms on demand, and to examine interactions of EEG-based control with EMG-based and manual control. Viewgraphs on these neuroelectric technologies are also included.

  11. Multimodal Hip Hop Productions as Media Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, K. C. Nat

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on ethnographic data from a year-long multimodal media production (MMP) course and the experience of an African American female adolescent who used the production of multimodal Hip Hop texts to express her creativity and growing socially conscious view of the world. The study demonstrates how students made meaning multimodally and…

  12. Developing Multimodal Academic Literacies among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gloria E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on a semester long freshmen learning community in which multimodal texts were used as primary texts along with traditional texts to support students' academic literacy skills. Analysis shows that a multimodal text created by students contain elements of academic literacies and qualities of multimodal texts. An…

  13. Locating the Semiotic Power of Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda A.; Nelson, Mark Evan

    2005-01-01

    This article reports research that attempts to characterize what is powerful about digital multimodal texts. Building from recent theoretical work on understanding the workings and implications of multimodal communication, the authors call for a continuing empirical investigation into the roles that digital multimodal texts play in real-world…

  14. Multimodal Career Education for Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Stephen; Smith, Robert L.

    A multimodal career education model entitled BEST IDEA was field tested as an approach to the problem of retaining skilled nurses in the work force. Using multimodal assessment and intervention strategies derived from the multimodal behavior therapy of Arnold Lazarus, researchers developed an individualized career development assessment and…

  15. Theta oscillations and human navigation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Dráulio B; Baffa, Oswaldo; Wakai, Ronald T

    2002-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to study alpha and theta activity while subjects navigated through a computer-generated virtual reality town. The subjects were first allowed to explore the environment freely. They then had to navigate from a starting point to a destination, knowing that an obstruction would appear at one of several possible locations along the main route and force them to take a detour. Spatiotemporal analysis of the theta and alpha bands were performed (1) prior to the start of navigation, (2) from the start of navigation until the obstruction was encountered, (3) during the time subjects were contemplating a detour and were not navigating, and (4) from the resumption of navigation until the destination was reached. In all subjects, theta power was strongest during the two periods of navigation. The peak frequency of the oscillations was approximately 3.7 Hz. Control studies consisted of a motor task similar to that required for navigation, passive viewing of a tour through the same virtual reality town, and a mental concentration task. No consistent increases in theta power were seen in the MEG during any of the control tasks. The results suggest an association between theta rhythm and the performance of navigational tasks in humans. PMID:11798388

  16. Homing pigeons develop local route stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Meade, Jessica; Biro, Dora; Guilford, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms used by homing pigeons (Columba livia) to navigate homeward from distant sites have been well studied, yet the mechanisms underlying navigation within, and mapping of, the local familiar area have been largely neglected. In the local area pigeons pote ntially have access to a powerful navigational aid--a memorized landscape map. Current opinion suggests that landmarks are used only to recognize a familiar start position and that the goalward route is then achieved solely using compass orientation. We used high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) loggers to track homing pigeons as they became progressively familiar with a local homing task. Here, we demonstrate that birds develop highly stereotyped yet individually distinctive routes over the landscape, which remain substantially inefficient. Precise aerial route recapitulation implies close control by localized geocentric cues. Magnetic cues are unlikely to have been used, since recapitulation remains despite magnetic disruption treatment, and olfactory cues would have been positionally unstable under the variable wind conditions, making visual landmarks the most likely cues used. PMID:15875565

  17. Accelerating the Convergence Speed of Precise Point Positioning by Using Multi-mode GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Song; Jin-ming, Hao

    2016-04-01

    The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) does not need the support of base stations, and it has broad application prospects. However, the convergence time of PPP is long. In order to accelerate the convergence speed of PPP, the PPP model using multi-mode GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) is discussed. The experiments show that the convergence speed becomes faster by using the multi-mode GNSS, the mean percentage of time reduction for converging to different precisions (10 cm, 15 cm, and 20 cm) is 42%, 78%, and 74%, respectively; meanwhile, in the severe regions, such as in the mountainous regions, the number of observable satellites becomes fewer, and the PPP sometimes cannot achieve positioning using a simple system. But the PPP using multi-mode GNSS can achieve positioning and accelerate the convergence.

  18. Reducing medication errors in critical care: a multimodal approach

    PubMed Central

    Kruer, Rachel M; Jarrell, Andrew S; Latif, Asad

    2014-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has reported that medication errors are the single most common type of error in health care, representing 19% of all adverse events, while accounting for over 7,000 deaths annually. The frequency of medication errors in adult intensive care units can be as high as 947 per 1,000 patient-days, with a median of 105.9 per 1,000 patient-days. The formulation of drugs is a potential contributor to medication errors. Challenges related to drug formulation are specific to the various routes of medication administration, though errors associated with medication appearance and labeling occur among all drug formulations and routes of administration. Addressing these multifaceted challenges requires a multimodal approach. Changes in technology, training, systems, and safety culture are all strategies to potentially reduce medication errors related to drug formulation in the intensive care unit. PMID:25210478

  19. Recent advances in surgical planning & navigation for tumor biopsy and resection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Defeng; Ma, Diya; Wong, Matthew Lun; Wáng, Yì Xiáng J

    2015-10-01

    This paper highlights recent advancements in imaging technologies for surgical planning and navigation in tumor biopsy and resection which need high-precision in detection and characterization of lesion margin in preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation. Multimodality image-guided surgery platforms brought great benefits in surgical planning and operation accuracy via registration of various data sets with information on morphology [X-ray, magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT)], function connectivity [functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), rest-status fMRI], or molecular activity [positron emission tomography (PET)]. These image-guided platforms provide a correspondence between the pre-operative surgical planning and intra-operative procedure. We envisage that the combination of advanced multimodal imaging, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and cloud computing will play increasingly important roles in planning and navigation of surgery for tumor biopsy and resection in the coming years. PMID:26682133

  20. Recent advances in surgical planning & navigation for tumor biopsy and resection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Diya; Wong, Matthew Lun; Wáng, Yì Xiáng J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights recent advancements in imaging technologies for surgical planning and navigation in tumor biopsy and resection which need high-precision in detection and characterization of lesion margin in preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation. Multimodality image-guided surgery platforms brought great benefits in surgical planning and operation accuracy via registration of various data sets with information on morphology [X-ray, magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT)], function connectivity [functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), rest-status fMRI], or molecular activity [positron emission tomography (PET)]. These image-guided platforms provide a correspondence between the pre-operative surgical planning and intra-operative procedure. We envisage that the combination of advanced multimodal imaging, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and cloud computing will play increasingly important roles in planning and navigation of surgery for tumor biopsy and resection in the coming years. PMID:26682133

  1. Multimodal interaction for human-robot teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Dustin; Schurr, Nathan; Ayers, Jeanine; Rousseau, Jeff; Fertitta, John; Carlin, Alan; Dumond, Danielle

    2013-05-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles have the potential for supporting small dismounted teams in mapping facilities, maintaining security in cleared buildings, and extending the team's reconnaissance and persistent surveillance capability. In order for such autonomous systems to integrate with the team, we must move beyond current interaction methods using heads-down teleoperation which require intensive human attention and affect the human operator's ability to maintain local situational awareness and ensure their own safety. This paper focuses on the design, development and demonstration of a multimodal interaction system that incorporates naturalistic human gestures, voice commands, and a tablet interface. By providing multiple, partially redundant interaction modes, our system degrades gracefully in complex environments and enables the human operator to robustly select the most suitable interaction method given the situational demands. For instance, the human can silently use arm and hand gestures for commanding a team of robots when it is important to maintain stealth. The tablet interface provides an overhead situational map allowing waypoint-based navigation for multiple ground robots in beyond-line-of-sight conditions. Using lightweight, wearable motion sensing hardware either worn comfortably beneath the operator's clothing or integrated within their uniform, our non-vision-based approach enables an accurate, continuous gesture recognition capability without line-of-sight constraints. To reduce the training necessary to operate the system, we designed the interactions around familiar arm and hand gestures.

  2. Algorithm for navigated ESS.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, T; Grgić, M V; Zadravec, D; Geber, G; Tomljenović, D; Kalogjera, L

    2013-12-01

    ENT navigation has given new opportunities in performing Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS) and improving surgical outcome of the patients` treatment. ESS assisted by a navigation system could be called Navigated Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (NESS). As it is generally accepted that the NESS should be performed only in cases of complex anatomy and pathology, it has not yet been established as a state-of-the-art procedure and thus not used on a daily basis. This paper presents an algorithm for use of a navigation system for basic ESS in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The algorithm includes five units that should be highlighted using a navigation system. They are as follows: 1) nasal vestibule unit, 2) OMC unit, 3) anterior ethmoid unit, 4) posterior ethmoid unit, and 5) sphenoid unit. Each unit has a shape of a triangular pyramid and consists of at least four reference points or landmarks. As many landmarks as possible should be marked when determining one of the five units. Navigated orientation in each unit should always precede any surgical intervention. The algorithm should improve the learning curve of trainees and enable surgeons to use the navigation system routinely and systematically. PMID:24260766

  3. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  4. 78 FR 32412 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ..., marital status, disability and generic information, age, membership in an employee organization, or other... and equipment, routing measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems...@uscg.mil FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Mike Sollosi, the NAVSAC Alternate Designated...

  5. 77 FR 15784 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ..., disability and generic information, age, membership in an employee organization, or other non-merit factor... and equipment, routing measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems....gov . Members of the public should not submit personal information into a docket, as it becomes...

  6. Navigation Systems for Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Wood, B. J.; Kruecker, J.; Abi-Jaoudeh, N; Locklin, J.; Levy, E.; Xu, S.; Solbiati, L.; Kapoor, A.; Amalou, H.; Venkatesan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Navigation systems, devices and intra-procedural software are changing the way we practice interventional oncology. Prior to the development of precision navigation tools integrated with imaging systems, thermal ablation of hard-to-image lesions was highly dependent upon operator experience, spatial skills, and estimation of positron emission tomography-avid or arterial-phase targets. Numerous navigation systems for ablation bring the opportunity for standardization and accuracy that extends our ability to use imaging feedback during procedures. Existing systems and techniques are reviewed, and specific clinical applications for ablation are discussed to better define how these novel technologies address specific clinical needs, and fit into clinical practice. PMID:20656236

  7. 76 FR 77939 - Proposed Provision of Navigation Services for the Next Generation Air Transportation System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) seeks comments on a proposed transition of the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) navigation infrastructure to enable performance-based navigation (PBN) as part of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The FAA plans to transition from defining airways, routes and procedures using VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR) and other legacy......

  8. Navigation Assistance: A Trade-Off between Wayfinding Support and Configural Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munzer, Stefan; Zimmer, Hubert D.; Baus, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    Current GPS-based mobile navigation assistance systems support wayfinding, but they do not support learning about the spatial configuration of an environment. The present study examined effects of visual presentation modes for navigation assistance on wayfinding accuracy, route learning, and configural learning. Participants (high-school students)…

  9. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  10. Multimodal imaging of ischemic wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Liu, Peng; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    The wound healing process involves the reparative phases of inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Interrupting any of these phases may result in chronically unhealed wounds, amputation, or even patient death. Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, no method is available for noninvasive, simultaneous, and quantitative imaging of these tissue parameters. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities into a single setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Advanced algorithms were developed for accurate reconstruction of wound oxygenation and appropriate co-registration between different imaging modalities. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated by an ongoing clinical trials approved by OSU IRB. In the clinical trial, a wound of 3mm in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was serially monitored by the multimodal imaging setup. Our experiments demonstrated the clinical usability of multimodal wound imaging.

  11. Multi-Modality Phantom Development

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.

    2009-03-20

    Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.

  12. Creating Multimodal Metalanguage with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum guidelines, including the emergent Australian curriculum (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2009-10), indicate expectations that teachers will support their students' interpretation and creation of multimodal texts. However, English curriculum guidelines are yet to advise on a detailed metalanguage to…

  13. Multimodality as a Sociolinguistic Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collister, Lauren Brittany

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the use of multimodal communication in a community of expert "World of Warcraft"® players and its impact on politeness, identity, and relationships. Players in the community regularly communicated using three linguistic modes quasi-simultaneously: text chat, voice chat, and face-to-face interaction. Using the…

  14. Brief Psychotherapy: The Multimodal Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Arnold A.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines tenets of multimodal therapy (MMT) and argues for its cost-effective yet comprehensive value as a brief psychotherapy model. Describes MMT as an integrated, seven-modality model of personality and provides clinical examples of its use. Argues that MMT approach will be an important future alternative to more expensive, time-consuming, and…

  15. Spatial cognition and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment that provides data for the development of a cognitive model of pilot flight navigation is described. The experiment characterizes navigational awareness as the mental alignment of two frames of reference: (1) the ego centered reference frame that is established by the forward view out of the cockpit and (2) the world centered reference frame that is established by the aircraft's location on a map. The data support a model involving at least two components: (1) the perceptual encoding of the navigational landmarks and (2) the mental rotation of the map's world reference frame into alignment with the ego centered reference frame. The quantitative relationships of these two factors are provided as possible inputs for a computational model of spatial cognition during flight navigation.

  16. Inertial/multisensor navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alikiotis, Dimitri

    1987-01-01

    A Multisensor Navigation System as proposed by the Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is illustrated. The proposed system incorporates radio (Lorac-C), satellite (Global Positioning System) and an inertial navigation system (INS). The inertial part of the system will be of a low grade since the INS will be used primarily for filtering the GPS data and for short term stability. Loran-C and GPS will be used for long term stability.

  17. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.; Johnson, B.; Swaminathan, N.

    1989-01-01

    Software and hardware assembled to support specific engineering activities. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation (SINW) is integrated computer workstation providing systems and engineering support functions for Space Shuttle guidance and navigation-system logistics, repair, and procurement activities. Consists of personal-computer hardware, packaged software, and custom software integrated together into user-friendly, menu-driven system. Designed to operate on IBM PC XT. Applied in business and industry to develop similar workstations.

  18. Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

  19. Grid-like Processing of Imagined Navigation.

    PubMed

    Horner, Aidan J; Bisby, James A; Zotow, Ewa; Bush, Daniel; Burgess, Neil

    2016-03-21

    Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of rodents [1] and humans [2] fire in a hexagonally distributed spatially periodic manner. In concert with other spatial cells in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) [3-6], they provide a representation of our location within an environment [7, 8] and are specifically thought to allow the represented location to be updated by self-motion [9]. Grid-like signals have been seen throughout the autobiographical memory system [10], suggesting a much more general role in memory [11, 12]. Grid cells may allow us to move our viewpoint in imagination [13], a useful function for goal-directed navigation and planning [12, 14-16], and episodic future thinking more generally [17, 18]. We used fMRI to provide evidence for similar grid-like signals in human entorhinal cortex during both virtual navigation and imagined navigation of the same paths. We show that this signal is present in periods of active navigation and imagination, with a similar orientation in both and with the specifically 6-fold rotational symmetry characteristic of grid cell firing. We therefore provide the first evidence suggesting that grid cells are utilized during movement of viewpoint within imagery, potentially underpinning our more general ability to mentally traverse possible routes in the service of planning and episodic future thinking. PMID:26972318

  20. Grid-like Processing of Imagined Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Aidan J.; Bisby, James A.; Zotow, Ewa; Bush, Daniel; Burgess, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Summary Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of rodents [1] and humans [2] fire in a hexagonally distributed spatially periodic manner. In concert with other spatial cells in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) [3, 4, 5, 6], they provide a representation of our location within an environment [7, 8] and are specifically thought to allow the represented location to be updated by self-motion [9]. Grid-like signals have been seen throughout the autobiographical memory system [10], suggesting a much more general role in memory [11, 12]. Grid cells may allow us to move our viewpoint in imagination [13], a useful function for goal-directed navigation and planning [12, 14, 15, 16], and episodic future thinking more generally [17, 18]. We used fMRI to provide evidence for similar grid-like signals in human entorhinal cortex during both virtual navigation and imagined navigation of the same paths. We show that this signal is present in periods of active navigation and imagination, with a similar orientation in both and with the specifically 6-fold rotational symmetry characteristic of grid cell firing. We therefore provide the first evidence suggesting that grid cells are utilized during movement of viewpoint within imagery, potentially underpinning our more general ability to mentally traverse possible routes in the service of planning and episodic future thinking. PMID:26972318

  1. Development of autonomous grasping and navigating robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoh, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Keisuke; Nakayama, Yasuichi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to find and grasp target items in an unknown environment is important for working robots. We developed an autonomous navigating and grasping robot. The operations are locating a requested item, moving to where the item is placed, finding the item on a shelf or table, and picking the item up from the shelf or the table. To achieve these operations, we designed the robot with three functions: an autonomous navigating function that generates a map and a route in an unknown environment, an item position recognizing function, and a grasping function. We tested this robot in an unknown environment. It achieved a series of operations: moving to a destination, recognizing the positions of items on a shelf, picking up an item, placing it on a cart with its hand, and returning to the starting location. The results of this experiment show the applicability of reducing the workforce with robots.

  2. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and procedure. 209.325 Section 209.325 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation...

  3. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  4. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  5. Defining Dynamic Route Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Jastrzebski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a method for defining route structure from flight tracks. Dynamically generated route structures could be useful in guiding dynamic airspace configuration and helping controllers retain situational awareness under dynamically changing traffic conditions. Individual merge and diverge intersections between pairs of flights are identified, clustered, and grouped into nodes of a route structure network. Links are placed between nodes to represent major traffic flows. A parametric analysis determined the algorithm input parameters producing route structures of current day flight plans that are closest to todays airway structure. These parameters are then used to define and analyze the dynamic route structure over the course of a day for current day flight paths. Route structures are also compared between current day flight paths and more user preferred paths such as great circle and weather avoidance routing.

  6. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  7. Olfaction, navigation, and the origin of isocortex

    PubMed Central

    Aboitiz, Francisco; Montiel, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    There are remarkable similarities between the brains of mammals and birds in terms of microcircuit architecture, despite obvious differences in gross morphology and development. While in reptiles and birds the most expanding component (the dorsal ventricular ridge) displays an overall nuclear shape and derives from the lateral and ventral pallium, in mammals a dorsal pallial, six-layered isocortex shows the most remarkable elaboration. Regardless of discussions about possible homologies between mammalian and avian brains, a main question remains in explaining the emergence of the mammalian isocortex, because it represents a unique phenotype across amniotes. In this article, we propose that the origin of the isocortex was driven by behavioral adaptations involving olfactory driven goal-directed and navigating behaviors. These adaptations were linked with increasing sensory development, which provided selective pressure for the expansion of the dorsal pallium. The latter appeared as an interface in olfactory-hippocampal networks, contributing somatosensory information for navigating behavior. Sensory input from other modalities like vision and audition were subsequently recruited into this expanding region, contributing to multimodal associative networks. PMID:26578863

  8. Experimental verification of MMI by singlemode-multimode-singlemode and multimode-singlemode structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Saikat; Ghosh, Amarnath; Roy, Bapita; Chakraborty, Rajib

    2015-06-01

    Multimode Interference (MMI) based on self imaging phenomenon is investigated using matrix approach. Experimentally MMI is verified using singlemode-multimode-singlemode and multimodesinglemode structures of optical fiber. The results obtained are also verified by BPM technique.

  9. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1991-07-01

    Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

  10. Voyager navigation strategy and accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. B.; Mcdanell, J. P.; Bantell, M. H., Jr.; Chadwick, C.; Jacobson, R. A.; Miller, L. J.; Synnott, S. P.; Van Allen, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the prelaunch navigation studies conducted for the Mariner spacecraft launched toward encounters with the giant planets. The navigation system and the strategy for using this system are described. The requirements on the navigation system demanded by the goals of the project are mentioned, and the predicted navigational capability relative to each of the requirements is discussed. Baseline navigation results for three possible trajectories are analyzed.

  11. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1991-01-01

    Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

  12. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    PubMed

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system. PMID:17299225

  13. Aerocapture navigation at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed Neptune orbiter Aerocapture mission will use solar electric propulsion to send an orbiter to Neptune. Navigation feasibility of direct-entry aerocapture for orbit insertion at Neptune is shown. The navigation strategy baselines optical imaging and (delta)VLBI measurement in order to satisfy the flight system's atmosphere entry flight path angle, which is targeted to enter Neptune with an entry flight path angle of -11.6 . Error bars on the entry flight path angle of plus/minus0.55 (3(sigma)) are proposed. This requirement can be satisfied with a data cutoff 3.2 days prior to arrival. There is some margin in the arrival template to tighten (i.e. reduce) the entry corridor either by scheduling a data cutoff closer to Neptune or alternatively, reducing uncertainties by increasing the fidelity of the optical navigation camera.

  14. Radioactive Nanomaterials for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A.; Yang, Dongzhi; Wu, Hongwei; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques, including primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), can provide quantitative information for a biological event in vivo with ultra-high sensitivity, however, the comparatively low spatial resolution is their major limitation in clinical application. By convergence of nuclear imaging with other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, the hybrid imaging platforms can overcome the limitations from each individual imaging technique. Possessing versatile chemical linking ability and good cargo-loading capacity, radioactive nanomaterials can serve as ideal imaging contrast agents. In this review, we provide a brief overview about current state-of-the-art applications of radioactive nanomaterials in the circumstances of multimodality imaging. We present strategies for incorporation of radioisotope(s) into nanomaterials along with applications of radioactive nanomaterials in multimodal imaging. Advantages and limitations of radioactive nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications are discussed. Finally, a future perspective of possible radioactive nanomaterial utilization is presented for improving diagnosis and patient management in a variety of diseases. PMID:27227167

  15. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Habib; Prasad, Rameshwar

    2009-01-01

    Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a “one-stop shop” and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed. PMID:20098557

  16. Hybrid songbirds employ intermediate routes in a migratory divide.

    PubMed

    Delmore, Kira E; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-10-01

    Migratory divides are contact zones between populations that use different routes to navigate around unsuitable areas on seasonal migration. Hybrids in divides have been predicted to employ intermediate and potentially inferior routes. We provide the first direct test of this hypothesis, using light-level geolocators to track birds breeding in a hybrid zone between Swainson's thrushes in western Canada. Compared to parental forms, hybrids exhibited increased variability in their migratory routes, with some using intermediate routes that crossed arid and mountainous regions, and some using the same routes as one parental group on fall migration and the other on spring migration. Hybrids also tended to use geographically intermediate wintering sites. Analysis of genetic variation across the hybrid zone suggests moderately strong selection against hybrids. These results indicate that seasonal migratory behaviour might be a source of selection against hybrids, supporting a possible role for migration in speciation. PMID:25040456

  17. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  18. Mariner 9 navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  19. Cassini tour navigation strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Duane; Alwar, Vijay; Bordi, John; Goodson, Troy; Hahn, Yungsun; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jones, Jeremy; Owen, William; Pojman, Joan; Roundhill, Ian; Santos, Shawna; Strange, Nathan; Wagner, Sean; Wong, Mau

    2003-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 as a joint NASA/ESA mission to explore Saturn. After a 7 year cruise the spacecraft will enter orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004 for a 4 year investigation of the Saturnian system. The Cassini Navigation Team is responsible for designing the reference trajectory and conducting operations to realize this design. This paper describes the strategy for achieving project requirements, the characteristics of the Cassini navigation challenge, and the underlying assumptions.

  20. The Role of Angularity in Route Choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Alasdair

    The paths of 2425 individual motorcycle trips made in London were analyzed in order to uncover the route choice decisions made by drivers. The paths were derived from global positioning system (GPS) data collected by a courier company for each of their drivers, using algorithms developed for the purpose of this paper. Motorcycle couriers were chosen due to the fact that they both know streets very well and that they do not rely on the GPS to guide their navigation. Each trace was mapped to the underlying road network, and two competing hypotheses for route choice decisions were compared: (a) that riders attempt to minimize the Manhattan distance between locations and (b) that they attempt to minimize the angular distance. In each case, the distance actually traveled was compared to the minimum possible either block or angular distance through the road network. It is usually believed that drivers who know streets well will navigate trips that reduce Manhattan distance; however, here it is shown that angularity appears to play an important role in route choice. 63% of trips made took the minimum possible angular distance between origin and destination, while 51% of trips followed the minimum possible block distance. This implies that impact of turns on cognitive distance plays an important role in decision making, even when a driver has good knowledge of the spatial network.

  1. Wikipedia Entries as a Source of CAR Navigation Landmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binski, N.; Zhang, L.; Dalyot, S.

    2016-06-01

    Car navigation system devices provide today with an easy and simple solution to the basic concept of reaching a destination. Although these systems usually achieve this goal, they still deliver a limited and poor sequence of instructions that do not consider the human nature of using landmarks during wayfinding. This research paper addresses the concept of enriching navigation route instructions by adding supplementary route information in the form of landmarks. We aim at using a contributed source of landmarks information, which is easy to access, available, show high update rate, and have a large scale of information. For this, Wikipedia was chosen, since it represents the world's largest free encyclopaedia that includes information about many spatial entities. A survey and classification of available landmarks is implemented, coupled with ranking algorithms based on the entries' categories and attributes. These are aimed at retrieving the most relevant landmark information required that are valuable for the enrichment of a specific navigation route. The paper will present this methodology, together with examples and results, showing the feasibility of using this concept and its potential of enriching navigation processes.

  2. Crew performance and communication: Performing a terrain navigation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol; Delzell, Susanne

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the map and route cues pilots use while navigating under controlled, but realistic, nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight conditions. US Army helicopter flight crews were presented a map and route overlay and asked to perform normal mission planning. They then viewed a video-recording of the out-the-window scene during low-level flights, without the route overlay, and were asked periodically to locate their current position on the map. The pilots and navigators were asked to communicate normally during the planning and flight phases. During each flight the navigator's response time, accuracy, and subjective workload were assessed. Post-flight NASA-TLX workload ratings were collected. No main effect of map orientation (north-up vs. track-up) was found for errors or response times on any of the tasks evaluated. Navigators in the north-up group rated their workload lower than those in the track-up group.

  3. The Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness (T-NASA) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Low-Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) subelement is to improve the efficiency of airport surface operations for commercial aircraft operating in weather conditions to Category IIIB while maintaining a high degree of safety. Currently, surface operations are one of the least technologically sophisticated components of the air transport system, being conducted in the 1990's with the same basic technology as in the 1930's. Pilots are given little or no explicit information about their current position, and routing information is limited to ATC communications and airport charts. In TAP/LVLASO, advanced technologies such as satellite navigation systems, digital data communications, advanced information presentation technology, and ground surveillance systems will be integrated into flight deck displays to enable expeditious and safe traffic movement on the airport surface. The cockpit display suite is called the T-NASA (Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness) System. This system has three integrated components: 1) Moving Map track-up airport surface display with own-ship, traffic and graphical route guidance 2) Scene-Linked Symbology - route/taxi information virtually projected via a Head-up Display (HUD) onto the forward scene; and, 3) 3-D Audio Ground Collision Avoidance and Navigation system - spatially-localized auditory traffic and navigation alerts. In the current paper, the design philosophy of the T-NASA system will be presented, and the T-NASA system display components described.

  4. 77 FR 23114 - Modification, Revocation and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Windsor Locks Area; CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ...) routes in the vicinity of Windsor Locks, CT (77 FR 20528). Subsequent to publication, an error was... on April 5, 2010 (77 FR 20528) (FR Doc. 2012-8183) for RNAV route T-300, is corrected under the... action corrects the longitude coordinate for one point in the description of area navigation (RNAV)...

  5. Assessment of Indoor Route-Finding Technology for People Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalia, Amy A.; Legge, Gordon E.; Roy, Rudrava; Ogale, Advait

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated navigation with route instructions generated by digital-map software and synthetic speech. The participants, either visually impaired or sighted wearing blindfolds, successfully located rooms in an unfamiliar building. Users with visual impairments demonstrated better route-finding performance when the technology provided…

  6. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  7. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  8. Route Recapitulation and Route Loyalty in Homing Pigeons: Pilotage From 25 km?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Dora; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim

    2006-01-01

    We utilised precision Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking to examine the homing paths of pigeons (Columba livia) released 20 times consecutively 25 km from the loft. By the end of the training phase, birds had developed highly stereotyped yet individually distinct routes home, with detailed recapitulation evident at each stage of the journey. Following training, birds also participated in a series of releases from novel sites at perpendicular distances of up to 3 km from their established routes. Results showed that subjects were attracted back to their established routes and recapitulated them from the point of contact. Naïve conspecifics (yoked controls) released from the same off-route sites confirmed that the experienced birds' route choices were not influenced by constraints exerted by terrain features, but that increased experience with the general area conferred a homing advantage in the form of more efficient flight tracks, even from these novel sites. Patterns in the paths taken by experienced birds to rejoin their established routes are discussed with reference to navigational mechanisms employed by homing pigeons in their familiar area.

  9. Place cells on a maze encode routes rather than destinations

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, Roddy M; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal place cells fire at different rates when a rodent runs through a given location on its way to different destinations. However, it is unclear whether such firing represents the animal’s intended destination or the execution of a specific trajectory. To distinguish between these possibilities, Lister Hooded rats (n = 8) were trained to navigate from a start box to three goal locations via four partially overlapping routes. Two of these led to the same goal location. Of the cells that fired on these two routes, 95.8% showed route-dependent firing (firing on only one route), whereas only two cells (4.2%) showed goal-dependent firing (firing similarly on both routes). In addition, route-dependent place cells over-represented the less discriminable routes, and place cells in general over-represented the start location. These results indicate that place cell firing on overlapping routes reflects the animal’s route, not its goals, and that this firing may aid spatial discrimination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15986.001 PMID:27282386

  10. Navigating between the Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleron, Julian F.; Ecke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Generations have been inspired by Edwin A. Abbott's profound tour of the dimensions in his novella "Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (1884). This well-known satire is the story of a flat land inhabited by geometric shapes trying to navigate the subtleties of their geometric, social, and political positions. In this article, the authors…

  11. Astronomy and Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenta, Fernando

    Different people, seafaring in different parts of the world, used strategies well adapted to their environment with the purpose of safely reaching their destination. Astronomical elements, present in their navigation "toolkit" for orientation, calendar purposes, and time reckoning, contributed to their conceptualization of space and time and were eventually integrated in their ritual, social organization, and social power structure.

  12. Learning for autonomous navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

  13. Navigation for everyday life

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, D.D.; Hammond, K.J.; Swain, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Past work in navigation has worked toward the goal of producing an accurate map of the environment. While no one can deny the usefulness of such a map, the ideal of producing a complete map becomes unrealistic when an agent is faced with performing real tasks. And yet an agent accomplishing recurring tasks should navigate more efficiently as time goes by. We present a system which integrates navigation, planning, and vision. In this view, navigation supports the needs of a larger system as opposed to being a task in its own right. Whereas previous approaches assume an unknown and unstructured environment, we assume a structured environment whose organization is known, but whose specifics are unknown. The system is endowed with a wide range of visual capabilities as well as search plans for informed exploration of a simulated store constructed from real visual data. We demonstrate the agent finding items while mapping the world. In repeatedly retrieving items, the agent`s performance improves as the learned map becomes more useful.

  14. Multi-modal cockpit interface for improved airport surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J. (Inventor); Bailey, Randall E. (Inventor); Prinzel, III, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Kramer, Lynda J. (Inventor); Williams, Steven P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for multi-modal cockpit interface during surface operation of an aircraft comprises a head tracking device, a processing element, and a full-color head worn display. The processing element is configured to receive head position information from the head tracking device, to receive current location information of the aircraft, and to render a virtual airport scene corresponding to the head position information and the current aircraft location. The full-color head worn display is configured to receive the virtual airport scene from the processing element and to display the virtual airport scene. The current location information may be received from one of a global positioning system or an inertial navigation system.

  15. Image-guided surgery using multimodality strategy and molecular probes.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lei; Jiang, Hubei

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal of cancer surgery is to maximize the excision of tumorous tissue with minimal damage to the collateral normal tissues, reduce the postoperative recurrence, and improve the survival rate of patients. In order to locate tumor lesions, highlight tumor margins, visualize residual disease in the surgical wound, and map potential lymph node metastasis, various imaging techniques and molecular probes have been investigated to assist surgeons to perform more complete tumor resection. Combining imaging techniques with molecular probes is particularly promising as a new approach for image-guided surgery. Considering inherent limitations of different imaging techniques and insufficient sensitivity of nonspecific molecular probes, image-guided surgery with multimodality strategy and specific molecular probes appears to be an optimal choice. In this article, we briefly describe typical imaging techniques and molecular probes followed by a focused review on the current progress of multimodal image-guided surgery with specific molecular navigation. We also discuss optimal strategy that covers all stages of image-guided surgery including preoperative scanning of tumors, intraoperative inspection of surgical bed and postoperative care of patients. PMID:26053199

  16. Route Generation for a Synthetic Character (BOT) Using a Partial or Incomplete Knowledge Route Generation Algorithm in UT2004 Virtual Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanold, Gregg T.; Hanold, David T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new Route Generation Algorithm that accurately and realistically represents human route planning and navigation for Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT). The accuracy of this algorithm in representing human behavior is measured using the Unreal Tournament(Trademark) 2004 (UT2004) Game Engine to provide the simulation environment in which the differences between the routes taken by the human player and those of a Synthetic Agent (BOT) executing the A-star algorithm and the new Route Generation Algorithm can be compared. The new Route Generation Algorithm computes the BOT route based on partial or incomplete knowledge received from the UT2004 game engine during game play. To allow BOT navigation to occur continuously throughout the game play with incomplete knowledge of the terrain, a spatial network model of the UT2004 MOUT terrain is captured and stored in an Oracle 11 9 Spatial Data Object (SOO). The SOO allows a partial data query to be executed to generate continuous route updates based on the terrain knowledge, and stored dynamic BOT, Player and environmental parameters returned by the query. The partial data query permits the dynamic adjustment of the planned routes by the Route Generation Algorithm based on the current state of the environment during a simulation. The dynamic nature of this algorithm more accurately allows the BOT to mimic the routes taken by the human executing under the same conditions thereby improving the realism of the BOT in a MOUT simulation environment.

  17. An edge-detection approach to investigating pigeon navigation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kam-Keung; Roberts, Stephen; Biro, Dora; Freeman, Robin; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim

    2006-03-01

    This study brings together work in pattern recognition and animal behaviour. By applying algorithms in pattern recognition, we examined how visual landscape information influences pigeons' homing behaviour. We used an automated procedure (Canny edge detector) to extract edges from an aerial image of the experimental terrain. Analysis of pigeons' homing routes recorded using global positioning system (GPS) trackers showed that the chosen homing paths, as well as changes in the birds' navigational states, tended to coincide with these edges. This study demonstrates that some edge-containing land features attract homing pigeons and trigger changes in their navigational states. PMID:16129453

  18. ROUTE-SPECIFIC DOSIMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capacity to perform route-to-route extrapolation of toxicity data is becoming increasingly crucial to the Agency, with a number of strategies suggested and demonstrated. One strategy involves using a combination of existing data and modeling approaches. This strategy propos...

  19. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 2: Baseline system navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Rains, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies related to the baseline navigation system for the orbiter are presented. The baseline navigation system studies include a covariance analysis of the Inertial Measurement Unit calibration and alignment procedures, postflight IMU error recovery for the approach and landing phases, on-orbit calibration of IMU instrument biases, and a covariance analysis of entry and prelaunch navigation system performance.

  20. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  1. Toward perception-based navigation using EgoSphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiko; Peters, R. Alan; Wilkes, Don M.; Koku, Ahmet B.; Sekman, Ali

    2002-02-01

    A method for perception-based egocentric navigation of mobile robots is described. Each robot has a local short-term memory structure called the Sensory EgoSphere (SES), which is indexed by azimuth, elevation, and time. Directional sensory processing modules write information on the SES at the location corresponding to the source direction. Each robot has a partial map of its operational area that it has received a priori. The map is populated with landmarks and is not necessarily metrically accurate. Each robot is given a goal location and a route plan. The route plan is a set of via-points that are not used directly. Instead, a robot uses each point to construct a Landmark EgoSphere (LES) a circular projection of the landmarks from the map onto an EgoSphere centered at the via-point. Under normal circumstances, the LES will be mostly unaffected by slight variations in the via-point location. Thus, the route plan is transformed into a set of via-regions each described by an LES. A robot navigates by comparing the next LES in its route plan to the current contents of its SES. It heads toward the indicated landmarks until its SES matches the LES sufficiently to indicate that the robot is near the suggested via-point. The proposed method is particularly useful for enabling the exchange of robust route informa-tion between robots under low data rate communications constraints. An example of such an exchange is given.

  2. The BEST IDEA: Multimodal Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Stephen; Smith, Robert L.

    The BEST IDEA or Multimodal Career Education Model has been proposed as a viable approach for integrating personal and environmental variables in career development programs. An extension of Lazarus' Multimodal Behavior Therapy, the model contains eight factors that make up the acronym: behavior, emotion, self-talk, thought, interpersonal…

  3. A Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Multimodal Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration. PMID:25147850

  4. Radiolabeled Nanoparticles for Multimodality Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Zhao, Jinhua; Conti, Peter S.; Chen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Each imaging modality has its own unique strengths. Multimodality imaging, taking advantages of strengths from two or more imaging modalities, can provide overall structural, functional, and molecular information, offering the prospect of improved diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring abilities. The devices of molecular imaging with multimodality and multifunction are of great value for cancer diagnosis and treatment, and greatly accelerate the development of radionuclide-based multimodal molecular imaging. Radiolabeled nanoparticles bearing intrinsic properties have gained great interest in multimodality tumor imaging over the past decade. Significant breakthrough has been made toward the development of various radiolabeled nanoparticles, which can be used as novel cancer diagnostic tools in multimodality imaging systems. It is expected that quantitative multimodality imaging with multifunctional radiolabeled nanoparticles will afford accurate and precise assessment of biological signatures in cancer in a real-time manner and thus, pave the path towards personalized cancer medicine. This review addresses advantages and challenges in developing multimodality imaging probes by using different types of nanoparticles, and summarizes the recent advances in the applications of radiolabeled nanoparticles for multimodal imaging of tumor. The key issues involved in the translation of radiolabeled nanoparticles to the clinic are also discussed. PMID:24505237

  5. Evaluating Multimodal Literacies in Student Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Byrne, Barbara; Murrell, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    This research presents ways in which high school students used the multimodal and interactive affordances of blogs to create, organize, communicate and participate on an educational blog. Their actions demonstrated how plural modes of literacy are infiltrating digital environments and reshaping literacy and learning. Multimodal blogging practices…

  6. Multimodality, Literacy and Texts: Developing a Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This article argues for the development of a framework through which to describe children's multimodal texts. Such a shared discourse should be capable of including different modes and media and the ways in which children integrate and combine them for their own meaning-making purposes. It should also acknowledge that multimodal texts are not…

  7. A cuckoo search algorithm for multimodal optimization.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Reyna-Orta, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration. PMID:25147850

  8. Filter. Remix. Make.: Cultivating Adaptability through Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusenberry, Lisa; Hutter, Liz; Robinson, Joy

    2015-01-01

    This article establishes traits of adaptable communicators in the 21st century, explains why adaptability should be a goal of technical communication educators, and shows how multimodal pedagogy supports adaptability. Three examples of scalable, multimodal assignments (infographics, research interviews, and software demonstrations) that evidence…

  9. An advanced media interface for control of modern transport aircraft navigational systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. R.; Parrish, R. V.; Person, L. H., Jr.; Old, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of digital avionics, the workload of the pilot in a moderen transport aircraft is increasing significantly. This situation makes it necessary to reduce pilot workload with the aid of new advanced technologies. As part of an effort to improve information management systems, NASA has, therefore, studied an advanced concept for managing the navigational tasks of a modern transport aircraft. This concept is mainly concerned with the simplification of the pilot interface. The advanced navigational system provides a simple method for a pilot to enter new waypoints to change his flight plan because of heavy traffic, adverse weather conditions, or other reasons. The navigational system was implemented and evaluated in a flight simulator representative of a modern transport aircraft. Attention is given to the simulator, flight simulation, multimode devices, and the navigational system.

  10. Drusen Characterization with Multimodal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Spaide, Richard F.; Curcio, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multimodal imaging findings and histological demonstration of soft drusen, cuticular drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits provided information used to develop a model explaining their imaging characteristics. Purpose To characterize the known appearance of cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits (reticular pseudodrusen), and soft drusen as revealed by multimodal fundus imaging; to create an explanatory model that accounts for these observations. Methods Reported color, fluorescein angiographic, autofluorescence, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of patients with cuticular drusen, soft drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits were reviewed, as were actual images from affected eyes. Representative histological sections were examined. The geometry, location, and imaging characteristics of these lesions were evaluated. A hypothesis based on the Beer-Lambert Law of light absorption was generated to fit these observations. Results Cuticular drusen appear as numerous uniform round yellow-white punctate accumulations under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Soft drusen are larger yellow-white dome-shaped mounds of deposit under the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits are polymorphous light-grey interconnected accumulations above the RPE. Based on the model, both cuticular and soft drusen appear yellow due to the removal of shorter wavelength light by a double pass through the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits, which are located on the RPE, are not subjected to short wavelength attenuation and therefore are more prominent when viewed with blue light. The location and morphology of extracellular material in relationship to the RPE, and associated changes to RPE morphology and pigmentation, appeared to be primary determinants of druse appearance in different imaging modalities. Conclusion Although cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits, and soft drusen are composed of common components, they are distinguishable

  11. Metawidgets in the multimodal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX ); Glinert, E.P.; Jorge, J.A.; Ormsby, G.R. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    We analyze two intertwined and fundamental issues concerning computer-to-human communication in the multimodal interfaces: the interplay between sound and graphics, and the role of object persistence. Our observations lead us to introduce metawidgets as abstract entities capable of manifesting themselves to users as image, as sound, or as various combinations and/or sequences of the two media. We show examples of metawidgets in action, and discuss mechanisms for choosing among alternative media for metawidget instantiation. Finally, we describe a couple of experimental microworlds we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Terrain-Adaptive Navigation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, Daniel M.; Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry H.; Helmick, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    A navigation system designed for a Mars rover has been designed to deal with rough terrain and/or potential slip when evaluating and executing paths. The system also can be used for any off-road, autonomous vehicles. The system enables vehicles to autonomously navigate different terrain challenges including dry river channel systems, putative shorelines, and gullies emanating from canyon walls. Several of the technologies within this innovation increase the navigation system s capabilities compared to earlier rover navigation algorithms.

  13. Ecological validity of virtual environments to assess human navigation ability

    PubMed Central

    van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Faber, Annemarie M. E.; Venselaar, Matthijs; van Kreveld, Marc J.; Löffler, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Route memory is frequently assessed in virtual environments. These environments can be presented in a fully controlled manner and are easy to use. Yet they lack the physical involvement that participants have when navigating real environments. For some aspects of route memory this may result in reduced performance in virtual environments. We assessed route memory performance in four different environments: real, virtual, virtual with directional information (compass), and hybrid. In the hybrid environment, participants walked the route outside on an open field, while all route information (i.e., path, landmarks) was shown simultaneously on a handheld tablet computer. Results indicate that performance in the real life environment was better than in the virtual conditions for tasks relying on survey knowledge, like pointing to start and end point, and map drawing. Performance in the hybrid condition however, hardly differed from real life performance. Performance in the virtual environment did not benefit from directional information. Given these findings, the hybrid condition may offer the best of both worlds: the performance level is comparable to that of real life for route memory, yet it offers full control of visual input during route learning. PMID:26074831

  14. Lost in transportation: Information measures and cognitive limits in multilayer navigation.

    PubMed

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Porter, Mason A; Barthelemy, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Cities and their transportation systems become increasingly complex and multimodal as they grow, and it is natural to wonder whether it is possible to quantitatively characterize our difficulty navigating in them and whether such navigation exceeds our cognitive limits. A transition between different search strategies for navigating in metropolitan maps has been observed for large, complex metropolitan networks. This evidence suggests the existence of a limit associated with cognitive overload and caused by a large amount of information that needs to be processed. In this light, we analyzed the world's 15 largest metropolitan networks and estimated the information limit for determining a trip in a transportation system to be on the order of 8 bits. Similar to the "Dunbar number," which represents a limit to the size of an individual's friendship circle, our cognitive limit suggests that maps should not consist of more than 250 connection points to be easily readable. We also show that including connections with other transportation modes dramatically increases the information needed to navigate in multilayer transportation networks. In large cities such as New York, Paris, and Tokyo, more than 80% of the trips are above the 8-bit limit. Multimodal transportation systems in large cities have thus already exceeded human cognitive limits and, consequently, the traditional view of navigation in cities has to be revised substantially. PMID:26989769

  15. Lost in transportation: Information measures and cognitive limits in multilayer navigation

    PubMed Central

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Porter, Mason A.; Barthelemy, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Cities and their transportation systems become increasingly complex and multimodal as they grow, and it is natural to wonder whether it is possible to quantitatively characterize our difficulty navigating in them and whether such navigation exceeds our cognitive limits. A transition between different search strategies for navigating in metropolitan maps has been observed for large, complex metropolitan networks. This evidence suggests the existence of a limit associated with cognitive overload and caused by a large amount of information that needs to be processed. In this light, we analyzed the world’s 15 largest metropolitan networks and estimated the information limit for determining a trip in a transportation system to be on the order of 8 bits. Similar to the “Dunbar number,” which represents a limit to the size of an individual’s friendship circle, our cognitive limit suggests that maps should not consist of more than 250 connection points to be easily readable. We also show that including connections with other transportation modes dramatically increases the information needed to navigate in multilayer transportation networks. In large cities such as New York, Paris, and Tokyo, more than 80% of the trips are above the 8-bit limit. Multimodal transportation systems in large cities have thus already exceeded human cognitive limits and, consequently, the traditional view of navigation in cities has to be revised substantially. PMID:26989769

  16. Autonomous reconfigurable GPS/INS navigation and pointing system for rendezvous and docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upadhyay, Triveni M.

    1991-01-01

    The briefing describes work using the Global Positioning System to determine position of spacecraft and the development of computer tools to utilize these position determinations to enable autonomous rendezvous. Using GPS data in conjunction with Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) provides the capability for absolute spacecraft navigation, navigation of one spacecraft relative to another, and attitude determination. Some results presented are based on limited observations, though simulation results are documented. A GPS/INS navigation flight experiment could provide a platform for evaluating approaches for autonomous operation and reconfigurability of the navigation and attitude determination subsystem for future space vehicles. Current emphasis is on the development and demonstration of an Onboard Mission Manager (OMM) and a Multi-Mode Navigation Kalman filter. Sensor data will be handed over to the OMM, which will determine the appropriate response and generate commands for the Kalman filter to use to reconfigure itself. Global Positioning System measurements and INS data will be processed in the integrated navigation filter and used to compute errors in position, velocity, and attitude. Inertial Navigation Systems instrument errors (biases, scale factors, etc.) also can be estimated. The OMM then will use a knowledge base to determine appropriate system response. The GPS is good for missions that have attitude pointing accuracy requirements within the 100 to 200 arcsecond range.

  17. Terrain matching image pre-process and its format transform in autonomous underwater navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xuejun; Zhang, Feizhou; Yang, Dongkai; Yang, Bogang

    2007-06-01

    matching precision directly influences the final precision of integrated navigation system. Image matching assistant navigation is spatially matching and aiming at two underwater scenery images coming from two different sensors matriculating of the same scenery in order to confirm the relative displacement of the two images. In this way, we can obtain the vehicle's location in fiducial image known geographical relation, and the precise location information given from image matching location is transmitted to INS to eliminate its location error and greatly enhance the navigation precision of vehicle. Digital image data analysis and processing of image matching in underwater passive navigation is important. In regard to underwater geographic data analysis, we focus on the acquirement, disposal, analysis, expression and measurement of database information. These analysis items structure one of the important contents of underwater terrain matching and are propitious to know the seabed terrain configuration of navigation areas so that the best advantageous seabed terrain district and dependable navigation algorithm can be selected. In this way, we can improve the precision and reliability of terrain assistant navigation system. The pre-process and format transformation of digital image during underwater image matching are expatiated in this paper. The information of the terrain status in navigation areas need further study to provide the reliable data terrain characteristic and underwater overcast for navigation. Through realizing the choice of sea route, danger district prediction and navigating algorithm analysis, TAN can obtain more high location precision and probability, hence provide technological support for image matching of underwater passive navigation.

  18. Coastal Piloting & Charting: Navigation 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osinski, Alison

    This curriculum guide for a beginning course on marine navigation describes marine navigation (the art of and science of determining position of a ship and its movement from one position to another in order to keep track of where the ship is and where it is going) and defines dead reckoning, piloting, electronic navigation, and celestial…

  19. Multisensor robot navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persa, Stelian; Jonker, Pieter P.

    2002-02-01

    Almost all robot navigation systems work indoors. Outdoor robot navigation systems offer the potential for new application areas. The biggest single obstacle to building effective robot navigation systems is the lack of accurate wide-area sensors for trackers that report the locations and orientations of objects in an environment. Active (sensor-emitter) tracking technologies require powered-device installation, limiting their use to prepared areas that are relative free of natural or man-made interference sources. The hybrid tracker combines rate gyros and accelerometers with compass and tilt orientation sensor and DGPS system. Sensor distortions, delays and drift required compensation to achieve good results. The measurements from sensors are fused together to compensate for each other's limitations. Analysis and experimental results demonstrate the system effectiveness. The paper presents a field experiment for a low-cost strapdown-IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)/DGPS combination, with data processing for the determination of 2-D components of position (trajectory), velocity and heading. In the present approach we have neglected earth rotation and gravity variations, because of the poor gyroscope sensitivities of our low-cost ISA (Inertial Sensor Assembly) and because of the relatively small area of the trajectory. The scope of this experiment was to test the feasibility of an integrated DGPS/IMU system of this type and to develop a field evaluation procedure for such a combination.

  20. Navigation in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Erik; Hancock, Peter A.; Telke, Susan

    1996-06-01

    Virtual environments show great promise in the area of training. ALthough such synthetic environments project homeomorphic physical representations of real- world layouts, it is not known how individuals develop models to match such environments. To evaluate this process, the present experiment examined the accuracy of triadic representations of objects having learned them previously under different conditions. The layout consisted of four different colored spheres arranged on a flat plane. These objects could be viewed in either a free navigation virtual environment condition (NAV) or a single body position virtual environment condition. The first condition allowed active exploration of the environment while the latter condition allowed the participant only a passive opportunity to observe form a single viewpoint. These viewing conditions were a between-subject variable with ten participants randomly assigned to each condition. Performance was assessed by the response latency to judge the accuracy of a layout of three objects over different rotations. Results showed linear increases in response latency as the rotation angle increased from the initial perspective in SBP condition. The NAV condition did not show a similar effect of rotation angle. These results suggest that the spatial knowledge acquisition from virtual environments through navigation is similar to actual navigation.

  1. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  2. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  3. Multimodal signature modeling of humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathcart, J. Michael; Kocher, Brian; Prussing, Keith; Lane, Sarah; Thomas, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Georgia Tech been investigating method for the detection of covert personnel in traditionally difficult environments (e.g., urban, caves). This program focuses on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology and signatures with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables. Both aspects are needed to support the development of personnel detection and tracking algorithms. The difficult nature of these personnel-related problems dictates a multimodal sensing approach. Human signature data of sufficient and accurate quality and quantity do not exist, thus the development of an accurate signature model for a human is needed. This model should also simulate various human activities to allow motion-based observables to be exploited. This paper will describe a multimodal signature modeling approach that incorporates human physiological aspects, thermoregulation, and dynamics into the signature calculation. This approach permits both passive and active signatures to be modeled. The focus of the current effort involved the computation of signatures in urban environments. This paper will discuss the development of a human motion model for use in simulating both electro-optical signatures and radar-based signatures. Video sequences of humans in a simulated urban environment will also be presented; results using these sequences for personnel tracking will be presented.

  4. An indoor navigation system to support the visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Riehle, T H; Lichter, P; Giudice, N A

    2008-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. A small portable personal navigation device that provides current position, useful contextual wayfinding information about the indoor environment and directions to a destination would greatly improve access and independence for people with low vision. This paper describes the construction of such a device which utilizes a commercial Ultra-Wideband (UWB) asset tracking system to support real-time location and navigation information. Human trials were conducted to assess the efficacy of the system by comparing target-finding performance between blindfolded subjects using the navigation system for real-time guidance, and blindfolded subjects who only received speech information about their local surrounds but no route guidance information (similar to that available from a long cane or guide dog). A normal vision control condition was also run. The time and distance traveled was measured in each trial and a point-back test was performed after goal completion to assess cognitive map development. Statistically significant differences were observed between the three conditions in time and distance traveled; with the navigation system and the visual condition yielding the best results, and the navigation system dramatically outperforming the non-guided condition. PMID:19163698

  5. Autonomous navigation - The ARMMS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, L. J.; Jones, J. B.; Mease, K. D.; Kwok, J. H.; Goltz, G. L.; Kechichian, J. A.

    1984-08-01

    A conceptual design is outlined for the navigation subsystem of the Autonomous Redundancy and Maintenance Management Subsystem (ARMMS). The principal function of this navigation subsystem is to maintain the spacecraft over a specified equatorial longitude to within + or - 3 deg. In addition, the navigation subsystem must detect and correct internal faults. It comprises elements for a navigation executive and for orbit determination, trajectory, maneuver planning, and maneuver command. Each of these elements is described. The navigation subsystem is to be used in the DSCS III spacecraft.

  6. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  7. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  8. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  9. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  10. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  11. Bus-based park-and-ride system: a stochastic model on multimodal network with congestion pricing schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Meng, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on modelling the network flow equilibrium problem on a multimodal transport network with bus-based park-and-ride (P&R) system and congestion pricing charges. The multimodal network has three travel modes: auto mode, transit mode and P&R mode. A continuously distributed value-of-time is assumed to convert toll charges and transit fares to time unit, and the users' route choice behaviour is assumed to follow the probit-based stochastic user equilibrium principle with elastic demand. These two assumptions have caused randomness to the users' generalised travel times on the multimodal network. A comprehensive network framework is first defined for the flow equilibrium problem with consideration of interactions between auto flows and transit (bus) flows. Then, a fixed-point model with unique solution is proposed for the equilibrium flows, which can be solved by a convergent cost averaging method. Finally, the proposed methodology is tested by a network example.

  12. Integrated navigation method based on inertial navigation system and Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Shi, Haitao; Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi

    2016-04-01

    An integrated navigation method based on the inertial navigational system (INS) and Lidar was proposed for land navigation. Compared with the traditional integrated navigational method and dead reckoning (DR) method, the influence of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) scale factor and misalignment was considered in the new method. First, the influence of the IMU scale factor and misalignment on navigation accuracy was analyzed. Based on the analysis, the integrated system error model of INS and Lidar was established, in which the IMU scale factor and misalignment error states were included. Then the observability of IMU error states was analyzed. According to the results of the observability analysis, the integrated system was optimized. Finally, numerical simulation and a vehicle test were carried out to validate the availability and utility of the proposed INS/Lidar integrated navigational method. Compared with the test result of a traditional integrated navigation method and DR method, the proposed integrated navigational method could result in a higher navigation precision. Consequently, the IMU scale factor and misalignment error were effectively compensated by the proposed method and the new integrated navigational method is valid.

  13. Prospective representation of navigational goals in the human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Brown, Thackery I; Carr, Valerie A; LaRocque, Karen F; Favila, Serra E; Gordon, Alan M; Bowles, Ben; Bailenson, Jeremy N; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-06-10

    Mental representation of the future is a fundamental component of goal-directed behavior. Computational and animal models highlight prospective spatial coding in the hippocampus, mediated by interactions with the prefrontal cortex, as a putative mechanism for simulating future events. Using whole-brain high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging and multi-voxel pattern classification, we tested whether the human hippocampus and interrelated cortical structures support prospective representation of navigational goals. Results demonstrated that hippocampal activity patterns code for future goals to which participants subsequently navigate, as well as for intervening locations along the route, consistent with trajectory-specific simulation. The strength of hippocampal goal representations covaried with goal-related coding in the prefrontal, medial temporal, and medial parietal cortex. Collectively, these data indicate that a hippocampal-cortical network supports prospective simulation of navigational events during goal-directed planning. PMID:27284194

  14. An Indoor Navigation System for the Visually Impaired

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Luis A.; Vasquez, Francisco; Ochoa, Sergio F.

    2012-01-01

    Navigation in indoor environments is highly challenging for the severely visually impaired, particularly in spaces visited for the first time. Several solutions have been proposed to deal with this challenge. Although some of them have shown to be useful in real scenarios, they involve an important deployment effort or use artifacts that are not natural for blind users. This paper presents an indoor navigation system that was designed taking into consideration usability as the quality requirement to be maximized. This solution enables one to identify the position of a person and calculates the velocity and direction of his movements. Using this information, the system determines the user's trajectory, locates possible obstacles in that route, and offers navigation information to the user. The solution has been evaluated using two experimental scenarios. Although the results are still not enough to provide strong conclusions, they indicate that the system is suitable to guide visually impaired people through an unknown built environment. PMID:22969398

  15. An indoor navigation system for the visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Luis A; Vasquez, Francisco; Ochoa, Sergio F

    2012-01-01

    Navigation in indoor environments is highly challenging for the severely visually impaired, particularly in spaces visited for the first time. Several solutions have been proposed to deal with this challenge. Although some of them have shown to be useful in real scenarios, they involve an important deployment effort or use artifacts that are not natural for blind users. This paper presents an indoor navigation system that was designed taking into consideration usability as the quality requirement to be maximized. This solution enables one to identify the position of a person and calculates the velocity and direction of his movements. Using this information, the system determines the user's trajectory, locates possible obstacles in that route, and offers navigation information to the user. The solution has been evaluated using two experimental scenarios. Although the results are still not enough to provide strong conclusions, they indicate that the system is suitable to guide visually impaired people through an unknown built environment. PMID:22969398

  16. Geofencing-Based Localization for 3d Data Acquisition Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, M.; Kamio, T.; Yasojima, H.; Kobayashi, T.

    2016-06-01

    Users require navigation for many location-based applications using moving sensors, such as autonomous robot control, mapping route navigation and mobile infrastructure inspection. In indoor environments, indoor positioning systems using GNSSs can provide seamless indoor-outdoor positioning and navigation services. However, instabilities in sensor position data acquisition remain, because the indoor environment is more complex than the outdoor environment. On the other hand, simultaneous localization and mapping processing is better than indoor positioning for measurement accuracy and sensor cost. However, it is not easy to estimate position data from a single viewpoint directly. Based on these technical issues, we focus on geofencing techniques to improve position data acquisition. In this research, we propose a methodology to estimate more stable position or location data using unstable position data based on geofencing in indoor environments. We verify our methodology through experiments in indoor environments.

  17. Measuring Bragg gratings in multimode optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Markus J; Müller, Mathias S

    2015-03-23

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) in multimode optical fibers provide a means for cost-effictive devices resulting in simplified and robust optic sensor systems. Parasitic mode effects in optical components of the entire measurement system strongly influence the measured multi-resonance reflection spectrum. Using a mode transfer matrix formalism we can describe these complex mode coupling effects in multimode optical systems in more detail. We demonstrate the accordance of the theory by two experiments. With this formalism it is possible to understand and optimize mode effects in multimode fiber optic systems. PMID:25837146

  18. Intrinsic entanglement degradation by multimode detection

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J.P.

    2004-08-01

    Relations between photon scattering, entanglement, and multimode detection are investigated. We first establish a general framework in which one- and two-photon elastic scattering processes can be discussed; then, we focus on the study of the intrinsic entanglement degradation caused by a multimode detection. We show that any multimode scattered state cannot maximally violate the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality because of the momentum spread. The results presented here have general validity and can be applied to both deterministic and random scattering processes.

  19. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

  20. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

  1. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

  2. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

  3. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

  4. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

  5. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

  6. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

  7. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

  8. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

  9. Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1985-09-20

    This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

  10. Fundamentals of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, A. H.

    The basic operating principles and capabilities of conventional and satellite-based navigation systems for air, sea, and land vehicles are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams. Consideration is given to autonomous onboard systems; systems based on visible or radio beacons; the Transit, Cicada, Navstar-GPS, and Glonass satellite systems; the physical laws and parameters of satellite motion; the definition of time in satellite systems; and the content of the demodulated GPS data signal. The GPS and Glonass data format frames are presented graphically, and tables listing the GPS and Glonass satellites, their technical characteristics, and the (past or scheduled) launch dates are provided.

  11. "Improved Geometric Network Model" (IGNM): a novel approach for deriving Connectivity Graphs for Indoor Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortari, F.; Zlatanova, S.; Liu, L.; Clementini, E.

    2014-04-01

    Over the past few years Personal Navigation Systems have become an established tool for route planning, but they are mainly designed for outdoor environments. Indoor navigation is still a challenging research area for several reasons: positioning is not very accurate, users can freely move between the interior boundaries of buildings, path network construction process may not be easy and straightforward due to complexity of indoor space configurations. Therefore the creation of a good network is essential for deriving overall connectivity of a building and for representing position of objects within the environment. This paper reviews current approaches to automatic derivation of route graphs for indoor navigation and discusses some of their limitations. Then, it introduces a novel algorithmic strategy for extracting a 3D connectivity graph for indoor navigation based on 2D floor plans.

  12. How do (some) people make a cognitive map? Routes, places, and working memory.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Steven M; Newcombe, Nora S

    2016-05-01

    Research on the existence of cognitive maps and on the cognitive processes that support effective navigation has often focused on functioning across individuals. However, there are pronounced individual differences in navigation proficiency, which need to be explained and which can illuminate our understanding of cognitive maps and effective navigation. Using a virtual environment involving 2 routes (Virtual Silcton, a desktop virtual environment; Weisberg, Schinazi, Newcombe, Shipley, & Epstein, 2014), we divided people into 3 groups based on their within-route and between-route pointing accuracy: integrators, non-integrators, and imprecise navigators. In Study 1, we found that imprecise navigators have lower spatial and verbal working memory, which may limit their ability to build accurate within-route representations. We also found that integrators maintain excellent memories of buildings as categorized by route membership, possibly supporting the idea of hierarchical representations of the environment. In Study 2, we assessed preferences regarding place and route learning using a virtual version of the rodent T-maze (Marchette, Bakker, & Shelton, 2011). Integrators found more goals overall, and although they did not have an overall preference for a place-based strategy, integrators who did choose a place-based strategy found more goals. The opposite was true for imprecise navigators. In Study 3, we added a monetary incentive for accuracy to evaluate whether increased motivation leads to fewer participants classified as imprecise, but found no significant change in the distribution of performance. These data have theoretical implications for the cognitive map hypothesis, and practical implications for improving navigational functioning. A one-size-fits-all approach may fit none. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595065

  13. Multimode waveguide based directional coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Rifat, Ahmmed A.; Sabouri, Aydin; Al-Qattan, Bader; Essa, Khamis; Butt, Haider

    2016-07-01

    The Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) based platform overcomes limitations of the previous copper and fiber based technologies. Due to its high index difference, SOI waveguide (WG) and directional couplers (DC) are widely used for high speed optical networks and hybrid Electro-Optical inter-connections; TE00-TE01, TE00-TE00 and TM00-TM00 SOI direction couplers are designed with symmetrical and asymmetrical configurations to couple with TE00, TE01 and TM00 in a multi-mode semi-triangular ring-resonator configuration which will be applicable for multi-analyte sensing. Couplers are designed with effective index method and their structural parameters are optimized with consideration to coupler length, wavelength and polarization dependence. Lastly, performance of the couplers are analyzed in terms of cross-talk, mode overlap factor, coupling length and coupling efficiency.

  14. Brain Multimodality Monitoring: Updated Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Roh, David; Park, Soojin

    2016-06-01

    The challenges posed by acute brain injury (ABI) involve the management of the initial insult in addition to downstream inflammation, edema, and ischemia that can result in secondary brain injury (SBI). SBI is often subclinical, but can be detected through physiologic changes. These changes serve as a surrogate for tissue injury/cell death and are captured by parameters measured by various monitors that measure intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2), cerebral metabolism, and electrocortical activity. In the ideal setting, multimodality monitoring (MMM) integrates these neurological monitoring parameters with traditional hemodynamic monitoring and the physical exam, presenting the information needed to clinicians who can intervene before irreversible damage occurs. There are now consensus guidelines on the utilization of MMM, and there continue to be new advances and questions regarding its use. In this review, we examine these recommendations, recent evidence for MMM, and future directions for MMM. PMID:27095434

  15. DBSAR's First Multimode Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Vega, Manuel; Buenfil, Manuel; Geist, Alessandro; Hilliard, Lawrence; Racette, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming SAR (DBSAR) is an airborne imaging radar system that combines phased array technology, reconfigurable on-board processing and waveform generation, and advances in signal processing to enable techniques not possible with conventional SARs. The system exploits the versatility inherently in phased-array technology with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to implement multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar system. Operational modes include scatterometry over multiple antenna beams, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) over several antenna beams, or Altimetry. The radar was flight tested in October 2008 on board of the NASA P3 aircraft over the Delmarva Peninsula, MD. The results from the DBSAR system performance is presented.

  16. [Multimodal pain therapy. Current situation].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, U; Sabatowski, R; Azad, S C

    2015-10-01

    A multidisciplinary approach for the management of patients with chronic pain is now well-established in many countries, especially in situations involving a complex disease process in the sense of a biopsychosocial model. Both the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary pain treatment programs and their superiority compared to unimodal therapy has been documented in a number of studies, reviews and meta-analyses, in particular for patients suffering from chronic low back pain. Nevertheless, there are still major shortcomings concerning the definition of multimodal and multidisciplinary treatment and the quality of structures and processes, compared for example to the standards defined by the German Pain Society (Deutsche Schmerzgesellschaft). Furthermore, there is still no consensus on specific therapeutic approaches, the differentiation between responders and non-responders as well as on the tools required for measurement. All these questions will have to be answered by concerted efforts in a multicenter setting. PMID:26271912

  17. Brain Multimodality Monitoring: Updated Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Roh, David

    2016-01-01

    The challenges posed by acute brain injury (ABI) involve the management of the initial insult in addition to downstream inflammation, edema, and ischemia that can result in secondary brain injury (SBI). SBI is often subclinical, but can be detected through physiologic changes. These changes serve as a surrogate for tissue injury/cell death and are captured by parameters measured by various monitors that measure intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2), cerebral metabolism, and electrocortical activity. In the ideal setting, multimodality monitoring (MMM) integrates these neurological monitoring parameters with traditional hemodynamic monitoring and the physical exam, presenting the information needed to clinicians who can intervene before irreversible damage occurs. There are now consensus guidelines on the utilization of MMM, and there continue to be new advances and questions regarding its use. In this review, we examine these recommendations, recent evidence for MMM, and future directions for MMM. PMID:27095434

  18. Minibodies and Multimodal Chromatography Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chia-Wei; Lepin, Eric J.; Wu, Anna M.; Sherman, Mark A.; Raubitschek, Andrew A.; Yazaki, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes early phase purification process development for a recombinant anticancer minibody produced in mammalian cell culture. The minibody did not bind to protein A. Cation-exchange, anion-exchange, hydrophobic-interaction, and hydroxyapatite (eluted by phosphate gradient) chromatographic methods were scouted, but the minibody coeluted with BSA to a substantial degree on each. Hydroxyapatite eluted with a sodium chloride gradient separated BSA and also removed a dimeric contaminant, but BSA consumed so much binding capacity that this proved impractical as a capture tool. Capto MMC media proved capable of supporting adequate capture and significant dimer removal, although both loading and elution selectivity varied dramatically with the amount of supernatant applied to the column. An anion-exchange step was included to fortify overall virus and DNA removal. These results illustrate the value of multimodal chromatography methods when affinity chromatography methods are lacking and conventional alternatives prove inadequate. PMID:21984873

  19. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N

    1923-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

  20. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  1. Ionospheric modelling for navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon Angel, M. A.

    Signals transmitted to and from satellites for communication and navigation purposes must pass through the ionosphere Ionospheric irregularities most common at equatorial latitudes although they could occur anywhere can have a major impact on system performance and reliability and commercial navigation service satellite-based providers need to account for their effects For a GNSS single-frequency receiver the Slant Total Electron Content STEC must be known by the user through broadcast corrections In this context there are several sets of broadcast parameters that can be defined to take into account this ionospheric term The chosen model to generate the ionospheric correction coefficients for the present study is the NeQuick model although with a number of adaptations intended to improve effective ionospheric effect modelling performances The aim of this study is to describe a possible adaptation to the NeQuick model for real time purposes and suitable for single frequency users Therefore it will be necessary to determine the performance of this modified NeQuick model in correcting the ionospheric delay In order to generate the ionospheric corrections for single frequency receivers using the NeQuick model a certain approach should be followed to adapt the performance of NeQuick since this model was originally developed to provide TEC using averaged monthly information of the solar activity and not daily one Thus to use NeQuick for real time applications as an ionospheric broadcasted model such as Klobuchar solar daily information at the user point

  2. Amblypygids: Model Organisms for the Study of Arthropod Navigation Mechanisms in Complex Environments?

    PubMed Central

    Wiegmann, Daniel D.; Hebets, Eileen A.; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Graving, Jacob M.; Bingman, Verner P.

    2016-01-01

    Navigation is an ideal behavioral model for the study of sensory system integration and the neural substrates associated with complex behavior. For this broader purpose, however, it may be profitable to develop new model systems that are both tractable and sufficiently complex to ensure that information derived from a single sensory modality and path integration are inadequate to locate a goal. Here, we discuss some recent discoveries related to navigation by amblypygids, nocturnal arachnids that inhabit the tropics and sub-tropics. Nocturnal displacement experiments under the cover of a tropical rainforest reveal that these animals possess navigational abilities that are reminiscent, albeit on a smaller spatial scale, of true-navigating vertebrates. Specialized legs, called antenniform legs, which possess hundreds of olfactory and tactile sensory hairs, and vision appear to be involved. These animals also have enormous mushroom bodies, higher-order brain regions that, in insects, integrate contextual cues and may be involved in spatial memory. In amblypygids, the complexity of a nocturnal rainforest may impose navigational challenges that favor the integration of information derived from multimodal cues. Moreover, the movement of these animals is easily studied in the laboratory and putative neural integration sites of sensory information can be manipulated. Thus, amblypygids could serve as model organisms for the discovery of neural substrates associated with a unique and potentially sophisticated navigational capability. The diversity of habitats in which amblypygids are found also offers an opportunity for comparative studies of sensory integration and ecological selection pressures on navigation mechanisms. PMID:27014008

  3. Multimodal fiber source for nonlinear microscopy based on a dissipative soliton laser

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Erin S.; Wise, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in high energy femtosecond fiber lasers have enabled robust and lower-cost sources for multiphoton-fluorescence and harmonic-generation imaging. However, picosecond pulses are better suited for Raman scattering microscopy, so the ideal multimodal source for nonlinear microcopy needs to provide both durations. Here we present spectral compression of a high-power femtosecond fiber laser as a route to producing transform-limited picosecond pulses. These pulses pump a fiber optical parametric oscillator to yield a robust fiber source capable of providing the synchronized picosecond pulse trains needed for Raman scattering microscopy. Thus, this system can be used as a multimodal platform for nonlinear microscopy techniques. PMID:26417497

  4. Multimodal fiber source for nonlinear microscopy based on a dissipative soliton laser.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Erin S; Wise, Frank W

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments in high energy femtosecond fiber lasers have enabled robust and lower-cost sources for multiphoton-fluorescence and harmonic-generation imaging. However, picosecond pulses are better suited for Raman scattering microscopy, so the ideal multimodal source for nonlinear microcopy needs to provide both durations. Here we present spectral compression of a high-power femtosecond fiber laser as a route to producing transform-limited picosecond pulses. These pulses pump a fiber optical parametric oscillator to yield a robust fiber source capable of providing the synchronized picosecond pulse trains needed for Raman scattering microscopy. Thus, this system can be used as a multimodal platform for nonlinear microscopy techniques. PMID:26417497

  5. Integrating Local and Global Routing on Scale-Free Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Cun-Lai; Pei, Wen-Jiang

    Network navigation is one of the main problems in large communication networks. We propose a new routing strategy in which some smart nodes in networks deliver messages to next hops on the paths towards destinations according to Yan's algorithm while the other nodes just deliver messages randomly. We test our routing strategy in a large scale-free network. Simulations show that the average delivery time decreases with increase of number of smart nodes, while the maximal network capacity increases with number of smart nodes in the network. Moreover our strategy is much more efficient when employed with target selection than with random selection of the smart nodes.

  6. Insect-Inspired Navigation Algorithm for an Aerial Agent Using Satellite Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Gaffin, Douglas D.; Dewar, Alexander; Graham, Paul; Philippides, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Humans have long marveled at the ability of animals to navigate swiftly, accurately, and across long distances. Many mechanisms have been proposed for how animals acquire, store, and retrace learned routes, yet many of these hypotheses appear incongruent with behavioral observations and the animals’ neural constraints. The “Navigation by Scene Familiarity Hypothesis” proposed originally for insect navigation offers an elegantly simple solution for retracing previously experienced routes without the need for complex neural architectures and memory retrieval mechanisms. This hypothesis proposes that an animal can return to a target location by simply moving toward the most familiar scene at any given point. Proof of concept simulations have used computer-generated ant’s-eye views of the world, but here we test the ability of scene familiarity algorithms to navigate training routes across satellite images extracted from Google Maps. We find that Google satellite images are so rich in visual information that familiarity algorithms can be used to retrace even tortuous routes with low-resolution sensors. We discuss the implications of these findings not only for animal navigation but also for the potential development of visual augmentation systems and robot guidance algorithms. PMID:25874764

  7. Multi-Modal Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Caroline; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The article reports a multimodal treatment of nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior in a mildly mentally retarded woman. Behavioral treatment and removal of caffeine from the subject's diet eliminated both nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior. (Author/DB)

  8. A Multimodal Approach to Elimination of Stuttering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, David T.

    1980-01-01

    The case of a 15-year-old stutterer is presented to illustrate A. Lazarus's multimodal behavior therapy model, proposed to integrate various procedures. A combination of role playing, metronome use, biofeedback training, and assertion training was used. (CL)

  9. Space Shuttle Orbiter descent navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montez, M. N.; Madden, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    The entry operational sequence (OPS 3) begins approximately 2 hours prior to the deorbit maneuver and continues through atmospheric entry, terminal area energy management (TAEM), approach and landing, and rollout. During this flight phase, the navigation state vector is estimated by the Space Shuttle Orbiter onboard navigation system. This estimate is computed using a six-element sequential Kalman filter, which blends inertial measurement unit (IMU) delta-velocity data with external navaid data. The external navaids available to the filter are tactical air navigation (TACAN), barometric altimeter, and microwave scan beam landing system (MSBLS). Attention is given to the functional design of the Orbiter navigation system, the descent navigation sensors and measurement processing, predicted Kalman gains, correlation coefficients, and current flights navigation performance.

  10. Multimodal Interaction: Intuitive, Robust, and Preferred?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Anja B.; Wechsung, Ina; Hurtienne, Jörn

    We investigated if and under which conditions multimodal interfaces (touch, speech, motion control) fulfil the expectation of being superior to unimodal interfaces. The results show that the possibility of multimodal interaction with a handheld mobile device turned out to be more intuitive, more robust, and more preferred than the interaction with the individual modalities speech and motion control. However, it was not clearly superior to touch.

  11. Esthesioneuroblastoma: Multimodal management and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory neuroepithelium. ENB constitutes only 3% of all malignant intranasal neoplasm. Because of the rarity, the number of patients of ENB treated in individual departments is small. Most of these patients presents in locally advanced stages and require multimodality treatment in form of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multimodality approach with a risk-adapted strategy is required to achieve good control rates while minimizing treatment related toxicity. PMID:26380824

  12. Reliability of aircraft multimode optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohata, Jan; Písařík, Michael; Zvánovec, Stanislav; Peterka, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    Results from tests and analyses of multimode optical fibers for an avionic optical network under a variety of stress conditions are presented. Experiments revealed vibrational and temperature changes of distinct multimode fibers. Results lead to the discussion of influenced insertion losses and especially reduced bandwidth corresponding to modal distribution changes. It was determined that these crucial parameters could affect system reliability when an airplane network intersects thermal and vibrational variable environments.

  13. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  14. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  15. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  16. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  17. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  18. Dorsal striatal dopamine depletion impairs both allocentric and egocentric navigation in rats.

    PubMed

    Braun, Amanda A; Graham, Devon L; Schaefer, Tori L; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2012-05-01

    Successful navigation requires interactions among multiple but overlapping neural pathways mediating distinct capabilities, including egocentric (self-oriented, route-based) and allocentric (spatial, map-based) learning. Route-based navigation has been shown to be impaired following acute exposure to the dopaminergic (DA) drugs (+)-methamphetamine and (+)-amphetamine, but not the serotoninergic (5-HT) drugs (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or (±)-fenfluramine. The dopaminergic-rich neostriatum is involved in both allocentric and egocentric navigation. This experiment tested whether dorsal striatal DA loss using bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injections impaired one or both types of navigation. Two weeks following 6-OHDA injections, rats began testing in the Cincinnati water maze (CWM) followed by the Morris water maze (MWM) for route-based and spatial navigation, respectively. 6-OHDA treatment significantly increased latency and errors in the CWM and path length, latency, and cumulative distance in the MWM with no difference on cued MWM trials. Neostriatal DA levels were reduced by 80% at 2 and 7 weeks post-treatment. In addition, 6-OHDA increased DA turnover and decreased norepinephrine (NE) levels. 6-OHDA injections did not alter monoamine levels in the prefrontal cortex. The data support that neostriatal DA modulates both types of navigation. PMID:22465436

  19. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  20. Rapid prototype modeling in a multimodality world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidaut, Luc; Madewell, John; Yasko, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Introduction: Rapid prototype modeling (RPM) has been used in medicine principally for bones - that are easily extracted from CT data sets - for planning orthopaedic, plastic or maxillo-facial interventions, and/or for designing custom prostheses and implants. Based on newly available technology, highly valuable multimodality approaches can now be applied to RPM, particularly for complex musculo-skeletal (MSK) tumors where multimodality often transcends CT alone. Methods: CT data sets are acquired for primary evaluation of MSK tumors in parallel with other modalities (e.g., MR, PET, SPECT). In our approach, CT is first segmented to provide bony anatomy for RPM and all other data sets are then registered to the CT reference. Parametric information relevant to the tumor's characterization is then extracted from the multimodality space and merged with the CT anatomy to produce a hybrid RPM-ready model. This model - that also accommodates digital multimodality visualization - is then produced on the latest generation of 3D printers, which permits both shapes and colors. Results: Multimodality models of complex MSK tumors have been physically produced on modern RPM equipment. This new approach has been found to be a clear improvement over the previously disconnected physical RPM and digital multimodality visualization. Conclusions: New technical developments keep opening doors to sophisticated medical applications that can directly impact the quality of patient care. Although this early work still deals with bones as base models for RPM, its use to encompass soft tissues is already envisioned for future approaches.

  1. Navigating mazes in a virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browse, Roger A.; Skillicorn, David B.; Middleman, Darren

    2003-06-01

    In this research we are concerned with computer interfaces with which subjects navigate through maze simulations which are essentially buildings, with corridors and intersections, such as frequently encountered in computer games and simulations. We wish to determine if virtual reality interfaces introduce a performance enhancement that might be expected for display configurations which mimic natural perceptual experiences. We have experimented primarily with two display conditions for presentation of and navigation through the mazes. Subjects either view the maze on a desktop computer monitor, turning and moving within the maze with the mouse in a way that is similar to the configurations used in most first-person role playing computer games, or they viewed the maze from a standing position with a head-mounted display, being free to direct the view of the maze through body and head movements, and using the depression of a mouse button to effect movement in the direction that they were facing. Head-tracking was required for this latter condition. As expected there are striking individual differences in subjects" abilities to learn to traverse the mazes. Across a variety of maze configuration parameters which significantly do influence performance, the results indicate that the virtual reality enhancements have no effect subjects' ability to learn the mazes, either as route knowledge or as cognitive maps.

  2. Route based forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuurendonk, I. W.; Wokke, M. J. J.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface temperatures can differ several degrees on a very short distance due to local effects. In order to get more insight in the local temperature differences and to develop safer gritting routes, Meteogroup has developed a system for route based temperature forecasting. The standard version of the road model is addressed to forecast road surface temperature and condition for a specific location. This model consists of two parts. First a physical part, based on the energy balance equations. The second part of the model performs a statistical correction on the calculated physical road surface temperature. The road model is able to create a forecast for one specific location. From infrared measurements, we know that large local differences in road surface temperature exist on a route. Differences can be up to 5 degrees Celsius over a distance of several hundreds of meters. Based on those measurements, the idea came up to develop a system that forecasts road surface temperature and condition for an entire route: route based forecasting. The route is split up in sections with equal properties. For each section a temperature and condition will be calculated. The main factors that influence the road surface temperature are modelled in this forecasting system: •The local weather conditions: temperature, dew point temperature, wind, precipitation, weather type, cloudiness. •The sky view: A very sheltered place will receive less radiation during daytime and emit less radiation during nighttime. For a very open spot, the effects are reversed. •The solar view: A road section with trees on the southern side, will receive less solar radiation during daytime than a section with tress on the southern side. The route based forecast shows by means of a clear Google Maps presentation which sections will be slippery at what time of the coming night. The final goal of this type of forecast, is to make dynamical gritting possible: a variable salt amount and a different

  3. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 1: GPS aided navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matchett, G. A.; Vogel, M. A.; Macdonald, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical studies related to space shuttle navigation are presented. Studies related to the addition of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System user equipment to the shuttle avionics suite are presented. The GPS studies center about navigation accuracy covariance analyses for both developmental and operational phases of GPS, as well as for various orbiter mission phases.

  4. Comprehension of Navigation Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, Alice F.; Schneider, Vivian I.

    2002-01-01

    Subjects were shown navigation instructions varying in length directing them to move in a space represented by grids on a computer screen. They followed the instructions by clicking on the grids in the locations specified. Some subjects repeated back the instructions before following them, some did not, and others repeated back the instructions in reduced form, including only the critical words. The commands in each message were presented simultaneously for half of the subjects and sequentially for the others. For the longest messages, performance was better on the initial commands and worse on the final commands with simultaneous than with sequential presentation. Instruction repetition depressed performance, but reduced repetition removed this disadvantage. Effects of presentation format were attributed to visual scanning strategies. The advantage for reduced repetition was attributable either to enhanced visual scanning or to reduced output interference. A follow-up study with auditory presentation supported the visual scanning explanation.

  5. Automated satellite image navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Robert M.

    1992-12-01

    The automated satellite image navigation method (Auto-Avian) developed and tested by Spaulding (1990) at the Naval Postgraduate School is investigated. The Auto-Avian method replaced the manual procedure of selecting Ground Control Points (GCP's) with an autocorrelation process that utilizes the World Vector Shoreline (WVS) provided by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) as a string of GCP's to rectify satellite images. The automatic cross-correlation of binary reference (WVS) and search (image) windows eliminated the subjective error associated with the manual selection of GCP's and produced accuracies comparable to the manual method. The scope of Spaulding's (1990) research was expanded. The worldwide application of the Auto-Avian method was demonstrated in three world regions (eastern North Pacific Ocean, eastern North Atlantic Ocean, and Persian Gulf). Using five case studies, the performance of the Auto-Avian method on 'less than optimum' images (i.e., islands, coastlines affected by lateral distortion and/or cloud cover) was investigated.

  6. Comprehension of Navigation Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Vivian I.; Healy, Alice F.

    2000-01-01

    In an experiment simulating communication between air traffic controllers and pilots, subjects were given navigation instructions varying in length telling them to move in a space represented by grids on a computer screen. The subjects followed the instructions by clicking on the grids in the locations specified. Half of the subjects read the instructions, and half heard them. Half of the subjects in each modality condition repeated back the instructions before following them,and half did not. Performance was worse for the visual than for the auditory modality on the longer messages. Repetition of the instructions generally depressed performance, especially with the longer messages, which required more output than did the shorter messages, and especially with the visual modality, in which phonological recoding from the visual input to the spoken output was necessary. These results are explained in terms of the degrading effects of output interference on memory for instructions.

  7. Sensory bases of navigation.

    PubMed

    Gould, J L

    1998-10-01

    Navigating animals need to know both the bearing of their goal (the 'map' step), and how to determine that direction (the 'compass' step). Compasses are typically arranged in hierarchies, with magnetic backup as a last resort when celestial information is unavailable. Magnetic information is often essential to calibrating celestial cues, though, and repeated recalibration between celestial and magnetic compasses is important in many species. Most magnetic compasses are based on magnetite crystals, but others make use of induction or paramagnetic interactions between short-wavelength light and visual pigments. Though odors may be used in some cases, most if not all long-range maps probably depend on magnetite. Magnetitebased map senses are used to measure only latitude in some species, but provide the distance and direction of the goal in others. PMID:9778524

  8. Dynamic Transportation Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    Miniaturization of computing devices, and advances in wireless communication and sensor technology are some of the forces that are propagating computing from the stationary desktop to the mobile outdoors. Some important classes of new applications that will be enabled by this revolutionary development include intelligent traffic management, location-based services, tourist services, mobile electronic commerce, and digital battlefield. Some existing application classes that will benefit from the development include transportation and air traffic control, weather forecasting, emergency response, mobile resource management, and mobile workforce. Location management, i.e., the management of transient location information, is an enabling technology for all these applications. In this chapter, we present the applications of moving objects management and their functionalities, in particular, the application of dynamic traffic navigation, which is a challenge due to the highly variable traffic state and the requirement of fast, on-line computations.

  9. Stardust Navigation Covariance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Premkumar R.

    2000-01-01

    The Stardust spacecraft was launched on February 7, 1999 aboard a Boeing Delta-II rocket. Mission participants include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) and the University of Washington. The primary objective of the mission is to collect in-situ samples of the coma of comet Wild-2 and return those samples to the Earth for analysis. Mission design and operational navigation for Stardust is performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This paper will describe the extensive JPL effort in support of the Stardust pre-launch analysis of the orbit determination component of the mission covariance study. A description of the mission and it's trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the covariance procedure and models. Predicted accuracy's will be examined as they relate to navigation delivery requirements for specific critical events during the mission. Stardust was launched into a heliocentric trajectory in early 1999. It will perform an Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) on January 15, 2001 to acquire an orbit for the eventual rendezvous with comet Wild-2. The spacecraft will fly through the coma (atmosphere) on the dayside of Wild-2 on January 2, 2004. At that time samples will be obtained using an aerogel collector. After the comet encounter Stardust will return to Earth when the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) will separate and land at the Utah Test Site (UTTR) on January 15, 2006. The spacecraft will however be deflected off into a heliocentric orbit. The mission is divided into three phases for the covariance analysis. They are 1) Launch to EGA, 2) EGA to Wild-2 encounter and 3) Wild-2 encounter to Earth reentry. Orbit determination assumptions for each phase are provided. These include estimated and consider parameters and their associated a-priori uncertainties. Major perturbations to the trajectory include 19 deterministic and statistical maneuvers

  10. Magellan aerobrake navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giorgini, Jon; Wong, S. Kuen; You, Tung-Han; Chadbourne, Pam; Lim, Lily

    1995-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft has been aerobraked into a 197 x 541 km near-circular orbit around Venus from which it is conducting a high-resolution gravity mapping mission. This was the first interplanetary aerobrake maneuver and involved flying the spacecraft through the upper reaches of the Venusian atmosphere 730 times over a 70 day period. Round-trip light-time varied from 9.57 to 18.83 minutes during this period. Navigation for this dynamic phase of the Magellan mission was planned and executed in the face of budget-driven down-sizing with all spacecraft safe modes disabled and a flight-team one-third the size of comparable interplanetary missions. Successful execution of this manuever using spacecraft hardware not designed to operate in a planetary atmosphere, demonstrated a practical cost-saving technique for both large and small future interplanetary missions.

  11. Biomimetic MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futterknecht, Oliver; Macqueen, Mark O.; Karman, Salmah; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2013-05-01

    The focus of this study is biomimetic concept development for a MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection. The MEMS sensor array is inspired by abstractions of the respective biological functions: polarized skylight-based navigation sensors in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and the ability of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to detect water. The focus lies on how to navigate to and how to detect water sources in desert-like or remote areas. The goal is to develop a sensor that can provide both, navigation clues and help in detecting nearby water sources. We basically use the information provided by the natural polarization pattern produced by the sunbeams scattered within the atmosphere combined with the capability of the honeybee's compound eye to extrapolate the navigation information. The detection device uses light beam reactive MEMS, which are capable to detect the skylight polarization based on the Rayleigh sky model. For water detection we present various possible approaches to realize the sensor. In the first approach, polarization is used: moisture saturated areas near ground have a small but distinctively different effect on scattering and polarizing light than less moist ones. Modified skylight polarization sensors (Karman, Diah and Gebeshuber, 2012) are used to visualize this small change in scattering. The second approach is inspired by the ability of elephants to detect infrasound produced by underground water reservoirs, and shall be used to determine the location of underground rivers and visualize their exact routes.

  12. Literal grid map models for animal navigation: Assumptions and predictions.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rebecca M; Walker, Michael M; Postlethwaite, Claire M

    2016-09-01

    Many animals can navigate from unfamiliar locations to a familiar target location with no outward route information or direct sensory contact with the target or any familiar landmarks. Several models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, one possibility being a literal interpretation of a grid map. In this paper we systematically compare four such models, which we label: Correct Bicoordinate navigation, both Target and Release site based, Approximate Bicoordinate navigation, and Directional navigation. Predictions of spatial patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies depend on a combination of assumptions about the navigation mechanism and the geometry of the environmental coordinate fields used as model inputs. When coordinates axes are orthogonal at the target the predictions from the Correct Bicoordinate (Target based) model and Approximate Bicoordinate model are identical. However, if the coordinate axes are non-orthogonal different regional patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies can be expected from these two models. Field anomalies produce high magnitudes of orientation errors close to the target, while region-wide nonlinearity leads to orientation errors increasing with distance from the target. In general, initial orientation error patterns are more useful for distinguishing between different assumption combinations than efficiencies. We discuss how consideration of model predictions may be helpful in the design of experiments. PMID:27266672

  13. Civil air navigation using GNSS enhanced by wide area satellite based augmentation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautermann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Advancement in augmented satellite navigation enables a new class of instrument approach procedures for aircraft. These approaches are based on regional augmentation systems which broadcast corrections via a geostationary satellite. The enhanced GNSS navigation solution using the corrections from the satellite provides the necessary accuracy and integrity to perform approaches with vertical and lateral angular guidance to a given runway threshold. This enables cost effective and simple procedure generation with low descent minima even for small airports. Moreover, it supports high precision en-route navigation and future high precision flight guidance applications.

  14. Real-time artificial intelligence issues in the development of the adaptive tactical navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Peter E.; Glasson, Douglas P.; Pomarede, Jean-Michel L.; Acharya, Narayan A.

    1987-01-01

    Adaptive Tactical Navigation (ATN) is a laboratory prototype of a knowledge based system to provide navigation system management and decision aiding in the next generation of tactical aircraft. ATN's purpose is to manage a set of multimode navigation equipment, dynamically selecting the best equipment to use in accordance with mission goals and phase, threat environment, equipment malfunction status, and battle damage. ATN encompasses functions as diverse as sensor data interpretation, diagnosis, and planning. Real time issues that were identified in ATN and the approaches used to address them are addressed. Functional requirements and a global architecture for the ATN system are described. Decision making with time constraints are discussed. Two subproblems are identified; making decisions with incomplete information and with limited resources. Approaches used in ATN to address real time performance are described and simulation results are discussed.

  15. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  16. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  17. Robotic Mounted Detection System: robotics for route clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, John; Klager, Gene; McCoy, Edward; Fite, David; Frederick, Brian

    2010-04-01

    Robotic Mounted Detection System (RMDS) is a government program to enable robotic control of a Husky route clearance vehicle with a mine detection sensor payload. The goal is for the operator to control the Husky and mine detection sensor from another vehicle. This program will provide the user with standard tele-operation control of the vehicle as well as semi-autonomous modes including cruise control, precision waypoint navigation with operator error correction and a visual mode allowing the operator to enter waypoints in the current video feed. The use of autonomy will be tailored to give the operator maximum control of the robotic vehicle's path while minimizing the effort required to maintain the desired route. Autonomous alterations of the path would conflict with the goal of route clearance, so waypoint navigation will allow the operator to supply offsets to counteract location errors. While following a waypoint path, the Husky will be capable of controlling its speed to maintain an operator specified distance from the control vehicle. Obstacle avoidance will be limited to protecting the mine detection sensor, leaving any decision to leave the path up to the operator. Video will be the primary navigational sensor feed to the operator, who will use an augmented steering wheel controller and computer display to control the Husky. A LADAR system will be used to detect obstacles that could damage the mine sensor and to maintain the optimal sensor orientation while the vehicle is moving. Practical issues and lessons learned during integration will be presented.

  18. Air Navigation. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gromling, F. C.; Mackin, T. E.

    This book, which can be used only in the Air Force ROTC program, elucidates ideas about air navigation techniques. The book is divided into two main parts. The first part describes the earth's surface and different components of navigation. A chapter on charts provides ideas about different kinds of charts and a variety of symbols used in…

  19. Introductory Course on Satellite Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giger, Kaspar; Knogl, J. Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Satellite navigation is widely used for personal navigation and more and more in precise and safety-critical applications. Thus, the subject is suited for attracting the interest of young people in science and engineering. The practical applications allow catching the students' attention for the theoretical background. Educational material on the…

  20. A Navigation Compendium. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    This unit of instruction was prepared for use in navigation study at the Officer Candidate School, the various Naval ROTC Units, and within the fleet. It is considered a naval text. It covers a wide and expanding subject area with brevity. Basic and elementary navigational terms and instruments are presented and described. The use of charts and…

  1. The real-world navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balabanovic, Marko; Becker, Craig; Morse, Sarah K.; Nourbakhsh, Illah R.

    1994-01-01

    The success of every mobile robot application hinges on the ability to navigate robustly in the real world. The problem of robust navigation is separable from the challenges faced by any particular robot application. We offer the Real-World Navigator as a solution architecture that includes a path planner, a map-based localizer, and a motion control loop that combines reactive avoidance modules with deliberate goal-based motion. Our architecture achieves a high degree of reliability by maintaining and reasoning about an explicit description of positional uncertainty. We provide two implementations of real-world robot systems that incorporate the Real-World Navigator. The Vagabond Project culminated in a robot that successfully navigated a portion of the Stanford University campus. The Scimmer project developed successful entries for the AIAA 1993 Robotics Competition, placing first in one of the two contests entered.

  2. Sequential egocentric navigation and reliance on landmarks in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Hannah J; Farran, Emily K; Tolmie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Visuospatial difficulties in Williams syndrome (WS) are well documented. Recently, research has shown that spatial difficulties in WS extend to large-scale space, particularly in coding space using an allocentric frame of reference. Typically developing (TD) children and adults predominantly rely on the use of a sequential egocentric strategy to navigate a large-scale route (retracing a sequence of left-right body turns). The aim of this study was to examine whether individuals with WS are able to employ a sequential egocentric strategy to guide learning and the retracing of a route. Forty-eight TD children, aged 5, 7, and 9 years and 18 participants with WS were examined on their ability to learn and retrace routes in two (6-turn) virtual environment mazes (with and without landmarks). The ability to successfully retrace a route following the removal of landmarks (use of sequential egocentric coding) was also examined. Although in line with TD 5-year-olds when learning a route with landmarks, individuals with WS showed significantly greater detriment when these landmarks were removed, relative to all TD groups. Moreover, the WS group made significantly more errors than all TD groups when learning a route that never contained landmarks. On a perceptual view-matching task, results revealed a high level of performance across groups, indicative of an ability to use this visual information to potentially aid navigation. These findings suggest that individuals with WS rely on landmarks to a greater extent than TD children, both for learning a route and for retracing a recently learned route. TD children, but not individuals with WS, were able to fall back on the use of a sequential egocentric strategy to navigate when landmarks were not present. Only TD children therefore coded sequential route information simultaneously with landmark information. The results are discussed in relation to known atypical cortical development and perceptual-matching abilities in WS. PMID

  3. Multimodality Management of Trigeminal Schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Ajay; Barnett, Samuel; Anand, Vijay; Agazzi, Siviero

    2016-08-01

    Patients presenting with trigeminal schwannomas require multimodality management by a skull base surgical team that can offer expertise in both transcranial and transnasal approaches as well as radiosurgical and microsurgical strategies. Improvement in neurologic symptoms, preservation of cranial nerve function, and control of mass effect are the primary goals of management for trigeminal schwannomas. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice but may not be possible in all cases. Radiosurgery is an option as primary management for small- to moderate-sized tumors and can be used for postoperative residuals or recurrences. Planned surgical resection followed by SRS for residual tumor is an effective option for larger trigeminal schwannomas. The endoscopic resection is an excellent approach for patients with an extradural tumor or tumors isolated to the Meckel cave. A detailed analysis of a tumor and its surroundings based on high-quality imaging can help better estimate the expected outcome from each treatment. An expert skull base team should be able to provide precise counseling for each patient's situation for selecting the best option. PMID:27441164

  4. Multimodality Instrument for Tissue Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip is discussed. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network, program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration.

  5. Miniature multimode monolithic flextensional transducers.

    PubMed

    Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Uzgur, A Erman; Markley, Douglas C; Safari, Ahmad; Cochran, Joe K; Newnham, Robert E

    2007-10-01

    Traditional flextensional transducers classified in seven groups based on their designs have been used extensively in 1-100 kHz range for mine hunting, fish finding, oil explorations, and biomedical applications. In this study, a new family of small, low cost underwater, and biomedical transducers has been developed. After the fabrication of transducers, finite-elements analysis (FEA) was used extensively in order to optimize these miniature versions of high-power, low-frequency flextensional transducer designs to achieve broad bandwidth for both transmitting and receiving, engineered vibration modes, and optimized acoustic directivity patterns. Transducer topologies with various shapes, cross sections, and symmetries can be fabricated through high-volume, low-cost ceramic and metal extrusion processes. Miniaturized transducers posses resonance frequencies in the range of above 1 MHz to below 10 kHz. Symmetry and design of the transducer, polling patterns, driving and receiving electrode geometries, and driving conditions have a strong effect on the vibration modes, resonance frequencies, and radiation patterns. This paper is devoted to small, multimode flextensional transducers with active shells, which combine the advantages of small size and low-cost manufacturing with control of the shape of the acoustic radiation/receive pattern. The performance of the transducers is emphasized. PMID:18019236

  6. Multimodal imaging measures predict rearrest

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Vaughn R.; Claus, Eric D.; Aharoni, Eyal; Vincent, Gina M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    Rearrest has been predicted by hemodynamic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during error-processing (Aharoni et al., 2013). Here, we evaluate the predictive power after adding an additional imaging modality in a subsample of 45 incarcerated males from Aharoni et al. (2013). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and hemodynamic activity were collected during a Go/NoGo response inhibition task. Neural measures of error-processing were obtained from the ACC and two ERP components, the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and the error positivity (Pe). Measures from the Pe and ACC differentiated individuals who were and were not subsequently rearrested. Cox regression, logistic regression, and support vector machine (SVM) neuroprediction models were calculated. Each of these models proved successful in predicting rearrest and SVM provided the strongest results. Multimodal neuroprediction SVM models with out of sample cross-validating accurately predicted rearrest (83.33%). Offenders with increased Pe amplitude and decreased ACC activation, suggesting abnormal error-processing, were at greatest risk of rearrest. PMID:26283947

  7. Indoor 3D Route Modeling Based On Estate Spatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wen, Y.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.

    2014-04-01

    Indoor three-dimensional route model is essential for space intelligence navigation and emergency evacuation. This paper is motivated by the need of constructing indoor route model automatically and as far as possible. By comparing existing building data sources, this paper firstly explained the reason why the estate spatial management data is chosen as the data source. Then, an applicable method of construction three-dimensional route model in a building is introduced by establishing the mapping relationship between geographic entities and their topological expression. This data model is a weighted graph consist of "node" and "path" to express the spatial relationship and topological structure of a building components. The whole process of modelling internal space of a building is addressed by two key steps: (1) each single floor route model is constructed, including path extraction of corridor using Delaunay triangulation algorithm with constrained edge, fusion of room nodes into the path; (2) the single floor route model is connected with stairs and elevators and the multi-floor route model is eventually generated. In order to validate the method in this paper, a shopping mall called "Longjiang New City Plaza" in Nanjing is chosen as a case of study. And the whole building space is constructed according to the modelling method above. By integrating of existing path finding algorithm, the usability of this modelling method is verified, which shows the indoor three-dimensional route modelling method based on estate spatial data in this paper can support indoor route planning and evacuation route design very well.

  8. Recent Trends in the Arctic Navigable Ice Season and Links to Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslanik, J.; Drobot, S.

    2002-12-01

    One of the potential effects of Arctic climate warming is an increase in the navigable ice season, perhaps resulting in development of the Arctic as a major shipping route. The distance from western North American ports to Europe through the Northwest Passage (NWP) or the Northern Sea Route (NSR) is typically 20 to 60 percent shorter than travel through the Panama Canal, while travel between Europe and the Far East may be reduced by as much as three weeks compared to transport through the Suez Canal. An increase in the navigable ice season would also improve commercial opportunities within the Arctic region, such as mineral and oil exploration and tourism, which could potentially expand the economic base of Arctic residents and companies, but which would also have negative environmental impacts. Utilizing daily passive-microwave derived sea ice concentrations, trends and variability in the Arctic navigable ice season are examined from 1979 through 2001. Trend analyses suggest large increases in the length of the navigable ice season in the Kara and Barents seas, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Beaufort Sea, with decreases in the length of the navigable ice season in the Bering Sea. Interannual variations in the navigable ice season largely are governed by fluctuations in low-frequency atmospheric circulation, although the specific annular modes affecting the length of the navigable ice season vary by region. In the Beaufort and East Siberian seas, variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation control the navigable ice season, while variations in the East Pacific anomaly play an important role in controlling the navigable ice season in the Kara and Barents seas. In Hudson Bay, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Baffin Bay, interannual variations in the navigable ice season are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  9. The navigation of homing pigeons: Do they use sun Navigation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walcott, C.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments to determine the dependence of homing pigeons on the sun as a navigational cue are discussed. Various methods were employed to interrupt the circadian rhythms of the pigeons prior to release. It was determined that the sun may serve as a compass, but that topographic features are more important for navigation. The effects of a magnetic field produced by electric equipment carried by the bird were also investigated. It was concluded that magnetic fields may have a small effect on the homing ability. The exact nature of the homing pigeon's navigational ability is still unknown after years of elaborate experimentation.

  10. Autonomous reconfigurable GPS/INS navigation and pointing system for rendezvous and docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Cotterill, Stephen; Deaton, A. Wayne

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an integrated navigation and pointing system software development effort sponsored by the NASA MSFC through a SBIR Phase 2 Program. The integrated Global Positioning System (GPS)/Inertial Navigation System (INS) implements an autonomous navigation filter that is reconfigurable in real-time to accommodate mission contingencies. An onboard expert system monitors the spacecraft status and reconfigures the navigation filter accordingly, to optimize the system performance. The navigation filter is a multi-mode Kalman filter to estimate the spacecraft position, velocity, and attitude. Three different GPS-based attitude determination techniques, namely, velocity vector matching, attitude vector matching, and interferometric processing, are implemented to encompass different mission contingencies. The integrated GPS/INS navigation filter will use any of these techniques depending on the mission phase and the state of the sensors. The first technique, velocity vector matching, uses the GPS velocity measurement to estimate the INS velocity errors and exploits the correlation between INS velocity and attitude errors to estimate the attitude. The second technique, attitude vector matching, uses INS gyro measurements and GPS carrier phase (integrated Doppler) measurements during a spacecraft rotation maneuver to determine the attitude. Both of these techniques require only one GPS antenna onboard to determine the spacecraft attitude. The third technique, interferometric processing, requires use of multiple GPS antennae. In order to determine 3-axis body attitude, three GPS antennae (2 no-coplanor baselines) are required.

  11. Weather routing in long-distance Mediterranean routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, A. M. S.; Gallino, S.; Villa, L.; Lagouvardos, K.; Drago, A.

    2010-10-01

    The selection of ship routes based on modern weather forecasting is a mean of computing optimum shipping routes thereby increasing safety and comfort at sea, cutting down on transit time, and reducing fuel consumption. Further empirical research in the effectiveness of modern weather routing applications is required especially in applications concerning shorter routes in enclosed seas of limited geographical extent such as the Mediterranean Sea. The present study used two climatological simulations to test this state-of-the-art approach to ship routing. Simulations represented two theoretical routes: (1) a route between Italy and Greece and (2) a route between Cyprus and Italy. Both routes were analyzed across varying simulated climatic conditions and the results were compared with those of control routes. Furthermore, results were analyzed in terms of passenger and crew comfort, bunker consumption by ships, and time of crossing. The first simulation showed that weather routing would improve ship performance on 37% of days while the second simulation revealed that weather routing would support ship captains virtually all the time.

  12. Masked Proportional Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Masked proportional routing is an improved procedure for choosing links between adjacent nodes of a network for the purpose of transporting an entity from a source node ("A") to a destination node ("B"). The entity could be, for example, a physical object to be shipped, in which case the nodes would represent waypoints and the links would represent roads or other paths between waypoints. For another example, the entity could be a message or packet of data to be transmitted from A to B, in which case the nodes could be computer-controlled switching stations and the links could be communication channels between the stations. In yet another example, an entity could represent a workpiece while links and nodes could represent, respectively, manufacturing processes and stages in the progress of the workpiece towards a finished product. More generally, the nodes could represent states of an entity and the links could represent allowed transitions of the entity. The purpose of masked proportional routing and of related prior routing procedures is to schedule transitions of entities from their initial states ("A") to their final states ("B") in such a manner as to minimize a cost or to attain some other measure of optimality or efficiency. Masked proportional routing follows a distributed (in the sense of decentralized) approach to probabilistically or deterministically choosing the links. It was developed to satisfy a need for a routing procedure that 1. Does not always choose the same link(s), even for two instances characterized by identical estimated values of associated cost functions; 2. Enables a graceful transition from one set of links to another set of links as the circumstances of operation of the network change over time; 3. Is preferably amenable to separate optimization of different portions of the network; 4. Is preferably usable in a network in which some of the routing decisions are made by one or more other procedure(s); 5. Preferably does not cause an

  13. Standardization of databases for AMDB taxi routing functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pschierer, C.; Sindlinger, A.; Schiefele, J.

    2010-04-01

    Input, management, and display of taxi routes on airport moving map displays (AMM) have been covered in various studies in the past. The demonstrated applications are typically based on Aerodrome Mapping Databases (AMDB). Taxi routing functions require specific enhancements, typically in the form of a graph network with nodes and edges modeling all connectivities within an airport, which are not supported by the current AMDB standards. Therefore, the data schemas and data content have been defined specifically for the purpose and test scenarios of these studies. A standardization of the data format for taxi routing information is a prerequisite for turning taxi routing functions into production. The joint RTCA/EUROCAE special committee SC-217, responsible for updating and enhancing the AMDB standards DO-272 [1] and DO-291 [2], is currently in the process of studying different alternatives and defining reasonable formats. Requirements for taxi routing data are primarily driven by depiction concepts for assigned and cleared taxi routes, but also by database size and the economic feasibility. Studied concepts are similar to the ones described in the GDF (geographic data files) specification [3], which is used in most car navigation systems today. They include - A highly aggregated graph network of complex features - A modestly aggregated graph network of simple features - A non-explicit topology of plain AMDB taxi guidance line elements This paper introduces the different concepts and their advantages and disadvantages.

  14. The navigation toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, William F.; Strom, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the experience of the authors in managing, designing, and implementing an object-oriented applications framework for orbital navigation analysis for the Flight Design and Dynamics Department of the Rockwell Space Operations Company in Houston, in support of the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA's Johnson Space Center. The 8 person year project spanned 1.5 years and produced 30,000 lines of C++ code, replacing 150,000 lines of Fortran/C. We believe that our experience is important because it represents a 'second project' experience and generated real production-quality code - it was not a pilot. The project successfully demonstrated the use of 'continuous development' or rapid prototyping techniques. Use of formal methods and executable models contributed to the quality of the code. Keys to the success of the project were a strong architectural vision and highly skilled workers. This report focuses on process and methodology, and not on a detailed design description of the product. But the true importance of the object-oriented paradigm is its liberation of the developer to focus on the problem rather than the means used to solve the problem.

  15. Titan Probe navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayaraghavan, A.; Wood, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    In the proposed Cassini mission, a combined Saturn Orbiter/Titan Probe spacecraft will be launched from the Space Shuttle to arrive at Saturn around 2002, by means of a delta-VEGA trajectory. After Saturn-orbit insertion and a pericrone raise maneuver, the probe will be released to enter the Titan atmosphere and impact onto its surface. During its descent phase and impact onto Titan, the probe will maintain radio contact with the orbiter. Since the Titan-probe experimental phase lasts for only about four hours, probe-orbiter geometry and probe-delivery accuracy are critical to successful completion of this part of the mission. From a preliminary navigation analysis for probe delivery accuracy, it seems feasible to deliver the probe within 50 km (1-sigma value) of the desired aim-point in the Titan B-plane. The covariance study, however, clearly indicates the need for optical data, in addition to radio metric data. A Monte Carlo study indicates that a Delta-V capability of 98 m/sec for trajectory correction maneuvers will be sufficient to cover 99 percent of all contingencies during the segment from Saturn-orbit insertion to Titan-probe release.

  16. Development and Evaluation of 2-D and 3-D Exocentric Synthetic Vision Navigation Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results evinced the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  18. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with §...

  19. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with §...

  20. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with §...

  1. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with §...

  2. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with §...

  3. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J.; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-07-01

    Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network.

  4. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network. PMID:26138277

  5. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games

    PubMed Central

    Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J.; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network. PMID:26138277

  6. Strategies for Selecting Routes through Real-World Environments: Relative Topography, Initial Route Straightness, and Cardinal Direction

    PubMed Central

    Brunyé, Tad T.; Collier, Zachary A.; Cantelon, Julie; Holmes, Amanda; Wood, Matthew D.; Linkov, Igor; Taylor, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that route planners use several reliable strategies for selecting between alternate routes. Strategies include selecting straight rather than winding routes leaving an origin, selecting generally south- rather than north-going routes, and selecting routes that avoid traversal of complex topography. The contribution of this paper is characterizing the relative influence and potential interactions of these strategies. We also examine whether individual differences would predict any strategy reliance. Results showed evidence for independent and additive influences of all three strategies, with a strong influence of topography and initial segment straightness, and relatively weak influence of cardinal direction. Additively, routes were also disproportionately selected when they traversed relatively flat regions, had relatively straight initial segments, and went generally south rather than north. Two individual differences, extraversion and sense of direction, predicted the extent of some effects. Under real-world conditions navigators indeed consider a route’s initial straightness, cardinal direction, and topography, but these cues differ in relative influence and vary in their application across individuals. PMID:25992685

  7. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class... current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization shall certify,...

  8. Effects of Picture Prompts Delivered by a Video iPod on Pedestrian Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Kelly R.; Test, David W.; Cooke, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Transportation access is a major contributor to independence, productivity, and societal inclusion for individuals with intellectual and development disabilities (IDD). This study examined the effects of pedestrian navigation training using picture prompts displayed through a video iPod on travel route completion with 4 adults and IDD. Results…

  9. Experiment D009: Simple navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, R. M.; Jorris, T. R.; Vallerie, E. M., III

    1971-01-01

    Space position-fixing techniques have been investigated by collecting data on the observable phenomena of space flight that could be used to solve the problem of autonomous navigation by the use of optical data and manual computations to calculate the position of a spacecraft. After completion of the developmental and test phases, the product of the experiment would be a manual-optical technique of orbital space navigation that could be used as a backup to onboard and ground-based spacecraft-navigation systems.

  10. NASA tracking ship navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The ship position and attitude measurement system that was installed aboard the tracking ship Vanguard is described. An overview of the entire system is given along with a description of how precise time and frequency is utilized. The instrumentation is broken down into its basic components. Particular emphasis is given to the inertial navigation system. Each navigation system used, a mariner star tracker, navigation satellite system, Loran C and OMEGA in conjunction with the inertial system is described. The accuracy of each system is compared along with their limitations.

  11. Navigation/Prop Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruchmiller, Tomas; Tran, Sanh; Lee, Mathew; Bucker, Scott; Bupane, Catherine; Bennett, Charles; Cantu, Sergio; Kwong, Ping; Propst, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Navigation (Nav)/Prop software is used to support shuttle mission analysis, production, and some operations tasks. The Nav/Prop suite containing configuration items (CIs) resides on IPS/Linux workstations. It features lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle navigation and propellant analysis for all flight segments. This suite also includes trajectory server, archive server, and RAT software residing on MCC/Linux workstations. Navigation/Prop represents tool versions established during or after IPS Equipment Rehost-3 or after the MCC Rehost.

  12. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  13. Fiber optic multimode displacement sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.A.; Jarzynski, J.

    1996-04-01

    An underwater Optical Motion Sensor (OMS) based on a design first presented by W. B. Spillman, {ital Schlieren} {ital multimode} {ital fiber}-{ital optic} {ital hydrophone}, Applied Physics Letters 37(2), 15 July 1980, p. 145{endash}146 is described. The displacement sensor uses the same acoustooptical intensity modulation mechanism as Spillman, however the sensing mechanism is isolated from the ambient fluid environment by a small cylindrical aluminum enclosure (1{double_prime} OD{times}3/4{double_prime}). The enclosure contains an inertial mass and the fiber collimators. The inertial mass is suspended in the center of the enclosure by three small wires rigidly mounted to the walls. The mass and wires act as a cantilever beam system with a mechanical resonance near 100 Hz. The transduction mechanism consists of two opposed optical gratings aligned and positioned between the fiber collimators. One grating is mounted on the inertial mass while the other is mounted on the lower end cap of the enclosure. Relative motion between the gratings causes a modulation of the light transmitted through the gratings. The modulated beam is focused onto a photodetector and converted to electric current. The frequency response is flat from 200 Hz{endash}9 kHz with a minimum detectable displacement of 0.002 A and the dynamic range is 136 dB. The small size and light weight give the sensor an effective density of 1.08 g/cm{sup 3} making it almost neutrally buoyant in water. This in conjunction with the performance characteristics make this sensor suitable for use in acoustical sensing applications. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Hippocampus and Retrosplenial Cortex Combine Path Integration Signals for Successful Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Uğur M.; Ross, Robert S.; Brown, Thackery I.; Hasselmo, Michael E.; Stern, Chantal E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study used fMRI in humans to examine goal-directed navigation in an open field environment. We designed a task that required participants to encode survey-level spatial information and subsequently navigate to a goal location in either first person, third person, or survey perspectives. Critically, no distinguishing landmarks or goal location markers were present in the environment, thereby requiring participants to rely on path integration mechanisms for successful navigation. We focused our analysis on mechanisms related to navigation and mechanisms tracking linear distance to the goal location. Successful navigation required translation of encoded survey-level map information for orientation and implementation of a planned route to the goal. Our results demonstrate that successful first and third person navigation trials recruited the anterior hippocampus more than trials when the goal location was not successfully reached. When examining only successful trials, the retrosplenial and posterior parietal cortices were recruited for goal-directed navigation in both first person and third person perspectives. Unique to first person perspective navigation, the hippocampus was recruited to path integrate self-motion cues with location computations toward the goal location. Last, our results demonstrate that the hippocampus supports goal-directed navigation by actively tracking proximity to the goal throughout navigation. When using path integration mechanisms in first person and third person perspective navigation, the posterior hippocampus was more strongly recruited as participants approach the goal. These findings provide critical insight into the neural mechanisms by which we are able to use map-level representations of our environment to reach our navigational goals. PMID:24305826

  15. Multimodal imaging of cutaneous wound tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Ren, Wenqi; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, few methods are available for simultaneous assessment of these tissue parameters in a noninvasive and quantitative fashion. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities in a single-experimental setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Algorithms were developed for appropriate coregistration between wound images acquired by different imaging modalities at different times. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated in an occlusion experiment, where oxygenation and perfusion maps of a healthy subject's upper extremity were continuously monitored during a postocclusive reactive hyperemia procedure and compared with standard measurements. The system was also tested in a clinical trial where a wound of three millimeters in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was continuously monitored. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated the clinical feasibility of multimodal cutaneous wound imaging.

  16. River multimodal scenario for rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Munih, Marko; Novak, Domen; Milavec, Maja; Ziherl, Jaka; Olenšek, Andrej; Mihelj, Matjaž

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the novel "River" multimodal rehabilitation robotics scenario that includes video, audio and haptic modalities. Elements contributing to intrinsic motivation are carefully joined in the three modalities to increase motivation of the user. The user first needs to perform a motor action, then receives a cognitive challenge that is solved with adequate motor activity. Audio includes environmental sounds, music and spoken instructions or encouraging statements. Sounds and music were classified according to the arousal-valence space. The haptic modality can provide catching, grasping, tunnel or adaptive assistance, all depending on the user's needs. The scenario was evaluated in 16 stroke users, who responded to it favourably according to the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory questionnaire. Additionally, the river multimodal environment seems to elicit higher motivation than a simpler apple pick-and-place multimodal task. PMID:22275619

  17. Video genre classification using multimodal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Bae, Tae Meon; Choo, Jin Ho; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-12-01

    We propose a video genre classification method using multimodal features. The proposed method is applied for the preprocessing of automatic video summarization or the retrieval and classification of broadcasting video contents. Through a statistical analysis of low-level and middle-level audio-visual features in video, the proposed method can achieve good performance in classifying several broadcasting genres such as cartoon, drama, music video, news, and sports. In this paper, we adopt MPEG-7 audio-visual descriptors as multimodal features of video contents and evaluate the performance of the classification by feeding the features into a decision tree-based classifier which is trained by CART. The experimental results show that the proposed method can recognize several broadcasting video genres with a high accuracy and the classification performance with multimodal features is superior to the one with unimodal features in the genre classification.

  18. Evaluation of oil tanker routing per section 4111(b)(7) Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Part 2. Atlantic and Florida Gulf coasts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate oil tanker routing along the east coast and Florida Gulf Coast. It discusses whether areas of navigable waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone should be restricted to oil tankers.

  19. How Multimodality Works in Mathematical Activity: Young Children Graphing Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to discussions on the multimodal nature of cognition through an elaboration of the ways multimodal aspects of thinking are exploited by learners doing mathematics. Moving beyond the fact "that" multimodality occurs, this paper focuses on "how" it occurs, with particular attention drawn to the…

  20. "Filming in Progress": New Spaces for Multimodal Designing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    Global trends call for new research to investigate multimodal designing mediated by new technologies and the implications for classroom spaces. This article addresses the relationship between new technologies, students' multimodal designing, and the social production of classroom spaces. Multimodal semiotics and sociological principles are applied…

  1. Multimodal sensory reliance in the nocturnal homing of the amblypygid Phrynus pseudoparvulus (Class Arachnida, Order Amblypygi)?

    PubMed

    Hebets, Eileen A; Aceves-Aparicio, Alfonso; Aguilar-Argüello, Samuel; Bingman, Verner P; Escalante, Ignacio; Gering, Eben J; Nelsen, David R; Rivera, Jennifer; Sánchez-Ruiz, José Ángel; Segura-Hernández, Laura; Settepani, Virginia; Wiegmann, Daniel D; Stafstrom, Jay A

    2014-10-01

    Like many other nocturnal arthropods, the amblypygid Phrynus pseudoparvulus is capable of homing. The environment through which these predators navigate is a dense and heterogeneous tropical forest understory and the mechanism(s) underlying their putatively complex navigational abilities are presently unknown. This study explores the sensory inputs that might facilitate nocturnal navigation in the amblypygid P. pseudoparvulus. Specifically, we use sensory system manipulations in conjunction with field displacements to examine the potential involvement of multimodal - olfactory and visual - stimuli in P. pseudoparvulus' homing behavior. In a first experiment, we deprived individuals of their olfactory capacity and displaced them to the opposite side of their home trees (<5m). We found that olfaction-intact individuals were more likely to be re-sighted in their home refuges than olfaction-deprived individuals. In a second experiment, we independently manipulated both olfactory and visual sensory capacities in conjunction with longer-distance displacements (8m) from home trees. We found that sensory-intact individuals tended to be re-sighted on their home tree more often than sensory-deprived individuals, with a stronger effect of olfactory deprivation than visual deprivation. Comparing across sensory modality manipulations, olfaction-manipulated individuals took longer to return to their home trees than vision-manipulated individuals. Together, our results indicate that olfaction is important in the nocturnal navigation of P. pseudoparvulus and suggest that vision may also play a more minor role. PMID:25446626

  2. Validation of 3D multimodality roadmapping in interventional neuroradiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruijters, Daniel; Homan, Robert; Mielekamp, Peter; van de Haar, Peter; Babic, Drazenko

    2011-08-01

    Three-dimensional multimodality roadmapping is entering clinical routine utilization for neuro-vascular treatment. Its purpose is to navigate intra-arterial and intra-venous endovascular devices through complex vascular anatomy by fusing pre-operative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) with the live fluoroscopy image. The fused image presents the real-time position of the intra-vascular devices together with the patient's 3D vascular morphology and its soft-tissue context. This paper investigates the effectiveness, accuracy, robustness and computation times of the described methods in order to assess their suitability for the intended clinical purpose: accurate interventional navigation. The mutual information-based 3D-3D registration proved to be of sub-voxel accuracy and yielded an average registration error of 0.515 mm and the live machine-based 2D-3D registration delivered an average error of less than 0.2 mm. The capture range of the image-based 3D-3D registration was investigated to characterize its robustness, and yielded an extent of 35 mm and 25° for >80% of the datasets for registration of 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) with CT, and 15 mm and 20° for >80% of the datasets for registration of 3DRA with MR data. The image-based 3D-3D registration could be computed within 8 s, while applying the machine-based 2D-3D registration only took 1.5 µs, which makes them very suitable for interventional use.

  3. Validation of 3D multimodality roadmapping in interventional neuroradiology.

    PubMed

    Ruijters, Daniel; Homan, Robert; Mielekamp, Peter; van de Haar, Peter; Babic, Drazenko

    2011-08-21

    Three-dimensional multimodality roadmapping is entering clinical routine utilization for neuro-vascular treatment. Its purpose is to navigate intra-arterial and intra-venous endovascular devices through complex vascular anatomy by fusing pre-operative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) with the live fluoroscopy image. The fused image presents the real-time position of the intra-vascular devices together with the patient's 3D vascular morphology and its soft-tissue context. This paper investigates the effectiveness, accuracy, robustness and computation times of the described methods in order to assess their suitability for the intended clinical purpose: accurate interventional navigation. The mutual information-based 3D-3D registration proved to be of sub-voxel accuracy and yielded an average registration error of 0.515 mm and the live machine-based 2D-3D registration delivered an average error of less than 0.2 mm. The capture range of the image-based 3D-3D registration was investigated to characterize its robustness, and yielded an extent of 35 mm and 25° for >80% of the datasets for registration of 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) with CT, and 15 mm and 20° for >80% of the datasets for registration of 3DRA with MR data. The image-based 3D-3D registration could be computed within 8 s, while applying the machine-based 2D-3D registration only took 1.5 µs, which makes them very suitable for interventional use. PMID:21799235

  4. Bore hole navigator

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.J.

    1987-09-29

    A bore hole navigator is described comprising a two axis platform for lowering down a bore hole on a cable with its longitudinal axis parallel to the local bore hole direction. The two axis platform has an outer gimbal, bearing supported on the outer gimbal axis for rotation about the longitudinal axis of the platform, and an inner gimbal axis orthogonal the the outer gimbal axis. The inner gimbal axis has multiple axis segments spaced along the longitudinal axis of the platform and each bearing supported on the outer gimbal. The inner gimbal axis segment has a two axis gyro mounted thereon with its spin axis orthogonal to the respective inner gimbal axis segment, a first gyro sensitive axis parallel to the respective inner gimbal axis segment and a second gyro sensitive axis orthogonal to the spin axis. The second inner gimbal axis segment has a pitch torquer thereon operative to provide a controllable torque about the respective inner gimbal axis segment. The third inner gimbal axis segment has a pitch resolver thereon operative to measure rotation of the respective inner gimbal axis segment with respect to the outer gimbal. The first, second and third inner gimbal axis segments are coupled to rotate together. The outer gimbal has a yaw torquer thereon to provide a controllable torque about the outer gimbal axis, and a yaw resolver thereon to measure rotation of the outer gimbal about the outer gimbal axis. The outer gimbal also has a single axis accelerometer therein having its sensitive axis orthogonal to the outer gimbal axis and the inner gimbal axis segments.

  5. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

    PubMed

    Schipper, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying. PMID:27169205

  6. Wellborne inertial navigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A phototype wireline tool which includes a downhole inertial platform and a surface computer to spatially map a well is described. The hardware consists of a single-gimbaled inertial platform with accelerometers and gyros to obtain three-axis motion information. The gyroscope and accelerometer outputs are transmitted to a computer at the surface which calculates probe attitude relative to north, east, and vertical. Double integration of the accelerometer data provides the position information. A conventional 7-conductor wireline is used for the system data transmission. System accuracy is enhanced by advances made in the computer software which processes the data received from the tool. The software uses statistical sampling estimation to obtain optimal estimates of the system errors. Measurement errors are determined by periodically stopping the tool during the logging procedure and observing the indicated velocity measurements. This procedure, known as Kalman filtering, results in increased accuracy of the data. Present mapping systems have an X-Y-Z location accuracy of +- 100 to +- 200 feet for a typical well depth of 10,000 feet. Test results show that the new system is accurate to about +- 1 foot per 1000 feet of well depth. Unlike conventional systems, the inertial navigator does not require any sort of projection of the cable length (which may not be accurately known). Also this system provides continuous data throughout the wellbore and logging speeds on the order of 10 ft/sec appear possible. The hardware and software associated with this mapping system are described and the recent field test results are reported.

  7. Some initial theory and practice exploration for 3D digital sea-route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Haigang; Zhang, Anmin; Wang, Juan; Hua, Li

    2005-10-01

    The safe navigation of Yangtse River is one of important system engineering. Traditional 2D electronic river map is very effective to ensure safe navigation. However, it is not visual and many kinds of complex analysis are difficult in 2D environment and they only can be processed in 3D situation. So the 3D digital sea-route is very important and urgent to realize digital and intelligent safe navigation. Aiming at this, a whole framework for 3D digital sea-route is first introduced. Under this framework, integrated services from sea-route data colleting, data storing, data management, data processing, data query and analysis, to data distribution and application are illustrated. And some key theory and techniques including automatic sounding creation and processing techniques, the sea-route 3D model production art based on GIS & CAD, the organization and management techniques of multi-source, multi-type, multi-scale data, the 3D dynamic visualization techniques for huge data, the 2D & 3D mutually display and analysis techniques are discussed in detail. Based on these theory and techniques, a system named TEAVIS for 3D digital sea-route is developed. This system is applied in the Marine Safety Administration Bureau of Tianjin City and the Yangtse River Sea-route Bureau and obtained good evaluation.

  8. NES: How to Navigate the Virtual Campus

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video describes how to navigate the NASA Explorer Schools public website. Information includes descriptions of the left navigation, using the breadcrumbs, understanding the various announcemen...

  9. Observation of Geometric Parametric Instability Induced by the Periodic Spatial Self-Imaging of Multimode Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupa, Katarzyna; Tonello, Alessandro; Barthélémy, Alain; Couderc, Vincent; Shalaby, Badr Mohamed; Bendahmane, Abdelkrim; Millot, Guy; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Spatiotemporal mode coupling in highly multimode physical systems permits new routes for exploring complex instabilities and forming coherent wave structures. We present here the first experimental demonstration of multiple geometric parametric instability sidebands, generated in the frequency domain through resonant space-time coupling, owing to the natural periodic spatial self-imaging of a multimode quasi-continuous-wave beam in a standard graded-index multimode fiber. The input beam was launched in the fiber by means of an amplified microchip laser emitting sub-ns pulses at 1064 nm. The experimentally observed frequency spacing among sidebands agrees well with analytical predictions and numerical simulations. The first-order peaks are located at the considerably large detuning of 123.5 THz from the pump. These results open the remarkable possibility to convert a near-infrared laser directly into a broad spectral range spanning visible and infrared wavelengths, by means of a single resonant parametric nonlinear effect occurring in the normal dispersion regime. As further evidence of our strong space-time coupling regime, we observed the striking effect that all of the different sideband peaks were carried by a well-defined and stable bell-shaped spatial profile.

  10. Observation of Geometric Parametric Instability Induced by the Periodic Spatial Self-Imaging of Multimode Waves.

    PubMed

    Krupa, Katarzyna; Tonello, Alessandro; Barthélémy, Alain; Couderc, Vincent; Shalaby, Badr Mohamed; Bendahmane, Abdelkrim; Millot, Guy; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Spatiotemporal mode coupling in highly multimode physical systems permits new routes for exploring complex instabilities and forming coherent wave structures. We present here the first experimental demonstration of multiple geometric parametric instability sidebands, generated in the frequency domain through resonant space-time coupling, owing to the natural periodic spatial self-imaging of a multimode quasi-continuous-wave beam in a standard graded-index multimode fiber. The input beam was launched in the fiber by means of an amplified microchip laser emitting sub-ns pulses at 1064 nm. The experimentally observed frequency spacing among sidebands agrees well with analytical predictions and numerical simulations. The first-order peaks are located at the considerably large detuning of 123.5 THz from the pump. These results open the remarkable possibility to convert a near-infrared laser directly into a broad spectral range spanning visible and infrared wavelengths, by means of a single resonant parametric nonlinear effect occurring in the normal dispersion regime. As further evidence of our strong space-time coupling regime, we observed the striking effect that all of the different sideband peaks were carried by a well-defined and stable bell-shaped spatial profile. PMID:27203323

  11. A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, Tessa; van Leeuwen, Anne C.; Chin, Patrick T. K.; Janssen, Hans; Muller, Sara H.; Jonkers, Jos; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2010-09-01

    Specific removal of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) during breast cancer surgery presents physicians with the opportunity to detect early metastatic disease. To increase the accuracy of intraoperative SLN detection, new methods with higher sensitivity and specificity are required. We have quantitatively compared conventional preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with albumin radiocolloids (99mTc-NanoColl) with optical intraoperative guidance using the near infrared dye indocyanine green (ICG) in an orthotopic mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, we have applied a self-assembled multimodal complex, in which ICG is non-covalently bound to the albumin radiocolloid, to attain identical dynamics of the radioactive and optical components. The SLN specificity of the multimodal complex is similar to conventional lymphoscintigraphy, while the fluorescent signal-to-noise ratio is improved by 86% compared to ICG alone. In addition, the multimodal complex permits scintigraphic validation of the fluorescent findings. The multimodal ICG-99mTc-NanoColl complex can be used both for lymphoscintigraphy by preoperative single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and for surgical navigation by intraoperative fluorescence imaging.

  12. The Development of an Electronic Aircraft Taxi Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display as part of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. The impetus for the development of this specific display, and the TAP program as a whole, is the current bottleneck in surface operations experienced during low-visibility operations. Simply stated, while modern aircraft are equipped to fly and land in low-visibility conditions, they lack the related technology required to allow them to efficiently and safely navigation from the runway to the gate. Pilots under such conditions consequently taxi slower, sometimes get lost and have to stop, and occasionally collide with other aircraft. Based on a review of available display and navigation sensor technologies, and a one-year information requirements study conducted aboard several commercial aircraft flights, it was determined that an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display was the most viable option for improving the efficiency of low-visibility taxi operations. Based on flight deck observations and pilot interviews, previous map display research, other taxi map display efforts, and part-task taxi map research, an advanced taxi navigation display has been developed and is currently being tested. The taxi navigation display is presented as a head-down cockpit display and includes a track-up perspective airport surface view, taxiway, gate and runway labels, ownship position, traffic icons and collision annunciation, graphical route guidance, heading indicator, rotating compass, RVR wedge, stop bars, zoom control, and datalink message window. The development and support for each of the features will be discussed in detail. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Navigating the Rockets Educator Guide

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this brief video overview, learn how to navigate the Rockets Educator Guide. Get a glimpse of the resources available in the guide, including a pictorial history, an overview of the physics cont...

  14. Almanac services for celestial navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelmes, S.; Whittaker, J.

    2015-08-01

    Celestial navigation remains a vitally important back up to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and relies on the use of almanac services. HM Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) provides a number of these services. The printed book, The Nautical Almanac, produced yearly and now available as an electronic publication, is continuously being improved, making use of the latest ideas and ephemerides to provide the user with their required data. HMNAO also produces NavPac, a software package that assists the user in calculating their position as well as providing additional navigational and astronomical tools. A new version of NavPac will be released in 2015 that will improve the user experience. The development of applications for mobile devices is also being considered. HMNAO continues to combine the latest improvements and theories of astrometry with the creation of books and software that best meet the needs of celestial navigation users.

  15. Orion Cislunar Guidance and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Crain, Timothy; Clark, Fred C.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion vehicle is being designed to provide nominal crew transport to the lunar transportation stack in low Earth orbit, crew abort prior during transit to the moon, and crew return to Earth once lunar orbit is achieved. Design of guidance and navigation algorithms to perform maneuvers in support of these functions is dependent on the support provided by navigation infrastructure, the performance of the onboard GN&C system, and the choice of trajectory maneuver methodology for outbound and return mission phases. This paper documents the preliminary integrated analyses performed by members of the Orion Orbit GN&C System team investigating the navigation update accuracy of a modern equivalent to the Apollo era ground tracking network and the expected onboard dispersion and navigation errors during a lunar mission using a linear covariance error analysis technique.

  16. Potential applications of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaenzer, G.

    The applicability of Navstar GPS to civil air navigation is discussed. The accuracy of current air-navigation systems is reviewed; the basic principle and accuracy of GPS navigation are characterized; the relatively low cost of GPS receiving equipment is pointed out; and particular attention is given to hybrid systems combining GPS with inertial navigation. It is predicted that CAT III landings will be possible using such hybrid systems when the GPS satellites are fully deployed, even without access to the military GPS code. Techniques for GPS-based precision landings, reduced-noise landings, landings on parallel runways, control of taxiing maneuvers, and aircraft-based geodetic measurements are briefly described and illustrated with diagrams.

  17. Autonomous navigation using lunar beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, A. R.; Ellis, J.; French, J.; Null, G.; Yunck, T.; Wu, S.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of using lunar beacon signal transmission for on-board navigation for earth satellites and near-earth spacecraft is described. The system would require powerful transmitters on the earth-side of the moon's surface and black box receivers with antennae and microprocessors placed on board spacecraft for autonomous navigation. Spacecraft navigation requires three position and three velocity elements to establish location coordinates. Two beacons could be soft-landed on the lunar surface at the limits of allowable separation and each would transmit a wide-beam signal with cones reaching GEO heights and be strong enough to be received by small antennae in near-earth orbit. The black box processor would perform on-board computation with one-way Doppler/range data and dynamical models. Alternatively, GEO satellites such as the GPS or TDRSS spacecraft can be used with interferometric techniques to provide decimeter-level accuracy for aircraft navigation.

  18. SEXTANT: Navigating by Cosmic Beacon

    NASA Video Gallery

    Imagine a technology that would allow space travelers to transmit gigabytes of data per second over interplanetary distances or to navigate to Mars and beyond using powerful beams of light emanatin...

  19. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  20. Autonomous Navigation Using Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Gramling, Cheryl; Leung, Dominic; Belur, Sheela; Long, Anne

    1999-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Enterprises envision frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. Satellite autonomy is a key technology required to reduce satellite operating costs. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently sponsors several initiatives associated with the development of advanced spacecraft systems to provide autonomous navigation and control. Autonomous navigation has the potential both to increase spacecraft navigation system performance and to reduce total mission cost. By eliminating the need for routine ground-based orbit determination and special tracking services, autonomous navigation can streamline spacecraft ground systems. Autonomous navigation products can be included in the science telemetry and forwarded directly to the scientific investigators. In addition, autonomous navigation products are available onboard to enable other autonomous capabilities, such as attitude control, maneuver planning and orbit control, and communications signal acquisition. Autonomous navigation is required to support advanced mission concepts such as satellite formation flying. GNCC has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous navigation systems for near-Earth spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recently, GNCC has expanded its autonomous navigation initiative to include satellite orbits that are beyond the regime in which use of GPS is possible. Currently, GNCC is assessing the feasibility of using standard spacecraft attitude sensors and communication components to provide autonomous navigation for missions including: libration point, gravity assist, high-Earth, and interplanetary orbits. The concept being evaluated uses a combination of star, Sun, and Earth sensor measurements along with forward-link Doppler

  1. Visual Navigation in Nocturnal Insects.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Despite their tiny eyes and brains, nocturnal insects have evolved a remarkable capacity to visually navigate at night. Whereas some use moonlight or the stars as celestial compass cues to maintain a straight-line course, others use visual landmarks to navigate to and from their nest. These impressive abilities rely on highly sensitive compound eyes and specialized visual processing strategies in the brain. PMID:27053732

  2. The navigation of space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fliegel, H. F.; Ohandley, D. A.; Zielenbach, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A new navigational method combining electronic measurement procedures and celestial mechanics makes it possible to conduct a space probe very close to a desired point in the neighborhood of a remote planet. Approaches for the determination of the position of the space probe in space are discussed, giving attention to the effects of errors in the employed data. The application of the navigational methods in a number of space missions is also considered.

  3. Navigational referencing techniques for real-world environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobart R.; Gage, Douglas W.

    1995-12-01

    The most significant challenge encountered in the implementation of the MDARS Interior security robot system has involved navigational referencing -- the ongoing process of determining a mobile robot's position relative to a specified global frame of reference. Sensors and processing used in local navigation (determining position relative to objects in the environment and not colliding with them en route) can also support global navigation in a mapped environment. The task involves not only detecting and localizing features in the robot's environment, but also establishing with some confidence that these features are in fact specific features that appear in the world model. This perceptual function is one that humans do easily and instinctively, while robotic capabilities in this regard are rudimentary at best. This paper discusses a number of candidate approaches to navigational referencing applicable to indoor operating environments in terms of relevant evaluation criteria (including performance, cost, and generality of applicability), and describes how the experience of phased testing in real-world environments has driven the evolution of the MDARS system design.

  4. True navigation in migrating gulls requires intact olfactory nerves.

    PubMed

    Wikelski, Martin; Arriero, Elena; Gagliardo, Anna; Holland, Richard A; Huttunen, Markku J; Juvaste, Risto; Mueller, Inge; Tertitski, Grigori; Thorup, Kasper; Wild, Martin; Alanko, Markku; Bairlein, Franz; Cherenkov, Alexander; Cameron, Alison; Flatz, Reinhard; Hannila, Juhani; Hüppop, Ommo; Kangasniemi, Markku; Kranstauber, Bart; Penttinen, Maija-Liisa; Safi, Kamran; Semashko, Vladimir; Schmid, Heidi; Wistbacka, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    During migratory journeys, birds may become displaced from their normal migratory route. Experimental evidence has shown that adult birds can correct for such displacements and return to their goal. However, the nature of the cues used by migratory birds to perform long distance navigation is still debated. In this experiment we subjected adult lesser black-backed gulls migrating from their Finnish/Russian breeding grounds (from >60°N) to Africa (to < 5°N) to sensory manipulation, to determine the sensory systems required for navigation. We translocated birds westward (1080 km) or eastward (885 km) to simulate natural navigational challenges. When translocated westwards and outside their migratory corridor birds with olfactory nerve section kept a clear directional preference (southerly) but were unable to compensate for the displacement, while intact birds and gulls with the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve sectioned oriented towards their population-specific migratory corridor. Thus, air-borne olfactory information seems to be important for migrating gulls to navigate successfully in some circumstances. PMID:26597351

  5. True navigation in migrating gulls requires intact olfactory nerves

    PubMed Central

    Wikelski, Martin; Arriero, Elena; Gagliardo, Anna; Holland, Richard A.; Huttunen, Markku J.; Juvaste, Risto; Mueller, Inge; Tertitski, Grigori; Thorup, Kasper; Wild, Martin; Alanko, Markku; Bairlein, Franz; Cherenkov, Alexander; Cameron, Alison; Flatz, Reinhard; Hannila, Juhani; Hüppop, Ommo; Kangasniemi, Markku; Kranstauber, Bart; Penttinen, Maija-Liisa; Safi, Kamran; Semashko, Vladimir; Schmid, Heidi; Wistbacka, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    During migratory journeys, birds may become displaced from their normal migratory route. Experimental evidence has shown that adult birds can correct for such displacements and return to their goal. However, the nature of the cues used by migratory birds to perform long distance navigation is still debated. In this experiment we subjected adult lesser black-backed gulls migrating from their Finnish/Russian breeding grounds (from >60°N) to Africa (to < 5°N) to sensory manipulation, to determine the sensory systems required for navigation. We translocated birds westward (1080 km) or eastward (885 km) to simulate natural navigational challenges. When translocated westwards and outside their migratory corridor birds with olfactory nerve section kept a clear directional preference (southerly) but were unable to compensate for the displacement, while intact birds and gulls with the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve sectioned oriented towards their population-specific migratory corridor. Thus, air-borne olfactory information seems to be important for migrating gulls to navigate successfully in some circumstances. PMID:26597351

  6. Multimodal Plasticity in Dorsal Striatum While Learning a Lateralized Navigation Task.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Sarah L; Evans, Rebekah C; Unruh, Benjamin A; Benkert, Elizabeth E; Gillani, Fawad; Dumas, Theodore C; Blackwell, Kim T

    2015-07-22

    Growing evidence supports a critical role for the dorsal striatum in cognitive as well as motor control. Both lesions and in vivo recordings demonstrate a transition in the engaged dorsal striatal subregion, from dorsomedial to dorsolateral, as skill performance shifts from an attentive phase to a more automatic or habitual phase. What are the neural mechanisms supporting the cognitive and behavioral transitions in skill learning? To pursue this question, we used T-maze training during which rats transition from early, attentive (dorsomedial) to late habitual (dorsolateral) performance. Following early or late training, we performed the first direct comparison of bidirectional synaptic plasticity in striatal brain slices, and the first evaluation of striatal synaptic plasticity by hemisphere relative to a learned turn. Consequently, we find that long-term potentiation and long-term depression are independently modulated with learning rather than reciprocally linked as previously suggested. Our results establish that modulation of evoked synaptic plasticity with learning depends on striatal subregion, training stage, and hemisphere relative to the learned turn direction. Exclusive to the contralateral hemisphere, intrinsic excitability is enhanced in dorsomedial relative to dorsolateral medium spiny neurons early in training and population responses are dampened late in training. Neuronal reconstructions indicate dendritic remodeling after training, which may represent a novel form of pruning. In conclusion, we describe region- and hemisphere-specific changes in striatal synaptic, intrinsic, and morphological plasticity which correspond to T-maze learning stages, and which may play a role in the cognitive transition between attentive and habitual strategies. Significance statement: We investigated neural plasticity in dorsal striatum from rats that were briefly or extensively trained on a directional T-maze task. Our results demonstrate that both the extent of training and the direction a rat learns to turn control the location and type of change in synaptic plasticity. In addition, brief training produces changes in neuron excitability only within one striatal subregion, whereas all training produces widespread changes in dendritic morphology. Our results suggest that activity in dorsomedial striatum strengthens the rewarded turn after brief training, whereas activity in dorsolateral striatum suppresses unrewarded turns after extensive training. This study illuminates how plasticity mediates learning using a task recognized for transitioning subjects from attentive to automatic performance. PMID:26203148

  7. Conflicting evidence about long-distance animal navigation.

    PubMed

    Alerstam, Thomas

    2006-08-11

    Because of conflicting evidence about several fundamental issues, long-distance animal navigation has yet to be satisfactorily explained. Among the unsolved problems are the nature of genetic spatial control of migration and the relationships between celestial and magnetic compass mechanisms and between different map-related cues in orientation and homing, respectively. In addition, navigation is expected to differ between animal groups depending on sensory capabilities and ecological conditions. Evaluations based on modern long-term tracking techniques of the geometry of migration routes and individual migration history, combined with behavioral experiments and exploration of the sensory and genetic mechanisms, will be crucial for understanding the spatial principles that guide animals on their global journeys. PMID:16902128

  8. FLASH LIDAR Based Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazzel, Jack; Clark, Fred; Milenkovic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Relative navigation remains the most challenging part of spacecraft rendezvous and docking. In recent years, flash LIDARs, have been increasingly selected as the go-to sensors for proximity operations and docking. Flash LIDARS are generally lighter and require less power that scanning Lidars. Flash LIDARs do not have moving parts, and they are capable of tracking multiple targets as well as generating a 3D map of a given target. However, there are some significant drawbacks of Flash Lidars that must be resolved if their use is to be of long-term significance. Overcoming the challenges of Flash LIDARs for navigation-namely, low technology readiness level, lack of historical performance data, target identification, existence of false positives, and performance of vision processing algorithms as intermediaries between the raw sensor data and the Kalman filter-requires a world-class testing facility, such as the Lockheed Martin Space Operations Simulation Center (SOSC). Ground-based testing is a critical step for maturing the next-generation flash LIDAR-based spacecraft relative navigation. This paper will focus on the tests of an integrated relative navigation system conducted at the SOSC in January 2014. The intent of the tests was to characterize and then improve the performance of relative navigation, while addressing many of the flash LIDAR challenges mentioned above. A section on navigation performance and future recommendation completes the discussion.

  9. Flexible navigation response in common cuckoos Cuculus canorus displaced experimentally during migration

    PubMed Central

    Willemoes, Mikkel; Blas, Julio; Wikelski, Martin; Thorup, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Migrating birds follow innate species-specific migration programs capable of guiding them along complex spatio-temporal routes, which may include several separate staging areas. Indeed, migration routes of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus show little variation between individuals; yet, satellite tracks of 11 experimentally displaced adults revealed an unexpected flexibility in individual navigation responses. The birds compensated for the translocation to unfamiliar areas by travelling toward population-specific staging areas, demonstrating true navigation capabilities. Individual responses varied from travelling toward the first stopover in northern Europe to flying toward the Central-African winter grounds, the latter including several stopovers in unfamiliar areas. Apparently, the cuckoos possess spatial knowledge far beyond their population-specific flyway scale, and make individual decisions likely based on an assessment of perceived gain and cost of alternative route options. PMID:26549318

  10. An Indoor Navigation Approach Considering Obstacles and Space Subdivision of 2d Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Man; Wei, Shuangfeng; Zlatanova, Sisi

    2016-06-01

    The demand for indoor navigation is increasingly urgent in many applications such as safe management of underground spaces or location services in complex indoor environment, e.g. shopping centres, airports, museums, underground parking lot and hospitals. Indoor navigation is still a challenging research field, as currently applied indoor navigation algorithms commonly ignore important environmental and human factors and therefore do not provide precise navigation. Flexible and detailed networks representing the connectivity of spaces and considering indoor objects such as furniture are very important to a precise navigation. In this paper we concentrate on indoor navigation considering obstacles represented as polygons. We introduce a specific space subdivision based on a simplified floor plan to build the indoor navigation network. The experiments demonstrate that we are able to navigate around the obstacles using the proposed network. Considering to well-known path-finding approaches based on Medial Axis Transform (MAT) or Visibility Graph (VG), the approach in this paper provides a quick subdivision of space and routes, which are compatible with the results of VG.

  11. VHDL Control Routing Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Venard, J.

    1995-07-10

    The control router simulates a backplane consisting of up to 16 slot. Slot 0, reserved for a control module (cr-ctrl), generates the system clocks and provides the serial interface to the Gating Logic. The remaining 15 slots (1-15) contain routing modules (cr mod), each having up to 64 serial inputs and outputs with FIFOs. Messages to be transmitted to the Control Router are taken from text files. There are currently 17 such source files. In the model, the serial output of each source is connected to multiple receivers, so that there are 8 identical messages transmitted to the router for each message file entry.

  12. International negotiations on the Electronic Navigational Chart (ENC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A full report is given (in English) on the topics discussed and measures adopted at the April and September 1988 meetings of the IMO/IHO Working Group on ENC Updating, a subcommittee of the Commitee on ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information System). Consideration is given to provisional performance standards for ECDIS (minimum displays, supplementary information, scale, route planning and monitoring, documentation, symbols and colors, accuracy, provision and correction of data, etc.), ENC update procedures, radio navigation warnings, the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System, information transfer protocols, automatic and semiautomatic updating, and organizational problems. Diagrams, sample charts, and a glossary of acronyms are provided.

  13. Development of Airport Surface Required Navigation Performance (RNP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Smith, Alex; Hicok, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. and international aviation communities have adopted the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) process for defining aircraft performance when operating the en-route, approach and landing phases of flight. RNP consists primarily of the following key parameters - accuracy, integrity, continuity, and availability. The processes and analytical techniques employed to define en-route, approach and landing RNP have been applied in the development of RNP for the airport surface. To validate the proposed RNP requirements several methods were used. Operational and flight demonstration data were analyzed for conformance with proposed requirements, as were several aircraft flight simulation studies. The pilot failure risk component was analyzed through several hypothetical scenarios. Additional simulator studies are recommended to better quantify crew reactions to failures as well as additional simulator and field testing to validate achieved accuracy performance, This research was performed in support of the NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations Programs.

  14. Guiding Blind Pedestrians with a Personal Navigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, A. H.; Moon, G. V.; Moore, T.; Jones, D.

    With the assistance provided by the white cane or guide dog, most blind pedestrians can find their way to known destinations along familiar routes. Finding new or known destinations along unfamiliar routes is more challenging. Before such a journey is attempted, detailed instructions must be acquired. The difficulty of obtaining and then reliably following such instructions deters many blind pedestrians from travelling alone in unknown areas. This paper demonstrates a technological approach, by way of field trials, that supplements the existing aids and eliminates the need for sighted guides. The approach has the potential to offer greater independence to the blind person. The investigation suggests that the methodology used in personal navigation systems for the sighted is sub-optimal for guiding the blind pedestrian. Suitable extensions are introduced, and the results show the proposed methodology is efficient for guiding the blind individual to unknown destinations in the chosen field trial environment.

  15. Navigation system for visual impaired persons based on satellital location.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ponce, H; Hernandez-Rodriguez, P R

    2004-01-01

    A system designed to assist visual impaired persons to travel in a city without external help using GPS navigation system has been developed. With the use of a BIuetooth hands-free, the user only has to give spoken commands to receive spoken directions to get to his/her destination. The directions received from the system will help him/her to walk parallel to the tangent of the walk-side and to walk through the most convenient route. This means that the route calculated to arrive to the destination point not only will be the shortest, but also the least risky one. The system can also be personalized by the user, entering his/her own waypoints. PMID:17271383

  16. Experiential Influences on Multimodal Perception of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of 2 types of learning experiences on children's perception of multimodal emotion cues was examined. Children (aged 7-12 years) were presented with conflicting facial and vocal emotions. The effects of familiarity were tested by varying whether emotions were presented by familiar or unfamiliar adults. The salience of particular…

  17. Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Douglas J., Ed.; Griffith, Bryant, Ed.; Bérci, Margaret E., Ed.; Ortlieb, Evan, Ed.; Sullivan, Pamela, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    While incorporating digital technologies into the classroom has offered new ways of teaching and learning into educational processes, it is essential to take a look at how the digital shift impacts teachers, school administration, and curriculum development. "Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development" presents…

  18. Love that Book: Multimodal Response to Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Composing with different modes--image, sound, video and the written word--to respond to and analyze literary and informational text helps students develop as readers and digital communicators. This article showcases five multimodal strategies for engaging children in rich literature-based learning using digital tools and Internet resources.

  19. Imagining the Possibilities in Multimodal Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of the "old page", or written hardcopy texts, to the "new" (Kress, 2003), or electronic page, means that today's learners have experience with reading a variety of texts. Image, music, and electronic inscription (font, style, flash, and so on) are features of multimodal texts that many learners prefer to read and create. With the screen…

  20. Naming Block Structures: A Multimodal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study describes symbolic representation in block play in a culturally diverse suburban preschool classroom. Block play is "multimodal" and can allow children to experiment with materials to represent the world in many forms of literacy. Combined qualitative and quantitative data from seventy-seven block structures were collected and analyzed.…

  1. Analyzing Multimodal Interaction within a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moura, Heloisa

    2006-01-01

    Human interactions are multimodal in nature. From simple to complex forms of transferal of information, human beings draw on a multiplicity of communicative modes, such as intonation and gaze, to make sense of everyday experiences. Likewise, the learning process, either within traditional classrooms or Virtual Learning Environments, is shaped by…

  2. Nanoparticles in Higher-Order Multimodal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieffel, James Ki

    Imaging procedures are a cornerstone in our current medical infrastructure. In everything from screening, diagnostics, and treatment, medical imaging is perhaps our greatest tool in evaluating individual health. Recently, there has been tremendous increase in the development of multimodal systems that combine the strengths of complimentary imaging technologies to overcome their independent weaknesses. Clinically, this has manifested in the virtually universal manufacture of combined PET-CT scanners. With this push toward more integrated imaging, new contrast agents with multimodal functionality are needed. Nanoparticle-based systems are ideal candidates based on their unique size, properties, and diversity. In chapter 1, an extensive background on recent multimodal imaging agents capable of enhancing signal or contrast in three or more modalities is presented. Chapter 2 discusses the development and characterization of a nanoparticulate probe with hexamodal imaging functionality. It is my hope that the information contained in this thesis will demonstrate the many benefits of nanoparticles in multimodal imaging, and provide insight into the potential of fully integrated imaging.

  3. Researching Multimodal Texts: Applying a Dynamic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancy, Susan; Lowrie, Tom

    The arrival of the digital age requires new approaches to understand the literacies used in making meanings from multimodal communications, and a rethinking of the ways in which research into these areas can be used to support learners in the 21st century. This presentation examines the range of literacies children have developed and used to make…

  4. Effects of Webcams on Multimodal Interactive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codreanu, Tatiana; Celik, Christelle Combe

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the multimodal pedagogical communication of two groups of online teachers; trainee tutors (second year students of the Master of Arts in Teaching French as a Foreign Language at the University Lumiere-Lyon 2) and experienced teachers based in different locations (France, Spain and Finland). They all taught French as a Foreign…

  5. Multimodality treatment of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A review.

    PubMed

    Simo, Kerri A; Halpin, Laura E; McBrier, Nicole M; Hessey, Jacob A; Baker, Erin; Ross, Samuel; Swan, Ryan Z; Iannitti, David A; Martinie, John B

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is the second most common primary hepatic cancer in the United States. Currently, curative treatment involves aggressive surgery. Chemotherapy and radiation treatments have been used for unresectable tumors with some success. Optimizing the use of current and developing novel multimodality treatment for iCCA is essential to improving outcomes. PMID:26797780

  6. Reconceptualising Poetry as a Multimodal Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfield, Denise; D'abdon, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual article theorises the role of poetry in English classrooms from a multimodal perspective. It discusses the gap between the practices of poetry inside and outside South African schools, particularly where English is taught as an additional language (EAL). The former is shown to be monomodal and prescriptive, while the latter is…

  7. Multimodality, Translingualism, and Rhetorical Genre Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article situates one possible future for rhetorical genre studies (RGS) in the translingual, multimodal composing practices of linguistically diverse composition students. Using focus group data collected with L1 (English as a first language) and L2 (English as a second language) students at two large public state universities, the researcher…

  8. Multimode waveguide speckle patterns for compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Valley, George C; Sefler, George A; Justin Shaw, T

    2016-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) of sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using microwave photonics may achieve better performances with smaller size, weight, and power than electronic CS or conventional Nyquist rate sampling. The critical element in a CS system is the device that produces the CS measurement matrix (MM). We show that passive speckle patterns in multimode waveguides potentially provide excellent MMs for CS. We measure and calculate the MM for a multimode fiber and perform simulations using this MM in a CS system. We show that the speckle MM exhibits the sharp phase transition and coherence properties needed for CS and that these properties are similar to those of a sub-Gaussian MM with the same mean and standard deviation. We calculate the MM for a multimode planar waveguide and find dimensions of the planar guide that give a speckle MM with a performance similar to that of the multimode fiber. The CS simulations show that all measured and calculated speckle MMs exhibit a robust performance with equal amplitude signals that are sparse in time, in frequency, and in wavelets (Haar wavelet transform). The planar waveguide results indicate a path to a microwave photonic integrated circuit for measuring sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using CS. PMID:27244406

  9. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  10. Optical Navigation Image of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Galileo spacecraft, now in orbit around Jupiter, returned this optical navigation image June 3, 1996, showing that the spacecraft is accurately targeted for its first flyby of the giant moon Ganymede on June 27. The missing data in the frame is the result of a special editing feature recently added to the spacecraft's computer to transmit navigation images more quickly. This is first in a series of optical navigation frames, highly edited onboard the spacecraft, that will be used to fine-tune the spacecraft's trajectory as Galileo approaches Ganymede. The image, used for navigation purposes only, is the product of new computer processing capabilities on the spacecraft that allow Galileo to send back only the information required to show the spacecraft is properly targeted and that Ganymede is where navigators calculate it to be. 'This navigation image is totally different from the pictures we'll be taking for scientific study of Ganymede when we get close to it later this month,' said Galileo Project Scientist Dr. Torrence Johnson. On June 27, Galileo will fly just 844 kilometers (524 miles) above Ganymede and return the most detailed, full-frame, high-resolution images and other measurements of the satellite ever obtained. Icy Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system and three-quarters the size of Mars. It is one of the four large Jovian moons that are special targets of study for the Galileo mission. Of the more than 5 million bits contained in a single image, Galileo performed on-board editing to send back a mere 24,000 bits containing the essential information needed to assure proper targeting. Only the light-to-dark transitions of the crescent Ganymede and reference star locations were transmitted to Earth. The navigation image was taken from a distance of 9.8 million kilometers (6.1 million miles). On June 27th, the spacecraft will be 10,000 times closer to Ganymede.

  11. Intelligent route surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent ground sensor networks use simple sensing nodes, e.g. seismic, magnetic, radar, or acoustic, or combinations of these in one housing. The nodes deliver rudimentary data at any time to be processed with software that filters out the required information. At TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) research has started on how to equip a sensor network with data analysis software to determine whether behaviour is suspicious or not. Furthermore, the nodes should be expendable, if necessary, and be small in size such that they are hard to detect by adversaries. The network should be self-configuring and self-sustaining and should be reliable, efficient, and effective during operational tasks - especially route surveillance - as well as robust in time and space. If data from these networks are combined with data from other remote sensing devices (e.g. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)/aerostats), an even more accurate assessment of the tactical situation is possible. This paper shall focus on the concepts of operation towards a working intelligent route surveillance (IRS) research demonstrator network for monitoring suspicious behaviour in IED sensitive domains.

  12. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

  13. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  14. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  15. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

  16. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  17. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

  18. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  19. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

  20. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

  1. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  2. Untangled modes in multimode fibres for flexible microendoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöschner, Martin; Tyc, Tomáš; Čižmár, Tomáš

    2015-09-01

    Small, fibre-based endoscopes have already improved our ability to image deep within the human body. A novel approach introduced recently utilised disordered light within a standard multimode optical fibre for lensless imaging. Importantly, this approach brought very significant reduction of the instruments footprint to dimensions below 100 μm. The most important limitations of this exciting technology is the lack of bending flexibility - imaging is only possible as long as the fibre remains stationary. The only route to allow flexibility of such endoscopes is in trading-in all the knowledge about the optical system we have, particularly the cylindrical symmetry. In perfect cylindrical waveguides we can find optical modes that do not change their spatial distribution as they propagate through. We show that typical fibers retain such highly ordered propagation of light over remarkably large distances, which allows correction operators to be introduced in imaging geometries in order to maintain high-quality performance even in such flexible micro-endoscopes.

  3. Calendaricities and multimodality in the Eastern Mediterranean cyclonic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osetinsky, I.; Alpert, P.

    2006-06-01

    Calendaricities, or the occurrence of weather anomalies on fixed calendar dates, are investigated for the Eastern Mediterranean (EM). The anomalies discussed here are the maxima and minima in the frequency of occurrence of the EM synoptic systems bearing rainfall. Those are mostly the Winter Lows passing over Cyprus en route eastward of the Ionian Sea where they are generated in situ or come to from N. Italy. The Winter Lows produce the rainfall over the central and northern EM areas, including Cyprus, Israel, Lebanon, NW Syria, W. Jordan. The southern EM areas, i.e. S. Israel and NE Egypt, get rainfall followed by floods due to the Winter Lows as well, and in addition, due to a small proportion of the mostly dry Red Sea Troughs that occasionally turn out to cause heavy rainfall. The analysis of the daily resolved data based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis is carried out. A comparison of two 28-yr periods, 1948-1975 and 1976-2003, different in global climatology, showed their similarity in the timing of peaks in EM cyclonic activity. The winter was found to have five maxima of cyclonic activity, centered on early February and nearly bell-shaped over their magnitudes. This supports the earlier hypotheses of multimodality in the EM rainfall. The Red Sea Troughs have their main peak of occurrence in the late October - early November, and their small rain-bearing proportion falls as well on this period of a year.

  4. Multimodal Analgesia in the Hip Fracture Patient.

    PubMed

    Fabi, David W

    2016-05-01

    Hip fracture is one of the most common injuries among the elderly and, because the population is aging, it is expected to remain a major clinical challenge and public health problem for the foreseeable future. The clinical importance of early mobilization and prompt participation in physical therapy after hip fracture surgery is now widely recognized. Because postoperative pain can impair mobility and delay physical therapy, much attention is now being paid to finding more effective ways of controlling pain after hip fracture. Oversedation with opioid drugs inhibits communication between the patient and the health care team, can delay ambulation and rehabilitation therapy, and may increase the probability of the patient requiring a skilled nursing facility, which adds further cost to the overall health care system. Multiple pain pathways contribute to the perception of postoperative pain, and although opioids are highly effective in blocking nociceptive pain through inhibition of the mu receptors, they do not block other pain pathways. Multimodal analgesia involves the use of several anesthetic and analgesic modalities that are strategically combined to block pain perception at different sites in the peripheral and central nervous systems. This balanced, multifaceted approach provides more effective control of postoperative pain than opioid drugs alone, allows lower doses of opioids to be used as part of the multimodal regimen (thereby reducing the risk of opioid-related adverse events and complications), and may facilitate more rapid recovery and improve certain outcome measures related to recovery time. One prospective randomized study evaluating the clinical value of multimodal pain management in elderly patients undergoing bipolar hip hemiarthroplasty found that a multimodal regimen, including preemptive pain medication and intraoperative periarticular injections, reduced pain on postoperative days 1 and 4, and reduced overall opioid use. This article describes

  5. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  6. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  7. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  8. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  9. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  10. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35 Section 66.10-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights....

  11. Modelling group navigation: transitive social structures improve navigational performance

    PubMed Central

    Flack, Andrea; Biro, Dora; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Collective navigation demands that group members reach consensus on which path to follow, a task that might become more challenging when the group's members have different social connections. Group decision-making mechanisms have been studied successfully in the past using individual-based modelling, although many of these studies have neglected the role of social connections between the group's interacting members. Nevertheless, empirical studies have demonstrated that individual recognition, previous shared experiences and inter-individual familiarity can influence the cohesion and the dynamics of the group as well as the relative spatial positions of specific individuals within it. Here, we use models of collective motion to study the impact of social relationships on group navigation by introducing social network structures into a model of collective motion. Our results show that groups consisting of equally informed individuals achieve the highest level of accuracy when they are hierarchically organized with the minimum number of preferred connections per individual. We also observe that the navigational accuracy of a group will depend strongly on detailed aspects of its social organization. More specifically, group navigation does not only depend on the underlying social relationships, but also on how much weight leading individuals put on following others. Also, we show that groups with certain social structures can compensate better for an increased level of navigational error. The results have broader implications for studies on collective navigation and motion because they show that only by considering a group's social system can we fully elucidate the dynamics and advantages of joint movements. PMID:26063820

  12. Modelling group navigation: transitive social structures improve navigational performance.

    PubMed

    Flack, Andrea; Biro, Dora; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

    2015-07-01

    Collective navigation demands that group members reach consensus on which path to follow, a task that might become more challenging when the group's members have different social connections. Group decision-making mechanisms have been studied successfully in the past using individual-based modelling, although many of these studies have neglected the role of social connections between the group's interacting members. Nevertheless, empirical studies have demonstrated that individual recognition, previous shared experiences and inter-individual familiarity can influence the cohesion and the dynamics of the group as well as the relative spatial positions of specific individuals within it. Here, we use models of collective motion to study the impact of social relationships on group navigation by introducing social network structures into a model of collective motion. Our results show that groups consisting of equally informed individuals achieve the highest level of accuracy when they are hierarchically organized with the minimum number of preferred connections per individual. We also observe that the navigational accuracy of a group will depend strongly on detailed aspects of its social organization. More specifically, group navigation does not only depend on the underlying social relationships, but also on how much weight leading individuals put on following others. Also, we show that groups with certain social structures can compensate better for an increased level of navigational error. The results have broader implications for studies on collective navigation and motion because they show that only by considering a group's social system can we fully elucidate the dynamics and advantages of joint movements. PMID:26063820

  13. Route learning in Korsakoff's syndrome: Residual acquisition of spatial memory despite profound amnesia.

    PubMed

    Oudman, Erik; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Wijnia, Jan W; Seekles, Maaike L; Postma, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is characterized by explicit amnesia, but relatively spared implicit memory. The aim of this study was to assess to what extent KS patients can acquire spatial information while performing a spatial navigation task. Furthermore, we examined whether residual spatial acquisition in KS was based on automatic or effortful coding processes. Therefore, 20 KS patients and 20 matched healthy controls performed six tasks on spatial navigation after they navigated through a residential area. Ten participants per group were instructed to pay close attention (intentional condition), while 10 received mock instructions (incidental condition). KS patients showed hampered performance on a majority of tasks, yet their performance was superior to chance level on a route time and distance estimation tasks, a map drawing task and a route walking task. Performance was relatively spared on the route distance estimation task, but there were large variations between participants. Acquisition in KS was automatic rather than effortful, since no significant differences were obtained between the intentional and incidental condition on any task, whereas for the healthy controls, the intention to learn was beneficial for the map drawing task and the route walking task. The results of this study suggest that KS patients are still able to acquire spatial information during navigation on multiple domains despite the presence of the explicit amnesia. Residual acquisition is most likely based on automatic coding processes. PMID:25345967

  14. Autonomous navigation system. [gyroscopic pendulum for air navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An inertial navigation system utilizing a servo-controlled two degree of freedom pendulum to obtain specific force components in the locally level coordinate system is described. The pendulum includes a leveling gyroscope and an azimuth gyroscope supported on a two gimbal system. The specific force components in the locally level coordinate system are converted to components in the geographical coordinate system by means of a single Euler transformation. The standard navigation equations are solved to determine longitudinal and lateral velocities. Finally, vehicle position is determined by a further integration.

  15. Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Hanna, Robert A.; Mossey, Michael P.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.; Martin Mur, Tomas J.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.

    2009-01-01

    MONTE (Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment) Release 7.3 is an extensible software system designed to support trajectory and navigation analysis/design for space missions. MONTE is intended to replace the current navigation and trajectory analysis software systems, which, at the time of this reporting, are used by JPL's Navigation and Mission Design section. The software provides an integrated, simplified, and flexible system that can be easily maintained to serve the needs of future missions in need of navigation services.

  16. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

  17. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

  18. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

  19. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

  20. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may...-range means of navigation which enable a reliable determination to be made of the position of...

  1. Clinical Experience with Cone Beam CT Navigation for Tumor Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Van der Sterren, William; Radaelli, Alessandro; Carelsen, Bart; Wood, Bradford J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe clinical use and potential benefits of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) navigation to perform image guided percutaneous tumor ablations. Materials and Methods All ablations performed between February 2011 and February 2013 using CBCT navigation, were included. Sixteen patients underwent 20 ablations for 29 lesions. CBCT ablation planning capabilities include multimodality image fusion and tumor segmentation for visualization, depiction of the predicted ablation zones for intra-procedural planning and segmentation of the ablated area for immediate post-treatment verification. Number and purpose of CBCT were examined. The initial ablation plan defined as number of probes and duration of energy delivery was recorded for 20/29 lesions. Technical success and local recurrences were recorded. Primary and secondary effectiveness rates were calculated. Results Image fusion was utilized for 16 lesions and intra-procedural ultrasound for 4. Of the 20/29 lesions, where the ablation plans were recorded, there was no deviation from the plan in 14. In the remaining 6/20, iterative planning was needed for complete tumor coverage. An average of 8.7 ± 3.2 CBCT were performed per procedure, including 1.3 ± 0.5 for tumor segmentation and planning, 1.7 ± 0.7 for probe position confirmation, 3.9 ± 2 to ensure complete coverage. Mean follow-up was 18.6 ± 6.5 months. 28/29 ablations were technically successful (96.5%). Of ablations performed with curative intent, technical effectiveness at one-month was 25/26 (96.1%) and 22/26 (84.6%) at last follow-up. Local tumor progression was observed in 11.5% (3/26). Conclusion CBCT navigation may add information to assist and improve ablation guidance and monitoring. PMID:25645409

  2. Navigation with Electromagnetic Tracking for Interventional Radiology Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Bradford J.; Zhang, Hui; Durrani, Amir; Glossop, Neil; Ranjan, Sohan; Lindisch, David; Levy, Eliott; Banovac, Filip; Borgert, Joern; Krueger, Sascha; Kruecker, Jochen; Viswanathan, Anand; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the feasibility of the use of preprocedural imaging for guide wire, catheter, and needle navigation with electromagnetic tracking in phantom and animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS An image-guided intervention software system was developed based on open-source software components. Catheters, needles, and guide wires were constructed with small position and orientation sensors in the tips. A tetrahedral-shaped weak electromagnetic field generator was placed in proximity to an abdominal vascular phantom or three pigs on the angiography table. Preprocedural computed tomographic (CT) images of the phantom or pig were loaded into custom-developed tracking, registration, navigation, and rendering software. Devices were manipulated within the phantom or pig with guidance from the previously acquired CT scan and simultaneous real-time angiography. Navigation within positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) volumetric datasets was also performed. External and endovascular fiducials were used for registration in the phantom, and registration error and tracking error were estimated. RESULTS The CT scan position of the devices within phantoms and pigs was accurately determined during angiography and biopsy procedures, with manageable error for some applications. Preprocedural CT depicted the anatomy in the region of the devices with real-time position updating and minimal registration error and tracking error (<5 mm). PET can also be used with this system to guide percutaneous biopsies to the most metabolically active region of a tumor. CONCLUSIONS Previously acquired CT, MR, or PET data can be accurately codisplayed during procedures with reconstructed imaging based on the position and orientation of catheters, guide wires, or needles. Multimodality interventions are feasible by allowing the real-time updated display of previously acquired functional or morphologic imaging during angiography, biopsy, and ablation. PMID:15802449

  3. Behavioral Mapless Navigation Using Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Randall P.; Miller, Samuel A.; Bradley, Arthur T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents work on the development and implementation of a novel approach to robotic navigation. In this system, map-building and localization for obstacle avoidance are discarded in favor of moment-by-moment behavioral processing of the sonar sensor data. To accomplish this, we developed a network of behaviors that communicate through the passing of rings, data structures that are similar in form to the sonar data itself and express the decisions of each behavior. Through the use of these rings, behaviors can moderate each other, conflicting impulses can be mediated, and designers can easily connect modules to create complex emergent navigational techniques. We discuss the development of a number of these modules and their successful use as a navigation system in the Trinity omnidirectional robot.

  4. Navigation systems. [for interplanetary flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The elements of the measurement and communications network comprising the global deep space navigation system (DSN) for NASA missions are described. Among the measurement systems discussed are: VLBI, two-way Doppler and range measurements, and optical measurements carried out on board the spacecraft. Processing of navigation measurement is carried out using two modules: an N-body numerical integration of the trajectory (and state transition partial derivatives) based on pre-guessed initial conditions; and partial derivatives of simulated observables corresponding to each actual observation. Calculations of velocity correction parameters is performed by precise modelling of all physical phenomena influencing the observational measurements, including: planetary motions; tracking station locations, gravity field structure, and transmission media effects. Some of the contributions to earth-relative orbit estimate errors for the Doppler/range system on board Voyager are discussed in detail. A line drawing of the DSN navigation system is provided.

  5. VHDL Control Routing Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-10

    The control router simulates a backplane consisting of up to 16 slot. Slot 0, reserved for a control module (cr-ctrl), generates the system clocks and provides the serial interface to the Gating Logic. The remaining 15 slots (1-15) contain routing modules (cr mod), each having up to 64 serial inputs and outputs with FIFOs. Messages to be transmitted to the Control Router are taken from text files. There are currently 17 such source files. Inmore » the model, the serial output of each source is connected to multiple receivers, so that there are 8 identical messages transmitted to the router for each message file entry.« less

  6. 14 CFR 129.22 - Communication and navigation equipment for rotorcraft operations under VFR over routes navigated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unless the rotorcraft is equipped with the radio communication equipment necessary under normal operating... unless that rotorcraft is equipped with— (1) Radio communication equipment necessary under...

  7. A Viral Pilot for HCMV Navigation?

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    gH/gL virion envelope glycoprotein complexes of herpesviruses serve as entry complexes and mediate viral cell tropism. By binding additional viral proteins, gH/gL forms multimeric complexes which bind to specific host cell receptors. Both Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) express alternative multimeric gH/gL complexes. Relative amounts of these alternative complexes in the viral envelope determine which host cells are preferentially infected. Host cells of EBV can modulate the gH/gL complex complement of progeny viruses by cell type-dependent degradation of one of the associating proteins. Host cells of HCMV modulate the tropism of their virus progenies by releasing or not releasing virus populations with a specific gH/gL complex complement out of a heterogeneous pool of virions. The group of Jeremy Kamil has recently shown that the HCMV ER-resident protein UL148 controls integration of one of the HCMV gH/gL complexes into virions and thus creates a pool of virions which can be routed by different host cells. This first mechanistic insight into regulation of the gH/gL complex complement of HCMV progenies presents UL148 as a pilot candidate for HCMV navigation in its infected host. PMID:26184287

  8. Not just passengers: pigeons, Columba livia, can learn homing routes while flying with a more experienced conspecific

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Benjamin; Flack, Andrea; Freeman, Robin; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

    2013-01-01

    For animals that travel in groups, the directional choices of conspecifics are potentially a rich source of information for spatial learning. In this study, we investigate how the opportunity to follow a locally experienced demonstrator affects route learning by pigeons over repeated homing flights. This test of social influences on navigation takes advantage of the individually distinctive routes that pigeons establish when trained alone. We found that pigeons learn routes just as effectively while flying with a partner as control pigeons do while flying alone. However, rather than learning the exact route of the demonstrator, the paired routes shifted over repeated flights, which suggests that the birds with less local experience also took an active role in the navigational task. The efficiency of the original routes was a key factor in how far they shifted, with less efficient routes undergoing the greatest changes. In this context, inefficient routes are unlikely to be maintained through repeated rounds of social transmission, and instead more efficient routes are achieved because of the interaction between social learning and information pooling. PMID:23135677

  9. Surgical navigation in oral implantology.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert J; Bier, Jurgen

    2006-03-01

    The ability to generate 3-dimensional volumetric images of the maxillofacial area has allowed surgeons to evaluate anatomy before surgery and plan for the placement of implants in ideal positions. However, the ability to transfer that information to surgical reality has been the most challenging part of implant dentistry. With the advent of computer-assisted surgery, the surgeon may now navigate through the entire implant procedure with extremely high accuracy. A new portable laptop navigated system for oral implantology is discussed as an adjunct for complex implant cases. PMID:16569960

  10. Navigation: traveling the water highways!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Marion; Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank, (artist)

    1996-01-01

    NAVIGATION is travel or transportation over water. Many different kinds of boats and ships are used on rivers and oceans to move people and products from one place to another. Navigation was extremely important for foreign and domestic trade and travel in the early days of our country before cars, trucks, trains, and airplanes were invented. In those days, rivers were used as "roads" to connect inland settlements to river and coastal ports. Communities established at these commercial ports became important economic, cultural, and social hubs in the development of our Nation.

  11. Seamless Resource-Adaptive Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Tim; Stahl, Christoph; Baus, Jörg; Wahlster, Wolfgang

    Research in the project RENA (REsource-Adapative NAvigation) together with DFKI GmbH, BMW Research and Technology AG, and Eyeled GmbH has been concerned with the conceptual and methodological foundations and the design of a resource-adaptive platform for seamless outdoor and indoor navigation that can serve as a basis for product development by the companies in the RENA consortium. Future in-car assistance systems will have a user interface, which adapts to the driveŕs current exposure caused by the actual traffic situation.

  12. Different "routes" to a cognitive map: dissociable forms of spatial knowledge derived from route and cartographic map learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zherdeva, Ksenia; Ekstrom, Arne D

    2014-10-01

    An important, but as yet incompletely resolved, issue is whether spatial knowledge acquired during navigation differs significantly from that acquired by studying a cartographic map. This, in turn, is relevant to understanding the generalizability of the concept of a "cognitive map," which is often likened to a cartographic map. On the basis of previous theoretical proposals, we hypothesized that route and cartographic map learning would produce differences in the dynamics of acquisition of landmark-referenced (allocentric) knowledge, relative to view-referenced (egocentric) knowledge. We compared this model with competing predictions from two other models linked to route versus map learning. To test these ideas, participants repeatedly performed a judgment of relative direction (JRD) and a scene- and orientation-dependent pointing (SOP) task while undergoing route and cartographic map learning of virtual spatial environments. In Experiment 1, we found that map learning led to significantly faster improvements in JRD pointing accuracy than did route learning. In Experiment 2, in contrast, we found that route learning led to more immediate and greater improvements overall in SOP accuracy, as compared to map learning. Comparing Experiments 1 and 2, we found a significant three-way interaction effect, indicating that improvements in performance differed for the JRD versus the SOP task as a function of route versus map learning. We interpreted these findings as suggesting that the learning modality differentially affects the dynamics of how we utilize primarily landmark-referenced versus view-referenced knowledge, suggesting potential differences in how we utilize spatial representations acquired from routes versus cartographic maps. PMID:24845757

  13. Landmarks or panoramas: what do navigating ants attend to for guidance?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Insects are known to rely on terrestrial landmarks for navigation. Landmarks are used to chart a route or pinpoint a goal. The distant panorama, however, is often thought not to guide navigation directly during a familiar journey, but to act as a contextual cue that primes the correct memory of the landmarks. Results We provided Melophorus bagoti ants with a huge artificial landmark located right near the nest entrance to find out whether navigating ants focus on such a prominent visual landmark for homing guidance. When the landmark was displaced by small or large distances, ant routes were affected differently. Certain behaviours appeared inconsistent with the hypothesis that guidance was based on the landmark only. Instead, comparisons of panoramic images recorded on the field, encompassing both landmark and distal panorama, could explain most aspects of the ant behaviours. Conclusion Ants navigating along a familiar route do not focus on obvious landmarks or filter out distal panoramic cues, but appear to be guided by cues covering a large area of their panoramic visual field, including both landmarks and distal panorama. Using panoramic views seems an appropriate strategy to cope with the complexity of natural scenes and the poor resolution of insects' eyes. The ability to isolate landmarks from the rest of a scene may be beyond the capacity of animals that do not possess a dedicated object-perception visual stream like primates. PMID:21871114

  14. Seamless Indoor-Outdoor Navigation for Unmanned Multi-Sensor Aerial Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranoa, , D.; Uijt de Haag, M.; Dill, E.; Vilardaga, S.; Duan, P.

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of navigation algorithms to enable seamless operation of a small-size multi-copter in an indoor-outdoor environment. In urban and indoor environments a GPS position capability may be unavailable not only due to shadowing, significant signal attenuation or multipath, but also due to intentional denial or deception. The proposed navigation algorithm uses data from a GPS receiver, multiple 2D laser scanners, and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). This paper addresses the proposed multi-mode fusion algorithm and provides initial result using flight test data. This paper furthermore describes the 3DR hexacopter platform that has been used to collect data in an operational environment, starting in an open environment, transitioning to an indoor environment, traversing a building, and, finally, transitioning back to the outdoor environment. Implementation issues will be discussed.

  15. Mapping the navigational knowledge of individually foraging ants, Myrmecia croslandi.

    PubMed

    Narendra, Ajay; Gourmaud, Sarah; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-08-22

    Ants are efficient navigators, guided by path integration and visual landmarks. Path integration is the primary strategy in landmark-poor habitats, but landmarks are readily used when available. The landmark panorama provides reliable information about heading direction, routes and specific location. Visual memories for guidance are often acquired along routes or near to significant places. Over what area can such locally acquired memories provide information for reaching a place? This question is unusually approachable in the solitary foraging Australian jack jumper ant, since individual foragers typically travel to one or two nest-specific foraging trees. We find that within 10 m from the nest, ants both with and without home vector information available from path integration return directly to the nest from all compass directions, after briefly scanning the panorama. By reconstructing panoramic views within the successful homing range, we show that in the open woodland habitat of these ants, snapshot memories acquired close to the nest provide sufficient navigational information to determine nest-directed heading direction over a surprisingly large area, including areas that animals may have not visited previously. PMID:23804615

  16. Mapping the navigational knowledge of individually foraging ants, Myrmecia croslandi

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Ajay; Gourmaud, Sarah; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Ants are efficient navigators, guided by path integration and visual landmarks. Path integration is the primary strategy in landmark-poor habitats, but landmarks are readily used when available. The landmark panorama provides reliable information about heading direction, routes and specific location. Visual memories for guidance are often acquired along routes or near to significant places. Over what area can such locally acquired memories provide information for reaching a place? This question is unusually approachable in the solitary foraging Australian jack jumper ant, since individual foragers typically travel to one or two nest-specific foraging trees. We find that within 10 m from the nest, ants both with and without home vector information available from path integration return directly to the nest from all compass directions, after briefly scanning the panorama. By reconstructing panoramic views within the successful homing range, we show that in the open woodland habitat of these ants, snapshot memories acquired close to the nest provide sufficient navigational information to determine nest-directed heading direction over a surprisingly large area, including areas that animals may have not visited previously. PMID:23804615

  17. Multimodal sensing strategies for detecting transparent barriers indoors from a mobile platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, Isaiah; Kleine, R. Kaleb; Kraus, Dustan; Mascareñas, David

    2015-04-01

    There is currently an interest in developing mobile sensing platforms that fly indoors. The primary goal for these platforms is to be able to successfully navigate a building under various lighting and environmental conditions. There are numerous research challenges associated with this goal, one of which is the platform's ability to detect and identify the presence of transparent barriers. Transparent barriers could include windows, glass partitions, or skylights. For example, in order to successfully navigate inside of a structure, these platforms will need to sense if a space contains a transparent barrier and whether or not this space can be traversed. This project's focus has been developing a multimodal sensing system that can successfully identify such transparent barriers under various lighting conditions while aboard a mobile platform. Along with detecting transparent barriers, this sensing platform is capable of distinguishing between reflective, opaque, and transparent barriers. It will be critical for this system to be able to identify transparent barriers in real-time in order for the navigation system to maneuver accordingly. The properties associated with the interaction between various frequencies of light and transparent materials were one of the techniques leveraged to solve this problem.

  18. Quantum theory of multimode polariton condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racine, David; Eastham, P. R.

    2014-08-01

    We develop a theory for the dynamics of the density matrix describing a multimode polariton condensate. In such a condensate several single-particle orbitals become highly occupied, due to stimulated scattering from reservoirs of high-energy excitons. A generic few-parameter model for the system leads to a Lindblad equation which includes saturable pumping, decay, and condensate interactions. We show how this theory can be used to obtain the population distributions, and the time-dependent first- and second-order coherence functions, in such a multimode condensate. As a specific application, we consider a polaritonic Josephson junction, formed from a double-well potential. We obtain the population distributions, emission line shapes, and widths (first-order coherence functions), and predict the dephasing time of the Josephson oscillations.

  19. Towards multimodal nonlinear optical tomography - experimental methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogler, N.; Medyukhina, A.; Latka, I.; Kemper, S.; Böhm, M.; Dietzek, B.; Popp, J.

    2011-08-01

    All-optical microspectroscopic and tomographic tools reveal great potential for clinical dermatologic diagnostics, i.e., investigation of human skin and skin diseases. While optical-coherence tomography has been complemented by two-photon fluorescence tomography and second-harmonic generation tomography, a joint study of various nonlinear optical microspectroscopies, i.e., application of the recently developed multimodal imaging approach, to sizable human-tissue samples has not been evaluated up to now. Here, we present such multimodal approach combining different nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms for imaging, namely two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) into a joint microscopic experiment. We show the potential of imaging large skin areas and discuss the information obtained in a case study comparing normal skin and keloid tissue.

  20. Size-based microfluidic multimodal microparticle sorter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Papautsky, Ian

    2015-03-01

    Microfluidic sorting of synthetic and biological microparticles has attracted much interest in recent years. Inertial microfluidics uses hydrodynamic forces to manipulate migration of such microparticles in microfluidic channels to achieve passive sorting based on size with high throughput. However, most inertial microfluidic devices are only capable of bimodal separation with a single cutoff diameter and a well-defined size difference. These limitations inhibit efficient separation of real-world samples that often include heterogeneous mixtures of multiple microparticle components. Our design overcomes these challenges to achieve continuous multimodal sorting of microparticles with high resolution and high tunability of separation cutoff diameters. We demonstrate separations with flexible modulation of the separation bandwidth and the passband location. Our approach offers a number of benefits, including straightforward system design, easily and precisely tuned cutoff diameters, high separation resolution, and high throughput. Ultimately, the unique multimodal separation functionality significantly broadens applications of inertial microfluidics in sorting of complex microparticle samples. PMID:25590954