Science.gov

Sample records for multimodal route navigation

  1. Multimodal cognitive interface for robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Elmogy, Mohammed; Habel, Christopher; Zhang, Jianwei

    2011-02-01

    To build effective interactions between humans and robots, they should have common ground of understanding that creates realistic expectations and forms the basis communications. An emerging approach to doing this is to create cognitive models of human reasoning and behavior selection. We have developed a robot navigation system that uses both spatial language and graphical representation to describe route-based navigation tasks for a mobile robot. Our proposed route instruction language (RIL) is intended as a semi-formal language for instructing the robot to execute a route in an indoor environment. We implemented an instruction interpreter to process the route description and generate its equivalent symbolic and topological map representations. A topological map is generated to describe relationships among features of the environment in a more abstract form without any absolute reference system to treat the ambiguity which can occur when the robot cannot recognize the current landmark. The symbolic and topological map representations are supplied to other system components as an initial path estimation to guide the robot while it plans its navigation task. We conducted some experiments to evaluate the routes which are written by using the RIL instructions. PMID:21203798

  2. Pigeon Navigation: Different Routes Lead to Frankfurt

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner, Ingo; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2014-01-01

    Background Tracks of pigeons homing to the Frankfurt loft revealed an odd phenomenon: whereas birds returning from the North approach their loft more or less directly in a broad front, pigeons returning from the South choose, from 25 km from home onward, either of two corridors, a direct one and one with a considerable detour to the West. This implies differences in the navigational process. Methodology/Principle Findings Pigeons released at sites at the beginning of the westerly corridor and in this corridor behave just like pigeons returning from farther south, deviating to the west before turning towards their loft. Birds released at sites within the straight corridors, in contrast, take more or less straight routes. The analysis of the short-term correlation dimension, a quantity reflecting the complexity of the system and with it, the number of factors involved in the navigational process, reveals that it is significantly larger in pigeons choosing the westerly corridor than in the birds flying straight - 3.03 vs. 2.85. The difference is small, however, suggesting a different interpretation of the same factors, with some birds apparently preferring particular factors over others. Conclusions The specific regional distribution of the factors which pigeons use to determine their home course seems to provide ambiguous information in the area 25 km south of the loft, resulting in the two corridors. Pigeons appear to navigate by deriving their routes directly from the locally available navigational factors which they interpret in an individual way. The fractal nature of the correlation dimensions indicates that the navigation process of pigeons is chaotic-deterministic; published tracks of migratory birds suggest that this may apply to avian navigation in general. PMID:25391144

  3. Osm-Oriented Method of Multimodal Route Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wu, Q.; Chen, L.; Xiong, W.; Jing, N.

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing pervasiveness of basic facilitate of transportation and information, the need of multimodal route planning is becoming more essential in the fields of communication and transportation, urban planning, logistics management, etc. This article mainly described an OSM-oriented method of multimodal route planning. Firstly, it introduced how to extract the information we need from OSM data and build proper network model and storage model; then it analysed the accustomed cost standard adopted by most travellers; finally, we used shortest path algorithm to calculate the best route with multiple traffic means.

  4. A multimodal location and routing model for hazardous materials transportation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuanchang; Lu, Wei; Wang, Wen; Quadrifoglio, Luca

    2012-08-15

    The recent US Commodity Flow Survey data suggest that transporting hazardous materials (HAZMAT) often involves multiple modes, especially for long-distance transportation. However, not much research has been conducted on HAZMAT location and routing on a multimodal transportation network. Most existing HAZMAT location and routing studies focus exclusively on single mode (either highways or railways). Motivated by the lack of research on multimodal HAZMAT location and routing and the fact that there is an increasing demand for it, this research proposes a multimodal HAZMAT model that simultaneously optimizes the locations of transfer yards and transportation routes. The developed model is applied to two case studies of different network sizes to demonstrate its applicability. The results are analyzed and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:22633882

  5. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  6. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  7. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  8. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  9. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  10. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  11. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  12. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  13. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  14. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  15. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  16. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  17. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  18. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  19. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  20. Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging and Multimodal Surgical Navigation Using Goggle System.

    PubMed

    Mela, Christopher A; Papay, Francis A; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative imaging is an invaluable tool in many surgical procedures. We have developed a wearable stereoscopic imaging and display system entitled Integrated Imaging Goggle, which can provide real-time multimodal image guidance. With the Integrated Imaging Goggle, wide field-of-view fluorescence imaging is tracked and registered with intraoperative ultrasound imaging and preoperative tomography-based surgical navigation, to provide integrated multimodal imaging capabilities in real-time. Herein we describe the system instrumentation and the methods of using the Integrated Imaging Goggle to guide surgeries. PMID:27283420

  1. Iconic memory-based omnidirectional route panorama navigation.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Yasushi; Imai, Kousuke; Tsuji, Kentaro; Yachida, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    A route navigation method for a mobile robot with an omnidirectional image sensor is described. The route is memorized from a series of consecutive omnidirectional images of the horizon when the robot moves to its goal. While the robot is navigating to the goal point, input is matched against the memorized spatio-temporal route pattern by using dual active contour models and the exact robot position and orientation is estimated from the converged shape of the active contour models. PMID:15628270

  2. Detection of navigation route in greenhouse environment with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiqing; Ji, Changying; An, Qiu; Ding, Qishuo

    2011-12-01

    A route detecting algorithm was proposed for the cucumber picking robot navigation in greenhouse environment. Possible navigation route was determined from the additive value of the column scanning results. Color difference between cucumber plants and the mid row soil was analyzed through combining the RGB elements segregations with extra-green (ExG) value and extra-red (ExR) value. The obtained gray image was segmented with OTSU threshold method, which made the gray-color abruptly changed pixels along the two sides of the central line identified. Mean value of these selected pixels in each line was calculated to provide the discrete points along the navigation route. Finally least square method was used to fit these discrete points to provide the navigation lines, from which, the route for current navigation scheme can be determined. The proposed algorithm was applied to multiple images for its high speed and anti-noise verification.

  3. Detection of navigation route in greenhouse environment with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiqing; Ji, Changying; An, Qiu; Ding, Qishuo

    2012-01-01

    A route detecting algorithm was proposed for the cucumber picking robot navigation in greenhouse environment. Possible navigation route was determined from the additive value of the column scanning results. Color difference between cucumber plants and the mid row soil was analyzed through combining the RGB elements segregations with extra-green (ExG) value and extra-red (ExR) value. The obtained gray image was segmented with OTSU threshold method, which made the gray-color abruptly changed pixels along the two sides of the central line identified. Mean value of these selected pixels in each line was calculated to provide the discrete points along the navigation route. Finally least square method was used to fit these discrete points to provide the navigation lines, from which, the route for current navigation scheme can be determined. The proposed algorithm was applied to multiple images for its high speed and anti-noise verification.

  4. Time optimal route planning algorithm of LBS online navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Bao, Shitai; Su, Kui; Fang, Qiushui; Yang, Jingfeng

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes a time optimal route planning optimization algorithm in the mode of LBS online navigation based on the improved Dijkstra algorithms. Combined with the returning real-time location information by on-line users' handheld terminals, the algorithm can satisfy requirement of the optimal time in the mode of LBS online navigation. A navigation system is developed and applied in actual navigation operations. Operating results show that the algorithm could form a reasonable coordination on the basis of shortest route and fastest velocity in the requirement of optimal time. The algorithm could also store the calculated real-time route information in the cache to improve the efficiency of route planning and to reduce the planning time-consuming.

  5. A model of ant route navigation driven by scene familiarity.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints. PMID:22241975

  6. A Model of Ant Route Navigation Driven by Scene Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints. PMID:22241975

  7. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  8. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  9. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  10. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  11. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  12. New Trans-Arctic shipping routes navigable by midcentury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laurence C; Stephenson, Scott R

    2013-03-26

    Recent historic observed lows in Arctic sea ice extent, together with climate model projections of additional ice reductions in the future, have fueled speculations of potential new trans-Arctic shipping routes linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. However, numerical studies of how projected geophysical changes in sea ice will realistically impact ship navigation are lacking. To address this deficiency, we analyze seven climate model projections of sea ice properties, assuming two different climate change scenarios [representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5] and two vessel classes, to assess future changes in peak season (September) Arctic shipping potential. By midcentury, changing sea ice conditions enable expanded September navigability for common open-water ships crossing the Arctic along the Northern Sea Route over the Russian Federation, robust new routes for moderately ice-strengthened (Polar Class 6) ships over the North Pole, and new routes through the Northwest Passage for both vessel classes. Although numerous other nonclimatic factors also limit Arctic shipping potential, these findings have important economic, strategic, environmental, and governance implications for the region. PMID:23487747

  13. 14 CFR 121.347 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 121.347 Section 121.347 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.347 Communication and navigation equipment...

  14. 14 CFR 121.347 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 121.347 Section 121.347 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.347 Communication and navigation equipment...

  15. 14 CFR 121.347 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 121.347 Section 121.347 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.347 Communication and navigation equipment...

  16. 14 CFR 121.347 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 121.347 Section 121.347 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.347 Communication and navigation equipment...

  17. 14 CFR 121.347 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 121.347 Section 121.347 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.347 Communication and navigation equipment...

  18. 14 CFR 135.161 - Communication and navigation equipment for aircraft operations under VFR over routes navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for aircraft operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 135.161 Section 135.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS...

  19. 77 FR 71492 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...-1 by adding two new waypoints to the route (77 FR 65461). Subsequent to publication, an error was... published in the Federal Register on October 29, 2012 (77 FR 65461) for RNAV route Q-1 is corrected as... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1;...

  20. Active route learning in virtual environments: disentangling movement control from intention, instruction specificity, and navigation control.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2013-09-01

    Active navigation research examines how physiological and psychological involvement in navigation benefits spatial learning. However, existing conceptualizations of active navigation comprise separable, distinct factors. This research disentangles the contributions of movement control (i.e., self-contained vs. observed movement) as a central factor from learning intention (Experiment 1), instruction specificity and instruction control (Experiment 2), as well as navigation control (Experiment 3) to spatial learning in virtual environments. We tested the effects of these factors on landmark recognition (landmark knowledge), tour-integration and route navigation (route knowledge). Our findings suggest that movement control leads to robust advantages in landmark knowledge as compared to observed movement. Advantages in route knowledge do not depend on learning intention, but on the need to elaborate spatial information. Whenever the necessary level of elaboration is assured for observed movement, too, the development of route knowledge is not inferior to that for self-contained movement. PMID:22922991

  1. Navigating the fifth dimension: new concepts in interactive multimodality and multidimensional image navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman; Rosset, Antoine; Dahlbom, Magnus; Czernin, Johannes

    2005-04-01

    Display and interpretation of multi dimensional data obtained from the combination of 3D data acquired from different modalities (such as PET-CT) require complex software tools allowing the user to navigate and modify the different image parameters. With faster scanners it is now possible to acquire dynamic images of a beating heart or the transit of a contrast agent adding a fifth dimension to the data. We developed a DICOM-compliant software for real time navigation in very large sets of 5 dimensional data based on an intuitive multidimensional jog-wheel widely used by the video-editing industry. The software, provided under open source licensing, allows interactive, single-handed, navigation through 3D images while adjusting blending of image modalities, image contrast and intensity and the rate of cine display of dynamic images. In this study we focused our effort on the user interface and means for interactively navigating in these large data sets while easily and rapidly changing multiple parameters such as image position, contrast, intensity, blending of colors, magnification etc. Conventional mouse-driven user interface requiring the user to manipulate cursors and sliders on the screen are too cumbersome and slow. We evaluated several hardware devices and identified a category of multipurpose jogwheel device that is used in the video-editing industry that is particularly suitable for rapidly navigating in five dimensions while adjusting several display parameters interactively. The application of this tool will be demonstrated in cardiac PET-CT imaging and functional cardiac MRI studies.

  2. Transportation routing analysis geographic information system -- TRAGIS, a multimodal transportation routing tool

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.

    1995-12-31

    Over 15 years ago, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed two transportation routing models: HIGHWAY, which predicts truck transportation routes, and INTERLINE, which predicts rail transportation routes. Subsequent modifications have been made to enhance each of these models. Some of these changes include population density information for routes, HM-164 routing regulations for highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) truck shipments, and inclusion of waterway routing into INTERLINE. The AIRPORT model, developed 2 years after the HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models, serves as an emergency response tool. This model identifies the nearest airports from a designated location. Currently, the AIRPORT model is inactive. The Transportation Management Division of the US Department of Energy held a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models in April 1994 to bring together many users of these models and other experts in the transportation routing field to discuss these models and to decide on the capabilities that needed to be added. Of the many needs discussed, the primary one was to have the network databases within a geographic information system (GIS). As a result of the Baseline Requirements Session, the development of a new GIS model has been initiated. This paper will discuss the development of the new Transportation Routing Analysis GIS (TRAGIS) model at ORNL.

  3. 76 FR 57910 - Regulated Navigation Area; Route 24 Bridge Construction, Tiverton and Portsmouth, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Route 24 Bridge Construction... waters of the Sakonnet River under and surrounding construction of the new Route 24 bridge that...

  4. 75 FR 68701 - Establishment and Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Navigation Routes in Alaska (75 FR 32120). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... one Q-route in Alaska. In response to comments received for a NPRM published February 12, 2009, (74 FR... Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979);...

  5. Virtual environment to evaluate multimodal feedback strategies for augmented navigation of the visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masayuki; Shokur, Solaiman; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Gassert, Roger; Bleuler, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel experimental environment to evaluate multimodal feedback strategies for augmented navigation of the visually impaired. The environment consists of virtual obstacles and walls, an optical tracking system and a simple device with audio and vibrotactile feedback that interacts with the virtual environment, and presents many advantages in terms of safety, flexibility, control over experimental parameters and cost. The subject can freely move in an empty room, while the position of head and arm are tracked in real time. A virtual environment (walls, obstacles) is randomly generated, and audio and vibrotactile feedback are given according to the distance from the subjects arm to the virtual walls/objects. We investigate the applicability of our environment using a simple, commercially available feedback device. Experiments with unimpaired subjects show that it is possible to use the setup to "blindly" navigate in an unpredictable virtual environment. This validates the environment as a test platform to investigate navigation and exploration strategies of the visually impaired, and to evaluate novel technologies for augmented navigation. PMID:21096984

  6. Multimodal sensory integration and concurrent navigation strategies for spatial cognition in real and artificial organisms.

    PubMed

    Arleo, Angelo; Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2007-09-01

    Flexible spatial behavior requires the ability to orchestrate the interaction of multiple parallel processes. At the sensory level, multimodal inputs must be combined to produce a robust description of the spatiotemporal properties of the environment. At the action-selection level, multiple concurrent navigation policies must be dynamically weighted in order to adopt the strategy that is the most adapted to the complexity of the task. Different neural substrates mediate the processing of spatial information. Elucidating their anatomo-functional interrelations is fundamental to unravel the overall spatial memory function. Here we first address the multisensory integration issue and we review a series of experimental findings (both behavioral and electrophysiological) concerning the neural bases of spatial learning and the way the brain builds unambiguous spatial representations from incoming multisensory streams. Second, we move at the navigation strategy level and present an overview of experimental data that begin to explain the cooperation-competition between the brain areas involved in spatial navigation. Third, we introduce the spatial cognition function from a computational neuroscience and neuro-robotics viewpoint. We provide an example of neuro-computational model that focuses on the importance of combining multisensory percepts to enable a robot to acquire coherent (spatial) memories of its interaction with the environment. PMID:17933016

  7. Memory and navigation: Compression of space varies with route length and turns.

    PubMed

    Bonasia, Kyra; Blommesteyn, Joseph; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    For memory to be efficient and useful during recall, problem-solving, and planning, retrieval must be compressed in time. Evidence from rodents suggests that neural compression during replay of spatial memories varies widely, with a range of compression ratios reported from 6:1 to 64:1. Anecdotal evidence suggests that similar compression occurs during mental navigation in humans: we recall how to get from one place to another countless times almost every day of our lives, and this recall never takes as long as physically travelling those routes would take. In this experiment we sought to determine whether this behavioural compression could be measured during mental navigation in humans (spatial memory replay), and which factors might affect the compression of such spatial memories. To this end, thirty participants mentally navigated routes between two landmarks, which varied in length and number of turns, as we measured replay times and recorded ratings of familiarity, detail, and presence. A multi-level model was used to determine which factors were associated with variation in compression. Route length and number of turns emerged from this model as significantly correlated with compression, such that longer routes were more compressed while compression was attenuated as the number of turns in a route increased. This suggests that compression during recall may be affected by specific features of a route, especially those that may act to segment the space or event being represented. PMID:26418606

  8. Honeybee navigation: following routes using polarized-light cues

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, P.; Evangelista, C.; Dacke, M.; Labhart, T.; Srinivasan, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that honeybees (Apis mellifera) are capable of using the pattern of polarized light in the sky to navigate to a food source, there is little or no direct behavioural evidence that they actually do so. We have examined whether bees can be trained to find their way through a maze composed of four interconnected tunnels, by using directional information provided by polarized light illumination from the ceilings of the tunnels. The results show that bees can learn this task, thus demonstrating directly, and for the first time, that bees are indeed capable of using the polarized-light information in the sky as a compass to steer their way to a food source. PMID:21282174

  9. 76 FR 52229 - Establishment of Area Navigation Route Q-37; Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...) to establish area navigation route Q-37 (74 FR 54943). Interested parties were invited to participate... Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  10. 75 FR 6319 - Proposed Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) route T-254 in the Houston, TX, terminal area by eliminating the...

  11. 75 FR 8286 - Proposed Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-15; California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Area Navigation Route...

  12. 77 FR 65253 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route T-240; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Area Navigation Route T-240; AK AGENCY: Federal...

  13. 77 FR 65461 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14... Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final...

  14. 77 FR 30883 - Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-130; UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 ; Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-130;...

  15. 77 FR 40490 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... the southwestern United States (77 FR 35618). Subsequent to publication, an error was found in the... June 14, 2012 (77 FR 35618) (FR Doc. 2012-14406) for RNAV route T- 310, is corrected under the... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Establishment of Area Navigation...

  16. Establishment criteria, routing algorithms and probability of use of inter-satellite links in mixed navigation constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songhui; Gui, Qingming; Li, Jianwen

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the establishment criteria, routing algorithm and the probability of use of ISLs (inter-satellite links) in the mixed navigation constellation of GEO satellites, IGSO satellites and MEO satellites are analyzed. Firstly, the general criteria of ISL establishment in mixed navigation constellation are proposed from the perspective of geometry, and the influences of these criteria on routing algorithms and the probability of use of ISLs are discussed. Then, from the perspective of autonomous orbit determination, the routing algorithm in mixed navigation constellation is designed. Thirdly, a stochastic study of ISLs load in mixed navigation constellation is proposed, and the formulae of probability of use of ISLs are given. Finally, in the simulation, the establishment criteria, routing algorithm and the probability of use of ISLs in a specific mixed navigation constellation of 3GEO + 3IGSO + 24MEO are discussed in detail. The findings of this paper provide a basis for the ISL establishment and routing algorithm, and offer the quantitative indicators for the use of ISL in the mixed navigation constellation.

  17. This Place Looks Familiar—How Navigators Distinguish Places with Ambiguous Landmark Objects When Learning Novel Routes

    PubMed Central

    Strickrodt, Marianne; O'Malley, Mary; Wiener, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    We present two experiments investigating how navigators deal with ambiguous landmark information when learning unfamiliar routes. In the experiments we presented landmark objects repeatedly along a route, which allowed us to manipulate how informative single landmarks were (1) about the navigators' location along the route and (2) about the action navigators had to take at that location. Experiment 1 demonstrated that reducing location informativeness alone did not affect route learning performance. While reducing both location and action informativeness led to decreased route learning performance, participants still performed well above chance level. This demonstrates that they used other information than just the identity of landmark objects at their current position to disambiguate their location along the route. To investigate how navigators distinguish between visually identical intersections, we systematically manipulated the identity of landmark objects and the actions required at preceding intersections in Experiment 2. Results suggest that the direction of turn at the preceding intersections was sufficient to tell two otherwise identical intersections apart. Together, results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that route knowledge is more complex than simple stimulus-response associations and that neighboring places are tightly linked. These links not only encompass sequence information but also directional information which is used to identify the correct direction of travel at subsequent locations, but can also be used for self-localization. PMID:26733921

  18. Do Humans Integrate Routes Into a Cognitive Map? Map- Versus Landmark-Based Navigation of Novel Shortcuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Patrick; Warren, William H.; Duchon, Andrew; Tarr, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Do humans integrate experience on specific routes into metric survey knowledge of the environment, or do they depend on a simpler strategy of landmark navigation? The authors tested this question using a novel shortcut paradigm during walking in a virtual environment. The authors find that participants could not take successful shortcuts in a…

  19. 78 FR 68777 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Atlanta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...This action proposes to establish nine low-altitude RNAV routes (T-routes) in the Atlanta, GA area. The new routes would support the Atlanta Optimization of Airspace and Procedures in a Metroplex (OAPM) project. The proposed routes would have connectivity to the current airway structure and would provide routing through, around and over the busy Atlanta Metroplex...

  20. Route optimisation and solving Zermelo's navigation problem during long distance migration in cross flows.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Christensen, Asbjørn; Fossette, Sabrina; Schofield, Gail; Talbot, Julian; Mariani, Patrizio

    2014-02-01

    The optimum path to follow when subjected to cross flows was first considered over 80 years ago by the German mathematician Ernst Zermelo, in the context of a boat being displaced by ocean currents, and has become known as the 'Zermelo navigation problem'. However, the ability of migrating animals to solve this problem has received limited consideration, even though wind and ocean currents cause the lateral displacement of flyers and swimmers, respectively, particularly during long-distance journeys of 1000s of kilometres. Here, we examine this problem by combining long-distance, open-ocean marine turtle movements (obtained via long-term GPS tracking of sea turtles moving 1000s of km), with a high resolution basin-wide physical ocean model to estimate ocean currents. We provide a robust mathematical framework to demonstrate that, while turtles eventually arrive at their target site, they do not follow the optimum (Zermelo's) route. Even though adult marine turtles regularly complete incredible long-distance migrations, these vertebrates primarily rely on course corrections when entering neritic waters during the final stages of migration. Our work introduces a new perspective in the analysis of wildlife tracking datasets, with different animal groups potentially exhibiting different levels of complexity in goal attainment during migration. PMID:24304813

  1. Insect navigation en route to the goal: multiple strategies for the use of landmarks

    PubMed

    Collett

    1996-01-01

    There are at least four distinct ways in which familiar landmarks aid an insect on its trips between nest and foraging site. Recognising scenes: when bees are displaced unexpectedly from their hive to one of several familiar locations, they are able to head in the direction of home as though they had previously linked an appropriate directional vector to a view of the scene at the release site. Biased detours: ants recognise familiar landmarks en route and will correct their path by steering consistently to the left or to the right around them. Aiming at beacons: bees and ants also guide their path by approaching familiar landmarks lying on or close to the direct line between start and finish. Simulations suggest that such mechanisms acting together may suffice to account for the routes taken by desert ants through a landmark-strewn environment: the stereotyped trajectories of individual ants can be modelled by a weighted combination of dead reckoning, biased detours and beacon-aiming. These mechanisms guide an insect sufficiently close to an inconspicuous goal for image matching to be successfully employed to locate it. Insects then move until their current retinal image matches a stored view of the surrounding panorama seen from a vantage point close to the goal. Bees and wasps perform learning flights on their first departure from a site to which they will return. These flights seem to be designed to pick up the information needed for several navigational strategies. Thus, a large portion of the learning flight of a bee leaving a feeder tends to be spent close to the feeder so aiding the acquisition of a view from that vantage point, as is needed for image matching. Bees and social wasps also tend to inspect their surroundings while facing along preferred directions and to adopt similar bearings before landing, thereby making it easy to employ retinotopically stored patterns in image matching. Aiming at beacons, in contrast, requires a landmark to be familiar to

  2. Navigating toward a novel environment from a route or survey perspective: neural correlates and context-dependent connectivity.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Guariglia, C; Sabatini, U; Nemmi, F

    2016-05-01

    When we move toward a novel environment we may learn it in different ways, i.e., by walking around or studying a map. Both types of learning seem to be very effective in daily life navigation and correspond to two different types of mental representation of space: route and survey representation. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of route and survey perspectives during learning and retrieval of novel environments. The study was carried out over 5 days, during which participants learned two paths from a different perspective (i.e., route learning and survey learning). Then participants had to retrieve these paths using a survey or route perspective during fMRI scans, on the first and fifth day. We found that the left inferior temporal lobe and right angular gyrus (AG) were activated more during recall of paths learned in a survey perspective than in a route perspective. We also found a session by perspective interaction effect on neural activity in brain areas classically involved in navigation such as the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC). A set of frontal, parietal and temporal areas showed different patterns of activity according to the type of retrieval perspective. We tested the context-dependent connectivity of right PPA, RSC and AG, finding that these areas showed different patterns of connectivity in relation to the learning and recalling perspective. Our results shed more light on the segregation of neural circuits involved in the acquisition of a novel environment and navigational strategies. PMID:25739692

  3. a New Multimodal Multi-Criteria Route Planning Model by Integrating a Fuzzy-Ahp Weighting Method and a Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderi, F.; Pahlavani, P.

    2015-12-01

    A multimodal multi-criteria route planning (MMRP) system provides an optimal multimodal route from an origin point to a destination point considering two or more criteria in a way this route can be a combination of public and private transportation modes. In this paper, the simulate annealing (SA) and the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP) were combined in order to find this route. In this regard, firstly, the effective criteria that are significant for users in their trip were determined. Then the weight of each criterion was calculated using the fuzzy AHP weighting method. The most important characteristic of this weighting method is the use of fuzzy numbers that aids the users to consider their uncertainty in pairwise comparison of criteria. After determining the criteria weights, the proposed SA algorithm were used for determining an optimal route from an origin to a destination. One of the most important problems in a meta-heuristic algorithm is trapping in local minima. In this study, five transportation modes, including subway, bus rapid transit (BRT), taxi, walking, and bus were considered for moving between nodes. Also, the fare, the time, the user's bother, and the length of the path were considered as effective criteria for solving the problem. The proposed model was implemented in an area in centre of Tehran in a GUI MATLAB programming language. The results showed a high efficiency and speed of the proposed algorithm that support our analyses.

  4. Bi-Objective Modelling for Hazardous Materials Road-Rail Multimodal Routing Problem with Railway Schedule-Based Space-Time Constraints.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Lang, Maoxiang; Wang, Danzhu

    2016-01-01

    The transportation of hazardous materials is always accompanied by considerable risk that will impact public and environment security. As an efficient and reliable transportation organization, a multimodal service should participate in the transportation of hazardous materials. In this study, we focus on transporting hazardous materials through the multimodal service network and explore the hazardous materials multimodal routing problem from the operational level of network planning. To formulate this problem more practicably, minimizing the total generalized costs of transporting the hazardous materials and the social risk along the planned routes are set as the optimization objectives. Meanwhile, the following formulation characteristics will be comprehensively modelled: (1) specific customer demands; (2) multiple hazardous material flows; (3) capacitated schedule-based rail service and uncapacitated time-flexible road service; and (4) environmental risk constraint. A bi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming model is first built to formulate the routing problem that combines the formulation characteristics above. Then linear reformations are developed to linearize and improve the initial model so that it can be effectively solved by exact solution algorithms on standard mathematical programming software. By utilizing the normalized weighted sum method, we can generate the Pareto solutions to the bi-objective optimization problem for a specific case. Finally, a large-scale empirical case study from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods in dealing with the practical problem. Various scenarios are also discussed in the case study. PMID:27483294

  5. Bi-Objective Modelling for Hazardous Materials Road–Rail Multimodal Routing Problem with Railway Schedule-Based Space–Time Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Lang, Maoxiang; Wang, Danzhu

    2016-01-01

    The transportation of hazardous materials is always accompanied by considerable risk that will impact public and environment security. As an efficient and reliable transportation organization, a multimodal service should participate in the transportation of hazardous materials. In this study, we focus on transporting hazardous materials through the multimodal service network and explore the hazardous materials multimodal routing problem from the operational level of network planning. To formulate this problem more practicably, minimizing the total generalized costs of transporting the hazardous materials and the social risk along the planned routes are set as the optimization objectives. Meanwhile, the following formulation characteristics will be comprehensively modelled: (1) specific customer demands; (2) multiple hazardous material flows; (3) capacitated schedule-based rail service and uncapacitated time-flexible road service; and (4) environmental risk constraint. A bi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming model is first built to formulate the routing problem that combines the formulation characteristics above. Then linear reformations are developed to linearize and improve the initial model so that it can be effectively solved by exact solution algorithms on standard mathematical programming software. By utilizing the normalized weighted sum method, we can generate the Pareto solutions to the bi-objective optimization problem for a specific case. Finally, a large-scale empirical case study from the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region in China is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods in dealing with the practical problem. Various scenarios are also discussed in the case study. PMID:27483294

  6. 78 FR 37104 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Federal Register establishing five RNAV routes in the Washington, DC area (78 FR 29615). Subsequent to... (78 FR 29615; FR Doc. 2013-11969) for RNAV routes T-291 and T-295, is corrected under the descriptions... points in radio communications and onboard Flight Management System data entry. To resolve this...

  7. 78 FR 4353 - Proposed Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route T-266; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Alaska by removing two non-directional beacons (NDB) as the navigation signal source and replacing...

  8. 77 FR 65254 - Amendment of Area Navigation Routes Q-42 and Q-480; PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... alignment or operating requirements of the routes. DATES: Effective Dates: 0901 UTC, January 10, 2013....

  9. 75 FR 39149 - Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route (T-284); Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Register a final rule to establish RNAV route T-284 for the Houston, TX, terminal area (75 FR... Federal Register April 1, 2010 (75 FR 16336) . Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Issued in Washington, DC, on June 29, 2010....

  10. 78 FR 29615 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... altitude RNAV routes, designated T-291 and T-295, in the Washington, DC area (78 FR 10562, February 14... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  11. 76 FR 12643 - Proposed Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by... Identification and Charting The proposed helicopter RNAV routes would be identified by the prefix ``TK''...

  12. 78 FR 76784 - Proposed Modification, Revocation, and Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Charlotte, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by.... The proposed routes, in combination with existing VOR Federal airways, would provide...

  13. 77 FR 5733 - Proposed Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) serving the Chicago O'Hare International Airport, IL, terminal area...

  14. 75 FR 32120 - Proposed Establishment and Amendment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...-routes in Alaska. In response to comments received for a NPRM published February 12, 2009, (74 FR 7012... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  15. 77 FR 35618 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... routes in the southwestern United States (77 FR 24157). Interested parties were invited to participate in... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...

  16. 77 FR 22473 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish nine new RNAV routes (76 FR 79137). Interested... Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  17. Multimodal Literacy Practices in the Indigenous Sámi Classroom: Children Navigating in a Complex Multilingual Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietikäinen, Sari; Pitkänen-Huhta, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This article explores multimodal literacy practices in a transforming multilingual context of an indigenous and endangered Sámi language classroom. Looking at literacy practices as embedded in a complex and shifting terrain of language ideologies, language norms, and individual experiences and attitudes, we examined how multilingual Sámi children…

  18. Visualisation of very high resolution Martian topographic data and its application on landing site selection and rover route navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Lin, S.; Hong, J.; Park, D.; Yoon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    High resolution satellite imagery acquired from orbiters are able to provide detailed topographic information and therefore are recognised as an important tool for investigating planetary and terrestrial topography. The heritage of in-orbit high resolution imaging technology is now implemented in a series of Martian Missions, such as HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) onboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter). In order to fully utilise the data derived from image systems carried on various Mars orbiters, the generalised algorithms of image processing and photogrammetric Mars DTM extraction have been developed and implemented by Kim and Muller (2009), in which non-rigorous sensor model and hierarchical geomatics control were employed. Due to the successful “from medium to high” control strategy performed during processing, stable horizontal and vertical photogrammetric accuracy of resultant Mars DTM was achievable when compared with MOLA (Mars Obiter Laser Altimeter) DTM. Recently, the algorithms developed in Kim and Muller (2009) were further updated by employing advanced image matcher and improved sensor model. As the photogrammetric qualities of the updated topographic products are verified and the spatial solution can be up to sub-meter scale, they are of great value to be exploited for Martian rover landing site selection and rover route navigation. To this purpose, the DTMs and ortho-rectified imagery obtained from CTX and HiRISE covering potential future rovers and existing MER (Mars Exploration Rover) landing sites were firstly processed. For landing site selection, the engineering constraints such as slope and surface roughness were computed from DTMs. In addition, the combination of virtual topography and the estimated rover location was able to produce a sophisticated environment simulation of rover’s landing site. Regarding the rover navigation, the orbital DTMs and the images taken from cameras

  19. Multi-modal assessment of on-road demand of voice and manual phone calling and voice navigation entry across two embedded vehicle systems

    PubMed Central

    Mehler, Bruce; Kidd, David; Reimer, Bryan; Reagan, Ian; Dobres, Jonathan; McCartt, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One purpose of integrating voice interfaces into embedded vehicle systems is to reduce drivers’ visual and manual distractions with ‘infotainment’ technologies. However, there is scant research on actual benefits in production vehicles or how different interface designs affect attentional demands. Driving performance, visual engagement, and indices of workload (heart rate, skin conductance, subjective ratings) were assessed in 80 drivers randomly assigned to drive a 2013 Chevrolet Equinox or Volvo XC60. The Chevrolet MyLink system allowed completing tasks with one voice command, while the Volvo Sensus required multiple commands to navigate the menu structure. When calling a phone contact, both voice systems reduced visual demand relative to the visual–manual interfaces, with reductions for drivers in the Equinox being greater. The Equinox ‘one-shot’ voice command showed advantages during contact calling but had significantly higher error rates than Sensus during destination address entry. For both secondary tasks, neither voice interface entirely eliminated visual demand. Practitioner Summary: The findings reinforce the observation that most, if not all, automotive auditory–vocal interfaces are multi-modal interfaces in which the full range of potential demands (auditory, vocal, visual, manipulative, cognitive, tactile, etc.) need to be considered in developing optimal implementations and evaluating drivers’ interaction with the systems. Social Media: In-vehicle voice-interfaces can reduce visual demand but do not eliminate it and all types of demand need to be taken into account in a comprehensive evaluation. PMID:26269281

  20. Multi-modal assessment of on-road demand of voice and manual phone calling and voice navigation entry across two embedded vehicle systems.

    PubMed

    Mehler, Bruce; Kidd, David; Reimer, Bryan; Reagan, Ian; Dobres, Jonathan; McCartt, Anne

    2016-03-01

    One purpose of integrating voice interfaces into embedded vehicle systems is to reduce drivers' visual and manual distractions with 'infotainment' technologies. However, there is scant research on actual benefits in production vehicles or how different interface designs affect attentional demands. Driving performance, visual engagement, and indices of workload (heart rate, skin conductance, subjective ratings) were assessed in 80 drivers randomly assigned to drive a 2013 Chevrolet Equinox or Volvo XC60. The Chevrolet MyLink system allowed completing tasks with one voice command, while the Volvo Sensus required multiple commands to navigate the menu structure. When calling a phone contact, both voice systems reduced visual demand relative to the visual-manual interfaces, with reductions for drivers in the Equinox being greater. The Equinox 'one-shot' voice command showed advantages during contact calling but had significantly higher error rates than Sensus during destination address entry. For both secondary tasks, neither voice interface entirely eliminated visual demand. Practitioner Summary: The findings reinforce the observation that most, if not all, automotive auditory-vocal interfaces are multi-modal interfaces in which the full range of potential demands (auditory, vocal, visual, manipulative, cognitive, tactile, etc.) need to be considered in developing optimal implementations and evaluating drivers' interaction with the systems. Social Media: In-vehicle voice-interfaces can reduce visual demand but do not eliminate it and all types of demand need to be taken into account in a comprehensive evaluation. PMID:26269281

  1. Multimodal navigated skull base tumor resection using image-based vascular and cranial nerve segmentation: A prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dolati, Parviz; Gokoglu, Abdulkerim; Eichberg, Daniel; Zamani, Amir; Golby, Alexandra; Al-Mefty, Ossama

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skull base tumors frequently encase or invade adjacent normal neurovascular structures. For this reason, optimal tumor resection with incomplete knowledge of patient anatomy remains a challenge. Methods: To determine the accuracy and utility of image-based preoperative segmentation in skull base tumor resections, we performed a prospective study. Ten patients with skull base tumors underwent preoperative 3T magnetic resonance imaging, which included thin section three-dimensional (3D) space T2, 3D time of flight, and magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequences. Imaging sequences were loaded in the neuronavigation system for segmentation and preoperative planning. Five different neurovascular landmarks were identified in each case and measured for accuracy using the neuronavigation system. Each segmented neurovascular element was validated by manual placement of the navigation probe, and errors of localization were measured. Results: Strong correspondence between image-based segmentation and microscopic view was found at the surface of the tumor and tumor-normal brain interfaces in all cases. The accuracy of the measurements was 0.45 ± 0.21 mm (mean ± standard deviation). This information reassured the surgeon and prevented vascular injury intraoperatively. Preoperative segmentation of the related cranial nerves was possible in 80% of cases and helped the surgeon localize involved cranial nerves in all cases. Conclusion: Image-based preoperative vascular and neural element segmentation with 3D reconstruction is highly informative preoperatively and could increase the vigilance of neurosurgeons for preventing neurovascular injury during skull base surgeries. Additionally, the accuracy found in this study is superior to previously reported measurements. This novel preliminary study is encouraging for future validation with larger numbers of patients. PMID:26674155

  2. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  3. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  4. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  5. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  6. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  7. A Brief Nap Is Beneficial for Human Route-Learning: The Role of Navigation Experience and EEG Spectral Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Erin J.; Tucker, Matthew A.; Payne, Jessica D.; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Here, we examined the effect of a daytime nap on changes in virtual maze performance across a single day. Participants either took a short nap or remained awake following training on a virtual maze task. Post-training sleep provided a clear performance benefit at later retest, but only for those participants with prior experience navigating in a…

  8. 33 CFR 165.T01-0868 - Regulated Navigation Area; Route 24 Bridge Construction, Sakonnet River, Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply within the RNA, and in addition: (1) Each person or... regulations including but not limited to the Rules of the Road (33 CFR Subchapter E, Inland Navigational Rules... 24 Bridge Construction, Sakonnet River, Rhode Island. 165.T01-0868 Section 165.T01-0868...

  9. Visual influence on path integration in darkness indicates a multimodal representation of large-scale space

    PubMed Central

    Tcheang, Lili; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Burgess, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to return to the start of a route recently performed in darkness is thought to reflect path integration of motion-related information. Here we provide evidence that motion-related interoceptive representations (proprioceptive, vestibular, and motor efference copy) combine with visual representations to form a single multimodal representation guiding navigation. We used immersive virtual reality to decouple visual input from motion-related interoception by manipulating the rotation or translation gain of the visual projection. First, participants walked an outbound path with both visual and interoceptive input, and returned to the start in darkness, demonstrating the influences of both visual and interoceptive information in a virtual reality environment. Next, participants adapted to visual rotation gains in the virtual environment, and then performed the path integration task entirely in darkness. Our findings were accurately predicted by a quantitative model in which visual and interoceptive inputs combine into a single multimodal representation guiding navigation, and are incompatible with a model of separate visual and interoceptive influences on action (in which path integration in darkness must rely solely on interoceptive representations). Overall, our findings suggest that a combined multimodal representation guides large-scale navigation, consistent with a role for visual imagery or a cognitive map. PMID:21199934

  10. Multimodal Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Arnold A.

    The multimodal therapy (MMT) approach provides a framework that facilitates systematic treatment selection in a broad-based, comprehensive and yet highly focused manner. It respects science, and data driven findings, and endeavors to use empirically supported methods when possible. Nevertheless, it recognizes that many issues still fall into the…

  11. Self-navigating robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Rangefinding equipment and onboard navigation system determine best route from point to point. Research robot has two TV cameras and laser for scanning and mapping its environment. Path planner finds most direct, unobstructed route that requires minimum expenditure of energy. Distance is used as measure of energy expense, although other measures such as time or power consumption (which would depend on the topography of the path) may be used.

  12. Multimodality Neuromonitoring.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Smith, Martin

    2016-09-01

    The monitoring of systemic and central nervous system physiology is central to the management of patients with neurologic disease in the perioperative and critical care settings. There exists a range of invasive and noninvasive and global and regional monitors of cerebral hemodynamics, oxygenation, metabolism, and electrophysiology that can be used to guide treatment decisions after acute brain injury. With mounting evidence that a single neuromonitor cannot comprehensively detect all instances of cerebral compromise, multimodal neuromonitoring allows an individualized approach to patient management based on monitored physiologic variables rather than a generic one-size-fits-all approach targeting predetermined and often empirical thresholds. PMID:27521195

  13. Railroad Routing Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-01-05

    INTERLINE/PC is an interactive program designed to simulate the routing practices of the United States rail system. The rail industry is divided into a large number of independent competing companies. The INTERLINE data base represents these rail companies as 94 separate subnetworks. An additional two subnetworks represent navigable inland/intracoastal and deep draft marine routes. Interchange points between individual rail systems and waterway systems are also identified.

  14. 14 CFR 125.357 - Communication and navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... § 125.357 Communication and navigation facilities. No person may release an airplane over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation facilities equal to those required by § 125.51 are...

  15. 14 CFR 125.357 - Communication and navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... § 125.357 Communication and navigation facilities. No person may release an airplane over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation facilities equal to those required by § 125.51 are...

  16. 14 CFR 125.357 - Communication and navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... § 125.357 Communication and navigation facilities. No person may release an airplane over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation facilities equal to those required by § 125.51 are...

  17. 14 CFR 125.357 - Communication and navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... § 125.357 Communication and navigation facilities. No person may release an airplane over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation facilities equal to those required by § 125.51 are...

  18. 14 CFR 125.357 - Communication and navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... § 125.357 Communication and navigation facilities. No person may release an airplane over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation facilities equal to those required by § 125.51 are...

  19. Odometry and insect navigation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Harald

    2011-05-15

    Animals have needed to find their way about almost since a free-living life style evolved. Particularly, if an animal has a home--shelter or nesting site--true navigation becomes necessary to shuttle between this home and areas of other activities, such as feeding. As old as navigation is in the animal kingdom, as diverse are its mechanisms and implementations, depending on an organism's ecology and its endowment with sensors and actuators. The use of landmarks for piloting or the use of trail pheromones for route following have been examined in great detail and in a variety of animal species. The same is true for senses of direction--the compasses for navigation--and the construction of vectors for navigation from compass and distance cues. The measurement of distance itself--odometry--has received much less attention. The present review addresses some recent progress in the understanding of odometers in invertebrates, after outlining general principles of navigation to put odometry in its proper context. Finally, a number of refinements that increase navigation accuracy and safety are addressed. PMID:21525309

  20. Indoor inertial waypoint navigation for the blind.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Whalen, William E; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction and evaluation of an inertial dead reckoning navigation system that provides real-time auditory guidance along mapped routes. Inertial dead reckoning is a navigation technique coupling step counting together with heading estimation to compute changes in position at each step. The research described here outlines the development and evaluation of a novel navigation system that utilizes information from the mapped route to limit the problematic error accumulation inherent in traditional dead reckoning approaches. The prototype system consists of a wireless inertial sensor unit, placed at the users' hip, which streams readings to a smartphone processing a navigation algorithm. Pilot human trials were conducted assessing system efficacy by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system with real-time guidance, versus offline verbal directions. PMID:24110904

  1. Event based self-supervised temporal integration for multimodal sensor data.

    PubMed

    Barakova, Emilia I; Lourens, Tino

    2005-06-01

    A method for synergistic integration of multimodal sensor data is proposed in this paper. This method is based on two aspects of the integration process: (1) achieving synergistic integration of two or more sensory modalities, and (2) fusing the various information streams at particular moments during processing. Inspired by psychophysical experiments, we propose a self-supervised learning method for achieving synergy with combined representations. Evidence from temporal registration and binding experiments indicates that different cues are processed individually at specific time intervals. Therefore, an event-based temporal co-occurrence principle is proposed for the integration process. This integration method was applied to a mobile robot exploring unfamiliar environments. Simulations showed that integration enhanced route recognition with many perceptual similarities; moreover, they indicate that a perceptual hierarchy of knowledge about instant movement contributes significantly to short-term navigation, but that visual perceptions have bigger impact over longer intervals. PMID:15988800

  2. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT PLEASURE CRAFTS ENTERING THE NAVIGATION LOCK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST AT PLEASURE CRAFTS ENTERING THE NAVIGATION LOCK. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Navigation Lock, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  3. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M. Levy, Elliot Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  4. Multimodality Image Fusion Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Levy, Elliot; Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care; Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization, and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. PET, MRI and contrast enhanced CT may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image guided procedures such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided. PMID:22851166

  5. The Intersection of Multimodality and Critical Perspective: Multimodality as Subversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shin-ying

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relevance of multimodality to critical media literacy. It is based on the understanding that communication is intrinsically multimodal and multimodal communication is inherently social and ideological. By analysing two English-language learners' multimodal ensembles, the study reports on how multimodality contributes to a…

  6. Micro Navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B. R.; Kia, T.; Chau, S. N.

    2001-01-01

    Miniature high-performance low-mass space avionics systems are desired for planned future outer planetary exploration missions (i.e. Europa Orbiter/Lander, Pluto-Kuiper Express). The spacecraft fuel and mass requirements enabling orbit insertion is the driving requirement. The Micro Navigator is an integrated autonomous Guidance, Navigation & Control (GN&C)micro-system that would provide the critical avionics function for navigation, pointing, and precision landing. The Micro Navigator hardware and software allow fusion of data from multiple sensors to provide a single integrated vehicle state vector necessary for six degrees of freedom GN&C. The benefits of this MicroNavigator include: 1) The Micro Navigator employs MEMS devices that promise orders of magnitude reductions in mass power and volume of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes), celestial sensing devices (startracker, sun sensor), and computing element; 2) The highly integrated nature of the unit will reduce the cost of flight missions. a) The advanced miniaturization technologies employed by the Micro Navigator lend themselves to mass production, and therefore will reduce production cost of spacecraft. b) The integral approach simplifies interface issues associated with discrete components and reduces cost associated with integration and test of multiple components; and 3) The integration of sensors and processing elements into a single unit will allow the Micro Navigator to encapsulate attitude information and determination functions into a single object. This is particularly beneficial for object-oriented software architectures that are used in advanced spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Design of a 3D Navigation Technique Supporting VR Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudoin, Pierre; Otmane, Samir; Mallem, Malik

    2008-06-01

    Multimodality is a powerful paradigm to increase the realness and the easiness of the interaction in Virtual Environments (VEs). In particular, the search for new metaphors and techniques for 3D interaction adapted to the navigation task is an important stage for the realization of future 3D interaction systems that support multimodality, in order to increase efficiency and usability. In this paper we propose a new multimodal 3D interaction model called Fly Over. This model is especially devoted to the navigation task. We present a qualitative comparison between Fly Over and a classical navigation technique called gaze-directed steering. The results from preliminary evaluation on the IBISC semi-immersive Virtual Reality/Augmented Realty EVR@ platform show that Fly Over is a user friendly and efficient navigation technique.

  8. Interplanetary navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of NASA's planetary navigation techniques is traced, and radiometric and optical data types are described. Doppler navigation; the Deep Space Network; differenced two-way range techniques; differential very long base interferometry; and optical navigation are treated. The Doppler system enables a spacecraft in cruise at high absolute declination to be located within a total angular uncertainty of 1/4 microrad. The two-station range measurement provides a 1 microrad backup at low declinations. Optical data locate the spacecraft relative to the target to an angular accuracy of 5 microrad. Earth-based radio navigation and its less accurate but target-relative counterpart, optical navigation, thus form complementary measurement sources, which provide a powerful sensory system to produce high-precision orbit estimates.

  9. 77 FR 19302 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For access to the docket to read documents or comments related to this... measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. The meeting will be open to..., routing measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. Agenda The...

  10. Multimodal Learning Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal learning clubs link principles of motivation and engagement with 21st century technological tools and texts to support content area learning. The author describes how a sixth grade health teacher and his class incorporated multimodal learning clubs into a unit of study on human body systems. The students worked collaboratively online…

  11. Untangled modes in multimode waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöschner, Martin; Tyc, TomáÅ.¡; Čižmár, TomáÅ.¡

    2016-03-01

    Small, fibre-based endoscopes have already improved our ability to image deep within the human body. A novel approach introduced recently utilised disordered light within a standard multimode optical fibre for lensless imaging. Importantly, this approach brought very significant reduction of the instruments footprint to dimensions below 100 μm. The most important limitations of this exciting technology is the lack of bending flexibility - imaging is only possible as long as the fibre remains stationary. The only route to allow flexibility of such endoscopes is in trading-in all the knowledge about the optical system we have, particularly the cylindrical symmetry of refractive index distribution. In perfect straight step-index cylindrical waveguides we can find optical modes that do not change their spatial distribution as they propagate through. In this paper we present a theoretical background that provides description of such modes in more realistic model of real-life step-index multimode fibre taking into account common deviations in distribution of the refractive index from its ideal step-index profile. Separately, we discuss how to include the influence of fibre bending.

  12. 76 FR 33773 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... the Road, navigation regulations and equipment, routing measures, marine information, diving safety..., diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. The NAVSAC is expected to meet at least twice each year... navigation, maritime law, vessel safety, port safety, or commercial diving safety. Each member shall...

  13. Celestial Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkrantz, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    In the unit described in this article, students discover the main principles of navigation, build tools to observe celestial bodies, and apply their new skills to finding their position on Earth. Along the way students see how science, mathematics, technology, and history are intertwined.

  14. 14 CFR 135.165 - Communication and navigation equipment: Extended over-water or IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. 135.165 Section 135.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. Except as...-water unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating the aircraft along the route...

  15. 14 CFR 135.165 - Communication and navigation equipment: Extended over-water or IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. 135.165 Section 135.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. Except as...-water unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating the aircraft along the route...

  16. 14 CFR 135.165 - Communication and navigation equipment: Extended over-water or IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. 135.165 Section 135.165 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Extended over-water or IFR operations. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. Except as...-water unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating the aircraft along the route...

  17. Multimode Directional Coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multimode directional coupler is provided. In some embodiments, the multimode directional coupler is configured to receive a primary signal and a secondary signal at a first port of a primary waveguide. The primary signal is configured to propagate through the primary waveguide and be outputted at a second port of the primary waveguide. The multimode directional coupler also includes a secondary waveguide configured to couple the secondary signal from the primary waveguide with no coupling of the primary signal into the secondary waveguide. The secondary signal is configured to propagate through the secondary waveguide and be outputted from a port of the secondary waveguide.

  18. Viking navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, W. J.; Rudd, R. P.; Farless, D. L.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Mitchell, R. T.; Rourke, K. H.; Euler, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the navigation of the Viking spacecraft throughout their flight from Earth launch to Mars landing is given. The flight path design, actual inflight control, and postflight reconstruction are discussed in detail. The preflight analyses upon which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based are discussed. The inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions and, finally, the results of any postflight analyses are presented.

  19. Spatial Database Modeling for Indoor Navigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotlib, Dariusz; Gnat, Miłosz

    2013-12-01

    For many years, cartographers are involved in designing GIS and navigation systems. Most GIS applications use the outdoor data. Increasingly, similar applications are used inside buildings. Therefore it is important to find the proper model of indoor spatial database. The development of indoor navigation systems should utilize advanced teleinformation, geoinformatics, geodetic and cartographical knowledge. The authors present the fundamental requirements for the indoor data model for navigation purposes. Presenting some of the solutions adopted in the world they emphasize that navigation applications require specific data to present the navigation routes in the right way. There is presented original solution for indoor data model created by authors on the basis of BISDM model. Its purpose is to expand the opportunities for use in indoor navigation.

  20. A greedy-navigator approach to navigable city plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Holme, Petter

    2013-01-01

    We use a set of four theoretical navigability indices for street maps to investigate the shape of the resulting street networks, if they are grown by optimizing these indices. The indices compare the performance of simulated navigators (having a partial information about the surroundings, like humans in many real situations) to the performance of optimally navigating individuals. We show that our simple greedy shortcut construction strategy generates the emerging structures that are different from real road network, but not inconceivable. The resulting city plans, for all navigation indices, share common qualitative properties such as the tendency for triangular blocks to appear, while the more quantitative features, such as degree distributions and clustering, are characteristically different depending on the type of metrics and routing strategies. We show that it is the type of metrics used which determines the overall shapes characterized by structural heterogeneity, but the routing schemes contribute to more subtle details of locality, which is more emphasized in case of unrestricted connections when the edge crossing is allowed.

  1. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  2. The knowledge base of bee navigation

    PubMed

    Menzel; Geiger; Chittka; Joerges; Kunze; MÜLler

    1996-01-01

    Navigation in honeybees is discussed against the background of the types of memories employed in the navigational task. Two questions are addressed. Do bees have goal-specific expectations, and when are novel routes travelled? Expectations are deduced from (1) context stimuli as determinants for local cue memories, (2) landmark-dependent path integration, (3) sequential learning of landmarks, and (4) motivation- and context-dependent memory retrieval. Novel routes are travelled under two conditions: (1) goal-cue-based piloting and (2) integration of simultaneously activated vector memories. Our data do not support the conclusion that memory integration in bees is organised by a cognitive map. The assumption of purely separate memories that are only retrieved according to the chain of events during navigational performance also appears to be inadequate. We favour the view that multiple memories are integrated using external and internal sources of information. Such configural memories lead to both specific expectations and novel routes. PMID:9317505

  3. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  4. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following apply: (a) An Air Traffic Service (ATS) route is based on a centerline that extends from one navigation...

  5. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following apply: (a) An Air Traffic Service (ATS) route is based on a centerline that extends from one navigation...

  6. "Recalculating Route".

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Can you imagine going to a doctor who uses a paper chart, sends you a bill on a ledger card, and handwrites a prescription? You wouldn't have a great deal of confidence that the clinical skills of the doctor were up to date. This would be an example of a doctor who did not "recalculate his or her route." This article provides 10 examples of adjustments that have been made in medicine where the route has been recalculated. PMID:26399043

  7. On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Lucas H; Liu, David; Johnson, Steven G; Lipson, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Current optical communication systems rely almost exclusively on multimode fibres for short- and medium-haul transmissions, and are now expanding into the long-haul arena. Ultra-high bandwidth applications are the main drive for this expansion, based on the ability to spatially multiplex data channels in multimode systems. Integrated photonics, on the other hand, although largely responsible for today's telecommunications, continues to operate almost strictly in the single-mode regime. This is because multimode waveguides cannot be compactly routed on-chip without significant inter-mode coupling, which impairs their data rate and prevents the use of modal multiplexing. Here we propose a platform for on-chip multimode devices with minimal inter-mode coupling, opening up the possibilities for integrated multimode optics. Our work combines a novel theoretical approach--large-scale inverse design of transformation optics to maximize performance within fabrication constraints-with unique grayscale-lithography fabrication of an exemplary device: a low-crosstalk multimode waveguide bend. PMID:23169058

  8. Navigating Discourses in Place in the World of Webkinz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlwend, Karen E.; Zanden, Sarah Vander; Husbye, Nicholas E.; Kuby, Candace R.

    2011-01-01

    Geosemiotics (Scollon and Scollon, 2003) frames this analysis of play, multimodal collaboration, and peer mediation as players navigate barriers to online connectivity in a children's social network and gaming site. A geosemiotic perspective enables examination of children's web play as "discourses in place": fluidly converging and diverging…

  9. Neural encoding of objects relevant for navigation and resting state correlations with navigational ability.

    PubMed

    Wegman, Joost; Janzen, Gabriele

    2011-12-01

    Objects along a route can help us to successfully navigate through our surroundings. Previous neuroimaging research has shown that the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) distinguishes between objects that were previously encountered at navigationally relevant locations (decision points) and irrelevant locations (nondecision points) during simple object recognition. This study aimed at unraveling how this neural marking of objects relevant for navigation is established during learning and postlearning rest. Twenty-four participants were scanned using fMRI while they were viewing a route through a virtual environment. Eye movements were measured, and brain responses were time-locked to viewing each object. The PHG showed increased responses to decision point objects compared with nondecision point objects during route learning. We compared functional connectivity between the PHG and the rest of the brain in a resting state scan postlearning with such a scan prelearning. Results show that functional connectivity between the PHG and the hippocampus is positively related to participants' self-reported navigational ability. On the other hand, connectivity with the caudate nucleus correlated negatively with navigational ability. These results are in line with a distinction between egocentric and allocentric spatial representations in the caudate nucleus and the hippocampus, respectively. Our results thus suggest a relation between navigational ability and a neural preference for a specific type of spatial representation. Together, these results show that the PHG is immediately involved in the encoding of navigationally relevant object information. Furthermore, they provide insight into the neural correlates of individual differences in spatial ability. PMID:21671733

  10. Indoor waypoint navigation via magnetic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Condon, John P; Sheikh, Suneel I; Hedin, Daniel S

    2011-01-01

    A wide assortment of technologies have been proposed to construct indoor navigation services for the blind and vision impaired. Proximity-based systems and multilateration systems have been successfully demonstrated and employed. Despite the technical success of these technologies, broad adoption has been limited due to their significant infrastructure and maintenance costs. An alternative approach utilizing the indoor magnetic signatures inherent to steel-frame buildings solves the infrastructure cost problem; in effect the existing building is the location system infrastructure. Although magnetic indoor navigation does not require the installation of dedicated hardware, the dedication of resources to produce precise survey maps of magnetic anomalies represents a further barrier to adoption. In the present work an alternative leader-follower form of waypoint-navigation system has been developed that works without surveyed magnetic maps of a site. Instead the wayfarer's magnetometer readings are compared to a pre-recorded magnetic "leader" trace containing magnetic data collected along a route and annotated with waypoint information. The goal of the navigation system is to correlate the follower's magnetometer data with the leader's to trigger audio cues at precise points along the route, thus providing location-based guidance to the user. The system should also provide early indications of off-route conditions. As part of the research effort a smartphone based application was created to record and annotate leader traces with audio and numeric data at waypoints of interest, and algorithms were developed to determine (1) when the follower reaches a waypoint and (2) when the follower goes off-route. A navigation system utilizing this technology would enable a low-cost indoor navigation system capable of replaying audio annotations at precise locations along pre-recorded routes. PMID:22255538

  11. Private Graphs - Access Rights on Graphs for Seamless Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorner, W.; Hau, F.; Pagany, R.

    2016-06-01

    After the success of GNSS (Global Navigational Satellite Systems) and navigation services for public streets, indoor seems to be the next big development in navigational services, relying on RTLS - Real Time Locating Services (e.g. WIFI) and allowing seamless navigation. In contrast to navigation and routing services on public streets, seamless navigation will cause an additional challenge: how to make routing data accessible to defined users or restrict access rights for defined areas or only to parts of the graph to a defined user group? The paper will present case studies and data from literature, where seamless and especially indoor navigation solutions are presented (hospitals, industrial complexes, building sites), but the problem of restricted access rights was only touched from a real world, but not a technical perspective. The analysis of case studies will show, that the objective of navigation and the different target groups for navigation solutions will demand well defined access rights and require solutions, how to make only parts of a graph to a user or application available to solve a navigational task. The paper will therefore introduce the concept of private graphs, which is defined as a graph for navigational purposes covering the street, road or floor network of an area behind a public street and suggest different approaches how to make graph data for navigational purposes available considering access rights and data protection, privacy and security issues as well.

  12. Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana; Mayer, Richard

    2007-01-01

    What are interactive multimodal learning environments and how should they be designed to promote students' learning? In this paper, we offer a cognitive-affective theory of learning with media from which instructional design principles are derived. Then, we review a set of experimental studies in which we found empirical support for five design…

  13. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  14. Assessing Multimodal Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Anne; Rowsell, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine how to assess multimodal reading practices with a group of middle school students attending an elementary school in Eastern Canada. They argue that to assess new reading practices, we need a fine-grained account of what students do, when they do it, with whom, why they do it, and finally, where they go in web space. The authors…

  15. Multimodal Information Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Oliviero; Zancanaro, Massimo; Strapparava, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of information exploration and software design in computer-based educational systems focuses on the integration of hypermedia and natural language dialog. AlFRESCO is described, an interactive natural language-centered multimodal system that was developed for users interested in frescoes and paintings. (LRW)

  16. Multimode optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  17. On-chip Microfluidic Multimodal Swimmer toward 3D Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbot, Antoine; Decanini, Dominique; Hwang, Gilgueng

    2016-01-01

    Mobile microrobots have a promising future in various applications. These include targeted drug delivery, local measurement, biopsy or microassembly. Studying mobile microrobots inside microfluidics is an essential step towards such applications. But in this environment that was not designed for the robot, integration process and propulsion robustness still pose technological challenges. In this paper, we present a helical microrobot with three different motions, designed to achieve these goals. These motions are rolling, spintop motion and swimming. Through these multiple motions, microrobots are able to selectively integrate a chip through a microfluidic channel. This enables them to perform propulsion characterizations, 3D (Three Dimensional) maneuverability, particle cargo transport manipulation and exit from the chip. The microrobot selective integration inside microfluidics could lead to various in-vitro biologic or in-vivo biomedical applications.

  18. On-chip Microfluidic Multimodal Swimmer toward 3D Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Antoine; Decanini, Dominique; Hwang, Gilgueng

    2016-01-01

    Mobile microrobots have a promising future in various applications. These include targeted drug delivery, local measurement, biopsy or microassembly. Studying mobile microrobots inside microfluidics is an essential step towards such applications. But in this environment that was not designed for the robot, integration process and propulsion robustness still pose technological challenges. In this paper, we present a helical microrobot with three different motions, designed to achieve these goals. These motions are rolling, spintop motion and swimming. Through these multiple motions, microrobots are able to selectively integrate a chip through a microfluidic channel. This enables them to perform propulsion characterizations, 3D (Three Dimensional) maneuverability, particle cargo transport manipulation and exit from the chip. The microrobot selective integration inside microfluidics could lead to various in-vitro biologic or in-vivo biomedical applications. PMID:26791433

  19. On-chip Microfluidic Multimodal Swimmer toward 3D Navigation.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Antoine; Decanini, Dominique; Hwang, Gilgueng

    2016-01-01

    Mobile microrobots have a promising future in various applications. These include targeted drug delivery, local measurement, biopsy or microassembly. Studying mobile microrobots inside microfluidics is an essential step towards such applications. But in this environment that was not designed for the robot, integration process and propulsion robustness still pose technological challenges. In this paper, we present a helical microrobot with three different motions, designed to achieve these goals. These motions are rolling, spintop motion and swimming. Through these multiple motions, microrobots are able to selectively integrate a chip through a microfluidic channel. This enables them to perform propulsion characterizations, 3D (Three Dimensional) maneuverability, particle cargo transport manipulation and exit from the chip. The microrobot selective integration inside microfluidics could lead to various in-vitro biologic or in-vivo biomedical applications. PMID:26791433

  20. Memory consolidation of landmarks in good navigators.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Gabriele; Jansen, Clemens; van Turennout, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    Landmarks play an important role in successful navigation. To successfully find your way around an environment, navigationally relevant information needs to be stored and become available at later moments in time. Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies shows that the human parahippocampal gyrus encodes the navigational relevance of landmarks. In the present event-related fMRI experiment, we investigated memory consolidation of navigationally relevant landmarks in the medial temporal lobe after route learning. Sixteen right-handed volunteers viewed two film sequences through a virtual museum with objects placed at locations relevant (decision points) or irrelevant (nondecision points) for navigation. To investigate consolidation effects, one film sequence was seen in the evening before scanning, the other one was seen the following morning, directly before scanning. Event-related fMRI data were acquired during an object recognition task. Participants decided whether they had seen the objects in the previously shown films. After scanning, participants answered standardized questions about their navigational skills, and were divided into groups of good and bad navigators, based on their scores. An effect of memory consolidation was obtained in the hippocampus: Objects that were seen the evening before scanning (remote objects) elicited more activity than objects seen directly before scanning (recent objects). This increase in activity in bilateral hippocampus for remote objects was observed in good navigators only. In addition, a spatial-specific effect of memory consolidation for navigationally relevant objects was observed in the parahippocampal gyrus. Remote decision point objects induced increased activity as compared with recent decision point objects, again in good navigators only. The results provide initial evidence for a connection between memory consolidation and navigational ability that can provide a basis for successful

  1. 78 FR 19277 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... SECURITY United States Coast Guard Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Meeting AGENCY: United States Coast... Safety Advisory Council (NAVSAC) will meet April 10-11, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia to discuss matters...; navigation regulations and equipment; routing measures; marine information; diving safety; and aids...

  2. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  3. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  4. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  5. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  6. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  7. Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Shuhua; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Because each nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging modality is sensitive to specific molecules or structures, multimodal NLO imaging capitalizes the potential of NLO microscopy for studies of complex biological tissues. The coupling of multiphoton fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) has allowed investigation of a broad range of biological questions concerning lipid metabolism, cancer development, cardiovascular disease, and skin biology. Moreover, recent research shows the great potential of using CARS microscope as a platform to develop more advanced NLO modalities such as electronic-resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing, stimulated Raman scattering, and pump-probe microscopy. This article reviews the various approaches developed for realization of multimodal NLO imaging as well as developments of new NLO modalities on a CARS microscope. Applications to various aspects of biological and biomedical research are discussed. PMID:24353747

  8. Indoor magnetic navigation for the blind.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Giudice, Nicholas A; Sheikh, Suneel I; Knuesel, Robert J; Kollmann, Daniel T; Hedin, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction of and evaluation of a navigation system that infers the users' location using only magnetic sensing. It is well known that the environments within steel frame structures are subject to significant magnetic distortions. Many of these distortions are persistent and have sufficient strength and spatial characteristics to allow their use as the basis for a location technology. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a prototype magnetic navigation system consisting of a wireless magnetometer placed at the users' hip streaming magnetic readings to a smartphone processing location algorithms. Human trials were conducted to assess the efficacy of the system by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system for real-time guidance. PMID:23366303

  9. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  10. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality. PMID:26491835

  11. Spatial Navigation in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Allison, Samantha L; Fagan, Anne M; Morris, John C; Head, Denise

    2016-02-01

    Although several previous studies have demonstrated navigational deficits in early-stage symptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD), navigational abilities in preclinical AD have not been examined. The present investigation examined the effects of preclinical AD and early-stage symptomatic AD on spatial navigation performance. Performance on tasks of wayfinding and route learning in a virtual reality environment were examined. Comparisons were made across the following three groups: Clinically normal without preclinical AD (n = 42), clinically normal with preclinical AD (n = 13), and early-stage symptomatic AD (n = 16) groups. Preclinical AD was defined based on cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 levels below 500 pg/ml. Preclinical AD was associated with deficits in the use of a wayfinding strategy, but not a route learning strategy. Moreover, post-hoc analyses indicated that wayfinding performance had moderate sensitivity and specificity. Results also confirmed early-stage symptomatic AD-related deficits in the use of both wayfinding and route learning strategies. The results of this study suggest that aspects of spatial navigation may be particularly sensitive at detecting the earliest cognitive deficits of AD. PMID:26967209

  12. 33 CFR 167.173 - Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.173 Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route. The Two-Way Traffic Route is recommended for use predominantly by tug and tow traffic...

  13. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  14. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  15. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  16. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  17. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  18. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    PubMed

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition. PMID:21307045

  19. Multimodality image display station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, H. Joseph

    1990-07-01

    The Multi-modality Image Display Station (MIDS) is designed for the use of physicians outside of the radiology department. Connected to a local area network or a host computer, it provides speedy access to digitized radiology images and written diagnostics needed by attending and consulting physicians near the patient bedside. Emphasis has been placed on low cost, high performance and ease of use. The work is being done as a joint study with the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and as part of a joint development effort with the Mayo Clinic. MIDS is a prototype, and should not be assumed to be an IBM product.

  20. A Multimodal Theory of Affect Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kim; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-09-01

    There is broad consensus in the literature that affect diffuses through social networks (such that a person may "acquire" or "catch" an affective state from his or her social contacts). It is further assumed that affect diffusion primarily occurs as the result of people's tendencies to synchronize their affective actions (such as smiles and frowns). However, as we show, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the substrate and scope of affect diffusion. One consequence of this is a difficulty in distinguishing between affect diffusion and several other affective influence phenomena that look similar but have very different consequences. There is also a growing body of evidence that action synchrony is unlikely to be the only, or indeed the most important, pathway for affect diffusion. This paper has 2 key aims: (a) to craft a formal definition of affect diffusion that does justice to the core of the phenomenon while distinguishing it from other phenomena with which it is frequently confounded and (b) to advance a theory of the mechanisms of affect diffusion. This theory, which we call the multimodal theory of affect diffusion, identifies 3 parallel multimodal mechanisms that may act as routes for affect diffusion. It also provides a basis for novel predictions about the conditions under which affect is most likely to diffuse. PMID:26011791

  1. Navigation Flight Operations for Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Robin M.; Kallemeyn, Pieter H., Jr.; Spencer, David A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    On July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder became the first spacecraft to land on the surface of Mars in 21 years. Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 and spent seven months en route to the red planet. This report discusses the navigation flight experience for the Mars Pathfinder interplanetary cruise. In particular, orbit determination and maneuver design and execution results are presented. Special emphasis is given to the navigation role in the days and hours leading up to and including the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase.

  2. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  3. Emergency navigation without an infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  4. Learning multimodal latent attributes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2014-02-01

    The rapid development of social media sharing has created a huge demand for automatic media classification and annotation techniques. Attribute learning has emerged as a promising paradigm for bridging the semantic gap and addressing data sparsity via transferring attribute knowledge in object recognition and relatively simple action classification. In this paper, we address the task of attribute learning for understanding multimedia data with sparse and incomplete labels. In particular, we focus on videos of social group activities, which are particularly challenging and topical examples of this task because of their multimodal content and complex and unstructured nature relative to the density of annotations. To solve this problem, we 1) introduce a concept of semilatent attribute space, expressing user-defined and latent attributes in a unified framework, and 2) propose a novel scalable probabilistic topic model for learning multimodal semilatent attributes, which dramatically reduces requirements for an exhaustive accurate attribute ontology and expensive annotation effort. We show that our framework is able to exploit latent attributes to outperform contemporary approaches for addressing a variety of realistic multimedia sparse data learning tasks including: multitask learning, learning with label noise, N-shot transfer learning, and importantly zero-shot learning. PMID:24356351

  5. [Multimodal pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Böger, A

    2014-06-01

    Chronic pain has both high prevalence and a significant economic impact in Germany. The most common chronic pain types are low back pain and headache. On the one hand, the management of chronic pain patients is incomplete, yet it is often overtreated in orthopaedic surgical settings with interventional procedures. The reason for this is the structure of outpatient management and the way it is paid for in Germany. Pain management of patients with private insurance cover is no better because of "doctor shopping". Medical guidelines could be of some help in improving the situation, but they are widely unknown, and have still to demonstrate whether they have any impact on GP treatment pathways. The "gold standard" multimodal pain therapy shows significant improvement in many studies compared to monomodal therapy regimes and interventional regimes, but is too rarely recommended by the patients' physicians, whether GPs or specialists. Because of the huge number of institutions nowadays that, for the sake of form, offer such multimodal therapies, these need to be differentiated in terms of their structural and process quality. A first step is the "k edoq" project. It is essential to improve knowledge of the principles of modern pain management. This includes better networking and communication between doctors, physiotherapists and psychologists, and at the grassroots level, providing the public with more detailed and better information. PMID:25000627

  6. Navigating the Internet.

    PubMed Central

    Powsner, S M; Roderer, N K

    1994-01-01

    Navigating any complex set of information resources requires tools for both browsing and searching. A number of tools are available today for using Internet resources, and more are being developed. This article reviews existing navigational tools, including two developed at the Yale University School of Medicine, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. A major shortcoming of the present Internet navigation methods is the lack of controlled descriptions of the available resources. As a result, navigating the Internet is very difficult. PMID:7841913

  7. Evolution of patient navigation.

    PubMed

    Shockney, Lillie D

    2010-08-01

    The role of nurses in patient navigation has evolved over more than four decades. Navigators in cancer care can guide patients through the physical, emotional, and financial challenges that come with a diagnosis of cancer and facilitate communication among healthcare providers. Navigation has the potential to improve patient outcomes and system efficiency. Oncology nurses are well suited to help patients with cancer navigate the healthcare system from diagnosis and treatment through survivorship and palliative care. PMID:20682496

  8. Microcomputers and astronomical navigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin-Jouan, Y.

    1996-04-01

    Experienced navigators remember ancient astronomical navigation and its limitations. Using microcomputers in small packages and selecting up-to-date efficient methods will overcome many of these limitations. Both features lead to focus on observations, and encourage an increase in their numbers. With no intention of competing with satellite navigation, sextant navigation in the open sea can then be accessed again by anybody. It can be considered for demonstrative use or as a complement to the GPS.

  9. Systems for the Intermodal Routing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K; Liu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The safe and secure movement of spent nuclear fuel from shutdown and active reactor facilities to intermediate or long term storage sites may, in some instances, require the use of several modes of transportation to accomplish the move. To that end, a fully operable multi-modal routing system is being developed within Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System). This study aims to provide an overview of multi-modal routing, the existing state of the TRAGIS networks, the source data needs, and the requirements for developing structural relationships between various modes to create a suitable system for modeling the transport of spent nuclear fuel via a multimodal network. Modern transportation systems are comprised of interconnected, yet separate, modal networks. Efficient transportation networks rely upon the smooth transfer of cargoes at junction points that serve as connectors between modes. A key logistical impediment to the shipment of spent nuclear fuel is the absence of identified or designated transfer locations between transport modes. Understanding the potential network impacts on intermodal transportation of spent nuclear fuel is vital for planning transportation routes from origin to destination. By identifying key locations where modes intersect, routing decisions can be made to prioritize cost savings, optimize transport times and minimize potential risks to the population and environment. In order to facilitate such a process, ORNL began the development of a base intermodal network and associated routing code. The network was developed using previous intermodal networks and information from publicly available data sources to construct a database of potential intermodal transfer locations with likely capability to handle spent nuclear fuel casks. The coding development focused on modifying the existing WebTRAGIS routing code to accommodate intermodal transfers and the selection of

  10. Construction of a multimodal CT-video chest model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Patrick D.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    Bronchoscopy enables a number of minimally invasive chest procedures for diseases such as lung cancer and asthma. For example, using the bronchoscope's continuous video stream as a guide, a physician can navigate through the lung airways to examine general airway health, collect tissue samples, or administer a disease treatment. In addition, physicians can now use new image-guided intervention (IGI) systems, which draw upon both three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) chest scans and bronchoscopic video, to assist with bronchoscope navigation. Unfortunately, little use is made of the acquired video stream, a potentially invaluable source of information. In addition, little effort has been made to link the bronchoscopic video stream to the detailed anatomical information given by a patient's 3D MDCT chest scan. We propose a method for constructing a multimodal CT-video model of the chest. After automatically computing a patient's 3D MDCT-based airway-tree model, the method next parses the available video data to generate a positional linkage between a sparse set of key video frames and airway path locations. Next, a fusion/mapping of the video's color mucosal information and MDCT-based endoluminal surfaces is performed. This results in the final multimodal CT-video chest model. The data structure constituting the model provides a history of those airway locations visited during bronchoscopy. It also provides for quick visual access to relevant sections of the airway wall by condensing large portions of endoscopic video into representative frames containing important structural and textural information. When examined with a set of interactive visualization tools, the resulting fused data structure provides a rich multimodal data source. We demonstrate the potential of the multimodal model with both phantom and human data.

  11. Two-photon quantum walk in a multimode fiber

    PubMed Central

    Defienne, Hugo; Barbieri, Marco; Walmsley, Ian A.; Smith, Brian J.; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton propagation in connected structures—a quantum walk—offers the potential of simulating complex physical systems and provides a route to universal quantum computation. Increasing the complexity of quantum photonic networks where the walk occurs is essential for many applications. We implement a quantum walk of indistinguishable photon pairs in a multimode fiber supporting 380 modes. Using wavefront shaping, we control the propagation of the two-photon state through the fiber in which all modes are coupled. Excitation of arbitrary output modes of the system is realized by controlling classical and quantum interferences. This report demonstrates a highly multimode platform for multiphoton interference experiments and provides a powerful method to program a general high-dimensional multiport optical circuit. This work paves the way for the next generation of photonic devices for quantum simulation, computing, and communication. PMID:27152325

  12. Two-photon quantum walk in a multimode fiber.

    PubMed

    Defienne, Hugo; Barbieri, Marco; Walmsley, Ian A; Smith, Brian J; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton propagation in connected structures-a quantum walk-offers the potential of simulating complex physical systems and provides a route to universal quantum computation. Increasing the complexity of quantum photonic networks where the walk occurs is essential for many applications. We implement a quantum walk of indistinguishable photon pairs in a multimode fiber supporting 380 modes. Using wavefront shaping, we control the propagation of the two-photon state through the fiber in which all modes are coupled. Excitation of arbitrary output modes of the system is realized by controlling classical and quantum interferences. This report demonstrates a highly multimode platform for multiphoton interference experiments and provides a powerful method to program a general high-dimensional multiport optical circuit. This work paves the way for the next generation of photonic devices for quantum simulation, computing, and communication. PMID:27152325

  13. 76 FR 57902 - Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... intersection (SPARTA, NJ 253 radial and the Broadway, NJ 295 radial) to be moved 0.58 nautical miles to the... route J-60, area navigation (RNAV) route Q-42, and VOR Federal airways V-16, V-229 and V-449 (76 FR... noise analysis is required. (See 65 FR 76339; December 6, 2000.) Route Q-62 is a new high altitude...

  14. Change in Child Multimodal Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keat, Donald B., II

    1990-01-01

    Examines some of the effective ingredients of change in multimodal counseling with children: personal relationships; emotions; guidance of actions, behaviors, and consequences; imagery; health; learning; and need to know. (ABL)

  15. A Multistage Method for Multiobjective Route Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng; Gen, Mitsuo

    The multiobjective route selection problem (m-RSP) is a key research topic in the car navigation system (CNS) for ITS (Intelligent Transportation System). In this paper, we propose an interactive multistage weight-based Dijkstra genetic algorithm (mwD-GA) to solve it. The purpose of the proposed approach is to create enough Pareto-optimal routes with good distribution for the car driver depending on his/her preference. At the same time, the routes can be recalculated according to the driver's preferences by the multistage framework proposed. In the solution approach proposed, the accurate route searching ability of the Dijkstra algorithm and the exploration ability of the Genetic algorithm (GA) are effectively combined together for solving the m-RSP problems. Solutions provided by the proposed approach are compared with the current research to show the effectiveness and practicability of the solution approach proposed.

  16. The Stability of Multi-modal Traffic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ling-Hui; Sun, Hui-Jun; Zhu, Cheng-Juan; Wu, Jian-Jun; Jia, Bin

    2013-07-01

    There is an explicit and implicit assumption in multimodal traffic equilibrium models, that is, if the equilibrium exists, then it will also occur. The assumption is very idealized; in fact, it may be shown that the quite contrary could happen, because in multimodal traffic network, especially in mixed traffic conditions the interaction among traffic modes is asymmetric and the asymmetric interaction may result in the instability of traffic system. In this paper, to study the stability of multimodal traffic system, we respectively present the travel cost function in mixed traffic conditions and in traffic network with dedicated bus lanes. Based on a day-to-day dynamical model, we study the evolution of daily route choice of travelers in multimodal traffic network using 10000 random initial values for different cases. From the results of simulation, it can be concluded that the asymmetric interaction between the cars and buses in mixed traffic conditions can lead the traffic system to instability when traffic demand is larger. We also study the effect of travelers' perception error on the stability of multimodal traffic network. Although the larger perception error can alleviate the effect of interaction between cars and buses and improve the stability of traffic system in mixed traffic conditions, the traffic system also become instable when the traffic demand is larger than a number. For all cases simulated in this study, with the same parameters, traffic system with dedicated bus lane has better stability for traffic demand than that in mixed traffic conditions. We also find that the network with dedicated bus lane has higher portion of travelers by bus than it of mixed traffic network. So it can be concluded that building dedicated bus lane can improve the stability of traffic system and attract more travelers to choose bus reducing the traffic congestion.

  17. Using Grid Cells for Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Daniel; Barry, Caswell; Manson, Daniel; Burgess, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mammals are able to navigate to hidden goal locations by direct routes that may traverse previously unvisited terrain. Empirical evidence suggests that this “vector navigation” relies on an internal representation of space provided by the hippocampal formation. The periodic spatial firing patterns of grid cells in the hippocampal formation offer a compact combinatorial code for location within large-scale space. Here, we consider the computational problem of how to determine the vector between start and goal locations encoded by the firing of grid cells when this vector may be much longer than the largest grid scale. First, we present an algorithmic solution to the problem, inspired by the Fourier shift theorem. Second, we describe several potential neural network implementations of this solution that combine efficiency of search and biological plausibility. Finally, we discuss the empirical predictions of these implementations and their relationship to the anatomy and electrophysiology of the hippocampal formation. PMID:26247860

  18. Guidance by odors in honeybee navigation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Randolf; Greggers, Uwe

    2013-10-01

    Animal navigation is guided by multiple sensory cues. Here, we ask whether and how olfactory stimuli emanating from places other than the trained feeding site redirect the flight paths of honeybees. The flight trajectories of individual bees were registered using harmonic radar tracking. Sensory cues (compass direction, distance, visual cues en route and close to the feeding site) associated with the trained flight route dominated wayfinding, but a learned odorant carried by air flow induced excursions into the wind. These redirections were largely restricted to rather small deviations from the trained route (<60°, <200 m) and occurred only if the animal did not receive the trained odorant stimulus at the trained feeding site. Under certain conditions, larger excursions were observed. These findings are discussed in the context of odor guidance of honeybees over longer distances (>300 m from the hive). PMID:23974855

  19. Multimode silicon nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Glassner, Sebastian; Zeiner, Clemens; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2014-11-12

    The combined capabilities of both a nonplanar design and nonconventional carrier injection mechanisms are subject to recent scientific investigations to overcome the limitations of silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In this Letter, we present a multimode field effect transistors device using silicon nanowires that feature an axial n-type/intrinsic doping junction. A heterostructural device design is achieved by employing a self-aligned nickel-silicide source contact. The polymorph operation of the dual-gate device enabling the configuration of one p- and two n-type transistor modes is demonstrated. Not only the type but also the carrier injection mode can be altered by appropriate biasing of the two gate terminals or by inverting the drain bias. With a combined band-to-band and Schottky tunneling mechanism, in p-type mode a subthreshold swing as low as 143 mV/dec and an ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(4) is found. As the device operates in forward bias, a nonconventional tunneling transistor is realized, enabling an effective suppression of ambipolarity. Depending on the drain bias, two different n-type modes are distinguishable. The carrier injection is dominated by thermionic emission in forward bias with a maximum ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(7) whereas in reverse bias a Schottky tunneling mechanism dominates the carrier transport. PMID:25303290

  20. [Multimodal iatrogenic apathy].

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Souza, R D; Figueiredo, W M

    1996-06-01

    The present paper reports on five patients who developed apathy as a peculiar side effect of antidepressants. Their behavioral and psychopathological changes were primarily due to the near-absence of emotional experience, a key characteristic that distinguishes apathy from avolition and abulia. The emergence of apathy in the course of an antidepressant treatment should raise the suspicion of an adverse effect of the drug and lead to its prompt withdrawal. A sample of the relevant clinical evidence favoring the distinction of apathy confined to a single sensory domain ("unimodal apathy") from apathy confined to more than one sensory realm ("multimodal apathy") is reviewed. From a pathophysiological standpoint, it would appear that neural nets centered in the amygdala-temporo polar cortex are critical for the integration of sensory perceptions and mental imagery with appropriate emotional tone and quality as well as with their accompanying somatic markers, as they receive afferents from the major projection systems of the prosencephalon and lie in nodes strategic to modify the ongoing activity of multiple parallel brain systems. The fact that one common symptom can be produced by such a heterogeneous family of substances points to a shared neurochemical mechanism of action. At present, discrete cerebral serotoninergic circuits would appear to be suitable candidates for such a role. Cases as these may be critical for the understanding of the cerebral organization of emotions in man, lending support to the notion that distinct neurochemical systems mediate discrete psychopathological symptoms. PMID:8984978

  1. NAVIGATING A QUALITY ROUTE TO A NATIONAL SAFETY AWARD

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE SS

    2009-05-26

    Deming quality methodologies applied to safety are recognized with the National Safety Council's annual Robert W. Campbell Award. Over the last ten years, the implementation of Statistical Process Control and quality methodologies at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site have contributed to improved safety. Improvements attributed to Statistical Process Control are evidenced in Occupational Safety and Health records and documented through several articles in Quality Progress and the American Society of Safety Engineers publication, Professional Safety. Statistical trending of safety, quality, and occurrence data continues to playa key role in improving safety and quality at what has been called the world's largest environmental cleanup project. DOE's Hanford Site played a pivotal role in the nation's defense beginning in the 1940s, when it was established as part of the Manhattan Project. After more than 50 years of producing material for nuclear weapons, Hanford, which covers 586 square miles in southeastern Washington state, is now focused on three outcomes: (1) Restoring the Columbia River corridor for multiple uses; (2) Transitioning the central plateau to support long-term waste management; and (3) Putting DOE assets to work for the future. The current environmental cleanup mission faces challenges of overlapping technical, political, regulatory, environmental, and cultural interests. From Oct. 1, 1996 through Sept. 30, 2008, Fluor Hanford was a prime contractor to the Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office. In this role, Fluor Hanford managed several major cleanup activities that included dismantling former nuclear-processing facilities, cleaning up the Site's contaminated groundwater, retrieving and processing transuranic waste for shipment and disposal off-site, maintaining the Site's infrastructure, providing security and fire protection, and operating the Volpentest HAMMER Training and Education Center. On October 1,2008, a transition occurred that changed Fluor's role at Hanford. Fluor's work at Hanford was split in two with the technical scope being assumed by the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) CHPRC is now spearheading much of the cleanup work associated with former nuclear-processing facilities, contaminated groundwater, and transuranic waste. Fluor is an integrated subcontractor to CH PRC in this effort. In addition, at the time of this writing, while the final outcome is being determined for the new Mission Support Contract, Fluor Hanford has had its contract extended to provide site-wide services that include security, fire protection, infrastructure, and operating the HAMMER facility. The emphasis has to be on doing work safely, delivering quality work, controlling costs, and meeting deadlines. Statistical support is provided by Fluor to the PRC, within Fluor Hanford, and to a third contractor, Washington Closure Hanford, which is tasked with cleaning up approximately 210 square miles designated as the Columbia River corridor along the outer edge of the Hanford Site. The closing months of Fluor Hanford's 12 year contract were busy, characterized by special events that capped its work as a prime cleanup contractor, transitions of work scope and personnel, and the completion numerous activities. At this time, Fluor's work and approach to safety were featured in state and national forums. A 'Blockbuster' presentation at the Washington State Governor's Industrial Safety Conference in September 2008 featured Fluor Hanford's Chief Operating Officer, a company Safety Representative, and me. Simultaneously, an award ceremony in Anaheim, Calif. recognized Fluor Hanford as the winner of the 2008 Robert W. Campbell Award. The Robert W. Campbell Award is co-sponsored by Exxon Mobil Corporation and the National Safety Council. Named after a pioneer of industrial safety, the Campbell Award recognizes organizations that demonstrate how integration of environmental, health and safety (EHS) management into business operations is a cornerstone of their corporate success. Fluor Hanford rec

  2. 78 FR 22189 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... establish T-302 and T-304 in the state of Oregon (78 FR 4354, January 22, 2013). Interested parties were... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  3. Multimodal system for the planning and guidance of bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, William E.; Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Zang, Xiaonan; Byrnes, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Many technical innovations in multimodal radiologic imaging and bronchoscopy have emerged recently in the effort against lung cancer. Modern X-ray computed-tomography (CT) scanners provide three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution chest images, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners give complementary molecular imaging data, and new integrated PET/CT scanners combine the strengths of both modalities. State-of-the-art bronchoscopes permit minimally invasive tissue sampling, with vivid endobronchial video enabling navigation deep into the airway-tree periphery, while complementary endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) reveals local views of anatomical structures outside the airways. In addition, image-guided intervention (IGI) systems have proven their utility for CT-based planning and guidance of bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, no IGI system exists that integrates all sources effectively through the complete lung-cancer staging work flow. This paper presents a prototype of a computer-based multimodal IGI system that strives to fill this need. The system combines a wide range of automatic and semi-automatic image-processing tools for multimodal data fusion and procedure planning. It also provides a flexible graphical user interface for follow-on guidance of bronchoscopy/EBUS. Human-study results demonstrate the system's potential.

  4. Navigation strategy training using virtual reality in six chronic stroke patients: A novel and explorative approach to the rehabilitation of navigation impairment.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Michiel H G; van der Ham, Ineke J M; Jagersma, Elbrich; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that navigation impairment is a common complaint after brain injury. Effective training programmes aiming to improve navigation ability in neurological patients are, however, scarce. The few reported programmes are merely focused on recalling specific routes rather than encouraging brain-damaged patients to use an alternative navigation strategy, applicable to any route. Our aim was therefore to investigate the feasibility of a (virtual reality) navigation training as a tool to instruct chronic stroke patients to adopt an alternative navigation strategy. Navigation ability was systematically assessed before the training. The training approach was then determined based on the individual pattern of navigation deficits of each patient. The use of virtual reality in the navigation strategy training in six middle-aged stroke patients was found to be highly feasible. Furthermore, five patients learned to (partially) apply an alternative navigation strategy in the virtual environment, suggesting that navigation strategies are mouldable rather than static. In the evaluation of their training experiences, the patients judged the training as valuable and proposed some suggestions for further improvement. The notion that the navigation strategy people use can be influenced after a short training procedure is a novel finding and initiates a direction for future studies. PMID:26040931

  5. Navigator program risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Padilla, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, program risk management as applied to the Navigator Program: In Search of New Worlds will be discussed. The Navigator Program's goals are to learn how planetary systems form and to search for those worlds that could or do harbor life.

  6. Maps and navigation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, A

    1922-01-01

    Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

  7. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  8. Oncology nurse navigator.

    PubMed

    Case, Mary Ann B

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to explore the presence of the oncology nurse as navigator on measurable patient outcomes. Eighteen primary nursing research studies were found using combinations of the following key words: advocate, cancer, case manager, coach, certification, guide, navigator, nurse, oncology, patient navigator, pivot nurse, and continuity of care. Nurse researchers identified nursing-sensitive patient outcomes related to the time to diagnosis and appropriate treatment, effect on mood states, satisfaction, support, continuity of care, and cost outcomes. Navigator roles are expanding globally, and nurses should continue to embrace opportunities to ensure the safe passage of patients with cancer along the entire trajectory of illness and to evaluate the implications for educational preparation, research, and practice of navigators of all kinds. PMID:21278039

  9. Multimodal integration of time.

    PubMed

    Bausenhart, Karin M; de la Rosa, Maria Dolores; Ulrich, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the accuracy of duration discrimination for visually presented intervals is strongly impaired by concurrently presented auditory intervals of different duration, but not vice versa. Because these studies rely mostly on accuracy measures, it remains unclear whether this impairment results from changes in perceived duration or rather from a decrease in perceptual sensitivity. We therefore assessed complete psychometric functions in a duration discrimination task to disentangle effects on perceived duration and sensitivity. Specifically, participants compared two empty intervals marked by either visual or auditory pulses. These pulses were either presented unimodally, or accompanied by task-irrelevant pulses in the respective other modality, which defined conflicting intervals of identical, shorter, or longer duration. Participants were instructed to base their temporal judgments solely on the task-relevant modality. Despite this instruction, perceived duration was clearly biased toward the duration of the intervals marked in the task-irrelevant modality. This was not only found for the discrimination of visual intervals, but also, to a lesser extent, for the discrimination of auditory intervals. Discrimination sensitivity, however, was similar between all multimodal conditions, and only improved compared to the presentation of unimodal visual intervals. In a second experiment, evidence for multisensory integration was even found when the task-irrelevant modality did not contain any duration information, thus excluding noncompliant attention allocation as a basis of our results. Our results thus suggest that audiovisual integration of temporally discrepant signals does not impair discrimination sensitivity but rather alters perceived duration, presumably by means of a temporal ventriloquism effect. PMID:24351985

  10. Multimodal Neuroelectric Interface Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Totah, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project aims to improve performance of NASA missions by developing multimodal neuroelectric technologies for augmented human-system interaction. Neuroelectric technologies will add completely new modes of interaction that operate in parallel with keyboards, speech, or other manual controls, thereby increasing the bandwidth of human-system interaction. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of real-time electromyographic (EMG) pattern recognition for a direct neuroelectric human-computer interface. We recorded EMG signals from an elastic sleeve with dry electrodes, while a human subject performed a range of discrete gestures. A machine-teaming algorithm was trained to recognize the EMG patterns associated with the gestures and map them to control signals. Successful applications now include piloting two Class 4 aircraft simulations (F-15 and 757) and entering data with a "virtual" numeric keyboard. Current research focuses on on-line adaptation of EMG sensing and processing and recognition of continuous gestures. We are also extending this on-line pattern recognition methodology to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This will allow us to bypass muscle activity and draw control signals directly from the human brain. Our system can reliably detect P-rhythm (a periodic EEG signal from motor cortex in the 10 Hz range) with a lightweight headset containing saline-soaked sponge electrodes. The data show that EEG p-rhythm can be modulated by real and imaginary motions. Current research focuses on using biofeedback to train of human subjects to modulate EEG rhythms on demand, and to examine interactions of EEG-based control with EMG-based and manual control. Viewgraphs on these neuroelectric technologies are also included.

  11. Locating the Semiotic Power of Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda A.; Nelson, Mark Evan

    2005-01-01

    This article reports research that attempts to characterize what is powerful about digital multimodal texts. Building from recent theoretical work on understanding the workings and implications of multimodal communication, the authors call for a continuing empirical investigation into the roles that digital multimodal texts play in real-world…

  12. Multimodal Hip Hop Productions as Media Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, K. C. Nat

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on ethnographic data from a year-long multimodal media production (MMP) course and the experience of an African American female adolescent who used the production of multimodal Hip Hop texts to express her creativity and growing socially conscious view of the world. The study demonstrates how students made meaning multimodally and…

  13. Developing Multimodal Academic Literacies among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gloria E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on a semester long freshmen learning community in which multimodal texts were used as primary texts along with traditional texts to support students' academic literacy skills. Analysis shows that a multimodal text created by students contain elements of academic literacies and qualities of multimodal texts. An…

  14. Multimodal Career Education for Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Stephen; Smith, Robert L.

    A multimodal career education model entitled BEST IDEA was field tested as an approach to the problem of retaining skilled nurses in the work force. Using multimodal assessment and intervention strategies derived from the multimodal behavior therapy of Arnold Lazarus, researchers developed an individualized career development assessment and…

  15. Theta oscillations and human navigation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Dráulio B; Baffa, Oswaldo; Wakai, Ronald T

    2002-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to study alpha and theta activity while subjects navigated through a computer-generated virtual reality town. The subjects were first allowed to explore the environment freely. They then had to navigate from a starting point to a destination, knowing that an obstruction would appear at one of several possible locations along the main route and force them to take a detour. Spatiotemporal analysis of the theta and alpha bands were performed (1) prior to the start of navigation, (2) from the start of navigation until the obstruction was encountered, (3) during the time subjects were contemplating a detour and were not navigating, and (4) from the resumption of navigation until the destination was reached. In all subjects, theta power was strongest during the two periods of navigation. The peak frequency of the oscillations was approximately 3.7 Hz. Control studies consisted of a motor task similar to that required for navigation, passive viewing of a tour through the same virtual reality town, and a mental concentration task. No consistent increases in theta power were seen in the MEG during any of the control tasks. The results suggest an association between theta rhythm and the performance of navigational tasks in humans. PMID:11798388

  16. Homing pigeons develop local route stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Meade, Jessica; Biro, Dora; Guilford, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms used by homing pigeons (Columba livia) to navigate homeward from distant sites have been well studied, yet the mechanisms underlying navigation within, and mapping of, the local familiar area have been largely neglected. In the local area pigeons pote ntially have access to a powerful navigational aid--a memorized landscape map. Current opinion suggests that landmarks are used only to recognize a familiar start position and that the goalward route is then achieved solely using compass orientation. We used high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) loggers to track homing pigeons as they became progressively familiar with a local homing task. Here, we demonstrate that birds develop highly stereotyped yet individually distinctive routes over the landscape, which remain substantially inefficient. Precise aerial route recapitulation implies close control by localized geocentric cues. Magnetic cues are unlikely to have been used, since recapitulation remains despite magnetic disruption treatment, and olfactory cues would have been positionally unstable under the variable wind conditions, making visual landmarks the most likely cues used. PMID:15875565

  17. Accelerating the Convergence Speed of Precise Point Positioning by Using Multi-mode GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Song; Jin-ming, Hao

    2016-04-01

    The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) does not need the support of base stations, and it has broad application prospects. However, the convergence time of PPP is long. In order to accelerate the convergence speed of PPP, the PPP model using multi-mode GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) is discussed. The experiments show that the convergence speed becomes faster by using the multi-mode GNSS, the mean percentage of time reduction for converging to different precisions (10 cm, 15 cm, and 20 cm) is 42%, 78%, and 74%, respectively; meanwhile, in the severe regions, such as in the mountainous regions, the number of observable satellites becomes fewer, and the PPP sometimes cannot achieve positioning using a simple system. But the PPP using multi-mode GNSS can achieve positioning and accelerate the convergence.

  18. Reducing medication errors in critical care: a multimodal approach

    PubMed Central

    Kruer, Rachel M; Jarrell, Andrew S; Latif, Asad

    2014-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has reported that medication errors are the single most common type of error in health care, representing 19% of all adverse events, while accounting for over 7,000 deaths annually. The frequency of medication errors in adult intensive care units can be as high as 947 per 1,000 patient-days, with a median of 105.9 per 1,000 patient-days. The formulation of drugs is a potential contributor to medication errors. Challenges related to drug formulation are specific to the various routes of medication administration, though errors associated with medication appearance and labeling occur among all drug formulations and routes of administration. Addressing these multifaceted challenges requires a multimodal approach. Changes in technology, training, systems, and safety culture are all strategies to potentially reduce medication errors related to drug formulation in the intensive care unit. PMID:25210478

  19. Recent advances in surgical planning & navigation for tumor biopsy and resection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Defeng; Ma, Diya; Wong, Matthew Lun; Wáng, Yì Xiáng J

    2015-10-01

    This paper highlights recent advancements in imaging technologies for surgical planning and navigation in tumor biopsy and resection which need high-precision in detection and characterization of lesion margin in preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation. Multimodality image-guided surgery platforms brought great benefits in surgical planning and operation accuracy via registration of various data sets with information on morphology [X-ray, magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT)], function connectivity [functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), rest-status fMRI], or molecular activity [positron emission tomography (PET)]. These image-guided platforms provide a correspondence between the pre-operative surgical planning and intra-operative procedure. We envisage that the combination of advanced multimodal imaging, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and cloud computing will play increasingly important roles in planning and navigation of surgery for tumor biopsy and resection in the coming years. PMID:26682133

  20. Recent advances in surgical planning & navigation for tumor biopsy and resection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Diya; Wong, Matthew Lun; Wáng, Yì Xiáng J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights recent advancements in imaging technologies for surgical planning and navigation in tumor biopsy and resection which need high-precision in detection and characterization of lesion margin in preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation. Multimodality image-guided surgery platforms brought great benefits in surgical planning and operation accuracy via registration of various data sets with information on morphology [X-ray, magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT)], function connectivity [functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), rest-status fMRI], or molecular activity [positron emission tomography (PET)]. These image-guided platforms provide a correspondence between the pre-operative surgical planning and intra-operative procedure. We envisage that the combination of advanced multimodal imaging, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and cloud computing will play increasingly important roles in planning and navigation of surgery for tumor biopsy and resection in the coming years. PMID:26682133

  1. Multimodal interaction for human-robot teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Dustin; Schurr, Nathan; Ayers, Jeanine; Rousseau, Jeff; Fertitta, John; Carlin, Alan; Dumond, Danielle

    2013-05-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles have the potential for supporting small dismounted teams in mapping facilities, maintaining security in cleared buildings, and extending the team's reconnaissance and persistent surveillance capability. In order for such autonomous systems to integrate with the team, we must move beyond current interaction methods using heads-down teleoperation which require intensive human attention and affect the human operator's ability to maintain local situational awareness and ensure their own safety. This paper focuses on the design, development and demonstration of a multimodal interaction system that incorporates naturalistic human gestures, voice commands, and a tablet interface. By providing multiple, partially redundant interaction modes, our system degrades gracefully in complex environments and enables the human operator to robustly select the most suitable interaction method given the situational demands. For instance, the human can silently use arm and hand gestures for commanding a team of robots when it is important to maintain stealth. The tablet interface provides an overhead situational map allowing waypoint-based navigation for multiple ground robots in beyond-line-of-sight conditions. Using lightweight, wearable motion sensing hardware either worn comfortably beneath the operator's clothing or integrated within their uniform, our non-vision-based approach enables an accurate, continuous gesture recognition capability without line-of-sight constraints. To reduce the training necessary to operate the system, we designed the interactions around familiar arm and hand gestures.

  2. Algorithm for navigated ESS.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, T; Grgić, M V; Zadravec, D; Geber, G; Tomljenović, D; Kalogjera, L

    2013-12-01

    ENT navigation has given new opportunities in performing Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS) and improving surgical outcome of the patients` treatment. ESS assisted by a navigation system could be called Navigated Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (NESS). As it is generally accepted that the NESS should be performed only in cases of complex anatomy and pathology, it has not yet been established as a state-of-the-art procedure and thus not used on a daily basis. This paper presents an algorithm for use of a navigation system for basic ESS in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The algorithm includes five units that should be highlighted using a navigation system. They are as follows: 1) nasal vestibule unit, 2) OMC unit, 3) anterior ethmoid unit, 4) posterior ethmoid unit, and 5) sphenoid unit. Each unit has a shape of a triangular pyramid and consists of at least four reference points or landmarks. As many landmarks as possible should be marked when determining one of the five units. Navigated orientation in each unit should always precede any surgical intervention. The algorithm should improve the learning curve of trainees and enable surgeons to use the navigation system routinely and systematically. PMID:24260766

  3. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  4. 78 FR 32412 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ..., marital status, disability and generic information, age, membership in an employee organization, or other... and equipment, routing measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems...@uscg.mil FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Mike Sollosi, the NAVSAC Alternate Designated...

  5. 77 FR 15784 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ..., disability and generic information, age, membership in an employee organization, or other non-merit factor... and equipment, routing measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems....gov . Members of the public should not submit personal information into a docket, as it becomes...

  6. Navigation Systems for Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Wood, B. J.; Kruecker, J.; Abi-Jaoudeh, N; Locklin, J.; Levy, E.; Xu, S.; Solbiati, L.; Kapoor, A.; Amalou, H.; Venkatesan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Navigation systems, devices and intra-procedural software are changing the way we practice interventional oncology. Prior to the development of precision navigation tools integrated with imaging systems, thermal ablation of hard-to-image lesions was highly dependent upon operator experience, spatial skills, and estimation of positron emission tomography-avid or arterial-phase targets. Numerous navigation systems for ablation bring the opportunity for standardization and accuracy that extends our ability to use imaging feedback during procedures. Existing systems and techniques are reviewed, and specific clinical applications for ablation are discussed to better define how these novel technologies address specific clinical needs, and fit into clinical practice. PMID:20656236

  7. 76 FR 77939 - Proposed Provision of Navigation Services for the Next Generation Air Transportation System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) seeks comments on a proposed transition of the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) navigation infrastructure to enable performance-based navigation (PBN) as part of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The FAA plans to transition from defining airways, routes and procedures using VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR) and other legacy......

  8. Navigation Assistance: A Trade-Off between Wayfinding Support and Configural Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munzer, Stefan; Zimmer, Hubert D.; Baus, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    Current GPS-based mobile navigation assistance systems support wayfinding, but they do not support learning about the spatial configuration of an environment. The present study examined effects of visual presentation modes for navigation assistance on wayfinding accuracy, route learning, and configural learning. Participants (high-school students)…

  9. Multimodal imaging of ischemic wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Liu, Peng; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    The wound healing process involves the reparative phases of inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Interrupting any of these phases may result in chronically unhealed wounds, amputation, or even patient death. Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, no method is available for noninvasive, simultaneous, and quantitative imaging of these tissue parameters. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities into a single setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Advanced algorithms were developed for accurate reconstruction of wound oxygenation and appropriate co-registration between different imaging modalities. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated by an ongoing clinical trials approved by OSU IRB. In the clinical trial, a wound of 3mm in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was serially monitored by the multimodal imaging setup. Our experiments demonstrated the clinical usability of multimodal wound imaging.

  10. Multi-Modality Phantom Development

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.

    2009-03-20

    Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.

  11. Creating Multimodal Metalanguage with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum guidelines, including the emergent Australian curriculum (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2009-10), indicate expectations that teachers will support their students' interpretation and creation of multimodal texts. However, English curriculum guidelines are yet to advise on a detailed metalanguage to…

  12. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  13. Multimodality as a Sociolinguistic Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collister, Lauren Brittany

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the use of multimodal communication in a community of expert "World of Warcraft"® players and its impact on politeness, identity, and relationships. Players in the community regularly communicated using three linguistic modes quasi-simultaneously: text chat, voice chat, and face-to-face interaction. Using the…

  14. Brief Psychotherapy: The Multimodal Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Arnold A.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines tenets of multimodal therapy (MMT) and argues for its cost-effective yet comprehensive value as a brief psychotherapy model. Describes MMT as an integrated, seven-modality model of personality and provides clinical examples of its use. Argues that MMT approach will be an important future alternative to more expensive, time-consuming, and…

  15. Spatial cognition and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment that provides data for the development of a cognitive model of pilot flight navigation is described. The experiment characterizes navigational awareness as the mental alignment of two frames of reference: (1) the ego centered reference frame that is established by the forward view out of the cockpit and (2) the world centered reference frame that is established by the aircraft's location on a map. The data support a model involving at least two components: (1) the perceptual encoding of the navigational landmarks and (2) the mental rotation of the map's world reference frame into alignment with the ego centered reference frame. The quantitative relationships of these two factors are provided as possible inputs for a computational model of spatial cognition during flight navigation.

  16. Inertial/multisensor navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alikiotis, Dimitri

    1987-01-01

    A Multisensor Navigation System as proposed by the Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is illustrated. The proposed system incorporates radio (Lorac-C), satellite (Global Positioning System) and an inertial navigation system (INS). The inertial part of the system will be of a low grade since the INS will be used primarily for filtering the GPS data and for short term stability. Loran-C and GPS will be used for long term stability.

  17. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.; Johnson, B.; Swaminathan, N.

    1989-01-01

    Software and hardware assembled to support specific engineering activities. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation (SINW) is integrated computer workstation providing systems and engineering support functions for Space Shuttle guidance and navigation-system logistics, repair, and procurement activities. Consists of personal-computer hardware, packaged software, and custom software integrated together into user-friendly, menu-driven system. Designed to operate on IBM PC XT. Applied in business and industry to develop similar workstations.

  18. Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

  19. Grid-like Processing of Imagined Navigation.

    PubMed

    Horner, Aidan J; Bisby, James A; Zotow, Ewa; Bush, Daniel; Burgess, Neil

    2016-03-21

    Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of rodents [1] and humans [2] fire in a hexagonally distributed spatially periodic manner. In concert with other spatial cells in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) [3-6], they provide a representation of our location within an environment [7, 8] and are specifically thought to allow the represented location to be updated by self-motion [9]. Grid-like signals have been seen throughout the autobiographical memory system [10], suggesting a much more general role in memory [11, 12]. Grid cells may allow us to move our viewpoint in imagination [13], a useful function for goal-directed navigation and planning [12, 14-16], and episodic future thinking more generally [17, 18]. We used fMRI to provide evidence for similar grid-like signals in human entorhinal cortex during both virtual navigation and imagined navigation of the same paths. We show that this signal is present in periods of active navigation and imagination, with a similar orientation in both and with the specifically 6-fold rotational symmetry characteristic of grid cell firing. We therefore provide the first evidence suggesting that grid cells are utilized during movement of viewpoint within imagery, potentially underpinning our more general ability to mentally traverse possible routes in the service of planning and episodic future thinking. PMID:26972318

  20. Grid-like Processing of Imagined Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Aidan J.; Bisby, James A.; Zotow, Ewa; Bush, Daniel; Burgess, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Summary Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of rodents [1] and humans [2] fire in a hexagonally distributed spatially periodic manner. In concert with other spatial cells in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) [3, 4, 5, 6], they provide a representation of our location within an environment [7, 8] and are specifically thought to allow the represented location to be updated by self-motion [9]. Grid-like signals have been seen throughout the autobiographical memory system [10], suggesting a much more general role in memory [11, 12]. Grid cells may allow us to move our viewpoint in imagination [13], a useful function for goal-directed navigation and planning [12, 14, 15, 16], and episodic future thinking more generally [17, 18]. We used fMRI to provide evidence for similar grid-like signals in human entorhinal cortex during both virtual navigation and imagined navigation of the same paths. We show that this signal is present in periods of active navigation and imagination, with a similar orientation in both and with the specifically 6-fold rotational symmetry characteristic of grid cell firing. We therefore provide the first evidence suggesting that grid cells are utilized during movement of viewpoint within imagery, potentially underpinning our more general ability to mentally traverse possible routes in the service of planning and episodic future thinking. PMID:26972318

  1. Development of autonomous grasping and navigating robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoh, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Keisuke; Nakayama, Yasuichi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to find and grasp target items in an unknown environment is important for working robots. We developed an autonomous navigating and grasping robot. The operations are locating a requested item, moving to where the item is placed, finding the item on a shelf or table, and picking the item up from the shelf or the table. To achieve these operations, we designed the robot with three functions: an autonomous navigating function that generates a map and a route in an unknown environment, an item position recognizing function, and a grasping function. We tested this robot in an unknown environment. It achieved a series of operations: moving to a destination, recognizing the positions of items on a shelf, picking up an item, placing it on a cart with its hand, and returning to the starting location. The results of this experiment show the applicability of reducing the workforce with robots.

  2. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and procedure. 209.325 Section 209.325 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation...

  3. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  4. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  5. Defining Dynamic Route Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Jastrzebski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a method for defining route structure from flight tracks. Dynamically generated route structures could be useful in guiding dynamic airspace configuration and helping controllers retain situational awareness under dynamically changing traffic conditions. Individual merge and diverge intersections between pairs of flights are identified, clustered, and grouped into nodes of a route structure network. Links are placed between nodes to represent major traffic flows. A parametric analysis determined the algorithm input parameters producing route structures of current day flight plans that are closest to todays airway structure. These parameters are then used to define and analyze the dynamic route structure over the course of a day for current day flight paths. Route structures are also compared between current day flight paths and more user preferred paths such as great circle and weather avoidance routing.

  6. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  7. Olfaction, navigation, and the origin of isocortex

    PubMed Central

    Aboitiz, Francisco; Montiel, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    There are remarkable similarities between the brains of mammals and birds in terms of microcircuit architecture, despite obvious differences in gross morphology and development. While in reptiles and birds the most expanding component (the dorsal ventricular ridge) displays an overall nuclear shape and derives from the lateral and ventral pallium, in mammals a dorsal pallial, six-layered isocortex shows the most remarkable elaboration. Regardless of discussions about possible homologies between mammalian and avian brains, a main question remains in explaining the emergence of the mammalian isocortex, because it represents a unique phenotype across amniotes. In this article, we propose that the origin of the isocortex was driven by behavioral adaptations involving olfactory driven goal-directed and navigating behaviors. These adaptations were linked with increasing sensory development, which provided selective pressure for the expansion of the dorsal pallium. The latter appeared as an interface in olfactory-hippocampal networks, contributing somatosensory information for navigating behavior. Sensory input from other modalities like vision and audition were subsequently recruited into this expanding region, contributing to multimodal associative networks. PMID:26578863

  8. Experimental verification of MMI by singlemode-multimode-singlemode and multimode-singlemode structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Saikat; Ghosh, Amarnath; Roy, Bapita; Chakraborty, Rajib

    2015-06-01

    Multimode Interference (MMI) based on self imaging phenomenon is investigated using matrix approach. Experimentally MMI is verified using singlemode-multimode-singlemode and multimodesinglemode structures of optical fiber. The results obtained are also verified by BPM technique.

  9. Voyager navigation strategy and accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. B.; Mcdanell, J. P.; Bantell, M. H., Jr.; Chadwick, C.; Jacobson, R. A.; Miller, L. J.; Synnott, S. P.; Van Allen, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the prelaunch navigation studies conducted for the Mariner spacecraft launched toward encounters with the giant planets. The navigation system and the strategy for using this system are described. The requirements on the navigation system demanded by the goals of the project are mentioned, and the predicted navigational capability relative to each of the requirements is discussed. Baseline navigation results for three possible trajectories are analyzed.

  10. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1991-07-01

    Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

  11. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1991-01-01

    Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

  12. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    PubMed

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system. PMID:17299225

  13. Aerocapture navigation at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed Neptune orbiter Aerocapture mission will use solar electric propulsion to send an orbiter to Neptune. Navigation feasibility of direct-entry aerocapture for orbit insertion at Neptune is shown. The navigation strategy baselines optical imaging and (delta)VLBI measurement in order to satisfy the flight system's atmosphere entry flight path angle, which is targeted to enter Neptune with an entry flight path angle of -11.6 . Error bars on the entry flight path angle of plus/minus0.55 (3(sigma)) are proposed. This requirement can be satisfied with a data cutoff 3.2 days prior to arrival. There is some margin in the arrival template to tighten (i.e. reduce) the entry corridor either by scheduling a data cutoff closer to Neptune or alternatively, reducing uncertainties by increasing the fidelity of the optical navigation camera.

  14. Radioactive Nanomaterials for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A.; Yang, Dongzhi; Wu, Hongwei; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques, including primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), can provide quantitative information for a biological event in vivo with ultra-high sensitivity, however, the comparatively low spatial resolution is their major limitation in clinical application. By convergence of nuclear imaging with other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, the hybrid imaging platforms can overcome the limitations from each individual imaging technique. Possessing versatile chemical linking ability and good cargo-loading capacity, radioactive nanomaterials can serve as ideal imaging contrast agents. In this review, we provide a brief overview about current state-of-the-art applications of radioactive nanomaterials in the circumstances of multimodality imaging. We present strategies for incorporation of radioisotope(s) into nanomaterials along with applications of radioactive nanomaterials in multimodal imaging. Advantages and limitations of radioactive nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications are discussed. Finally, a future perspective of possible radioactive nanomaterial utilization is presented for improving diagnosis and patient management in a variety of diseases. PMID:27227167

  15. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Habib; Prasad, Rameshwar

    2009-01-01

    Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a “one-stop shop” and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed. PMID:20098557

  16. Hybrid songbirds employ intermediate routes in a migratory divide.

    PubMed

    Delmore, Kira E; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-10-01

    Migratory divides are contact zones between populations that use different routes to navigate around unsuitable areas on seasonal migration. Hybrids in divides have been predicted to employ intermediate and potentially inferior routes. We provide the first direct test of this hypothesis, using light-level geolocators to track birds breeding in a hybrid zone between Swainson's thrushes in western Canada. Compared to parental forms, hybrids exhibited increased variability in their migratory routes, with some using intermediate routes that crossed arid and mountainous regions, and some using the same routes as one parental group on fall migration and the other on spring migration. Hybrids also tended to use geographically intermediate wintering sites. Analysis of genetic variation across the hybrid zone suggests moderately strong selection against hybrids. These results indicate that seasonal migratory behaviour might be a source of selection against hybrids, supporting a possible role for migration in speciation. PMID:25040456

  17. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  18. Cassini tour navigation strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Duane; Alwar, Vijay; Bordi, John; Goodson, Troy; Hahn, Yungsun; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jones, Jeremy; Owen, William; Pojman, Joan; Roundhill, Ian; Santos, Shawna; Strange, Nathan; Wagner, Sean; Wong, Mau

    2003-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 as a joint NASA/ESA mission to explore Saturn. After a 7 year cruise the spacecraft will enter orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004 for a 4 year investigation of the Saturnian system. The Cassini Navigation Team is responsible for designing the reference trajectory and conducting operations to realize this design. This paper describes the strategy for achieving project requirements, the characteristics of the Cassini navigation challenge, and the underlying assumptions.

  19. Mariner 9 navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  20. The Role of Angularity in Route Choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Alasdair

    The paths of 2425 individual motorcycle trips made in London were analyzed in order to uncover the route choice decisions made by drivers. The paths were derived from global positioning system (GPS) data collected by a courier company for each of their drivers, using algorithms developed for the purpose of this paper. Motorcycle couriers were chosen due to the fact that they both know streets very well and that they do not rely on the GPS to guide their navigation. Each trace was mapped to the underlying road network, and two competing hypotheses for route choice decisions were compared: (a) that riders attempt to minimize the Manhattan distance between locations and (b) that they attempt to minimize the angular distance. In each case, the distance actually traveled was compared to the minimum possible either block or angular distance through the road network. It is usually believed that drivers who know streets well will navigate trips that reduce Manhattan distance; however, here it is shown that angularity appears to play an important role in route choice. 63% of trips made took the minimum possible angular distance between origin and destination, while 51% of trips followed the minimum possible block distance. This implies that impact of turns on cognitive distance plays an important role in decision making, even when a driver has good knowledge of the spatial network.

  1. Wikipedia Entries as a Source of CAR Navigation Landmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binski, N.; Zhang, L.; Dalyot, S.

    2016-06-01

    Car navigation system devices provide today with an easy and simple solution to the basic concept of reaching a destination. Although these systems usually achieve this goal, they still deliver a limited and poor sequence of instructions that do not consider the human nature of using landmarks during wayfinding. This research paper addresses the concept of enriching navigation route instructions by adding supplementary route information in the form of landmarks. We aim at using a contributed source of landmarks information, which is easy to access, available, show high update rate, and have a large scale of information. For this, Wikipedia was chosen, since it represents the world's largest free encyclopaedia that includes information about many spatial entities. A survey and classification of available landmarks is implemented, coupled with ranking algorithms based on the entries' categories and attributes. These are aimed at retrieving the most relevant landmark information required that are valuable for the enrichment of a specific navigation route. The paper will present this methodology, together with examples and results, showing the feasibility of using this concept and its potential of enriching navigation processes.

  2. Crew performance and communication: Performing a terrain navigation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol; Delzell, Susanne

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the map and route cues pilots use while navigating under controlled, but realistic, nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight conditions. US Army helicopter flight crews were presented a map and route overlay and asked to perform normal mission planning. They then viewed a video-recording of the out-the-window scene during low-level flights, without the route overlay, and were asked periodically to locate their current position on the map. The pilots and navigators were asked to communicate normally during the planning and flight phases. During each flight the navigator's response time, accuracy, and subjective workload were assessed. Post-flight NASA-TLX workload ratings were collected. No main effect of map orientation (north-up vs. track-up) was found for errors or response times on any of the tasks evaluated. Navigators in the north-up group rated their workload lower than those in the track-up group.

  3. The Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness (T-NASA) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Low-Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) subelement is to improve the efficiency of airport surface operations for commercial aircraft operating in weather conditions to Category IIIB while maintaining a high degree of safety. Currently, surface operations are one of the least technologically sophisticated components of the air transport system, being conducted in the 1990's with the same basic technology as in the 1930's. Pilots are given little or no explicit information about their current position, and routing information is limited to ATC communications and airport charts. In TAP/LVLASO, advanced technologies such as satellite navigation systems, digital data communications, advanced information presentation technology, and ground surveillance systems will be integrated into flight deck displays to enable expeditious and safe traffic movement on the airport surface. The cockpit display suite is called the T-NASA (Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness) System. This system has three integrated components: 1) Moving Map track-up airport surface display with own-ship, traffic and graphical route guidance 2) Scene-Linked Symbology - route/taxi information virtually projected via a Head-up Display (HUD) onto the forward scene; and, 3) 3-D Audio Ground Collision Avoidance and Navigation system - spatially-localized auditory traffic and navigation alerts. In the current paper, the design philosophy of the T-NASA system will be presented, and the T-NASA system display components described.

  4. 77 FR 23114 - Modification, Revocation and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Windsor Locks Area; CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ...) routes in the vicinity of Windsor Locks, CT (77 FR 20528). Subsequent to publication, an error was... on April 5, 2010 (77 FR 20528) (FR Doc. 2012-8183) for RNAV route T-300, is corrected under the... action corrects the longitude coordinate for one point in the description of area navigation (RNAV)...

  5. Assessment of Indoor Route-Finding Technology for People Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalia, Amy A.; Legge, Gordon E.; Roy, Rudrava; Ogale, Advait

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated navigation with route instructions generated by digital-map software and synthetic speech. The participants, either visually impaired or sighted wearing blindfolds, successfully located rooms in an unfamiliar building. Users with visual impairments demonstrated better route-finding performance when the technology provided…

  6. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  7. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  8. Route Recapitulation and Route Loyalty in Homing Pigeons: Pilotage From 25 km?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Dora; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim

    2006-01-01

    We utilised precision Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking to examine the homing paths of pigeons (Columba livia) released 20 times consecutively 25 km from the loft. By the end of the training phase, birds had developed highly stereotyped yet individually distinct routes home, with detailed recapitulation evident at each stage of the journey. Following training, birds also participated in a series of releases from novel sites at perpendicular distances of up to 3 km from their established routes. Results showed that subjects were attracted back to their established routes and recapitulated them from the point of contact. Naïve conspecifics (yoked controls) released from the same off-route sites confirmed that the experienced birds' route choices were not influenced by constraints exerted by terrain features, but that increased experience with the general area conferred a homing advantage in the form of more efficient flight tracks, even from these novel sites. Patterns in the paths taken by experienced birds to rejoin their established routes are discussed with reference to navigational mechanisms employed by homing pigeons in their familiar area.

  9. Place cells on a maze encode routes rather than destinations

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, Roddy M; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal place cells fire at different rates when a rodent runs through a given location on its way to different destinations. However, it is unclear whether such firing represents the animal’s intended destination or the execution of a specific trajectory. To distinguish between these possibilities, Lister Hooded rats (n = 8) were trained to navigate from a start box to three goal locations via four partially overlapping routes. Two of these led to the same goal location. Of the cells that fired on these two routes, 95.8% showed route-dependent firing (firing on only one route), whereas only two cells (4.2%) showed goal-dependent firing (firing similarly on both routes). In addition, route-dependent place cells over-represented the less discriminable routes, and place cells in general over-represented the start location. These results indicate that place cell firing on overlapping routes reflects the animal’s route, not its goals, and that this firing may aid spatial discrimination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15986.001 PMID:27282386

  10. Astronomy and Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenta, Fernando

    Different people, seafaring in different parts of the world, used strategies well adapted to their environment with the purpose of safely reaching their destination. Astronomical elements, present in their navigation "toolkit" for orientation, calendar purposes, and time reckoning, contributed to their conceptualization of space and time and were eventually integrated in their ritual, social organization, and social power structure.