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Sample records for multimodality imaging findings

  1. Tailgut Cyst and Perineal Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report with Multimodality Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Alghofaily, Khalefa Ali

    2016-01-01

    A tailgut cyst is a rare developmental lesion and usually is located in the retrorectal or presacral space. Extrahepatic hydatid disease has been reported in several locations including the pelvis and it often poses a diagnostic challenge. There are very few reported cases of primary perineal hydatid cysts. We present the multimodality imaging findings of a tailgut cyst and concurrent perineal hydatid disease in a 32-year-old male patient.

  2. Multimodality image display station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, H. Joseph

    1990-07-01

    The Multi-modality Image Display Station (MIDS) is designed for the use of physicians outside of the radiology department. Connected to a local area network or a host computer, it provides speedy access to digitized radiology images and written diagnostics needed by attending and consulting physicians near the patient bedside. Emphasis has been placed on low cost, high performance and ease of use. The work is being done as a joint study with the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and as part of a joint development effort with the Mayo Clinic. MIDS is a prototype, and should not be assumed to be an IBM product.

  3. Drusen Characterization with Multimodal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Spaide, Richard F.; Curcio, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multimodal imaging findings and histological demonstration of soft drusen, cuticular drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits provided information used to develop a model explaining their imaging characteristics. Purpose To characterize the known appearance of cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits (reticular pseudodrusen), and soft drusen as revealed by multimodal fundus imaging; to create an explanatory model that accounts for these observations. Methods Reported color, fluorescein angiographic, autofluorescence, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of patients with cuticular drusen, soft drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits were reviewed, as were actual images from affected eyes. Representative histological sections were examined. The geometry, location, and imaging characteristics of these lesions were evaluated. A hypothesis based on the Beer-Lambert Law of light absorption was generated to fit these observations. Results Cuticular drusen appear as numerous uniform round yellow-white punctate accumulations under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Soft drusen are larger yellow-white dome-shaped mounds of deposit under the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits are polymorphous light-grey interconnected accumulations above the RPE. Based on the model, both cuticular and soft drusen appear yellow due to the removal of shorter wavelength light by a double pass through the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits, which are located on the RPE, are not subjected to short wavelength attenuation and therefore are more prominent when viewed with blue light. The location and morphology of extracellular material in relationship to the RPE, and associated changes to RPE morphology and pigmentation, appeared to be primary determinants of druse appearance in different imaging modalities. Conclusion Although cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits, and soft drusen are composed of common components, they are distinguishable

  4. Multimodality imaging in cranial blastomycosis, a great mimicker: Case-based illustration with review of clinical and imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Kochar, Puneet S; Lath, Chinar O; Klein, Andrew P; Ulmer, John L

    2016-01-01

    We describe the clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of three patients who are proven cases of blastomycosis with cranial involvement. In this review, we discuss the imaging features of cranial blastomycosis with relevant clinical case examples including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and advanced MR imaging techniques like magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and MR perfusion. Literature is reviewed for modern-day diagnosis and treatment of this fatal intracranial infection, if not diagnosed promptly and managed effectively. PMID:27081235

  5. Multimodal imaging of ischemic wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Liu, Peng; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    The wound healing process involves the reparative phases of inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Interrupting any of these phases may result in chronically unhealed wounds, amputation, or even patient death. Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, no method is available for noninvasive, simultaneous, and quantitative imaging of these tissue parameters. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities into a single setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Advanced algorithms were developed for accurate reconstruction of wound oxygenation and appropriate co-registration between different imaging modalities. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated by an ongoing clinical trials approved by OSU IRB. In the clinical trial, a wound of 3mm in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was serially monitored by the multimodal imaging setup. Our experiments demonstrated the clinical usability of multimodal wound imaging.

  6. Radioactive Nanomaterials for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A.; Yang, Dongzhi; Wu, Hongwei; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques, including primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), can provide quantitative information for a biological event in vivo with ultra-high sensitivity, however, the comparatively low spatial resolution is their major limitation in clinical application. By convergence of nuclear imaging with other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, the hybrid imaging platforms can overcome the limitations from each individual imaging technique. Possessing versatile chemical linking ability and good cargo-loading capacity, radioactive nanomaterials can serve as ideal imaging contrast agents. In this review, we provide a brief overview about current state-of-the-art applications of radioactive nanomaterials in the circumstances of multimodality imaging. We present strategies for incorporation of radioisotope(s) into nanomaterials along with applications of radioactive nanomaterials in multimodal imaging. Advantages and limitations of radioactive nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications are discussed. Finally, a future perspective of possible radioactive nanomaterial utilization is presented for improving diagnosis and patient management in a variety of diseases. PMID:27227167

  7. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Habib; Prasad, Rameshwar

    2009-01-01

    Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a “one-stop shop” and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed. PMID:20098557

  8. Multimode imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M

    2013-08-27

    Apparatus for detecting and locating a source of gamma rays of energies ranging from 10-20 keV to several MeV's includes plural gamma ray detectors arranged in a generally closed extended array so as to provide Compton scattering imaging and coded aperture imaging simultaneously. First detectors are arranged in a spaced manner about a surface defining the closed extended array which may be in the form a circle, a sphere, a square, a pentagon or higher order polygon. Some of the gamma rays are absorbed by the first detectors closest to the gamma source in Compton scattering, while the photons that go unabsorbed by passing through gaps disposed between adjacent first detectors are incident upon second detectors disposed on the side farthest from the gamma ray source, where the first spaced detectors form a coded aperture array for two or three dimensional gamma ray source detection.

  9. Multimodality Imaging in Cardiooncology

    PubMed Central

    Pizzino, Fausto; Vizzari, Giampiero; Qamar, Rubina; Bomzer, Charles; Carerj, Scipione; Zito, Concetta; Khandheria, Bijoy K.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity represents a rising problem influencing prognosis and quality of life of chemotherapy-treated patients. Anthracyclines and trastuzumab are the drugs most commonly associated with development of a cardiotoxic effect. Heart failure, myocardial ischemia, hypertension, myocarditis, and thrombosis are typical manifestation of cardiotoxicity by chemotherapeutic agents. Diagnosis and monitoring of cardiac side-effects of cancer treatment is of paramount importance. Echocardiography and nuclear medicine methods are widely used in clinical practice and left ventricular ejection fraction is the most important parameter to asses myocardial damage secondary to chemotherapy. However, left ventricular ejection decrease is a delayed phenomenon, occurring after a long stage of silent myocardial damage that classic imaging methods are not able to detect. New imaging techniques including three-dimensional echocardiography, speckle tracking echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance have demonstrated high sensitivity in detecting the earliest alteration of left ventricular function associated with future development of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Early diagnosis of cardiac involvement in cancer patients can allow for timely and adequate treatment management and the introduction of cardioprotective strategies. PMID:26300915

  10. Radiolabeled Nanoparticles for Multimodality Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Zhao, Jinhua; Conti, Peter S.; Chen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Each imaging modality has its own unique strengths. Multimodality imaging, taking advantages of strengths from two or more imaging modalities, can provide overall structural, functional, and molecular information, offering the prospect of improved diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring abilities. The devices of molecular imaging with multimodality and multifunction are of great value for cancer diagnosis and treatment, and greatly accelerate the development of radionuclide-based multimodal molecular imaging. Radiolabeled nanoparticles bearing intrinsic properties have gained great interest in multimodality tumor imaging over the past decade. Significant breakthrough has been made toward the development of various radiolabeled nanoparticles, which can be used as novel cancer diagnostic tools in multimodality imaging systems. It is expected that quantitative multimodality imaging with multifunctional radiolabeled nanoparticles will afford accurate and precise assessment of biological signatures in cancer in a real-time manner and thus, pave the path towards personalized cancer medicine. This review addresses advantages and challenges in developing multimodality imaging probes by using different types of nanoparticles, and summarizes the recent advances in the applications of radiolabeled nanoparticles for multimodal imaging of tumor. The key issues involved in the translation of radiolabeled nanoparticles to the clinic are also discussed. PMID:24505237

  11. Multimodal imaging measures predict rearrest

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Vaughn R.; Claus, Eric D.; Aharoni, Eyal; Vincent, Gina M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    Rearrest has been predicted by hemodynamic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during error-processing (Aharoni et al., 2013). Here, we evaluate the predictive power after adding an additional imaging modality in a subsample of 45 incarcerated males from Aharoni et al. (2013). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and hemodynamic activity were collected during a Go/NoGo response inhibition task. Neural measures of error-processing were obtained from the ACC and two ERP components, the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and the error positivity (Pe). Measures from the Pe and ACC differentiated individuals who were and were not subsequently rearrested. Cox regression, logistic regression, and support vector machine (SVM) neuroprediction models were calculated. Each of these models proved successful in predicting rearrest and SVM provided the strongest results. Multimodal neuroprediction SVM models with out of sample cross-validating accurately predicted rearrest (83.33%). Offenders with increased Pe amplitude and decreased ACC activation, suggesting abnormal error-processing, were at greatest risk of rearrest. PMID:26283947

  12. Multimodal imaging of cutaneous wound tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Ren, Wenqi; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, few methods are available for simultaneous assessment of these tissue parameters in a noninvasive and quantitative fashion. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities in a single-experimental setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Algorithms were developed for appropriate coregistration between wound images acquired by different imaging modalities at different times. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated in an occlusion experiment, where oxygenation and perfusion maps of a healthy subject's upper extremity were continuously monitored during a postocclusive reactive hyperemia procedure and compared with standard measurements. The system was also tested in a clinical trial where a wound of three millimeters in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was continuously monitored. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated the clinical feasibility of multimodal cutaneous wound imaging.

  13. Nanoparticles in Higher-Order Multimodal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieffel, James Ki

    Imaging procedures are a cornerstone in our current medical infrastructure. In everything from screening, diagnostics, and treatment, medical imaging is perhaps our greatest tool in evaluating individual health. Recently, there has been tremendous increase in the development of multimodal systems that combine the strengths of complimentary imaging technologies to overcome their independent weaknesses. Clinically, this has manifested in the virtually universal manufacture of combined PET-CT scanners. With this push toward more integrated imaging, new contrast agents with multimodal functionality are needed. Nanoparticle-based systems are ideal candidates based on their unique size, properties, and diversity. In chapter 1, an extensive background on recent multimodal imaging agents capable of enhancing signal or contrast in three or more modalities is presented. Chapter 2 discusses the development and characterization of a nanoparticulate probe with hexamodal imaging functionality. It is my hope that the information contained in this thesis will demonstrate the many benefits of nanoparticles in multimodal imaging, and provide insight into the potential of fully integrated imaging.

  14. Quantitative multimodality imaging in cancer research and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Abramson, Richard G.; Quarles, C. Chad

    2016-01-01

    Advances in hardware and software have enabled the realization of clinically feasible, quantitative multimodality imaging of tissue pathophysiology. Earlier efforts relating to multimodality imaging of cancer have focused on the integration of anatomical and functional characteristics, such as PET–CT and single-photon emission CT (SPECT–CT), whereas more-recent advances and applications have involved the integration of multiple quantitative, functional measurements (for example, multiple PET tracers, varied MRI contrast mechanisms, and PET–MRI), thereby providing a more-comprehensive characterization of the tumour phenotype. The enormous amount of complementary quantitative data generated by such studies is beginning to offer unique insights into opportunities to optimize care for individual patients. Although important technical optimization and improved biological interpretation of multimodality imaging findings are needed, this approach can already be applied informatively in clinical trials of cancer therapeutics using existing tools. These concepts are discussed herein. PMID:25113842

  15. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system. PMID:26309389

  16. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system. PMID:26309389

  17. Multimodality imaging in clinical diagnosis and treatment of macular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taibl, Jessica N.; Sayegh, Samir I.

    2013-03-01

    Accurate diagnosis and treatment of disease is a function of how well the pathology can be imaged. Coregistering images from different modalities can offer significant advantages. Multi-modal imaging is finding its place in Ophthalmology and we illustrate and analyze its use in macular disease. New technologies have provided the ability to simultaneously capture FA and OCT images, allowing dynamic analysis at the exact point of interest. We establish that the combined imaging protocol is easier and faster for both patient and technician, and ultimately and most importantly more capable of guiding the physician to a diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Multimodality bonchoscopic imaging of tracheopathica osteochondroplastica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colt, Henri; Murgu, Septimiu D.; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Brenner, Matt

    2009-05-01

    Results of a commercial optical coherence tomography system used as part of a multimodality diagnostic bronchoscopy platform are presented for a 61-year-old patient with central airway obstruction from tracheopathica osteochondroplastica. Comparison to results of white-light bronchoscopy, histology, and endobronchial ultrasound examination are accompanied by a discussion of resolution, penetration depth, contrast, and field of view of these imaging modalities. White-light bronchoscopy revealed irregularly shaped, firm submucosal nodules along cartilaginous structures of the anterior and lateral walls of the trachea, sparing the muscular posterior membrane. Endobronchial ultrasound showed a hyperechoic density of 0.4 cm thickness. optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed using a commercially available, compact time-domain OCT system (Niris System, Imalux Corp., Cleveland, Ohio) with a magnetically actuating probe (two-dimensional, front imaging, and inside actuation). Images showed epithelium, upper submucosa, and osseous submucosal nodule layers corresponding with histopathology. To our knowledge, this is the first time these commercially available systems are used as part of a multimodality bronchoscopy platform to study diagnostic imaging of a benign disease causing central airway obstruction. Further studies are needed to optimize these systems for pulmonary applications and to determine how new-generation imaging modalities will be integrated into a multimodality bronchoscopy platform.

  19. Multimode-Optical-Fiber Imaging Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Currently, endoscopic surgery uses single-mode fiber-bundles to obtain in vivo image information inside the orifices of the body. This limits their use to the larger natural orifices and to surgical procedures where there is plenty of room for manipulation. The knee joint, for example, can be easily viewed with a fiber optic viewer, but joints in the finger cannot. However, there are a host of smaller orifices where fiber endoscopy would play an important role if a cost effective fiber probe were developed with small enough dimensions (less than or equal to 250 microns). Examples of beneficiaries of micro-endoscopes are the treatment of the Eustatian tube of the middle ear, the breast ducts, tear ducts, coronary arteries, fallopian tubes, as well as the treatment of salivary duct parotid disease, and the neuro endoscopy of the ventricles and spinal canal. This work describes an approach for recovering images from tightly confined spaces using multimode. The concept draws upon earlier works that concentrated on image recovery after two-way transmission through a multimode fiber as well as work that demonstrated the recovery of images after one-way transmission through a multimode fiber. Both relied on generating a phase conjugated wavefront, which was predistorted with the characteristics of the fiber. The approach described here also relies on generating a phase conjugated wavefront, but utilizes two fibers to capture the image at some intermediate point (accessible by the fibers, but which is otherwise visually inaccessible).

  20. Multimodal imaging of cutaneous wound tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Ren, Wenqi; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, few methods are available for simultaneous assessment of these tissue parameters in a noninvasive and quantitative fashion. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities in a single-experimental setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Algorithms were developed for appropriate coregistration between wound images acquired by different imaging modalities at different times. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated in an occlusion experiment, where oxygenation and perfusion maps of a healthy subject’s upper extremity were continuously monitored during a postocclusive reactive hyperemia procedure and compared with standard measurements. The system was also tested in a clinical trial where a wound of three millimeters in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject’s lower extremity and the healing process was continuously monitored. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated the clinical feasibility of multimodal cutaneous wound imaging. PMID:25604545

  1. Semiautomated Multimodal Breast Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Charlotte; Frayne, Richard; Fear, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Consideration of information from multiple modalities has been shown to have increased diagnostic power in breast imaging. As a result, new techniques such as microwave imaging continue to be developed. Interpreting these novel image modalities is a challenge, requiring comparison to established techniques such as the gold standard X-ray mammography. However, due to the highly deformable nature of breast tissues, comparison of 3D and 2D modalities is a challenge. To enable this comparison, a registration technique was developed to map features from 2D mammograms to locations in the 3D image space. This technique was developed and tested using magnetic resonance (MR) images as a reference 3D modality, as MR breast imaging is an established technique in clinical practice. The algorithm was validated using a numerical phantom then successfully tested on twenty-four image pairs. Dice's coefficient was used to measure the external goodness of fit, resulting in an excellent overall average of 0.94. Internal agreement was evaluated by examining internal features in consultation with a radiologist, and subjective assessment concludes that reasonable alignment was achieved. PMID:22481910

  2. Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Luis Miguel; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Aim. In recent years, connectivity studies using neuroimaging data have increased the understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, data analysis is time consuming as rigorous procedures must be assured, from structuring data and pre-processing to modality specific data procedures. Until now, no single toolbox was able to perform such investigations on truly multimodal image data from beginning to end, including the combination of different connectivity analyses. Thus, we have developed the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox with the goal of diminishing time waste in data processing and to allow an innovative and comprehensive approach to brain connectivity. Materials and Methods. The MIBCA toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity toolbox that offers pre-processing, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses of multimodal image data such as diffusion-weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). It was developed in MATLAB environment and pipelines well-known neuroimaging softwares such as Freesurfer, SPM, FSL, and Diffusion Toolkit. It further implements routines for the construction of structural, functional and effective or combined connectivity matrices, as well as, routines for the extraction and calculation of imaging and graph-theory metrics, the latter using also functions from the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Finally, the toolbox performs group statistical analysis and enables data visualization in the form of matrices, 3D brain graphs and connectograms. In this paper the MIBCA toolbox is presented by illustrating its capabilities using multimodal image data from a group of 35 healthy subjects (19–73 years old) with volumetric T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state fMRI data, and 10 subjets with 18F-Altanserin PET data also. Results. It was observed both a high inter-hemispheric symmetry

  3. Hadamard multimode optical imaging transceiver

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Bradly J; Guenther, David C; Tiee, Joe J; Kellum, Mervyn J; Olivas, Nicholas L; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Judd, Stephen L; Braun, Thomas R

    2012-10-30

    Disclosed is a method and system for simultaneously acquiring and producing results for multiple image modes using a common sensor without optical filtering, scanning, or other moving parts. The system and method utilize the Walsh-Hadamard correlation detection process (e.g., functions/matrix) to provide an all-binary structure that permits seamless bridging between analog and digital domains. An embodiment may capture an incoming optical signal at an optical aperture, convert the optical signal to an electrical signal, pass the electrical signal through a Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA) to create an LNA signal, pass the LNA signal through one or more correlators where each correlator has a corresponding Walsh-Hadamard (WH) binary basis function, calculate a correlation output coefficient for each correlator as a function of the corresponding WH binary basis function in accordance with Walsh-Hadamard mathematical principles, digitize each of the correlation output coefficient by passing each correlation output coefficient through an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), and performing image mode processing on the digitized correlation output coefficients as desired to produce one or more image modes. Some, but not all, potential image modes include: multi-channel access, temporal, range, three-dimensional, and synthetic aperture.

  4. Multimode-Optical-Fiber Imaging Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Currently, endoscopic surgery uses single-mode fiber-bundles to obtain in vivo image information inside orifices of the body. This limits their use to the larger natural bodily orifices and to surgical procedures where there is plenty of room for manipulation. The knee joint, for example can be easily viewed with a fiber optic viewer, but joints in the finger cannot. However, there are a host of smaller orifices where fiber endoscopy would play an important role if a cost effective fiber probe were developed with small enough dimensions (< 250 microns). Examples of beneficiaries of micro-endoscopes are the treatment of the Eustatian tube of the middle ear, the breast ducts, tear ducts, coronary arteries, fallopian tubes, as well as the treatment of salivary duct parotid disease, and the neuro endoscopy of the ventricles and spinal canal. To solve this problem, this work describes an approach for recovering images from. tightly confined spaces using multimode fibers and analytically demonstrates that the concept is sound. The proof of concept draws upon earlier works that concentrated on image recovery after two-way transmission through a multimode fiber as well as work that demonstrated the recovery of images after one-way transmission through a multimode fiber. Both relied on generating a phase conjugated wavefront which was predistorted with the characteristics of the fiber. The described approach also relies on generating a phase conjugated wavefront, but utilizes two fibers to capture the image at some intermediate point (accessible by the fibers, but which is otherwise visually unaccessible).

  5. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  6. Photoacoustic imaging platforms for multimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a hybrid biomedical imaging method that exploits both acoustical Epub ahead of print and optical properties and can provide both functional and structural information. Therefore, PA imaging can complement other imaging methods, such as ultrasound imaging, fluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and multi-photon microscopy. This article reviews techniques that integrate PA with the above imaging methods and describes their applications. PMID:25754364

  7. Fluorescence labeled microbubbles for multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Barrefelt, Åsa; Zhao, Ying; Larsson, Malin K; Egri, Gabriella; Kuiper, Raoul V; Hamm, Jörg; Saghafian, Maryam; Caidahl, Kenneth; Brismar, Torkel B; Aspelin, Peter; Heuchel, Rainer; Muhammed, Mamoun; Dähne, Lars; Hassan, Moustapha

    2015-08-28

    Air-filled polyvinyl alcohol microbubbles (PVA-MBs) were recently introduced as a contrast agent for ultrasound imaging. In the present study, we explore the possibility of extending their application in multimodal imaging by labeling them with a near infrared (NIR) fluorophore, VivoTag-680. PVA-MBs were injected intravenously into FVB/N female mice and their dynamic biodistribution over 24 h was determined by 3D-fluorescence imaging co-registered with 3D-μCT imaging, to verify the anatomic location. To further confirm the biodistribution results from in vivo imaging, organs were removed and examined histologically using bright field and fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence imaging detected PVA-MB accumulation in the lungs within the first 30 min post-injection. Redistribution to a low extent was observed in liver and kidneys at 4 h, and to a high extent mainly in the liver and spleen at 24 h. Histology confirmed PVA-MB localization in lung capillaries and macrophages. In the liver, they were associated with Kupffer cells; in the spleen, they were located mostly within the marginal-zone. Occasional MBs were observed in the kidney glomeruli and interstitium. The potential application of PVA-MBs as a contrast agent was also studied using ultrasound (US) imaging in subcutaneous and orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse models, to visualize blood flow within the tumor mass. In conclusion, this study showed that PVA-MBs are useful as a contrast agent for multimodal imaging. PMID:26187672

  8. Multimodality Imaging of Carotid Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Adla, Theodor; Adlova, Radka

    2015-01-01

    Four diagnostic modalities are used to image the following internal carotid artery: digital subtraction angiography (DSA), duplex ultrasound (DUS), computed tomography angiography (CTA), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). The aim of this article is to describe the potentials of these techniques and to discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Invasive DSA is still considered the gold standard and is an indivisible part of the carotid stenting procedure. DUS is an inexpensive but operator-dependent tool with limited visibility of the carotid artery course. Conversely, CTA and MRA allow assessment of the carotid artery from the aortic arch to intracranial parts. The disadvantages of CTA are radiation and iodine contrast medium administration. MRA is without radiation but contrast-enhanced MRA is more accurate than noncontrast MRA. The choice of methods depends on the clinical indications and the availability of methods in individual centers. However, the general approach to patient with suspected carotid artery stenosis is to first perform DUS and then other noninvasive methods such as CTA, MRA, or transcranial Doppler US. PMID:26417185

  9. Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging in hepatic encephalopathy: An update

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Long-Jiang; Wu, Sheng-Yong; Lu, Guang-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis or acute liver failure. Currently, HE is regarded as a continuous cognitive impairment ranging from the mildest stage, minimal HE to overt HE. Hyperammonaemia and neuroinflammation are two main underlying factors which contribute to the neurological alterations in HE. Both structural and functional impairments are found in the white mater and grey mater involved in HE. Although the investigations into HE pathophysiological mechanism are enormous, the exact pathophysiological causes underlying HE remain controversial. Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in helping to understand the pathological process of HE. This paper reviews the up-to-date multimodality MRI methods and predominant findings in HE patients with a highlight of the increasingly important role of blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI. PMID:25170210

  10. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  11. A Novel Technique for Prealignment in Multimodality Medical Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wu; Zhang, Lijuan; Xie, Yaoqin; Liang, Changhong

    2014-01-01

    Image pair is often aligned initially based on a rigid or affine transformation before a deformable registration method is applied in medical image registration. Inappropriate initial registration may compromise the registration speed or impede the convergence of the optimization algorithm. In this work, a novel technique was proposed for prealignment in both monomodality and multimodality image registration based on statistical correlation of gradient information. A simple and robust algorithm was proposed to determine the rotational differences between two images based on orientation histogram matching accumulated from local orientation of each pixel without any feature extraction. Experimental results showed that it was effective to acquire the orientation angle between two unregistered images with advantages over the existed method based on edge-map in multimodalities. Applying the orientation detection into the registration of CT/MR, T1/T2 MRI, and monomadality images with respect to rigid and nonrigid deformation improved the chances of finding the global optimization of the registration and reduced the search space of optimization. PMID:25162024

  12. Towards a compact fiber laser for multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Bai; Saytashev, Ilyas; Dantus, Marcos

    2014-03-01

    We report on multimodal depth-resolved imaging of unstained living Drosophila Melanogaster larva using sub-50 fs pulses centered at 1060 nm wavelength. Both second harmonic and third harmonic generation imaging modalities are demonstrated.

  13. Multimodality molecular imaging--from target description to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Schober, O; Rahbar, K; Riemann, B

    2009-02-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations. PMID:19130054

  14. Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging and Multimodal Surgical Navigation Using Goggle System.

    PubMed

    Mela, Christopher A; Papay, Francis A; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative imaging is an invaluable tool in many surgical procedures. We have developed a wearable stereoscopic imaging and display system entitled Integrated Imaging Goggle, which can provide real-time multimodal image guidance. With the Integrated Imaging Goggle, wide field-of-view fluorescence imaging is tracked and registered with intraoperative ultrasound imaging and preoperative tomography-based surgical navigation, to provide integrated multimodal imaging capabilities in real-time. Herein we describe the system instrumentation and the methods of using the Integrated Imaging Goggle to guide surgeries. PMID:27283420

  15. Hypoxemia and Right-to-Left-Shunt in Patient with Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Case Report with Multimodality Imaging Findings and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bin Saeedan, Mnahi; Alrujaib, Mashael; Fathala, Ahmed L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of an extremely rare cause of superior vena cava syndrome with systemic-to-pulmonary venous shunts, illustrated using different imaging modalities with successful SVC and IVC dilatation and stenting. PMID:27034877

  16. Expanding Perspectives for Comprehending Visual Images in Multimodal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The texts that adolescents encounter today are often multimodal, meaning they incorporate a variety of modes, including visual images, hypertext, and graphic design elements along with written text. Expanding the perspectives readers use to make sense of the multimodal texts is an important aspect of comprehension instruction. Moving beyond the…

  17. Multimodality image quantification using the Talairach grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desco, Manuel; Pascau, Javier; Reig, Santiago; Gispert, Juan D.; Santos, Andres; Benito, Carlos; Molina, Vicente; Garcia-Barreno, Pedro

    2001-07-01

    We present an application of the widely accepted anatomical reference of the Talairach atlas as a system for semiautomatic segmentation and analysis of MRI and PET images. The proposed methodology can be seen as a multimodal application where the anatomical information of the MRI is used to build the Talairach grid and a co-registered PET image is superimposed on the same grid. By doing so, the Talairach-normalized tessellation of the brain is directly extended to PET images, allowing for a convenient regional analysis of volume and activity rates of brain structures, defined in the Talairach Atlas as sets of cells. This procedure requires minimal manipulation of brain geometry, thus fully preserving individual brain morphology. To illustrate the potential of the Talairach method for neurological research, we applied our technique in a comparative study of volume and activity rate patterns in MRI and PET images of a group of 51 schizophrenic patients and 24 healthy volunteers. With regard to previous applications of the Talairach grid as an automatic segmentation system, the procedure presented here features two main improvements: the enhanced possibility of measuring metabolic activity in a variety of brain structures including small ones like the caudate nucleus, hippocampus or thalamus; and its conception as an easy-to-use tool developed to work in standard PC Windows environment.

  18. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 µm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 µm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:20589021

  19. Three-dimensional multimodal image-guidance for neurosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Munger, P.; Comeau, R.; Evans, A.; Olivier, A.; Davey, B.

    1996-04-01

    The authors address the use of multimodality imaging as an aid to the planning and guidance of neurosurgical procedures, and discuss the integration of anatomical (CT and MRI), vascular (DSA), and functional (PET) data for presentation to the surgeon during surgery. The workstation is an enhancement of a commercially available system, and in addition to the guidance offered via a hand-held probe, it incorporates the use of multimodality imaging and adds enhanced realism to the surgeon through the use of a stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) image display. The probe may be visualized stereoscopically in single or multimodality images. The integration of multimodality data in this manner provides the surgeon with a complete overview of brain structures on which he is performing surgery, or through which he is passing probes or cannulas, enabling him to avoid critical vessels and/or structures of functional significance.

  20. Automatic parameter selection for multimodal image registration.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Dieter A; Daum, Volker; Hornegger, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Over the past ten years similarity measures based on intensity distributions have become state-of-the-art in automatic multimodal image registration. An implementation for clinical usage has to support a plurality of images. However, a generally applicable parameter configuration for the number and sizes of histogram bins, optimal Parzen-window kernel widths or background thresholds cannot be found. This explains why various research groups present partly contradictory empirical proposals for these parameters. This paper proposes a set of data-driven estimation schemes for a parameter-free implementation that eliminates major caveats of heuristic trial and error. We present the following novel approaches: a new coincidence weighting scheme to reduce the influence of background noise on the similarity measure in combination with Max-Lloyd requantization, and a tradeoff for the automatic estimation of the number of histogram bins. These methods have been integrated into a state-of-the-art rigid registration that is based on normalized mutual information and applied to CT-MR, PET-MR, and MR-MR image pairs of the RIRE 2.0 database. We compare combinations of the proposed techniques to a standard implementation using default parameters, which can be found in the literature, and to a manual registration by a medical expert. Additionally, we analyze the effects of various histogram sizes, sampling rates, and error thresholds for the number of histogram bins. The comparison of the parameter selection techniques yields 25 approaches in total, with 114 registrations each. The number of bins has no significant influence on the proposed implementation that performs better than both the manual and the standard method in terms of acceptance rates and target registration error (TRE). The overall mean TRE is 2.34 mm compared to 2.54 mm for the manual registration and 6.48 mm for a standard implementation. Our results show a significant TRE reduction for distortion

  1. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M. Levy, Elliot Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  2. Stereoscopic Integrated Imaging Goggles for Multimodal Intraoperative Image Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Mela, Christopher A.; Patterson, Carrie; Thompson, William K.; Papay, Francis; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We have developed novel stereoscopic wearable multimodal intraoperative imaging and display systems entitled Integrated Imaging Goggles for guiding surgeries. The prototype systems offer real time stereoscopic fluorescence imaging and color reflectance imaging capacity, along with in vivo handheld microscopy and ultrasound imaging. With the Integrated Imaging Goggle, both wide-field fluorescence imaging and in vivo microscopy are provided. The real time ultrasound images can also be presented in the goggle display. Furthermore, real time goggle-to-goggle stereoscopic video sharing is demonstrated, which can greatly facilitate telemedicine. In this paper, the prototype systems are described, characterized and tested in surgeries in biological tissues ex vivo. We have found that the system can detect fluorescent targets with as low as 60 nM indocyanine green and can resolve structures down to 0.25 mm with large FOV stereoscopic imaging. The system has successfully guided simulated cancer surgeries in chicken. The Integrated Imaging Goggle is novel in 4 aspects: it is (a) the first wearable stereoscopic wide-field intraoperative fluorescence imaging and display system, (b) the first wearable system offering both large FOV and microscopic imaging simultaneously, (c) the first wearable system that offers both ultrasound imaging and fluorescence imaging capacities, and (d) the first demonstration of goggle-to-goggle communication to share stereoscopic views for medical guidance. PMID:26529249

  3. Multimodality Image Fusion Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Levy, Elliot; Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care; Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization, and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. PET, MRI and contrast enhanced CT may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image guided procedures such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided. PMID:22851166

  4. Multimodal cancer imaging using lanthanide-based upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongmei; Li, Chunxia; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Multimodal nanoprobes that integrate different imaging modalities in one nano-system could offer synergistic effect over any modality alone to satisfy the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for clinical diagnosis and medical research. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), particularly lanthanide (Ln)-based NPs have been regarded as an ideal building block for constructing multimodal bioprobes due to their fascinating properties. In this review, we first summarize recent advances in the optimizations of existing UCNPs. In particular, we highlight the applications of Ln-based UCNPs for multimodal cancer imaging in vitro and in vivo. The explorations of UCNPs-based multimodal nanoprobes for targeting diagnosis and imaging-guided therapeutics are also presented. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of Ln-based UCNPs in this rapid growing field are discussed. PMID:26293416

  5. Stereoscopic Integrated Imaging Goggles for Multimodal Intraoperative Image Guidance.

    PubMed

    Mela, Christopher A; Patterson, Carrie; Thompson, William K; Papay, Francis; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We have developed novel stereoscopic wearable multimodal intraoperative imaging and display systems entitled Integrated Imaging Goggles for guiding surgeries. The prototype systems offer real time stereoscopic fluorescence imaging and color reflectance imaging capacity, along with in vivo handheld microscopy and ultrasound imaging. With the Integrated Imaging Goggle, both wide-field fluorescence imaging and in vivo microscopy are provided. The real time ultrasound images can also be presented in the goggle display. Furthermore, real time goggle-to-goggle stereoscopic video sharing is demonstrated, which can greatly facilitate telemedicine. In this paper, the prototype systems are described, characterized and tested in surgeries in biological tissues ex vivo. We have found that the system can detect fluorescent targets with as low as 60 nM indocyanine green and can resolve structures down to 0.25 mm with large FOV stereoscopic imaging. The system has successfully guided simulated cancer surgeries in chicken. The Integrated Imaging Goggle is novel in 4 aspects: it is (a) the first wearable stereoscopic wide-field intraoperative fluorescence imaging and display system, (b) the first wearable system offering both large FOV and microscopic imaging simultaneously, PMID:26529249

  6. Multi-modal image matching based on local frequency information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaochun; Lei, Zhihui; Yu, Qifeng; Zhang, Xiaohu; Shang, Yang; Hou, Wang

    2013-12-01

    This paper challenges the issue of matching between multi-modal images with similar physical structures but different appearances. To emphasize the common structural information while suppressing the illumination and sensor-dependent information between multi-modal images, two image representations namely Mean Local Phase Angle (MLPA) and Frequency Spread Phase Congruency (FSPC) are proposed by using local frequency information in Log-Gabor wavelet transformation space. A confidence-aided similarity (CAS) that consists of a confidence component and a similarity component is designed to establish the correspondence between multi-modal images. The two representations are both invariant to contrast reversal and non-homogeneous illumination variation, and without any derivative or thresholding operation. The CAS that integrates MLPA with FSPC tightly instead of treating them separately can more weight the common structures emphasized by FSPC, and therefore further eliminate the influence of different sensor properties. We demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of our method by comparing it with those popular methods of multi-modal image matching. Experimental results show that our method improves the traditional multi-modal image matching, and can work robustly even in quite challenging situations (e.g. SAR & optical image).

  7. Multimodal image fusion with SIMS: Preprocessing with image registration.

    PubMed

    Tarolli, Jay Gage; Bloom, Anna; Winograd, Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    In order to utilize complementary imaging techniques to supply higher resolution data for fusion with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) chemical images, there are a number of aspects that, if not given proper consideration, could produce results which are easy to misinterpret. One of the most critical aspects is that the two input images must be of the same exact analysis area. With the desire to explore new higher resolution data sources that exists outside of the mass spectrometer, this requirement becomes even more important. To ensure that two input images are of the same region, an implementation of the insight segmentation and registration toolkit (ITK) was developed to act as a preprocessing step before performing image fusion. This implementation of ITK allows for several degrees of movement between two input images to be accounted for, including translation, rotation, and scale transforms. First, the implementation was confirmed to accurately register two multimodal images by supplying a known transform. Once validated, two model systems, a copper mesh grid and a group of RAW 264.7 cells, were used to demonstrate the use of the ITK implementation to register a SIMS image with a microscopy image for the purpose of performing image fusion. PMID:26772745

  8. Mono- and multimodal registration of optical breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Paul C.; Adams, Arthur; Elias, Sjoerd G.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2012-08-01

    Optical breast imaging offers the possibility of noninvasive, low cost, and high sensitivity imaging of breast cancers. Poor spatial resolution and a lack of anatomical landmarks in optical images of the breast make interpretation difficult and motivate registration and fusion of these data with subsequent optical images and other breast imaging modalities. Methods used for registration and fusion of optical breast images are reviewed. Imaging concerns relevant to the registration problem are first highlighted, followed by a focus on both monomodal and multimodal registration of optical breast imaging. Where relevant, methods pertaining to other imaging modalities or imaged anatomies are presented. The multimodal registration discussion concerns digital x-ray mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography.

  9. Multimodality Word-finding Distinctions in Cortical Stimulation Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Sandra; Clyde, Merlise; Tolson, Matt; Haglund, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Background Cortical stimulation mapping (CSM) commonly uses visual naming to determine resection margins in the dominant hemisphere of epilepsy patients. Visual naming alone may not identify all language sites in resection-prone areas, prompting additional tasks for comprehensive language mapping. Objective To demonstrate word-finding distinctions between visual, auditory, and reading modalities during CSM and the percentage of modality-specific language sites within dominant hemisphere subregions. Methods Twenty-eight epilepsy patients underwent CSM using visual, auditory, and sentence completion tasks. Hierarchical logistic regression analyzed errors to identify language sites and provide modality-specific percentages within subregions. Results The percentage of sites classified as language sites based on auditory naming was twice as high in anterior temporal regions compared to visual naming, marginally higher in posterior temporal areas, and comparable in parietal regions. Sentence completion was comparable to visual and auditory naming in parietal regions, and lower in most temporal areas. Of 470 sites tested with both visual and auditory naming, 95 sites were distinctly auditory while 48 sites were distinctly visual. The remaining sites overlapped. Conclusion Distinct cortical areas were found for distinct input modalities, with language sites in anterior tip regions found most often using auditory naming. The vulnerability of anterior temporal tip regions to resection in this population and distinct sites for each modality suggest a multimodality approach may be needed to spare crucial language sites, if sparing those sites can be shown to significantly reduce the rate of post-operative language deficits without sacrificing seizure control. PMID:23615091

  10. Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Matsopoulos, George K; Asvestas, Pantelis A; Mouravliansky, Nikolaos A; Delibasis, Konstantinos K

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, an automatic method for registering multimodal retinal images is presented. The method consists of three steps: the vessel centerline detection and extraction of bifurcation points only in the reference image, the automatic correspondence of bifurcation points in the two images using a novel implementation of the self organizing maps and the extraction of the parameters of the affine transform using the previously obtained correspondences. The proposed registration algorithm was tested on 24 multimodal retinal pairs and the obtained results show an advantageous performance in terms of accuracy with respect to the manual registration. PMID:15575412

  11. Exploiting Multimodal Context in Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srihari, Rohini K.; Zhang, Zhongfei

    1999-01-01

    Finding information on the Web without encountering numerous false positives poses a challenge to multimedia information retrieval systems (MMIR). This research focuses on improving precision and recall in an MMIR system by interactively combining text processing with image processing in both the indexing and retrieval phases. A picture search…

  12. Multimodality Imaging in an Adult Patient with Scimitar Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karaçalıoğlu, Alper Özgür; Gümüş, Seyfettin; İnce, Semra; Demirkol, Sait

    2014-01-01

    The “Scimitar syndrome” is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by combination of partial or complete pulmonary venous return from the right lung to the inferior vena cava either above or below the diaphragm together with hypoplasia of the right lung and sometimes systemic arterial supply to the right lung. In this case, multimodality imaging findings such as the vein draining into the inferior vena cava, the presence of hypertrophied and dilated right ventricle, the absence of other cardiac abnormalities, displacement of the heart without malrotation and the mediastinum to the right, normal bronchial and vascular continuity in the whole lung, absence of pulmonary sequestration and systemic collaterals, normal perfusion and systolic functions of the left ventricle were reported. PMID:24963450

  13. Multimodality imaging in an adult patient with scimitar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karaçalıoğlu, Alper Özgür; Gümüş, Seyfettin; Ince, Semra; Demirkol, Sait

    2014-06-01

    The "Scimitar syndrome" is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by combination of partial or complete pulmonary venous return from the right lung to the inferior vena cava either above or below the diaphragm together with hypoplasia of the right lung and sometimes systemic arterial supply to the right lung. In this case, multimodality imaging findings such as the vein draining into the inferior vena cava, the presence of hypertrophied and dilated right ventricle, the absence of other cardiac abnormalities, displacement of the heart without malrotation and the mediastinum to the right, normal bronchial and vascular continuity in the whole lung, absence of pulmonary sequestration and systemic collaterals, normal perfusion and systolic functions of the left ventricle were reported. PMID:24963450

  14. Multimodal confocal hyperspectral imaging microscopy with wavelength sweeping source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Duk; Do, Dukho; Yoo, Hongki; Gweon, DaeGab

    2015-02-01

    There exist microscopes that are able to obtain the chemical properties of a sample, because there are some cases in which it is difficult to find out causality of a phenomenon by using only the structural information of a sample. Obtaining the chemical properties of a sample is important in biomedical imaging, because most biological phenomena include changes in the chemical properties of the sample. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is one of the popular imaging methods for characterizing materials and biological samples by measuring the reflectance or emission spectrum of the sample. Because all materials have a unique reflectance spectrum, it is possible to analyze material properties and detect changes in the chemical properties of a sample by measuring the spectral changes with respect to the original spectrum. Because of its ability to measure the spectrum of a sample, HSI is widely used in materials identification applications such as aerial reconnaissance and is the subject of various studies in microscopy. Although there are many advantages to using the method, conventional HSI has some limitations because of its complex configuration and slow speed. In this research we propose a new type of multimodal confocal hyperspectral imaging microscopy with fast image acquisition and a simple configuration that is capable of both confocal and HSI microscopies.

  15. Acoustic multimode interference and self-imaging phenomena realized in multimodal phononic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Qiushun; Yu, Tianbao; Liu, Jiangtao; Liu, Nianhua; Wang, Tongbiao; Liao, Qinghua

    2015-09-01

    We report an acoustic multimode interference effect and self-imaging phenomena in an acoustic multimode waveguide system which consists of M parallel phononic crystal waveguides (M-PnCWs). Results show that the self-imaging principle remains applicable for acoustic waveguides just as it does for optical multimode waveguides. To achieve the dispersions and replicas of the input acoustic waves produced along the propagation direction, we performed the finite element method on M-PnCWs, which support M guided modes within the target frequency range. The simulation results show that single images (including direct and mirrored images) and N-fold images (N is an integer) are identified along the propagation direction with asymmetric and symmetric incidence discussed separately. The simulated positions of the replicas agree well with the calculated values that are theoretically decided by self-imaging conditions based on the guided mode propagation analysis. Moreover, the potential applications based on this self-imaging effect for acoustic wavelength de-multiplexing and beam splitting in the acoustic field are also presented.

  16. A simultaneous multimodal imaging system for tissue functional parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenqi; Zhang, Zhiwu; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Simultaneous and quantitative assessment of skin functional characteristics in different modalities will facilitate diagnosis and therapy in many clinical applications such as wound healing. However, many existing clinical practices and multimodal imaging systems are subjective, qualitative, sequential for multimodal data collection, and need co-registration between different modalities. To overcome these limitations, we developed a multimodal imaging system for quantitative, non-invasive, and simultaneous imaging of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion parameters. The imaging system integrated multispectral and laser speckle imaging technologies into one experimental setup. A Labview interface was developed for equipment control, synchronization, and image acquisition. Advanced algorithms based on a wide gap second derivative reflectometry and laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) were developed for accurate reconstruction of tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion respectively. Quantitative calibration experiments and a new style of skinsimulating phantom were designed to verify the accuracy and reliability of the imaging system. The experimental results were compared with a Moor tissue oxygenation and perfusion monitor. For In vivo testing, a post-occlusion reactive hyperemia (PORH) procedure in human subject and an ongoing wound healing monitoring experiment using dorsal skinfold chamber models were conducted to validate the usability of our system for dynamic detection of oxygenation and perfusion parameters. In this study, we have not only setup an advanced multimodal imaging system for cutaneous tissue oxygenation and perfusion parameters but also elucidated its potential for wound healing assessment in clinical practice.

  17. Multi-modality systems for molecular tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingze; Bai, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In vivo small animal imaging is a cornerstone in the study of human diseases by providing important clues on the pathogenesis, progression and treatment of many disorders. Molecular tomographic imaging can probe complex biologic interactions dynamically and to study diseases and treatment responses over time in the same animal. Current imaging technique including microCT, microMRI, microPET, microSPECT, microUS, BLT and FMT has its own advantages and applications, however, none of them can provide structural, functional and molecular information in one context. Multi-modality imaging, which utilizes the strengths of different modalities to provide a complete understanding of the object under investigation, emerges as an important alternative in small animal imaging. This article is to introduce the latest development of multimodality systems for small animal tomographic imaging. After a systematic review of imaging principles, systems and commerical products for each stand-alone method, we introduce some multimodality strategies in the latest years. In particular, two dual-modality systems, i.e. FMT-CT and FMT-PET are presented in detail. The end of this article concludes that though most multimodality systems are still in a laboratory research stage, they will surely undergo deep development and wide application in the near future.

  18. Multimodality cardiac imaging in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Kristian H; Gopalan, Deepa; Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2016-06-01

    Congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases contribute significantly to the threefold elevated risk of premature death in Turner syndrome. A multitude of cardiovascular anomalies and disorders, many of which deleteriously impact morbidity and mortality, is frequently left undetected and untreated because of poor adherence to screening programmes and complex clinical presentations. Imaging is essential for timely and effective primary and secondary disease prophylaxis that may alleviate the severe impact of cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome. This review illustrates how cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome manifests in a complex manner that ranges in severity from incidental findings to potentially fatal anomalies. Recommendations regarding the use of imaging for screening and surveillance of cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome are made, emphasising the key role of non-invasive and invasive cardiovascular imaging to the management of all patients with Turner syndrome. PMID:26843123

  19. Monitoring the morphochemistry of laryngeal carcinoma by multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Tobias; Krafft, Christoph; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Ernst, Günther; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal nonlinear imaging constitutes a contemporary approach to investigate the morphochemistry of complex samples noninvasively and without administration of external labels. Here we discuss our recent success in jointly using various nonlinear microspectroscopic approaches such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon fluorescence (TPF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) to study the chemical composition of surgically removed tissue sections from laryngeal carcinoma. In particular it will be shown how multimodal nonlinear imaging can be employed to study the structural and chemical development of disease formation as well as to monitor the clinically important aspect of tumor boundary detection.

  20. Multimodal imaging of lung cancer and its microenvironment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Niederst, Matthew J.; Mulvey, Hillary; Adams, David C.; Hu, Haichuan; Chico Calero, Isabel; Szabari, Margit V.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Bouma, Brett E.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Despite significant advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer, nearly all patients develop drug resistance within 6-12 months and prognosis remains poor. Developing drug resistance is a progressive process that involves tumor cells and their microenvironment. We hypothesize that microenvironment factors alter tumor growth and response to targeted therapy. We conducted in vitro studies in human EGFR-mutant lung carcinoma cells, and demonstrated that factors secreted from lung fibroblasts results in increased tumor cell survival during targeted therapy with EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib. We also demonstrated that increased environment stiffness results in increased tumor survival during gefitinib therapy. In order to test our hypothesis in vivo, we developed a multimodal optical imaging protocol for preclinical intravital imaging in mouse models to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time. We have successfully conducted multimodal imaging of dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) window mice implanted with GFP-labeled human EGFR mutant lung carcinoma cells and visualized changes in tumor development and microenvironment facets over time. Multimodal imaging included structural OCT to assess tumor viability and necrosis, polarization-sensitive OCT to measure tissue birefringence for collagen/fibroblast detection, and Doppler OCT to assess tumor vasculature. Confocal imaging was also performed for high-resolution visualization of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells labeled with GFP, and was coregistered with OCT. Our results demonstrated that stromal support and vascular growth are essential to tumor progression. Multimodal imaging is a useful tool to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time.

  1. Discrimination of skin diseases using the multimodal imaging approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogler, N.; Heuke, S.; Akimov, D.; Latka, I.; Kluschke, F.; Röwert-Huber, H.-J.; Lademann, J.; Dietzek, B.; Popp, J.

    2012-06-01

    Optical microspectroscopic tools reveal great potential for dermatologic diagnostics in the clinical day-to-day routine. To enhance the diagnostic value of individual nonlinear optical imaging modalities such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG) or two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), the approach of multimodal imaging has recently been developed. Here, we present an application of nonlinear optical multimodal imaging with Raman-scattering microscopy to study sizable human-tissue cross-sections. The samples investigated contain both healthy tissue and various skin tumors. This contribution details the rich information content, which can be obtained from the multimodal approach: While CARS microscopy, which - in contrast to spontaneous Raman-scattering microscopy - is not hampered by single-photon excited fluorescence, is used to monitor the lipid and protein distribution in the samples, SHG imaging selectively highlights the distribution of collagen structures within the tissue. This is due to the fact, that SHG is only generated in structures which lack inversion geometry. Finally, TPF reveals the distribution of autofluorophores in tissue. The combination of these techniques, i.e. multimodal imaging, allows for recording chemical images of large area samples and is - as this contribution will highlight - of high clinically diagnostic value.

  2. Identifying brain neoplasms using dye-enhanced multimodal confocal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Sheth, Sameer; Kwon, Churl-Su; Frosch, Matthew P.; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-02-01

    Brain tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality even when benign. Completeness of resection of brain tumors improves quality of life and survival; however, that is often difficult to accomplish. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using multimodal confocal imaging for intraoperative detection of brain neoplasms. We have imaged different types of benign and malignant, primary and metastatic brain tumors. We correlated optical images with histopathology and evaluated the possibility of interpreting confocal images in a manner similar to pathology. Surgical specimens were briefly stained in 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged using a multimodal confocal microscope. Reflectance and fluorescence signals of MB were excited at 642 nm. Fluorescence emission of MB was registered between 670 and 710 nm. After imaging, tissues were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. The results of comparison demonstrate good correlation between fluorescence images and histopathology. Reflectance images provide information about morphology and vascularity of the specimens, complementary to that provided by fluorescence images. Multimodal confocal imaging has the potential to aid in the intraoperative detection of microscopic deposits of brain neoplasms. The application of this technique may improve completeness of resection and increase patient survival.

  3. Total variation minimization-based multimodality medical image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xuelin; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge; Mili, Lamine

    2014-09-01

    Since its recent inception, simultaneous image reconstruction for multimodality fusion has received a great deal of attention due to its superior imaging performance. On the other hand, the compressed sensing (CS)-based image reconstruction methods have undergone a rapid development because of their ability to significantly reduce the amount of raw data. In this work, we combine computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into a single CS-based reconstruction framework. From a theoretical viewpoint, the CS-based reconstruction methods require prior sparsity knowledge to perform reconstruction. In addition to the conventional data fidelity term, the multimodality imaging information is utilized to improve the reconstruction quality. Prior information in this context is that most of the medical images can be approximated as piecewise constant model, and the discrete gradient transform (DGT), whose norm is the total variation (TV), can serve as a sparse representation. More importantly, the multimodality images from the same object must share structural similarity, which can be captured by DGT. The prior information on similar distributions from the sparse DGTs is employed to improve the CT and MRI image quality synergistically for a CT-MRI scanner platform. Numerical simulation with undersampled CT and MRI datasets is conducted to demonstrate the merits of the proposed hybrid image reconstruction approach. Our preliminary results confirm that the proposed method outperforms the conventional CT and MRI reconstructions when they are applied separately.

  4. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  5. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26610702

  6. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  7. Recent Advances in Molecular, Multimodal and Theranostic Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Fabian; Fokong, Stanley; Bzyl, Jessica; Lederle, Wiltrud; Palmowski, Moritz; Lammers, Twan

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging is an exquisite tool for the non-invasive and real-time diagnosis of many different diseases. In this context, US contrast agents can improve lesion delineation, characterization and therapy response evaluation. US contrast agents are usually micrometer-sized gas bubbles, stabilized with soft or hard shells. By conjugating antibodies to the microbubble (MB) surface, and by incorporating diagnostic agents, drugs or nucleic acids into or onto the MB shell, molecular, multimodal and theranostic MB can be generated. We here summarize recent advances in molecular, multimodal and theranostic US imaging, and introduce concepts how such advanced MB can be generated, applied and imaged. Examples are given for their use to image and treat oncological, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Furthermore, we discuss for which therapeutic entities incorporation into (or conjugation to) MB is meaningful, and how US-mediated MB destruction can increase their extravasation, penetration, internalization and efficacy. PMID:24316070

  8. Melanoma detection using smartphone and multimode hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Nicholas; Vasefi, Fartash; Booth, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2016-04-01

    This project's goal is to determine how to effectively implement a technology continuum from a low cost, remotely deployable imaging device to a more sophisticated multimode imaging system within a standard clinical practice. In this work a smartphone is used in conjunction with an optical attachment to capture cross-polarized and collinear color images of a nevus that are analyzed to quantify chromophore distribution. The nevus is also imaged by a multimode hyperspectral system, our proprietary SkinSpect™ device. Relative accuracy and biological plausibility of the two systems algorithms are compared to assess aspects of feasibility of in-home or primary care practitioner smartphone screening prior to rigorous clinical analysis via the SkinSpect.

  9. Denoising of Multi-Modal Images with PCA Self-Cross Bilateral Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yu; Urahama, Kiichi

    We present the PCA self-cross bilateral filter for denoising multi-modal images. We firstly apply the principal component analysis for input multi-modal images. We next smooth the first principal component with a preliminary filter and use it as a supplementary image for cross bilateral filtering of input images. Among some preliminary filters, the undecimated wavelet transform is useful for effective denoising of various multi-modal images such as color, multi-lighting and medical images.

  10. The new frontiers of multimodality and multi-isotope imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnam Azad, Babak; Nimmagadda, Sridhar

    2014-06-01

    Technological advances in imaging systems and the development of target specific imaging tracers has been rapidly growing over the past two decades. Recent progress in "all-in-one" imaging systems that allow for automated image coregistration has significantly added to the growth of this field. These developments include ultra high resolution PET and SPECT scanners that can be integrated with CT or MR resulting in PET/CT, SPECT/CT, SPECT/PET and PET/MRI scanners for simultaneous high resolution high sensitivity anatomical and functional imaging. These technological developments have also resulted in drastic enhancements in image quality and acquisition time while eliminating cross compatibility issues between modalities. Furthermore, the most cutting edge technology, though mostly preclinical, also allows for simultaneous multimodality multi-isotope image acquisition and image reconstruction based on radioisotope decay characteristics. These scientific advances, in conjunction with the explosion in the development of highly specific multimodality molecular imaging agents, may aid in realizing simultaneous imaging of multiple biological processes and pave the way towards more efficient diagnosis and improved patient care.

  11. Multimodal light-sheet microscopy for fluorescence live imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Y.; Kajiura-Kobayashi, H.; Nonaka, S.

    2012-03-01

    Light-sheet microscopy, it is known as single plane illumination microscope (SPIM), is a fluorescence imaging technique which can avoid phototoxic effects to living cells and gives high contrast and high spatial resolution by optical sectioning with light-sheet illumination in developmental biology. We have been developed a multifunctional light-sheet fluorescence microscopy system with a near infrared femto-second fiber laser, a high sensitive image sensor and a high throughput spectrometer. We performed that multiphoton fluorescence images of a transgenic fish and a mouse embryo were observed on the light-sheet microscope. As the results, two photon images with high contrast and high spatial resolution were successfully obtained in the microscopy system. The system has multimodality, not only mutiphoton fluorescence imaging, but also hyperspectral imaging, which can be applicable to fluorescence unmixing analysis and Raman imaging. It enables to obtain high specific and high throughput molecular imaging in vivo and in vitro.

  12. Reflectance Imaging by Graded-Index Short Multimode Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Manabu; Kanno, Takahiro; Ishihara, Syoutarou; Suto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Nishidate, Izumi

    2013-05-01

    The imaging condition and magnifications were measured using a graded-index multimode fiber for optical communication with a diameter of 140 µm and a length of 5 mm. The field of view was about 80 µm and the test pattern of 4.38 µm period was recognized. Reducing the background noise with the polarizer reflectance images of the weed surface were measured to show the cell shapes. There are problems such as background, distortion, and nonuniformity of image quality; however, the feasibility for minimally invasive endoscope has been shown.

  13. Case report: Multimodality imaging of van Neck-Odelberg disease

    PubMed Central

    Macarini, Luca; Lallo, Tania; Milillo, Paola; Muscarella, Silvana; Vinci, Roberta; Stoppino, Luca P

    2011-01-01

    Synchondrosis ischiopubic syndrome (SIS), also known as van Neck–Odelberg disease, is a syndrome characterized by an atypical ossification pattern of the ischiopubic synchondrosis. Its radiological features may mimic stress fracture, neoplasm, osteomyelitis, or posttraumatic osteolysis, causing problems in diagnosis, sometimes leading to unnecessary workup. We report two cases in which the correlation between the clinical and multimodality imaging data enabled the correct diagnosis of SIS. PMID:21799592

  14. Case report: Multimodality imaging of van Neck-Odelberg disease.

    PubMed

    Macarini, Luca; Lallo, Tania; Milillo, Paola; Muscarella, Silvana; Vinci, Roberta; Stoppino, Luca P

    2011-04-01

    Synchondrosis ischiopubic syndrome (SIS), also known as van Neck-Odelberg disease, is a syndrome characterized by an atypical ossification pattern of the ischiopubic synchondrosis. Its radiological features may mimic stress fracture, neoplasm, osteomyelitis, or posttraumatic osteolysis, causing problems in diagnosis, sometimes leading to unnecessary workup. We report two cases in which the correlation between the clinical and multimodality imaging data enabled the correct diagnosis of SIS. PMID:21799592

  15. Image-guided surgery using multimodality strategy and molecular probes.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lei; Jiang, Hubei

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal of cancer surgery is to maximize the excision of tumorous tissue with minimal damage to the collateral normal tissues, reduce the postoperative recurrence, and improve the survival rate of patients. In order to locate tumor lesions, highlight tumor margins, visualize residual disease in the surgical wound, and map potential lymph node metastasis, various imaging techniques and molecular probes have been investigated to assist surgeons to perform more complete tumor resection. Combining imaging techniques with molecular probes is particularly promising as a new approach for image-guided surgery. Considering inherent limitations of different imaging techniques and insufficient sensitivity of nonspecific molecular probes, image-guided surgery with multimodality strategy and specific molecular probes appears to be an optimal choice. In this article, we briefly describe typical imaging techniques and molecular probes followed by a focused review on the current progress of multimodal image-guided surgery with specific molecular navigation. We also discuss optimal strategy that covers all stages of image-guided surgery including preoperative scanning of tumors, intraoperative inspection of surgical bed and postoperative care of patients. PMID:26053199

  16. Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

    2010-04-01

    Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. PMID:20155272

  17. Intracellular kinetics of the androgen receptor shown by multimodal Image Correlation Spectroscopy (mICS)

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-Li; Patsch, Katherin; Cutrale, Francesco; Soundararajan, Anjana; Agus, David B.; Fraser, Scott E.; Ruderman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) pathway plays a central role in prostate cancer (PCa) growth and progression and is a validated therapeutic target. In response to ligand binding AR translocates to the nucleus, though the molecular mechanism is not well understood. We therefore developed multimodal Image Correlation Spectroscopy (mICS) to measure anisotropic molecular motion across a live cell. We applied mICS to AR translocation dynamics to reveal its multimodal motion. By integrating fluorescence imaging methods we observed evidence for diffusion, confined movement, and binding of AR within both the cytoplasm and nucleus of PCa cells. Our findings suggest that in presence of cytoplasmic diffusion, the probability of AR crossing the nuclear membrane is an important factor in determining the AR distribution between cytoplasm and the nucleus, independent of functional microtubule transport. These findings may have implications for the future design of novel therapeutics targeting the AR pathway in PCa. PMID:26936218

  18. Imaging collagen remodeling and sensing transplanted autologous fibroblast metabolism in mouse dermis using multimode nonlinear optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Cao, Ning; Jiang, Xingshan; Xie, Shusen; Xiong, Shuyuan

    2008-06-01

    Collagen remodeling and transplanted autologous fibroblast metabolic states in mouse dermis after cellular injection are investigated using multimode nonlinear optical imaging. Our findings show that the technique can image the progress of collagen remodeling in mouse dermis. It can also image transplanted autologous fibroblasts in their collagen matrix environment in the dermis, because of metabolic activity. It was also found that the approach can provide two-photon ratiometric redox fluorometry based on autologous fibroblast fluorescence from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme and oxidized flavoproteins for sensing the autologous fibroblast metabolic state. These results show that the multimode nonlinear optical imaging technique may have potential in a clinical setting as an in vivo diagnostic and monitoring system for cellular therapy in plastic surgery.

  19. Multimodality vascular imaging phantom for calibration purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutier, Guy; Soulez, Gilles; Teppaz, Pierre; Qanadli, Salah D.; Qin, Zhao; Durand, Louis-Gilles

    2003-05-01

    The objective of the project was to design a vascular phantom compatible with X-ray, ultrasound and MRI. Fiducial markers were implanted at precise known locations in the phantom to facilitate identification and orientation of plane views from the 3D reconstructed images. They also allowed optimizing image fusion and calibration. A vascular conduit connected to tubing at the extremities of the phantom ran through an agar-based gel filling it. A vessel wall in latex was included to avoid diffusion of contrast agents. Using a lost-material casting technique based on a low melting point metal, complex realistic geometries of normal and pathological vessels were modeled. The fiducial markers were detectable in all modalities without distortion. No leak of gadolinium through the vascular wall was observed on MRI for 5h of scan. The potential use of the phantom for calibration, rescaling, and fusion of 3D images obtained from the different modalities as well as its use for the evaluation of intra and inter-modality comparative studies of imaging systems were recently demonstrated by our group (results published in SPIE-2003). Endovascular prostheses were also implanted into the lumen of the phantom to evaluate the extent of metallic imaging artifacts (results submitted elsewhere). In conclusion, the phantom can allow accurate calibration of radiological imaging devices and quantitative comparisons of the geometric accuracy of each radiological imaging method tested.

  20. Multimodality imaging features of hereditary multiple exostoses

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, L; Campbell, N; Lyburn, I D; Munk, P L; Buckley, O; Torreggiani, W C

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or diaphyseal aclasis is an inherited disorder characterised by the formation of multiple osteochondromas, which are cartilage-capped osseous outgrowths, and the development of associated osseous deformities. Individuals with HME may be asymptomatic or develop clinical symptoms, which prompt imaging studies. Different modalities ranging from plain radiographs to cross-sectional and nuclear medicine imaging studies can be helpful in the diagnosis and detection of complications in HME, including chondrosarcomatous transformation. We review the role and imaging features of these different modalities in HME. PMID:24004486

  1. Multimodality Plant Imaging of Small Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2015-03-12

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique used to diagnose disease and monitor therapy. PET imaging has had tremendous impact in healthcare delivery resulting in improved outcomes and reduced costs. The discovery and development of PET is one of the achievements of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) support of the peaceful uses of the atom. This project is a logical extension of the use of the PET technique to live plant imaging to advance DOE’s biological and environmental initiatives.

  2. Synthesis and radiolabeling of a somatostatin analog for multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, W. Barry; Liang, Kexian; Xu, Baogang; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2006-02-01

    A new multimodal imaging agent for imaging the somatostatin receptor has been synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A somatostatin analog, conjugated to both 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaceticacid (DOTA) and cypate (BS-296), was synthesized entirely on the solid phase (Fmoc) and purified by RP-HPLC. DOTA was added as a ligand for radiometals such as 64Cu or 177Lu for either radio-imaging or radiotherapy respectively. Cytate, a cypatesomatostatin analog conjugate, has previously demonstrated the ability to visualize somatostatin receptor rich tumor xenografts and natural organs by optical imaging techniques. BS-296 exhibited low nanomolar inhibitory capacity toward the binding of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs in cell membranes enriched in the somatostatin receptor, demonstrating the high affinity of this multimodal imaging peptide and indicating its potential as a molecular imaging agent. 64Cu, an isotope for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy, was selected as the isotope for radiolabeling BS-296. BS-296 was radiolabeled with 64Cu in high specific activity (200 μCi/μg) in 90% radiochemical yield. Addition of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid) prevented radiolysis of the sample, allowing for study of the 64Cu -BS-296 the day following radiolabeling. Furthermore, inclusion of DMSO at a level of 20% was found not to interfere with radiolabeling yields and prevented the adherence of 64Cu -BS-296 to the walls of the reaction vessel.

  3. Laser Beam Delivery and Image Transmission Through Multimode Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Anpei

    This dissertation is dedicated to two important branches of optical fiber applications in biomedical engineering: laser beam delivery and image transmission. The optical phase of a light wave is distorted when it propagates through a multimode fiber. To compensate the distortion, a new hologram-generated phase conjugation theoretical model and experimental method has been developed. In the process, a self-pumped phase-conjugating mirror is introduced for recording the hologram. The coherence conditions are carefully matched so that only the desired optical signal is recorded. As a result, a high fidelity phase conjugation wave is produced. The resolution is 4.4 mum, which corresponds the diffraction-limited value of the system. Multimode optical fibers are widely used to deliver laser beams for medical diagnoses and treatments. However the spatial quality of the output beam is very poor. By use of holographic phase precompensation we present a new method to deliver high-quality laser beams. As a result, a highly collimated output beam with only 1.9 mrad divergence, which is 250 times smaller than the usual divergence, is obtained. The brightness is greatly increased. Other desired waves such as spherical wave or Gaussian beams can also be obtained. Another method, which is based on the formation at the remote end of a holographic filter, is also presented. The final output beams are nearly diffraction -limited. The hologram-generated phase conjugation is applied to image transmission through single multimode fibers. By use of Fourier transform theory and the formalism established in this study, the system resolution and the space bandwidth product are analyzed. The resolution of a multimode fiber can be 50 times higher than that of an imaging bundle if their diameters are the same. In the experiments a resolution chart was tested. The experimental results are quite consistent with the theory. A 3-D biological sample--a tooth--was also tested. The limitations of the

  4. Multimodality imaging in heart valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, John B; Myerson, Saul G; Rajani, Ronak; Morgan-Hughes, Gareth J; Dweck, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    In patients with heart valve disease, echocardiography is the mainstay for diagnosis, assessment and serial surveillance. However, other modalities, notably cardiac MRI and CT, are used if echocardiographic imaging is suboptimal but can also give complementary information to improve assessment of the valve lesion and cardiac compensation to aid the timing of surgery and determine risk. This statement discusses the way these imaging techniques are currently integrated to improve care beyond what is possible with echocardiography alone. PMID:26977308

  5. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  6. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  7. Multimodality and nanoparticles in medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Davis, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of medical imaging techniques are used heavily in the provision of spatially resolved information on disease and physiological status and accordingly play a critical role in clinical diagnostics and subsequent treatment. Though, for most imaging modes, contrast is potentially enhanced through the use of contrast agents or improved hardware or imaging protocols, no single methodology provides, in isolation, a detailed mapping of anatomy, disease markers or physiological status. In recent years, the concept of complementing the strengths of one imaging modality with those of another has come to the fore and been further bolstered by the development of fused instruments such as PET/CT and PET/MRI stations. Coupled with the continual development in imaging hardware has been a surge in reports of contrast agents bearing multiple functionality, potentially providing not only a powerful and highly sensitised means of co-localising physiological/disease status and anatomy, but also the tracking and delineation of multiple markers and indeed subsequent or simultaneous highly localized therapy (“theragnostics”). PMID:21409202

  8. Multimodal Imaging of Dynamic Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Laufs, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The study of large-scale functional interactions in the human brain with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) extends almost to the first applications of this technology. Due to historical reasons and preconceptions about the limitations of this brain imaging method, most studies have focused on assessing connectivity over extended periods of time. It is now clear that fMRI can resolve the temporal dynamics of functional connectivity, like other faster imaging techniques such as electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography (albeit on a different temporal scale). However, the indirect nature of fMRI measurements can hinder the interpretability of the results. After briefly summarizing recent advances in the field, we discuss how the simultaneous combination of fMRI with electrophysiological activity measurements can contribute to a better understanding of dynamic functional connectivity in humans both during rest and task, wakefulness, and other brain states. PMID:25762977

  9. Imaging the posterior mediastinum: a multimodality approach

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H.; Franquet, Elisa; Eisenberg, Ronald L.; Bankier, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    The posterior mediastinum contains several structures that can produce a wide variety of pathologic conditions. Descending thoracic aorta, esophagus, azygos and hemiazygos veins, thoracic duct, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, and nerves are all located in this anatomical region and can produce diverse abnormalities. Although chest radiography may detect many of these pathologic conditions, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are the imaging modalities of choice for further defining the relationship of posterior mediastinal lesions to neighboring structures and showing specific imaging features that narrow the differential diagnosis. This review emphasizes modality-related answers to morphologic questions, which provide precise diagnostic information. PMID:25993732

  10. Imaging the posterior mediastinum: a multimodality approach.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H; Franquet, Elisa; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Bankier, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    The posterior mediastinum contains several structures that can produce a wide variety of pathologic conditions. Descending thoracic aorta, esophagus, azygos and hemiazygos veins, thoracic duct, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, and nerves are all located in this anatomical region and can produce diverse abnormalities. Although chest radiography may detect many of these pathologic conditions, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are the imaging modalities of choice for further defining the relationship of posterior mediastinal lesions to neighboring structures and showing specific imaging features that narrow the differential diagnosis. This review emphasizes modality-related answers to morphologic questions, which provide precise diagnostic information. PMID:25993732

  11. Peritoneal Inclusion Cysts in Female Children: Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Multimodality Imaging Review

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, John

    2014-01-01

    We report the multimodality imaging findings of peritoneal inclusion cysts in two adolescent females each with a prior history of abdominal surgery. The few reports of peritoneal inclusion cysts in the pediatric population have largely focused on the clinical and pathological features of this entity. We wish to emphasize the imaging findings of peritoneal inclusion cysts on multiple modalities, the advantage of MRI in confirming the diagnosis, and the need to keep considering this diagnosis in patients who present with a pelvic cystic mass, with a history of surgery, even if remote. Additionally, we review the pathology, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options of peritoneal inclusion cysts. PMID:25143853

  12. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for enhanced magnetic resonance and multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikma, Elise Ann Schultz

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for noninvasive tomographic imaging of biological systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. Superparamagnetic (SPM) nanoparticles have emerged as highly effective MR contrast agents due to their biocompatibility, ease of surface modification and magnetic properties. Conventional nanoparticle contrast agents suffer from difficult synthetic reproducibility, polydisperse sizes and weak magnetism. Numerous synthetic techniques and nanoparticle formulations have been developed to overcome these barriers. However, there are still major limitations in the development of new nanoparticle-based probes for MR and multimodal imaging including low signal amplification and absence of biochemical reporters. To address these issues, a set of multimodal (T2/optical) and dual contrast (T1/T2) nanoparticle probes has been developed. Their unique magnetic properties and imaging capabilities were thoroughly explored. An enzyme-activatable contrast agent is currently being developed as an innovative means for early in vivo detection of cancer at the cellular level. Multimodal probes function by combining the strengths of multiple imaging techniques into a single agent. Co-registration of data obtained by multiple imaging modalities validates the data, enhancing its quality and reliability. A series of T2/optical probes were successfully synthesized by attachment of a fluorescent dye to the surface of different types of nanoparticles. The multimodal nanoparticles generated sufficient MR and fluorescence signal to image transplanted islets in vivo. Dual contrast T1/T2 imaging probes were designed to overcome disadvantages inherent in the individual T1 and T2 components. A class of T1/T2 agents was developed consisting of a gadolinium (III) complex (DTPA chelate or DO3A macrocycle) conjugated to a biocompatible silica-coated metal oxide nanoparticle through a disulfide linker. The disulfide linker has the ability to be reduced

  13. Multimodal Imaging Evaluations of Focal Choroidal Excavations in Eyes with Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Qing; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) concurrent with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using multimodal imaging. Methods. This was a retrospective single-institution study. Clinical features and multimodal imaging findings were analyzed in eyes with CSC and FCEs, using imaging methods including optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography (OCTA), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and multispectral imaging. Results. Seventeen patients (4.8%) with 21 FCEs (19 eyes) were found among 351 consecutive Chinese patients with CSC. Chronic CSC represented 47.1% of those cases. Window defects in 12 lesions identified through FA and hypoautofluorescence in 13 lesions identified through FAF revealed retinal pigment epithelial attenuation. Choroidal hemodynamic disturbances characterized by localized filling defects at the excavation and circumferential hyperperfusion were validated by both ICGA and OCTA, which were similar to the angiographic features of normal chronic CSC. The hyperreflective tissue beneath FCE, observed on B-scan OCT, presented as intensive choroidal flow signals on OCTA. Conclusions. FCE is not uncommon in patients with CSC. Multimodal imaging suggested that the aberrant choroidal circulation might be a contribution factor for leakage from the dysfunctional retinal pigment epithelium at the area of excavation. PMID:27437148

  14. Imaging quality assessment of multi-modal miniature microscope.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junwon; Rogers, Jeremy; Descour, Michael; Hsu, Elizabeth; Aaron, Jesse; Sokolov, Konstantin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2003-06-16

    We are developing a multi-modal miniature microscope (4M device) to image morphology and cytochemistry in vivo and provide better delineation of tumors. The 4M device is designed to be a complete microscope on a chip, including optical, micro-mechanical, and electronic components. It has advantages such as compact size and capability for microscopic-scale imaging. This paper presents an optics-only prototype 4M device, the very first imaging system made of sol-gel material. The microoptics used in the 4M device has a diameter of 1.3 mm. Metrology of the imaging quality assessment of the prototype device is presented. We describe causes of imaging performance degradation in order to improve the fabrication process. We built a multi-modal imaging test-bed to measure first-order properties and to assess the imaging quality of the 4M device. The 4M prototype has a field of view of 290 microm in diameter, a magnification of -3.9, a working distance of 250 microm and a depth of field of 29.6+/-6 microm. We report the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the 4M device as a quantitative metric of imaging quality. Based on the MTF data, we calculated a Strehl ratio of 0.59. In order to investigate the cause of imaging quality degradation, the surface characterization of lenses in 4M devices is measured and reported. We also imaged both polystyrene microspheres similar in size to epithelial cell nuclei and cervical cancer cells. Imaging results indicate that the 4M prototype can resolve cellular detail necessary for detection of precancer. PMID:19466016

  15. Multimodal system for in vivo tumor imaging in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autiero, Maddalena; Celentano, Luigi; Cozzolino, Rosanna; Laccetti, Paolo; Marotta, Marcello; Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Riccio, Patrizia; Roberti, Giuseppe; Russo, Paolo

    2006-04-01

    We devised a multimodal planar imaging system for in vivo mouse imaging, employing four modalities: optical imaging, green and red fluorescence reflectance imaging, radionuclide imaging and X-ray radiography. We are testing separately, and then in a combined way, each detection mode, via in vivo mouse imaging, with the final purpose of identifying small implanted tumor masses, of providing early tumor detection and following metastatic dissemination. We describe the multimodal system and summarize its main performance, as assessed in our research work in the various stages of the development, in fluorescence and radionuclide tests on healthy or tumor bearing mice. For gamma-ray detection we used a semiconductor pixel detector (Medipix1 or Medipix2) that works in single photon counting. Laser-induced fluorescence reflectance imaging was performed in vivo using a pulsed light source to excite the fluorescence emission of injected hematoporphyrin (HP) compound, a CCD camera, a low pass filter and a commercial image analysis system. The bimodal system was used for the acquisition of combined images of the tumor area (fluorescence: animal top view; radionuclide: bottom view). It was shown that the tumor area can be imaged in a few minutes, with a few millimeter resolution (1 mm pinhole diameter), radioactively ( 99mTc radiotracer), and with the fluorescence system and that, in one case, only one of the two modalities is able to recognize the tumor. A phantom study for thyroid imaging with 125I source embedded in a simulated tissue indicated a spatial resolution of 1.25 mm FWHM with a 1 mm pinhole.

  16. Multimodal x-ray scatter imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunk, O.; Bech, M.; Jensen, T. H.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Binderup, T.; Menzel, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2009-12-01

    We describe a small-angle x-ray scattering-based imaging technique that reveals the distribution and orientation of nano-scale structures over extended areas. By combining two measurement and analysis schemes, complementary structural information is available which renders the technique suitable for a broad range of applications, e.g. in materials science and bio-imaging. Through a combination of current techniques and on-line analysis schemes, measurements with a so far unprecedented combination of speed, dynamic range and point density became feasible. This is illustrated by data recorded for a section of a mouse soleus muscle visualizing fine muscle and Achilles tendon structures down to the 10 nm range over a 10 mm2 sample area.

  17. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging of bone structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Lambers, Floor M; Kuhn, Gisela; Müller, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is important to the body as a source of minerals and blood cells and provides a structural framework for strength, mobility and the protection of organs. Bone diseases and disorders can have deteriorating effects on the skeleton, but the biological processes underlying anatomical changes in bone diseases occurring in vivo are not well understood, mostly due to the lack of appropriate analysis techniques. Therefore, there is ongoing research in the development of novel in vivo imaging techniques and molecular markers that might help to gain more knowledge of these pathological pathways in animal models and patients. This perspective provides an overview of the latest developments in molecular imaging applied to bone. It emphasizes that multimodality imaging, the combination of multiple imaging techniques encompassing different image modalities, enhances the interpretability of data, and is imperative for the understanding of the biological processes and the associated changes in bone structure and function relationships in vivo. PMID:27127622

  18. Multimodality Imaging Assessment of Prosthetic Heart Valves.

    PubMed

    Suchá, Dominika; Symersky, Petr; Tanis, W; Mali, Willem P Th M; Leiner, Tim; van Herwerden, Lex A; Budde, Ricardo P J

    2015-09-01

    Echocardiography and fluoroscopy are the main techniques for prosthetic heart valve (PHV) evaluation, but because of specific limitations they may not identify the morphological substrate or the extent of PHV pathology. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have emerged as new potential imaging modalities for valve prostheses. We present an overview of the possibilities and pitfalls of CT and MRI for PHV assessment based on a systematic literature review of all experimental and patient studies. For this, a comprehensive systematic search was performed in PubMed and Embase on March 24, 2015, containing CT/MRI and PHV synonyms. Our final selection yielded 82 articles on surgical valves. CT allowed adequate assessment of most modern PHVs and complemented echocardiography in detecting the obstruction cause (pannus or thrombus), bioprosthesis calcifications, and endocarditis extent (valve dehiscence and pseudoaneurysms). No clear advantage over echocardiography was found for the detection of vegetations or periprosthetic regurgitation. Whereas MRI metal artifacts may preclude direct prosthesis analysis, MRI provided information on PHV-related flow patterns and velocities. MRI demonstrated abnormal asymmetrical flow patterns in PHV obstruction and allowed prosthetic regurgitation assessment. Hence, CT shows great clinical relevance as a complementary imaging tool for the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected PHV obstruction and endocarditis. MRI shows potential for functional PHV assessment although more studies are required to provide diagnostic reference values to allow discrimination of normal from pathological conditions. PMID:26353926

  19. Multimodality imaging of hypoxia in preclinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Ralph P.; Zhao, Dawen; Pacheco-Torres, Jesús; Cui, Weina; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.; Gulaka, Praveen K.; Hao, Guiyang; Thorpe, Philip; Hahn, Eric W.; Peschke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia has long been recognized to influence solid tumor response to therapy. Increasingly, hypoxia has also been implicated in tumor aggressiveness, including growth, development and metastatic potential. Thus, there is a fundamental, as well as a clinical interest, in assessing in situ tumor hypoxia. This review will examine diverse approaches focusing on the pre-clinical setting, particularly, in rodents. The strategies are inevitably a compromise in terms of sensitivity, precision, temporal and spatial resolution, as well as cost, feasibility, ease and robustness of implementation. We will review capabilities of multiple modalities and examine what makes them particularly suitable for investigating specific aspects of tumor pathophysiology. Current approaches range from nuclear imaging to magnetic resonance and optical, with varying degrees of invasiveness and ability to examine spatial heterogeneity, as well as dynamic response to interventions. Ideally, measurements would be non-invasive, exploiting endogenous reporters to reveal quantitatively local oxygen tension dynamics. A primary focus of this review is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based techniques, such as 19F MRI oximetry, which reveals not only hypoxia in vivo, but more significantly, spatial distribution of pO2 quantitatively, with a precision relevant to radiobiology. It should be noted that pre-clinical methods may have very different criteria for acceptance, as compared with potential investigations for prognostic radiology or predictive biomarkers suitable for use in patients. PMID:20639813

  20. Multimodal optical imaging of mouse Ischemic cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Phillip B.; Shin, Hwa Kyuong; Dunn, Andrew K.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Boas, David A.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Ayata, Cenk

    2005-11-01

    Real time investigation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxy/deoxy hemoglobin volume (HbO,HbR) dynamics has been difficult until recently due to limited spatial and temporal resolution of techniques like laser Doppler flowmetry and MRI. This is especially true for studies of disease models in small animals, owing to the fine structure of the cerebral vasculature. The combination of laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) and multi-spectral reflectance imaging (MSRI) yields high resolution spatio-temporal maps of hemodynamic changes in response to events such as sensory stimuli or arterial occlusion. Ischemia was induced by distal occlusion of the medial cerebral artery (dMCAO). Rapid changes in CBF, HbO, and HbR during the acute phase were captured with high temporal and spatial resolution through the intact skull. Hemodynamic changes that were correlated with vasoconstrictive events, peri-infarct spreading depressions (PISD), were observed. These experiments demonstrate the utility of LSF and Multi-spectral reflectance imaging (MSRI) in mouse disease models.

  1. Enhancing image classification models with multi-modal biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caban, Jesus J.; Liao, David; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.; Gochuico, Bernadette; Yoo, Terry

    2011-03-01

    Currently, most computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems rely on image analysis and statistical models to diagnose, quantify, and monitor the progression of a particular disease. In general, CAD systems have proven to be effective at providing quantitative measurements and assisting physicians during the decision-making process. As the need for more flexible and effective CADs continues to grow, questions about how to enhance their accuracy have surged. In this paper, we show how statistical image models can be augmented with multi-modal physiological values to create more robust, stable, and accurate CAD systems. In particular, this paper demonstrates how highly correlated blood and EKG features can be treated as biomarkers and used to enhance image classification models designed to automatically score subjects with pulmonary fibrosis. In our results, a 3-5% improvement was observed when comparing the accuracy of CADs that use multi-modal biomarkers with those that only used image features. Our results show that lab values such as Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and Fibrinogen, as well as EKG measurements such as QRS and I:40, are statistically significant and can provide valuable insights about the severity of the pulmonary fibrosis disease.

  2. MR imaging findings of endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Cornelius, Rebecca; Cunnane, Mary Beth; Golnik, Karl; Morales, Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Endophthalmitis is a sight-threatening ophthalmologic emergency. The clinical diagnosis is often challenging, and delayed diagnosis may exacerbate the poor visual prognosis. B-scan ultrasonography or spectral domain optical coherence tomography are imaging aids at the clinician's office. Cross-sectional imaging such as CT and particularly MRI can also help in the assessment of disease extent or complications. MR imaging findings are rarely described in the literature. Here, we discuss the spectrum of imaging findings of endophthalmitis and correlate them with key anatomic and pathophysiologic details of the globe. Early disease is often subtle on MR imaging with thick uveal enhancement, while advanced disease demonstrates retinal/choroidal detachment, vitreal exudates and peribulbar inflammation. Other noninfectious inflammatory diseases of the globe can show similar findings; however, MR diffusion-weighted images help identify infectious exudates and evaluate response to therapy. Knowledge of the spectrum of imaging findings of this disease is important for radiologists and help in the management decision process. PMID:26915896

  3. Multimodality Imaging of Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia: Clinical Presentations and Imaging Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Samim, Mohammad; Goldstein, Alan; Schindler, Joseph; Johnson, Michele H

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is characterized by ectasia, elongation, and tortuosity of the vertebrobasilar arteries, with a high degree of variability in clinical presentation. The disease origin is believed to involve degeneration of the internal elastic lamina, thinning of the media secondary to reticular fiber deficiency, and smooth muscle atrophy. The prevalence of VBD is variable, ranging from 0.05% to 18%. Most patients with VBD are asymptomatic and their VBD is detected incidentally; however, it is important to recognize that the presence of symptoms, which can lead to clinically significant morbidity and sometimes mortality, may influence clinical management. The most important clinical presentations of VBD are vascular events, such as ischemic stroke and catastrophic intracranial hemorrhage, or progressive compressive symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures, including the cranial nerves, brainstem, or third ventricle, causing hydrocephalus. The imaging diagnostic criteria for computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging include three quantitative measures of basilar artery morphology: laterality score, height of bifurcation, and basilar artery diameter. The authors review the relevant anatomy and disease origin of VBD; pertinent imaging findings, including intraluminal thrombus and relation to the cranial nerves; and imaging pitfalls, such as the hyperintense vessel sign on MR images and artifacts related to slow flow in the dolichoectatic vessel. In addition, clinical manifestations, the role of radiology in diagnosis and management of this condition, and available management options are reviewed. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27315445

  4. Registration of multimodal volume head images via attached markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandava, Venkateswara R.; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Maurer, Calvin R., Jr.; Maciunas, Robert J.; Allen, George S.

    1992-06-01

    We investigate the accuracy of registering arbitrarily oriented, multimodal, volume images of the human head, both to other images and to physical space, by aligning a configuration of three or more fiducial points that are the centers of attached markers. To compute the centers we use an extension of an adaptive thresholding algorithm due to Kittler. Because the markers are indistinguishable it is necessary to establish their correspondence between images. We have evaluated geometric matching algorithms for this purpose. The inherent errors in fiducial localization arising with digital images limits the accuracy with which anatomical targets can be registered. To accommodate this error we apply a least-squares registration algorithm to the fiducials. To evaluate the resulting target registration accuracy we have conducted experiments on images of internally implanted markers in a cadaver and images of externally attached markers in volunteers. We have also produced computer simulations of volume images of a hemispherical model of the head, randomly picking corresponding fiducial points and targets in the images, introducing uniformly distributed error into the fiducial locations, registering the images, and measuring target registration accuracy at the 95% confidence level. Our results indicate that submillimetric accuracy is feasible for high resolution images with four markers.

  5. Design and applications of a multimodality image data warehouse framework.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephen T C; Hoo, Kent Soo; Knowlton, Robert C; Laxer, Kenneth D; Cao, Xinhau; Hawkins, Randall A; Dillon, William P; Arenson, Ronald L

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive data warehouse framework is needed, which encompasses imaging and non-imaging information in supporting disease management and research. The authors propose such a framework, describe general design principles and system architecture, and illustrate a multimodality neuroimaging data warehouse system implemented for clinical epilepsy research. The data warehouse system is built on top of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment and applies an iterative object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) approach and recognized data interface and design standards. The implementation is based on a Java CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) and Web-based architecture that separates the graphical user interface presentation, data warehouse business services, data staging area, and backend source systems into distinct software layers. To illustrate the practicality of the data warehouse system, the authors describe two distinct biomedical applications--namely, clinical diagnostic workup of multimodality neuroimaging cases and research data analysis and decision threshold on seizure foci lateralization. The image data warehouse framework can be modified and generalized for new application domains. PMID:11971885

  6. Design and Applications of a Multimodality Image Data Warehouse Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Stephen T.C.; Hoo, Kent Soo; Knowlton, Robert C.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Cao, Xinhau; Hawkins, Randall A.; Dillon, William P.; Arenson, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive data warehouse framework is needed, which encompasses imaging and non-imaging information in supporting disease management and research. The authors propose such a framework, describe general design principles and system architecture, and illustrate a multimodality neuroimaging data warehouse system implemented for clinical epilepsy research. The data warehouse system is built on top of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment and applies an iterative object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) approach and recognized data interface and design standards. The implementation is based on a Java CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) and Web-based architecture that separates the graphical user interface presentation, data warehouse business services, data staging area, and backend source systems into distinct software layers. To illustrate the practicality of the data warehouse system, the authors describe two distinct biomedical applications—namely, clinical diagnostic workup of multimodality neuroimaging cases and research data analysis and decision threshold on seizure foci lateralization. The image data warehouse framework can be modified and generalized for new application domains. PMID:11971885

  7. Multimodality medical image fusion: probabilistic quantification, segmentation, and registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue J.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Xuan, Jian Hua; Zheng, Qinfen; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Multimodality medical image fusion is becoming increasingly important in clinical applications, which involves information processing, registration and visualization of interventional and/or diagnostic images obtained from different modalities. This work is to develop a multimodality medical image fusion technique through probabilistic quantification, segmentation, and registration, based on statistical data mapping, multiple feature correlation, and probabilistic mean ergodic theorems. The goal of image fusion is to geometrically align two or more image areas/volumes so that pixels/voxels representing the same underlying anatomical structure can be superimposed meaningfully. Three steps are involved. To accurately extract the regions of interest, we developed the model supported Bayesian relaxation labeling, and edge detection and region growing integrated algorithms to segment the images into objects. After identifying the shift-invariant features (i.e., edge and region information), we provided an accurate and robust registration technique which is based on matching multiple binary feature images through a site model based image re-projection. The image was initially segmented into specified number of regions. A rough contour can be obtained by delineating and merging some of the segmented regions. We applied region growing and morphological filtering to extract the contour and get rid of some disconnected residual pixels after segmentation. The matching algorithm is implemented as follows: (1) the centroids of PET/CT and MR images are computed and then translated to the center of both images. (2) preliminary registration is performed first to determine an initial range of scaling factors and rotations, and the MR image is then resampled according to the specified parameters. (3) the total binary difference of the corresponding binary maps in both images is calculated for the selected registration parameters, and the final registration is achieved when the

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Multimodality imaging of structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, D. W.

    2008-02-01

    Historically, medical devices to image either anatomical structure or functional processes have developed along somewhat independent paths. The recognition that combining images from different modalities can nevertheless offer significant diagnostic advantages gave rise to sophisticated software techniques to coregister structure and function. Recently, alternatives to retrospective software-based fusion have become available through instrumentation that combines two imaging modalities within a single device, an approach that has since been termed hardware fusion. As a result, following their recent introduction into the clinic, combined PET/CT and SPECT/CT devices are now playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and staging of human disease. Recently, although limited to the brain, the first clinical MR scanner with a PET insert, a technically-challenging design, has been undergoing evaluation. This review will follow the development of multimodality instrumentation for clinical use from conception to present-day technology and assess the status and future potential for such devices.

  9. Longitudinal, multimodal functional imaging of microvascular response to photothermal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Albert K.; Teves, Kathleen M.; Indrawan, Elmer; Jia, Wangcun; Choi, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Although studies have shown that photothermal therapy can coagulate selectively abnormal vasculature, the ability of this method to achieve consistent, complete removal of the vasculature is questionable. We present the use of multimodal, wide-field functional imaging to study, in greater detail, the biological response to selective laser injury. Specifically, a single-platform instrument capable of coregistered fluorescence imaging and laser speckle imaging was utilized to monitor vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression and blood flow, respectively, in a transgenic rodent model. Collectively, the longitudinal, in vivo data collected with our instrument suggest that the biological response to selective laser injury involves early-stage redistribution of blood flow, followed by increased vascular endothelial growth factor promoter activity to stimulate pro-angiogenic events. PMID:20890338

  10. Multimodality imaging in an orthotopic mammary window chamber model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Rachel; Leung, Hui Min; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2013-02-01

    Window chamber models have been utilized for many years to investigate cancer development and the tumor microenvironment. Orthotopic mammary window chamber model have been developed for detailed study of breast cancer. Orthotopic window chamber models, due to the native environment, support more realistic growth and tumor behavior than ectopic models. The work by other groups thus far utilizing mammary window chamber models has focused solely on optical imaging techniques, limited to probing the first millimeter or less of tissue. These techniques do not take full advantage of the unrestricted, three-dimensional tumor growth the model supports. We have developed a custom plastic structure compatible with multimodality imaging. We present in this work the implementation of our custom window chamber in a mouse model and the successful imaging of the window chamber cancer model with MRI, nuclear imaging, and optical techniques. MRI provides a full three-dimensional view of the tumor growth and allows for additional, potentially clinically translatable, approaches to be utilized in investigating the cancer microenvironment. Nuclear imaging is accomplished using the Beta Imager, which is a novel approach to nuclear imaging of window chambers. The Beta Imager detects photons after the interaction of a single positron with a scintillator, instead of the coincidence detection of annihilation gamma ray pairs. We utilized the radioisotope glucose analog, 2-deoxy-2- (18F)fluoro-D-glucose or FDG, with the Beta Imager to obtain information on the glycolytic metabolism of the tumor and surrounding region.

  11. Multi-modality molecular imaging: pre-clinical laboratory configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanjun; Wellen, Jeremy W.; Sarkar, Susanta K.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of in vivo molecular imaging applications has rapidly increased. Here we report on the construction of a multi-modality imaging facility in a pharmaceutical setting that is expected to further advance existing capabilities for in vivo imaging of drug distribution and the interaction with their target. The imaging instrumentation in our facility includes a microPET scanner, a four wavelength time-domain optical imaging scanner, a 9.4T/30cm MRI scanner and a SPECT/X-ray CT scanner. An electronics shop and a computer room dedicated to image analysis are additional features of the facility. The layout of the facility was designed with a central animal preparation room surrounded by separate laboratory rooms for each of the major imaging modalities to accommodate the work-flow of simultaneous in vivo imaging experiments. This report will focus on the design of and anticipated applications for our microPET and optical imaging laboratory spaces. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to maximize the daily throughput of animal scans through development of efficient experimental work-flows and the use of multiple animals in a single scanning session.

  12. Latex nanoparticles for multimodal imaging and detection in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, R.; Kaufner, L.; Paulke, B. R.; Wüstneck, R.; Pietschmann, S.; Michel, R.; Bruhn, H.; Pison, U.

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a multimodal imaging and detection approach to study the behaviour of nanoparticles in animal studies. Highly carboxylated 144 nm-sized latex nanoparticles were labelled with 68Ga for positron emission tomography, 111In for quantitative gamma scintigraphy or Gd3+ for magnetic resonance imaging. Following intravenous injection into rats, precise localization was achieved revealing the tracer in the blood compartment with a time-dependent accumulation in the liver. In addition, rhodamine B was also incorporated to examine specific interactions with blood cells. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy show uptake of nanoparticles by leucocytes and, unexpectedly, thrombocytes, but not erythrocytes. Cellular internalization was an active and selective process. Further incorporation of polyethylene glycol into the nanoparticle corona could prevent uptake by thrombocytes but not macrophages or monocytes. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of a multimodal approach and its usefulness to analyse the fate of nanoparticles at the macroscopic and cellular level. It will facilitate the development of functionalized nanocarrier systems and extend their biomedical applications.

  13. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  14. Multimodal and three-dimensional imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Zhenghong; Sodee, D Bruce; Resnick, Martin; Maclennan, Gregory T

    2005-09-01

    Accurate characterization of prostate cancer is crucial for treatment planning and patient management. Non-invasive SPECT imaging using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, 111In-labeled capromab pendetide, offers advantage over existing means for prostate cancer diagnosis and staging. However, there are difficulties associated with the interpretation of these SPECT images. In this study, we developed a 3D surface-volume hybrid rendering method that utilizes multi-modality image data to facilitate diagnosis of prostate cancer. SPECT and CT or MRI (or both) images were aligned either manually or automatically. 3D hybrid rendering was implemented to blend prostate tumor distribution from SPECT in pelvis with anatomic structures from CT/MRI. Feature extraction technique was also implemented within the hybrid rendering for tumor uptake enhancement. Autoradiographic imaging and histological evaluation were performed to correlate with the in-vivo SPECT images. Warping registration of histological sections was carried out to compensate the deformation of histology slices during fixation to help the alignment between histology and in-vivo images. Overall, the rendered volumetric evaluation of prostate cancer has the potential to greatly increase the confidence in the reading of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody scans, especially in patients where there is a high suspicion of prostate tumor metastasis. PMID:15893911

  15. Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Adaptive Manifold Filter.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Liu, Shuaiqi; Zhuang, Shanna

    2015-01-01

    Medical image fusion plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. The modified local contrast information is proposed to fuse multimodal medical images. Firstly, the adaptive manifold filter is introduced into filtering source images as the low-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Secondly, the modified spatial frequency of the source images is adopted as the high-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Finally, the pixel with larger modified local contrast is selected into the fused image. The presented scheme outperforms the guided filter method in spatial domain, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform-based method, nonsubsampled contourlet transform-based method, and four classic fusion methods in terms of visual quality. Furthermore, the mutual information values by the presented method are averagely 55%, 41%, and 62% higher than the three methods and those values of edge based similarity measure by the presented method are averagely 13%, 33%, and 14% higher than the three methods for the six pairs of source images. PMID:26664494

  16. Deformable image registration for multimodal lung-cancer staging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Allen, Thomas W.; Mahraj, Rickhesvar P. M.; Higgins, William E.

    2016-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) serve as major diagnostic imaging modalities in the lung-cancer staging process. Modern scanners provide co-registered whole-body PET/CT studies, collected while the patient breathes freely, and high-resolution chest CT scans, collected under a brief patient breath hold. Unfortunately, no method exists for registering a PET/CT study into the space of a high-resolution chest CT scan. If this could be done, vital diagnostic information offered by the PET/CT study could be brought seamlessly into the procedure plan used during live cancer-staging bronchoscopy. We propose a method for the deformable registration of whole-body PET/CT data into the space of a high-resolution chest CT study. We then demonstrate its potential for procedure planning and subsequent use in multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy.

  17. [Multimodal imaging of ischemic heart diseases: A 2015 update].

    PubMed

    Di Marco, L; Rosset, M; Zhang-Yin, J; Ohana, M

    2016-05-01

    Current realities and future possibilities of imaging in the ischemic heart diseases are very broad and constantly evolving, with the improvement of existing technologies and the introduction of new features such as dual-energy CT, strain ultrasound, multimodality fusion or perfusion MRI. Regular collaboration between prescribing clinicians, cardiologists, radiologists and nuclear radiologists is therefore essential to tailor the examination to the specific clinical question. The indications for each modality will therefore depend on its diagnostic performance, cost, acquisition and post-processing times and eventual radiation exposure. This review will detail principles and applications of current cardiac imaging examinations: echocardiography, nuclear medicine, MRI, CT and coronary angiography, emphasizing their current strengths and weaknesses in the ischemic heart diseases management. PMID:26775644

  18. Multimodal fundus imaging in Best vitelliform macular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Daniela C.; Tsang, Stephen; Calucci, Daniela; Jorge, Rodrigo; Freund, K. Bailey

    2010-01-01

    Background Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) is a rare autosomal dominant retinal disease of highly variable phenotypic expression. Interpretations of disease mechanisms based on histopathology, electrophysiology, genetic analysis, and retinal imaging are somewhat discordant in fundamental issues such as the location and extension of primary retinal changes. Herein we describe the morphological macular features in patients with BVMD undergoing simultaneous multimodal fundus imaging and compare to those of normal age-matched subjects. Methods Comparative study including seven patients with BVMD (14 eyes) and seven age-matched healthy subjects (14 eyes). All participants were submitted to complete ophthalmological examination, fundus photography, and standardized multimodal fundus imaging protocol including Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (Fd-OCT) combined with near-infrared reflectance and blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF). Results In two eyes in the “subclinical” stage, Fd-OCT revealed thickening of the middle highly reflective layer (HRL) localized between the photoreceptors’ inner/outer segments junction (inner-HRL) and RPE/Bruch’s membrane reflective complex (outer-HRL) throughout the macula. In one eye in the “vitelliform” stage, a homogeneous hyper-reflective material on Fd-OCT was observed between the middle-HRL and outer-HRL; this material presented increased fluorescence on FAF. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) was thinned in the central macula and subretinal fluid was not identified in these earlier disease stages. In patients of “pseudohypopyon” (two eyes), “vitelliruptive” (eight eyes) and “atrophic” (one eye) stages, Fd-OCT revealed a variety of changes in the middle- and inner-HRLs and thinning of ONL. These changes were found to be associated with the level of visual acuity observed. Thickening of the middle-HRL was observed beyond the limits of the clinically evident macular lesion in all eyes

  19. Gadolinium oxide nanoparticles as potential multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Jeong; Chae, Kwon Seok; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Gang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Potentials of hydrophilic and biocompatible ligand coated gadolinium oxide nanoparticles as multimodal imaging agents, drug carriers, and therapeutic agents are reviewed. First of all, they can be used as advanced T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents because they have r1 larger than those of Gd(III)-chelates due to a high density of Gd(III) per nanoparticle. They can be further functionalized by conjugating other imaging agents such as fluorescent imaging (FI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) agents. They can be also useful for drug carriers through morphology modifications. They themselves are also potential CT and ultrasound imaging (USI) contrast and thermal neutron capture therapeutic (NCT) agents, which are superior to commercial iodine compounds, air-filled albumin microspheres, and boron ((10)B) compounds, respectively. They, when conjugated with targeting agents such as antibodies and peptides, will provide enhanced images and be also very useful for diagnosis and therapy of diseases (so called theragnosis). PMID:23432005

  20. Imaging Findings of Congestive Hepatopathy.

    PubMed

    Wells, Michael L; Fenstad, Eric R; Poterucha, Joseph T; Hough, David M; Young, Phillip M; Araoz, Philip A; Ehman, Richard L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2016-01-01

    Congestive hepatopathy (CH) refers to hepatic abnormalities that result from passive hepatic venous congestion. Prolonged exposure to elevated hepatic venous pressure may lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Liver dysfunction and corresponding clinical signs and symptoms typically manifest late in the disease process. Recognition of CH at imaging is critical because advanced liver fibrosis may develop before the condition is suspected clinically. Characteristic findings of CH on conventional images include dilatation of the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins; retrograde hepatic venous opacification during the early bolus phase of intravenous contrast material injection; and a predominantly peripheral heterogeneous pattern of hepatic enhancement due to stagnant blood flow. Extensive fibrosis can be seen in chronic or severe cases. Hyperenhancing regenerative nodules that may retain hepatobiliary contrast agents are often present. Magnetic resonance (MR) elastography can show elevated liver stiffness and may be useful in evaluation of fibrosis in CH because it can be incorporated easily into routine cardiac MR imaging. Preliminary experience with MR elastography suggests its future use in initial evaluation of patients suspected of having CH, for monitoring of disease, and for assessment after therapy. To facilitate appropriate workup and treatment, radiologists should be familiar with findings suggestive of CH at radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, MR imaging, and MR elastography. In addition, knowledge of underlying pathophysiology, comparative histologic abnormalities, and extrahepatic manifestations is useful to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and suggest appropriate additional diagnostic testing. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27284758

  1. A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Irene; Ghobril, Jean-Pierre; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Silvestri, Ludovico; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Onofri, Leonardo; Conti, Valerio; Vanzi, Francesco; Sacconi, Leonardo; Guerrini, Renzo; Markram, Henry; Iannello, Giulio; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2015-01-01

    Extensive mapping of neuronal connections in the central nervous system requires high-throughput µm-scale imaging of large volumes. In recent years, different approaches have been developed to overcome the limitations due to tissue light scattering. These methods are generally developed to improve the performance of a specific imaging modality, thus limiting comprehensive neuroanatomical exploration by multi-modal optical techniques. Here, we introduce a versatile brain clearing agent (2,2'-thiodiethanol; TDE) suitable for various applications and imaging techniques. TDE is cost-efficient, water-soluble and low-viscous and, more importantly, it preserves fluorescence, is compatible with immunostaining and does not cause deformations at sub-cellular level. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in different applications: in fixed samples by imaging a whole mouse hippocampus with serial two-photon tomography; in combination with CLARITY by reconstructing an entire mouse brain with light sheet microscopy and in translational research by imaging immunostained human dysplastic brain tissue. PMID:25950610

  2. Design, implementation and operation of a multimodality research imaging informatics repository

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomedical imaging research increasingly involves acquiring, managing and processing large amounts of distributed imaging data. Integrated systems that combine data, meta-data and workflows are crucial for realising the opportunities presented by advances in imaging facilities. Methods This paper describes the design, implementation and operation of a multi-modality research imaging data management system that manages imaging data obtained from biomedical imaging scanners operated at Monash Biomedical Imaging (MBI), Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. In addition to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images, raw data and non-DICOM biomedical data can be archived and distributed by the system. Imaging data are annotated with meta-data according to a study-centric data model and, therefore, scientific users can find, download and process data easily. Results The research imaging data management system ensures long-term usability, integrity inter-operability and integration of large imaging data. Research users can securely browse and download stored images and data, and upload processed data via subject-oriented informatics frameworks including the Distributed and Reflective Informatics System (DaRIS), and the Extensible Neuroimaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT). PMID:25870760

  3. Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging

    PubMed Central

    Čižmár, Tomáš; Dholakia, Kishan

    2012-01-01

    There has been an immense drive in modern microscopy towards miniaturization and fibre-based technology. This has been necessitated by the need to access hostile or difficult environments in situ and in vivo. Strategies to date have included the use of specialist fibres and miniaturized scanning systems accompanied by ingenious microfabricated lenses. Here we present a novel approach for this field by utilizing disordered light within a standard multimode optical fibre for lensless microscopy and optical mode conversion. We demonstrate the modalities of bright- and dark-field imaging and scanning fluorescence microscopy at acquisition rates that allow observation of dynamic processes such as Brownian motion of mesoscopic particles. Furthermore, we show how such control can realize a new form of mode converter and generate various types of advanced light fields such as propagation-invariant beams and optical vortices. These may be useful for future fibre-based implementations of super-resolution or light-sheet microscopy. PMID:22929784

  4. Data structures for multimodality imaging: concepts and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mealha, Oscar E. C.; Sousa Pereira, Antonio; Santos, Maria Beatriz S.

    1992-06-01

    The integration of data coming from different imaging modalities is something to take into account, due to the importance it can have in the development of a fast and reliable diagnosis by the health staff. In the medical imaging field, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are examples of devices that generate 3-D data. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or ultrasound (US) output 2-D data, from which its possible to reconstruct 3-D data. An important fact is that 3-D space is common to all these devices and they are all capable of producing large amounts of data. Prior to display or even data integration, matching the various 3-D spaces has to be achieved with some specific technique, according to the anatomical region under examination. The augmented octree, an extension of the linear octree, is used for data integration; its properties can help to overcome some of the constraints that occur in medical imaging. To be fully accepted by the specialist, the display and manipulation of multimodality data must be interactive and done in real-time, or at least in `nearly' real-time. Parallel architectures seem to be a solution for some computation intensive applications, and so an implementation of the linear octree encoding process was developed on a 16 Transputer machine.

  5. Aspergillus infection monitored by multimodal imaging in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Pluhacek, Tomas; Petrik, Milos; Luptakova, Dominika; Benada, Oldrich; Palyzova, Andrea; Lemr, Karel; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Although myriads of experimental approaches have been published in the field of fungal infection diagnostics, interestingly, in 21st century there is no satisfactory early noninvasive tool for Aspergillus diagnostics with good sensitivity and specificity. In this work, we for the first time described the fungal burden in rat lungs by multimodal imaging approach. The Aspergillus infection was monitored by positron emission tomography and light microscopy employing modified Grocott's methenamine silver staining and eosin counterstaining. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging has revealed a dramatic iron increase in fungi-affected areas, which can be presumably attributed to microbial siderophores. Quantitative elemental data were inferred from matrix-matched standards prepared from rat lungs. The iron, silver, and gold MS images collected with variable laser foci revealed that particularly silver or gold can be used as excellent elements useful for sensitively tracking the Aspergillus infection. The limit of detection was determined for both (107) Ag and (197) Au as 0.03 μg/g (5 μm laser focus). The selective incorporation of (107) Ag and (197) Au into fungal cell bodies and low background noise from both elements were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray scattering utilizing the submicron lateral resolving power of scanning electron microscopy. The low limits of detection and quantitation of both gold and silver make ICP-MS imaging monitoring a viable alternative to standard optical evaluation used in current clinical settings. PMID:27060291

  6. Classification of ADHD children through multimodal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dai, Dai; Wang, Jieqiong; Hua, Jing; He, Huiguang

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common diseases in school-age children. To date, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly subjective and studies of objective diagnostic method are of great importance. Although many efforts have been made recently to investigate the use of structural and functional brain images for the diagnosis purpose, few of them are related to ADHD. In this paper, we introduce an automatic classification framework based on brain imaging features of ADHD patients and present in detail the feature extraction, feature selection, and classifier training methods. The effects of using different features are compared against each other. In addition, we integrate multimodal image features using multi-kernel learning (MKL). The performance of our framework has been validated in the ADHD-200 Global Competition, which is a world-wide classification contest on the ADHD-200 datasets. In this competition, our classification framework using features of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) was ranked the 6th out of 21 participants under the competition scoring policy and performed the best in terms of sensitivity and J-statistic. PMID:22969710

  7. Multimodality Imaging of Alzheimer Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Nasrallah, Ilya M.; Wolk, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, result in cognitive decline and dementia and are a leading cause of mortality in the growing elderly population. These progressive diseases typically have insidious onset, with overlapping clinical features early in disease course that makes diagnosis challenging. Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with characteristic, although not completely understood, changes in the brain: abnormal protein deposition, synaptic dysfunction, neuronal injury and neuronal death. Neuroimaging biomarkers – principally regional atrophy on structural MRI, patterns of hypometabolism on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, and detection of cerebral amyloid plaque on amyloid PET – are able to evaluate the patterns of these abnormalities in the brain to assist and improve early diagnosis of these conditions as well as to help predict disease course in the future. There are unique strengths of these techniques as well as synergies in multimodality evaluation of the patient with cognitive decline or dementia. This review will discuss the key imaging biomarkers from MRI, 18F-FDG PET, and amyloid PET, the imaging features of the most common neurodegenerative dementias, the role of various neuroimaging studies in differential diagnosis and prognosis, and introduce some promising imaging techniques currently under development. PMID:25413136

  8. The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS).

    PubMed

    Menze, Bjoern H; Jakab, Andras; Bauer, Stefan; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Farahani, Keyvan; Kirby, Justin; Burren, Yuliya; Porz, Nicole; Slotboom, Johannes; Wiest, Roland; Lanczi, Levente; Gerstner, Elizabeth; Weber, Marc-André; Arbel, Tal; Avants, Brian B; Ayache, Nicholas; Buendia, Patricia; Collins, D Louis; Cordier, Nicolas; Corso, Jason J; Criminisi, Antonio; Das, Tilak; Delingette, Hervé; Demiralp, Çağatay; Durst, Christopher R; Dojat, Michel; Doyle, Senan; Festa, Joana; Forbes, Florence; Geremia, Ezequiel; Glocker, Ben; Golland, Polina; Guo, Xiaotao; Hamamci, Andac; Iftekharuddin, Khan M; Jena, Raj; John, Nigel M; Konukoglu, Ender; Lashkari, Danial; Mariz, José Antonió; Meier, Raphael; Pereira, Sérgio; Precup, Doina; Price, Stephen J; Raviv, Tammy Riklin; Reza, Syed M S; Ryan, Michael; Sarikaya, Duygu; Schwartz, Lawrence; Shin, Hoo-Chang; Shotton, Jamie; Silva, Carlos A; Sousa, Nuno; Subbanna, Nagesh K; Szekely, Gabor; Taylor, Thomas J; Thomas, Owen M; Tustison, Nicholas J; Unal, Gozde; Vasseur, Flor; Wintermark, Max; Ye, Dong Hye; Zhao, Liang; Zhao, Binsheng; Zikic, Darko; Prastawa, Marcel; Reyes, Mauricio; Van Leemput, Koen

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we report the set-up and results of the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences. Twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low- and high-grade glioma patients-manually annotated by up to four raters-and to 65 comparable scans generated using tumor image simulation software. Quantitative evaluations revealed considerable disagreement between the human raters in segmenting various tumor sub-regions (Dice scores in the range 74%-85%), illustrating the difficulty of this task. We found that different algorithms worked best for different sub-regions (reaching performance comparable to human inter-rater variability), but that no single algorithm ranked in the top for all sub-regions simultaneously. Fusing several good algorithms using a hierarchical majority vote yielded segmentations that consistently ranked above all individual algorithms, indicating remaining opportunities for further methodological improvements. The BRATS image data and manual annotations continue to be publicly available through an online evaluation system as an ongoing benchmarking resource. PMID:25494501

  9. Distance-Dependent Multimodal Image Registration for Agriculture Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Berenstein, Ron; Hočevar, Marko; Godeša, Tone; Edan, Yael; Ben-Shahar, Ohad

    2015-01-01

    Image registration is the process of aligning two or more images of the same scene taken at different times; from different viewpoints; and/or by different sensors. This research focuses on developing a practical method for automatic image registration for agricultural systems that use multimodal sensory systems and operate in natural environments. While not limited to any particular modalities; here we focus on systems with visual and thermal sensory inputs. Our approach is based on pre-calibrating a distance-dependent transformation matrix (DDTM) between the sensors; and representing it in a compact way by regressing the distance-dependent coefficients as distance-dependent functions. The DDTM is measured by calculating a projective transformation matrix for varying distances between the sensors and possible targets. To do so we designed a unique experimental setup including unique Artificial Control Points (ACPs) and their detection algorithms for the two sensors. We demonstrate the utility of our approach using different experiments and evaluation criteria. PMID:26308000

  10. Direct estimation of evoked hemoglobin changes by multimodality fusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, Theodore J.; Diamond, Solomon G.; Boas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, both diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods have been developed as noninvasive tools for imaging evoked cerebral hemodynamic changes in studies of brain activity. Although these two technologies measure functional contrast from similar physiological sources, i.e., changes in hemoglobin levels, these two modalities are based on distinct physical and biophysical principles leading to both limitations and strengths to each method. In this work, we describe a unified linear model to combine the complimentary spatial, temporal, and spectroscopic resolutions of concurrently measured optical tomography and fMRI signals. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that concurrent optical and BOLD measurements can be used to create cross-calibrated estimates of absolute micromolar deoxyhemoglobin changes. We apply this new analysis tool to experimental data acquired simultaneously with both DOT and BOLD imaging during a motor task, demonstrate the ability to more robustly estimate hemoglobin changes in comparison to DOT alone, and show how this approach can provide cross-calibrated estimates of hemoglobin changes. Using this multimodal method, we estimate the calibration of the 3 tesla BOLD signal to be −0.55% ± 0.40% signal change per micromolar change of deoxyhemoglobin. PMID:19021411

  11. Towards analysis of growth trajectory through multimodal longitudinal MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Neda; Prastawa, Marcel; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido

    2010-03-01

    The human brain undergoes significant changes in the first few years after birth, but knowledge about this critical period of development is quite limited. Previous neuroimaging studies have been mostly focused on morphometric measures such as volume and shape, although tissue property measures related to the degree of myelination and axon density could also add valuable information to our understanding of brain maturation. Our goal is to complement brain growth analysis via morphometry with the study of longitudinal tissue property changes as reflected in patterns observed in multi-modal structural MRI and DTI. Our preliminary study includes eight healthy pediatric subjects with repeated scans at the age of two weeks, one year, and two years with T1, T2, PD, and DT MRI. Analysis is driven by the registration of multiple modalities and time points within and between subjects into a common coordinate frame, followed by image intensity normalization. Quantitative tractography with diffusion and structural image parameters serves for multi-variate tissue analysis. Different patterns of rapid changes were observed in the corpus callosum and the posterior and anterior internal capsule, structures known for distinctly different myelination growth. There are significant differences in central versus peripheral white matter. We demonstrate that the combined longitudinal analysis of structural and diffusion MRI proves superior to individual modalities and might provide a better understanding of the trajectory of early neurodevelopment.

  12. Multimodal Imaging of Spontaneously Shifting Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mantopoulos, Dimosthenis; Cebulla, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To correlate spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and photographic imaging before and after spontaneous regression of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) lesions. Procedures We report the case of a 60-year-old female. Results The patient presented with bilateral creamy deposits under the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and lesions were visible along Bruch's membrane with SD-OCT and suspicious for PVRL. Systemic workup revealed nonspecific areas of enhancement on neuroimaging. The patient was largely asymptomatic and the decision was made to observe her. Three months later, a new lesion pattern had developed. The color fundus photographs and SD-OCT demonstrated spontaneous regression of the largest sub-RPE lesion, leaving areas of RPE atrophy, while a new larger sub-RPE lesion had formed in the other eye. Vitreous biopsy showed lymphocytes and no malignant cells, while sub-RPE biopsy of the newly formed lesion revealed highly atypical cells positive for CD19 and CD20. Conclusions Multimodal imaging documents that PVRL lesion regression and early RPE changes can develop within a 3-month period. Immune control is an important factor in lesion regression in the eye. PMID:27172327

  13. Nanodiamond landmarks for subcellular multimodal optical and electron imaging.

    PubMed

    Zurbuchen, Mark A; Lake, Michael P; Kohan, Sirus A; Leung, Belinda; Bouchard, Louis-S

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need for biolabels that can be used in both optical and electron microscopies, are non-cytotoxic, and do not photobleach. Such biolabels could enable targeted nanoscale imaging of sub-cellular structures, and help to establish correlations between conjugation-delivered biomolecules and function. Here we demonstrate a sub-cellular multi-modal imaging methodology that enables localization of inert particulate probes, consisting of nanodiamonds having fluorescent nitrogen-vacancy centers. These are functionalized to target specific structures, and are observable by both optical and electron microscopies. Nanodiamonds targeted to the nuclear pore complex are rapidly localized in electron-microscopy diffraction mode to enable "zooming-in" to regions of interest for detailed structural investigations. Optical microscopies reveal nanodiamonds for in-vitro tracking or uptake-confirmation. The approach is general, works down to the single nanodiamond level, and can leverage the unique capabilities of nanodiamonds, such as biocompatibility, sensitive magnetometry, and gene and drug delivery. PMID:24036840

  14. 4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P.; Sturgeon, G.; Mendonca, S.; Grimes, Jason; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The authors develop the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. Methods: Highly detailed whole-body anatomies for the adult male and female were defined in the XCAT using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) and subdivision surfaces based on segmentation of the Visible Male and Female anatomical datasets from the National Library of Medicine as well as patient datasets. Using the flexibility of these surfaces, the Visible Human anatomies were transformed to match body measurements and organ volumes for a 50th percentile (height and weight) male and female. The desired body measurements for the models were obtained using the PEOPLESIZE program that contains anthropometric dimensions categorized from 1st to the 99th percentile for US adults. The desired organ volumes were determined from ICRP Publication 89 [ICRP, ''Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values,'' ICRP Publication 89 (International Commission on Radiological Protection, New York, NY, 2002)]. The male and female anatomies serve as standard templates upon which anatomical variations may be modeled in the XCAT through user-defined parameters. Parametrized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions were also incorporated into the XCAT based on high-resolution cardiac- and respiratory-gated multislice CT data. To demonstrate the usefulness of the phantom, the authors show example simulation studies in PET, SPECT, and CT using publicly available simulation packages. Results: As demonstrated in the pilot studies, the 4D XCAT (which includes thousands of anatomical structures) can produce realistic imaging data when combined with accurate models of the imaging process. With the flexibility of the NURBS surface primitives, any number of different anatomies, cardiac or respiratory motions or patterns, and spatial resolutions can be simulated to perform imaging research. Conclusions: With the ability to produce

  15. 4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research

    PubMed Central

    Segars, W. P.; Sturgeon, G.; Mendonca, S.; Grimes, Jason; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors develop the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. Methods: Highly detailed whole-body anatomies for the adult male and female were defined in the XCAT using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) and subdivision surfaces based on segmentation of the Visible Male and Female anatomical datasets from the National Library of Medicine as well as patient datasets. Using the flexibility of these surfaces, the Visible Human anatomies were transformed to match body measurements and organ volumes for a 50th percentile (height and weight) male and female. The desired body measurements for the models were obtained using the PEOPLESIZE program that contains anthropometric dimensions categorized from 1st to the 99th percentile for US adults. The desired organ volumes were determined from ICRP Publication 89 [ICRP, ‘‘Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values,” ICRP Publication 89 (International Commission on Radiological Protection, New York, NY, 2002)]. The male and female anatomies serve as standard templates upon which anatomical variations may be modeled in the XCAT through user-defined parameters. Parametrized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions were also incorporated into the XCAT based on high-resolution cardiac- and respiratory-gated multislice CT data. To demonstrate the usefulness of the phantom, the authors show example simulation studies in PET, SPECT, and CT using publicly available simulation packages. Results: As demonstrated in the pilot studies, the 4D XCAT (which includes thousands of anatomical structures) can produce realistic imaging data when combined with accurate models of the imaging process. With the flexibility of the NURBS surface primitives, any number of different anatomies, cardiac or respiratory motions or patterns, and spatial resolutions can be simulated to perform imaging research. Conclusions: With the ability to produce

  16. SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIMODALITY CARDIOVASCULAR MOLECULAR IMAGING IMAGING TECHNOLOGY - PART 2

    PubMed Central

    de Kemp, Robert A.; Epstein, Frederick H.; Catana, Ciprian; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The ability to trace or identify specific molecules within a specific anatomic location provides insight into metabolic pathways, tissue components and tracing of solute transport mechanisms. With the increasing use of small animals for research such imaging must have sufficiently high spatial resolution to allow anatomic localization as well as sufficient specificity and sensitivity to provide an accurate description of the molecular distribution and concentration. Methods Imaging methods based on electromagnetic radiation, such as PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, are increasingly applicable due to recent advances in novel scanner hardware, image reconstruction software and availability of novel molecules which have enhanced sensitivity in these methodologies. Results Micro-PET has been advanced by development of detector arrays that provide higher resolution and positron emitting elements that allow new molecular tracers to be labeled. Micro-MRI has been improved in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity by increased magnet field strength and development of special purpose coils and associated scan protocols. Of particular interest is the associated ability to image local mechanical function and solute transport processes which can be directly related to the molecular information. This is further strengthened by the synergistic integration of the PET with MRI. Micro-SPECT has been improved by use of coded aperture imaging approaches as well as image reconstruction algorithms which can better deal with the photon limited scan data. The limited spatial resolution can be partially overcome by integrating the SPECT with CT. Micro-CT by itself provides exquisite spatial resolution of anatomy, but recent developments of high spatial resolution photon counting and spectrally-sensitive imaging arrays, combined with x-ray optical devices, have promise for actual molecular identification by virtue of the chemical bond lengths of molecules, especially of bio

  17. Multimodality medical image database for temporal lobe epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siadat, Mohammad-Reza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Fotouhi, Farshad A.; Elisevich, Kost

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the development of a human brain multi-modality database for surgical candidacy determination in temporal lobe epilepsy. The focus of the paper is on content-based image management, navigation and retrieval. Several medical image-processing methods including our newly developed segmentation method are utilized for information extraction/correlation and indexing. The input data includes T1-, T2-Weighted and FLAIR MRI and ictal/interictal SPECT modalities with associated clinical data and EEG data analysis. The database can answer queries regarding issues such as the correlation between the attribute X of the entity Y and the outcome of a temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. The entity Y can be a brain anatomical structure such as the hippocampus. The attribute X can be either a functionality feature of the anatomical structure Y, calculated with SPECT modalities, such as signal average, or a volumetric/morphological feature of the entity Y such as volume or average curvature. The outcome of the surgery can be any surgery assessment such as non-verbal Wechsler memory quotient. A determination is made regarding surgical candidacy by analysis of both textual and image data. The current database system suggests a surgical determination for the cases with relatively small hippocampus and high signal intensity average on FLAIR images within the hippocampus. This indication matches the neurosurgeons expectations/observations. Moreover, as the database gets more populated with patient profiles and individual surgical outcomes, using data mining methods one may discover partially invisible correlations between the contents of different modalities of data and the outcome of the surgery.

  18. Integrated scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography for quantitative multimodal imaging of retinal degeneration and autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaei, Ali; Szczygiel, Lukasz; Hossein-Javaheri, Nima; Young, Mei; Molday, L. L.; Molday, R. S.; Sarunic, M. V.

    2011-03-01

    Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and Coherence Tomography (OCT) are complimentary retinal imaging modalities. Integration of SLO and OCT allows for both fluorescent detection and depth- resolved structural imaging of the retinal cell layers to be performed in-vivo. System customization is required to image rodents used in medical research by vision scientists. We are investigating multimodal SLO/OCT imaging of a rodent model of Stargardt's Macular Dystrophy which is characterized by retinal degeneration and accumulation of toxic autofluorescent lipofuscin deposits. Our new findings demonstrate the ability to track fundus autofluorescence and retinal degeneration concurrently.

  19. Using multimodal femtosecond CARS imaging to determine plaque burden in luminal atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Alex C.-T.; Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Smith, Michael S. D.; Slepkov, Aaron; Hewko, Mark D.; Kohlenberg, Elicia K.; Schattka, Bernie; Stolow, Albert; Sowa, Michael G.

    2011-03-01

    Luminal atherosclerosis imaging was demonstrated by multimodal femtosecond CARS microscopy (MM-CARS). Using a myocardial infarction-prone rabbit model of atherosclerosis, this study demonstrated the utility of multimodal CARS imaging in determining atherosclerotic plaque burden through two types of image analysis procedures. Firstly, multimodal CARS images were evaluated using a signal-intensity parameter based on intensity changes derived from the multi-channel data (e.g. TPEF, SHG and CARS) to classify plaque burden within the vessel. Secondly, the SHG images that mainly correspond to collagen fibrils were evaluated using a texture analysis model based on the first-order statistical (FOS) parameters of the image histogram. Correlation between FOS parameters of collagen images with atherosclerosis plaque burden was established. A preliminary study of using spectroscopic CARS in identifying the different lipid components within the plaque was also discussed.

  20. A new region descriptor for multi-modal medical image registration and region detection.

    PubMed

    Xiaonan Wan; Dongdong Yu; Feng Yang; Caiyun Yang; Chengcai Leng; Min Xu; Jie Tian

    2015-08-01

    Establishing accurate anatomical correspondences plays a critical role in multi-modal medical image registration and region detection. Although many features based registration methods have been proposed to detect these correspondences, they are mostly based on the point descriptor which leads to high memory cost and could not represent local region information. In this paper, we propose a new region descriptor which depicts the features in each region, instead of in each point, as a vector. First, feature attributes of each point are extracted by a Gabor filter bank combined with a gradient filter. Then, the region descriptor is defined as the covariance of feature attributes of each point inside the region, based on which a cost function is constructed for multi-modal image registration. Finally, our proposed region descriptor is applied to both multi-modal region detection and similarity metric measurement in multi-modal image registration. Experiments demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed region descriptor. PMID:26736903

  1. Multimodal imaging in autism: an early review of comprehensive neural circuit characterization.

    PubMed

    Yerys, Benjamin E; Herrington, John D

    2014-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the neurobiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is linked to atypical neural communication and connectivity. This body of work emphasizes the need to characterize the function of multiple regions that comprise neural circuits rather than focusing on singular regions as contributing to deficits in ASD. Multimodal neuroimaging - the formal combination of multiple functional and structural measures of the brain - is extremely promising as an approach to understanding neural deficits in ASD. This review provides an overview of the multimodal imaging approach, and then provides a snapshot of how multimodal imaging has been applied in the study of ASD to date. This body of work is separated into two categories: one concerning whole brain connectomics and the other focused on characterizing neural circuits implicated as altered in ASD. We end this review by highlighting emerging themes from the existing body of literature, and new resources that will likely influence future multimodal imaging studies. PMID:25260934

  2. Entropy and Laplacian images: structural representations for multi-modal registration.

    PubMed

    Wachinger, Christian; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    The standard approach to multi-modal registration is to apply sophisticated similarity metrics such as mutual information. The disadvantage of these metrics, in comparison to measuring the intensity difference with, e.g. L1 or L2 distance, is the increase in computational complexity and consequently the increase in runtime of the registration. An alternative approach, which has not yet gained much attention in the literature, is to find image representations, so called structural representations, that allow for the application of the L1 and L2 distance for multi-modal images. This has not only the advantage of a faster similarity calculation but enables also the application of more sophisticated optimization strategies. In this article, we theoretically analyze the requirements for structural representations. Further, we introduce two approaches to create such representations, which are based on the calculation of patch entropy and manifold learning, respectively. While the application of entropy has practical advantages in terms of computational complexity, the usage of manifold learning has theoretical advantages, by presenting an optimal approximation to one of the theoretical requirements. We perform experiments on multiple datasets for rigid, deformable, and groupwise registration with good results with respect to both, runtime and quality of alignment. PMID:21632274

  3. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Bishnu P.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research. PMID:22180839

  4. Feasibility and Initial Performance of Simultaneous SPECT-CT Imaging Using a Commercial Multi-Modality Preclinical Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Dustin R.; Austin, Derek W.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging provides coregistered PET-CT and SPECT-CT images; however such multi-modality workflows usually consist of sequential scans from the individual imaging components for each modality. This typical workflow may result in long scan times limiting throughput of the imaging system. Conversely, acquiring multi-modality data simultaneously may improve correlation and registration of images, improve temporal alignment of the acquired data, increase imaging throughput, and benefit the scanned subject by minimizing time under anesthetic. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and procedure for modifying a commercially available preclinical SPECT-CT platform to enable simultaneous SPECT-CT acquisition. We also evaluate the performance of simultaneous SPECT-CT tomographic imaging with this modified system. Performance was accessed using a 57Co source and image quality was evaluated with 99mTc phantoms in a series of simultaneous SPECT-CT scans. PMID:26146568

  5. TU-C-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT I: Multi-Modality 4D Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, J; Mageras, G; Pan, T

    2014-06-15

    Motion management is one of the critical technical challenges for radiation therapy. 4D imaging has been rapidly adopted as essential tool to assess organ motion associated with respiratory breathing. A variety of 4D imaging techniques have been developed and are currently under development based on different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, PET, and CBCT. Each modality provides specific and complementary information about organ and tumor respiratory motion. Effective use of each different technique or combined use of different techniques can introduce a comprehensive management of tumor motion. Specifically, these techniques have afforded tremendous opportunities to better define and delineate tumor volumes, more accurately perform patient positioning, and effectively apply highly conformal therapy techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Successful implementation requires good understanding of not only each technique, including unique features, limitations, artifacts, imaging acquisition and process, but also how to systematically apply the information obtained from different imaging modalities using proper tools such as deformable image registration. Furthermore, it is important to understand the differences in the effects of breathing variation between different imaging modalities. A comprehensive motion management strategy using multi-modality 4D imaging has shown promise in improving patient care, but at the same time faces significant challenges. This session will focuses on the current status and advances in imaging respiration-induced organ motion with different imaging modalities: 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, 4D-PET, and 4D-CBCT/DTS. Learning Objectives: Understand the need and role of multimodality 4D imaging in radiation therapy. Understand the underlying physics behind each 4D imaging technique. Recognize the advantages and limitations of each 4D imaging technique.

  6. Concurrent multimodality image segmentation by active contours for radiotherapy treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    El Naqa, Issam; Yang Deshan; Apte, Aditya; Khullar, Divya; Mutic, Sasa; Zheng Jie; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Grigsby, Perry; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2007-12-15

    Multimodality imaging information is regularly used now in radiotherapy treatment planning for cancer patients. The authors are investigating methods to take advantage of all the imaging information available for joint target registration and segmentation, including multimodality images or multiple image sets from the same modality. In particular, the authors have developed variational methods based on multivalued level set deformable models for simultaneous 2D or 3D segmentation of multimodality images consisting of combinations of coregistered PET, CT, or MR data sets. The combined information is integrated to define the overall biophysical structure volume. The authors demonstrate the methods on three patient data sets, including a nonsmall cell lung cancer case with PET/CT, a cervix cancer case with PET/CT, and a prostate patient case with CT and MRI. CT, PET, and MR phantom data were also used for quantitative validation of the proposed multimodality segmentation approach. The corresponding Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was 0.90{+-}0.02 (p<0.0001) with an estimated target volume error of 1.28{+-}1.23% volume. Preliminary results indicate that concurrent multimodality segmentation methods can provide a feasible and accurate framework for combining imaging data from different modalities and are potentially useful tools for the delineation of biophysical structure volumes in radiotherapy treatment planning.

  7. Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Youngwoon; Yoon, Changhyeong; Kim, Moonseok; Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Wonshik

    2012-11-01

    A single multimode fiber is considered an ideal optical element for endoscopic imaging due to the possibility of direct image transmission via multiple spatial modes. However, the wave distortion induced by the mode dispersion has been a fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we propose a method for eliminating the effect of mode dispersion and therefore realize wide-field endoscopic imaging by using only a single multimode fiber with no scanner attached to the fiber. Our method will potentially revolutionize endoscopy in various fields encompassing medicine and industry.

  8. A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, Tessa; van Leeuwen, Anne C.; Chin, Patrick T. K.; Janssen, Hans; Muller, Sara H.; Jonkers, Jos; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2010-09-01

    Specific removal of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) during breast cancer surgery presents physicians with the opportunity to detect early metastatic disease. To increase the accuracy of intraoperative SLN detection, new methods with higher sensitivity and specificity are required. We have quantitatively compared conventional preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with albumin radiocolloids (99mTc-NanoColl) with optical intraoperative guidance using the near infrared dye indocyanine green (ICG) in an orthotopic mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, we have applied a self-assembled multimodal complex, in which ICG is non-covalently bound to the albumin radiocolloid, to attain identical dynamics of the radioactive and optical components. The SLN specificity of the multimodal complex is similar to conventional lymphoscintigraphy, while the fluorescent signal-to-noise ratio is improved by 86% compared to ICG alone. In addition, the multimodal complex permits scintigraphic validation of the fluorescent findings. The multimodal ICG-99mTc-NanoColl complex can be used both for lymphoscintigraphy by preoperative single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and for surgical navigation by intraoperative fluorescence imaging.

  9. Multimodality imaging assessment for Thoraflex hybrid total arch replacement.

    PubMed

    Wong, Randolph Hl; Ho, Jacky Yk; Underwood, Malcolm J

    2016-06-01

    Conventionally, aortic pathologies involving the ascending, arch, and descending thoracic aorta are treated by a staged operation. The Thoraflex device is a composite 4-branched graft with a distal endovascular stent, which allows one-stage treatment of these pathologies. We describe our multimodality hybrid approach for total arch replacement using the Thoraflex device with the adjunct of intraoperative 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography, Endo-EYE endoscopy, and on-table aortography in a hybrid operating room. These multimodality assessments can ascertain adequate sealing of a distal aortic tear and proper opening of the endograft, and provide on-table functional assessment of false lumen hemodynamics. Early results are promising. PMID:27072867

  10. Multimodal image coregistration and inducible selective cell ablation to evaluate imaging ligands

    PubMed Central

    Virostko, John; Henske, Joseph; Vinet, Laurent; Lamprianou, Smaragda; Dai, Chunhua; Radhika, Aramandla; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Ansari, Mohammad S.; Hefti, Franz; Skovronsky, Daniel; Kung, Hank F.; Herrera, Pedro L.; Peterson, Todd E.; Meda, Paolo; Powers, Alvin C.

    2011-01-01

    We combined multimodal imaging (bioluminescence, X-ray computed tomography, and PET), tomographic reconstruction of bioluminescent sources, and two unique, complementary models to evaluate three previously synthesized PET radiotracers thought to target pancreatic beta cells. The three radiotracers {[18F]fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([18F]FP-DTBZ), [18F](+)-2-oxiranyl-3-isobutyl-9-(3-fluoropropoxy)-10-methoxy-2,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinoline (18F-AV-266), and (2S,3R,11bR)-9-(3-fluoropropoxy)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-isobutyl-10-methoxy-2,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinolin-2-ol (18F-AV-300)} bind vesicular monoamine transporter 2. Tomographic reconstruction of the bioluminescent signal in mice expressing luciferase only in pancreatic beta cells was used to delineate the pancreas and was coregistered with PET and X-ray computed tomography images. This strategy enabled unambiguous identification of the pancreas on PET images, permitting accurate quantification of the pancreatic PET signal. We show here that, after conditional, specific, and rapid mouse beta-cell ablation, beta-cell loss was detected by bioluminescence imaging but not by PET imaging, given that the pancreatic signal provided by three PET radiotracers was not altered. To determine whether these ligands bound human beta cells in vivo, we imaged mice transplanted with luciferase-expressing human islets. The human islets were imaged by bioluminescence but not with the PET ligands, indicating that these vesicular monoamine transporter 2-directed ligands did not specifically bind beta cells. These data demonstrate the utility of coregistered multimodal imaging as a platform for evaluation and validation of candidate ligands for imaging islets. PMID:22143775

  11. Development and application of a multimodal contrast agent for SPECT/CT hybrid imaging.

    PubMed

    Criscione, Jason M; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Zhuang, Zhen W; Papademetris, Xenophon; Simons, Michael; Sinusas, Albert J; Fahmy, Tarek M

    2011-09-21

    Hybrid or multimodality imaging is often applied in order to take advantage of the unique and complementary strengths of individual imaging modalities. This hybrid noninvasive imaging approach can provide critical information about anatomical structure in combination with physiological function or targeted molecular signals. While recent advances in software image fusion techniques and hybrid imaging systems have enabled efficient multimodal imaging, accessing the full potential of this technique requires development of a new toolbox of multimodal contrast agents that enhance the imaging process. Toward that goal, we report the development of a hybrid probe for both single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging that facilitates high-sensitivity SPECT and high spatial resolution CT imaging. In this work, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a novel intravascular, multimodal dendrimer-based contrast agent for use in preclinical SPECT/CT hybrid imaging systems. This multimodal agent offers a long intravascular residence time (t(1/2) = 43 min) and sufficient contrast-to-noise for effective serial intravascular and blood pool imaging with both SPECT and CT. The colocalization of the dendritic nuclear and X-ray contrasts offers the potential to facilitate image analysis and quantification by enabling correction for SPECT attenuation and partial volume errors at specified times with the higher resolution anatomic information provided by the circulating CT contrast. This may allow absolute quantification of intramyocardial blood volume and blood flow and may enable the ability to visualize active molecular targeting following clearance from the blood. PMID:21851119

  12. Multimodality Raman and photoacoustic imaging of surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering-targeted tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Paproski, Robert J.; Shao, Peng; Forbrich, Alexander; Lewis, John D.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-02-01

    A multimodality Raman and photoacoustic imaging system is presented. This system has ultralow background and can detect tumor cells labeled with modified surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering (SERS) nanoparticles in vivo. Photoacoustic imaging provides microvascular context and can potentially be used to guide magnetic trapping of circulating tumor cells for SERS detection in animal models.

  13. Ultrasmall Biocompatible WO3- x Nanodots for Multi-Modality Imaging and Combined Therapy of Cancers.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ling; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Shimin; Zeng, Jianfeng; Duan, Guangxin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Guanglin; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Zhen; Gao, Mingyuan

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasmall biocompatible WO3 - x nanodots with an outstanding X-ray radiation sensitization effect are prepared, and demonstrated to be applicable for multi-modality tumor imaging through computed tomography and photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and effective cancer treatment combining both photothermal therapy and radiation therapy. PMID:27136070

  14. A method of image registration for small animal, multi-modality imaging.

    PubMed

    Chow, Patrick L; Stout, David B; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Chatziioannou, Arion F

    2006-01-21

    Many research institutions have a full suite of preclinical tomographic scanners to answer biomedical questions in vivo. Routine multi-modality imaging requires robust registration of images generated by various tomographs. We have implemented a hardware registration method for preclinical imaging that is similar to that used in the combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners in the clinic. We designed an imaging chamber which can be rigidly and reproducibly mounted on separate microPET and microCT scanners. We have also designed a three-dimensional grid phantom with 1288 lines that is used to generate the spatial transformation matrix from software registration using a 15-parameter perspective model. The imaging chamber works in combination with the registration phantom synergistically to achieve the image registration goal. We verified that the average registration error between two imaging modalities is 0.335 mm using an in vivo mouse bone scan. This paper also estimates the impact of image misalignment on PET quantitation using attenuation corrections generated from misregistered images. Our technique is expected to produce PET quantitation errors of less than 5%. The methods presented are robust and appropriate for routine use in high throughput animal imaging facilities. PMID:16394345

  15. Bayesian analysis of multimodal data and brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, Amir H.; Eghbalnia, Hamid; Backonja, Miroslav; Wakai, Ronald T.; Rutecki, Paul; Haughton, Victor

    2000-06-01

    It is often the case that information about a process can be obtained using a variety of methods. Each method is employed because of specific advantages over the competing alternatives. An example in medical neuro-imaging is the choice between fMRI and MEG modes where fMRI can provide high spatial resolution in comparison to the superior temporal resolution of MEG. The combination of data from varying modes provides the opportunity to infer results that may not be possible by means of any one mode alone. We discuss a Bayesian and learning theoretic framework for enhanced feature extraction that is particularly suited to multi-modal investigations of massive data sets from multiple experiments. In the following Bayesian approach, acquired knowledge (information) regarding various aspects of the process are all directly incorporated into the formulation. This information can come from a variety of sources. In our case, it represents statistical information obtained from other modes of data collection. The information is used to train a learning machine to estimate a probability distribution, which is used in turn by a second machine as a prior, in order to produce a more refined estimation of the distribution of events. The computational demand of the algorithm is handled by proposing a distributed parallel implementation on a cluster of workstations that can be scaled to address real-time needs if required. We provide a simulation of these methods on a set of synthetically generated MEG and EEG data. We show how spatial and temporal resolutions improve by using prior distributions. The method on fMRI signals permits one to construct the probability distribution of the non-linear hemodynamics of the human brain (real data). These computational results are in agreement with biologically based measurements of other labs, as reported to us by researchers from UK. We also provide preliminary analysis involving multi-electrode cortical recording that accompanies

  16. Multimodality imaging of intraosseous ganglia of the wrist and their differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Paparo, F; Fabbro, E; Piccazzo, R; Revelli, M; Ferrero, G; Muda, A; Cimmino, M A; Garlaschi, G

    2012-12-01

    Intraosseous ganglion (IOG) is the most frequently occurring bone lesion within the carpus and is often an incidental finding on radiographs obtained for other reasons. Two types of IOG have been described: an "idiopathic" form (or type I), the pathogenesis of which has not been completely clarified, and a "penetrating" form (or type II), caused by the intrusion of juxtacortical material (often a ganglion cyst of the dorsal soft tissue) into the cancellous bone compartment. The differential diagnosis for IOG is wide-ranging and complex, including lesions of posttraumatic (posttraumatic cystlike defects), degenerative (subchondral degenerative cysts), inflammatory [cystic rheumatoid arthritis, chronic tophaceous gout (CTG)], neoplastic (benign primary bone tumours and synovial proliferative lesions), ischaemic (Kienböck's disease or avascular osteonecrosis of the lunate) and metabolic (amyloidosis) origin. Multimodality imaging of IOGs is a useful diagnostic tool that provides complete morphological characterisation and differentiation from other intraosseous cystic abnormalities of the carpus. Thin-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) can provide high-spatial-resolution images of the cortical and cancellous bone compartments, allowing detection of morphological findings helpful in characterising bone lesions, whereas magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can simultaneously visualise bone, articular surfaces, hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, capsules and ligaments, along with intra- and periarticular soft tissues. PMID:22986695

  17. Multimodal imaging probe for targeting cancer cells using uMUC-1 aptamer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Jonghwan; Lee, Yong Seung; Cho, Sujeong; Ali, Bahy A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Heo, Hyejung; Kim, Soonhag

    2015-12-01

    For adequate cancer therapy, newer imaging modalities with more specific ligands for unique targets are crucial. Underglycosylated mucin-1 (uMUC-1) antigen is an early marker of tumor development and is widely overexpressed on most tumors. A combination of nanotechnology with optical, radionuclide, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has great potential to improve cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, a multimodal nanoparticle imaging system was developed that can be used for optical, MR and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles surrounded by fluorescent rhodamine (designated MF) within a silica shell matrix were conjugated with an aptamer targeting uMUC-1 (designated MF-uMUC-1) and further labeled by (68)Ga (designated MFR-uMUC-1) with the help of a p-SCN-bn-NOTA chelating agent, resulting in single multimodal nanoparticles. The resultant nanoparticles are spherical and monodispersed, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. The MFR-uMUC-1 nanoparticle showed specific and dose-dependent fluorescent, radioisotope and MR signals targeting BT-20 cells expressing uMUC-1. In vivo targeting and multimodal imaging in tumor-bearing nude mice also showed great specificity for targeting cancers with MFR-uMUC-1. The MFR-uMUC-1 probe could be used as a single multimodal probe to visualize cancer cells by means of optical, radionuclide and MR imaging. PMID:26387066

  18. Intraoperative Imaging-Guided Cancer Surgery: From Current Fluorescence Molecular Imaging Methods to Future Multi-Modality Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Chongwei; Du, Yang; Ye, Jinzuo; Kou, Deqiang; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to human health. Diagnosis and treatment using precision medicine is expected to be an effective method for preventing the initiation and progression of cancer. Although anatomical and functional imaging techniques such as radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role for accurate preoperative diagnostics, for the most part these techniques cannot be applied intraoperatively. Optical molecular imaging is a promising technique that provides a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in tumor margin detection. Furthermore, existing clinical applications have proven that optical molecular imaging is a powerful intraoperative tool for guiding surgeons performing precision procedures, thus enabling radical resection and improved survival rates. However, detection depth limitation exists in optical molecular imaging methods and further breakthroughs from optical to multi-modality intraoperative imaging methods are needed to develop more extensive and comprehensive intraoperative applications. Here, we review the current intraoperative optical molecular imaging technologies, focusing on contrast agents and surgical navigation systems, and then discuss the future prospects of multi-modality imaging technology for intraoperative imaging-guided cancer surgery. PMID:25250092

  19. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: Masked multimodal imaging assessment

    PubMed Central

    Brod, Staley A.; Kramer, Larry A.; Cohen, Alan M.; Barreto, Andrew D.; Bui, Thanh-Tung; Jemelka, James R.; Ton, Kelly; Lindsey, John W.; Nelson, Flavia; Narayana, Ponnada A.; Wolinsky, Jerry S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was implicated in the pathophysiology of MS. Objective We evaluated neurosonography (NS), magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and transluminal venography (TLV) in subsets of MS patients drawn from a single center, prospective case-control study of 206 MS and 70 non-MS volunteers. Methods As previously reported, findings on high resolution B-mode NS imaging with color and spectral Doppler of the extracranial and intracranial venous drainage consistent with CCSVI were similar among MS and non-MS volunteers (3.88% vrs. 7.14%; p=0.266). Ninety-nine MS participants consented to intravascular contrast enhanced 3D MRV to assess their major systemic and intracranial venous circulation, and 40 advanced to TLV that included pressure measurements of the superior vena cava, internal jugular, brachiocephalic, and azygous veins. Results NS findings and MRV patterns were discrepant for 26/98 evaluable subjects, including four with abnormal findings on NS that had normal venous anatomy by MRV. In no instance were TLV pressure gradients indicative of clinically significant functional stenosis encountered. The three imaging approaches provided generally consistent data with discrepancies referable to inherent technique properties. Conclusions Our findings lend no support for altered venous outflow dynamics as common among MS patients, or likely contribute to the disease process. PMID:23828872

  20. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a multimodality approach.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Elizabeth F; Khanna, Geetika; White, Andrew J; Demertzis, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by synovial inflammation and is the most common rheumatic complaint in children. To facilitate research and treatment, JIA has been further classified on the basis of the number of joints involved, additional symptoms, family history, and serologic findings. Imaging in patients with JIA has historically relied on radiography, which allows the accurate assessment of chronic changes of JIA, including growth disturbances, periostitis, and joint malalignment. However, radiographic findings of active inflammation are nonspecific, and, in the past, clinical evaluation has taken precedence over imaging of acute disease. Recent advances in disease-modifying therapeutic agents that can help prevent long-term disability in patients with JIA have led to greater emphasis on the detection of early joint-centered inflammation that cannot be accurately assessed radiographically and may not be evident clinically. Both contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and Doppler ultrasonography (US) are well suited for this application and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment monitoring, and problem solving. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is the most sensitive technique for the detection of synovitis and is the only modality that can help detect bone marrow edema, both of which indicate active inflammation. US is more sensitive than radiography for the detection of synovial proliferation and effusions and is particularly useful in the evaluation of small peripheral joints. The complexity of the temporomandibular and sacroiliac joints limits the usefulness of radiographic or US evaluation, and contrast-enhanced MR imaging is the preferred modality for evaluation of these structures. PMID:24025923

  1. Recent advances in magnetic nanoparticle-based multi-modal imaging.

    PubMed

    Shin, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Youngseon; Kim, Soojin; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2015-07-21

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been extensively explored as a versatile platform for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their strong contrast enhancement effects together with the platform capability for multiple imaging modalities. In this tutorial review, we focus on recent progress in the use of magnetic nanoparticles for MRI contrast agents and multi-mode imaging agents such as T1-T2 MRI, MRI-optical, and MRI-radioisotopes. This review also highlights emerging magnetic imaging techniques such as magnetic particle imaging (MPI), magneto-motive ultrasound imaging (MMUS), and magneto-photoacoustic imaging (MPA). PMID:25652670

  2. Multimodal non-contact photoacoustic and OCT imaging with galvanometer scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berer, Thomas; Hochreiner, Armin; Leiss-Holzinger, Elisabeth; Bauer-Marschallinger, Johannes; Buchsbaum, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present multimodal non-contact photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging using a galvanometer scanner. Photoacoustic signals are acquired without contact on the surface of a specimen using an interferometric technique. The interferometer is realized in a fiber-optic network using a fiber laser at 1550 nm as source. In the same fiber-optic network a spectral-domain OCT system is realized, using a broadband light source at 1300 nm. Light from the fiber laser and the OCT source are multiplexed into the same fiber and the same objective is used for both imaging modalities. Fast non-contact photoacoustic and OCT imaging is demonstrated by scanning the detection spot utilizing a galvanometer scanner. Multimodal photoacoustic and OCT imaging is shown on agarose phantoms. As the same fiber network and optical components are used for non-contact photoacoustic and OCT imaging the obtained images are co-registered intrinsically.

  3. RECOVERY ACT: MULTIMODAL IMAGING FOR SOLAR CELL MICROCRACK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Janice Hudgings; Lawrence Domash

    2012-02-08

    Undetected microcracks in solar cells are a principal cause of failure in service due to subsequent weather exposure, mechanical flexing or diurnal temperature cycles. Existing methods have not been able to detect cracks early enough in the production cycle to prevent inadvertent shipment to customers. This program, sponsored under the DOE Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies program, studied the feasibility of quantifying surface micro-discontinuities by use of a novel technique, thermoreflectance imaging, to detect surface temperature gradients with very high spatial resolution, in combination with a suite of conventional imaging methods such as electroluminescence. The project carried out laboratory tests together with computational image analyses using sample solar cells with known defects supplied by industry sources or DOE National Labs. Quantitative comparisons between the effectiveness of the new technique and conventional methods were determined in terms of the smallest detectable crack. Also the robustness of the new technique for reliable microcrack detection was determined at various stages of processing such as before and after antireflectance treatments. An overall assessment is that the new technique compares favorably with existing methods such as lock-in thermography or ultrasonics. The project was 100% completed in Sept, 2010. A detailed report of key findings from this program was published as: Q.Zhou, X.Hu, K.Al-Hemyari, K.McCarthy, L.Domash and J.Hudgings, High spatial resolution characterization of silicon solar cells using thermoreflectance imaging, J. Appl. Phys, 110, 053108 (2011).

  4. Combining magnetic resonance imaging and ultrawideband radar: a new concept for multimodal biomedical imaging.

    PubMed

    Thiel, F; Hein, M; Schwarz, U; Sachs, J; Seifert, F

    2009-01-01

    Due to the recent advances in ultrawideband (UWB) radar technologies, there has been widespread interest in the medical applications of this technology. We propose the multimodal combination of magnetic resonance (MR) and UWB radar for improved functional diagnosis and imaging. A demonstrator was established to prove the feasibility of the simultaneous acquisition of physiological events by magnetic resonance imaging and UWB radar. Furthermore, first in vivo experiments have been carried out, utilizing this new approach. Correlating the reconstructed UWB signals with physiological signatures acquired by simultaneous MR measurements, representing respiratory and myocardial displacements, gave encouraging results which can be improved by optimization of the MR data acquisition technique or the use of UWB antenna arrays to localize the motion in a focused area. PMID:19191450

  5. Combining magnetic resonance imaging and ultrawideband radar: A new concept for multimodal biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, F.; Hein, M.; Schwarz, U.; Sachs, J.; Seifert, F.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the recent advances in ultrawideband (UWB) radar technologies, there has been widespread interest in the medical applications of this technology. We propose the multimodal combination of magnetic resonance (MR) and UWB radar for improved functional diagnosis and imaging. A demonstrator was established to prove the feasibility of the simultaneous acquisition of physiological events by magnetic resonance imaging and UWB radar. Furthermore, first in vivo experiments have been carried out, utilizing this new approach. Correlating the reconstructed UWB signals with physiological signatures acquired by simultaneous MR measurements, representing respiratory and myocardial displacements, gave encouraging results which can be improved by optimization of the MR data acquisition technique or the use of UWB antenna arrays to localize the motion in a focused area.

  6. Parallel Information Processing (Image Transmission Via Fiber Bundle and Multimode Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtarev, Nicholai

    2003-01-01

    Growing demand for visual, user-friendly representation of information inspires search for the new methods of image transmission. Currently used in-series (sequential) methods of information processing are inherently slow and are designed mainly for transmission of one or two dimensional arrays of data. Conventional transmission of data by fibers requires many fibers with array of laser diodes and photodetectors. In practice, fiber bundles are also used for transmission of images. Image is formed on the fiber-optic bundle entrance surface and each fiber transmits the incident image to the exit surface. Since the fibers do not preserve phase, only 2D intensity distribution can be transmitted in this way. Each single mode fiber transmit only one pixel of an image. Multimode fibers may be also used, so that each mode represent different pixel element. Direct transmission of image through multimode fiber is hindered by the mode scrambling and phase randomization. To overcome these obstacles wavelength and time-division multiplexing have been used, with each pixel transmitted on a separate wavelength or time interval. Phase-conjugate techniques also was tested in, but only in the unpractical scheme when reconstructed image return back to the fiber input end. Another method of three-dimensional imaging over single mode fibers was demonstrated in, using laser light of reduced spatial coherence. Coherence encoding, needed for a transmission of images by this methods, was realized with grating interferometer or with the help of an acousto-optic deflector. We suggest simple practical holographic method of image transmission over single multimode fiber or over fiber bundle with coherent light using filtering by holographic optical elements. Originally this method was successfully tested for the single multimode fiber. In this research we have modified holographic method for transmission of laser illuminated images over commercially available fiber bundle (fiber endoscope, or

  7. Strained cyclooctyne as a molecular platform for construction of multimodal imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yao; Ma, Xiaowei; Cheng, Kai; Wu, Biying; Duan, Jianli; Chen, Hao; Bu, Lihong; Zhang, Ruiping; Hu, Xianming; Deng, Zixin; Xing, Lei; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen

    2015-05-11

    Small-molecule-based multimodal and multifunctional imaging probes play prominent roles in biomedical research and have high clinical translation ability. A novel multimodal imaging platform using base-catalyzed double addition of thiols to a strained internal alkyne such as bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne has been established in this study, thus allowing highly selective assembly of various functional units in a protecting-group-free manner. Using this molecular platform, novel dual-modality (PET and NIRF) uPAR-targeted imaging probe: (64)Cu-CHS1 was prepared and evaluated in U87MG cells and tumor-bearing mice models. The excellent PET/NIRF imaging characteristics such as good tumor uptake (3.69%ID/g at 2 h post-injection), high tumor contrast, and specificity were achieved in the small-animal models. These attractive imaging properties make (64)Cu-CHS1 a promising probe for clinical use. PMID:25800807

  8. The Role of Multimodality Imaging in a Case of Traumatic Cardiac Pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mcunu, Brittany N C; Trilesskaya, Marina; Frohlich, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    After a 40-foot fall from a balcony, a healthy 21-year-old sustained multiple injuries, including left ventricular pseudoaneurysm. This case demonstrates the critical necessity of the combination of a high index of suspicion and multimodality imaging for diagnosis and prompt intervention. PMID:27466278

  9. Plane Wave Imaging for ultrasonic non-destructive testing: Generalization to multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Léonard; Robert, Sébastien; Lopez Villaverde, Eduardo; Prada, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new ultrasonic array imaging method for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) which is derived from the medical Plane Wave Imaging (PWI) technique. The objective is to perform fast ultrasound imaging with high image quality. The approach is to transmit plane waves at several angles and to record the back-scattered signals with all the array elements. Focusing in receive is then achieved by coherent summations of the signals in every point of a region of interest. The medical PWI is generalized to immersion setups where water acts as a coupling medium and to multimodal (direct, half-skip modes) imaging in order to detect different types of defects (inclusions, porosities, cracks). This method is compared to the Total Focusing Method (TFM) which is the reference imaging technique in NDT. First, the two post-processing algorithms are described. Then experimental results with the array probe either in contact or in immersion are presented. A good agreement between the TFM and the PWI is observed, with three to ten times less transmissions required for the PWI. PMID:26323547

  10. Multi-modal image registration based on gradient orientations of minimal uncertainty.

    PubMed

    De Nigris, Dante; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new multi-scale technique for multi-modal image registration based on the alignment of selected gradient orientations of reduced uncertainty. We show how the registration robustness and accuracy can be improved by restricting the evaluation of gradient orientation alignment to locations where the uncertainty of fixed image gradient orientations is minimal, which we formally demonstrate correspond to locations of high gradient magnitude. We also embed a computationally efficient technique for estimating the gradient orientations of the transformed moving image (rather than resampling pixel intensities and recomputing image gradients). We have applied our method to different rigid multi-modal registration contexts. Our approach outperforms mutual information and other competing metrics in the context of rigid multi-modal brain registration, where we show sub-millimeter accuracy with cases obtained from the retrospective image registration evaluation project. Furthermore, our approach shows significant improvements over standard methods in the highly challenging clinical context of image guided neurosurgery, where we demonstrate misregistration of less than 2 mm with relation to expert selected landmarks for the registration of pre-operative brain magnetic resonance images to intra-operative ultrasound images. PMID:22987509

  11. A multimodal (MRI/ultrasound) cardiac phantom for imaging experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Kendrick, Michael; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alshaher, Motaz; Stoddard, Marcus F.; Amini, Amir

    2013-03-01

    A dynamic cardiac phantom can play a significant role in the evaluation and development of ultrasound and cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) motion tracking and registration methods. A four chamber multimodal cardiac phantom has been designed and built to simulate normal and pathologic hearts with different degrees of "infarction" and "scar tissues". In this set up, cardiac valves have been designed and modeled as well. The four-chamber structure can simulate the asymmetric ventricular, atrial and valve motions. Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) is used as the principal material since it can simulate the shape, elasticity, and MR and ultrasound properties of the heart. The cardiac shape is simulated using a four-chamber mold made of polymer clay. An additional pathologic heart phantom containing stiff inclusions has been manufactured in order to simulate an infracted heart. The stiff inclusions are of different shapes and different degrees of elasticity and are able to simulate abnormal cardiac segments. The cardiac elasticity is adjusted based on freeze-thaw cycles of the PVA cryogel for normal and scarred regions. Ultrasound and MRI markers were inserted in the cardiac phantom as landmarks for validations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multimodal phantom that models a dynamic four-chamber human heart including the cardiac valve.

  12. Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mutian; Huang, Minming; Le, Carl; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Claus, Filip; Kolbert, Katherine S.; Martin, Kyle; Ling, C. Clifton; Koutcher, Jason A.; Humm, John L.

    2008-10-01

    Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, 'gold standard' multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2-0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ~0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ~0.8 mm could be obtained.

  13. Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging: the next generation of multimodality imaging?

    PubMed

    Pichler, Bernd J; Wehrl, Hans F; Kolb, Armin; Judenhofer, Martin S

    2008-05-01

    Multimodal imaging is now well-established in routine clinical practice. Especially in the field of nuclear medicine, new positron emission tomography (PET) installations comprise almost exclusively combined PET/computed tomography (CT) scanners rather than PET-only systems. However, PET/CT has certain notable shortcomings, including the inability to perform simultaneous data acquisition and the significant radiation dose to the patient contributed by CT. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers, compared with CT, better contrast among soft tissues as well as functional-imaging capabilities. Therefore, the combination of PET with MRI provides many advantages that go far beyond simply combining functional PET information with structural MRI information. Many technical challenges, including possible interference between these modalities, have to be solved when combining PET and MRI, and various approaches have been adapted to resolving these issues. Here, we present an overview of current working prototypes of combined PET/MRI scanners from different groups. In addition, besides PET/MRI images of mice, the first such images of a rat acquired with the first commercial clinical PET/MRI scanner, are presented. The combination of PET and MRI is a promising tool in preclinical research and will certainly progress to clinical application. PMID:18396179

  14. Log-Gabor energy based multimodal medical image fusion in NSCT domain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Tong, Song; Huang, Shuying; Lin, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal medical image fusion is a powerful tool in clinical applications such as noninvasive diagnosis, image-guided radiotherapy, and treatment planning. In this paper, a novel nonsubsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT) based method for multimodal medical image fusion is presented, which is approximately shift invariant and can effectively suppress the pseudo-Gibbs phenomena. The source medical images are initially transformed by NSCT followed by fusing low- and high-frequency components. The phase congruency that can provide a contrast and brightness-invariant representation is applied to fuse low-frequency coefficients, whereas the Log-Gabor energy that can efficiently determine the frequency coefficients from the clear and detail parts is employed to fuse the high-frequency coefficients. The proposed fusion method has been compared with the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT), and the dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) based image fusion methods and other NSCT-based methods. Visually and quantitatively experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion method can obtain more effective and accurate fusion results of multimodal medical images than other algorithms. Further, the applicability of the proposed method has been testified by carrying out a clinical example on a woman affected with recurrent tumor images. PMID:25214889

  15. Log-Gabor Energy Based Multimodal Medical Image Fusion in NSCT Domain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Tong, Song; Huang, Shuying; Lin, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal medical image fusion is a powerful tool in clinical applications such as noninvasive diagnosis, image-guided radiotherapy, and treatment planning. In this paper, a novel nonsubsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT) based method for multimodal medical image fusion is presented, which is approximately shift invariant and can effectively suppress the pseudo-Gibbs phenomena. The source medical images are initially transformed by NSCT followed by fusing low- and high-frequency components. The phase congruency that can provide a contrast and brightness-invariant representation is applied to fuse low-frequency coefficients, whereas the Log-Gabor energy that can efficiently determine the frequency coefficients from the clear and detail parts is employed to fuse the high-frequency coefficients. The proposed fusion method has been compared with the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT), and the dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) based image fusion methods and other NSCT-based methods. Visually and quantitatively experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion method can obtain more effective and accurate fusion results of multimodal medical images than other algorithms. Further, the applicability of the proposed method has been testified by carrying out a clinical example on a woman affected with recurrent tumor images. PMID:25214889

  16. Multi-modal label-free imaging based on a femtosecond fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ruxin; Su, Jue; Rentchler, Eric C.; Zhang, Ziyan; Johnson, Carey K.; Shi, Honglian; Hui, Rongqing

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate multi-mode microscopy based on a single femtosecond fiber laser. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and photothermal images can be obtained simultaneously with this simplified setup. Distributions of lipid and hemoglobin in sliced mouse brain samples and blood cells are imaged. The dependency of signal amplitude on the pump power and pump modulation frequency is characterized, which allows to isolate the impact from different contributions. PMID:25071972

  17. Multi-modal label-free imaging based on a femtosecond fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruxin; Su, Jue; Rentchler, Eric C; Zhang, Ziyan; Johnson, Carey K; Shi, Honglian; Hui, Rongqing

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate multi-mode microscopy based on a single femtosecond fiber laser. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and photothermal images can be obtained simultaneously with this simplified setup. Distributions of lipid and hemoglobin in sliced mouse brain samples and blood cells are imaged. The dependency of signal amplitude on the pump power and pump modulation frequency is characterized, which allows to isolate the impact from different contributions. PMID:25071972

  18. Targeted Multifunctional Multimodal Protein-Shell Microspheres as Cancer Imaging Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    John, Renu; Nguyen, Freddy T.; Kolbeck, Kenneth J.; Chaney, Eric J.; Marjanovic, Marina; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In this study, protein-shell microspheres filled with a suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles in oil are demonstrated as multimodal contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (MM-OCT), and ultrasound imaging. The development, characterization, and use of multifunctional multimodal microspheres are described for targeted contrast and therapeutic applications. Procedures A preclinical rat model was used to demonstrate the feasibility of the multimodal multifunctional microspheres as contrast agents in ultrasound, MM-OCT and MRI. Microspheres were functionalized with the RGD peptide ligand, which is targeted to αvβ3 integrin receptors that are over-expressed in tumors and atherosclerotic lesions. Results These microspheres, which contain iron oxide nanoparticles in their cores, can be modulated externally using a magnetic field to create dynamic contrast in MM-OCT. With the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles, these agents also show significant negative T2 contrast in MRI. Using ultrasound B-mode imaging at a frequency of 30 MHz, a marked enhancement of scatter intensity from in vivo rat mammary tumor tissue was observed for these targeted protein microspheres. Conclusions Preliminary results demonstrate multimodal contrast-enhanced imaging of these functionalized microsphere agents with MRI, MM-OCT, ultrasound imaging, and fluorescence microscopy, including in vivo tracking of the dynamics of these microspheres in real-time using a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system. These targeted oil-filled protein microspheres with the capacity for high drug-delivery loads offer the potential for local delivery of lipophilic drugs under image guidance. PMID:21298354

  19. Imaging findings of mimickers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunchae; Jang, Hyun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC in high-risk patients by typical imaging findings alone is widely adopted in major practice guidelines for HCC. While imaging techniques have markedly improved in detecting small liver lesions, they often detect incidental benign liver lesions and non-hepatocellular malignancy that can be misdiagnosed as HCC. The most common mimicker of HCC in cirrhotic liver is nontumorous arterioportal shunts that are seen as focal hypervascular liver lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging. Rapidly enhancing hemangiomas can be easily misdiagnosed as HCC especially on MR imaging with liver-specific contrast agent. Focal inflammatory liver lesions mimic HCC by demonstrating arterial-phase hypervascularity and subsequent washout on dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. It is important to recognize the suggestive imaging findings for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC) as the management of CC is largely different from that of HCC. There are other benign mimickers of HCC such as angiomyolipomas and focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules. Recognition of their typical imaging findings can reduce false-positive HCC diagnosis. PMID:26770920

  20. Imaging arterial cells, atherosclerosis, and restenosis by multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han-Wei; Simianu, Vlad; Locker, Matthew J.; Sturek, Michael; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-02-01

    By integrating sum-frequency generation (SFG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) on a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope platform, multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging of arteries and atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated. CARS signals arising from CH II-rich membranes allowed visualization of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in a carotid artery. Additionally, CARS microscopy allowed vibrational imaging of elastin and collagen fibrils which are rich in CH II bonds in their cross-linking residues. The extracellular matrix organization was further confirmed by TPEF signals arising from elastin's autofluorescence and SFG signals arising from collagen fibrils' non-centrosymmetric structure. The system is capable of identifying different atherosclerotic lesion stages with sub-cellular resolution. The stages of atherosclerosis, such as macrophage infiltration, lipid-laden foam cell accumulation, extracellular lipid distribution, fibrous tissue deposition, plaque establishment, and formation of other complicated lesions could be viewed by our multimodal CARS microscope. Collagen percentages in the region adjacent to coronary artery stents were resolved. High correlation between NLO and histology imaging evidenced the validity of the NLO imaging. The capability of imaging significant components of an arterial wall and distinctive stages of atherosclerosis in a label-free manner suggests the potential application of multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy to monitor the onset and progression of arterial diseases.

  1. Multimodal optical imaging system for in vivo investigation of cerebral oxygen delivery and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Gorczynska, Iwona; Fujimoto, James G.; Boas, David A.; Sakadžić, Sava

    2015-01-01

    Improving our understanding of brain function requires novel tools to observe multiple physiological parameters with high resolution in vivo. We have developed a multimodal imaging system for investigating multiple facets of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in small animals. The system was custom designed and features multiple optical imaging capabilities, including 2-photon and confocal lifetime microscopy, optical coherence tomography, laser speckle imaging, and optical intrinsic signal imaging. Here, we provide details of the system’s design and present in vivo observations of multiple metrics of cerebral oxygen delivery and energy metabolism, including oxygen partial pressure, microvascular blood flow, and NADH autofluorescence. PMID:26713212

  2. Multimodal optical imaging system for in vivo investigation of cerebral oxygen delivery and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Gorczynska, Iwona; Fujimoto, James G; Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava

    2015-12-01

    Improving our understanding of brain function requires novel tools to observe multiple physiological parameters with high resolution in vivo. We have developed a multimodal imaging system for investigating multiple facets of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in small animals. The system was custom designed and features multiple optical imaging capabilities, including 2-photon and confocal lifetime microscopy, optical coherence tomography, laser speckle imaging, and optical intrinsic signal imaging. Here, we provide details of the system's design and present in vivo observations of multiple metrics of cerebral oxygen delivery and energy metabolism, including oxygen partial pressure, microvascular blood flow, and NADH autofluorescence. PMID:26713212

  3. Multimodality Imaging for Guiding EP Ablation Procedures.

    PubMed

    Njeim, Mario; Desjardins, Benoit; Bogun, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in 3-dimensional electroanatomical mapping have been met by continuous improvements in the field of cardiac imaging and image integration during ablation procedures. Echocardiography, computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and nuclear imaging provide information about cardiac anatomy and ultrastructure of the heart that may be crucial for a successful ablation procedure. Techniques and value of pre-procedural, intraprocedural, and post-procedural imaging and image integration are discussed in this review article. Pre-procedural imaging provides key anatomic information that can be complemented by intraprocedural imaging to minimize procedural complications. Furthermore, the presence and extent of structural heart disease can be assessed pre-procedurally and can be displayed intraprocedurally to limit and focus the mapping and ablation procedure to the area of interest. Pre-procedural imaging combined with imaging obtained during the ablation procedure further enhances procedural safety, reduces exposure to ionizing radiation from fluoroscopy, reduces procedure time, and may improve outcomes. PMID:27388666

  4. Single-Step Assembly of Multimodal Imaging Nanocarriers: MRI and Long-Wavelength Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Nathalie M; Gindy, Marian E; Calero-DdelC, Victoria L; Wolfson, Theodore; Pagels, Robert F; Adler, Derek; Gao, Dayuan; Li, Shike; Wang, Ruobing; Zevon, Margot; Yao, Nan; Pacheco, Carlos; Therien, Michael J; Rinaldi, Carlos; Sinko, Patrick J; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2015-06-24

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- and near-infrared (NIR)-active, multimodal composite nanocarriers (CNCs) are prepared using a simple one-step process, flash nanoprecipitation (FNP). The FNP process allows for the independent control of the hydrodynamic diameter, co-core excipient and NIR dye loading, and iron oxide-based nanocrystal (IONC) content of the CNCs. In the controlled precipitation process, 10 nm IONCs are encapsulated into poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) stabilized CNCs to make biocompatible T2 contrast agents. By adjusting the formulation, CNC size is tuned between 80 and 360 nm. Holding the CNC size constant at an intensity weighted average diameter of 99 ± 3 nm (PDI width 28 nm), the particle relaxivity varies linearly with encapsulated IONC content ranging from 66 to 533 × 10(-3) m(-1) s(-1) for CNCs formulated with 4-16 wt% IONC. To demonstrate the use of CNCs as in vivo MRI contrast agents, CNCs are surface functionalized with liver-targeting hydroxyl groups. The CNCs enable the detection of 0.8 mm(3) non-small cell lung cancer metastases in mice livers via MRI. Incorporating the hydrophobic, NIR dye tris-(porphyrinato)zinc(II) into CNCs enables complementary visualization with long-wavelength fluorescence at 800 nm. In vivo imaging demonstrates the ability of CNCs to act both as MRI and fluorescent imaging agents. PMID:25925128

  5. Ultrasound-Triggered Phase Transition Sensitive Magnetic Fluorescent Nanodroplets as a Multimodal Imaging Contrast Agent in Rat and Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunchao; Luo, Binhua; Liu, Xuhan; Liu, Wei; Xu, Haibo; Yang, Xiangliang

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound-triggered phase transition sensitive nanodroplets with multimodal imaging functionality were prepared via premix Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane emulsification method. The nanodroplets with fluorescence dye DiR and SPIO nanoparticles (DiR-SPIO-NDs) had a polymer shell and a liquid perfluoropentane (PFP) core. The as-formed DiR-SPIO-NDs have a uniform size of 385±5.0 nm with PDI of 0.169±0.011. The TEM and microscopy imaging showed that the DiR-SPIO-NDs existed as core-shell spheres, and DiR and SPIO nanoparticles dispersed in the shell or core. The MTT and hemolysis studies demonstrated that the nanodroplets were biocompatible and safe. Moreover, the proposed nanodroplets exhibited significant ultrasound-triggered phase transition property under clinical diagnostic ultrasound irradiation due to the vaporization of PFP inside. Meanwhile, the high stability and R2 relaxivity of the DiR-SPIO-NDs suggested its applicability in MRI. The in vivo T2-weighted images of MRI and fluorescence images both showed that the image contrast in liver and spleen of rats and mice model were enhanced after the intravenous injection of DiR-SPIO-NDs. Furthermore, the ultrasound imaging (US) in mice tumor as well as MRI and fluorescence imaging in liver of rats and mice showed that the DiR-SPIO-NDs had long-lasting contrast ability in vivo. These in vitro and in vivo findings suggested that DiR-SPIO-NDs could potentially be a great MRI/US/fluorescence multimodal imaging contrast agent in the diagnosis of liver tissue diseases. PMID:24391983

  6. Eliminating the scattering ambiguity in multifocal, multimodal multiphoton imaging systems

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Erich E.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Winters, David G.; Young, Michael D.; Chandler, Eric V.; Speirs, John C.; Kim, Susy M.; Ding, Shi-you; Bartels, Randy A.; Wang, Jing W.; Squier, Jeff A.

    2013-01-01

    Four images of Drosophila Melanogaster antennal lobe structure labeled with red fluorescent protein. The images are separated axially by 7 μm in depth, and were all acquired simultaneously from a single-element detector. PMID:22461190

  7. Multimodality 3-Dimensional Image Integration for Congenital Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization procedures for patients with congenital and structural heart disease are becoming more complex. New imaging strategies involving integration of 3-dimensional images from rotational angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are employed to facilitate these procedures. We discuss the current use of these new 3D imaging technologies and their advantages and challenges when used to guide complex diagnostic and interventional catheterization procedures in patients with congenital heart disease. PMID:25114757

  8. Multimodal noninvasive and invasive imaging of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of CCSVI: Results of the PREMiSe pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is no established noninvasive or invasive diagnostic imaging modality at present that can serve as a ‘gold standard’ or “benchmark” for the detection of the venous anomalies, indicative of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of 2 invasive vs. 2 noninvasive imaging techniques for the detection of extracranial venous anomalies in the internal jugular veins (IJVs) and azygos vein/vertebral veins (VVs) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods The data for this multimodal imaging comparison pilot study was collected in phase 2 of the “Prospective Randomized Endovascular therapy in Multiple Sclerosis” (PREMiSe) study using standardized imaging techniques. Thirty MS subjects were screened initially with Doppler sonography (DS), out of which 10 did not fulfill noninvasive screening procedure requirements on DS that consisted of ≥2 venous hemodynamic extracranial criteria. Accordingly, 20 MS patients with relapsing MS were enrolled into the multimodal diagnostic imaging study. For magnetic resonance venography (MRV), IJVs abnormal findings were considered absent or pinpoint flow, whereas abnormal VVs flow was classified as absent. Abnormalities of the VVs were determined only using non-invasive testing. Catheter venography (CV) was considered abnormal when ≥50% lumen restriction was detected, while intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was considered abnormal when ≥50% restriction of the lumen or intra-luminal defects or reduced pulsatility was found. Non-invasive and invasive imaging modality comparisons between left, right and total IJVs and between the VVs and azygos vein were performed. Because there is no reliable way of non-invasively assessing the azygos vein, the VVs abnormalities detected by the non-invasive testing were compared to the azygos abnormalities detected by the invasive testing. All image modalities were analyzed in a blinded manner by more than one

  9. Multimodal-Imaging-Guided Cancer Phototherapy by Versatile Biomimetic Theranostics with UV and γ-Irradiation Protection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Wang, Min; Hu, Hao; Yang, Xiangyu; Wen, Bronte; Wang, Zhantong; Jacobson, Orit; Song, Jibin; Zhang, Guofeng; Niu, Gang; Huang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    A versatile biomimetic theranostic agent based on magnetic melanin nanoparticles is developed for positron-emission tomography/magnetic resonance/photoacoustic/photothermal multimodal-imaging-guided cancer photothermal therapy and UV and γ-irradiation protection. PMID:26928972

  10. Biological Parametric Mapping: A Statistical Toolbox for Multi-Modality Brain Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Ramon; Ryali, Srikanth; Baer, Aaron; Laurienti, Paul J.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Hayasaka, Satoru; Flowers, Lynn; Wood, Frank; Maldjian, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years multiple brain MR imaging modalities have emerged; however, analysis methodologies have mainly remained modality specific. In addition, when comparing across imaging modalities, most researchers have been forced to rely on simple region-of-interest type analyses, which do not allow the voxel-by-voxel comparisons necessary to answer more sophisticated neuroscience questions. To overcome these limitations, we developed a toolbox for multimodal image analysis called biological parametric mapping (BPM), based on a voxel-wise use of the general linear model. The BPM toolbox incorporates information obtained from other modalities as regressors in a voxel-wise analysis, thereby permitting investigation of more sophisticated hypotheses. The BPM toolbox has been developed in MATLAB with a user friendly interface for performing analyses, including voxel-wise multimodal correlation, ANCOVA, and multiple regression. It has a high degree of integration with the SPM (statistical parametric mapping) software relying on it for visualization and statistical inference. Furthermore, statistical inference for a correlation field, rather than a widely-used T-field, has been implemented in the correlation analysis for more accurate results. An example with in-vivo data is presented demonstrating the potential of the BPM methodology as a tool for multimodal image analysis. PMID:17070709

  11. Primary intracranial choriocarcinoma: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Lv, X-F; Qiu, Y-W; Zhang, X-L; Han, L-J; Qiu, S-J; Xiong, W; Wen, G; Zhang, Y-Z; Zhang, J

    2010-11-01

    PICCC is the rarest, most malignant primary intracranial GCT. The purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the MR imaging findings in a series of 7 patients (6 males and 1 female; mean age, 11.9 years) with pathologically proved PICCC in our institution from 2004 to 2009. All tumors were located within the pineal (n = 6) or suprasellar (n = 1) regions. On T2-weighted MR imaging, the lesions appeared markedly heterogeneous with areas of both hypointensity and hyperintensity reflecting the histologic heterogeneity, including hemorrhage, fibrosis, cysts, or necrosis. Heterogeneous (n = 7), ringlike (n = 4), and/or intratumoral nodular (n = 3) enhancement was noted on T1-weighted images with gadolinium. These MR imaging findings, combined with patient age and serum β-HCG levels, may prove helpful in distinguishing PICCC from the more common primary brain tumors, thereby avoiding biopsy of this highly vascular tumor. PMID:20616180

  12. Nanoparticles for multimodal in vivo imaging in nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Key, Jaehong; Leary, James F

    2014-01-01

    While nanoparticles are usually designed for targeted drug delivery, they can also simultaneously provide diagnostic information by a variety of in vivo imaging methods. These diagnostic capabilities make use of specific properties of nanoparticle core materials. Near-infrared fluorescent probes provide optical detection of cells targeted by real-time nanoparticle-distribution studies within the organ compartments of live, anesthetized animals. By combining different imaging modalities, we can start with deep-body imaging by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, and by using optical imaging, get down to the resolution required for real-time fluorescence-guided surgery. PMID:24511229

  13. Experimental quantum imaging exploiting multimode spatial correlation of twin beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brida, Giorgio; Genovese, Marco; Meda, Alice; Berchera, Ivano Ruo

    2011-03-15

    Properties of quantum states have disclosed new and revolutionary technologies, ranging from quantum information to quantum imaging. This last field is intended to overcome the limits of classical imaging by exploiting specific properties of quantum states of light. One of the most interesting proposed schemes exploits spatial quantum correlations between twin beams for realizing sub-shot-noise imaging of weakly absorbing objects, leading ideally to a noise-free imaging. Here we discuss in detail the experimental realization of this scheme, showing its capability to reach a larger signal-to-noise ratio with respect to classical imaging methods and therefore its potential for future practical applications.

  14. A Partial Intensity Invariant Feature Descriptor for Multimodal Retinal Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Tian, Jie; Lee, Noah; Zheng, Jian; Smith, R. Theodore; Laine, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of vascular bifurcations is a challenging task in multimodal retinal image registration. Existing algorithms based on bifurcations usually fail in correctly aligning poor quality retinal image pairs. To solve this problem, we propose a novel highly distinctive local feature descriptor named partial intensity invariant feature descriptor (PIIFD) and describe a robust automatic retinal image registration framework named Harris-PIIFD. PIIFD is invariant to image rotation, partially invariant to image intensity, affine transformation, and viewpoint/perspective change. Our Harris-PIIFD framework consists of four steps. First, corner points are used as control point candidates instead of bifurcations since corner points are sufficient and uniformly distributed across the image domain. Second, PIIFDs are extracted for all corner points, and a bilateral matching technique is applied to identify corresponding PIIFDs matches between image pairs. Third, incorrect matches are removed and inaccurate matches are refined. Finally, an adaptive transformation is used to register the image pairs. PIIFD is so distinctive that it can be correctly identified even in nonvascular areas. When tested on 168 pairs of multimodal retinal images, the Harris-PIIFD far outperforms existing algorithms in terms of robustness, accuracy, and computational efficiency. PMID:20176538

  15. Role of the sensorimotor cortex in Tourette syndrome using multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Tinaz, Sule; Belluscio, Beth A; Malone, Patrick; van der Veen, Jan Willem; Hallett, Mark; Horovitz, Silvina G

    2014-12-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Most patients describe uncomfortable premonitory sensations preceding the tics and a subjective experience of increased sensitivity to tactile stimuli. These reports indicate that a sensory processing disturbance is an important component of TS together with motor phenomena. Thus, we focused our investigation on the role of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) in TS using multimodal neuroimaging techniques. We measured the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)+/Creatine (Cre) ratio in the SMC using GABA (1) H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We recorded the baseline beta activity in the SMC using magnetoencephalography and correlated GABA+/Cre ratio with baseline beta band power. Finally, we examined the resting state functional connectivity (FC) pattern of the SMC using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). GABA+/Cre ratio in the SMC did not differ between patients and controls. Correlation between the baseline beta band power and GABA+/Cre ratio was abnormal in patients. The anterior insula showed increased FC with the SMC in patients. These findings suggest that altered limbic input to the SMC and abnormal GABA-mediated beta oscillations in the SMC may underpin some of the sensorimotor processing disturbances in TS and contribute to tic generation. PMID:25044024

  16. Role of the Sensorimotor Cortex in Tourette Syndrome using Multimodal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tinaz, Sule; Belluscio, Beth A.; Malone, Patrick; van der Veen, Jan Willem; Hallett, Mark; Horovitz, Silvina G.

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Most patients describe uncomfortable premonitory sensations preceding the tics and a subjective experience of increased sensitivity to tactile stimuli. These reports indicate that a sensory processing disturbance is an important component of TS together with motor phenomena. Thus, we focused our investigation on the role of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) in TS using multimodal neuroimaging techniques. We measured the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)+/Creatine (Cre) ratio in the SMC using GABA 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We recorded the baseline beta activity in the SMC using magnetoencephalography and correlated GABA+/Cre ratio with baseline beta band power. Finally, we examined the resting state functional connectivity (FC) pattern of the SMC using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). GABA+/Cre ratio in the SMC did not differ between patients and controls. Correlation between the baseline beta band power and GABA+/Cre ratio was abnormal in patients. The anterior insula showed increased FC with the SMC in patients. These findings suggest that altered limbic input to the SMC and abnormal GABA-mediated beta oscillations in the SMC may underpin some of the sensorimotor processing disturbances in TS and contribute to tic generation. PMID:25044024

  17. Multi-modality imaging using a handheld gamma camera and MRI for tumor localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dika, Cheryl; Georgian-Smith, Dianne

    2015-03-01

    While the methods for diagnostic and screening imaging for breast cancer are numerous, each method has its limitations. Multimodality imaging has increasingly been shown to improve the effectiveness of these imaging. Imaging of dense breast tissue has its own set of challenges. Combining MR and gamma for imaging of breast lesions may increase the sensitivity and specificity in theory especially with dense breasts. This experiment was designed as a proof-of-concept for combining MR and gamma images in a pre-clinical setting using an ex vivo bovine tissue model. Keeping the tissue in the same orientation for both imaging modalities was deemed important to increase accuracy. Using the information of the combined images could assist with localization for biopsy.

  18. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Meglinski, I V

    2011-04-30

    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  19. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Kalchenko, V. V.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2011-04-01

    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo.

  20. Multimodal imaging of exudative maculopathy associated with hand-foot-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Macedo, Mafalda; De Salvo, Gabriella; Pal, Bishwanath

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with acute unilateral visual loss secondary to hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Ophthalmic examination demonstrated best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 6/24 and a macular neurosensory detachment. He was diagnosed with unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM), and multimodality imaging was performed. No treatment was warranted. At 3 months, BCVA was 6/5 and funduscopy revealed a juxtafoveal scar. Based on the evidence of the association between HFMD and UAIM, the authors refer to this condition as exudative maculopathy associated with HFMD. Multimodality imaging during acute and convalescent phases is useful to study this disorder and raises questions about choroidal and bilateral involvement. Ophthalmologists should be aware of this and query about systemic signs and symptoms. PMID:24695047

  1. Multi-modal Ultrasound Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Valdés, L.; Pérez-Liva, M.; Camacho, J.; Udías, J. M.; Herraiz, J. L.; González-Salido, N.

    This work describes preliminary results of a two-modality imaging system aimed at the early detection of breast cancer. The first technique is based on compounding conventional echographic images taken at regular angular intervals around the imaged breast. The other modality obtains tomographic images of propagation velocity using the same circular geometry. For this study, a low-cost prototype has been built. It is based on a pair of opposed 128-element, 3.2 MHz array transducers that are mechanically moved around tissue mimicking phantoms. Compounded images around 360° provide improved resolution, clutter reduction, artifact suppression and reinforce the visualization of internal structures. However, refraction at the skin interface must be corrected for an accurate image compounding process. This is achieved by estimation of the interface geometry followed by computing the internal ray paths. On the other hand, sound velocity tomographic images from time of flight projections have been also obtained. Two reconstruction methods, Filtered Back Projection (FBP) and 2D Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (2D OSEM), were used as a first attempt towards tomographic reconstruction. These methods yield useable images in short computational times that can be considered as initial estimates in subsequent more complex methods of ultrasound image reconstruction. These images may be effective to differentiate malignant and benign masses and are very promising for breast cancer screening.

  2. Multimodal imaging of the self-regulating developing brain

    PubMed Central

    Fjell, Anders M.; Walhovd, Kristine Beate; Brown, Timothy T.; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Chung, Yoonho; Hagler, Donald J.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Roddey, J. Cooper; Erhart, Matthew; McCabe, Connor; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Libiger, Ondrej; Darst, Burcu F.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Casey, B. J.; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Kenet, Tal; Frazier, Jean; Murray, Sarah S.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Jernigan, Terry L.; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; McCabe, Connor; Chang, Linda; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Newman, Erik; Dale, Anders M.; Ernst, Thomas; Dale, Anders M.; Van Zijl, Peter; Kuperman, Joshua; Murray, Sarah; Bloss, Cinnamon; Schork, Nicholas J.; Appelbaum, Mark; Gamst, Anthony; Thompson, Wesley; Bartsch, Hauke; Jernigan, Terry L.; Dale, Anders M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas; Keating, Brian; Amaral, David; Sowell, Elizabeth; Kaufmann, Walter; Van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Casey, B.J.; Ruberry, Erika J.; Powers, Alisa; Rosen, Bruce; Kenet, Tal; Frazier, Jean; Kennedy, David; Gruen, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulation refers to the ability to control behavior, cognition, and emotions, and self-regulation failure is related to a range of neuropsychiatric problems. It is poorly understood how structural maturation of the brain brings about the gradual improvement in self-regulation during childhood. In a large-scale multicenter effort, 735 children (4–21 y) underwent structural MRI for quantification of cortical thickness and surface area and diffusion tensor imaging for quantification of the quality of major fiber connections. Brain development was related to a standardized measure of cognitive control (the flanker task from the National Institutes of Health Toolbox), a critical component of self-regulation. Ability to inhibit responses and impose cognitive control increased rapidly during preteen years. Surface area of the anterior cingulate cortex accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in cognitive performance. This finding is intriguing, because characteristics of the anterior cingulum are shown to be related to impulse, attention, and executive problems in neurodevelopmental disorders, indicating a neural foundation for self-regulation abilities along a continuum from normality to pathology. The relationship was strongest in the younger children. Properties of large-fiber connections added to the picture by explaining additional variance in cognitive control. Although cognitive control was related to surface area of the anterior cingulate independently of basic processes of mental speed, the relationship between white matter quality and cognitive control could be fully accounted for by speed. The results underscore the need for integration of different aspects of brain maturation to understand the foundations of cognitive development. PMID:23150548

  3. Multimodal imaging of the self-regulating developing brain.

    PubMed

    Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine Beate; Brown, Timothy T; Kuperman, Joshua M; Chung, Yoonho; Hagler, Donald J; Venkatraman, Vijay; Roddey, J Cooper; Erhart, Matthew; McCabe, Connor; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Libiger, Ondrej; Darst, Burcu F; Schork, Nicholas J; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Kaufmann, Walter E; Kenet, Tal; Frazier, Jean; Murray, Sarah S; Sowell, Elizabeth R; van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Jernigan, Terry L; Dale, Anders M

    2012-11-27

    Self-regulation refers to the ability to control behavior, cognition, and emotions, and self-regulation failure is related to a range of neuropsychiatric problems. It is poorly understood how structural maturation of the brain brings about the gradual improvement in self-regulation during childhood. In a large-scale multicenter effort, 735 children (4-21 y) underwent structural MRI for quantification of cortical thickness and surface area and diffusion tensor imaging for quantification of the quality of major fiber connections. Brain development was related to a standardized measure of cognitive control (the flanker task from the National Institutes of Health Toolbox), a critical component of self-regulation. Ability to inhibit responses and impose cognitive control increased rapidly during preteen years. Surface area of the anterior cingulate cortex accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in cognitive performance. This finding is intriguing, because characteristics of the anterior cingulum are shown to be related to impulse, attention, and executive problems in neurodevelopmental disorders, indicating a neural foundation for self-regulation abilities along a continuum from normality to pathology. The relationship was strongest in the younger children. Properties of large-fiber connections added to the picture by explaining additional variance in cognitive control. Although cognitive control was related to surface area of the anterior cingulate independently of basic processes of mental speed, the relationship between white matter quality and cognitive control could be fully accounted for by speed. The results underscore the need for integration of different aspects of brain maturation to understand the foundations of cognitive development. PMID:23150548

  4. Imaging findings in patients with myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Guermazi, A; de Kerviler, E; Cazals-Hatem, D; Zagdanski, A M; Frija, J

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to illustrate the wide range of radiological abnormalities in myelofibrosis. Myelofibrosis, also called myeloid metaplasia, is a myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology. The common imaging findings in patients with myelofibrosis are osteosclerosis, hepatosplenomegaly, and lymphadenopathies. In addition, extramedullary hematopoiesis may develop in multiple sites such as chest, abdomen, pelvis, and central nervous system, simulating malignant disease. Selected plain-film, CT, and MR images in patients with myelofibrosis are shown as pictorial essay to allow ready recognition of the most common imaging abnormalities of the disease. PMID:10460376

  5. Multimodality imaging probe for positron emission tomography and fluorescence imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suresh K; Kaur, Jasmeet; Easwaramoorthy, Balu; Shah, Ankur; Coleman, Robert; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to develop multimodality imaging agents for use in cell tracking studies by positron emission tomography (PET) and optical imaging (OI). For this purpose, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was complexed with biotin (histologic studies), 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein, succinimidyl ester (FAM SE) (OI studies), and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) for chelating gallium 68 (PET studies). For synthesis of BSA-biotin-FAM-DTPA, BSA was coupled to (+)-biotin N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (biotin-NHSI). BSA-biotin was treated with DTPA-anhydride and biotin-BSA-DTPA was reacted with FAM. The biotin-BSA-DTPA-FAM was reacted with gallium chloride 3 to 5 mCi eluted from the generator using 0.1 N HCl and was passed through basic resin (AG 11 A8) and 150 μCi (100 μL, pH 7-8) was incubated with 0.1 mg of FAM conjugate (100 μL) at room temperature for 15 minutes to give 68Ga-BSA-biotin-DTPA-FAM. A shaved C57 black mouse was injected with FAM conjugate (50 μL) at one flank and FAM-68Ga (50 μL, 30 μCi) at the other. Immediately after injection, the mouse was placed in a fluorescence imaging system (Kodak In-Vivo F, Bruker Biospin Co., Woodbridge, CT) and imaged (λex: 465 nm, λem: 535 nm, time: 8 seconds, Xenon Light Source, Kodak). The same mouse was then placed under an Inveon microPET scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions, Knoxville, TN) injected (intravenously) with 25 μCi of 18F and after a half-hour (to allow sufficient bone uptake) was imaged for 30 minutes. Molecular weight determined using matrix-associated laser desorption ionization (MALDI) for the BSA sample was 66,485 Da and for biotin-BSA was 67,116 Da, indicating two biotin moieties per BSA molecule; for biotin-BSA-DTPA was 81,584 Da, indicating an average of 30 DTPA moieties per BSA molecule; and for FAM conjugate was 82,383 Da, indicating an average of 1.7 fluorescent moieties per BSA molecule. Fluorescence imaging clearly showed localization of FAM conjugate and FAM-68Ga at respective flanks of the mouse

  6. Safe storage and multi-modal search for medical images.

    PubMed

    Kommeri, Jukka; Niinimäki, Marko; Müller, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Modern hospitals produce enormous amounts of data in all departments, from images, to lab results, medication use, and release letters. Since several years these data are most often produced in digital form, making them accessible for researchers to optimize the outcome of care process and analyze all available data across patients. The Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) are no exception with its daily radiology department's output of over 140'000 images in 2010, with a majority of them being tomographic slices. In this paper we introduce tools for uploading and accessing DICOM images and associated metadata in a secure Grid storage. These data are made available for authorized persons using a Grid security framework, as security is a main problem in secondary use of image data, where images are to be stored outside of the clinical image archive. Our tool combines the security and metadata access of a Grid middleware with the visual search that uses GIFT. PMID:21893790

  7. Multimodal Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Hybrid Biomedical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Heidt, Timo; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide core nanoparticles are attractive imaging agents because their material properties allow the tuning of pharmacokinetics as well as attachment of multiple moieties to their surface. In addition to affinity ligands, these include fluorochromes and radioisotopes for detection with optical and nuclear imaging. As the iron oxide core can be detected by MRI, options for combining imaging modalities are manifold. Already, preclinical imaging strategies combine non-invasive imaging with higher resolution techniques such as intravital microscopy to gain unprecedented insight into steady state biology and disease. Going forward, hybrid iron oxide nanoparticles will likely help to merge modalities, creating a synergy that enables imaging in basic research and, potentially, also in the clinic. PMID:23065771

  8. Gadolinium-Conjugated Gold Nanoshells for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Andrew J.; Ananta, Jeyarama S.; Deng, Nanfu; Larina, Irina V.; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal imaging offers the potential to improve diagnosis and enhance the specificity of photothermal cancer therapy. Toward this goal, we have engineered gadolinium-conjugated gold nanoshells and demonstrated that they enhance contrast for magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflectance confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence. Additionally, these particles effectively convert near-infrared light to heat, which can be used to ablate cancer cells. Ultimately, these studies demonstrate the potential of gadolinium-nanoshells for image-guided photothermal ablation. PMID:24115690

  9. Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic imaging with a fiber optical parametric oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yan-Hua; Goulart, Christiane; Sharping, Jay E.; Wei, Huifeng; Chen, Su; Tong, Weijun; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Zhang, Delong; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2011-01-01

    We report on multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging with a source composed of a femtosecond fiber laser and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF)-based optical parametric oscillator (FOPO). By switching between two PCFs with different zero dispersion wavelengths, a tunable signal beam from the FOPO covering the range from 840 to 930 nm was produced. By combining the femtosecond fiber laser and the FOPO output, simultaneous CARS imaging of a myelin sheath and two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging of a labeled axons in rat spinal cord have been demonstrated at the speed of 20 μs per pixel. PMID:21677908

  10. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of melanin and lipofuscin in the retina with multimodal photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangyang; Zhang, Hao F.; Zhou, Lixiang; Jiao, Shuliang

    2012-02-01

    We combined photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) with autofluorescence imaging for simultaneous in vivo imaging of dual molecular contrasts in the retina using a single light source. The dual molecular contrasts come from melanin and lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Melanin and lipofuscin are two types of pigments and are believed to play opposite roles (protective vs. exacerbate) in the RPE in the aging process. We successfully imaged the retina of pigmented and albino rats at different ages. The experimental results showed that multimodal PAOM system can be a potentially powerful tool in the study of age-related degenerative retinal diseases.

  11. Primary cardiac angiosarcoma confirmed by multimodality imaging guided liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant tumor with various clinical presentations but usually in late stage. We report a case presented with bloody pericardial effusion, in which the final diagnosis was confirmed by multiple imaging modalities such as echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, as well as ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. PMID:24696736

  12. Nanoparticulate assemblies of amphiphiles and diagnostically active materials for multimodality imaging.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Willem J M; Strijkers, Gustav J; van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Cormode, David P; Fayad, Zahi A; Nicolay, Klaas

    2009-07-21

    Modern medicine has greatly benefited from recent dramatic improvements in imaging techniques. The observation of physiological events through interactions manipulated at the molecular level offers unique insight into the function (and dysfunction) of the living organism. The tremendous advances in the development of nanoparticulate molecular imaging agents over the past decade have made it possible to noninvasively image the specificity, pharmacokinetic profiles, biodistribution, and therapeutic efficacy of many novel compounds. Several types of nanoparticles have demonstrated utility for biomedical purposes, including inorganic nanocrystals, such as iron oxide, gold, and quantum dots. Moreover, natural nanoparticles, such as viruses, lipoproteins, or apoferritin, as well as hybrid nanostructures composed of inorganic and natural nanoparticles, have been applied broadly. However, among the most investigated nanoparticle platforms for biomedical purposes are lipidic aggregates, such as liposomal nanoparticles, micelles, and microemulsions. Their relative ease of preparation and functionalization, as well as the ready synthetic ability to combine multiple amphiphilic moieties, are the most important reasons for their popularity. Lipid-based nanoparticle platforms allow the inclusion of a variety of imaging agents, ranging from fluorescent molecules to chelated metals and nanocrystals. In recent years, we have created a variety of multifunctional lipid-based nanoparticles for molecular imaging; many are capable of being used with more than one imaging technique (that is, with multimodal imaging ability). These nanoparticles differ in size, morphology, and specificity for biological markers. In this Account, we discuss the development and characterization of five different particles: liposomes, micelles, nanocrystal micelles, lipid-coated silica, and nanocrystal high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We also demonstrate their application for multimodal molecular imaging

  13. Programmable aperture microscopy: A computational method for multi-modal phase contrast and light field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Feng, Shijie; Zhang, Minliang; Chen, Qian

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a simple and cost-effective programmable aperture microscope to realize multi-modal computational imaging by integrating a programmable liquid crystal display (LCD) into a conventional wide-field microscope. The LCD selectively modulates the light distribution at the rear aperture of the microscope objective, allowing numerous imaging modalities, such as bright field, dark field, differential phase contrast, quantitative phase imaging, multi-perspective imaging, and full resolution light field imaging to be achieved and switched rapidly in the same setup, without requiring specialized hardwares and any moving parts. We experimentally demonstrate the success of our method by imaging unstained cheek cells, profiling microlens array, and changing perspective views of thick biological specimens. The post-exposure refocusing of a butterfly mouthpart and RFP-labeled dicot stem cross-section is also presented to demonstrate the full resolution light field imaging capability of our system for both translucent and fluorescent specimens.

  14. ICG-loaded microbubbles for multimodal billiary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ruogu; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-12-01

    A dual-mode imaging technique has been developed for intraoperative imaging of bile ducts and real-time identification of iatrogenic injuries in cholecystectomy. The technique is based on ultrasound (US) and fluorescence (FL) imaging of a dual-mode microbubble (MB) agent comprising a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) shell and a core of Indocyanine Green. During cholecystectomy, a clinical US probe is used to localize the bile duct structure after bolus injection of dual-mode MBs. As the surrounding adipose tissue is removed and the Calot's triangle is exposed, FL imaging is used to identify the MB distribution and to determine the potential bile duct injury. The contrast-enhanced bile duct imaging technique has been demonstrated in both a surgical simulation model and an ex vivo porcine tissue model under two surgical scenarios. The first scenario simulates the correct procedure where the cystic duct is clipped. The second scenario simulates the incorrect procedure where the common bile duct is clipped, leading to consequent bile duct injury. Benchtop experiments in both the phantom and the ex vivo models show that the dual-mode imaging technique is able to identify the potential bile duct injury during cholecystectomy. A phantom system has also been established for future device calibration and surgical training in image-guided cholecystectomy. Further in vivo animal validation tests are necessary before the technique can be implemented in a clinical setting.

  15. A multimodality vascular imaging phantom of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a visible thrombus

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Louise; Chayer, Boris; Qin Zhao; Soulez, Gilles; Roy, David; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: With the continuous development of new stent grafts and implantation techniques, it has now become technically feasible to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with challenging anatomy using endovascular repair with standard, fenestrated, or branched stent-grafts. In vitro experimentations are very useful to improve stent-graft design and conformability or imaging guidance for stent-graft delivery or follow-up. Vascular replicas also help to better understand the limitation of endovascular approaches in challenging anatomy and possibly improve surgical planning or training by practicing high risk clinical procedures in the laboratory to improve outcomes in the operating room. Most AAA phantoms available have a very basic anatomy, which is not representative of the clinical reality. This paper presents a method of fabrication of a realistic AAA phantom with a visible thrombus, as well as some mechanical properties characterizing such phantom. Methods: A realistic AAA geometry replica of a real patient anatomy taken from a multidetector computed tomography (CT) scan was manufactured. To demonstrate the multimodality imaging capability of this new phantom with a thrombus visible in magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, CT angiography (CTA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and ultrasound, image acquisitions with all these modalities were performed by using standard clinical protocols. Potential use of this phantom for stent deployment was also tested. A rheometer allowed defining hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of phantom materials. Results: MR imaging measurements of SNR and CNR values on T1 and T2-weighted sequences and MR angiography indicated reasonable agreement with published values of AAA thrombus and abdominal components in vivo. X-ray absorption also lay within normal ranges of AAA patients and was representative of findings observed on CTA, fluoroscopy, and DSA. Ultrasound propagation speeds for developed materials were also in

  16. A Task-Based Approach to Adaptive and Multimodality Imaging: Computation techniques are proposed for figures-of-merit to establish feasibility and optimize use of multiple imaging systems for disease diagnosis and treatment-monitoring.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Eric; Kupinski, Matthew A; Barrett, Harrison H; Furenlid, Lars

    2008-03-01

    Multimodality imaging is becoming increasingly important in medical imaging. Since the motivation for combining multiple imaging modalities is generally to improve diagnostic or prognostic accuracy, the benefits of multimodality imaging cannot be assessed through the display of example images. Instead, we must use objective, task-based measures of image quality to draw valid conclusions about system performance. In this paper, we will present a general framework for utilizing objective, task-based measures of image quality in assessing multimodality and adaptive imaging systems. We introduce a classification scheme for multimodality and adaptive imaging systems and provide a mathematical description of the imaging chain along with block diagrams to provide a visual illustration. We show that the task-based methodology developed for evaluating single-modality imaging can be applied, with minor modifications, to multimodality and adaptive imaging. We discuss strategies for practical implementing of task-based methods to assess and optimize multimodality imaging systems. PMID:19079563

  17. SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging enables accurate evaluation of radiotracers for β-cell mass assessments

    PubMed Central

    Eter, Wael A.; Parween, Saba; Joosten, Lieke; Frielink, Cathelijne; Eriksson, Maria; Brom, Maarten; Ahlgren, Ulf; Gotthardt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has become a promising experimental approach to monitor changes in β-cell mass (BCM) during diabetes progression. SPECT imaging of pancreatic islets is most commonly cross-validated by stereological analysis of histological pancreatic sections after insulin staining. Typically, stereological methods do not accurately determine the total β-cell volume, which is inconvenient when correlating total pancreatic tracer uptake with BCM. Alternative methods are therefore warranted to cross-validate β-cell imaging using radiotracers. In this study, we introduce multimodal SPECT - optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging as an accurate approach to cross-validate radionuclide-based imaging of β-cells. Uptake of a promising radiotracer for β-cell imaging by SPECT, 111In-exendin-3, was measured by ex vivo-SPECT and cross evaluated by 3D quantitative OPT imaging as well as with histology within healthy and alloxan-treated Brown Norway rat pancreata. SPECT signal was in excellent linear correlation with OPT data as compared to histology. While histological determination of islet spatial distribution was challenging, SPECT and OPT revealed similar distribution patterns of 111In-exendin-3 and insulin positive β-cell volumes between different pancreatic lobes, both visually and quantitatively. We propose ex vivo SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging as a highly accurate strategy for validating the performance of β-cell radiotracers. PMID:27080529

  18. SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging enables accurate evaluation of radiotracers for β-cell mass assessments.

    PubMed

    Eter, Wael A; Parween, Saba; Joosten, Lieke; Frielink, Cathelijne; Eriksson, Maria; Brom, Maarten; Ahlgren, Ulf; Gotthardt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has become a promising experimental approach to monitor changes in β-cell mass (BCM) during diabetes progression. SPECT imaging of pancreatic islets is most commonly cross-validated by stereological analysis of histological pancreatic sections after insulin staining. Typically, stereological methods do not accurately determine the total β-cell volume, which is inconvenient when correlating total pancreatic tracer uptake with BCM. Alternative methods are therefore warranted to cross-validate β-cell imaging using radiotracers. In this study, we introduce multimodal SPECT - optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging as an accurate approach to cross-validate radionuclide-based imaging of β-cells. Uptake of a promising radiotracer for β-cell imaging by SPECT, (111)In-exendin-3, was measured by ex vivo-SPECT and cross evaluated by 3D quantitative OPT imaging as well as with histology within healthy and alloxan-treated Brown Norway rat pancreata. SPECT signal was in excellent linear correlation with OPT data as compared to histology. While histological determination of islet spatial distribution was challenging, SPECT and OPT revealed similar distribution patterns of (111)In-exendin-3 and insulin positive β-cell volumes between different pancreatic lobes, both visually and quantitatively. We propose ex vivo SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging as a highly accurate strategy for validating the performance of β-cell radiotracers. PMID:27080529

  19. Multimodality imaging in the assessment of myocardial viability

    PubMed Central

    Partington, Sara L.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure due to coronary artery disease continues to increase, and it portends a worse prognosis than non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Revascularization improves prognosis in these high-risk patients who have evidence of viability; therefore, optimal assessment of myocardial viability remains essential. Multiple imaging modalities exist for differentiating viable myocardium from scar in territories with contractile dysfunction. Given the multiple modalities available, choosing the best modality for a specific patient can be a daunting task. In this review, the physiology of myocardial hibernation and stunning will be reviewed. All the current methods available for assessing viability including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging with single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography imaging and cardiac computed tomography will be reviewed. The effectiveness of the various techniques will be compared, and the limitations of the current literature will be discussed. PMID:21069458

  20. Multimodal Imaging of Orthotopic Mouse Model of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Haldorsen, Ingfrid S.; Brekke, Njål; Kopperud, Reidun; Visser, Nicole C.; Rygh, Cecilie B.; Pavlin, Tina; Salvesen, Helga B.; McCormack, Emmet; Krakstad, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Background Orthotopic endometrial cancer models provide a unique tool for studies of tumour growth and metastatic spread. Novel preclinical imaging methods also have the potential to quantify functional tumour characteristics in vivo, with potential relevance for monitoring response to therapy. Methods After orthotopic injection with luc-expressing endometrial cancer cells, eleven mice developed disease detected by weekly bioluminescence imaging (BLI). In parallel the same mice underwent positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) employing 18F-fluorodeoxyglocose (18F-FDG) or 18F- fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) and contrast reagent, respectively. The mice were sacrificed when moribund, and post-mortem examination included macroscopic and microscopic examination for validation of growth of primary uterine tumours and metastases. PET-CT was also performed on a patient derived model (PDX) generated from a patient with grade 3 endometrioid endometrial cancer. Results Increased BLI signal during tumour growth was accompanied by increasing metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and increasing MTV x mean standard uptake value of the tumour (SUVmean) in 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET-CT, and MRI conspicuously depicted the uterine tumour. At necropsy 82% (9/11) of the mice developed metastases detected by the applied imaging methods. 18F-FDG PET proved to be a good imaging method for detection of patient derived tumour tissue. Conclusions We demonstrate that all imaging modalities enable monitoring of tumour growth and metastatic spread in an orthotopic mouse model of endometrial carcinoma. Both PET tracers, 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT, appear to be equally feasible for detecting tumour development and represent, together with MRI, promising imaging tools for monitoring of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) cancer models. PMID:26252891

  1. Differences in Multi-Modal Ultrasound Imaging between Triple Negative and Non-Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziyao; Tian, Jiawei; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Lei; Jing, Hui; Wu, Tong

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify multi-modal ultrasound imaging parameters that could potentially help to differentiate between triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC. Conventional ultrasonography, ultrasound strain elastography and 3-D ultrasound (3-D-US) findings from 50 TNBC and 179 non-TNBC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Immunohistochemical examination was used as the reference gold standard for cancer subtyping. Different ultrasound modalities were initially analyzed to define TNBC-related features. Subsequently, logistic regression analysis was applied to TNBC-related features to establish models for predicting TNBC. TNBCs often presented as micro-lobulated, markedly hypo-echoic masses with an abrupt interface (p = 0.015, 0.0015 and 0.004, compared with non-TNBCs, respectively) on conventional ultrasound, and showed a diminished retraction pattern phenomenon in the coronal plane (p = 0.035) on 3-D-US. Our findings suggest that B-mode ultrasound and 3-D-US in multi-modality ultrasonography could be a useful non-invasive technique for differentiating TNBCs from non-TNBCs. PMID:26786891

  2. Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles: Evolution of a Multimodality and Multifunctional Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles offer a biologically inert, highly stable, and nontoxic platform that can be specifically designed to accomplish a range of molecular imaging and drug delivery functions in vivo. The particle surface can be decorated with targeting ligands to direct the agent to a variety of biomarkers that are associated with diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and thrombosis. The surface can also carry a high payload of imaging agents, ranging from paramagnetic metals for MRI, radionuclides for nuclear imaging, iodine for CT, and florescent tags for histology, allowing high sensitivity mapping of cellular receptors that may be expressed at very low levels in the body. In addition to these diagnostic imaging applications, the particles can be engineered to carry highly potent drugs and specifically deposit them into cell populations that display biosignatures of a variety of diseases. The highly flexible and robust nature of this combined molecular imaging and drug delivery vehicle has been exploited in a variety of animal models to demonstrate its potential impact on the care and treatment of patients suffering from some of the most debilitating diseases. PMID:25024867

  3. Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2013-03-01

    Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One important structural parameter for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), which tends to become larger as glaucoma progresses. While approaches exist for segmenting the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs, and more recently, within spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, no approaches have been reported for the simultaneous segmentation of these structures within both modalities combined. In this work, a multimodal pixel-classification approach for the segmentation of the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs and SD-OCT volumes is presented. In particular, after segmentation of other important structures (such as the retinal layers and retinal blood vessels) and fundus-to-SD-OCT image registration, features are extracted from both modalities and a k-nearest-neighbor classification approach is used to classify each pixel as cup, rim, or background. The approach is evaluated on 70 multimodal image pairs from 35 subjects in a leave-10%-out fashion (by subject). A significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained using the multimodal approach over that obtained from the corresponding unimodal approach (97.8% versus 95.2%; p < 0:05; paired t-test).

  4. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S.

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  5. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  6. A Multimode Optical Imaging System for Preclinical Applications In Vivo: Technology Development, Multiscale Imaging, and Chemotherapy Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Ljubimova, Julia; Gross, Zeev; Gray, Harry B.; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Several established optical imaging approaches have been applied, usually in isolation, to preclinical studies; however, truly useful in vivo imaging may require a simultaneous combination of imaging modalities to examine dynamic characteristics of cells and tissues. We developed a new multimode optical imaging system designed to be application-versatile, yielding high sensitivity, and specificity molecular imaging. Procedures We integrated several optical imaging technologies, including fluorescence intensity, spectral, lifetime, intravital confocal, two-photon excitation, and bioluminescence, into a single system that enables functional multiscale imaging in animal models. Results The approach offers a comprehensive imaging platform for kinetic, quantitative, and environmental analysis of highly relevant information, with micro-to-macroscopic resolution. Applied to small animals in vivo, this provides superior monitoring of processes of interest, represented here by chemo-/nanoconstruct therapy assessment. Conclusions This new system is versatile and can be optimized for various applications, of which cancer detection and targeted treatment are emphasized here. PMID:21874388

  7. Multimodal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for image guided treatment of age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. D.; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Mujat, Mircea; Husain, Deeba

    2009-02-01

    Subretinal neovascular membranes (SRNM) are a deleterious complication of laser eye injury and retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroiditis, and myopic retinopathy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are approved treatment methods. PDT acts by selective dye accumulation, activation by laser light, and disruption and clotting of the new leaky vessels. However, PDT surgery is currently not image-guided, nor does it proceed in an efficient or automated manner. This may contribute to the high rate of re-treatment. We have developed a multimodal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) for automated diagnosis and image-guided treatment of SRNMs associated with AMD. The system combines line scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (LSLO), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), PDT laser delivery, and retinal tracking in a compact, efficient platform. This paper describes the system hardware and software design, performance characterization, and automated patient imaging and treatment session procedures and algorithms. Also, we present initial imaging and tracking measurements on normal subjects and automated lesion demarcation and sizing analysis of previously acquired angiograms. Future pre-clinical testing includes line scanning angiography and PDT treatment of AMD subjects. The automated acquisition procedure, enhanced and expedited data post-processing, and innovative image visualization and interpretation tools provided by the multimodal retinal imager may eventually aid in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of AMD and other retinal diseases.

  8. Rational design of a triple reporter gene for multimodality molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Hwu, Luen; Ke, Chien-Chih; Yeh, Skye Hsin-Hsien; Lin, Chien-Feng; Chen, Fu-Du; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lin, Kang-Ping; Chen, Ran-Chou; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging using noncytotoxic triple fusion (TF) reporter genes is an important application for cell-based tracking, drug screening, and therapy. The firefly luciferase (fl), monomeric red fluorescence protein (mrfp), and truncated herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase SR39 mutant (ttksr39) were fused together to create TF reporter gene constructs with different order. The enzymatic activities of TF protein in vitro and in vivo were determined by luciferase reporter assay, H-FEAU cellular uptake experiment, bioluminescence imaging, and micropositron emission tomography (microPET). The TF construct expressed in H1299 cells possesses luciferase activity and red fluorescence. The tTKSR39 activity is preserved in TF protein and mediates high levels of H-FEAU accumulation and significant cell death from ganciclovir (GCV) prodrug activation. In living animals, the luciferase and tTKSR39 activities of TF protein have also been successfully validated by multimodality imaging systems. The red fluorescence signal is relatively weak for in vivo imaging but may expedite FACS-based selection of TF reporter expressing cells. We have developed an optimized triple fusion reporter construct DsRedm-fl-ttksr39 for more effective and sensitive in vivo animal imaging using fluorescence, bioluminescence, and PET imaging modalities, which may facilitate different fields of biomedical research and applications. PMID:24809057

  9. Multimodality Imaging in Coronary Artery Disease: Focus on Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Donghee; Danad, Ibrahim; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Lin, Fay Y.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and various cardiovascular imaging modalities have been introduced for the purpose of diagnosing and determining the severity of CAD. More recently, advances in computed tomography (CT) technology have contributed to the widespread clinical application of cardiac CT for accurate and noninvasive evaluation of CAD. In this review, we focus on imaging assessment of CAD based upon CT, which includes coronary artery calcium screening, coronary CT angiography, myocardial CT perfusion, and fractional flow reserve CT. Further, we provide a discussion regarding the potential implications, benefits and limitations, as well as the possible future directions according to each modality. PMID:27081438

  10. Multimodal in vivo imaging of oral cancer using fluorescence lifetime, photoacoustic and ultrasound techniques

    PubMed Central

    Fatakdawala, Hussain; Poti, Shannon; Zhou, Feifei; Sun, Yang; Bec, Julien; Liu, Jing; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Tinling, Steven P.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina F.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Marcu, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This work reports a multimodal system for label-free tissue diagnosis combining fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm), ultrasound backscatter microscopy (UBM), and photoacoustic imaging (PAI). This system provides complementary biochemical, structural and functional features allowing for enhanced in vivo detection of oral carcinoma. Results from a hamster oral carcinoma model (normal, precancer and carcinoma) are presented demonstrating the ability of FLIm to delineate biochemical composition at the tissue surface, UBM and related radiofrequency parameters to identify disruptions in the tissue microarchitecture and PAI to map optical absorption associated with specific tissue morphology and physiology. PMID:24049693

  11. [Study and realization of multidimensional visualization techniques for multimodality medical images].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenwei; Zhang, Jianguo; Yang, Xiaoli

    2013-03-01

    This paper designed a multimodal medical image visualization system using open source VTK on platform VS2008. The system can visualize CT, MR, PET and SPECT using different visualization methods, such as multi-planar reconstruction (MPR), curved planar reformation (CPR), direct volume rendering (DVR), indirect volume rendering (IVR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). Clinical practice shows that the system has stable performance and the visualization methods which make the reading of different modal medical images more convenient. The maximum number of CT slices the system can reconstruct is more than 2 000, and the reconstruction speed and quality meet the clinical requirements. PMID:23777062

  12. High resolution in vitro bioluminescence imaging using a multimodal optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altabella, L.; Gigliotti, C. R.; Perani, L.; Crippa, M. P.; Boschi, F.; Spinelli, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence in vitro studies are usually performed with dedicated microscopes. In this work, we developed a novel image recovery algorithm and a multimodal system prototype to perform bioluminescence microscopy. We performed a feasibility study using GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of bioluminescent cells acquired at low SNR frames and processed using a Super Resolution Regularization Algorithm (SRRA). The method was also tested using in vitro cell acquisition. The results obtained with MC simulations showed an improvement in the spatial resolution from 90 μ m to 10 μ m and from 110 μ m to 13 μ m for in vitro imaging of mesothelioma cells.

  13. High-resolution wavefront shaping with a photonic crystal fiber for multimode fiber imaging.

    PubMed

    Amitonova, Lyubov V; Descloux, Adrien; Petschulat, Joerg; Frosz, Michael H; Ahmed, Goran; Babic, Fehim; Jiang, Xin; Mosk, Allard P; Russell, Philip St J; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that a high-numerical-aperture photonic crystal fiber allows lensless focusing at an unparalleled resolution by complex wavefront shaping. This paves the way toward high-resolution imaging exceeding the capabilities of imaging with multi-core single-mode optical fibers. We analyze the beam waist and power in the focal spot on the fiber output using different types of fibers and different wavefront shaping approaches. We show that the complex wavefront shaping technique, together with a properly designed multimode photonic crystal fiber, enables us to create a tightly focused spot on the desired position on the fiber output facet with a subwavelength beam waist. PMID:26907407

  14. Registration of multimodal brain images: some experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-mei; Varshney, Pramod K.

    2002-03-01

    Joint histogram of two images is required to uniquely determine the mutual information between the two images. It has been pointed out that, under certain conditions, existing joint histogram estimation algorithms like partial volume interpolation (PVI) and linear interpolation may result in different types of artifact patterns in the MI based registration function by introducing spurious maxima. As a result, the artifacts may hamper the global optimization process and limit registration accuracy. In this paper we present an extensive study of interpolation-induced artifacts using simulated brain images and show that similar artifact patterns also exist when other intensity interpolation algorithms like cubic convolution interpolation and cubic B-spline interpolation are used. A new joint histogram estimation scheme named generalized partial volume estimation (GPVE) is proposed to eliminate the artifacts. A kernel function is involved in the proposed scheme and when the 1st order B-spline is chosen as the kernel function, it is equivalent to the PVI. A clinical brain image database furnished by Vanderbilt University is used to compare the accuracy of our algorithm with that of PVI. Our experimental results show that the use of higher order kernels can effectively remove the artifacts and, in cases when MI based registration result suffers from the artifacts, registration accuracy can be improved significantly.

  15. A multimodal nano agent for image-guided cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinzi; Muhanna, Nidal; De Souza, Raquel; Wada, Hironobu; Chan, Harley; Akens, Margarete K; Anayama, Takashi; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Serra, Stefano; Irish, Jonathan; Allen, Christine; Jaffray, David

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative imaging technologies including computed tomography and fluorescence optical imaging are becoming routine tools in the cancer surgery operating room. They constitute an enabling platform for high performance surgical resections that assure local control while minimizing morbidity. New contrast agents that can increase the sensitivity and visualization power of existing intraoperative imaging techniques will further enhance their clinical benefit. We report here the development, detection and visualization of a dual-modality computed tomography and near-infrared fluorescence nano liposomal agent (CF800) in multiple preclinical animal models of cancer. We describe the successful application of this agent for combined preoperative computed tomography based three-dimensional surgical planning and intraoperative target mapping (>200 Hounsfield Units enhancement), as well as near-infrared fluorescence guided resection (>5-fold tumor-to-background ratio). These results strongly support the clinical advancement of this agent for image-guided surgery with potential to improve lesion localization, margin delineation and metastatic lymph node detection. PMID:26218742

  16. Primary MALT-lymphoma of the liver: multimodality imaging.

    PubMed

    Mehrain, Sheida; Schima, Wolfgang; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Kurtaran, A; Raderer, M

    2003-01-01

    MALT lymphoma rarely affects the liver. We present a case of primary MALT lymphoma of the liver, which appeared as multifocal hyperattenuated lesions compared to the fatty liver on unenhanced CT and as moderately hyperintense on T2-weighted and hypointense on T1-weighted MRI. We describe the radiological imaging features and discuss the differential diagnosis. PMID:14753380

  17. Semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression improves cognitive performance estimation from imaging and biological biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Zhang, Daoqiang; Chen, Songcan; Kaufer, Daniel I; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-07-01

    Accurate estimation of cognitive scores for patients can help track the progress of neurological diseases. In this paper, we present a novel semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression (SM-RVR) method for predicting clinical scores of neurological diseases from multimodal imaging and biological biomarker, to help evaluate pathological stage and predict progression of diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Unlike most existing methods, we predict clinical scores from multimodal (imaging and biological) biomarkers, including MRI, FDG-PET, and CSF. Considering that the clinical scores of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects are often less stable compared to those of AD and normal control (NC) subjects due to the heterogeneity of MCI, we use only the multimodal data of MCI subjects, but no corresponding clinical scores, to train a semi-supervised model for enhancing the estimation of clinical scores for AD and NC subjects. We also develop a new strategy for selecting the most informative MCI subjects. We evaluate the performance of our approach on 202 subjects with all three modalities of data (MRI, FDG-PET and CSF) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The experimental results show that our SM-RVR method achieves a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.91 and a correlation coefficient (CORR) of 0.80 for estimating the MMSE scores, and also a RMSE of 4.45 and a CORR of 0.78 for estimating the ADAS-Cog scores, demonstrating very promising performances in AD studies. PMID:23504659

  18. Semi-Supervised Multimodal Relevance Vector Regression Improves Cognitive Performance Estimation from Imaging and Biological Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Chen, Songcan; Kaufer, Daniel I.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimation of cognitive scores for patients can help track the progress of neurological diseases. In this paper, we present a novel semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression (SM-RVR) method for predicting clinical scores of neurological diseases from multimodal imaging and biological biomarker, to help evaluate pathological stage and predict progression of diseases, e.g., Alzheimer’s diseases (AD). Unlike most existing methods, we predict clinical scores from multimodal (imaging and biological) biomarkers, including MRI, FDG-PET, and CSF. Considering that the clinical scores of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects are often less stable compared to those of AD and normal control (NC) subjects due to the heterogeneity of MCI, we use only the multimodal data of MCI subjects, but no corresponding clinical scores, to train a semi-supervised model for enhancing the estimation of clinical scores for AD and NC subjects. We also develop a new strategy for selecting the most informative MCI subjects. We evaluate the performance of our approach on 202 subjects with all three modalities of data (MRI, FDG-PET and CSF) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The experimental results show that our SM-RVR method achieves a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.91 and a correlation coefficient (CORR) of 0.80 for estimating the MMSE scores, and also a RMSE of 4.45 and a CORR of 0.78 for estimating the ADAS-Cog scores, demonstrating very promising performances in AD studies. PMID:23504659

  19. Imaging findings of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Ghadirpour, Ali; Ataie-Oskuie, Reza; Kontzialis, Marinos

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl was referred to a dentist complaining of parageusia, bad taste in the mouth, which started 9 months ago. Panoramic X-ray and non-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed multiple bilateral unilocular cysts in the mandible and maxilla, along with calcification of anterior part of the falx cerebri. She was eventually diagnosed with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome based on imaging and histopathologic finding of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:25610614

  20. Associations between white matter microstructure and amyloid burden in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A multimodal imaging investigation

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Annie M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Christian, Bradley T.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Oh, Jennifer; Cleary, Caitlin A.; Birdsill, Alex; Hillmer, Ansel T.; Murali, Dhanabalan; Barnhart, Todd E.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Rowley, Howard A.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    Some cognitively healthy individuals develop brain amyloid accumulation, suggestive of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effect of amyloid on other potentially informative imaging modalities, such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), in characterizing brain changes in preclinical AD requires further exploration. In this study, a sample (N = 139, mean age 60.6, range 46 to 71) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP), a cohort enriched for AD risk factors, was recruited for a multimodal imaging investigation that included DTI and [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET). Participants were grouped as amyloid positive (Aβ+), amyloid indeterminate (Aβi), or amyloid negative (Aβ−) based on the amount and pattern of amyloid deposition. Regional voxel-wise analyses of four DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (Da), and radial diffusivity (Dr), were performed based on amyloid grouping. Three regions of interest (ROIs), the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum, hippocampal cingulum, and lateral fornix, were selected based on their involvement in the early stages of AD. Voxel-wise analysis revealed higher FA among Aβ+ compared to Aβ− in all three ROIs and in Aβi compared to Aβ− in the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum. Follow-up exploratory whole-brain analyses were consistent with the ROI findings, revealing multiple regions where higher FA was associated with greater amyloid. Lower fronto-lateral gray matter MD was associated with higher amyloid burden. Further investigation showed a negative correlation between MD and PiB signal, suggesting that Aβ accumulation impairs diffusion. Interestingly, these findings in a largely presymptomatic sample are in contradistinction to relationships reported in the literature in symptomatic disease stages of Mild Cognitive Impairment and AD, which usually show higher MD and lower FA. Together with analyses

  1. Multi-Modality fiducial marker for validation of registration of medical images with histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaii, Rushin; Martel, Anne L.

    2010-03-01

    A multi-modality fiducial marker is presented in this work, which can be used for validating the correlation of histology images with medical images. This marker can also be used for landmark-based image registration. Seven different fiducial markers including a catheter, spaghetti, black spaghetti, cuttlefish ink, and liquid iron are implanted in a mouse specimen and then investigated based on visibility, localization, size, and stability. The black spaghetti and the mixture of cuttlefish ink and flour are shown to be the most suitable markers. Based on the size of the markers, black spaghetti is more suitable for big specimens and the mixture of the cuttlefish ink, flour, and water injected in a catheter is more suitable for small specimens such as mouse tumours. These markers are visible on medical images and also detectable on histology and optical images of the tissue blocks. The main component in these agents which enhances the contrast is iron.

  2. Achromatic approach to phase-based multi-modal imaging with conventional X-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Endrizzi, Marco; Vittoria, Fabio A; Kallon, Gibril; Basta, Dario; Diemoz, Paul C; Vincenzi, Alessandro; Delogu, Pasquale; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Olivo, Alessandro

    2015-06-15

    Compatibility with polychromatic radiation is an important requirement for an imaging system using conventional rotating anode X-ray sources. With a commercially available energy-resolving single-photon-counting detector we investigated how broadband radiation affects the performance of a multi-modal edge-illumination phase-contrast imaging system. The effect of X-ray energy on phase retrieval is presented, and the achromaticity of the method is experimentally demonstrated. Comparison with simulated measurements integrating over the energy spectrum shows that there is no significant loss of image quality due to the use of polychromatic radiation. This means that, to a good approximation, the imaging system exploits radiation in the same way at all energies typically used in hard-X-ray imaging. PMID:26193618

  3. Gold-silica quantum rattles for multimodal imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Hembury, Mathew; Chiappini, Ciro; Bertazzo, Sergio; Kalber, Tammy L; Drisko, Glenna L; Ogunlade, Olumide; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Krishna, Katla Sai; Jumeaux, Coline; Beard, Paul; Kumar, Challa S S R; Porter, Alexandra E; Lythgoe, Mark F; Boissière, Cédric; Sanchez, Clément; Stevens, Molly M

    2015-02-17

    Gold quantum dots exhibit distinctive optical and magnetic behaviors compared with larger gold nanoparticles. However, their unfavorable interaction with living systems and lack of stability in aqueous solvents has so far prevented their adoption in biology and medicine. Here, a simple synthetic pathway integrates gold quantum dots within a mesoporous silica shell, alongside larger gold nanoparticles within the shell's central cavity. This "quantum rattle" structure is stable in aqueous solutions, does not elicit cell toxicity, preserves the attractive near-infrared photonics and paramagnetism of gold quantum dots, and enhances the drug-carrier performance of the silica shell. In vivo, the quantum rattles reduced tumor burden in a single course of photothermal therapy while coupling three complementary imaging modalities: near-infrared fluorescence, photoacoustic, and magnetic resonance imaging. The incorporation of gold within the quantum rattles significantly enhanced the drug-carrier performance of the silica shell. This innovative material design based on the mutually beneficial interaction of gold and silica introduces the use of gold quantum dots for imaging and therapeutic applications. PMID:25653336

  4. Gold–silica quantum rattles for multimodal imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hembury, Mathew; Chiappini, Ciro; Bertazzo, Sergio; Kalber, Tammy L.; Drisko, Glenna L.; Ogunlade, Olumide; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Krishna, Katla Sai; Jumeaux, Coline; Beard, Paul; Kumar, Challa S. S. R.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Boissière, Cédric; Sanchez, Clément; Stevens, Molly M.

    2015-01-01

    Gold quantum dots exhibit distinctive optical and magnetic behaviors compared with larger gold nanoparticles. However, their unfavorable interaction with living systems and lack of stability in aqueous solvents has so far prevented their adoption in biology and medicine. Here, a simple synthetic pathway integrates gold quantum dots within a mesoporous silica shell, alongside larger gold nanoparticles within the shell’s central cavity. This “quantum rattle” structure is stable in aqueous solutions, does not elicit cell toxicity, preserves the attractive near-infrared photonics and paramagnetism of gold quantum dots, and enhances the drug-carrier performance of the silica shell. In vivo, the quantum rattles reduced tumor burden in a single course of photothermal therapy while coupling three complementary imaging modalities: near-infrared fluorescence, photoacoustic, and magnetic resonance imaging. The incorporation of gold within the quantum rattles significantly enhanced the drug-carrier performance of the silica shell. This innovative material design based on the mutually beneficial interaction of gold and silica introduces the use of gold quantum dots for imaging and therapeutic applications. PMID:25653336

  5. Quasi-simultaneous multimodal imaging of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenqi; Gan, Qi; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous and quantitative assessment of multiple tissue parameters may facilitate more effective diagnosis and therapy in many clinical applications, such as wound healing. However, existing wound assessment methods are typically subjective and qualitative, with the need for sequential data acquisition and coregistration between modalities, and lack of reliable standards for performance evaluation or calibration. To overcome these limitations, we developed a multimodal imaging system for quasi-simultaneous assessment of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and perfusion in a quantitative and noninvasive fashion. The system integrated multispectral and laser speckle imaging technologies into one experimental setup. Tissue oxygenation and perfusion were reconstructed by advanced algorithms. The accuracy and reliability of the imaging system were quantitatively validated in calibration experiments and a tissue-simulating phantom test. The experimental results were compared with a commercial oxygenation and perfusion monitor. Dynamic detection of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and perfusion was also demonstrated in vivo by a postocclusion reactive hyperemia procedure in a human subject and a wound healing process in a wounded mouse model. Our in vivo experiments not only validated the performance of the multimodal imaging system for cutaneous tissue oxygenation and perfusion imaging but also demonstrated its technical potential for wound healing assessment in clinical practice.

  6. A Pipeline for 3D Multimodality Image Integration and Computer-assisted Planning in Epilepsy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Mark; Rodionov, Roman; Zombori, Gergely; Sparks, Rachel; Rizzi, Michele; Ourselin, Sebastien; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is challenging and the use of 3D multimodality image integration (3DMMI) to aid presurgical planning is well-established. Multimodality image integration can be technically demanding, and is underutilised in clinical practice. We have developed a single software platform for image integration, 3D visualization and surgical planning. Here, our pipeline is described in step-by-step fashion, starting with image acquisition, proceeding through image co-registration, manual segmentation, brain and vessel extraction, 3D visualization and manual planning of stereoEEG (SEEG) implantations. With dissemination of the software this pipeline can be reproduced in other centres, allowing other groups to benefit from 3DMMI. We also describe the use of an automated, multi-trajectory planner to generate stereoEEG implantation plans. Preliminary studies suggest this is a rapid, safe and efficacious adjunct for planning SEEG implantations. Finally, a simple solution for the export of plans and models to commercial neuronavigation systems for implementation of plans in the operating theater is described. This software is a valuable tool that can support clinical decision making throughout the epilepsy surgery pathway. PMID:27286266

  7. Multimodality Imaging of the Effects of a Novel Dentifrice on Oral Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Ajdaharian, Janet; Dadkhah, Mohammad; Sabokpey, Sara; Biren-Fetz, John; Chung, Na Eun; Wink, Cherie; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oral biofilm formation and progression on the surface of the tooth can lead to advanced oral disease such as gingivitis. The purpose of this randomized, controlled, double-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of a novel dental gel on oral plaque biofilm using multimodal imaging techniques. Materials and Methods Twenty-five subjects with moderate gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index ≥ 2) and pocket depths <4 were randomly assigned to brush twice daily for 21 days with the test or the control dental gel. In vivo multimodality in situ imaging was performed over a 3-week period using in vivo Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Non-Linear Optical microscopy (NLOM). Plaque levels, gingival inflammation and gingival bleeding were also charted on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 using standard clinical indices. Results After 3 weeks, OCT and NLOM images showed a macroscopic break-up of the plaque layer and smaller, fragmented residual deposits in the test group with no apparent changes in the pellicle. Biofilm was also reduced in the control group, but to a lesser degree with regard to thickness, continuity and surface area. Paralleling these imaging results, clinical indices were significantly improved in both groups (P <0.05) and significantly lower in the test group (P <0.05). Conclusion Both dental gels reduced oral biofilm with the test gel showing greater efficacy (P <0.05) as determined by clinical and imaging parameters. PMID:24916419

  8. A Multimodal Imaging Approach for Longitudinal Evaluation of Bladder Tumor Development in an Orthotopic Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Scheepbouwer, Chantal; Meyer, Sandra; Burggraaf, Maroeska J; Jose, Jithin; Molthoff, Carla F M

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy amongst men in Western industrialized countries with an initial response rate of 70% for the non-muscle invasive type, and improving therapy efficacy is highly needed. For this, an appropriate, reliable animal model is essential to gain insight into mechanisms of tumor growth for use in response monitoring of (new) agents. Several animal models have been described in previous studies, but so far success has been hampered due to the absence of imaging methods to follow tumor growth non-invasively over time. Recent developments of multimodal imaging methods for use in animal research have substantially strengthened these options of in vivo visualization of tumor growth. In the present study, a multimodal imaging approach was addressed to investigate bladder tumor proliferation longitudinally. The complementary abilities of Bioluminescence, High Resolution Ultrasound and Photo-acoustic Imaging permit a better understanding of bladder tumor development. Hybrid imaging modalities allow the integration of individual strengths to enable sensitive and improved quantification and understanding of tumor biology, and ultimately, can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics. PMID:27533303

  9. A Multimodal Imaging Approach for Longitudinal Evaluation of Bladder Tumor Development in an Orthotopic Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sandra; Burggraaf, Maroeska J.; Jose, Jithin; Molthoff, Carla F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy amongst men in Western industrialized countries with an initial response rate of 70% for the non-muscle invasive type, and improving therapy efficacy is highly needed. For this, an appropriate, reliable animal model is essential to gain insight into mechanisms of tumor growth for use in response monitoring of (new) agents. Several animal models have been described in previous studies, but so far success has been hampered due to the absence of imaging methods to follow tumor growth non-invasively over time. Recent developments of multimodal imaging methods for use in animal research have substantially strengthened these options of in vivo visualization of tumor growth. In the present study, a multimodal imaging approach was addressed to investigate bladder tumor proliferation longitudinally. The complementary abilities of Bioluminescence, High Resolution Ultrasound and Photo-acoustic Imaging permit a better understanding of bladder tumor development. Hybrid imaging modalities allow the integration of individual strengths to enable sensitive and improved quantification and understanding of tumor biology, and ultimately, can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics. PMID:27533303

  10. A Pipeline for 3D Multimodality Image Integration and Computer-assisted Planning in Epilepsy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nowell, Mark; Rodionov, Roman; Zombori, Gergely; Sparks, Rachel; Rizzi, Michele; Ourselin, Sebastien; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is challenging and the use of 3D multimodality image integration (3DMMI) to aid presurgical planning is well-established. Multimodality image integration can be technically demanding, and is underutilised in clinical practice. We have developed a single software platform for image integration, 3D visualization and surgical planning. Here, our pipeline is described in step-by-step fashion, starting with image acquisition, proceeding through image co-registration, manual segmentation, brain and vessel extraction, 3D visualization and manual planning of stereoEEG (SEEG) implantations. With dissemination of the software this pipeline can be reproduced in other centres, allowing other groups to benefit from 3DMMI. We also describe the use of an automated, multi-trajectory planner to generate stereoEEG implantation plans. Preliminary studies suggest this is a rapid, safe and efficacious adjunct for planning SEEG implantations. Finally, a simple solution for the export of plans and models to commercial neuronavigation systems for implementation of plans in the operating theater is described. This software is a valuable tool that can support clinical decision making throughout the epilepsy surgery pathway. PMID:27286266

  11. Polymer encapsulated upconversion nanoparticle/iron oxide nanocomposites for multimodal imaging and magnetic targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Ma, Xinxing; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang

    2011-12-01

    Multimodal imaging and imaging-guided therapies have become a new trend in the current development of cancer theranostics. In this work, we encapsulate hydrophobic upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) together with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) by using an amphiphilic block copolymer, poly (styrene-block-allyl alcohol) (PS(16)-b-PAA(10)), via a microemulsion method, obtaining an UC-IO@Polymer multi-functional nanocomposite system. Fluorescent dye and anti-cancer drug molecules can be further loaded inside the UC-IO@Polymer nanocomposite for additional functionalities. Utilizing the Squaraine (SQ) dye loaded nanocomposite (UC-IO@Polymer-SQ), triple-modal upconversion luminescence (UCL)/down-conversion fluorescence (FL)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, and also applied for in vivo cancer cell tracking in mice. On the other hand, a chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin, is also loaded into the nanocomposite, forming an UC-IO@Polymer-DOX complex, which enables novel imaging-guided and magnetic targeted drug delivery. Our work provides a method to fabricate a nanocomposite system with highly integrated functionalities for multimodal biomedical imaging and cancer therapy. PMID:21880364

  12. Multi-modal molecular diffuse optical tomography system for small animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, James A.; Basevi, Hector R. A.; Frampton, Jon; Styles, Iain B.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    A multi-modal optical imaging system for quantitative 3D bioluminescence and functional diffuse imaging is presented, which has no moving parts and uses mirrors to provide multi-view tomographic data for image reconstruction. It is demonstrated that through the use of trans-illuminated spectral near infrared measurements and spectrally constrained tomographic reconstruction, recovered concentrations of absorbing agents can be used as prior knowledge for bioluminescence imaging within the visible spectrum. Additionally, the first use of a recently developed multi-view optical surface capture technique is shown and its application to model-based image reconstruction and free-space light modelling is demonstrated. The benefits of model-based tomographic image recovery as compared to 2D planar imaging are highlighted in a number of scenarios where the internal luminescence source is not visible or is confounding in 2D images. The results presented show that the luminescence tomographic imaging method produces 3D reconstructions of individual light sources within a mouse-sized solid phantom that are accurately localised to within 1.5mm for a range of target locations and depths indicating sensitivity and accurate imaging throughout the phantom volume. Additionally the total reconstructed luminescence source intensity is consistent to within 15% which is a dramatic improvement upon standard bioluminescence imaging. Finally, results from a heterogeneous phantom with an absorbing anomaly are presented demonstrating the use and benefits of a multi-view, spectrally constrained coupled imaging system that provides accurate 3D luminescence images. PMID:24954977

  13. Imaging horse tendons using multimodal 2-photon microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sivaguru, Mayandi; Eichorst, John Paul; Durgam, Sushmitha; Fried, Glenn A; Stewart, Allison A; Stewart, Matthew C

    2014-03-15

    Injuries and damage to tendons plague both human and equine athletes. At the site of injuries, various cells congregate to repair and re-structure the collagen. Treatments for collagen injury range from simple procedures such as icing and pharmaceutical treatments to more complex surgeries and the implantation of stem cells. Regardless of the treatment, the level of mechanical stimulation incurred by the recovering tendon is crucial. However, for a given tendon injury, it is not known precisely how much of a load should be applied for an effective recovery. Both too much and too little loading of the tendon could be detrimental during recovery. A mapping of the complex local environment imparted to any cell present at the site of a tendon injury may however, convey fundamental insights related to their decision making as a function of applied load. Therefore, fundamentally knowing how cells translate mechanical cues from their external environment into signals regulating their functions during repair is crucial to more effectively treat these types of injuries. In this paper, we studied systems of tendons with a variety of 2-photon-based imaging techniques to examine the local mechanical environment of cells in both normal and injured tendons. These tendons were chemically treated to instigate various extents of injury and in some cases, were injected with stem cells. The results related by each imaging technique distinguish with high contrast and resolution multiple morphologies of the cells' nuclei and the alignment of the collagen during injury. The incorporation of 2-photon FLIM into this study probed new features in the local environment of the nuclei that were not apparent with steady-state imaging. Overall, this paper focuses on horse tendon injury pattern and analysis with different 2-photon confocal modalities useful for wide variety of application in damaged tissues. PMID:23871762

  14. A graph-based approach for the retrieval of multi-modality medical images.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashnil; Kim, Jinman; Wen, Lingfeng; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we address the retrieval of multi-modality medical volumes, which consist of two different imaging modalities, acquired sequentially, from the same scanner. One such example, positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT), provides physicians with complementary functional and anatomical features as well as spatial relationships and has led to improved cancer diagnosis, localisation, and staging. The challenge of multi-modality volume retrieval for cancer patients lies in representing the complementary geometric and topologic attributes between tumours and organs. These attributes and relationships, which are used for tumour staging and classification, can be formulated as a graph. It has been demonstrated that graph-based methods have high accuracy for retrieval by spatial similarity. However, naïvely representing all relationships on a complete graph obscures the structure of the tumour-anatomy relationships. We propose a new graph structure derived from complete graphs that structurally constrains the edges connected to tumour vertices based upon the spatial proximity of tumours and organs. This enables retrieval on the basis of tumour localisation. We also present a similarity matching algorithm that accounts for different feature sets for graph elements from different imaging modalities. Our method emphasises the relationships between a tumour and related organs, while still modelling patient-specific anatomical variations. Constraining tumours to related anatomical structures improves the discrimination potential of graphs, making it easier to retrieve similar images based on tumour location. We evaluated our retrieval methodology on a dataset of clinical PET-CT volumes. Our results showed that our method enabled the retrieval of multi-modality images using spatial features. Our graph-based retrieval algorithm achieved a higher precision than several other retrieval techniques: gray-level histograms as well as state

  15. Evaluation of 3D multimodality image registration using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holton Tainter, Kerrie S.; Robb, Richard A.; Taneja, Udita; Gray, Joel E.

    1995-04-01

    Receiver operating characteristic analysis has evolved as a useful method for evaluating the discriminatory capability and efficacy of visualization. The ability of such analysis to account for the variance in decision criteria of multiple observers, multiple reading, and a wide range of difficulty in detection among case studies makes ROC especially useful for interpreting the results of a viewing experiment. We are currently using ROC analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of using fused multispectral, or complementary multimodality imaging data in the diagnostic process. The use of multispectral image recordings, gathered from multiple imaging modalities, to provide advanced image visualization and quantization capabilities in evaluating medical images is an important challenge facing medical imaging scientists. Such capabilities would potentially significantly enhance the ability of clinicians to extract scientific and diagnostic information from images. a first step in the effective use of multispectral information is the spatial registration of complementary image datasets so that a point-to-point correspondence exists between them. We are developing a paradigm of measuring the accuracy of existing image registration techniques which includes the ability to relate quantitative measurements, taken from the images themselves, to the decisions made by observers about the state of registration (SOR) of the 3D images. We have used ROC analysis to evaluate the ability of observers to discriminate between correctly registered and incorrectly registered multimodality fused images. We believe this experience is original and represents the first time that ROC analysis has been used to evaluate registered/fused images. We have simulated low-resolution and high-resolution images from real patient MR images of the brain, and fused them with the original MR to produce colorwash superposition images whose exact SOR is known. We have also attempted to extend this analysis to

  16. Electricity and Magnetism: Insights into the brain from multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M S

    2009-11-01

    The windows into brain function given us by the instruments of neuroimaging each are murky and their view is limited. Simultaneous collection of data from multiple modalities offers the potential to overcome the weaknesses of any tool alone. We argue that the combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers observations - and hypothesis testing - not possible using either single instrument. Because of their safety profiles and their non-invasive natures, EEG fMRI are among the best available devices for the study of human brain. These methods are complementary. EEG is fast, operating in a time domain comparable to single unit activity, but its localizing power is poor and the field of view is limited. While fMRI has the highest spatial resolution of any noninvasive imaging method and can reveal multiple centers of brain activity implicated in cognitive tasks, it is very slow compared to mental activity and is a poor choice for studying rapidly evolving processes. Here, we address theoretical models of the coupling between EEG and fMRI signals based on cellular physiology and energetics and argue that both tools observe principally synaptic activity. We discuss the technical problems of mutual interference then present several models of brain rhythms for which the joint EEG and fMRI observations provide significant evidence. PMID:25484491

  17. Polarization sensitive spectroscopic optical coherence tomography for multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strąkowski, Marcin R.; Kraszewski, Maciej; Strąkowska, Paulina; Trojanowski, Michał

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive method for 3D and cross-sectional imaging of biological and non-biological objects. The OCT measurements are provided in non-contact and absolutely safe way for the tested sample. Nowadays, the OCT is widely applied in medical diagnosis especially in ophthalmology, as well as dermatology, oncology and many more. Despite of great progress in OCT measurements there are still a vast number of issues like tissue recognition or imaging contrast enhancement that have not been solved yet. Here we are going to present the polarization sensitive spectroscopic OCT system (PS-SOCT). The PS-SOCT combines the polarization sensitive analysis with time-frequency analysis. Unlike standard polarization sensitive OCT the PS-SOCT delivers spectral information about measured quantities e.g. tested object birefringence changes over the light spectra. This solution overcomes the limits of polarization sensitive analysis applied in standard PS-OCT. Based on spectral data obtained from PS-SOCT the exact value of birefringence can be calculated even for the objects that provide higher order of retardation. In this contribution the benefits of using the combination of time-frequency and polarization sensitive analysis are being expressed. Moreover, the PS-SOCT system features, as well as OCT measurement examples are presented.

  18. Observation of Geometric Parametric Instability Induced by the Periodic Spatial Self-Imaging of Multimode Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupa, Katarzyna; Tonello, Alessandro; Barthélémy, Alain; Couderc, Vincent; Shalaby, Badr Mohamed; Bendahmane, Abdelkrim; Millot, Guy; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Spatiotemporal mode coupling in highly multimode physical systems permits new routes for exploring complex instabilities and forming coherent wave structures. We present here the first experimental demonstration of multiple geometric parametric instability sidebands, generated in the frequency domain through resonant space-time coupling, owing to the natural periodic spatial self-imaging of a multimode quasi-continuous-wave beam in a standard graded-index multimode fiber. The input beam was launched in the fiber by means of an amplified microchip laser emitting sub-ns pulses at 1064 nm. The experimentally observed frequency spacing among sidebands agrees well with analytical predictions and numerical simulations. The first-order peaks are located at the considerably large detuning of 123.5 THz from the pump. These results open the remarkable possibility to convert a near-infrared laser directly into a broad spectral range spanning visible and infrared wavelengths, by means of a single resonant parametric nonlinear effect occurring in the normal dispersion regime. As further evidence of our strong space-time coupling regime, we observed the striking effect that all of the different sideband peaks were carried by a well-defined and stable bell-shaped spatial profile.

  19. Observation of Geometric Parametric Instability Induced by the Periodic Spatial Self-Imaging of Multimode Waves.

    PubMed

    Krupa, Katarzyna; Tonello, Alessandro; Barthélémy, Alain; Couderc, Vincent; Shalaby, Badr Mohamed; Bendahmane, Abdelkrim; Millot, Guy; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Spatiotemporal mode coupling in highly multimode physical systems permits new routes for exploring complex instabilities and forming coherent wave structures. We present here the first experimental demonstration of multiple geometric parametric instability sidebands, generated in the frequency domain through resonant space-time coupling, owing to the natural periodic spatial self-imaging of a multimode quasi-continuous-wave beam in a standard graded-index multimode fiber. The input beam was launched in the fiber by means of an amplified microchip laser emitting sub-ns pulses at 1064 nm. The experimentally observed frequency spacing among sidebands agrees well with analytical predictions and numerical simulations. The first-order peaks are located at the considerably large detuning of 123.5 THz from the pump. These results open the remarkable possibility to convert a near-infrared laser directly into a broad spectral range spanning visible and infrared wavelengths, by means of a single resonant parametric nonlinear effect occurring in the normal dispersion regime. As further evidence of our strong space-time coupling regime, we observed the striking effect that all of the different sideband peaks were carried by a well-defined and stable bell-shaped spatial profile. PMID:27203323

  20. A practical salient region feature based 3D multi-modality registration method for medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Dieter A.; Wolz, Gabriele; Sun, Yiyong; Hornegger, Joachim; Sauer, Frank; Kuwert, Torsten; Xu, Chenyang

    2006-03-01

    We present a novel representation of 3D salient region features and its integration into a hybrid rigid-body registration framework. We adopt scale, translation and rotation invariance properties of those intrinsic 3D features to estimate a transform between underlying mono- or multi-modal 3D medical images. Our method combines advantageous aspects of both feature- and intensity-based approaches and consists of three steps: an automatic extraction of a set of 3D salient region features on each image, a robust estimation of correspondences and their sub-pixel accurate refinement with outliers elimination. We propose a region-growing based approach for the extraction of 3D salient region features, a solution to the problem of feature clustering and a reduction of the correspondence search space complexity. Results of the developed algorithm are presented for both mono- and multi-modal intra-patient 3D image pairs (CT, PET and SPECT) that have been acquired for change detection, tumor localization, and time based intra-person studies. The accuracy of the method is clinically evaluated by a medical expert with an approach that measures the distance between a set of selected corresponding points consisting of both anatomical and functional structures or lesion sites. This demonstrates the robustness of the proposed method to image overlap, missing information and artefacts. We conclude by discussing potential medical applications and possibilities for integration into a non-rigid registration framework.

  1. Transferring biomarker into molecular probe: melanin nanoparticle as a naturally active platform for multimodality imaging.

    PubMed

    Fan, Quli; Cheng, Kai; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ruiping; Yang, Min; Lu, Xiaomei; Xing, Lei; Huang, Wei; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-10-29

    Developing multifunctional and easily prepared nanoplatforms with integrated different modalities is highly challenging for molecular imaging. Here, we report the successful transfer of an important molecular target, melanin, into a novel multimodality imaging nanoplatform. Melanin is abundantly expressed in melanotic melanomas and thus has been actively studied as a target for melanoma imaging. In our work, the multifunctional biopolymer nanoplatform based on ultrasmall (<10 nm) water-soluble melanin nanoparticle (MNP) was developed and showed unique photoacoustic property and natural binding ability with metal ions (for example, (64)Cu(2+), Fe(3+)). Therefore, MNP can serve not only as a photoacoustic contrast agent, but also as a nanoplatform for positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Traditional passive nanoplatforms require complicated and time-consuming processes for prebuilding reporting moieties or chemical modifications using active groups to integrate different contrast properties into one entity. In comparison, utilizing functional biomarker melanin can greatly simplify the building process. We further conjugated αvβ3 integrins, cyclic c(RGDfC) peptide, to MNPs to allow for U87MG tumor accumulation due to its targeting property combined with the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The multimodal properties of MNPs demonstrate the high potential of endogenous materials with multifunctions as nanoplatforms for molecular theranostics and clinical translation. PMID:25292385

  2. Transferring Biomarker into Molecular Probe: Melanin Nanoparticle as a Naturally Active Platform for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifunctional and easily prepared nanoplatforms with integrated different modalities is highly challenging for molecular imaging. Here, we report the successful transfer of an important molecular target, melanin, into a novel multimodality imaging nanoplatform. Melanin is abundantly expressed in melanotic melanomas and thus has been actively studied as a target for melanoma imaging. In our work, the multifunctional biopolymer nanoplatform based on ultrasmall (<10 nm) water-soluble melanin nanoparticle (MNP) was developed and showed unique photoacoustic property and natural binding ability with metal ions (for example, 64Cu2+, Fe3+). Therefore, MNP can serve not only as a photoacoustic contrast agent, but also as a nanoplatform for positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Traditional passive nanoplatforms require complicated and time-consuming processes for prebuilding reporting moieties or chemical modifications using active groups to integrate different contrast properties into one entity. In comparison, utilizing functional biomarker melanin can greatly simplify the building process. We further conjugated αvβ3 integrins, cyclic c(RGDfC) peptide, to MNPs to allow for U87MG tumor accumulation due to its targeting property combined with the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The multimodal properties of MNPs demonstrate the high potential of endogenous materials with multifunctions as nanoplatforms for molecular theranostics and clinical translation. PMID:25292385

  3. Investigating the photosensitizer-potential of targeted gallium corrole using multimode optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Lubow, Jay; Chu, David; Gross, Zeev; Gray, Harry B.; Farkas, Daniel L.; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K.

    2011-02-01

    We recently developed a novel therapeutic particle, HerGa, for breast cancer treatment and detection. HerGa consists of a tumor-targeted cell penetration protein noncovalently assembled with a gallium-metallated corrole. The corrole is structurally similar to porphyrin, emits intense fluorescence, and has proven highly effective for breast tumor treatment preclinically, without light exposure. Here, we tested HerGa as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy and investigated its mechanism of action using multimode optical imaging. Using confocal fluorescence imaging, we observed that HerGa disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential in situ, and this disruption is substantially augmented by light exposure. In addition, spectral and fluorescence lifetime imaging were utilized to both validate the mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and investigate HerGa internalization, allowing us to optimize the timing for light dosimetry. We observed, using advanced multimode optical imaging, that light at a specific wavelength promotes HerGa cytotoxicity, which is likely to cause disruption of mitochondrial function. Thus, we can identify for the first time the capacity of HerGa as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy and reveal its mechanism of action, opening possibilities for therapeutic intervention in human breast cancer management.

  4. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Isotopic Yttrium-90-Labeled Rare Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals for Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paik, Taejong; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Mikitsh, John L; Friedberg, Joseph S; Pryma, Daniel A; Murray, Christopher B

    2015-09-22

    Isotopically labeled nanomaterials have recently attracted much attention in biomedical research, environmental health studies, and clinical medicine because radioactive probes allow the elucidation of in vitro and in vivo cellular transport mechanisms, as well as the unambiguous distribution and localization of nanomaterials in vivo. In addition, nanocrystal-based inorganic materials have a unique capability of customizing size, shape, and composition; with the potential to be designed as multimodal imaging probes. Size and shape of nanocrystals can directly influence interactions with biological systems, hence it is important to develop synthetic methods to design radiolabeled nanocrystals with precise control of size and shape. Here, we report size- and shape-controlled synthesis of rare earth fluoride nanocrystals doped with the β-emitting radioisotope yttrium-90 ((90)Y). Size and shape of nanocrystals are tailored via tight control of reaction parameters and the type of rare earth hosts (e.g., Gd or Y) employed. Radiolabeled nanocrystals are synthesized in high radiochemical yield and purity as well as excellent radiolabel stability in the face of surface modification with different polymeric ligands. We demonstrate the Cerenkov radioluminescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging capabilities of (90)Y-doped GdF3 nanoplates, which offer unique opportunities as a promising platform for multimodal imaging and targeted therapy. PMID:26257288

  5. Model-based fusion of multi-modal volumetric images: application to transcatheter valve procedures.

    PubMed

    Grbić, Sasa; Ionasec, Razvan; Wang, Yang; Mansi, Tommaso; Georgescu, Bogdan; John, Matthias; Boese, Jan; Zheng, Yefeng; Navab, Nassir; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2011-01-01

    Minimal invasive procedures such as transcatheter valve interventions are substituting conventional surgical techniques. Thus, novel operating rooms have been designed to augment traditional surgical equipment with advanced imaging systems to guide the procedures. We propose a novel method to fuse pre-operative and intra-operative information by jointly estimating anatomical models from multiple image modalities. Thereby high-quality patient-specific models are integrated into the imaging environment of operating rooms to guide cardiac interventions. Robust and fast machine learning techniques are utilized to guide the estimation process. Our method integrates both the redundant and complementary multimodal information to achieve a comprehensive modeling and simultaneously reduce the estimation uncertainty. Experiments performed on 28 patients with pairs of multimodal volumetric data are used to demonstrate high quality intra-operative patient-specific modeling of the aortic valve with a precision of 1.09mm in TEE and 1.73mm in 3D C-arm CT. Within a processing time of 10 seconds we additionally obtain model sensitive mapping between the pre- and intraoperative images. PMID:22003620

  6. Multimodal biomedical imaging with asymmetric single-walled carbon nanotube/iron oxide nanoparticle complexes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Nguyen, Freddy T; Barone, Paul W; Heller, Daniel A; Moll, Anthonie E; Patel, Dhaval; Boppart, Stephen A; Strano, Michael S

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) form heterostructured complexes that can be utilized as multimodal bioimaging agents. Fe catalyst-grown SWNT were individually dispersed in aqueous solution via encapsulation by oligonucleotides with the sequence d(GT)15, and enriched using a 0.5 T magnetic array. The resulting nanotube complexes show distinct NIR fluorescence, Raman scattering, and visible/NIR absorbance features, corresponding to the various nanotube species. AFM and cryo-TEM images show DNA-encapsulated complexes composed of a approximately 3 nm particle attached to a carbon nanotube on one end. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements reveal that the nanoparticles are primarily Fe2O3 and superparamagnetic. The Fe2O3 particle-enriched nanotube solution has a magnetic particle content of approximately 35 wt %, a magnetization saturation of approximately 56 emu/g, and a magnetic relaxation time scale ratio (T1/T2) of approximately 12. These complexes have a longer spin-spin relaxation time (T2 approximately 164 ms) than typical ferromagnetic particles due to the smaller size of their magnetic component while still retaining SWNT optical signatures. Macrophage cells that engulf the DNA-wrapped complexes were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and NIR mapping, demonstrating that these multifunctional nanostructures could potentially be useful in multimodal biomedical imaging. PMID:17335265

  7. Multimodal Ultrawide-Field Imaging Features in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Netan; Rao, Rajesh C

    2015-06-01

    A 45-year-old woman was referred for bilateral irregular fundus pigmentation. Dilated fundus examination revealed irregular hypopigmentation posterior to the equator in both eyes, confirmed by fundus autofluorescence. A thickened choroid was seen on enhanced-depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI SD-OCT). Systemic evaluation revealed sensorineural deafness, telecanthus, and a white forelock. Further investigation revealed a first-degree relative with Waardenburg syndrome. Waardenburg syndrome is characterized by a group of features including telecanthus, a broad nasal root, synophrys of the eyebrows, piedbaldism, heterochromia irides, and deafness. Choroidal hypopigmentation is a unique feature that can be visualized with ultrawide-field fundus autofluorescence. The choroid may also be thickened and its thickness measured with EDI SD-OCT. PMID:26114849

  8. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Multimodality non-invasive imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Crosara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Mirko; De Robertis, Riccardo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Canestrini, Stefano; Zamboni, Giulia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by obstructive jaundice, a dramatic clinical response to steroids and pathologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with or without a pancreatic mass. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of an IgG4-related systemic disease and is characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels, infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and extrapancreatic lesions. Type 2 AIP usually has none or very few IgG4-positive plasma cells, no serum IgG4 elevation and appears to be a pancreas-specific disorder without extrapancreatic involvement. AIP is diagnosed in approximately 2%-6% of patients that undergo pancreatic resection for suspected pancreatic cancer. There are three patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis: diffuse disease is the most common type, with a diffuse, "sausage-like" pancreatic enlargement with sharp margins and loss of the lobular contours; focal disease is less common and manifests as a focal mass, often within the pancreatic head, mimicking a pancreatic malignancy. Multifocal involvement can also occur. In this paper we describe the features of AIP at ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, focusing on diagnosis and differential diagnosis with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is of utmost importance to make an early correct differential diagnosis between these two diseases in order to identify the optimal therapeutic strategy and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection in AIP patients. Non-invasive imaging plays also an important role in therapy monitoring, in follow-up and in early identification of disease recurrence. PMID:25493001

  9. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Multimodality non-invasive imaging diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Crosara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Mirko; De Robertis, Riccardo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Canestrini, Stefano; Zamboni, Giulia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by obstructive jaundice, a dramatic clinical response to steroids and pathologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with or without a pancreatic mass. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of an IgG4-related systemic disease and is characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels, infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and extrapancreatic lesions. Type 2 AIP usually has none or very few IgG4-positive plasma cells, no serum IgG4 elevation and appears to be a pancreas-specific disorder without extrapancreatic involvement. AIP is diagnosed in approximately 2%-6% of patients that undergo pancreatic resection for suspected pancreatic cancer. There are three patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis: diffuse disease is the most common type, with a diffuse, “sausage-like” pancreatic enlargement with sharp margins and loss of the lobular contours; focal disease is less common and manifests as a focal mass, often within the pancreatic head, mimicking a pancreatic malignancy. Multifocal involvement can also occur. In this paper we describe the features of AIP at ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, focusing on diagnosis and differential diagnosis with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is of utmost importance to make an early correct differential diagnosis between these two diseases in order to identify the optimal therapeutic strategy and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection in AIP patients. Non-invasive imaging plays also an important role in therapy monitoring, in follow-up and in early identification of disease recurrence. PMID:25493001

  10. Multi-modality Optical Imaging of Rat Kidney Dysfunction: In Vivo Response to Various Ischemia Times.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Jin, Lily; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Tang, Qinggong; Guo, Hengchang; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We observed in vivo kidney dysfunction with various ischemia times at 30, 75, 90, and 120 min using multi-modality optical imaging: optical coherence tomography (OCT), Doppler OCT (DOCT), and two-photon microscopy (TPM). We imaged the renal tubule lumens and glomerulus at several areas of each kidney before, during, and after ischemia of 5-month-old female Munich-Wistar rats. For animals with 30 and 75 min ischemia times, we observed that all areas were recovered after ischemia, that tubule lumens were re-opened and the blood flow of the glomerulus was re-established. For animals with 90 and 120 min ischemia times, we observed unrecovered areas, and that tubule lumens remained close after ischemia. TPM imaging verified the results of OCT and provided higher resolution images than OCT to visualize renal tubule lumens and glomerulus blood flow at the cellular level. PMID:27526162

  11. Long circulating reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient tumor targeting and multimodality imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cheng; Shi, Sixiang; Feng, Liangzhu; Chen, Feng; Graves, Stephen A.; Ehlerding, Emily B.; Goel, Shreya; Sun, Haiyan; England, Christopher G.; Nickles, Robert J.; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Taihong; Cai, Weibo

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface modification is one of the most widely used approaches to improve the solubility of inorganic nanoparticles, prevent their aggregation and prolong their in vivo blood circulation half-life. Herein, we developed double-PEGylated biocompatible reduced graphene oxide nanosheets anchored with iron oxide nanoparticles (RGO-IONP-1stPEG-2ndPEG). The nanoconjugates exhibited a prolonged blood circulation half-life (~27.7 h) and remarkable tumor accumulation (>11 %ID g-1) via an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Due to the strong near-infrared absorbance and superparamagnetism of RGO-IONP-1stPEG-2ndPEG, multimodality imaging combining positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging was successfully achieved. The promising results suggest the great potential of these nanoconjugates for multi-dimensional and more accurate tumor diagnosis and therapy in the future.

  12. Investigating photoexcitation-induced mitochondrial damage by chemotherapeutic corroles using multimode optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Lubow, David J.; Sims, Jessica D.; Gray, Harry B.; Mahammed, Atif; Gross, Zeev; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that a targeted, brightly fluorescent gallium corrole (HerGa) is highly effective for breast tumor detection and treatment. Unlike structurally similar porphryins, HerGa exhibits tumor-targeted toxicity without the need for photoexcitation. We have now examined whether photoexcitation further modulates HerGa toxicity, using multimode optical imaging of live cells, including two-photon excited fluorescence, differential interference contrast (DIC), spectral, and lifetime imaging. Using two-photon excited fluorescence imaging, we observed that light at specific wavelengths augments the HerGa-mediated mitochondrial membrane potential disruption of breast cancer cells in situ. In addition, DIC, spectral, and fluorescence lifetime imaging enabled us to both validate cell damage by HerGa photoexcitation and investigate HerGa internalization, thus allowing optimization of light dose and timing. Our demonstration of HerGa phototoxicity opens the way for development of new methods of cancer intervention using tumor-targeted corroles.

  13. Multimodality Imaging Diagnostic Approach of Systemic-to-Pulmonary Vein Fistulae.

    PubMed

    El Ghannudi, Soraya; Germain, Philippe; Jeung, Mi-Young; Jahn, Christine; Hirschi, Sandrine; Roy, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    A 26-year-old man with a history of bilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary cystic fibrosis 6 months before was admitted in our institution for acute heart failure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) showed an increased aortic output, as aortic flow assessed by velocity mapping was twofold the pulmonary flow, an occluded superior vena cava (SVC), and enlarged azygos vein. A systemic-to-pulmonary vein fistula (SAPVF) was suspected. The selective angiography showed numerous fistulae between intercostals, thyro-cervical, internal mammary arteries and pulmonary veins. The thoracic CT performed before the CMR, which was initially considered as normal, showed well these arteriovenous fistulae after 3D MIP reconstruction. This particular observation highlights the great value of multimodality imaging for the diagnosis of this rare pathology. The MR velocity mapping is a noninvasive imaging technique of great interest to guide the diagnosis of arteriovenous fistulae, and further indicating more invasive complementary imaging modalities like selective arterial angiography. PMID:26603830

  14. Long circulating reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient tumor targeting and multimodality imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Shi, Sixiang; Feng, Liangzhu; Chen, Feng; Graves, Stephen A; Ehlerding, Emily B; Goel, Shreya; Sun, Haiyan; England, Christopher G; Nickles, Robert J; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Taihong; Cai, Weibo

    2016-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface modification is one of the most widely used approaches to improve the solubility of inorganic nanoparticles, prevent their aggregation and prolong their in vivo blood circulation half-life. Herein, we developed double-PEGylated biocompatible reduced graphene oxide nanosheets anchored with iron oxide nanoparticles (RGO-IONP-(1st)PEG-(2nd)PEG). The nanoconjugates exhibited a prolonged blood circulation half-life (∼27.7 h) and remarkable tumor accumulation (>11 %ID g(-1)) via an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Due to the strong near-infrared absorbance and superparamagnetism of RGO-IONP-(1st)PEG-(2nd)PEG, multimodality imaging combining positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging was successfully achieved. The promising results suggest the great potential of these nanoconjugates for multi-dimensional and more accurate tumor diagnosis and therapy in the future. PMID:27109431

  15. Intraosseous Lipoma of the Femor: Image Findings

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Hadi Rokni; Rasouli, Bahman; Borhani, Ali; Noorollahi, Mohammad Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Intraosseous lipoma is a rare benign bone disease. Long and cancellous bones are the most locationsthat can be affected. Almost all lesions were discovered incidentally on imaging modalities that were done during an unrelated investigation. As it is rare, it may be mistaken for nonossifying fibroma, aneurismal bone cyst, simple bone cyst, bone infarct or chondroid tumors. Recently with the high quality imaging modalities such as CT scan and/or MR imaging, the diagnosis of intramedullary lipoma and some other bone lesions can be done without the need for bone biopsy and surgery. Case Report: We’re reporting a rare case of intraosseous lipoma of the distal femur. Plain film radiography showed barely visible medullary expansion and lucency in the distal left femoral diaphysis. The patient underwent further evaluation with computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI). According to the MRI and CT scan findings, intraosseous lipoma was confirmed and the need for more diagnostic tests were eliminated. Conclusion: Although Intraosseous lipoma doesn’t have any manifestations clinically but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bone pains. MRI has an important role in characterization of soft tissue and bone marrow lesions therefore non-surgical approach for most of the patients with intraosseous lipoma would be beneficial. PMID:27298943

  16. Multimodal imaging of ocular surface of dry eye subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Aquavella, James V.; Zavislan, James M.

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between the corneal lipid layer and the ocular surface temperature (OST), we conducted a clinical trial for 20 subjects. Subjects were clinically screened prior to the trial. Of the 20 subjects, 15 have Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and 5 have aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE). A custom, circularly polarized illumination video tearscope measured the lipid layer thickness of the ocular tear film. A long-wave infrared video camera recorded the dynamic thermal properties of the ocular team film. The results of these two methods were analyzed and compared. Using principal component analysis (PCA) of the lipid layer distribution, we find that the 20 subjects could be categorized into five statistically significant groups, independent of their original clinical classification: thin (6 subjects), medium (5 subjects), medium and homogenous (3 subjects), thick (4 subjects), and very thick (2 subjects) lipids, respectively. We also conducted PCA of the OST data, and recategorized the subjects into two thermal groups by k-means clustering: one includes all ADDE subjects and some MGD subjects; the other includes the remaining MGD subjects. By comparing these two methods, we find that dry eye subjects with thin (<= 40 nm) lipids have significantly lower OST, and a larger OST drop range, potentially due to more evaporation. However, as long as the lipid layer is not thin (> 40 nm), there is no strong correlation between the lipid layer thickness and heterogeneity and the OST patterns.

  17. A Case of Overlapping Choriocapillaritis Syndromes: Multimodal Imaging Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetcova, Tatiana; Jeannin, Bruno; Herbort, Carl P

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present a patient with overlapping choriocapillaritis syndromes who first presented as a typical case of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) and later with characteristic findings compatible with multifocal choroiditis (MFC). Case Report: A 40-year-old myopic woman presented with a paracentral scotoma OS. Fundus examination revealed pale discolored areas around the optic disc corresponding to faintly hyperfluorescent areas on fluorescein angiography (FA). On indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) there was extensive peripapillary hypofluorescence and confluent hypofluorescent dots superiorly. According to the clinical picture, a diagnosis of MEWDS was made. In 4 weeks, the visual field reverted to normal together with almost complete regression of hypofluorescence on ICGA. However, 4 months later fundus examination revealed some scars, a finding not typical for MEWDS. Besides, she developed another scotoma 12 months later accompanied by photopsia and the fundus illustrated more numerous scars than one year earlier. ICGA showed hypofluorescent areas corresponding to the scotoma delineated by visual field testing. The pattern of this recurrence clearly corresponded to MFC. Conclusion: This case illustrates an overlap between two entities, MEWDS and MFC in two sequential episodes. FA and fundus autofluorescence accounted for the lesions and optical coherence tomography showed damage to the photoreceptor outer segments, but only ICGA correlated well with functional evolution. PMID:22737390

  18. Multimodal in vivo MRI and NIRF imaging of bladder tumor using peptide conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Jaehong; Dhawan, Deepika; Knapp, Deborah W.; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Leary, James F.

    2012-03-01

    Exact detection and complete removal of cancer is a key point to minimize cancer recurrence. However, it is currently very difficult to detect small tumors inside human body and continuously monitor tumors using a non-invasive imaging modality. Presently, positron emission tomography (PET) can provide the most sensitive cancer images in the human body. However, PET imaging has very limited imaging time because they typically use isotopes with short halflives. PET imaging cannot also visualize anatomical information. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide highresolution images inside the body but it has a low sensitivity, so MRI contrast agents are necessary to enhance the contrast of tumor. Near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging has a good sensitivity to visualize tumor using optical probes, but it has a very limited tissue penetration depth. Therefore, we developed multi-modality nanoparticles for MRI based diagnosis and NIRF imaging based surgery of cancer. We utilized glycol chitosan of 350 nm as a vehicle for MRI contrast agents and NIRF probes. The glycol chitosan nanoparticles were conjugated with NIRF dye, Cy5.5 and bladder cancer targeting peptides to increase the internalization of cancer. For MR contrast effects, iron oxide based 22 nm nanocubes were physically loaded into the glycol chitosan nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized and evaluated in bladder tumor bearing mice. Our study suggests the potential of our nanoparticles by both MRI and NIRF imaging for tumor diagnosis and real-time NIRF image-guided tumor surgery.

  19. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Jason S. Lewis

    2012-04-09

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) [1,2]. These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) [2]. A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) [3]. Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles [1]. Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust, versatile, and multi

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of intramammary metastases.

    PubMed

    Wienbeck, Susanne; Herzog, Aimee; Kinner, Sonja; Surov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of intramammary metastases (IM). We identified 8 cases with IM, which were investigated by breast MRI (1.5T). In every case, the diagnosis of IM was proven histopathologically on breast biopsy specimens. Overall, 187 IM were identified. IM had inconsistent MRI features, which cannot be clearly classify as benign or malignant. IM should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions to avoid possible misinterpretations. PMID:27133668

  1. Multi-Modal Imaging with a Toolbox of Influenza A Reporter Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Vy; Poole, Daniel S.; Jeffery, Justin J.; Sheahan, Timothy P.; Creech, Donald; Yevtodiyenko, Aleksey; Peat, Andrew J.; Francis, Kevin P.; You, Shihyun; Mehle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Reporter viruses are useful probes for studying multiple stages of the viral life cycle. Here we describe an expanded toolbox of fluorescent and bioluminescent influenza A reporter viruses. The enhanced utility of these tools enabled kinetic studies of viral attachment, infection, and co-infection. Multi-modal bioluminescence and positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging of infected animals revealed that antiviral treatment reduced viral load, dissemination, and inflammation. These new technologies and applications will dramatically accelerate in vitro and in vivo influenza virus studies. PMID:26473913

  2. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Biosensing: In Vivo Diagnostics and Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Henry, Anne-Isabelle; Sharma, Bhavya; Cardinal, M Fernanda; Kurouski, Dmitry; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2016-07-01

    This perspective presents recent developments in the application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to biosensing, with a focus on in vivo diagnostics. We describe the concepts and methodologies developed to date and the target analytes that can be detected. We also discuss how SERS has evolved from a "point-and-shoot" stand-alone technique in an analytical chemistry laboratory to an integrated quantitative analytical tool for multimodal imaging diagnostics. Finally, we offer a guide to the future of SERS in the context of clinical diagnostics. PMID:27268724

  3. Multimodal imaging reveals temporal and spatial microglia and matrix metalloproteinase activity after experimental stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zinnhardt, Bastian; Viel, Thomas; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Vrachimis, Alexis; Wagner, Stefan; Breyholz, Hans-Jörg; Faust, Andreas; Hermann, Sven; Kopka, Klaus; Faber, Cornelius; Dollé, Frédéric; Pappata, Sabina; Planas, Anna M; Tavitian, Bertrand; Schäfers, Michael; Sorokin, Lydia M; Kuhlmann, Michael T; Jacobs, Andreas H

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the most common cause of death and disability from neurologic disease in humans. Activation of microglia and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is involved in positively and negatively affecting stroke outcome. Novel, noninvasive, multimodal imaging methods visualizing microglial and MMP alterations were employed. The spatio-temporal dynamics of these parameters were studied in relation to blood flow changes. Micro positron emission tomography (μPET) using [18F]BR-351 showed MMP activity within the first days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo), followed by increased [18F]DPA-714 uptake as a marker for microglia activation with a maximum at 14 days after tMCAo. The inflammatory response was spatially located in the infarct core and in adjacent (penumbral) tissue. For the first time, multimodal imaging based on PET, single photon emission computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed insight into the spatio-temporal distribution of critical parameters of poststroke inflammation. This allows further evaluation of novel treatment paradigms targeting the postischemic inflammation. PMID:26126867

  4. Multimodal imaging reveals temporal and spatial microglia and matrix metalloproteinase activity after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Zinnhardt, Bastian; Viel, Thomas; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Vrachimis, Alexis; Wagner, Stefan; Breyholz, Hans-Jörg; Faust, Andreas; Hermann, Sven; Kopka, Klaus; Faber, Cornelius; Dollé, Frédéric; Pappata, Sabina; Planas, Anna M; Tavitian, Bertrand; Schäfers, Michael; Sorokin, Lydia M; Kuhlmann, Michael T; Jacobs, Andreas H

    2015-11-01

    Stroke is the most common cause of death and disability from neurologic disease in humans. Activation of microglia and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is involved in positively and negatively affecting stroke outcome. Novel, noninvasive, multimodal imaging methods visualizing microglial and MMP alterations were employed. The spatio-temporal dynamics of these parameters were studied in relation to blood flow changes. Micro positron emission tomography (μPET) using [(18)F]BR-351 showed MMP activity within the first days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo), followed by increased [(18)F]DPA-714 uptake as a marker for microglia activation with a maximum at 14 days after tMCAo. The inflammatory response was spatially located in the infarct core and in adjacent (penumbral) tissue. For the first time, multimodal imaging based on PET, single photon emission computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed insight into the spatio-temporal distribution of critical parameters of poststroke inflammation. This allows further evaluation of novel treatment paradigms targeting the postischemic inflammation. PMID:26126867

  5. In vivo monitoring of structural and mechanical changes of tissue scaffolds by multi-modality imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dae Woo; Ye, Sang-Ho; Jiang, Hong Bin; Dutta, Debaditya; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Wagner, William R.; Kim, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Degradable tissue scaffolds are implanted to serve a mechanical role while healing processes occur and putatively assume the physiological load as the scaffold degrades. Mechanical failure during this period can be unpredictable as monitoring of structural degradation and mechanical strength changes at the implant site is not readily achieved in vivo, and non-invasively. To address this need, a multi-modality approach using ultrasound shear wave imaging (USWI) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) for both mechanical and structural assessment in vivo was demonstrated with degradable poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) and polydioxanone (PDO) scaffolds. The fibrous scaffolds were fabricated with wet electrospinning, dyed with indocyanine green (ICG) for optical contrast in PAI, and implanted in the abdominal wall of 36 rats. The scaffolds were monitored monthly using USWI and PAI and were extracted at 0, 4, 8 and 12 wk for mechanical and histological assessment. The change in shear modulus of the constructs in vivo obtained by USWI correlated with the change in average Young's modulus of the constructs ex vivo obtained by compression measurements. The PEUU and PDO scaffolds exhibited distinctly different degradation rates and average PAI signal intensity. The distribution of PAI signal intensity also corresponded well to the remaining scaffolds as seen in explant histology. This evidence using a small animal abdominal wall repair model demonstrates that multi-modality imaging of USWI and PAI may allow tissue engineers to noninvasively evaluate concurrent mechanical stiffness and structural changes of tissue constructs in vivo for a variety of applications. PMID:24951048

  6. Laser Microdissection and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled for Multimodal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient laser ablation surface sampling, accomplished using a laser capture microdissection system, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for high spatial resolution multimodal imaging. A commercial laser capture microdissection system was placed in close proximity to a modified ion source of a mass spectrometer designed to allow for sampling of laser ablated material via a transfer tube directly into the ionization region. Rhodamine 6G dye of red sharpie ink in a laser etched pattern as well as cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section were identified and imaged from full scan mass spectra. A minimal spot diameter of 8 m was achieved using the 10X microscope cutting objective with a lateral oversampling pixel resolution of about 3.7 m. Distinguishing between features approximately 13 m apart in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section was demonstrated in a multimodal fashion including co-registered optical and mass spectral chemical images.

  7. Annexin A5-Functionalized Nanoparticle for Multimodal Imaging of Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Huang, Miao; Zhou, Min; Wen, Xiaoxia; Huang, Qian; Li, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Techniques for visualizing cell death can provide noninvasive assessment of both disease states and response to therapeutic intervention. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a multimodal imaging nanoplatform for the detection of cell death. Method In this study, we evaluated 111In-labeled Annexin A5-conjugated core-crosslinked polymeric micelles (CCPM) for multimodal imaging of cell death in various disease models. Three different models were conducted, including tumor apoptosis, hepatic apoptosis and inflammation. Both micro-single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (µSPECT/CT) and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) were performed. Biodistribution and immunohistochemistry assays were carried out to validate selectivity of cell death imaging. Result In all disease models, cell death was clearly visualized by both µSPECT/CT and FMT. In contrast, there was relatively low signal in the corresponding tissues of control mice. Moreover, the radioactive signal from 111In-labeled annexin A5-CCPM colocalized with its fluorescence signal, and both signals were confined to regions of dying cells. Conclusion 111In-labeled annexin A5-CCPM allows visualization of cell death by both nuclear and optical techniques at whole-body level as well as at microscopic level. It has the potential to aid diagnosis of disease states or tissue responses involving abnormal cell death. PMID:23490444

  8. VoxelStats: A MATLAB Package for Multi-Modal Voxel-Wise Brain Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha; Wang, Seqian; Shin, Monica; Pascoal, Tharick A.; Benedet, Andrea L.; Kang, Min Su; Beaudry, Thomas; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Gauthier, Serge; Labbe, Aurélie; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, behavioral outcomes are highly associated with the variability on brain regional structure or neurochemical phenotypes. Similarly, in the context of neurodegenerative conditions, neuroimaging reveals that cognitive decline is linked to the magnitude of atrophy, neurochemical declines, or concentrations of abnormal protein aggregates across brain regions. However, modeling the effects of multiple regional abnormalities as determinants of cognitive decline at the voxel level remains largely unexplored by multimodal imaging research, given the high computational cost of estimating regression models for every single voxel from various imaging modalities. VoxelStats is a voxel-wise computational framework to overcome these computational limitations and to perform statistical operations on multiple scalar variables and imaging modalities at the voxel level. VoxelStats package has been developed in Matlab® and supports imaging formats such as Nifti-1, ANALYZE, and MINC v2. Prebuilt functions in VoxelStats enable the user to perform voxel-wise general and generalized linear models and mixed effect models with multiple volumetric covariates. Importantly, VoxelStats can recognize scalar values or image volumes as response variables and can accommodate volumetric statistical covariates as well as their interaction effects with other variables. Furthermore, this package includes built-in functionality to perform voxel-wise receiver operating characteristic analysis and paired and unpaired group contrast analysis. Validation of VoxelStats was conducted by comparing the linear regression functionality with existing toolboxes such as glim_image and RMINC. The validation results were identical to existing methods and the additional functionality was demonstrated by generating feature case assessments (t-statistics, odds ratio, and true positive rate maps). In summary, VoxelStats expands the current methods for multimodal imaging analysis by allowing the

  9. VoxelStats: A MATLAB Package for Multi-Modal Voxel-Wise Brain Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha; Wang, Seqian; Shin, Monica; Pascoal, Tharick A; Benedet, Andrea L; Kang, Min Su; Beaudry, Thomas; Fonov, Vladimir S; Gauthier, Serge; Labbe, Aurélie; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, behavioral outcomes are highly associated with the variability on brain regional structure or neurochemical phenotypes. Similarly, in the context of neurodegenerative conditions, neuroimaging reveals that cognitive decline is linked to the magnitude of atrophy, neurochemical declines, or concentrations of abnormal protein aggregates across brain regions. However, modeling the effects of multiple regional abnormalities as determinants of cognitive decline at the voxel level remains largely unexplored by multimodal imaging research, given the high computational cost of estimating regression models for every single voxel from various imaging modalities. VoxelStats is a voxel-wise computational framework to overcome these computational limitations and to perform statistical operations on multiple scalar variables and imaging modalities at the voxel level. VoxelStats package has been developed in Matlab(®) and supports imaging formats such as Nifti-1, ANALYZE, and MINC v2. Prebuilt functions in VoxelStats enable the user to perform voxel-wise general and generalized linear models and mixed effect models with multiple volumetric covariates. Importantly, VoxelStats can recognize scalar values or image volumes as response variables and can accommodate volumetric statistical covariates as well as their interaction effects with other variables. Furthermore, this package includes built-in functionality to perform voxel-wise receiver operating characteristic analysis and paired and unpaired group contrast analysis. Validation of VoxelStats was conducted by comparing the linear regression functionality with existing toolboxes such as glim_image and RMINC. The validation results were identical to existing methods and the additional functionality was demonstrated by generating feature case assessments (t-statistics, odds ratio, and true positive rate maps). In summary, VoxelStats expands the current methods for multimodal imaging analysis by allowing the

  10. Multimodal fluorescence mediated tomography and SPECT/CT for small animals imaging

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Metasebya; Nothdruft, Ralph E.; Akers, Walter; Edwards, W. Barry; Liang, Kexian; Xu, Baogang; Suddlow, Gail P.; Deghani, Hamid; Tai, Yuan-Chuan; Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Achilefu, Samuel; Culver, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal co-registration of nuclear and optical images would enable the fusion of the information from theses complementary molecular imaging modalities. A critical challenge in integration is fitting optical hardware into the nuclear imaging platforms. Flexible fiber-based fluorescence mediated tomography (FMT) systems provide a viable solution because the various imaging bore sizes of small animal nuclear imaging systems can potentially accommodate the FMT fiber imaging arrays. Further, FMT imaging facilitates co-registering the nuclear and optical contrasts in time. Herein, we combine a fiber based FMT system with a preclinical NanoSPECT/CT platform. Feasibility of in vivo imaging is demonstrated by tracking the accumulation of a monomolecular multimodal imaging agent (MOMIA) in a sentinel lymph node (SLN) of a rat. Methods The fiber-based, video-rate FMT imaging system is composed of 12 alternating sources (785nm and 830nm LDs) and 13 detectors. To maintain high temporal sampling, the system simultaneously acquires ratio-metric data at each detector. The data is reconstructed using the normalized Born approach with a three-dimensional finite element model derived from an anatomical CT image of a rat for accurate light propagation modeling. Nuclear and optical contrasts are integrated by using a MOMIA. Data collection begins immediately after injection of the MOMIA intradermally into the forepaw with the FMT data acquired simultaneously with both the SPECT and CT. Results Fluorescence and radioactivity from the MOMIA were co-localized in a spatially coincident region. Intravital imaging with surgical exposure of the lymph node validated the localization of the optical contrast. The optical and nuclear contrasts where integrated by incorporating SPECT as a prior in the DOT reconstruction. Conclusion The feasibility of integrating a fiber-based, video-rate FMT system with a commercial preclinical NanoSPECT/CT platform was established. The co

  11. Multicomponent, peptide-targeted glycol chitosan nanoparticles containing ferrimagnetic iron oxide nanocubes for bladder cancer multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Key, Jaehong; Dhawan, Deepika; Cooper, Christy L; Knapp, Deborah W; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Park, Kinam; Decuzzi, Paolo; Leary, James F

    2016-01-01

    While current imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography, and positron emission tomography, play an important role in detecting tumors in the body, no single-modality imaging possesses all the functions needed for a complete diagnostic imaging, such as spatial resolution, signal sensitivity, and tissue penetration depth. For this reason, multimodal imaging strategies have become promising tools for advanced biomedical research and cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. In designing multimodal nanoparticles, the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles should be engineered so that they successfully accumulate at the tumor site and minimize nonspecific uptake by other organs. Finely altering the nano-scale properties can dramatically change the biodistribution and tumor accumulation of nanoparticles in the body. In this study, we engineered multimodal nanoparticles for both MRI, by using ferrimagnetic nanocubes (NCs), and near infrared fluorescence imaging, by using cyanine 5.5 fluorescence molecules. We changed the physicochemical properties of glycol chitosan nanoparticles by conjugating bladder cancer-targeting peptides and loading many ferrimagnetic iron oxide NCs per glycol chitosan nanoparticle to improve MRI contrast. The 22 nm ferrimagnetic NCs were stabilized in physiological conditions by encapsulating them within modified chitosan nanoparticles. The multimodal nanoparticles were compared with in vivo MRI and near infrared fluorescent systems. We demonstrated significant and important changes in the biodistribution and tumor accumulation of nanoparticles with different physicochemical properties. Finally, we demonstrated that multimodal nanoparticles specifically visualize small tumors and show minimal accumulation in other organs. This work reveals the importance of finely modulating physicochemical properties in designing multimodal nanoparticles for bladder cancer imaging. PMID:27621615

  12. Multicomponent, peptide-targeted glycol chitosan nanoparticles containing ferrimagnetic iron oxide nanocubes for bladder cancer multimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Key, Jaehong; Dhawan, Deepika; Cooper, Christy L; Knapp, Deborah W; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Park, Kinam; Decuzzi, Paolo; Leary, James F

    2016-01-01

    While current imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography, and positron emission tomography, play an important role in detecting tumors in the body, no single-modality imaging possesses all the functions needed for a complete diagnostic imaging, such as spatial resolution, signal sensitivity, and tissue penetration depth. For this reason, multimodal imaging strategies have become promising tools for advanced biomedical research and cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. In designing multimodal nanoparticles, the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles should be engineered so that they successfully accumulate at the tumor site and minimize nonspecific uptake by other organs. Finely altering the nano-scale properties can dramatically change the biodistribution and tumor accumulation of nanoparticles in the body. In this study, we engineered multimodal nanoparticles for both MRI, by using ferrimagnetic nanocubes (NCs), and near infrared fluorescence imaging, by using cyanine 5.5 fluorescence molecules. We changed the physicochemical properties of glycol chitosan nanoparticles by conjugating bladder cancer-targeting peptides and loading many ferrimagnetic iron oxide NCs per glycol chitosan nanoparticle to improve MRI contrast. The 22 nm ferrimagnetic NCs were stabilized in physiological conditions by encapsulating them within modified chitosan nanoparticles. The multimodal nanoparticles were compared with in vivo MRI and near infrared fluorescent systems. We demonstrated significant and important changes in the biodistribution and tumor accumulation of nanoparticles with different physicochemical properties. Finally, we demonstrated that multimodal nanoparticles specifically visualize small tumors and show minimal accumulation in other organs. This work reveals the importance of finely modulating physicochemical properties in designing multimodal nanoparticles for bladder cancer imaging. PMID:27621615

  13. PLANTAR THROMBOPHLEBITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Frederico Celestino; Carneiro, Renato Duarte; Longo, Carlos Henrique; Fernandes, Túlio Diniz; Rosemberg, Laércio Alberto; de Gusmão Funari, Marcelo Buarque

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in plantar thrombophlebitis. Methods: Retrospective review of twenty patients with pain in the plantar region of the foot, in which the MRI findings indicated plantar thrombophlebitis. Results: A total of fourteen men and six women, mean age 46.7 years were evaluated. Eight of these patients also underwent Doppler ultrasonography, which confirmed the thrombophlebitis. The magnetic resonance images were evaluated in consensus by two radiologists with experience in musculoskeletal radiology (more than 10 years each), showing perivascular edema in all twenty patients (100%) and muscle edema in nineteen of the twenty patients (95%). All twenty patients had intraluminal intermediate signal intensity on T2-weighted (100%) and venous ectasia was present in seventeen of the twenty cases (85%). Collateral veins were visualized in one of the twenty patients (5%). All fourteen cases (100%), in which intravenous contrast was administered, showed perivenular tissues enhancement and intraluminal filling defect. Venous ectasia, loss of compressibility and no flow on Doppler ultrasound were also observed in all eight cases examined by the method. Conclusion: MRI is a sensitive in the evaluation of plant thrombophlebitis in patients with plantar foot pain. PMID:27047898

  14. Optimization of Multimodal Imaging of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter for PET and Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wolfs, Esther; Holvoet, Bryan; Gijsbers, Rik; Casteels, Cindy; Roberts, Scott J.; Struys, Tom; Maris, Michael; Ibrahimi, Abdelilah; Debyser, Zeger; Van Laere, Koen; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Deroose, Christophe M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The use of stably integrated reporter gene imaging provides a manner to monitor the in vivo fate of engrafted cells over time in a non-invasive manner. Here, we optimized multimodal imaging (small-animal PET, Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI)) of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), by means of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and firefly luciferase (Fluc) as reporters. Methods First, two multicistronic lentiviral vectors (LV) were generated for multimodal imaging: BLI, 124I PET/SPECT and CLI. Expression of the imaging reporter genes was validated in vitro using 99mTcO4− radioligand uptake experiments and BLI. Uptake kinetics, specificity and tracer elution were determined as well as the effect of the transduction process on the cell's differentiation capacity. MSCs expressing the LV were injected intravenously or subcutaneously and imaged using small-animal PET, CLI and BLI. Results The expression of both imaging reporter genes was functional and specific. An elution of 99mTcO4− from the cells was observed, with 31% retention after 3 h. After labeling cells with 124I in vitro, a significantly higher CLI signal was noted in hNIS expressing murine MSCs. Furthermore, it was possible to visualize cells injected intravenously using BLI or subcutaneously in mice, using 124I small-animal PET, CLI and BLI. Conclusions This study identifies hNIS as a suitable reporter gene for molecular imaging with PET and CLI, as confirmed with BLI through the expression of Fluc. It supports the potential for a wider application of hNIS reporter gene imaging and future clinical applications. PMID:24747914

  15. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it. PMID:26846188

  16. Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Alex C. T.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Smith, Michael S. D.; Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Hewko, Mark D.; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Kohlenberg, Elicia K.; Schattka, Bernie; Shiomi, Masashi; Stolow, Albert; Sowa, Michael G.

    2010-03-01

    Label-free imaging of bulk arterial tissue is demonstrated using a multimodal nonlinear optical microscope based on a photonic crystal fiber and a single femtosecond oscillator operating at 800 nm. Colocalized imaging of extracellular elastin fibers, fibrillar collagen, and lipid-rich structures within aortic tissue obtained from atherosclerosis-prone myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits is demonstrated through two-photon excited fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, respectively. These images are shown to differentiate healthy arterial wall, early atherosclerotic lesions, and advanced plaques. Clear pathological changes are observed in the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall and correlated with progression of atherosclerotic disease as represented by the age of the WHHLMI rabbits.

  17. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it.

  18. Use of anomolous thermal imaging effects for multi-mode systems control during crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Real time image processing techniques, combined with multitasking computational capabilities are used to establish thermal imaging as a multimode sensor for systems control during crystal growth. Whereas certain regions of the high temperature scene are presently unusable for quantitative determination of temperature, the anomalous information thus obtained is found to serve as a potentially low noise source of other important systems control output. Using this approach, the light emission/reflection characteristics of the crystal, meniscus and melt system are used to infer the crystal diameter and a linear regression algorithm is employed to determine the local diameter trend. This data is utilized as input for closed loop control of crystal shape. No performance penalty in thermal imaging speed is paid for this added functionality. Approach to secondary (diameter) sensor design and systems control structure is discussed. Preliminary experimental results are presented.

  19. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; et al

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioningmore » it.« less

  20. Red persistent luminescence and magnetic properties of nanomaterials for multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosticher, C.; Chanéac, C.; Viana, B.; Fortin, M. A.; Lagueux, J.; Faucher, L.

    2014-03-01

    We present a new generation of nanotracers with persistent luminescence properties in the red-near IR range for small animal imaging. Silicates, oxysulfides and calcium phosphates nanoparticles doped with transition metal and lanthanide ions were developed in this aim. We have focused our attention in this paper on the biocompatible TCP/HAp phosphate compounds doped with Eu, Mn, Dy and on the Gd2O2S:Eu, Mg, Ti materials in the form of nanoparticles. All the nanosensors were hydrothermally synthesized and if the phosphate has a very high interest due to its biocompatibility Gd2O2S:Eu, Mg, Ti was investigated as a multimodal agent for possible in vivo optical imaging and MRI imaging.

  1. Multimodal two-photon imaging using a second harmonic generation-specific dye.

    PubMed

    Nuriya, Mutsuo; Fukushima, Shun; Momotake, Atsuya; Shinotsuka, Takanori; Yasui, Masato; Arai, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging can be used to visualize unique biological phenomena, but currently available dyes limit its application owing to the strong fluorescent signals that they generate together with SHG. Here we report the first non-fluorescent and membrane potential-sensitive SHG-active organic dye Ap3. Ap3 is photostable and generates SH signals at the plasma membrane with virtually no fluorescent signals, in sharp contrast to the previously used fluorescent dye FM4-64. When tested in neurons, Ap3-SHG shows linear membrane potential sensitivity and fast responses to action potentials, and also shows significantly reduced photodamage compared with FM4-64. The SHG-specific nature of Ap3 allows simultaneous and completely independent imaging of SHG signals and fluorescent signals from various reporter molecules, including markers of cellular organelles and intracellular calcium. Therefore, this SHG-specific dye enables true multimodal two-photon imaging in biological samples. PMID:27156702

  2. Multimodal two-photon imaging using a second harmonic generation-specific dye

    PubMed Central

    Nuriya, Mutsuo; Fukushima, Shun; Momotake, Atsuya; Shinotsuka, Takanori; Yasui, Masato; Arai, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging can be used to visualize unique biological phenomena, but currently available dyes limit its application owing to the strong fluorescent signals that they generate together with SHG. Here we report the first non-fluorescent and membrane potential-sensitive SHG-active organic dye Ap3. Ap3 is photostable and generates SH signals at the plasma membrane with virtually no fluorescent signals, in sharp contrast to the previously used fluorescent dye FM4-64. When tested in neurons, Ap3-SHG shows linear membrane potential sensitivity and fast responses to action potentials, and also shows significantly reduced photodamage compared with FM4-64. The SHG-specific nature of Ap3 allows simultaneous and completely independent imaging of SHG signals and fluorescent signals from various reporter molecules, including markers of cellular organelles and intracellular calcium. Therefore, this SHG-specific dye enables true multimodal two-photon imaging in biological samples. PMID:27156702

  3. Hopc: a Novel Similarity Metric Based on Geometric Structural Properties for Multi-Modal Remote Sensing Image Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yuanxin; Shen, Li

    2016-06-01

    Automatic matching of multi-modal remote sensing images (e.g., optical, LiDAR, SAR and maps) remains a challenging task in remote sensing image analysis due to significant non-linear radiometric differences between these images. This paper addresses this problem and proposes a novel similarity metric for multi-modal matching using geometric structural properties of images. We first extend the phase congruency model with illumination and contrast invariance, and then use the extended model to build a dense descriptor called the Histogram of Orientated Phase Congruency (HOPC) that captures geometric structure or shape features of images. Finally, HOPC is integrated as the similarity metric to detect tie-points between images by designing a fast template matching scheme. This novel metric aims to represent geometric structural similarities between multi-modal remote sensing datasets and is robust against significant non-linear radiometric changes. HOPC has been evaluated with a variety of multi-modal images including optical, LiDAR, SAR and map data. Experimental results show its superiority to the recent state-of-the-art similarity metrics (e.g., NCC, MI, etc.), and demonstrate its improved matching performance.

  4. Comparative imaging study in ultrasound, MRI, CT, and DSA using a multimodality renal artery phantom

    SciTech Connect

    King, Deirdre M.; Fagan, Andrew J.; Moran, Carmel M.; Browne, Jacinta E.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: A range of anatomically realistic multimodality renal artery phantoms consisting of vessels with varying degrees of stenosis was developed and evaluated using four imaging techniques currently used to detect renal artery stenosis (RAS). The spatial resolution required to visualize vascular geometry and the velocity detection performance required to adequately characterize blood flow in patients suffering from RAS are currently ill-defined, with the result that no one imaging modality has emerged as a gold standard technique for screening for this disease. Methods: The phantoms, which contained a range of stenosis values (0%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 85%), were designed for use with ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, x-ray computed tomography, and x-ray digital subtraction angiography. The construction materials used were optimized with respect to their ultrasonic speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, MR relaxometry (T{sub 1},T{sub 2}) properties, and Hounsfield number/x-ray attenuation coefficient, with a design capable of tolerating high-pressure pulsatile flow. Fiducial targets, incorporated into the phantoms to allow for registration of images among modalities, were chosen to minimize geometric distortions. Results: High quality distortion-free images of the phantoms with good contrast between vessel lumen, fiducial markers, and background tissue to visualize all stenoses were obtained with each modality. Quantitative assessments of the grade of stenosis revealed significant discrepancies between modalities, with each underestimating the stenosis severity for the higher-stenosed phantoms (70% and 85%) by up to 14%, with the greatest discrepancy attributable to DSA. Conclusions: The design and construction of a range of anatomically realistic renal artery phantoms containing varying degrees of stenosis is described. Images obtained using the main four diagnostic techniques used to detect RAS were free from artifacts and exhibited adequate contrast

  5. In vivo multimodal magnetic particle imaging (MPI) with tailored magneto/optical contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Arami, Hamed; Khandhar, Amit; Tomitaka, Asahi; Yu, Elaine; Goodwill, Patrick; Conolly, Steven; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a novel non-invasive biomedical imaging modality that uses safe magnetite nanoparticles as tracers. Controlled synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with tuned size-dependent magnetic relaxation properties is critical for the development of MPI. Additional functionalization of these NPs for other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI and fluorescent imaging) would accelerate screening of the MPI tracers based on their in vitro and in vivo performance in pre-clinical trials. Here, we conjugated two different types of poly-ethylene-glycols (NH2-PEG-NH2 and NH2-PEG FMOC) to monodisperse carboxylated 19.7nm NPs by amide bonding. Further, we labeled these NPs with Cy5.5 near infra-red fluorescent (NIRF) molecules. Bi-functional PEG (NH2-PEG-NH2) resulted in larger hydrodynamic size (~98nm vs. ~43nm) of the tracers, due to interparticle crosslinking. Formation of such clusters impacted the multimodal imaging performance and pharmacokinetics of these tracers. We found that MPI signal intensity of the tracers in blood depends on their plasmatic clearance pharmacokinetics. Whole body mice MPI/MRI/NIRF, used to study the biodistribution of the injected NPs, showed primary distribution in liver and spleen. Biodistribution of tracers and their clearance pathway was further confirmed by MPI and NIRF signals from the excised organs where the Cy5.5 labeling enabled detailed anatomical mapping of the tracers.in tissue sections. These multimodal MPI tracers, combining the strengths of each imaging modality (e.g. resolution, tracer sensitivity and clinical use feasibility) pave the way for various in vitro and in vivo MPI applications. PMID:25818431

  6. Design and characterization of a handheld multimodal imaging device for the assessment of oral epithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Laura M.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. A compact handpiece combining high resolution fluorescence (HRF) imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) was developed to provide real-time assessment of oral lesions. This multimodal imaging device simultaneously captures coregistered en face images with subcellular detail alongside cross-sectional images of tissue microstructure. The HRF imaging acquires a 712×594  μm2 field-of-view at the sample with a spatial resolution of 3.5  μm. The OCT images were acquired to a depth of 1.5 mm with axial and lateral resolutions of 9.3 and 8.0  μm, respectively. HRF and OCT images are simultaneously displayed at 25 fps. The handheld device was used to image a healthy volunteer, demonstrating the potential for in vivo assessment of the epithelial surface for dysplastic and neoplastic changes at the cellular level, while simultaneously evaluating submucosal involvement. We anticipate potential applications in real-time assessment of oral lesions for improved surveillance and surgical guidance. PMID:25104410

  7. Design and characterization of a handheld multimodal imaging device for the assessment of oral epithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Laura M.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2014-08-01

    A compact handpiece combining high resolution fluorescence (HRF) imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) was developed to provide real-time assessment of oral lesions. This multimodal imaging device simultaneously captures coregistered en face images with subcellular detail alongside cross-sectional images of tissue microstructure. The HRF imaging acquires a 712×594 μm2 field-of-view at the sample with a spatial resolution of 3.5 μm. The OCT images were acquired to a depth of 1.5 mm with axial and lateral resolutions of 9.3 and 8.0 μm, respectively. HRF and OCT images are simultaneously displayed at 25 fps. The handheld device was used to image a healthy volunteer, demonstrating the potential for in vivo assessment of the epithelial surface for dysplastic and neoplastic changes at the cellular level, while simultaneously evaluating submucosal involvement. We anticipate potential applications in real-time assessment of oral lesions for improved surveillance and surgical guidance.

  8. Optimized multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging/near-infrared spectroscopy probe for ultrahigh-resolution mapping.

    PubMed

    Hocke, Lia Maria; Cayetano, Kenroy; Tong, Yunjie; Frederick, Blaise

    2015-10-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly important noninvasive method in neuroscience due to its high temporal resolution and ability to independently measure oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin. However, the relatively low spatial resolution of fNIRS makes it difficult to relate this signal to underlying anatomy. Simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can complement fNIRS with superior spatial resolution and the ability to image the entire brain, providing additional information to improve fNIRS localization. However, current simultaneous fMRI/fNIRS acquisition methods are not optimal, due to the poor physical compatibility of existing MR coils and fNIRS optodes. Here, we present a technique to manufacture a true multimodal fMRI/fNIRS probe in which both modalities can be used with maximal sensitivity. To achieve this, we designed custom MR coils with integral fNIRS optodes using three-dimensional printing. This multimodal probe can be used to optimize spatial ([Formula: see text]) and temporal resolution (2.5 Hz) of fMRI, and it provides maximal MRI sensitivity, while allowing for high flexibility in the location and density of fNIRS optodes within the area of interest. Phantom and human data are shown to confirm the improvement in sensitivity in both modalities. This probe shows promise for addressing fundamental questions of the relation of fNIRS to physiology. PMID:26668816

  9. Multimodal Image Analysis in Acquired Vitelliform Lesions and Adult-Onset Foveomacular Vitelliform Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rocha Bastos, Ricardo; Ferreira, Carla Sofia; Brandão, Elisete; Falcão-Reis, Fernando; Carneiro, Ângela M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize vitelliform lesions (VLs) in adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD) and acquired vitelliform (AVL) patients using multimodal image analysis. Methods. Retrospective study of twenty-eight eyes from nineteen patients diagnosed with AVL or AOFVD. They were evaluated by color fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results. Bilateral VLs were associated with AOFVD (p = 0.013). Regular and centered VLs were associated with AOFVD (p = 0.004 and p = 0.016), whereas irregular and noncentered lesions were more frequent in AVL patients. Visual acuity, greatest linear dimension (GLD), lesion height (LH), and pseudohypopyon were similar between groups. Whereas median LH and GLD in AVL group diminished significantly during follow-up (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001), AOFVD lesions tended to become larger and thicker. Conclusions. When consulting a patient presenting a VL with unknown age of onset, familial history, or previous retinal diseases, some aspects of multimodal imaging assessment may lead the ophthalmologist to a correct diagnosis. PMID:27190637

  10. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome: Perspectives for immunogenetics, multimodal imaging, and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Silpa-Archa, Sukhum; Silpa-Archa, Narumol; Preble, Janine M; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKH) is a bilateral, diffuse granulomatous uveitis associated with neurological, audiovestibular, and dermatological systems. The primary pathogenesis is T-cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards melanocyte or melanocyte-associated antigens causing inflammation of the choroidal layer. This phenomenon usually leads to diffuse inflammatory conditions throughout most parts of eye before ocular complications ensue. The diagnosis is achieved mainly by clinical features according to the revised diagnostic criteria of VKH published in 2001, without confirmatory serologic tests as a requirement. However, ancillary tests, especially multimodal imaging, can reliably provide supportive evidence for the diagnosis of early cases, atypical presentations, and evaluation of management. Prompt treatment with systemic corticosteroids and early non-steroidal immunosuppressive drug therapy can lessen visually threatening ocular complications and bring about good visual recovery. Close monitoring warrants visual stabilization from disease recurrence and ocular complications. This article review aims not only to update comprehensive knowledge regarding VKH but also to emphasize three major perspectives of VKH: immunogenetics as the major pathogenesis of the disease, multimodal imaging, and therapeutic options. The role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and drug-induced VKH is also provided. PMID:27060382

  11. Multimodal Imaging of Nanocomposite Microspheres for Transcatheter Intra-Arterial Drug Delivery to Liver Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Li, Weiguo; Chen, Jeane; Zhang, Zhuoli; Green, Richard M.; Huang, Sui; Larson, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    A modern multi-functional drug carrier is critically needed to improve the efficacy of image-guided catheter-directed approaches for the treatment of hepatic malignancies. For this purpose, a nanocomposite microsphere platform was developed for selective intra-arterial transcatheter drug delivery to liver tumors. In our study, continuous microfluidic methods were used to fabricate drug-loaded multimodal MRI/CT visible microspheres that included both gold nanorods and magnetic clusters. The resulting hydrophilic, deformable, and non-aggregated microspheres were mono-disperse and roughly 25 um in size. Sustained drug release and strong MRI T2 and CT contrast effects were achieved with the embedded magnetic nano-clusters and radiopaque gold nanorods. The microspheres were successfully infused through catheters selectively placed within the hepatic artery in rodent models and subsequent distribution in the targeted liver tissues and hepatic tumors confirmed with MRI and CT imaging. These multimodal nanocomposite drug carriers should be ideal for selective intra-arterial catheter-directed administration to liver tumors while permitting MRI/CT visualization for patient-specific confirmation of tumor-targeted delivery. PMID:27405824

  12. Multimodal Image Analysis in Acquired Vitelliform Lesions and Adult-Onset Foveomacular Vitelliform Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Rocha Bastos, Ricardo; Ferreira, Carla Sofia; Brandão, Elisete; Falcão-Reis, Fernando; Carneiro, Ângela M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize vitelliform lesions (VLs) in adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD) and acquired vitelliform (AVL) patients using multimodal image analysis. Methods. Retrospective study of twenty-eight eyes from nineteen patients diagnosed with AVL or AOFVD. They were evaluated by color fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results. Bilateral VLs were associated with AOFVD (p = 0.013). Regular and centered VLs were associated with AOFVD (p = 0.004 and p = 0.016), whereas irregular and noncentered lesions were more frequent in AVL patients. Visual acuity, greatest linear dimension (GLD), lesion height (LH), and pseudohypopyon were similar between groups. Whereas median LH and GLD in AVL group diminished significantly during follow-up (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001), AOFVD lesions tended to become larger and thicker. Conclusions. When consulting a patient presenting a VL with unknown age of onset, familial history, or previous retinal diseases, some aspects of multimodal imaging assessment may lead the ophthalmologist to a correct diagnosis. PMID:27190637

  13. Multimodal Imaging of Nanocomposite Microspheres for Transcatheter Intra-Arterial Drug Delivery to Liver Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Li, Weiguo; Chen, Jeane; Zhang, Zhuoli; Green, Richard M.; Huang, Sui; Larson, Andrew C.

    2016-07-01

    A modern multi-functional drug carrier is critically needed to improve the efficacy of image-guided catheter-directed approaches for the treatment of hepatic malignancies. For this purpose, a nanocomposite microsphere platform was developed for selective intra-arterial transcatheter drug delivery to liver tumors. In our study, continuous microfluidic methods were used to fabricate drug-loaded multimodal MRI/CT visible microspheres that included both gold nanorods and magnetic clusters. The resulting hydrophilic, deformable, and non-aggregated microspheres were mono-disperse and roughly 25 um in size. Sustained drug release and strong MRI T2 and CT contrast effects were achieved with the embedded magnetic nano-clusters and radiopaque gold nanorods. The microspheres were successfully infused through catheters selectively placed within the hepatic artery in rodent models and subsequent distribution in the targeted liver tissues and hepatic tumors confirmed with MRI and CT imaging. These multimodal nanocomposite drug carriers should be ideal for selective intra-arterial catheter-directed administration to liver tumors while permitting MRI/CT visualization for patient-specific confirmation of tumor-targeted delivery.

  14. Multimodal nonlinear endo-microscopy probe design for high resolution, label-free intraoperative imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Xu, Xiaoyun; McCormick, Daniel T; Wong, Kelvin; Wong, Stephen T C

    2015-07-01

    We present a portable, multimodal, nonlinear endo-microscopy probe designed for intraoperative oncological imaging. Application of a four-wave mixing noise suppression scheme using dual wavelength wave plates (DWW) and a polarization-maintaining fiber improves tissue signal collection efficiency, allowing for miniaturization. The probe, with a small 14 mm transversal diameter, includes a customized miniaturized two-axis MEMS (micro-electromechanical system) raster scanning mirror and micro-optics with an illumination laser delivered by a polarization-maintaining fiber. The probe can potentially be integrated into the arms of a surgical robot, such as da Vinci robotic surgery system, due to its minimal cross sectional area. It has the ability to incorporate multiple imaging modalities including CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering), SHG (second harmonic generation), and TPEF (two-photon excited fluorescence) in order to allow the surgeon to locate tumor cells within the context of normal stromal tissue. The resolution of the endo-microscope is experimentally determined to be 0.78 µm, a high level of accuracy for such a compact probe setup. The expected resolution of the as-built multimodal, nonlinear, endo-microscopy probe is 1 µm based on the calculation tolerance allocation using Monte-Carlo simulation. The reported probe is intended for use in laparoscopic or radical prostatectomy, including detection of tumor margins and avoidance of nerve impairment during surgery. PMID:26203361

  15. Multimodal nonlinear endo-microscopy probe design for high resolution, label-free intraoperative imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu; Xu, Xiaoyun; McCormick, Daniel T.; Wong, Kelvin; Wong, Stephen T.C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a portable, multimodal, nonlinear endo-microscopy probe designed for intraoperative oncological imaging. Application of a four-wave mixing noise suppression scheme using dual wavelength wave plates (DWW) and a polarization-maintaining fiber improves tissue signal collection efficiency, allowing for miniaturization. The probe, with a small 14 mm transversal diameter, includes a customized miniaturized two-axis MEMS (micro-electromechanical system) raster scanning mirror and micro-optics with an illumination laser delivered by a polarization-maintaining fiber. The probe can potentially be integrated into the arms of a surgical robot, such as da Vinci robotic surgery system, due to its minimal cross sectional area. It has the ability to incorporate multiple imaging modalities including CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering), SHG (second harmonic generation), and TPEF (two-photon excited fluorescence) in order to allow the surgeon to locate tumor cells within the context of normal stromal tissue. The resolution of the endo-microscope is experimentally determined to be 0.78 µm, a high level of accuracy for such a compact probe setup. The expected resolution of the as-built multimodal, nonlinear, endo-microscopy probe is 1 µm based on the calculation tolerance allocation using Monte-Carlo simulation. The reported probe is intended for use in laparoscopic or radical prostatectomy, including detection of tumor margins and avoidance of nerve impairment during surgery. PMID:26203361

  16. Multimodal Imaging of Nanocomposite Microspheres for Transcatheter Intra-Arterial Drug Delivery to Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Li, Weiguo; Chen, Jeane; Zhang, Zhuoli; Green, Richard M; Huang, Sui; Larson, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    A modern multi-functional drug carrier is critically needed to improve the efficacy of image-guided catheter-directed approaches for the treatment of hepatic malignancies. For this purpose, a nanocomposite microsphere platform was developed for selective intra-arterial transcatheter drug delivery to liver tumors. In our study, continuous microfluidic methods were used to fabricate drug-loaded multimodal MRI/CT visible microspheres that included both gold nanorods and magnetic clusters. The resulting hydrophilic, deformable, and non-aggregated microspheres were mono-disperse and roughly 25 um in size. Sustained drug release and strong MRI T2 and CT contrast effects were achieved with the embedded magnetic nano-clusters and radiopaque gold nanorods. The microspheres were successfully infused through catheters selectively placed within the hepatic artery in rodent models and subsequent distribution in the targeted liver tissues and hepatic tumors confirmed with MRI and CT imaging. These multimodal nanocomposite drug carriers should be ideal for selective intra-arterial catheter-directed administration to liver tumors while permitting MRI/CT visualization for patient-specific confirmation of tumor-targeted delivery. PMID:27405824

  17. Analyzing multimodality tomographic images and associated regions of interest with MIDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Wai-Hon; Rusinek, Henry; Van Gelder, Peter; Lebedev, Sergey

    2001-07-01

    This paper outlines the design and features incorporated in a software package for analyzing multi-modality tomographic images. The package MIDAS has been evolving for the past 15 years and is in wide use by researchers at New York University School of Medicine and a number of collaborating research sites. It was written in the C language and runs on Sun workstations and Intel PCs under the Solaris operating system. A unique strength of the MIDAS package lies in its ability to generate, manipulate and analyze a practically unlimited number of regions of interest (ROIs). These regions are automatically saved in an efficient data structure and linked to associated images. A wide selection of set theoretical (e.g. union, xor, difference), geometrical (e.g. move, rotate) and morphological (grow, peel) operators can be applied to an arbitrary selection of ROIs. ROIs are constructed as a result of image segmentation algorithms incorporated in MIDAS; they also can be drawn interactively. These ROI editing operations can be applied in either 2D or 3D mode. ROI statistics generated by MIDAS include means, standard deviations, centroids and histograms. Other image manipulation tools incorporated in MIDAS are multimodality and within modality coregistration methods (including landmark matching, surface fitting and Woods' correlation methods) and image reformatting methods (using nearest-neighbor, tri-linear or sinc interpolation). Applications of MIDAS include: (1) neuroanatomy research: marking anatomical structures in one orientation, reformatting marks to another orientation; (2) tissue volume measurements: brain structures (PET, MRI, CT), lung nodules (low dose CT), breast density (MRI); (3) analysis of functional (SPECT, PET) experiments by overlaying corresponding structural scans; (4) longitudinal studies: regional measurement of atrophy.

  18. Multi-modal molecular diffuse optical tomography system for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenheim, James A.; Basevi, Hector R. A.; Frampton, Jon; Styles, Iain B.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2013-10-01

    A multi-modal optical imaging system for quantitative 3D bioluminescence and functional diffuse imaging is presented, which has no moving parts and uses mirrors to provide multi-view tomographic data for image reconstruction. It is demonstrated that through the use of trans-illuminated spectral near-infrared measurements and spectrally constrained tomographic reconstruction, recovered concentrations of absorbing agents can be used as prior knowledge for bioluminescence imaging within the visible spectrum. Additionally, the first use of a recently developed multi-view optical surface capture technique is shown and its application to model-based image reconstruction and free-space light modelling is demonstrated. The benefits of model-based tomographic image recovery as compared to two-dimensional (2D) planar imaging are highlighted in a number of scenarios where the internal luminescence source is not visible or is confounding in 2D images. The results presented show that the luminescence tomographic imaging method produces 3D reconstructions of individual light sources within a mouse-sized solid phantom that are accurately localized to within 1.5 mm for a range of target locations and depths, indicating sensitivity and accurate imaging throughout the phantom volume. Additionally the total reconstructed luminescence source intensity is consistent to within 15%, which is a dramatic improvement upon standard bioluminescence imaging. Finally, results from a heterogeneous phantom with an absorbing anomaly are presented, demonstrating the use and benefits of a multi-view, spectrally constrained coupled imaging system that provides accurate 3D luminescence images.

  19. Biomedical article retrieval using multimodal features and image annotations in region-based CBIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Daekeun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Govindaraju, Venu; Thoma, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical images are invaluable in establishing diagnosis, acquiring technical skills, and implementing best practices in many areas of medicine. At present, images needed for instructional purposes or in support of clinical decisions appear in specialized databases and in biomedical articles, and are often not easily accessible to retrieval tools. Our goal is to automatically annotate images extracted from scientific publications with respect to their usefulness for clinical decision support and instructional purposes, and project the annotations onto images stored in databases by linking images through content-based image similarity. Authors often use text labels and pointers overlaid on figures and illustrations in the articles to highlight regions of interest (ROI). These annotations are then referenced in the caption text or figure citations in the article text. In previous research we have developed two methods (a heuristic and dynamic time warping-based methods) for localizing and recognizing such pointers on biomedical images. In this work, we add robustness to our previous efforts by using a machine learning based approach to localizing and recognizing the pointers. Identifying these can assist in extracting relevant image content at regions within the image that are likely to be highly relevant to the discussion in the article text. Image regions can then be annotated using biomedical concepts from extracted snippets of text pertaining to images in scientific biomedical articles that are identified using National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS) Metathesaurus. The resulting regional annotation and extracted image content are then used as indices for biomedical article retrieval using the multimodal features and region-based content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques. The hypothesis that such an approach would improve biomedical document retrieval is validated through experiments on an expert-marked biomedical article

  20. Multi-modality imaging of tumor phenotype and response to therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyflot, Matthew J.

    2011-12-01

    Imaging and radiation oncology have historically been closely linked. However, the vast majority of techniques used in the clinic involve anatomical imaging. Biological imaging offers the potential for innovation in the areas of cancer diagnosis and staging, radiotherapy target definition, and treatment response assessment. Some relevant imaging techniques are FDG PET (for imaging cellular metabolism), FLT PET (proliferation), CuATSM PET (hypoxia), and contrast-enhanced CT (vasculature and perfusion). Here, a technique for quantitative spatial correlation of tumor phenotype is presented for FDG PET, FLT PET, and CuATSM PET images. Additionally, multimodality imaging of treatment response with FLT PET, CuATSM, and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is presented, in a trial of patients receiving an antiangiogenic agent (Avastin) combined with cisplatin and radiotherapy. Results are also presented for translational applications in animal models, including quantitative assessment of proliferative response to cetuximab with FLT PET and quantification of vascular volume with a blood-pool contrast agent (Fenestra). These techniques have clear applications to radiobiological research and optimized treatment strategies, and may eventually be used for personalized therapy for patients.

  1. Use of multidimensional, multimodal imaging and PACS to support neurological diagnoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Stephen T. C.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Hoo, Kent S.; Huang, H. K.

    1995-05-01

    Technological advances in brain imaging have revolutionized diagnosis in neurology and neurological surgery. Major imaging techniques include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize structural anatomy, positron emission tomography (PET) to image metabolic function and cerebral blood flow, magnetoencephalography (MEG) to visualize the location of physiologic current sources, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure specific biochemicals. Each of these techniques studies different biomedical aspects of the brain, but there lacks an effective means to quantify and correlate the disparate imaging datasets in order to improve clinical decision making processes. This paper describes several techniques developed in a UNIX-based neurodiagnostic workstation to aid the noninvasive presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients. These techniques include online access to the picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) multimedia archive, coregistration of multimodality image datasets, and correlation and quantitation of structural and functional information contained in the registered images. For illustration, we describe the use of these techniques in a patient case of nonlesional neocortical epilepsy. We also present out future work based on preliminary studies.

  2. Spinal focal lesion detection in multiple myeloma using multimodal image features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränzle, Andrea; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2015-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a tumor disease in the bone marrow that affects the skeleton systemically, i.e. multiple lesions can occur in different sites in the skeleton. To quantify overall tumor mass for determining degree of disease and for analysis of therapy response, volumetry of all lesions is needed. Since the large amount of lesions in one patient impedes manual segmentation of all lesions, quantification of overall tumor volume is not possible until now. Therefore development of automatic lesion detection and segmentation methods is necessary. Since focal tumors in multiple myeloma show different characteristics in different modalities (changes in bone structure in CT images, hypointensity in T1 weighted MR images and hyperintensity in T2 weighted MR images), multimodal image analysis is necessary for the detection of focal tumors. In this paper a pattern recognition approach is presented that identifies focal lesions in lumbar vertebrae based on features from T1 and T2 weighted MR images. Image voxels within bone are classified using random forests based on plain intensities and intensity value derived features (maximum, minimum, mean, median) in a 5 x 5 neighborhood around a voxel from both T1 and T2 weighted MR images. A test data sample of lesions in 8 lumbar vertebrae from 4 multiple myeloma patients can be classified at an accuracy of 95% (using a leave-one-patient-out test). The approach provides a reasonable delineation of the example lesions. This is an important step towards automatic tumor volume quantification in multiple myeloma.

  3. Use of multidimensional, multimodal imaging and PACS to support neurological diagnoses

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.T.C.; Knowlton, R.; Hoo, K.S.; Huang, H.K.

    1995-12-31

    Technological advances in brain imaging have revolutionized diagnosis in neurology and neurological surgery. Major imaging techniques include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize structural anatomy, positron emission tomography (PET) to image metabolic function and cerebral blood flow, magnetoencephalography (MEG) to visualize the location of physiologic current sources, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure specific biochemicals. Each of these techniques studies different biomedical aspects of the grain, but there lacks an effective means to quantify and correlate the disparate imaging datasets in order to improve clinical decision making processes. This paper describes several techniques developed in a UNIX-based neurodiagnostic workstation to aid the non-invasive presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients. These techniques include on-line access to the picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) multimedia archive, coregistration of multimodality image datasets, and correlation and quantitative of structural and functional information contained in the registered images. For illustration, the authors describe the use of these techniques in a patient case of non-lesional neocortical epilepsy. They also present the future work based on preliminary studies.

  4. The Potential of Dual Camera Systems for Multimodal Imaging of Cardiac Electrophysiology and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, Mark R.; Woods, Marcella C.; Uzelac, Ilija; Wikswo, John P.; Gilligan, Jonathan M.; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging has become a common modality in cardiac electrodynamics. A single fluorescent parameter is typically measured. Given the growing emphasis on simultaneous imaging of more than one cardiac variable, we present an analysis of the potential of dual camera imaging, using as an example our straightforward dual camera system that allows simultaneous measurement of two dynamic quantities from the same region of the heart. The advantages of our system over others include an optional software camera calibration routine that eliminates the need for precise camera alignment. The system allows for rapid setup, dichroic image separation, dual-rate imaging, and high spatial resolution, and it is generally applicable to any two-camera measurement. This type of imaging system offers the potential for recording simultaneously not only transmembrane potential and intracellular calcium, two frequently measured quantities, but also other signals more directly related to myocardial metabolism, such as [K+]e, NADH, and reactive oxygen species, leading to the possibility of correlative multimodal cardiac imaging. We provide a compilation of dye and camera information critical to the design of dual camera systems and experiments. PMID:19657065

  5. Optical Range-Finding from Image Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckler, Paul Reese

    Scope of the study. Much of the labor-intensive work in agriculture consists of reaching out, grasping an object, and then placing the object in a desired position. This repetitious work exploits the unsurpassed hand-eye coordination in human beings. Substitution of machines for manual labor will require simulation of human hand-eye coordination. Most robots in agricultural applications will need the ability to recognize and manipulate three-dimensional objects. With present technology, this requirement makes agricultural robotic systems uneconomical, except for special applications. A method for gauging the distance from a video camera to an object of interest was investigated. By using a calibrated camera-lens system, range was related to focus. Optimum focus of the image was determined by maximizing the high -frequency content of the Fourier transform of the object image. The Walsh-Hadamard transform was investigated as an alternative focusing function. Software was developed to determine optimum image focus and control a motorized camera lens. Findings and conclusions. Range values from the video camera to target objects were calculated by the system. Calculated values were compared with measured distances. Differences between calculated and actual distance averaged less than 0.5%. The Walsh-Hadamard transform provided focus information comparable to the Fourier transform. Using double precision floating-point arithmetic, the Walsh-Hadamard transform executed more than three times faster than the Fourier transform. Distance values calculated using the Walsh -Hadamard transform differed from values calculated with the Fourier transform by less than 1%. This system used a passive, non-triangulation technique to obtain the distance from the machine vision camera to the object of interest. A passive non-triangulation system was the simplest image acquisition requirements, since it does not require a second camera, structured lighting, camera movement, or time

  6. Multi-Modal Ultra-Widefield Imaging Features in Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Netan; Rao, Rajesh C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Waardenburg syndrome is characterized by a group of features including; telecanthus, a broad nasal root, synophrys of the eyebrows, piedbaldism, heterochromia irides, and deaf-mutism. Hypopigmentation of the choroid is a unique feature of this condition examined with multi-modal Ultra-Widefield Imaging in this report. Material/Methods Report of a single case. Results Bilateral symmetric choroidal hypopigmentation was observed with hypoautofluorescence in the region of hypopigmentation. Fluorescein angiography revealed a normal vasculature, however a thickened choroid was seen on Enhanced-Depth Imaging Spectral-Domain OCT (EDI SD-OCT). Conclusion(s) Choroidal hypopigmentation is a unique feature of Waardenburg syndrome, which can be visualized with ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence. The choroid may also be thickened in this condition and its thickness measured with EDI SD-OCT. PMID:26114849

  7. Mn-doped near-infrared quantum dots as multimodal targeted probes for pancreatic cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Ken-Tye

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a novel approach to producing manganese (Mn)-doped quantum dots (Mnd-QDs) emitting in the near-infrared (NIR). Surface functionalization of Mnd-QDs with lysine makes them stably disperse in aqueous media and able to conjugate with targeting molecules. The nanoparticles were structurally and compositionally characterized and maintained a high photoluminescence quantum yield and displayed paramagnetism in water. The receptor-mediated delivery of bioconjugated Mnd-QDs into pancreatic cancer cells was demonstrated using the confocal microscopy technique. Cytotoxicity of Mnd-QDs on live cells has been evaluated. The NIR-emitting characteristic of the QDs has been exploited to acquire whole animal body imaging with high contrast signals. In addition, histological and blood analysis of mice have revealed that no long-term toxic effects arise from MnD-QDs. These studies suggest multimodal Mnd-QDs have the potentials as probes for early pancreatic cancer imaging and detection.

  8. Polarization-Sensitive Hyperspectral Imaging in vivo: A Multimode Dermoscope for Skin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Chave, Robert; Lindsley, Erik H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-05-01

    Attempts to understand the changes in the structure and physiology of human skin abnormalities by non-invasive optical imaging are aided by spectroscopic methods that quantify, at the molecular level, variations in tissue oxygenation and melanin distribution. However, current commercial and research systems to map hemoglobin and melanin do not correlate well with pathology for pigmented lesions or darker skin. We developed a multimode dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with an efficient analytical model to map the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models. For this system's proof of concept, human skin measurements on melanocytic nevus, vitiligo, and venous occlusion conditions were performed in volunteers. The resulting molecular distribution maps matched physiological and anatomical expectations, confirming a technologic approach that can be applied to next generation dermoscopes and having biological plausibility that is likely to appeal to dermatologists.

  9. Multimodality Imaging of Normal Hepatic Transplant Vasculature and Graft Vascular Complications

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jeffrey H; Mazzariol, Fernanda S; Frank, Susan J; Oh, Sarah K; Koenigsberg, Mordecai; Stein, Marjorie W

    2011-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation is an important treatment option for patients with end-stage liver disease. Advances in surgical technique, along with improvements in organ preservation and immunosuppression have improved patient outcomes. Post-operative complications, however, can limit this success. Ultrasound is the primary imaging modality for evaluation of hepatic transplants, providing real-time information about vascular flow in the graft. Graft vascular complications are not uncommon, and their prompt recognition is crucial to allow for timely graft salvage. A multimodality approach including CT angiography, MRI, or conventional angiography may be necessary in cases of complex transplant vascular anatomy or when sonography and Doppler are inconclusive to diagnose the etiologies of these complications. The purpose of this article is to familiarize radiologists with the normal post-transplant vascular anatomy and the imaging appearances of the major vascular complications that may occur within the hepatic artery, portal vein, and venous outflow tract, with an emphasis on ultrasound. PMID:22184543

  10. Tumor Lysing Genetically Engineered T Cells Loaded with Multi-Modal Imaging Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Parijat; Alauddin, Mian; Bankson, James A.; Kirui, Dickson; Seifi, Payam; Huls, Helen; Lee, Dean A.; Babakhani, Aydin; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, King C.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2014-03-01

    Genetically-modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) exert anti-tumor effect by identifying tumor-associated antigen (TAA), independent of major histocompatibility complex. For maximal efficacy and safety of adoptively transferred cells, imaging their biodistribution is critical. This will determine if cells home to the tumor and assist in moderating cell dose. Here, T cells are modified to express CAR. An efficient, non-toxic process with potential for cGMP compliance is developed for loading high cell number with multi-modal (PET-MRI) contrast agents (Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles - Copper-64; SPION-64Cu). This can now be potentially used for 64Cu-based whole-body PET to detect T cell accumulation region with high-sensitivity, followed by SPION-based MRI of these regions for high-resolution anatomically correlated images of T cells. CD19-specific-CAR+SPIONpos T cells effectively target in vitro CD19+ lymphoma.

  11. Single fraction multimodal image guided focal salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rischke, Hans-Christian; Meyer, Philipp Tobias; Knobe, Sven; Volgeova-Neher, Natalja; Kollefrath, Michael; Jilg, Cordula Annette; Grosu, Anca Ligia; Baltas, Dimos; Kroenig, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We present a novel method for treatment of locally recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) following radiation therapy: focal, multimodal image guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Material and methods We treated two patients with recurrent PCa after primary (#1) or adjuvant (#2) external beam radiation therapy. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), choline, positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT), or prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-PET combined with CT identified a single intraprostatic lesion. Positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging – transrectal ultrasound (MRI-TRUS) fusion guided transperineal biopsy confirmed PCa within each target lesion. We defined a PET and mpMRI based gross tumor volume (GTV). A 5 mm isotropic margin was applied additionally to each lesion to generate a planning target volume (PTV), which accounts for technical fusion inaccuracies. A D90 of 18 Gy was intended in one fraction to each PTV using ultrasound guided HDR brachytherapy. Results Six month follow-up showed adequate prostate specific antygen (PSA) decline in both patients (ΔPSA 83% in patient 1 and ΔPSA 59.3% in patient 2). Follow-up 3-tesla MRI revealed regressive disease in both patients and PSMA-PET/CT showed no evidence of active disease in patient #1. No acute or late toxicities occurred. Conclusions Single fraction, focal, multimodal image guided salvage HDR brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer is a feasible therapy for selected patients with single lesions. This approach has to be evaluated in larger clinical trials. PMID:27504134

  12. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Maria Ida; Neufeld, Esra; Akinnagbe, Esther; Bower, Kelsey; Wolf, Johanna; Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Sharma, Deepika; Lloyd, Bryn; Wilm, Bertram J.; Wyss, Michael; Pruessmann, Klaas P.; Jakab, Andras; Makris, Nikos; Cohen, Ethan D.; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang; Angelone, Leonardo M.

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1–2 mm and with 10–50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named “MIDA”. The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i) structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data to image the vasculature, and iii) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community. PMID:25901747

  13. Multimodal ophthalmic imaging using swept source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Joseph D.; El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Tye, Logan A.; Majeau, Lucas; Godbout, Nicolas; Rollins, Andrew M.; Boudoux, Caroline; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2016-03-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) benefit clinical diagnostic imaging in ophthalmology by enabling in vivo noninvasive en face and volumetric visualization of retinal structures, respectively. Spectrally encoding methods enable confocal imaging through fiber optics and reduces system complexity. Previous applications in ophthalmic imaging include spectrally encoded confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SECSLO) and a combined SECSLO-OCT system for image guidance, tracking, and registration. However, spectrally encoded imaging suffers from speckle noise because each spectrally encoded channel is effectively monochromatic. Here, we demonstrate in vivo human retinal imaging using a swept source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscope and OCT (SSSESLO- OCT) at 1060 nm. SS-SESLO-OCT uses a shared 100 kHz Axsun swept source, shared scanner and imaging optics, and are detected simultaneously on a shared, dual channel high-speed digitizer. SESLO illumination and detection was performed using the single mode core and multimode inner cladding of a double clad fiber coupler, respectively, to preserve lateral resolution while improving collection efficiency and reducing speckle contrast at the expense of confocality. Concurrent en face SESLO and cross-sectional OCT images were acquired with 1376 x 500 pixels at 200 frames-per-second. Our system design is compact and uses a shared light source, imaging optics, and digitizer, which reduces overall system complexity and ensures inherent co-registration between SESLO and OCT FOVs. En face SESLO images acquired concurrent with OCT cross-sections enables lateral motion tracking and three-dimensional volume registration with broad applications in multivolume OCT averaging, image mosaicking, and intraoperative instrument tracking.

  14. Multimodal noncontact photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography imaging using wavelength-division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berer, Thomas; Leiss-Holzinger, Elisabeth; Hochreiner, Armin; Bauer-Marschallinger, Johannes; Buchsbaum, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    We present multimodal noncontact photoacoustic (PA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. PA signals are acquired remotely on the surface of a specimen with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The interferometer is realized in a fiber-optic network using a fiber laser at 1550 nm as the source. In the same fiber-optic network, a spectral-domain OCT system is implemented. The OCT system utilizes a supercontinuum light source at 1310 nm and a spectrometer with an InGaAs line array detector. Light from the fiber laser and the OCT source is multiplexed into one fiber using a wavelength-division multiplexer; the same objective is used for both imaging modalities. Reflected light is spectrally demultiplexed and guided to the respective imaging systems. We demonstrate two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging on a tissue-mimicking sample and a chicken skin phantom. The same fiber network and same optical components are used for PA and OCT imaging, and the obtained images are intrinsically coregistered.

  15. Single- and multimodal subvoxel registration of dissimilar medical images using robust similarity measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikou, Christophoros; Heitz, Fabrice; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Namer, Izzie-Jacques

    1998-06-01

    Although a large variety of image registration methods have been described in the literature, only a few approaches have attempted to address the rigid registration of medical images showing gross dissimilarities (due for instance to lesion evolution). In the present paper, we develop driven registration algorithms, relying on robust pixel similarity metrics, that enable an accurate (subvoxel) rigid registration of dissimilar single or multimodal 2D/3D images. In the proposed approach, gross dissimilarities are handled by considering similarity measures related to robust M-estimators. A `soft redescending' estimator (the Geman- McClure p-function) has been adopted to reject gross image dissimilarities during the registration. The registration parameters are estimated using a top down stochastic multigrid relaxation algorithm. Thanks to the stochastic multigrid strategy, the registration is not affected by local minima in the objective function and a manual initialization near the optimal solution is not necessary. The proposed robust similarity metrics compare favorably to the most popular standard similarity metrics, on patient image pairs showing gross dissimilarities. Two case studies are considered: the registration of MR/MR and MR/SPECT image volumes of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis and epilepsy.

  16. Imaging results of multi-modal ultrasound computerized tomography system designed for breast diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Opieliński, Krzysztof J; Pruchnicki, Piotr; Gudra, Tadeusz; Podgórski, Przemysław; Kurcz, Jacek; Kraśnicki, Tomasz; Sąsiadek, Marek; Majewski, Jarosław

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, in the era of common computerization, transmission and reflection methods are intensively developed in addition to improving classical ultrasound methods (US) for imaging of tissue structure, in particular ultrasound transmission tomography UTT (analogous to computed tomography CT which uses X-rays) and reflection tomography URT (based on the synthetic aperture method used in radar imaging techniques). This paper presents and analyses the results of ultrasound transmission tomography imaging of the internal structure of the female breast biopsy phantom CIRS Model 052A and the results of the ultrasound reflection tomography imaging of a wire sample. Imaging was performed using a multi-modal ultrasound computerized tomography system developed with the participation of a private investor. The results were compared with the results of imaging obtained using dual energy CT, MR mammography and conventional US method. The obtained results indicate that the developed UTT and URT methods, after the acceleration of the scanning process, thus enabling in vivo examination, may be successfully used for detection and detailed characterization of breast lesions in women. PMID:25759234

  17. Multimodal noncontact photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography imaging using wavelength-division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Berer, Thomas; Leiss-Holzinger, Elisabeth; Hochreiner, Armin; Bauer-Marschallinger, Johannes; Buchsbaum, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    We present multimodal noncontact photoacoustic (PA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. PA signals are acquired remotely on the surface of a specimen with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The interferometer is realized in a fiber-optic network using a fiber laser at 1550 nm as the source. In the same fiber-optic network, a spectral-domain OCT system is implemented. The OCT system utilizes a supercontinuum light source at 1310 nm and a spectrometer with an InGaAs line array detector. Light from the fiber laser and the OCT source is multiplexed into one fiber using a wavelength-division multiplexer; the same objective is used for both imaging modalities. Reflected light is spectrally demultiplexed and guided to the respective imaging systems. We demonstrate two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging on a tissue-mimicking sample and a chicken skin phantom. The same fiber network and same optical components are used for PA and OCT imaging, and the obtained images are intrinsically coregistered. PMID:25919425

  18. Variability of Target and Normal Structure Delineation Using Multimodality Imaging for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dalah, Entesar; Moraru, Ion; Paulson, Eric; Erickson, Beth; Li, X. Allen

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To explore the potential of multimodality imaging (dynamic contrast–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [DCE-MRI], apparent diffusion-coefficient diffusion-weighted imaging [ADC-DWI], fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [FDG-PET], and computed tomography) to define the gross tumor volume (GTV) and organs at risk in radiation therapy planning for pancreatic cancer. Delineated volumetric changes of DCE-MRI, ADC-DWI, and FDG-PET were assessed in comparison with the finding on 3-dimensional/4-dimensional CT with and without intravenous contrast, and with pathology specimens for resectable and borderline resectable cases of pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We studied a total of 19 representative patients, whose DCE-MRI, ADC-DWI, and FDG-PET data were reviewed. Gross tumor volume and tumor burden/active region inside pancreatic head/neck or body were delineated on MRI (denoted GTV{sub DCE}, and GTV{sub ADC}), a standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5, 40%SUVmax, and 50%SUVmax on FDG-PET (GTV2.5, GTV{sub 40%}, and GTV{sub 50%}). Volumes of the pancreas, duodenum, stomach, liver, and kidneys were contoured according to CT (V{sub CT}), T1-weighted MRI (V{sub T1}), and T2-weighted MRI (V{sub T2}) for 7 patients. Results: Significant statistical differences were found between the GTVs from DCE-MRI, ADC-DW, and FDG-PET, with a mean and range of 4.73 (1.00-9.79), 14.52 (3.21-25.49), 22.04 (1.00-45.69), 19.10 (4.84-45.59), and 9.80 (0.32-35.21) cm{sup 3} for GTV{sub DCE}, GTV{sub ADC}, GTV2.5, GTV{sub 40%}, and GTV{sub 50%}, respectively. The mean difference and range in the measurements of maximum dimension of tumor on DCE-MRI, ADC-DW, SUV2.5, 40%SUVmax, and 50%SUVmax compared with pathologic specimens were −0.84 (−2.24 to 0.9), 0.41 (−0.15 to 2.3), 0.58 (−1.41 to 3.69), 0.66 (−0.67 to 1.32), and 0.15 (−1.53 to 2.38) cm, respectively. The T1- and T2-based volumes for pancreas, duodenum, stomach, and liver were generally smaller

  19. Noninvasive multimodal evaluation of bioengineered cartilage constructs combining time-resolved fluorescence and ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Fite, Brett Z; Decaris, Martin; Sun, Yinghua; Sun, Yang; Lam, Adrian; Ho, Clark K L; Leach, J Kent; Marcu, Laura

    2011-04-01

    A multimodal diagnostic system that integrates time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, and ultrasound backscatter microscopy is evaluated here as a potential tool for assessing changes in engineered tissue composition and microstructure nondestructively and noninvasively. The development of techniques capable of monitoring the quality of engineered tissue, determined by extracellular matrix (ECM) content, before implantation would alleviate the need for destructive assays over multiple time points and advance the widespread development and clinical application of engineered tissues. Using a prototype system combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, FLIM, and UBM, we measured changes in ECM content occurring during chondrogenic differentiation of equine adipose stem cells on 3D biodegradable matrices. The optical and ultrasound results were validated against those acquired via conventional techniques, including collagen II immunohistochemistry, picrosirius red staining, and measurement of construct stiffness. Current results confirm the ability of this multimodal approach to follow the progression of tissue maturation along the chondrogenic lineage by monitoring ECM production (namely, collagen type II) and by detecting resulting changes in mechanical properties of tissue constructs. Although this study was directed toward monitoring chondrogenic tissue maturation, these data demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for multiple applications toward engineering other tissues, including bone and vascular grafts. PMID:21303258

  20. Multimodal Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Arnold A.

    The multimodal therapy (MMT) approach provides a framework that facilitates systematic treatment selection in a broad-based, comprehensive and yet highly focused manner. It respects science, and data driven findings, and endeavors to use empirically supported methods when possible. Nevertheless, it recognizes that many issues still fall into the…

  1. Multimodal optical imaging and spectroscopy for the intraoperative mapping of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatina, Elena; Muzikansky, Alona; Neel, Victor; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2009-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignancy, and its incidence increases yearly. In this contribution we investigate the feasibility of combining multimodal reflectance and fluorescence polarization imaging (RFPI) with spectroscopic analysis of the reflectance images for facilitating intraoperative delineation of BCCs. Twenty fresh thick BCC specimens were obtained within 1 h after Mohs micrographic surgeries. The samples were soaked for up to 2 min in an aqueous 0.2 mg/ml solution of methylene blue, briefly rinsed in saline solution, and imaged. Reflectance images were acquired in the range from 395 to 735 nm, with steps of 10 nm. Fluorescence polarization images were excited at 630 nm and registered in the range between 660 and 750 nm. The results yielded by RFPI were qualitatively compared to each other and to histopathology. From the copolarized reflectance images the spectral responses including the optical densities and their wavelength derivatives were calculated. The differences in the spectral responses of the benign and malignant stained skin structures were assessed. Statistical analysis, i.e., Student's t-test, was employed to verify the significance of the discovered differences. Both reflectance and fluorescence polarization images correlated well with histopathology in all the cases. Reflectance polarization images provided more detailed information on skin morphology, with the appearance of skin structures resembling that of histopathology. Fluorescence polarization images exhibited higher contrast of cancerous tissue as compared to reflectance imaging. The analysis of the optical densities and their wavelength derivatives for tumor and normal tissues has confirmed statistical significance of the differences that can be used for intraoperative cancer delineation. The results of the study indicate that spectral analysis is a useful adjunct to RFPI for facilitating skin cancer delineation.

  2. In vivo monitoring of structural and mechanical changes of tissue scaffolds by multi-modality imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae Woo; Ye, Sang-Ho; Jiang, Hong Bin; Dutta, Debaditya; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Wagner, William R; Kim, Kang

    2014-09-01

    Degradable tissue scaffolds are implanted to serve a mechanical role while healing processes occur and putatively assume the physiological load as the scaffold degrades. Mechanical failure during this period can be unpredictable as monitoring of structural degradation and mechanical strength changes at the implant site is not readily achieved in vivo, and non-invasively. To address this need, a multi-modality approach using ultrasound shear wave imaging (USWI) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) for both mechanical and structural assessment in vivo was demonstrated with degradable poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) and polydioxanone (PDO) scaffolds. The fibrous scaffolds were fabricated with wet electrospinning, dyed with indocyanine green (ICG) for optical contrast in PAI, and implanted in the abdominal wall of 36 rats. The scaffolds were monitored monthly using USWI and PAI and were extracted at 0, 4, 8 and 12 wk for mechanical and histological assessment. The change in shear modulus of the constructs in vivo obtained by USWI correlated with the change in average Young's modulus of the constructs ex vivo obtained by compression measurements. The PEUU and PDO scaffolds exhibited distinctly different degradation rates and average PAI signal intensity. The distribution of PAI signal intensity also corresponded well to the remaining scaffolds as seen in explant histology. This evidence using a small animal abdominal wall repair model demonstrates that multi-modality imaging of USWI and PAI may allow tissue engineers to noninvasively evaluate concurrent mechanical stiffness and structural changes of tissue constructs in vivo for a variety of applications. PMID:24951048

  3. The value of multimodality imaging for detection, characterisation and management of a wall adhering structure in the right atrium

    PubMed Central

    Frambach, D; Huseynov, A; Becher, T; Boecker, C; Behnes, M; Rapp, S; Papavassiliu, T; Borggrefe, M; Akin, I

    2014-01-01

    The case presents a wall adherent structure in the right atrium in a young patient with peripheral t-cell lymphoma followed by successful prolonged lysis therapy resulting in the resolution of the thrombus is presented. This case highlights the utility of multimodality imaging in an accurate assessment of the right atrium thrombus and the effectiveness of prolonged lysis therapy. PMID:26236367

  4. uPAR-targeted multimodal tracer for pre- and intraoperative imaging in cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    van Willigen, Danny M.; Stammes, Marieke A.; Prevoo, Hendrica A.J.M.; Tummers, Quirijn R.J.G.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Beekman, Freek J.; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Löwik, Clemens W.G.M.; Frangioni, John V.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W.B.; Sier, Cornelis F.M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Pre- and intraoperative diagnostic techniques facilitating tumor staging are of paramount importance in colorectal cancer surgery. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) plays an important role in the development of cancer, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis and over-expression is found in the majority of carcinomas. This study aims to develop the first clinically relevant anti-uPAR antibody-based imaging agent that combines nuclear (111In) and real-time near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging (ZW800-1). Conjugation and binding capacities were investigated and validated in vitro using spectrophotometry and cell-based assays. In vivo, three human colorectal xenograft models were used including an orthotopic peritoneal carcinomatosis model to image small tumors. Nuclear and NIR fluorescent signals showed clear tumor delineation between 24h and 72h post-injection, with highest tumor-to-background ratios of 5.0 ± 1.3 at 72h using fluorescence and 4.2 ± 0.1 at 24h with radioactivity. 1-2 mm sized tumors could be clearly recognized by their fluorescent rim. This study showed the feasibility of an uPAR-recognizing multimodal agent to visualize tumors during image-guided resections using NIR fluorescence, whereas its nuclear component assisted in the pre-operative non-invasive recognition of tumors using SPECT imaging. This strategy can assist in surgical planning and subsequent precision surgery to reduce the number of incomplete resections. PMID:25895028

  5. Laser injury and in vivo multimodal imaging using a mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, Ginger M.; Boretsky, Adam; Gupta, Praveena; Oliver, Jeff W.; Motamedi, Massoud

    2011-03-01

    Balb/c wild type mice were used to perform in vivo experiments of laser-induced thermal damage to the retina. A Heidelberg Spectralis HRA confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with a spectral domain optical coherence tomographer was used to obtain fundus and cross-sectional images of laser induced injury in the retina. Sub-threshold, threshold, and supra-threshold lesions were observed using optical coherence tomography (OCT), infrared reflectance, red-free reflectance, fluorescence angiography, and autofluorescence imaging modalities at different time points post-exposure. Lesions observed using all imaging modalities, except autofluorescence, were not visible immediately after exposure but did resolve within an hour and grew in size over a 24 hour period. There was a decrease in fundus autofluorescence at exposure sites immediately following exposure that developed into hyper-fluorescence 24-48 hours later. OCT images revealed threshold damage that was localized to the RPE but extended into the neural retina over a 24 hour period. Volumetric representations of the mouse retina were created to visualize the extent of damage within the retina over a 24 hour period. Multimodal imaging provides complementary information regarding damage mechanisms that may be used to quantify the extent of the damage as well as the effectiveness of treatments without need for histology.

  6. uPAR-targeted multimodal tracer for pre- and intraoperative imaging in cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Martin C; van Driel, Pieter B A A; van Willigen, Danny M; Stammes, Marieke A; Prevoo, Hendrica A J M; Tummers, Quirijn R J G; Mazar, Andrew P; Beekman, Freek J; Kuppen, Peter J K; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Frangioni, John V; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; Sier, Cornelis F M; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L

    2015-06-10

    Pre- and intraoperative diagnostic techniques facilitating tumor staging are of paramount importance in colorectal cancer surgery. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) plays an important role in the development of cancer, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis and over-expression is found in the majority of carcinomas. This study aims to develop the first clinically relevant anti-uPAR antibody-based imaging agent that combines nuclear (111In) and real-time near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging (ZW800-1). Conjugation and binding capacities were investigated and validated in vitro using spectrophotometry and cell-based assays. In vivo, three human colorectal xenograft models were used including an orthotopic peritoneal carcinomatosis model to image small tumors. Nuclear and NIR fluorescent signals showed clear tumor delineation between 24h and 72h post-injection, with highest tumor-to-background ratios of 5.0 ± 1.3 at 72h using fluorescence and 4.2 ± 0.1 at 24h with radioactivity. 1-2 mm sized tumors could be clearly recognized by their fluorescent rim. This study showed the feasibility of an uPAR-recognizing multimodal agent to visualize tumors during image-guided resections using NIR fluorescence, whereas its nuclear component assisted in the pre-operative non-invasive recognition of tumors using SPECT imaging. This strategy can assist in surgical planning and subsequent precision surgery to reduce the number of incomplete resections. PMID:25895028

  7. Convex hull matching and hierarchical decomposition for multimodality medical image registration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Fu, Tianyu; Ai, Danni; Zhu, Jianjun; Li, Qin; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a novel hierarchical pyramid strategy for 3D registration of multimodality medical images. The surfaces of the source and target volume data are first extracted, and the surface point clouds are then aligned roughly using convex hull matching. The convex hull matching registration procedure could align images with large-scale transformations. The original images are divided into blocks and the corresponding blocks in the two images are registered by affine and non-rigid registration procedures. The sub-blocks are iteratively smoothed by the Gaussian kernel with different sizes during the registration procedure. The registration result of the large kernel is taken as the input of the small kernel registration. The fine registration of the two volume data sets is achieved by iteratively increasing the number of blocks, in which increase in similarity measure is taken as a criterion for acceptation of each iteration level. Results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method in registering the multiple modalities of medical images. PMID:25882735

  8. Multimodal Mass Spectrometry Imaging of N-Glycans and Proteins from the Same Tissue Section.

    PubMed

    Heijs, Bram; Holst, Stephanie; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; van Pelt, Gabi W; de Ru, Arnoud H; van Veelen, Peter A; Drake, Richard R; Mehta, Anand S; Mesker, Wilma E; Tollenaar, Rob A; Bovée, Judith V M G; Wuhrer, Manfred; McDonnell, Liam A

    2016-08-01

    On-tissue digestion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) can be used to record spatially correlated molecular information from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. In this work, we present the in situ multimodal analysis of N-linked glycans and proteins from the same FFPE tissue section. The robustness and applicability of the method are demonstrated for several tumors, including epithelial and mesenchymal tumor types. Major analytical aspects, such as lateral diffusion of the analyte molecules and differences in measurement sensitivity due to the additional sample preparation methods, have been investigated for both N-glycans and proteolytic peptides. By combining the MSI approach with extract analysis, we were also able to assess which mass spectral peaks generated by MALDI-MSI could be assigned to unique N-glycan and peptide identities. PMID:27373711

  9. Clinical and multimodal imaging characteristics of acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease unassociated with clinically evident exudative retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Attia, Sonia; Khochtali, Sana; Kahloun, Rim; Ammous, Dhiaeddine; Jelliti, Bechir; Ben Yahia, Salim; Zaouali, Sonia; Khairallah, Moncef

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and multimodal imaging findings in acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease without clinically evident exudative retinal detachment (ERD). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 18 patients (36 eyes), diagnosed with acute VKH disease without clinically evident ERD. All patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), B-scan ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Of 18 patients, twelve (66.7 %) were female and 6 (33.3 %) were male. Mean age was 39 years (range, 23-60). Ten patients had been referred with an erroneous diagnosis of primary optic nerve disorder (8; 44.4 %) or isolated anterior uveitis (2; 11.1 %). Anterior chamber or vitreous inflammatory reaction was noted in 22 eyes (61.1 %), each. Fundus findings included optic disc swelling in 30 eyes (83.3 %), retinal striae in 20 eyes (55.5 %), and yellowish deep lesions in 3 eyes (8.3 %). OCT showed a shallow, localized subclinical ERD in 18 eyes (50 %), and retinal pigment epithelial folds in 23 eyes (63.9 %). B-scan ultrasonography showed diffuse, low- to medium-reflective choroidal thickening in all eyes. FA disclosed delayed choroidal perfusion in at least one eye of all patients (100 %), mild pinpoint leakage in 21 eyes (58.3 %), optic disc hyperfluorescence in 35 eyes (97.2 %) and choroidal folds in 13 eyes (36.1 %). ICGA findings included delayed choroidal perfusion in 24 eyes (66.7 %), decrease in the number of large choroidal vessels in 36 eyes (100 %), fuzzy choroidal vessels in 35 eyes (97.2 %), and hypofluorescent dark dots in 28 eyes (77.8 %). The association of bilateral optic disc edema with retinal striae and intraocular inflammatory reaction highly suggests acute VKH disease. A multimodal imaging approach including fundus photography, OCT, B-scan ultrasonography, FA, and ICGA provides important clues for the definite diagnosis and

  10. Computer Vision Tools for Finding Images and Video Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Computer vision offers a variety of techniques for searching for pictures in large collections of images. Appearance methods compare images based on the overall content of the image using certain criteria. Finding methods concentrate on matching subparts of images, defined in a variety of ways, in hope of finding particular objects. These ideas…

  11. Applications of "Hot" and "Cold" Bis(thiosemicarbazonato) Metal Complexes in Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cortezon-Tamarit, Fernando; Sarpaki, Sophia; Calatayud, David G; Mirabello, Vincenzo; Pascu, Sofia I

    2016-06-01

    The applications of coordination chemistry to molecular imaging has become a matter of intense research over the past 10 years. In particular, the applications of bis(thiosemicarbazonato) metal complexes in molecular imaging have mainly been focused on compounds with aliphatic backbones due to the in vivo imaging success of hypoxic tumors with PET (positron emission tomography) using (64) CuATSM [copper (diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone))]. This compound entered clinical trials in the US and the UK during the first decade of the 21(st) century for imaging hypoxia in head and neck tumors. The replacement of the ligand backbone to aromatic groups, coupled with the exocyclic N's functionalization during the synthesis of bis(thiosemicarbazones) opens the possibility to use the corresponding metal complexes as multimodal imaging agents of use, both in vitro for optical detection, and in vivo when radiolabeled with several different metallic species. The greater kinetic stability of acenaphthenequinone bis(thiosemicarbazonato) metal complexes, with respect to that of the corresponding aliphatic ATSM complexes, allows the stabilization of a number of imaging probes, with special interest in "cold" and "hot" Cu(II) and Ga(III) derivatives for PET applications and (111) In(III) derivatives for SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) applications, whilst Zn(II) derivatives display optical imaging properties in cells, with enhanced fluorescence emission and lifetime with respect to the free ligands. Preliminary studies have shown that gallium-based acenaphthenequinone bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes are also hypoxia selective in vitro, thus increasing the interest in them as new generation imaging agents for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:27149900

  12. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Merks, Johannes H. M.; Saeed, Peerooz; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Bras, Johannes; Pieters, Bradley R.; Adam, Judit A.; van Rijn, Rick R.

    2010-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3–5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. PMID:20725831

  13. Polypyrrole-encapsulated iron tungstate nanocomposites: a versatile platform for multimodal tumor imaging and photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhiyin; Peng, Chen; Jiang, Xiaohong; Peng, Yuxuan; Huang, Xiaojuan; Guan, Guoqiang; Zhang, Wenlong; Liu, Xiaoming; Qin, Zongyi; Hu, Junqing

    2016-06-01

    A versatile nanoplatform of FeWO4@Polypyrrole (PPy) core/shell nanocomposites, which was facilely fabricated by first hydrothermal synthesis of FeWO4 nanoparticles and subsequent surface-coating of polypyrrole shell, was developed as an effective nanotheranostic agent of cancer. The as-prepared nanocomposites demonstrated excellent dispersion in saline, long-term colloidal storage, outstanding photo-stability and high photothermal efficiency in solution. In particular, FeWO4@PPy exhibited efficient performance for hyperthermia-killing of cancer cells under the irradiation of an 808 nm laser, accompanied with multimodal contrast capabilities for magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography and infrared thermal imaging in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the nanocomposites presented impactful tumor growth inhibition and good biocompability in animal experiments. Blood circulation and biodistribution of the nanocomposites were also investigated to understand their in vivo behaviours. Our results verified the platform of FeWO4@PPy nanocomposites as a promising photothermal agent for imaging-guided cancer theranostics.A versatile nanoplatform of FeWO4@Polypyrrole (PPy) core/shell nanocomposites, which was facilely fabricated by first hydrothermal synthesis of FeWO4 nanoparticles and subsequent surface-coating of polypyrrole shell, was developed as an effective nanotheranostic agent of cancer. The as-prepared nanocomposites demonstrated excellent dispersion in saline, long-term colloidal storage, outstanding photo-stability and high photothermal efficiency in solution. In particular, FeWO4@PPy exhibited efficient performance for hyperthermia-killing of cancer cells under the irradiation of an 808 nm laser, accompanied with multimodal contrast capabilities for magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography and infrared thermal imaging in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the nanocomposites presented impactful tumor growth inhibition and good biocompability in

  14. Beyond endoscopic assessment in inflammatory bowel disease: real-time histology of disease activity by non-linear multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit. PMID:27406831

  15. Beyond endoscopic assessment in inflammatory bowel disease: real-time histology of disease activity by non-linear multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit.

  16. Multi-Mode Electromagnetic Ultrasonic Lamb Wave Tomography Imaging for Variable-Depth Defects in Metal Plates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Songling; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Shen; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new cross-hole tomography imaging (CTI) method for variable-depth defects in metal plates based on multi-mode electromagnetic ultrasonic Lamb waves (LWs). The dispersion characteristics determine that different modes of LWs are sensitive to different thicknesses of metal plates. In this work, the sensitivities to thickness variation of A0- and S0-mode LWs are theoretically studied. The principles and procedures for the cooperation of A0- and S0-mode LW CTI are proposed. Moreover, the experimental LW imaging system on an aluminum plate with a variable-depth defect is set up, based on A0- and S0-mode EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) arrays. For comparison, the traditional single-mode LW CTI method is used in the same experimental platform. The imaging results show that the computed thickness distribution by the proposed multi-mode method more accurately reflects the actual thickness variation of the defect, while neither the S0 nor the A0 single-mode method was able to distinguish thickness variation in the defect region. Moreover, the quantification of the defect's thickness variation is more accurate with the multi-mode method. Therefore, theoretical and practical results prove that the variable-depth defect in metal plates can be successfully quantified and visualized by the proposed multi-mode electromagnetic ultrasonic LW CTI method. PMID:27144571

  17. Beyond endoscopic assessment in inflammatory bowel disease: real-time histology of disease activity by non-linear multimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit. PMID:27406831

  18. Multi-Mode Electromagnetic Ultrasonic Lamb Wave Tomography Imaging for Variable-Depth Defects in Metal Plates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Songling; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Shen; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new cross-hole tomography imaging (CTI) method for variable-depth defects in metal plates based on multi-mode electromagnetic ultrasonic Lamb waves (LWs). The dispersion characteristics determine that different modes of LWs are sensitive to different thicknesses of metal plates. In this work, the sensitivities to thickness variation of A0- and S0-mode LWs are theoretically studied. The principles and procedures for the cooperation of A0- and S0-mode LW CTI are proposed. Moreover, the experimental LW imaging system on an aluminum plate with a variable-depth defect is set up, based on A0- and S0-mode EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) arrays. For comparison, the traditional single-mode LW CTI method is used in the same experimental platform. The imaging results show that the computed thickness distribution by the proposed multi-mode method more accurately reflects the actual thickness variation of the defect, while neither the S0 nor the A0 single-mode method was able to distinguish thickness variation in the defect region. Moreover, the quantification of the defect’s thickness variation is more accurate with the multi-mode method. Therefore, theoretical and practical results prove that the variable-depth defect in metal plates can be successfully quantified and visualized by the proposed multi-mode electromagnetic ultrasonic LW CTI method. PMID:27144571

  19. 3D endobronchial ultrasound reconstruction and analysis for multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Gilbert, Christopher R.; Toth, Jennifer W.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    State-of-the-art image-guided intervention (IGI) systems for lung-cancer management draw upon high-resolution three-dimensional multi-detector computed-tomography (MDCT) images and bronchoscopic video. An MDCT scan provides a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) image of the chest that is used for preoperative procedure planning, while bronchoscopy gives live intraoperative video of the endobronchial airway tree structure. However, because neither source provides live extraluminal information on suspect nodules or lymph nodes, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is often introduced during a procedure. Unfortunately, existing IGI systems provide no direct synergistic linkage between the MDCT/video data and EBUS data. Hence, EBUS proves difficult to use and can lead to inaccurate interpretations. To address this drawback, we present a prototype of a multimodal IGI system that brings together the various image sources. The system enables 3D reconstruction and visualization of structures depicted in the 2D EBUS video stream. It also provides a set of graphical tools that link the EBUS data directly to the 3D MDCT and bronchoscopic video. Results using phantom and human data indicate that the new system could potentially enable smooth natural incorporation of EBUS into the system-level work flow of bronchoscopy.

  20. Nanoparticles speckled by ready-to-conjugate lanthanide complexes for multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Hamada, Morihiko; Ono, Kenji; Sugino, Sakiko; Ohnishi, Takashi; Shibu, Edakkattuparambil Sidharth; Yamamura, Shohei; Sawada, Makoto; Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Shigeri, Yasushi; Wakida, Shin-Ichi

    2015-09-01

    Multimodal and multifunctional contrast agents receive enormous attention in the biomedical imaging field. Such contrast agents are routinely prepared by the incorporation of organic molecules and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) into host materials such as gold NPs, silica NPs, polymer NPs, and liposomes. Despite their non-cytotoxic nature, the large size of these NPs limits the in vivo distribution and clearance and inflames complex pharmacokinetics, which hinder the regulatory approval for clinical applications. Herein, we report a unique method that combines magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging modalities together in nanoscale entities by the simple, direct and stable conjugation of novel biotinylated coordination complexes of gadolinium(iii) to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QD) and terbium(iii) to super paramagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPION) but without any host material. Subsequently, we evaluate the potentials of such lanthanide-speckled fluorescent-magnetic NPs for bioimaging at single-molecule, cell and in vivo levels. The simple preparation and small size make such fluorescent-magnetic NPs promising contrast agents for biomedical imaging.

  1. Nanoparticles speckled by ready-to-conjugate lanthanide complexes for multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Hamada, Morihiko; Ono, Kenji; Sugino, Sakiko; Ohnishi, Takashi; Shibu, Edakkattuparambil Sidharth; Yamamura, Shohei; Sawada, Makoto; Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Shigeri, Yasushi; Wakida, Shin-ichi

    2015-09-28

    Multimodal and multifunctional contrast agents receive enormous attention in the biomedical imaging field. Such contrast agents are routinely prepared by the incorporation of organic molecules and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) into host materials such as gold NPs, silica NPs, polymer NPs, and liposomes. Despite their non-cytotoxic nature, the large size of these NPs limits the in vivo distribution and clearance and inflames complex pharmacokinetics, which hinder the regulatory approval for clinical applications. Herein, we report a unique method that combines magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging modalities together in nanoscale entities by the simple, direct and stable conjugation of novel biotinylated coordination complexes of gadolinium(III) to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QD) and terbium(III) to super paramagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPION) but without any host material. Subsequently, we evaluate the potentials of such lanthanide-speckled fluorescent-magnetic NPs for bioimaging at single-molecule, cell and in vivo levels. The simple preparation and small size make such fluorescent-magnetic NPs promising contrast agents for biomedical imaging. PMID:26205500

  2. Vision 20/20: Simultaneous CT-MRI — Next chapter of multimodality imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ge Xi, Yan; Gjesteby, Lars; Getzin, Matthew; Yang, Qingsong; Cong, Wenxiang; Vannier, Michael

    2015-10-15

    Multimodality imaging systems such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and MRI-PET are widely available, but a simultaneous CT-MRI instrument has not been developed. Synergies between independent modalities, e.g., CT, MRI, and PET/SPECT can be realized with image registration, but such postprocessing suffers from registration errors that can be avoided with synchronized data acquisition. The clinical potential of simultaneous CT-MRI is significant, especially in cardiovascular and oncologic applications where studies of the vulnerable plaque, response to cancer therapy, and kinetic and dynamic mechanisms of targeted agents are limited by current imaging technologies. The rationale, feasibility, and realization of simultaneous CT-MRI are described in this perspective paper. The enabling technologies include interior tomography, unique gantry designs, open magnet and RF sequences, and source and detector adaptation. Based on the experience with PET-CT, PET-MRI, and MRI-LINAC instrumentation where hardware innovation and performance optimization were instrumental to construct commercial systems, the authors provide top-level concepts for simultaneous CT-MRI to meet clinical requirements and new challenges. Simultaneous CT-MRI fills a major gap of modality coupling and represents a key step toward the so-called “omnitomography” defined as the integration of all relevant imaging modalities for systems biology and precision medicine.

  3. Detection and Discrimination of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer by Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Heuke, Sandro; Vogler, Nadine; Meyer, Tobias; Akimov, Denis; Kluschke, Franziska; Röwert-Huber, Hans-Joachim; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) belongs to the most frequent human neoplasms. Its exposed location facilitates a fast ambulant treatment. However, in the clinical practice far more lesions are removed than necessary, due to the lack of an efficient pre-operational examination procedure: Standard imaging methods often do not provide a sufficient spatial resolution. The demand for an efficient in vivo imaging technique might be met in the near future by non-linear microscopy. As a first step towards this goal, the appearance of NMSC in various microspectroscopic modalities has to be defined and approaches have to be derived to distinguish healthy skin from NMSC using non-linear optical microscopy. Therefore, in this contribution the appearance of ex vivo NMSC in a combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG) and two photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging-referred as multimodal imaging-is described. Analogous to H&E staining, an overview of the distinct appearances and features of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma in the complementary modalities is derived, and is expected to boost in vivo studies of this promising technological approach. PMID:27429131

  4. Multimodal imaging with hybrid semiconductor detectors Timepix for an experimental MRI-SPECT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajicek, J.; Jakubek, J.; Burian, M.; Vobecky, M.; Fauler, A.; Fiederle, M.; Zwerger, A.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of clinical applications are being based on multimodal imaging systems (MIS), including anatomical (CT, MRI) and functional (PET, SPECT) techniques to provide complex information in a single image. CT with one of the scintigraphic methods (PET or SPECT) is nowadays a combination of choice for clinical practice and it is mostly used in cardiography and tumour diagnostics. Combination with MRI is also being implemented as no radiation dose is imparted to the patient and it is possible to gain higher structural resolution of soft tissues (brain imaging). A major disadvantage of such systems is inability to operate scintillators with photomultipliers (used for detection of γ rays) in presence of high magnetic fields. In this work we present the application of the semiconductor pixel detector for SPECT method in combination with MR imaging. We propose a novel approach based on MRI compatible setup with CdTe pixel sensor Timepix and non-conductive collimator. Measurements were performed on high proton-density (PD) phantom (1H) with an embedded radioisotopic source inside the shielded RF coil by MRI animal scanner (4.7 T). Our results pave the way for a combined MRI-SPECT system. The project was performed in the framework of the Medipix Collaboration.

  5. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: A Multimodality Imaging Approach with Impact on Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Subhash; Thakur, Meenkashi

    2014-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease is a condition of uncertain etiology, comprised of hydatiform mole (complete and partial), invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, and placental site trophoblastic tumor. It arises from abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue. Early diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease and its potential complications is important for timely and successful management of the condition with preservation of fertility. Initial diagnosis is based on a multimodality approach: encompassing clinical features, serial quantitative β-hCG titers, and pelvic ultrasonography. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sometimes used as a problem-solving tool to assess the depth of myometrial invasion and extrauterine disease spread in equivocal and complicated cases. Chest radiography, body computed tomography (CT), and brain MRI have been recommended as investigative tools for overall disease staging. Angiography has a role in management of disease complications and metastases. Efficacy of PET (positron emission tomography) and PET/CT in the evaluation of recurrent or metastatic disease has not been adequately investigated yet. This paper discusses the imaging features of gestational trophoblastic disease on various imaging modalities and the role of different imaging techniques in the diagnosis and management of this entity. PMID:25126425

  6. Nano-sensitizers for multi-modality optical diagnostic imaging and therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivo, Malini; Lucky, Sasidharan S.; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Dendukuri, Nagamani

    2011-07-01

    We report novel bioconjugated nanosensitizers as optical and therapeutic probes for the detection, monitoring and treatment of cancer. These nanosensitisers, consisting of hypericin loaded bioconjugated gold nanoparticles, can act as tumor cell specific therapeutic photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy coupled with additional photothermal effects rendered by plasmonic heating effects of gold nanoparticles. In addition to the therapeutic effects, the nanosensitizer can be developed as optical probes for state-of-the-art multi-modality in-vivo optical imaging technology such as in-vivo 3D confocal fluorescence endomicroscopic imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT) with improved optical contrast using nano-gold and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) based imaging and bio-sensing. These techniques can be used in tandem or independently as in-vivo optical biopsy techniques to specifically detect and monitor specific cancer cells in-vivo. Such novel nanosensitizer based optical biopsy imaging technique has the potential to provide an alternative to tissue biopsy and will enable clinicians to make real-time diagnosis, determine surgical margins during operative procedures and perform targeted treatment of cancers.

  7. Tumor-Targeted Multimodal Optical Imaging with Versatile Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangyou; Braun, Gary B.; Zhong, Haizheng; Hall, David J.; Han, Wenlong; Qin, Mingde; Zhao, Chuanzhen; Wang, Meina; She, Zhi-Gang; Cao, Chuanbao; Sailor, Michael J.; Stallcup, William B.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of fluorescence imaging technologies requires concurrent improvements in the performance of fluorescent probes. Quantum dots have been extensively used as an imaging probe in various research areas because of their inherent advantages based on unique optical and electronic properties. However, their clinical translation has been limited by the potential toxicity especially from cadmium. Here, a versatile bioimaging probe is developed by using highly luminescent cadmium-free CuInSe2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots conjugated with CGKRK (Cys–Gly–Lys–Arg–Lys) tumor-targeting peptides. This probe exhibits excellent photostability, reasonably long circulation time, minimal toxicity, and strong tumor-specific homing property. The most important feature of this probe is that it shows distinctive versatility in tumor-targeted multimodal imaging including near-infrared, time-gated, and two-photon imaging in different tumor models. In a glioblastoma mouse model, the targeted probe clearly denotes tumor boundaries and positively labels a population of diffusely infiltrating tumor cells, suggesting its utility in precise tumor detection during surgery. This work lays a foundation for potential clinical translation of the probe.

  8. Multimodal imaging guided preclinical trials of vascular targeting in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalmuk, James; Folaron, Margaret; Buchinger, Julian; Pili, Roberto; Seshadri, Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) underscores the need for improving therapeutic options for this patient population. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of vascular targeting in prostate cancer. Experimental studies were carried out in subcutaneous and orthotopic Myc-CaP prostate tumors implanted into male FVB mice to examine the efficacy of a novel microtubule targeted vascular disrupting agent (VDA), EPC2407 (Crolibulin™). A non-invasive multimodality imaging approach based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and ultrasound (US) was utilized to guide preclinical trial design and monitor tumor response to therapy. Imaging results were correlated with histopathologic assessment, tumor growth and survival analysis. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed potent antivascular activity of EPC2407 against subcutaneous and orthotopic Myc-CaP tumors. Longitudinal BLI of Myc-CaP tumors expressing luciferase under the androgen response element (Myc-CaP/ARE-luc) revealed changes in AR signaling and reduction in intratumoral delivery of luciferin substrate following castration suggestive of reduced blood flow. This reduction in blood flow was validated by US and MRI. Combination treatment resulted in sustained vascular suppression, inhibition of tumor regrowth and conferred a survival benefit in both models. These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of vascular targeting in combination with androgen deprivation against prostate cancer. PMID:26203773

  9. A small animal holding fixture system with positional reproducibility for longitudinal multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokuryo, Daisuke; Kimura, Yuichi; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga; Kawamura, Kazunori; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Kanno, Iwao; Aoki, Ichio

    2010-07-01

    This study presents a combined small animal holding fixture system, termed a 'bridge capsule', which provides for small animal re-fixation with positional reproducibility. This system comprises separate holding fixtures for the head and lower body and a connecting part to a gas anesthesia system. A mouse is fixed in place by the combination of a head fixture with a movable part made from polyacetal resin, a lower body fixture made from vinyl-silicone and a holder for the legs and tail. For re-fixation, a similar posture could be maintained by the same holding fixtures and a constant distance between the head and lower body fixtures is maintained. Artifacts caused by the bridge capsule system were not observed on magnetic resonance (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. The average position differences of the spinal column and the iliac body before and after re-fixation for the same modality were approximately 1.1 mm. The difference between the MRI and PET images was approximately 1.8 mm for the lower body fixture after image registration using fiducial markers. This system would be useful for longitudinal, repeated and multimodal imaging experiments requiring similar animal postures.

  10. Curvelet-based sampling for accurate and efficient multimodal image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, M. N.; Freiman, M.; Werman, M.; Joskowicz, L.

    2009-02-01

    We present a new non-uniform adaptive sampling method for the estimation of mutual information in multi-modal image registration. The method uses the Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform to identify regions along anatomical curves on which the mutual information is computed. Its main advantages of over other non-uniform sampling schemes are that it captures the most informative regions, that it is invariant to feature shapes, orientations, and sizes, that it is efficient, and that it yields accurate results. Extensive evaluation on 20 validated clinical brain CT images to Proton Density (PD) and T1 and T2-weighted MRI images from the public RIRE database show the effectiveness of our method. Rigid registration accuracy measured at 10 clinical targets and compared to ground truth measurements yield a mean target registration error of 0.68mm(std=0.4mm) for CT-PD and 0.82mm(std=0.43mm) for CT-T2. This is 0.3mm (1mm) more accurate in the average (worst) case than five existing sampling methods. Our method has the lowest registration errors recorded to date for the registration of CT-PD and CT-T2 images in the RIRE website when compared to methods that were tested on at least three patient datasets.

  11. PET/MRI: THE NEXT GENERATION OF MULTI-MODALITY IMAGING?

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Bernd; Wehrl, Hans F; Kolb, Armin; Judenhofer, Martin S

    2009-01-01

    Multi-modal imaging is now well-established in routine clinical practice. Especially in the field of Nuclear Medicine, new PET installations are comprised almost exclusively of combined PET/CT scanners rather than PET-only systems. However, PET/CT has certain notable shortcomings, including the inability to perform simultaneous data acquisition and the significant radiation dose to the patient contributed by CT. MRI offers, compared to CT, better contrast among soft tissues as well as functional-imaging capabilities. Therefore, the combination of PET with MRI provides many advantages which go far beyond simply combining functional PET information with structural MRI information. Many technical challenges, including possible interference between these modalities, have to be solved when combining PET and MRI and various approaches have been adapted to resolving these issues. Here we present an overview of current working prototypes of combined PET/MRI scanners from different groups. In addition, besides PET/MR images of mice, the first such images of a rat PET/MR, acquired with the first commercial clinical PET/MRI scanner, are presented. The combination of PET and MR is a promising tool in pre-clinical research and will certainly progress to clinical application. PMID:18396179

  12. Multimodal imaging of gliomas in the context of evolving cellular and molecular therapies.

    PubMed

    Keunen, Olivier; Taxt, Torfinn; Grüner, Renate; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Tonn, Joerg-Christian; Pavlin, Tina; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Niclou, Simone P; Thorsen, Frits

    2014-09-30

    The vast majority of malignant gliomas relapse after surgery and standard radio-chemotherapy. Novel molecular and cellular therapies are thus being developed, targeting specific aspects of tumor growth. While histopathology remains the gold standard for tumor classification, neuroimaging has over the years taken a central role in the diagnosis and treatment follow up of brain tumors. It is used to detect and localize lesions, define the target area for biopsies, plan surgical and radiation interventions and assess tumor progression and treatment outcome. In recent years the application of novel drugs including anti-angiogenic agents that affect the tumor vasculature, has drastically modulated the outcome of brain tumor imaging. To properly evaluate the effects of emerging experimental therapies and successfully support treatment decisions, neuroimaging will have to evolve. Multi-modal imaging systems with existing and new contrast agents, molecular tracers, technological advances and advanced data analysis can all contribute to the establishment of disease relevant biomarkers that will improve disease management and patient care. In this review, we address the challenges of glioma imaging in the context of novel molecular and cellular therapies, and take a prospective look at emerging experimental and pre-clinical imaging techniques that bear the promise of meeting these challenges. PMID:25078721

  13. Multi-modal pharmacokinetic modelling for DCE-MRI: using diffusion weighted imaging to constrain the local arterial input function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamy, Valentin; Modat, Marc; Shipley, Rebecca; Dikaios, Nikos; Cleary, Jon; Punwani, Shonit; Ourselin, Sebastien; Atkinson, David; Melbourne, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    The routine acquisition of multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging data in oncology yields the possibility of combined model fitting of traditionally separate models of tissue structure and function. In this work we hypothesise that diffusion weighted imaging data may help constrain the fitting of pharmacokinetic models to dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI data. Parameters related to tissue perfusion in the intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) modelling of diffusion weighted MRI provide local information on how tissue is likely to perfuse that can be utilised to guide DCE modelling via local modification of the arterial input function (AIF). In this study we investigate, based on multi-parametric head and neck MRI of 8 subjects (4 with head and neck tumours), the benefit of incorporating parameters derived from the IVIM model within the DCE modelling procedure. Although we find the benefit of this procedure to be marginal on the data used in this work, it is conceivable that a technique of this type will be of greater use in a different application.

  14. Multimodality pH imaging in a mouse dorsal skin fold window chamber model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Hui Min; Schafer, Rachel; Pagel, Mark M.; Robey, Ian F.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2013-03-01

    Upregulate levels of expression and activity of membrane H+ ion pumps in cancer cells drives the extracellular pH (pHe,) to values lower than normal. Furthermore, disregulated pH is indicative of the changes in glycolytic metabolism in tumor cells and has been shown to facilitate extracellular tissue remodeling during metastasis Therefore, measurement of pHe could be a useful cancer biomarker for diagnostic and therapy monitoring evaluation. Multimodality in-vivo imaging of pHe in tumorous tissue in a mouse dorsal skin fold window chamber (DSFWC) model is described. A custom-made plastic window chamber structure was developed that is compatible with both imaging optical and MR imaging modalities and provides a model system for continuous study of the same tissue microenvironment on multiple imaging platforms over a 3-week period. For optical imaging of pHe, SNARF-1 carboxylic acid is injected intravenously into a SCID mouse with an implanted tumor. A ratiometric measurement of the fluorescence signal captured on a confocal microscope reveals the pHe of the tissue visible within the window chamber. This imaging method was used in a preliminary study to evaluate sodium bicarbonate as a potential drug treatment to reverse tissue acidosis. For MR imaging of pHe the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) was used as an alternative way of measuring pHe in a DSFWC model. ULTRAVIST®, a FDA approved x-ray/CT contrast agent has been shown to have a CEST effect that is pH dependent. A ratiometric analysis of water saturation at 5.6 and 4.2 ppm chemical shift provides a means to estimate the local pHe.

  15. Multimodal adaptive optics for depth-enhanced high-resolution ophthalmic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Mujat, Mircea; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Lue, Niyom; Ferguson, R. Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The development represents the first ever high performance AO system constructed that combines AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 μm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. The system is designed to operate on a broad clinical population with a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration that allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction. The system also includes a wide field line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation; an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of rotational eye motion; and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation to the subject of stimuli and other visual cues. The system was tested in a limited number of human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. The system was able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 μm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve targets deep into the choroid. In addition to instrument hardware development, analysis algorithms were developed for efficient information extraction from clinical imaging sessions, with functionality including automated image registration, photoreceptor counting, strip and montage stitching, and segmentation. The system provides clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help

  16. Imaging of rat brain using short graded-index multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Manabu; Kanno, Takahiro; Ishihara, Syoutarou; Suto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Kurotani, Reiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Nishidate, Izumi

    2014-03-01

    Clinically it is important to image structures of brain at deeper areas with low invasions, for example, the pathological information is not obtained enough from the white matter. Preliminarily we have measured transmission images of rat brain using the short graded-index multimode fiber (SMMF) with the diameter of 140μm and length of 5mm. SMMF (core diameter, 100μm) was cut using a fiber cleaver and was fixed in a jig. Fiber lengths inside and outside jig were 3mm and 2mm, respectively. The jig was attached at the 20x objective lens. The conventional optical microscope was used to measure images. In basic characteristics, it was confirmed that the imaging conditions almost corresponded to calculations with the ray-transfer matrix and the spatial resolution was evaluated at about 4.4μm by measuring the test pattern. After euthanasia the rat parietal brain was excised with thickness around 1.5mm and was set on the slide glass. The tissue was illuminated through the slide glass by the bundle fiber with Halogen lamp. The tip of SMMF was inserted into the tissue by lifting the sample stage. The transmission image at each depth from 0.1mm to 1.53mm was measured. Around the depth of 1.45mm, granular structures with sizes of 4-5μm were recognized and corresponded to images by HE stained tissue. Total measurement time was within 2 hours. The feasibilities to image the depth of 5 mm with SMMF have been shown.

  17. Classification of first-episode psychosis: a multi-modal multi-feature approach integrating structural and diffusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Denis; Castellani, Umberto; Perlini, Cinzia; Bellani, Marcella; Marinelli, Veronica; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Lasalvia, Antonio; Tosato, Sarah; De Santi, Katia; Murino, Vittorio; Ruggeri, Mirella; Brambilla, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    Currently, most of the classification studies of psychosis focused on chronic patients and employed single machine learning approaches. To overcome these limitations, we here compare, to our best knowledge for the first time, different classification methods of first-episode psychosis (FEP) using multi-modal imaging data exploited on several cortical and subcortical structures and white matter fiber bundles. 23 FEP patients and 23 age-, gender-, and race-matched healthy participants were included in the study. An innovative multivariate approach based on multiple kernel learning (MKL) methods was implemented on structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. MKL provides the best classification performances in comparison with the more widely used support vector machine, enabling the definition of a reliable automatic decisional system based on the integration of multi-modal imaging information. Our results show a discrimination accuracy greater than 90 % between healthy subjects and patients with FEP. Regions with an accuracy greater than 70 % on different imaging sources and measures were middle and superior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncinate fascicles, and cingulum. This study shows that multivariate machine learning approaches integrating multi-modal and multisource imaging data can classify FEP patients with high accuracy. Interestingly, specific grey matter structures and white matter bundles reach high classification reliability when using different imaging modalities and indices, potentially outlining a prefronto-limbic network impaired in FEP with particular regard to the right hemisphere. PMID:25344845

  18. Dragon fruit-like biocage as an iron trapping nanoplatform for high efficiency targeted cancer multimodality imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Fan, Quli; Zhang, Ruiping; Cheng, Kai; Yan, Junjie; Pan, Donghui; Ma, Xiaowei; Lu, Alex; Cheng, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    Natural biopolymer based multifunctional nanomaterials are perfect candidates for multimodality imaging and therapeutic applications. Conventional methods of building multimodal imaging probe require either cross-linking manners to increase its in vivo stability or attach a target module to realize targeted imaging. In this study, the intrinsic photoacoustic signals and the native strong chelating properties with metal ions of melanin nanoparticle (MNP), and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) targeting ability of apoferritin (APF) was employed to construct an efficient nanoplatform (AMF) without tedious assembling process. Smart APF shell significantly increased metal ions loading (molar ratio of 1:800, APF/Fe(3+)) and therefore improved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensitivity. Moreover, synergistic use of Fe(3+) and APF contributed to high photoacounstic imaging (PAI) sensitivity. AMF showed excellent bio-stability and presented good in vivo multimodality imaging (PET/MRI/PAI) properties (good tumor uptake, high specificity and high tumor contrast) in HT29 tumor because of its targeting property combined with the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, making it promising in theranostics and translational nanomedicine. PMID:26275860

  19. Document imaging finding niche in petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cisco, S.L.

    1992-11-09

    Optical disk-based document imaging systems can reduce operating costs, save office space, and improve access to necessary information for petroleum companies that have extensive records in various formats. These imaging systems help solve document management problems to improve technical and administrative operations. Enron Gas Pipeline Group has installed a document imaging system for engineering applications to integrate records stored on paper, microfilm, or computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. BP Exploration Inc. recently implemented a document imaging system for administrative applications. The company is evaluating an expansion of the system to include engineering and technical applications. The petroleum industry creates, acquires, distributes, and retrieves enormous amounts of data and information, which are stored on multiple media, including paper, microfilm, and electronic formats. There are two main factors responsible for the immense information storage requirements in the petroleum industry.

  20. NASA Technology Finds Uses in Medical Imaging

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA software has been incorporated into a new medical imaging device that could one day aid in the interpretation of mammograms, ultrasounds, and other medical imagery. The new MED-SEG system, dev...

  1. Strategy for analysis of flow diverting devices based on multi-modality image-based modeling

    PubMed Central

    Cebral, Juan R.; Mut, Fernando; Raschi, Marcelo; Ding, Yong-Hong; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Kallmes, David

    2014-01-01

    Quantification and characterization of the hemodynamic environment created after flow diversion treatment of cerebral aneurysms is important to understand the effects of flow diverters and their interactions with the biology of the aneurysm wall and the thrombosis process that takes place subsequently. This paper describes the construction of multi-modality image-based subject-specific CFD models of experimentally created aneurysms in rabbits and subsequently treated with flow diverters. Briefly, anatomical models were constructed from 3D rotational angiography images, flow conditions were derived from Doppler ultrasound measurements, stent models were created and virtually deployed, and the results were compared to in vivo digital subtraction angiography and Doppler ultrasound images. The models were capable of reproducing in vivo observations, including velocity waveforms measured in the parent artery, peak velocity values measured in the aneurysm, and flow structures observed with digital subtraction angiography before and after deployment of flow diverters. The results indicate that regions of aneurysm occlusion after flow diversion coincide with slow and smooth flow patterns, while regions still permeable at the time of animal sacrifice were observed in parts of the aneurysm exposed to larger flow activity, i.e. higher velocities, more swirling and more complex flow structures. PMID:24719392

  2. Multimodal imaging of the human temporal bone: A comparison of CT and optical scanning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voie, Arne H.; Whiting, Bruce; Skinner, Margaret; Neely, J. Gail; Lee, Kenneth; Holden, Tim; Brunsden, Barry

    2003-10-01

    A collaborative effort between Washington University in St. Louis and Spencer Technologies in Seattle, WA has been undertaken to create a multimodal 3D reconstruction of the human cochlea and vestibular system. The goal of this project is to improve the accuracy of in vivo CT reconstructions of implanted cochleae, and to expand the knowledge of high-resolution anatomical detail provided by orthogonal-plane optical sectioning (OPFOS). At WUSL, computed tomography (CT) images of the cochlea are used to determine the position of cochlear implant electrodes relative to target auditory neurons. The cochlear implant position is determined using pre- and post-operative CT scans. The CT volumes are cross-registered to align the semicircular canals and internal auditory canal, which have a unique configuration in 3-D space. The head of a human body donor was scanned with a clinical CT device, after which the temporal bones were removed, fixed in formalin and trimmed prior to scanning with a laboratory Micro CT scanner. Following CT, the temporal bones were sent to the OPFOS Imaging Lab at Spencer Technologies for a further analysis. 3-D reconstructions of CT and OPFOS imaging modalities were compared, and results are presented. [Work supported by NIDCD Grants R44-03623-5 and R01-00581-13.

  3. Multimodal approach to feature extraction for image and signal learning problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eads, Damian R.; Williams, Steven J.; Theiler, James; Porter, Reid; Harvey, Neal R.; Perkins, Simon J.; Brumby, Steven P.; David, Nancy A.

    2004-01-01

    We present ZEUS, an algorithm for extracting features from images and time series signals. ZEIS is designed to solve a variety of machine learning problems including time series forecasting, signal classification, image and pixel classification of multispectral and panchromatic imagery. An evolutionary approach is used to extract features from a near-infinite space of possible combinations of nonlinear operators. Each problem type (i.e. signal or image, regression or classification, multiclass or binary) has its own set of primitive operators. We employ fairly generic operators, but note that the choice of which operators to use provides an opportunity to consult with a domain expert. Each feature is produced from a composition of some subset of these primitive operators. The fitness for an evolved set of features is given by the performance of a back-end classifier (or regressor) on training data. We demonstrate our multimodal approach to feature extraction on a variety of problems in remote sensing. The performance of this algorithm will be compared to standard approaches, and the relative benefit of various aspects of the algorithm will be investigated.

  4. Integrated nanotechnology platform for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and therapeutic cargo release

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hosoya, Hitomi; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Cristini, Vittorio; Brinker, Lina M.; Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Cardó-Vila, Marina; D’Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Proneth, Bettina; et al

    2016-02-02

    A major challenge of targeted molecular imaging and drug delivery in cancer is establishing a functional combination of ligand-directed cargo with a triggered release system. Here we develop a hydrogel-based nanotechnology platform that integrates tumor targeting, photon-to-heat conversion, and triggered drug delivery within a single nanostructure to enable multimodal imaging and controlled release of therapeutic cargo. In proof-of-concept experiments, we show a broad range of ligand peptide-based applications with phage particles, heat-sensitive liposomes, or mesoporous silica nanoparticles that self-assemble into a hydrogel for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Because nanoparticles pack densely within the nanocarrier, their surface plasmon resonance shifts to near-infrared,more » thereby enabling a laser-mediated photothermal mechanism of cargo release. We demonstrate both noninvasive imaging and targeted drug delivery in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer. Finally, we applied mathematical modeling to predict and confirm tumor targeting and drug delivery. We conclude that these results are meaningful steps toward the design and initial translation of an enabling nanotechnology platform with potential for broad clinical applications.« less

  5. High resolution multimode light microscopy of cell migration: long-term imaging and analysis.

    PubMed

    Wöllert, Torsten; Langford, George M

    2009-01-01

    Cell migration is a multi-step process that involves sequential changes in the cytoskeleton, cell-substrate adhesion and components of the extracellular matrix. In multicellular organisms, directional cell migration is important for normal development, wound healing and immune responses and contributes to disease states such as tumor formation and metastasis. Many cells such as fibroblasts migrate as individuals while others, such as keratinocytes, move as groups or sheets of cells.In this chapter, we use human oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2) to illustrate the complex patterns of cell migration and its regulation. In culture, sheets of keratinocytes migrate and respond to human pathogens such as Candida albicans. The dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton, cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions that change during an infection for example require observation over long periods of time in order to identify the spatio-temporal coordinated regulation of the cytoskeleton and its associated components as well as the signaling pathways that control them.Microscopic techniques for long-term live cell observation and analysis of cell migration require high-resolution imaging systems that maintain perfect focus and optimal growth conditions (temperature, CO(2)) for cells. We describe two multimode digital imaging systems (VEC-DIC and BioStation IM), both with wide-field epifluorescence and transmitted light objectives for long-term time-lapse imaging and motion analysis. PMID:19768422

  6. Integrated nanotechnology platform for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and therapeutic cargo release.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Hitomi; Dobroff, Andrey S; Driessen, Wouter H P; Cristini, Vittorio; Brinker, Lina M; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Cardó-Vila, Marina; D'Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Proneth, Bettina; Lin, Yu-Shen; Dunphy, Darren R; Dogra, Prashant; Melancon, Marites P; Stafford, R Jason; Miyazono, Kohei; Gelovani, Juri G; Kataoka, Kazunori; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-02-16

    A major challenge of targeted molecular imaging and drug delivery in cancer is establishing a functional combination of ligand-directed cargo with a triggered release system. Here we develop a hydrogel-based nanotechnology platform that integrates tumor targeting, photon-to-heat conversion, and triggered drug delivery within a single nanostructure to enable multimodal imaging and controlled release of therapeutic cargo. In proof-of-concept experiments, we show a broad range of ligand peptide-based applications with phage particles, heat-sensitive liposomes, or mesoporous silica nanoparticles that self-assemble into a hydrogel for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Because nanoparticles pack densely within the nanocarrier, their surface plasmon resonance shifts to near-infrared, thereby enabling a laser-mediated photothermal mechanism of cargo release. We demonstrate both noninvasive imaging and targeted drug delivery in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer. Finally, we applied mathematical modeling to predict and confirm tumor targeting and drug delivery. These results are meaningful steps toward the design and initial translation of an enabling nanotechnology platform with potential for broad clinical applications. PMID:26839407

  7. Integrated nanotechnology platform for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and therapeutic cargo release

    PubMed Central

    Hosoya, Hitomi; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Cristini, Vittorio; Brinker, Lina M.; Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Cardó-Vila, Marina; D’Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Proneth, Bettina; Lin, Yu-Shen; Dunphy, Darren R.; Dogra, Prashant; Melancon, Marites P.; Stafford, R. Jason; Miyazono, Kohei; Gelovani, Juri G.; Kataoka, Kazunori; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Sidman, Richard L.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge of targeted molecular imaging and drug delivery in cancer is establishing a functional combination of ligand-directed cargo with a triggered release system. Here we develop a hydrogel-based nanotechnology platform that integrates tumor targeting, photon-to-heat conversion, and triggered drug delivery within a single nanostructure to enable multimodal imaging and controlled release of therapeutic cargo. In proof-of-concept experiments, we show a broad range of ligand peptide-based applications with phage particles, heat-sensitive liposomes, or mesoporous silica nanoparticles that self-assemble into a hydrogel for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Because nanoparticles pack densely within the nanocarrier, their surface plasmon resonance shifts to near-infrared, thereby enabling a laser-mediated photothermal mechanism of cargo release. We demonstrate both noninvasive imaging and targeted drug delivery in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer. Finally, we applied mathematical modeling to predict and confirm tumor targeting and drug delivery. These results are meaningful steps toward the design and initial translation of an enabling nanotechnology platform with potential for broad clinical applications. PMID:26839407

  8. Polypyrrole-encapsulated iron tungstate nanocomposites: a versatile platform for multimodal tumor imaging and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiyin; Peng, Chen; Jiang, Xiaohong; Peng, Yuxuan; Huang, Xiaojuan; Guan, Guoqiang; Zhang, Wenlong; Liu, Xiaoming; Qin, Zongyi; Hu, Junqing

    2016-07-14

    A versatile nanoplatform of FeWO4@Polypyrrole (PPy) core/shell nanocomposites, which was facilely fabricated by first hydrothermal synthesis of FeWO4 nanoparticles and subsequent surface-coating of polypyrrole shell, was developed as an effective nanotheranostic agent of cancer. The as-prepared nanocomposites demonstrated excellent dispersion in saline, long-term colloidal storage, outstanding photo-stability and high photothermal efficiency in solution. In particular, FeWO4@PPy exhibited efficient performance for hyperthermia-killing of cancer cells under the irradiation of an 808 nm laser, accompanied with multimodal contrast capabilities for magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography and infrared thermal imaging in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the nanocomposites presented impactful tumor growth inhibition and good biocompability in animal experiments. Blood circulation and biodistribution of the nanocomposites were also investigated to understand their in vivo behaviours. Our results verified the platform of FeWO4@PPy nanocomposites as a promising photothermal agent for imaging-guided cancer theranostics. PMID:27303912

  9. Cell Studies of BiFeO3 nanoparticles for multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Suvra; Palihawadana Arachchige, Maheshika; Flack, Amanda; Paudel, Sagar; Singh, Jaipal; Rajagopal, Amulya; Kulkarni, Sanjana; Synder, Michael; Rakowski, Joe; Chen, Xuequn; Jena, Bhanu; Lawes, Gavin

    2014-03-01

    There is considerable interest in using nanoparticles as contrast agents to improve diagnostic imaging. BiFeO3 nanoparticles may be particularly interesting as multimodal contrast agents for both magnetic resonance imaging and x-ray imaging because these combine a large magnetic susceptibility with high atomic mass constituents. We synthesized BiFeO3 nanoparticles using a chemical co-precipitation technique. We measured the structural and morphological characteristics of these nanoparticles using x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential, and probed the magnetic properties through both ac and dc magnetization studies. In order to investigate the cytotoxicity and intracellular distribution of these BiFeO3 nanoparticles, we cultured them with mouse insulinoma MIN 6 cells and used optical microscopy to investigate the distribution and cell growth. We discuss the cytotoxicity of these nanoparticles, which will be crucial factor for determining possible biomedical applications together with a discussion of the cellular distribution of these nanoparticles.

  10. MINC 2.0: A Flexible Format for Multi-Modal Images.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Robert D; Neelin, Peter; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Janke, Andrew L; Fonov, Vladimir S; Robbins, Steven M; Baghdadi, Leila; Lerch, Jason; Sled, John G; Adalat, Reza; MacDonald, David; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Collins, D Louis; Evans, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    It is often useful that an imaging data format can afford rich metadata, be flexible, scale to very large file sizes, support multi-modal data, and have strong inbuilt mechanisms for data provenance. Beginning in 1992, MINC was developed as a system for flexible, self-documenting representation of neuroscientific imaging data with arbitrary orientation and dimensionality. The MINC system incorporates three broad components: a file format specification, a programming library, and a growing set of tools. In the early 2000's the MINC developers created MINC 2.0, which added support for 64-bit file sizes, internal compression, and a number of other modern features. Because of its extensible design, it has been easy to incorporate details of provenance in the header metadata, including an explicit processing history, unique identifiers, and vendor-specific scanner settings. This makes MINC ideal for use in large scale imaging studies and databases. It also makes it easy to adapt to new scanning sequences and modalities. PMID:27563289

  11. An activatable multimodal/multifunctional nanoprobe for direct imaging of intracellular drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Rajendra N.; Doshi, Mona; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tyus, Jessica C.; Bengtsson, Niclas; Fletcher, Steven; Page, Brent D. G.; Turkson, James; Gesquiere, Andre J.; Gunning, Patrick T.; Walter, Glenn A.; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2011-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles integrated with imaging modalities (such as magnetic resonance and optical) and therapeutic drugs are promising candidates for future cancer diagnostics and therapy. While targeted drug delivery and imaging of tumor cells have been the major focus in engineering nanoparticle probes, no extensive efforts have been made towards developing sensing probes that can confirm and monitor intra-cellular drug release events. Here, we present quantum dot (Qdot)-iron oxide (IO) based multimodal/multifunctional nanocomposite probe that is optically and magnetically imageable, targetable and capable of reporting on intra-cellular drug release events. Specifically, the probe consists of a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle core (IONP) decorated with satellite CdS:Mn/ZnS Qdots where the Qdots themselves are further functionalized with STAT3 inhibitor (an anti-cancer agent), vitamin folate (as targeting motif) and m-polyethylene glycol (m-PEG, a hydrophilic dispersing agent). The Qdot luminescence is quenched in this nanocomposite probe (“OFF” state) due to combined electron/energy transfer mediated quenching processes involving IONP, folate and STAT3 agents. Upon intracellular uptake, the probe is exposed to the cytosolic glutathione (GSH) containing environment resulting in restoration of the Qdot luminescence (“ON” state), which reports on uptake and drug release. Probe functionality was validated using fluorescence and MR measurements as well as in vitro studies using cancer cells that overexpress folate receptors. PMID:22078810

  12. Strategy for analysis of flow diverting devices based on multi-modality image-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Cebral, Juan R; Mut, Fernando; Raschi, Marcelo; Ding, Yong-Hong; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Kallmes, David

    2014-10-01

    Quantification and characterization of the hemodynamic environment created after flow diversion treatment of cerebral aneurysms is important to understand the effects of flow diverters and their interactions with the biology of the aneurysm wall and the thrombosis process that takes place subsequently. This paper describes the construction of multi-modality image-based subject-specific CFD models of experimentally created aneurysms in rabbits and subsequently treated with flow diverters. Briefly, anatomical models were constructed from 3D rotational angiography images, flow conditions were derived from Doppler ultrasound measurements, stent models were created and virtually deployed, and the results were compared with in vivo digital subtraction angiography and Doppler ultrasound images. The models were capable of reproducing in vivo observations, including velocity waveforms measured in the parent artery, peak velocity values measured in the aneurysm, and flow structures observed with digital subtraction angiography before and after deployment of flow diverters. The results indicate that regions of aneurysm occlusion after flow diversion coincide with slow and smooth flow patterns, whereas regions still permeable at the time of animal sacrifice were observed in parts of the aneurysm exposed to larger flow activity, that is, higher velocities, more swirling, and more complex flow structures. PMID:24719392

  13. MINC 2.0: A Flexible Format for Multi-Modal Images

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Robert D.; Neelin, Peter; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Janke, Andrew L.; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Robbins, Steven M.; Baghdadi, Leila; Lerch, Jason; Sled, John G.; Adalat, Reza; MacDonald, David; Zijdenbos, Alex P.; Collins, D. Louis; Evans, Alan C.

    2016-01-01

    It is often useful that an imaging data format can afford rich metadata, be flexible, scale to very large file sizes, support multi-modal data, and have strong inbuilt mechanisms for data provenance. Beginning in 1992, MINC was developed as a system for flexible, self-documenting representation of neuroscientific imaging data with arbitrary orientation and dimensionality. The MINC system incorporates three broad components: a file format specification, a programming library, and a growing set of tools. In the early 2000's the MINC developers created MINC 2.0, which added support for 64-bit file sizes, internal compression, and a number of other modern features. Because of its extensible design, it has been easy to incorporate details of provenance in the header metadata, including an explicit processing history, unique identifiers, and vendor-specific scanner settings. This makes MINC ideal for use in large scale imaging studies and databases. It also makes it easy to adapt to new scanning sequences and modalities. PMID:27563289

  14. Ultrathin endoscopes: nonlinear lensless imaging at the tip of a multimode fiber (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivankutty, Siddharth; Andresen, Esben R.; Bouwmans, Géraud; Monneret, Serge; Rigneault, Hervé

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in wavefront shaping techniques have enabled so-called lensless endoscopes using fiber probes. Unlocking the full potential of such endoscopes call for the capability of optically sectioned and/or label free imaging. Or in other words, imaging through fibers must retain the functionality of a nonlinear microscope. This is a key challenge due to the temporal broadening of ultrashort pulses in fibers owing to modal dispersion. Here, we detail the first ever demonstration of two photon fluorescence imaging at the distal tip of a conventional graded index (GRIN) multimode fiber. GRIN fibers possess a high mode density, excellent throughput and limited temporal broadening. These features, in addition to its ready availability, make them attractive candidates for ultrathin endoscopes. In our approach, we apply the transmission matrix formalism and treat these fibers akin to highly scattering media. This lets us retrieve combinations of input modes that would generate intense focal spots throughout the field of view. Furthermore, we identify a regime where the modal dispersion in the fiber is minimal and two-photon excitation with femtosecond light pulses is possible. This allows us to perform two-photon imaging with ultrashort pulses in an epi-detection configuration analogous to conventional nonlinear microscopes. Finally, these concepts are validated by acquiring optically sectioned two photon fluorescence images of 3D samples with cellular resolution. We believe this first report of an ultrathin rigid endoscope of only 125 µm thickness would further accelerate the development of novel tools for demanding applications in biological imaging and opto-genetics.

  15. A compact microscope setup for multimodal nonlinear imaging in clinics and its application to disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Tobias; Baumgartl, Martin; Gottschall, Thomas; Pascher, Torbjörn; Wuttig, Andreas; Matthäus, Christian; Romeike, Bernd F M; Brehm, Bernhard R; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Dietzek, Benjamin; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-07-21

    The past years have seen increasing interest in nonlinear optical microscopic imaging approaches for the investigation of diseases due to the method's unique capabilities of deep tissue penetration, 3D sectioning and molecular contrast. Its application in clinical routine diagnostics, however, is hampered by large and costly equipment requiring trained staff and regular maintenance, hence it has not yet matured to a reliable tool for application in clinics. In this contribution implementing a novel compact fiber laser system into a tailored designed laser scanning microscope results in a small footprint easy to use multimodal imaging platform enabling simultaneously highly efficient generation and acquisition of second harmonic generation (SHG), two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) as well as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals with optimized CARS contrast for lipid imaging for label-free investigation of tissue samples. The instrument combining a laser source and a microscope features a unique combination of the highest NIR transmission and a fourfold enlarged field of view suited for investigating large tissue specimens. Despite its small size and turnkey operation rendering daily alignment dispensable the system provides the highest flexibility, an imaging speed of 1 megapixel per second and diffraction limited spatial resolution. This is illustrated by imaging samples of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and an animal model of atherosclerosis allowing for a complete characterization of the tissue composition and morphology, i.e. the tissue's morphochemistry. Highly valuable information for clinical diagnostics, e.g. monitoring the disease progression at the cellular level with molecular specificity, can be retrieved. Future combination with microscopic probes for in vivo imaging or even implementation in endoscopes will allow for in vivo grading of HNSCC and characterization of plaque deposits towards the detection of high

  16. Automated multimodality concurrent classification for segmenting vessels in 3D spectral OCT and color fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhihong; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.

    2011-03-01

    Segmenting vessels in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes is particularly challenging in the region near and inside the neural canal opening (NCO). Furthermore, accurately segmenting them in color fundus photographs also presents a challenge near the projected NCO. However, both modalities also provide complementary information to help indicate vessels, such as a better NCO contrast from the NCO-aimed OCT projection image and a better vessel contrast inside the NCO from fundus photographs. We thus present a novel multimodal automated classification approach for simultaneously segmenting vessels in SD-OCT volumes and fundus photographs, with a particular focus on better segmenting vessels near and inside the NCO by using a combination of their complementary features. In particular, in each SD-OCT volume, the algorithm pre-segments the NCO using a graph-theoretic approach and then applies oriented Gabor wavelets with oriented NCO-based templates to generate OCT image features. After fundus-to-OCT registration, the fundus image features are computed using Gaussian filter banks and combined with OCT image features. A k-NN classifier is trained on 5 and tested on 10 randomly chosen independent image pairs of SD-OCT volumes and fundus images from 15 subjects with glaucoma. Using ROC analysis, we demonstrate an improvement over two closest previous works performed in single modal SD-OCT volumes with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87 (0.81 for our and 0.72 for Niemeijer's single modal approach) in the region around the NCO and 0.90 outside the NCO (0.84 for our and 0.81 for Niemeijer's single modal approach).

  17. Multimodality Imaging Approach towards Primary Aortic Sarcomas Arising after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Case Series Report.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Mudassar; Fowler, Kathryn J; Mellnick, Vincent M; Sicard, Gregorio A; Narra, Vamsi R

    2016-06-01

    Primary aortic neoplasms are rare. Aortic sarcoma arising after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a scarce subset of primary aortic malignancies, reports of which are infrequent in the published literature. The diagnosis of aortic sarcoma is challenging due to its non-specific clinical presentation, and the prognosis is poor due to delayed diagnosis, rapid proliferation, and propensity for metastasis. Post-EVAR, aortic sarcomas may mimic other more common aortic processes on surveillance imaging. Radiologists are rarely knowledgeable about this rare entity for which multimodality imaging and awareness are invaluable in early diagnosis. A series of three pathologically confirmed cases are presented to display the multimodality imaging features and clinical presentations of aortic sarcoma arising after EVAR. PMID:26721588

  18. Multimodal imaging of a tescalcin (TESC)-regulating polymorphism (rs7294919)-specific effects on hippocampal gray matter structure.

    PubMed

    Dannlowski, U; Grabe, H J; Wittfeld, K; Klaus, J; Konrad, C; Grotegerd, D; Redlich, R; Suslow, T; Opel, N; Ohrmann, P; Bauer, J; Zwanzger, P; Laeger, I; Hohoff, C; Arolt, V; Heindel, W; Deppe, M; Domschke, K; Hegenscheid, K; Völzke, H; Stacey, D; Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, H; Kugel, H; Baune, B T

    2015-03-01

    In two large genome-wide association studies, an intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs7294919) involved in TESC gene regulation has been associated with hippocampus volume. Further characterization of neurobiological effects of the TESC gene is warranted using multimodal brain-wide structural and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) was used in two large, well-characterized samples of healthy individuals of West-European ancestry (Münster sample, N=503; SHIP-TREND, N=721) to analyze associations between rs7294919 and local gray matter volume. In subsamples, white matter fiber structure was investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and limbic responsiveness was measured by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during facial emotion processing (N=220 and N=264, respectively). Furthermore, gene x environment (G × E) interaction and gene x gene interaction with SNPs from genes previously found to be associated with hippocampal size (FKBP5, Reelin, IL-6, TNF-α, BDNF and 5-HTTLPR/rs25531) were explored. We demonstrated highly significant effects of rs7294919 on hippocampal gray matter volumes in both samples. In whole-brain analyses, no other brain areas except the hippocampal formation and adjacent temporal structures were associated with rs7294919. There were no genotype effects on DTI and fMRI results, including functional connectivity measures. No G × E interaction with childhood maltreatment was found in both samples. However, an interaction between rs7294919 and rs2299403 in the Reelin gene was found that withstood correction for multiple comparisons. We conclude that rs7294919 exerts highly robust and regionally specific effects on hippocampal gray matter structures, but not on other neuropsychiatrically relevant imaging markers. The biological interaction between TESC and RELN pointing to a neurodevelopmental origin of the observed findings warrants further mechanistic investigations. PMID:24776739

  19. SU-E-I-83: Error Analysis of Multi-Modality Image-Based Volumes of Rodent Solid Tumors Using a Preclinical Multi-Modality QA Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y; Fullerton, G; Goins, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In our previous study a preclinical multi-modality quality assurance (QA) phantom that contains five tumor-simulating test objects with 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14 mm diameters was developed for accurate tumor size measurement by researchers during cancer drug development and testing. This study analyzed the errors during tumor volume measurement from preclinical magnetic resonance (MR), micro-computed tomography (micro- CT) and ultrasound (US) images acquired in a rodent tumor model using the preclinical multi-modality QA phantom. Methods: Using preclinical 7-Tesla MR, US and micro-CT scanners, images were acquired of subcutaneous SCC4 tumor xenografts in nude rats (3–4 rats per group; 5 groups) along with the QA phantom using the same imaging protocols. After tumors were excised, in-air micro-CT imaging was performed to determine reference tumor volume. Volumes measured for the rat tumors and phantom test objects were calculated using formula V = (π/6)*a*b*c where a, b and c are the maximum diameters in three perpendicular dimensions determined by the three imaging modalities. Then linear regression analysis was performed to compare image-based tumor volumes with the reference tumor volume and known test object volume for the rats and the phantom respectively. Results: The slopes of regression lines for in-vivo tumor volumes measured by three imaging modalities were 1.021, 1.101 and 0.862 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. For phantom, the slopes were 0.9485, 0.9971 and 0.9734 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. Conclusion: For both animal and phantom studies, random and systematic errors were observed. Random errors were observer-dependent and systematic errors were mainly due to selected imaging protocols and/or measurement method. In the animal study, there were additional systematic errors attributed to ellipsoidal assumption for tumor shape. The systematic errors measured using the QA phantom need to be taken into account to reduce measurement

  20. Multi-Modal Homing in Sea Turtles: Modeling Dual Use of Geomagnetic and Chemical Cues in Island-Finding.

    PubMed

    Endres, Courtney S; Putman, Nathan F; Ernst, David A; Kurth, Jessica A; Lohmann, Catherine M F; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtles are capable of navigating across large expanses of ocean to arrive at remote islands for nesting, but how they do so has remained enigmatic. An interesting example involves green turtles (Chelonia mydas) that nest on Ascension Island, a tiny land mass located approximately 2000 km from the turtles' foraging grounds along the coast of Brazil. Sensory cues that turtles are known to detect, and which might hypothetically be used to help locate Ascension Island, include the geomagnetic field, airborne odorants, and waterborne odorants. One possibility is that turtles use magnetic cues to arrive in the vicinity of the island, then use chemical cues to pinpoint its location. As a first step toward investigating this hypothesis, we used oceanic, atmospheric, and geomagnetic models to assess whether magnetic and chemical cues might plausibly be used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. Results suggest that waterborne and airborne odorants alone are insufficient to guide turtles from Brazil to Ascension, but might permit localization of the island once turtles arrive in its vicinity. By contrast, magnetic cues might lead turtles into the vicinity of the island, but would not typically permit its localization because the field shifts gradually over time. Simulations reveal, however, that the sequential use of magnetic and chemical cues can potentially provide a robust navigational strategy for locating Ascension Island. Specifically, one strategy that appears viable is following a magnetic isoline into the vicinity of Ascension Island until an odor plume emanating from the island is encountered, after which turtles might either: (1) initiate a search strategy; or (2) follow the plume to its island source. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sea turtles, and perhaps other marine animals, use a multi-modal navigational strategy for locating remote islands. PMID:26941625

  1. Multi-Modal Homing in Sea Turtles: Modeling Dual Use of Geomagnetic and Chemical Cues in Island-Finding

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Courtney S.; Putman, Nathan F.; Ernst, David A.; Kurth, Jessica A.; Lohmann, Catherine M. F.; Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtles are capable of navigating across large expanses of ocean to arrive at remote islands for nesting, but how they do so has remained enigmatic. An interesting example involves green turtles (Chelonia mydas) that nest on Ascension Island, a tiny land mass located approximately 2000 km from the turtles’ foraging grounds along the coast of Brazil. Sensory cues that turtles are known to detect, and which might hypothetically be used to help locate Ascension Island, include the geomagnetic field, airborne odorants, and waterborne odorants. One possibility is that turtles use magnetic cues to arrive in the vicinity of the island, then use chemical cues to pinpoint its location. As a first step toward investigating this hypothesis, we used oceanic, atmospheric, and geomagnetic models to assess whether magnetic and chemical cues might plausibly be used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. Results suggest that waterborne and airborne odorants alone are insufficient to guide turtles from Brazil to Ascension, but might permit localization of the island once turtles arrive in its vicinity. By contrast, magnetic cues might lead turtles into the vicinity of the island, but would not typically permit its localization because the field shifts gradually over time. Simulations reveal, however, that the sequential use of magnetic and chemical cues can potentially provide a robust navigational strategy for locating Ascension Island. Specifically, one strategy that appears viable is following a magnetic isoline into the vicinity of Ascension Island until an odor plume emanating from the island is encountered, after which turtles might either: (1) initiate a search strategy; or (2) follow the plume to its island source. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sea turtles, and perhaps other marine animals, use a multi-modal navigational strategy for locating remote islands. PMID:26941625

  2. A novel multi-modal platform to image molecular and elemental alterations in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Caine, Sally; Hackett, Mark J; Hou, Huishu; Kumar, Saroj; Maley, Jason; Ivanishvili, Zurab; Suen, Brandon; Szmigielski, Aleksander; Jiang, Zhongxiang; Sylvain, Nicole J; Nichol, Helen; Kelly, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem, with the prevalence and economic burden predicted to increase due to aging populations in western society. Following stroke, numerous biochemical alterations occur and damage can spread to nearby tissue. This zone of "at risk" tissue is termed the peri-infarct zone (PIZ). As the PIZ contains tissue not initially damaged by the stroke, it is considered by many as salvageable tissue. For this reason, much research effort has been undertaken to improve the identification of the PIZ and to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms that drive tissue damage in the PIZ in the hope of identify new therapeutic targets. Despite this effort, few therapies have evolved, attributed in part, to an incomplete understanding of the biochemical mechanisms driving tissue damage in the PIZ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been the gold standard to study alterations in gross brain structure, and is frequently used to study the PIZ following stroke. Unfortunately, MRI does not have sufficient spatial resolution to study individual cells within the brain, and reveals little information on the biochemical mechanisms driving tissue damage. MRI results may be complemented with histology or immuno-histochemistry to provide information at the cellular or sub-cellular level, but are limited to studying biochemical markers that can be successfully "tagged" with a stain or antigen. However, many important biochemical markers cannot be studied with traditional MRI or histology/histochemical methods. Therefore, we have developed and applied a multi-modal imaging platform to reveal elemental and molecular alterations that could not previously be imaged by other traditional methods. Our imaging platform incorporates a suite of spectroscopic imaging techniques; Fourier transform infrared imaging, Raman spectroscopic imaging, Coherent anti-stoke Raman spectroscopic imaging and X-ray fluorescence imaging. This approach does not preclude the use of

  3. Multimodality Imaging of Gene Transfer with a Receptor-Based Reporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ron; Parry, Jesse J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; El Naqa, Issam M.; Achilefu, Samuel; Edwards, W. Barry; Rogers, Buck E.

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy trials have traditionally used tumor and tissue biopsies for assessing the efficacy of gene transfer. Non-invasive imaging techniques offer a distinct advantage over tissue biopsies in that the magnitude and duration of gene transfer can be monitored repeatedly. Human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) has been used for the nuclear imaging of gene transfer. To extend this concept, we have developed a somatostatin receptor–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion construct (SSTR2-EGFP) for nuclear and fluorescent multimodality imaging. Methods An adenovirus containing SSTR2-EGFP (AdSSTR2-EGFP) was constructed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SCC-9 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were infected with AdEGFP, AdSSTR2, or AdSSTR2-EGFP for in vitro evaluation by saturation binding, internalization, and fluorescence spectroscopy assays. In vivo biodistribution and nano-SPECT imaging studies were conducted with mice bearing SCC-9 tumor xenografts directly injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP or AdSSTR2 to determine the tumor localization of 111In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-Tyr3-octreotate. Fluorescence imaging was conducted in vivo with mice receiving intratumoral injections of AdSSTR2, AdSSTR2-EGFP, or AdEGFP as well as ex vivo with tissues extracted from mice. Results The similarity between AdSSTR2-EGFP and wild-type AdSSTR2 was demonstrated in vitro by the saturation binding and internalization assays, and the fluorescence emission spectra of cells infected with AdSSTR2-EGFP was almost identical to the spectra of cells infected with wild-type AdEGFP. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the tumor uptake of 111In-DTPA-Tyr3-octreotate was not significantly different (P > 0.05) when tumors (n = 5) were injected with AdSSTR2 or AdSSTR2-EGFP but was significantly greater than the uptake in control tumors. Fluorescence was observed in tumors injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP and AdEGFP in vivo and ex vivo but not in tumors injected with AdSSTR2

  4. Find Your Image between the Extremes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel Singer

    2004-01-01

    Librarians' unfortunate fixation on image as a defining generational characteristic also makes them just as guilty of promoting misconceptions as nonlibrarians. Can the profession stand another article in the general press that trumpets the amazing new discovery that librarians can be young, trendy, stylish? The level of our colleagues'…

  5. Imaging of haemodialysis: renal and extrarenal findings.

    PubMed

    Degrassi, Ferruccio; Quaia, Emilio; Martingano, Paola; Cavallaro, Marco; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2015-06-01

    Electrolyte alterations and extra-renal disorders are quite frequent in patients undergoing haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The native kidneys may be the site of important pathologies in patients undergoing dialysis, especially in the form of acquired renal cystic disease with frequent malignant transformation. Renal neoplasms represents an important complication of haemodialysis-associated acquired cystic kidney disease and imaging surveillance is suggested. Extra-renal complications include renal osteodistrophy, brown tumours, and thoracic and cardiovascular complications. Other important fields in which imaging techniques may provide important informations are arteriovenous fistula and graft complications. Teaching points • Renal neoplasms represent a dreaded complication of haemodialysis.• In renal osteodystrophy bone resorption typically manifests along the middle phalanges.• Brown tumours are well-defined lytic lesions radiographically, possibly causing bone expansion.• Vascular calcifications are very common in patients undergoing haemodialysis.• Principal complications of the AV fistula consist of thrombosis, aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. PMID:25680325

  6. Dynamic Biodistribution of Extracellular Vesicles In Vivo Using a Multimodal Imaging Reporter

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Charles P.; Mardini, Osama; Ericsson, Maria; Prabhakar, Shilpa; Maguire, Casey; Chen, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized vesicles released by normal and diseased cells as a novel form of intercellular communication, and can serve as an effective therapeutic vehicle for genes and drugs. Yet, much remains unknown about the in vivo properties of EVs such as tissue distribution, and blood levels and urine clearance - important parameters that will define their therapeutic effectiveness and potential toxicity. Here we combined Gaussia luciferase and metabolic biotinylation to create a sensitive EV reporter (EV-GlucB) for multimodal imaging in vivo, as well as monitoring of EV levels in the organs and biofluids ex vivo after administration of EVs. Bioluminescence and fluorescence-mediated tomography imaging on mice displayed a predominant localization of intravenously administered EVs in the spleen followed by the liver. Monitoring EV signal in the organs, blood and urine further revealed that the EVs first undergo a rapid distribution phase followed by a longer elimination phase via hepatic and renal routes within six hours, which are both faster than previously reported using dye-labeled EVs. Moreover, we demonstrate systemically injected EVs can be delivered to tumor sites within an hour following injection. Altogether, we show the EVs are dynamically processed in vivo with accurate spatiotemporal resolution, and target a number of normal organs as well as tumors with implications for disease pathology and therapeutic design. PMID:24383518

  7. Polarization-Sensitive Hyperspectral Imaging in vivo: A Multimode Dermoscope for Skin Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Chave, Robert; Lindsley, Erik H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to understand the changes in the structure and physiology of human skin abnormalities by non-invasive optical imaging are aided by spectroscopic methods that quantify, at the molecular level, variations in tissue oxygenation and melanin distribution. However, current commercial and research systems to map hemoglobin and melanin do not correlate well with pathology for pigmented lesions or darker skin. We developed a multimode dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with an efficient analytical model to map the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models. For this system's proof of concept, human skin measurements on melanocytic nevus, vitiligo, and venous occlusion conditions were performed in volunteers. The resulting molecular distribution maps matched physiological and anatomical expectations, confirming a technologic approach that can be applied to next generation dermoscopes and having biological plausibility that is likely to appeal to dermatologists. PMID:24815987

  8. In vivo skin chromophore mapping using a multimode imaging dermoscope (SkinSpec)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Nicholas; Vasefi, Fartash; Gussakovsky, Eugene; Bearman, Gregory; Chave, Robert; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2013-02-01

    We introduce a multimode dermoscope (SkinSpectTM) we developed for early detection of melanoma by combining fluorescence, polarization and hyperspectral imaging. Acquired reflection image datacubes were input to a wavelength-dependent linear model to extract the relative contributions of skin chromophores at every pixel. The oxy-hemoglobin, deoxy hemoglobin, melanin concentrations, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation by the single step linear least square fitting and Kubelka-Munk tissue model using cross polarization data cubes were presented. The comprehensive data obtained by SkinSpect can be utilized to improve the accuracy of skin chromophore decomposition algorithm with less computation cost. As an example in this work, the deoxy-hemoglobin over-estimation error in highly pigmented lesion due to melanin and deoxy hemoglobin spectral cross talk were analyzed and corrected using two-step linear least square fitting procedure at different wavelength ranges. The proposed method also tested in skin with underlying vein area for validating the proof of concept.

  9. Tumor Lysing Genetically Engineered T Cells Loaded with Multi-Modal Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Parijat; Alauddin, Mian; Bankson, James A.; Kirui, Dickson; Seifi, Payam; Huls, Helen; Lee, Dean A.; Babakhani, Aydin; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, King C.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically-modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) exert anti-tumor effect by identifying tumor-associated antigen (TAA), independent of major histocompatibility complex. For maximal efficacy and safety of adoptively transferred cells, imaging their biodistribution is critical. This will determine if cells home to the tumor and assist in moderating cell dose. Here, T cells are modified to express CAR. An efficient, non-toxic process with potential for cGMP compliance is developed for loading high cell number with multi-modal (PET-MRI) contrast agents (Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles – Copper-64; SPION-64Cu). This can now be potentially used for 64Cu-based whole-body PET to detect T cell accumulation region with high-sensitivity, followed by SPION-based MRI of these regions for high-resolution anatomically correlated images of T cells. CD19-specific-CAR+SPIONpos T cells effectively target in vitro CD19+ lymphoma. PMID:24675806

  10. Tumor lysing genetically engineered T cells loaded with multi-modal imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Parijat; Alauddin, Mian; Bankson, James A; Kirui, Dickson; Seifi, Payam; Huls, Helen; Lee, Dean A; Babakhani, Aydin; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, King C; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2014-01-01

    Genetically-modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) exert anti-tumor effect by identifying tumor-associated antigen (TAA), independent of major histocompatibility complex. For maximal efficacy and safety of adoptively transferred cells, imaging their biodistribution is critical. This will determine if cells home to the tumor and assist in moderating cell dose. Here, T cells are modified to express CAR. An efficient, non-toxic process with potential for cGMP compliance is developed for loading high cell number with multi-modal (PET-MRI) contrast agents (Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles - Copper-64; SPION-(64)Cu). This can now be potentially used for (64)Cu-based whole-body PET to detect T cell accumulation region with high-sensitivity, followed by SPION-based MRI of these regions for high-resolution anatomically correlated images of T cells. CD19-specific-CAR(+)SPION(pos) T cells effectively target in vitro CD19(+) lymphoma. PMID:24675806

  11. Midventricular Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy with Apical Aneurysm: Potential for Underdiagnosis and Value of Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandam, Archana; Ananthasubramaniam, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    We illustrate a case of midventricle obstructive HCM and apical aneurysm diagnosed with appropriate use of multimodality imaging. A 75-year-old African American woman presented with a 3-day history of chest pain and dyspnea with elevated troponins. Her electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm, left atrial enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy, prolonged QT, and occasional ectopy. After medical therapy optimization, she underwent coronary angiography for an initial diagnosis of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Her coronaries were unremarkable for significant disease but her left ventriculogram showed hyperdynamic contractility of the midportion of the ventricle along with a large dyskinetic aneurysmal apical sac. A subsequent transthoracic echocardiogram provided poor visualization of the apical region of the ventricle but contrast enhancement identified an aneurysmal pouch distal to the midventricular obstruction. To further clarify the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with contrast was performed confirming the diagnosis of midventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical aneurysm and fibrosis consistent with apical scar on delayed enhancement. The patient was medically treated and subsequently underwent elective implantable defibrillator placement in the ensuing months for recurrent nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and was initiated on prophylactic oral anticoagulation with warfarin for thromboembolic risk reduction. PMID:26904306

  12. Detection and Discrimination of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer by Multimodal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Heuke, Sandro; Vogler, Nadine; Meyer, Tobias; Akimov, Denis; Kluschke, Franziska; Röwert-Huber, Hans-Joachim; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) belongs to the most frequent human neoplasms. Its exposed location facilitates a fast ambulant treatment. However, in the clinical practice far more lesions are removed than necessary, due to the lack of an efficient pre-operational examination procedure: Standard imaging methods often do not provide a sufficient spatial resolution. The demand for an efficient in vivo imaging technique might be met in the near future by non-linear microscopy. As a first step towards this goal, the appearance of NMSC in various microspectroscopic modalities has to be defined and approaches have to be derived to distinguish healthy skin from NMSC using non-linear optical microscopy. Therefore, in this contribution the appearance of ex vivo NMSC in a combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG) and two photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging—referred as multimodal imaging—is described. Analogous to H&E staining, an overview of the distinct appearances and features of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma in the complementary modalities is derived, and is expected to boost in vivo studies of this promising technological approach.

  13. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses*

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. PMID:27141135

  14. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. PMID:27141135

  15. Multimodality Imaging in Pediatric Osteosarcoma in the Era of Image Gently and Image Wisely Campaign With a Close Look at the CT Scan Radiation Dose.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Vani; Collier, Anderson B; Ruan, Chun; Zhang, Xu; Lowery, Rachel; Barr, Jennifer; Hicks, Chindo; Megason, Gail; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2016-04-01

    The increasing use of serial multimodality imaging in the management of pediatric osteosarcoma raises concern of over exposure to ionizing radiation in children, especially from repeated computed tomographic (CT) scans. This study reviews the utilization of multimodality imaging in patients with osteosarcoma at our institution and analyzes any potential radiation-related complications. Twenty-eight patients were identified. Three patients developed late complications-acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and early menopause. Using the patient's age and body part imaged, CT dose length product and effective dose was estimated with the use of a conversion factor for 19 patients. The effective doses were higher in the 3 patients with late complications than the other patients in the cohort (P=0.018). These results suggest an increased risk for adverse effects with higher CT exposures and effective doses. On the basis of our data and published data, methods to decrease the doses of radiation from medical imaging need to be explored. The number of CT scans may be limited. Implementing the Image Gently concept to decrease radiation exposure can be beneficial in modification of CT acquisition parameters. PMID:26583624

  16. Images of Retirement: Finding the Purpose and the Passion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savishinsky, Joel

    2001-01-01

    Compares cultural stereotypes and images of retirement with the life choices of actual adults. Finds that centrality of purpose and a sense of passion are basic to these adults' image of life in retirement. (SK)

  17. COBRA: A prospective multimodal imaging study of dopamine, brain structure and function, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, N; Riklund, K; Andersson, M; Axelsson, J; Ögren, M; Lövdén, M; Lindenberger, U; Bäckman, L; Nyberg, L

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive decline is a characteristic feature of normal human aging. Previous work has demonstrated marked interindividual variability in onset and rate of decline. Such variability has been linked to factors such as maintenance of functional and structural brain integrity, genetics, and lifestyle. Still, few, if any, studies have combined a longitudinal design with repeated multimodal imaging and a comprehensive assessment of cognition as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The present paper introduces the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study, in which cognitive performance and brain structure and function are measured in a cohort of 181 older adults aged 64 to 68 years at baseline. Participants will be followed longitudinally over a 10-year period, resulting in a total of three equally spaced measurement occasions. The measurement protocol at each occasion comprises a comprehensive set of behavioral and imaging measures. Cognitive performance is evaluated via computerized testing of working memory, episodic memory, perceptual speed, motor speed, implicit sequence learning, and vocabulary. Brain imaging is performed using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]-raclopride to assess dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for assessment of white and gray-matter integrity and cerebrovascular perfusion, and functional MRI maps brain activation during rest and active task conditions. Lifestyle descriptives are collected, and blood samples are obtained and stored for future evaluation. Here, we present selected results from the baseline assessment along with a discussion of sample characteristics and methodological considerations that determined the design of the study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging. PMID:25239478

  18. Design of multi-mode compatible image acquisition system for HD area array CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    Combining with the current development trend in video surveillance-digitization and high-definition, a multimode-compatible image acquisition system for HD area array CCD is designed. The hardware and software designs of the color video capture system of HD area array CCD KAI-02150 presented by Truesense Imaging company are analyzed, and the structure parameters of the HD area array CCD and the color video gathering principle of the acquisition system are introduced. Then, the CCD control sequence and the timing logic of the whole capture system are realized. The noises of the video signal (KTC noise and 1/f noise) are filtered by using the Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) technique to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the system. The compatible designs in both software and hardware for the two other image sensors of the same series: KAI-04050 and KAI-08050 are put forward; the effective pixels of these two HD image sensors are respectively as many as four million and eight million. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is adopted as the key controller of the system to perform the modularization design from top to bottom, which realizes the hardware design by software and improves development efficiency. At last, the required time sequence driving is simulated accurately by the use of development platform of Quartus II 12.1 combining with VHDL. The result of the simulation indicates that the driving circuit is characterized by simple framework, low power consumption, and strong anti-interference ability, which meet the demand of miniaturization and high-definition for the current tendency.

  19. Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Kuai, David; Burke, Janice M; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) is a newly developed retinal imaging technology that holds promise for both fundamental investigation and clinical diagnosis of several blinding diseases. Hence, integrating PAOM with other existing ophthalmic imaging modalities is important to identify and verify the strengths of PAOM compared with the established technologies and to provide the foundation for more comprehensive multimodal imaging. To this end, we developed a retinal imaging platform integrating PAOM with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and fluorescein angiography (FA). In the system, all the imaging modalities shared the same optical scanning and delivery mechanisms, which enabled registered retinal imaging from all the modalities. High-resolution PAOM, SD-OCT, SLO, and FA images were acquired in both albino and pigmented rat eyes. The reported in vivo results demonstrate the capability of the integrated system to provide comprehensive anatomic imaging based on multiple optical contrasts. PMID:22734736

  20. Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Kuai, David; Burke, Janice M.; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) is a newly developed retinal imaging technology that holds promise for both fundamental investigation and clinical diagnosis of several blinding diseases. Hence, integrating PAOM with other existing ophthalmic imaging modalities is important to identify and verify the strengths of PAOM compared with the established technologies and to provide the foundation for more comprehensive multimodal imaging. To this end, we developed a retinal imaging platform integrating PAOM with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and fluorescein angiography (FA). In the system, all the imaging modalities shared the same optical scanning and delivery mechanisms, which enabled registered retinal imaging from all the modalities. High-resolution PAOM, SD-OCT, SLO, and FA images were acquired in both albino and pigmented rat eyes. The reported in vivo results demonstrate the capability of the integrated system to provide comprehensive anatomic imaging based on multiple optical contrasts.

  1. Development of a multi-scale and multi-modality imaging system to characterize tumours and their microenvironment in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouffiac, Valérie; Ser-Leroux, Karine; Dugon, Emilie; Leguerney, Ingrid; Polrot, Mélanie; Robin, Sandra; Salomé-Desnoulez, Sophie; Ginefri, Jean-Christophe; Sebrié, Catherine; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne

    2015-03-01

    In vivo high-resolution imaging of tumor development is possible through dorsal skinfold chamber implantable on mice model. However, current intravital imaging systems are weakly tolerated along time by mice and do not allow multimodality imaging. Our project aims to develop a new chamber for: 1- long-term micro/macroscopic visualization of tumor (vascular and cellular compartments) and tissue microenvironment; and 2- multimodality imaging (photonic, MRI and sonography). Our new experimental device was patented in March 2014 and was primarily assessed on 75 mouse engrafted with 4T1-Luc tumor cell line, and validated in confocal and multiphoton imaging after staining the mice vasculature using Dextran 155KDa-TRITC or Dextran 2000kDa-FITC. Simultaneously, a universal stage was designed for optimal removal of respiratory and cardiac artifacts during microscopy assays. Experimental results from optical, ultrasound (Bmode and pulse subtraction mode) and MRI imaging (anatomic sequences) showed that our patented design, unlike commercial devices, improves longitudinal monitoring over several weeks (35 days on average against 12 for the commercial chamber) and allows for a better characterization of the early and late tissue alterations due to tumour development. We also demonstrated the compatibility for multimodality imaging and the increase of mice survival was by a factor of 2.9, with our new skinfold chamber. Current developments include: 1- defining new procedures for multi-labelling of cells and tissue (screening of fluorescent molecules and imaging protocols); 2- developing ultrasound and MRI imaging procedures with specific probes; 3- correlating optical/ultrasound/MRI data for a complete mapping of tumour development and microenvironment.

  2. Cost finding in the diagnostic imaging service.

    PubMed

    Mobilia, G

    1998-01-01

    The experience with control and reporting system at the "Policlinico A. Gemelli" based on the integrated use of cost and service information drawn from all applications of Hospital Information System, are described. Cost accounting for services based on about 500 operating units and monthly reporting system, inclusive of all management information communicated to all managers, is analyzed. The system design, based on the specific features of Diagnostic Imaging Service especially for internal handling, staff of operating rooms and of emergency service, is described. PMID:9689857

  3. Finding maximum JPEG image block code size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhani, Gopal

    2012-07-01

    We present a study of JPEG baseline coding. It aims to determine the minimum storage needed to buffer the JPEG Huffman code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Since DC is coded separately, and the encoder represents each AC coefficient by a pair of run-length/AC coefficient level, the net problem is to perform an efficient search for the optimal run-level pair sequence. We formulate it as a two-dimensional, nonlinear, integer programming problem and solve it using a branch-and-bound based search method. We derive two types of constraints to prune the search space. The first one is given as an upper-bound for the sum of squares of AC coefficients of a block, and it is used to discard sequences that cannot represent valid DCT blocks. The second type constraints are based on some interesting properties of the Huffman code table, and these are used to prune sequences that cannot be part of optimal solutions. Our main result is that if the default JPEG compression setting is used, space of minimum of 346 bits and maximum of 433 bits is sufficient to buffer the AC code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Our implementation also pruned the search space extremely well; the first constraint reduced the initial search space of 4 nodes down to less than 2 nodes, and the second set of constraints reduced it further by 97.8%.

  4. Multimodal image registration for preoperative planning and image-guided neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Risholm, Petter; Golby, Alexandra J; Wells, William

    2011-04-01

    Image registration is the process of transforming images acquired at different time points, or with different imaging modalities, into the same coordinate system. It is an essential part of any neurosurgical planning and navigation system because it facilitates combining images with important complementary, structural, and functional information to improve the information based on which a surgeon makes critical decisions. Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) has been one of the pioneers in developing intraoperative registration methods for aligning preoperative and intraoperative images of the brain. This article presents an overview of intraoperative registration and highlights some recent developments at BWH. PMID:21435571

  5. Multimode quantum properties of a self-imaging optical parametric oscillator: Squeezed vacuum and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-beams generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, L.; Chalopin, B.; Riviere de la Souchere, A.; Fabre, C.; Treps, N.; Maitre, A.

    2009-10-15

    We investigate the spatial quantum properties of the light emitted by a perfectly spatially degenerate optical parametric oscillator (self-imaging optical parametric oscillator). We show that this device produces local squeezing for areas bigger than a coherence area that depends on the crystal length and pump width. Furthermore, it generates local EPR beams in the far field. We show, calculating the eigenmodes of the system, that it is highly multimode for realistic experimental parameters.

  6. Multimodality imaging of a subtotally obstructive right ventricular myxoma in an asymptomatic 10-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Gesa; Sieverding, Ludger; Kramer, Ulrich; Haen, Susanne; Hofbeck, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with a supraventricular tachycardia. A heart murmur was detected during a clinical examination; therefore, echocardiography was performed. This revealed a giant right ventricular myxoma that subtotally obstructed the right ventricular outflow tract. A myxoma in the right ventricle is uncommon in children. This rare intracardiac tumor was examined using multimodality imaging, and the patient underwent surgical resection. The pathologic features confirmed our suspicion and revealed an encapsulated tumor with myxomatoid stroma containing focal hemorrhages. PMID:24987268

  7. Integration of Sparse Multi-modality Representation and Anatomical Constraint for Isointense Infant Brain MR Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Gao, Yaozong; Li, Gang; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of infant brain MR images is challenging due to poor spatial resolution, severe partial volume effect, and the ongoing maturation and myelination process. During the first year of life, the brain image contrast between white and gray matters undergoes dramatic changes. In particular, the image contrast inverses around 6–8 months of age, where the white and gray matter tissues are isointense in T1 and T2 weighted images and hence exhibit the extremely low tissue contrast, posing significant challenges for automated segmentation. In this paper, we propose a general framework that adopts sparse representation to fuse the multi-modality image information and further incorporate the anatomical constraints for brain tissue segmentation. Specifically, we first derive an initial segmentation from a library of aligned images with ground-truth segmentations by using sparse representation in a patch-based fashion for the multi-modality T1, T2 and FA images. The segmentation result is further iteratively refined by integration of the anatomical constraint. The proposed method was evaluated on 22 infant brain MR images acquired at around 6 months of age by using a leave-one-out cross-validation, as well as other 10 unseen testing subjects. Our method achieved a high accuracy for the Dice ratios that measure the volume overlap between automated and manual segmentations, i.e., 0.889±0.008 for white matter and 0.870±0.006 for gray matter. PMID:24291615

  8. Integrated multimodal imaging of dynamic bone-tumor alterations associated with metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Brisset, Jean-Christophe; Hoff, Benjamin A; Chenevert, Thomas L; Jacobson, Jon A; Boes, Jennifer L; Galbán, Stefanie; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Johnson, Timothy D; Pienta, Kenneth J; Galbán, Craig J; Meyer, Charles R; Schakel, Timothy; Nicolay, Klaas; Alva, Ajjai S; Hussain, Maha; Ross, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastasis occurs for men with advanced prostate cancer which promotes osseous growth and destruction driven by alterations in osteoblast and osteoclast homeostasis. Patients can experience pain, spontaneous fractures and morbidity eroding overall quality of life. The complex and dynamic cellular interactions within the bone microenvironment limit current treatment options thus prostate to bone metastases remains incurable. This study uses voxel-based analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI and CT scans to simultaneously evaluate temporal changes in normal bone homeostasis along with prostate bone metatastsis to deliver an improved understanding of the spatiotemporal local microenvironment. Dynamic tumor-stromal interactions were assessed during treatment in mouse models along with a pilot prospective clinical trial with metastatic hormone sensitive and castration resistant prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Longitudinal changes in tumor and bone imaging metrics during delivery of therapy were quantified. Studies revealed that voxel-based parametric response maps (PRM) of DW-MRI and CT scans could be used to quantify and spatially visualize dynamic changes during prostate tumor growth and in response to treatment thereby distinguishing patients with stable disease from those with progressive disease (p<0.05). These studies suggest that PRM imaging biomarkers are useful for detection of the impact of prostate tumor-stromal responses to therapies thus demonstrating the potential of multi-modal PRM image-based biomarkers as a novel means for assessing dynamic alterations associated with metastatic prostate cancer. These results establish an integrated and clinically translatable approach which can be readily implemented for improving the clinical management of patients with metastatic bone disease. PMID:25859981

  9. Integrated Multimodal Imaging of Dynamic Bone-Tumor Alterations Associated with Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chenevert, Thomas L.; Jacobson, Jon A.; Boes, Jennifer L.; Galbán, Stefanie; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Johnson, Timothy D.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Galbán, Craig J.; Meyer, Charles R.; Schakel, Timothy; Nicolay, Klaas; Alva, Ajjai S.; Hussain, Maha; Ross, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastasis occurs for men with advanced prostate cancer which promotes osseous growth and destruction driven by alterations in osteoblast and osteoclast homeostasis. Patients can experience pain, spontaneous fractures and morbidity eroding overall quality of life. The complex and dynamic cellular interactions within the bone microenvironment limit current treatment options thus prostate to bone metastases remains incurable. This study uses voxel-based analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI and CT scans to simultaneously evaluate temporal changes in normal bone homeostasis along with prostate bone metatastsis to deliver an improved understanding of the spatiotemporal local microenvironment. Dynamic tumor-stromal interactions were assessed during treatment in mouse models along with a pilot prospective clinical trial with metastatic hormone sensitive and castration resistant prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Longitudinal changes in tumor and bone imaging metrics during delivery of therapy were quantified. Studies revealed that voxel-based parametric response maps (PRM) of DW-MRI and CT scans could be used to quantify and spatially visualize dynamic changes during prostate tumor growth and in response to treatment thereby distinguishing patients with stable disease from those with progressive disease (p<0.05). These studies suggest that PRM imaging biomarkers are useful for detection of the impact of prostate tumor-stromal responses to therapies thus demonstrating the potential of multi-modal PRM image-based biomarkers as a novel means for assessing dynamic alterations associated with metastatic prostate cancer. These results establish an integrated and clinically translatable approach which can be readily implemented for improving the clinical management of patients with metastatic bone disease. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02064283 PMID:25859981

  10. Incorporation of paramagnetic, fluorescent and PET/SPECT contrast agents into liposomes for multimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nick; Kalber, Tammy L.; Cooper, Margaret S.; Sunassee, Kavitha; Chalker, Samantha L.; Shaw, Karen P.; Ordidge, Katherine L.; Badar, Adam; Janes, Samuel M.; Blower, Philip J.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Hailes, Helen C.; Tabor, Alethea B.

    2013-01-01

    A series of metal-chelating lipid conjugates has been designed and synthesized. Each member of the series bears a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) macrocycle attached to the lipid head group, using short n-ethylene glycol (n-EG) spacers of varying length. Liposomes incorporating these lipids, chelated to Gd3+, 64Cu2+, or 111In3+, and also incorporating fluorescent lipids, have been prepared, and their application in optical, magnetic resonance (MR) and single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging of cellular uptake and distribution investigated in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that these multimodal liposomes can be used as functional MR contrast agents as well as radionuclide tracers for SPECT, and that they can be optimized for each application. When shielded liposomes were formulated incorporating 50% of a lipid with a short n-EG spacer, to give nanoparticles with a shallow but even coverage of n-EG, they showed good cellular internalization in a range of tumour cells, compared to the limited cellular uptake of conventional shielded liposomes formulated with 7% 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[carboxy(polyethyleneglycol)2000] (DSPE-PEG2000). Moreover, by matching the depth of n-EG coverage to the length of the n-EG spacers of the DOTA lipids, we have shown that similar distributions and blood half lives to DSPE-PEG2000-stabilized liposomes can be achieved. The ability to tune the imaging properties and distribution of these liposomes allows for the future development of a flexible tri-modal imaging agent. PMID:23131536

  11. Incorporation of paramagnetic, fluorescent and PET/SPECT contrast agents into liposomes for multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nick; Kalber, Tammy L; Cooper, Margaret S; Sunassee, Kavitha; Chalker, Samantha L; Shaw, Karen P; Ordidge, Katherine L; Badar, Adam; Janes, Samuel M; Blower, Philip J; Lythgoe, Mark F; Hailes, Helen C; Tabor, Alethea B

    2013-01-01

    A series of metal-chelating lipid conjugates has been designed and synthesized. Each member of the series bears a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) macrocycle attached to the lipid head group, using short n-ethylene glycol (n-EG) spacers of varying length. Liposomes incorporating these lipids, chelated to Gd(3+), (64)Cu(2+), or (111)In(3+), and also incorporating fluorescent lipids, have been prepared, and their application in optical, magnetic resonance (MR) and single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging of cellular uptake and distribution investigated in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that these multimodal liposomes can be used as functional MR contrast agents as well as radionuclide tracers for SPECT, and that they can be optimized for each application. When shielded liposomes were formulated incorporating 50% of a lipid with a short n-EG spacer, to give nanoparticles with a shallow but even coverage of n-EG, they showed good cellular internalization in a range of tumour cells, compared to the limited cellular uptake of conventional shielded liposomes formulated with 7% 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[carboxy(polyethyleneglycol)(2000)] (DSPE-PEG2000). Moreover, by matching the depth of n-EG coverage to the length of the n-EG spacers of the DOTA lipids, we have shown that similar distributions and blood half lives to DSPE-PEG2000-stabilized liposomes can be achieved. The ability to tune the imaging properties and distribution of these liposomes allows for the future development of a flexible tri-modal imaging agent. PMID:23131536

  12. The Role of Mental Models in a Multi-Modal Image Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, C. Olivia

    2001-01-01

    Reports the preliminary findings of a research project that investigated users' mental models in the course of an image search. Generalist users searched a database of 1500 earth and space science images using a system that provided for both textual and content-based retrieval modalities. Factors such as ease of use and satisfaction with the…

  13. Predicting standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using mapping-based sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Pei; An, Le; Ma, Guangkai; Kang, Jiayin; Shi, Feng; Wu, Xi; Zhou, Jiliu; Lalush, David S.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis for diseases and disorders. To obtain high-quality PET images requires a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) injection into the human body, which inevitably increases risk of radiation exposure. One possible solution to this problem is to predict the standard-dose PET image from its low-dose counterpart and its corresponding multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Inspired by the success of patch-based sparse representation (SR) in super-resolution image reconstruction, we propose a mapping-based SR (m-SR) framework for standard-dose PET image prediction. Compared with the conventional patch-based SR, our method uses a mapping strategy to ensure that the sparse coefficients, estimated from the multimodal MR images and low-dose PET image, can be applied directly to the prediction of standard-dose PET image. As the mapping between multimodal MR images (or low-dose PET image) and standard-dose PET images can be particularly complex, one step of mapping is often insufficient. To this end, an incremental refinement framework is therefore proposed. Specifically, the predicted standard-dose PET image is further mapped to the target standard-dose PET image, and then the SR is performed again to predict a new standard-dose PET image. This procedure can be repeated for prediction refinement of the iterations. Also, a patch selection based dictionary construction method is further used to speed up the prediction process. The proposed method is validated on a human brain dataset. The experimental results show that our method can outperform benchmark methods in both qualitative and quantitative measures.

  14. Predicting standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using mapping-based sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Pei; An, Le; Ma, Guangkai; Kang, Jiayin; Shi, Feng; Wu, Xi; Zhou, Jiliu; Lalush, David S; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-21

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis for diseases and disorders. To obtain high-quality PET images requires a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) injection into the human body, which inevitably increases risk of radiation exposure. One possible solution to this problem is to predict the standard-dose PET image from its low-dose counterpart and its corresponding multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Inspired by the success of patch-based sparse representation (SR) in super-resolution image reconstruction, we propose a mapping-based SR (m-SR) framework for standard-dose PET image prediction. Compared with the conventional patch-based SR, our method uses a mapping strategy to ensure that the sparse coefficients, estimated from the multimodal MR images and low-dose PET image, can be applied directly to the prediction of standard-dose PET image. As the mapping between multimodal MR images (or low-dose PET image) and standard-dose PET images can be particularly complex, one step of mapping is often insufficient. To this end, an incremental refinement framework is therefore proposed. Specifically, the predicted standard-dose PET image is further mapped to the target standard-dose PET image, and then the SR is performed again to predict a new standard-dose PET image. This procedure can be repeated for prediction refinement of the iterations. Also, a patch selection based dictionary construction method is further used to speed up the prediction process. The proposed method is validated on a human brain dataset. The experimental results show that our method can outperform benchmark methods in both qualitative and quantitative measures. PMID:26732849

  15. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    PubMed

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects. PMID:26743286

  16. Histiocytic disorders of the chest: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Jitesh; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Meyer, Cristopher A; Pipavath, Sudhakar N J; Schmidt, Rodney A; Swanson, Jonathan O; Godwin, J David

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic disorders of the chest comprise a broad spectrum of diseases. The lungs may be involved in isolation or as part of systemic disease. Some of these disorders are primary and have unknown etiology, and others result from a histiocytic response to a known cause. Among primary histiocytic disorders, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is the most common; others include Erdheim-Chester disease and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Adult PLCH occurs almost exclusively in adults aged 20-40 years who smoke. Pediatric PLCH is extremely rare and typically occurs as part of multisystemic disease. Erdheim-Chester disease affects middle-aged and older adults; thoracic involvement usually occurs as part of systemic disease. Rosai-Dorfman disease affects children and young adults and manifests as painless cervical lymphadenopathy. Examples of secondary histiocytic disorders are storage diseases such as Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, and Fabry disease; pneumoconiosis such as silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis; and infections such as Whipple disease and malakoplakia. These disorders are characterized at histopathologic examination on the basis of infiltration of alveoli or the pulmonary interstitium by histiocytes, which are a group of cells that includes macrophages and dendritic cells. Dendritic cells are a heterogeneous group of nonphagocytic antigen-presenting immune cells. Immunohistochemical markers help to distinguish among various primary histiocytic disorders. Characteristic radiologic findings in the appropriate clinical context may obviate biopsy to establish a correct diagnosis. However, in the absence of these findings, integration of clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features is required to establish a diagnosis. PMID:25763722

  17. Holmium-lipiodol-alginate microspheres for fluoroscopy-guided embolotherapy and multimodality imaging.

    PubMed

    Oerlemans, Chris; Seevinck, Peter R; Smits, Maarten L; Hennink, Wim E; Bakker, Chris J G; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Nijsen, J Frank W

    2015-03-30

    Embolotherapy is a minimally invasive transcatheter technique aiming at reduction or complete obstruction of the blood flow by infusion of micro-sized particles in order to induce tumor regression. A major drawback of the current commercially available and clinically used microspheres is that they cannot be detected in vivo with medical imaging techniques, impeding intra- and post-procedural feedback. It can be expected that real-time monitoring of microsphere infusion and post-procedural imaging will result in better predictability and higher efficacy of the treatment. In this study, a novel microsphere formulation has been developed that can be visualized with fluoroscopy, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The microspheres were prepared with the JetCutter technique and consist of alginate (matrix-forming polymer), holmium (cross-linking and MRI contrast agent), lipiodol (radiopaque contrast agent) and Pluronic F-68 (surfactant). The mean size (±SEM) of the hydrated holmium-lipiodol-alginate microspheres (Ho-lip-ams) was 570±12 μm with a holmium content of 0.38±0.01% (w/w). Stability studies showed that the microspheres remained intact during incubation for two weeks in fetal calf serum (FCS) at 37 °C. The inclusion of lipiodol in the microspheres rendered excellent visualization capabilities for fluoroscopy and CT, whereas the holmium ions, which keep the alginate network together, also allow MR imaging. In this study it was shown that single sphere detection was possible by fluoroscopy, CT and MRI. The Ho-lip-ams were visualized in real-time, during infusion in a porcine kidney using fluoroscopy, and post-procedural, the deposition of the microspheres was examined with fluoroscopy, (cone beam rotational) CT and MRI. The different imaging modalities showed similar deposition patterns of the microspheres within the organ. The combination of intra-procedural visualization, multimodality imaging for patient follow-up and the

  18. Ex vivo catheter-based imaging of coronary atherosclerosis using multimodality OCT and NIRAF excited at 633 nm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Ughi, Giovanni J.; Jacques, Paulino Vacas; Hamidi, Ehsan; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2015-01-01

    While optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to be capable of imaging coronary plaque microstructure, additional chemical/molecular information may be needed in order to determine which lesions are at risk of causing an acute coronary event. In this study, we used a recently developed imaging system and double-clad fiber (DCF) catheter capable of simultaneously acquiring both OCT and red excited near-infrared autofluorescence (NIRAF) images (excitation: 633 nm, emission: 680nm to 900nm). We found that NIRAF is elevated in lesions that contain necrotic core – a feature that is critical for vulnerable plaque diagnosis and that is not readily discriminated by OCT alone. We first utilized a DCF ball lens probe and a bench top setup to acquire en face NIRAF images of aortic plaques ex vivo (n = 20). In addition, we used the OCT-NIRAF system and fully assembled catheters to acquire multimodality images from human coronary arteries (n = 15) prosected from human cadaver hearts (n = 5). Comparison of these images with corresponding histology demonstrated that necrotic core plaques exhibited significantly higher NIRAF intensity than other plaque types. These results suggest that multimodality intracoronary OCT-NIRAF imaging technology may be used in the future to provide improved characterization of coronary artery disease in human patients. PMID:25909020

  19. Single-Step Assembly of Multi-Modal Imaging Nanocarriers: MRI and Long-Wavelength Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, Nathalie M.; Gindy, Marian E.; Calero-DdelC, Victoria L.; Wolfson, Theodore; Pagels, Robert F.; Adler, Derek; Gao, Dayuan; Li, Shike; Wang, Ruobing; Zevon, Margot; Yao, Nan; Pacheco, Carlos; Therien, Michael J.; Rinaldi, Carlos; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    MRI and NIR-active, multi-modal Composite NanoCarriers (CNCs) are prepared using a simple, one-step process, Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP). The FNP process allows for the independent control of the hydrodynamic diameter, co-core excipient and NIR dye loading, and iron oxide-based nanocrystal (IONC) content of the CNCs. In the controlled precipitation process, 10 nm IONCs are encapsulated into poly(ethylene glycol) stabilized CNCs to make biocompatible T2 contrast agents. By adjusting the formulation, CNC size is tuned between 80 and 360 nm. Holding the CNC size constant at an intensity weighted average diameter of 99 ± 3 nm (PDI width 28 nm), the particle relaxivity varies linearly with encapsulated IONC content ranging from 66 to 533 mM-1s-1 for CNCs formulated with 4 to 16 wt% IONC. To demonstrate the use of CNCs as in vivo MRI contrast agents, CNCs are surface functionalized with liver targeting hydroxyl groups. The CNCs enable the detection of 0.8 mm3 non-small cell lung cancer metastases in mice livers via MRI. Incorporating the hydrophobic, NIR dye PZn3 into CNCs enables complementary visualization with long-wavelength fluorescence at 800 nm. In vivo imaging demonstrates the ability of CNCs to act both as MRI and fluorescent imaging agents. PMID:25925128

  20. Ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma by percutaneous ethanol injection: Imaging findings

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Christoph D.; Grossholz, Marianne; Mentha, Gilles; Roth, Arnaud; Giostra, Emiliano; Schneider, Pierre-Alain; Terrier, Francois

    1997-05-15

    Summary. Since PEI is a treatment based on imaging techniques, the radiologist should be familiar with the various findings that may be observed after PEI on US, CT, and MR images immediately after treatment and during later follow-up. Although US is well suited for performing PEI, contrast-enhanced CT currently is the most commonly used imaging method to evaluate the effect of PEI. Residual, nodular areas of contrast enhancement correlate well with residual tumor and warrant additional treatment. Although the findings on MR images obtained after PEI are more complex, MR imaging may be used as an alternative to CT.

  1. Mechanisms of murine cerebral malaria: Multimodal imaging of altered cerebral metabolism and protein oxidation at hemorrhage sites

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Mark J.; Aitken, Jade B.; El-Assaad, Fatima; McQuillan, James A.; Carter, Elizabeth A.; Ball, Helen J.; Tobin, Mark J.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Vogt, Stefan; Grau, Georges E.; Hunt, Nicholas H.; Lay, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Using a multimodal biospectroscopic approach, we settle several long-standing controversies over the molecular mechanisms that lead to brain damage in cerebral malaria, which is a major health concern in developing countries because of high levels of mortality and permanent brain damage. Our results provide the first conclusive evidence that important components of the pathology of cerebral malaria include peroxidative stress and protein oxidation within cerebellar gray matter, which are colocalized with elevated nonheme iron at the site of microhemorrhage. Such information could not be obtained previously from routine imaging methods, such as electron microscopy, fluorescence, and optical microscopy in combination with immunocytochemistry, or from bulk assays, where the level of spatial information is restricted to the minimum size of tissue that can be dissected. We describe the novel combination of chemical probe–free, multimodal imaging to quantify molecular markers of disturbed energy metabolism and peroxidative stress, which were used to provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. In addition to these mechanistic insights, the approach described acts as a template for the future use of multimodal biospectroscopy for understanding the molecular processes involved in a range of clinically important acute and chronic (neurodegenerative) brain diseases to improve treatment strategies. PMID:26824064

  2. Mechanisms of murine cerebral malaria: Multimodal imaging of altered cerebral metabolism and protein oxidation at hemorrhage sites.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Mark J; Aitken, Jade B; El-Assaad, Fatima; McQuillan, James A; Carter, Elizabeth A; Ball, Helen J; Tobin, Mark J; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D; Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D; Vogt, Stefan; Grau, Georges E; Hunt, Nicholas H; Lay, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    Using a multimodal biospectroscopic approach, we settle several long-standing controversies over the molecular mechanisms that lead to brain damage in cerebral malaria, which is a major health concern in developing countries because of high levels of mortality and permanent brain damage. Our results provide the first conclusive evidence that important components of the pathology of cerebral malaria include peroxidative stress and protein oxidation within cerebellar gray matter, which are colocalized with elevated nonheme iron at the site of microhemorrhage. Such information could not be obtained previously from routine imaging methods, such as electron microscopy, fluorescence, and optical microscopy in combination with immunocytochemistry, or from bulk assays, where the level of spatial information is restricted to the minimum size of tissue that can be dissected. We describe the novel combination of chemical probe-free, multimodal imaging to quantify molecular markers of disturbed energy metabolism and peroxidative stress, which were used to provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. In addition to these mechanistic insights, the approach described acts as a template for the future use of multimodal biospectroscopy for understanding the molecular processes involved in a range of clinically important acute and chronic (neurodegenerative) brain diseases to improve treatment strategies. PMID:26824064

  3. Label free imaging system for measuring blood flow speeds using a single multi-mode optical fiber (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigal, Iliya; Caravaca Aguirre, Antonio M.; Gad, Raanan; Piestun, Rafael; Levi, Ofer

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a single multi-mode fiber-based micro-endoscope for measuring blood flow speeds. We use the transmission-matrix wavefront shaping approach to calibrate the multi-mode fiber and raster-scan a focal spot across the distal fiber facet, imaging the cross-polarized back-reflected light at the proximal facet using a camera. This setup allows assessment of the backscattered photon statistics: by computing the mean speckle contrast values across the proximal fiber facet we show that spatially-resolved flow speed maps can be inferred by selecting an appropriate camera integration time. The proposed system is promising for minimally-invasive studies of neurovascular coupling in deep brain structures.

  4. A Spinal Cord Window Chamber Model for In Vivo Longitudinal Multimodal Optical and Acoustic Imaging in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Azusa; Conroy, Leigh; McMullen, Jesse D.; Silver, Jason I.; Stapleton, Shawn; Vitkin, Alex; Lindsay, Patricia; Burrell, Kelly; Zadeh, Gelareh; Fehlings, Michael G.; DaCosta, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo and direct imaging of the murine spinal cord and its vasculature using multimodal (optical and acoustic) imaging techniques could significantly advance preclinical studies of the spinal cord. Such intrinsically high resolution and complementary imaging technologies could provide a powerful means of quantitatively monitoring changes in anatomy, structure, physiology and function of the living cord over time after traumatic injury, onset of disease, or therapeutic intervention. However, longitudinal in vivo imaging of the intact spinal cord in rodent models has been challenging, requiring repeated surgeries to expose the cord for imaging or sacrifice of animals at various time points for ex vivo tissue analysis. To address these limitations, we have developed an implantable spinal cord window chamber (SCWC) device and procedures in mice for repeated multimodal intravital microscopic imaging of the cord and its vasculature in situ. We present methodology for using our SCWC to achieve spatially co-registered optical-acoustic imaging performed serially for up to four weeks, without damaging the cord or induction of locomotor deficits in implanted animals. To demonstrate the feasibility, we used the SCWC model to study the response of the normal spinal cord vasculature to ionizing radiation over time using white light and fluorescence microscopy combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vivo. In vivo power Doppler ultrasound and photoacoustics were used to directly visualize the cord and vascular structures and to measure hemoglobin oxygen saturation through the complete spinal cord, respectively. The model was also used for intravital imaging of spinal micrometastases resulting from primary brain tumor using fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging. Our SCWC model overcomes previous in vivo imaging challenges, and our data provide evidence of the broader utility of hybridized optical-acoustic imaging methods for obtaining multiparametric and rich

  5. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (I) clinical system development and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Nicholas; Vasefi, Fartash; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We introduce the new clinical prototype of SkinSpect - a multimode dermoscope combining fluorescence, polarization and hyperspectral imaging. The system determines relative melanin and hemoglobin concentrations as well as oxygen saturation while effectively correcting for the melanin-hemoglobin crosstalk commonly observed in other spectral dermoscopy approaches. Optical specifications and performance of this new clinical and our previous research prototypes are compared. Light source programming and image polarization selection using LCVR are optimized to improve the accuracy of skin chromophore quantitation. Polarized attenuation spectra are computed and applied to a Beer-Lambert linear model to extract the relative contributions of chromophores at every pixel.

  6. Multimodality imaging following 90Y radioembolization: a comprehensive review and pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Bassel; Bangash, Affaan K; Bahrani, Ammar; Pizzi, Giuseppi; Lewandowski, Robert J; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent T; Gates, Vanessa L; Mulcahy, Mary F; Kulik, Laura; Miller, Frank; Yaghmai, Vahid; Murthy, Ravi; Larson, Andrew; Omary, Reed A; Salem, Riad

    2008-01-01

    Radioembolization with yttrium 90 (90Y) microspheres represents an emerging transarterial therapy for the treatment of liver malignancies that continues to generate interest in the medical community. The classic indication of treatment response is a reduction in tumor size; however, parenchymal changes (eg, necrosis, lack of enhancement, specific findings at positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging) and other benign findings (pleural effusions, perivascular edema, contralateral hypertrophy, ring enhancement, perihepatic fluid, fibrosis) may occur following treatment, requiring proper image interpretation. With classic imaging findings and surrogates (time to progression, duration of response, disease-free interval), response rates range from 20% to 80% in patients treated for hepatocellular carcinoma or metastatic disease to the liver. Complications of 90Y radioembolization include cholecystitis, abscess, and bilomas and should be recognized early in the imaging follow-up of these patients. Radiologists who are involved in the posttreatment assessment of patients undergoing 90Y radioembolization should be familiar with the imaging findings and potential imaging pitfalls associated with this therapy. PMID:18203932

  7. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, Matthew F.; Lee, Brian J.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  8. Evolution of imaging in rectal cancer: multimodality imaging with MDCT, MRI, and PET.

    PubMed

    Raman, Siva P; Chen, Yifei; Fishman, Elliot K

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and positron emission tomography (PET) are complementary imaging modalities in the preoperative staging of patients with rectal cancer, and each offers their own individual strengths and weaknesses. MRI is the best available radiologic modality for the local staging of rectal cancers, and can play an important role in accurately distinguishing which patients should receive preoperative chemoradiation prior to total mesorectal excision. Alternatively, both MDCT and PET are considered primary modalities when performing preoperative distant staging, but are limited in their ability to locally stage rectal malignancies. This review details the role of each of these three modalities in rectal cancer staging, and how the three imaging modalities can be used in conjunction. PMID:25830037

  9. Evolution of imaging in rectal cancer: multimodality imaging with MDCT, MRI, and PET

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yifei; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and positron emission tomography (PET) are complementary imaging modalities in the preoperative staging of patients with rectal cancer, and each offers their own individual strengths and weaknesses. MRI is the best available radiologic modality for the local staging of rectal cancers, and can play an important role in accurately distinguishing which patients should receive preoperative chemoradiation prior to total mesorectal excision. Alternatively, both MDCT and PET are considered primary modalities when performing preoperative distant staging, but are limited in their ability to locally stage rectal malignancies. This review details the role of each of these three modalities in rectal cancer staging, and how the three imaging modalities can be used in conjunction. PMID:25830037

  10. Precocious puberty in children: A review of imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Faizah, MZ; Zuhanis, AH; Rahmah, R; Raja, AA; Wu, LL; Dayang, AA; Zulfiqar, MA

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This review was aimed at determining the imaging findings in patients with precocious puberty. Results: Within a period of 8 years (from 2002 to 2010) there were 53 patients diagnosed with precocious puberty. Out of the 53 patients, 37 had undergone diagnostic imaging to detect the possible organic causes of precocious puberty. Imaging findings were positive in 31 patients and out of that, 3 patients had 2 findings each (34 abnormalities). Of the patients with positive imaging findings, central precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-dependent) was more common (81%; 25/31) and the causes included: tuber cinereum hamartoma (n = 10), glioma (n = 6), pineal gland tumour (n = 4), hydrocephalous (n = 3), arachnoid cyst (n = 2) and others (n = 3). Peripheral precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-independent) causes included: testicular adrenal rest tumour (n = 3), adrenal carcinoma (n = 1), ovarian granulosa thecal cell tumour (n = 1), and tuberous sclerosis (n = 1). Conclusion: Positive imaging findings were observed in 84% (31/37) of the subjects. Hypothalamic hamartoma was the most common imaging finding in central precocious puberty while testicular adrenal rest tumour was the most common imaging finding in peripheral precocious puberty. PMID:22970062

  11. Imaging Multimodalities for Dissecting Alzheimer's Disease: Advanced Technologies of Positron Emission Tomography and Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shimojo, Masafumi; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Sahara, Naruhiko

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in advanced imaging technologies has expanded our toolbox for monitoring a variety of biological aspects in living subjects including human. In vivo radiological imaging using small chemical tracers, such as with positron emission tomography, represents an especially vital breakthrough in the efforts to improve our understanding of the complicated cascade of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it has provided the most reliable visible biomarkers for enabling clinical diagnosis. At the same time, in combination with genetically modified animal model systems, the most recent innovation of fluorescence imaging is helping establish diverse applications in basic neuroscience research, from single-molecule analysis to animal behavior manipulation, suggesting the potential utility of fluorescence technology for dissecting the detailed molecular-based consequence of AD pathophysiology. In this review, our primary focus is on a current update of PET radiotracers and fluorescence indicators beneficial for understanding the AD cascade, and discussion of the utility and pitfalls of those imaging modalities for future translational research applications. We will also highlight current cutting-edge genetic approaches and discuss how to integrate individual technologies for further potential innovations. PMID:26733795

  12. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  13. Multimodality Intravascular Imaging Assessment of Plaque Erosion versus Plaque Rupture in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jee Eun; Mintz, Gary S.; Hong, Young Joon; Lee, Sung Yun; Kim, Ki Seok; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Kumar, Kaup Sharath; Won, Hoyoun; Hyeon, Seong Hyeop; Shin, Seung Yong; Lee, Kwang Je; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Chee Jeong; Kim, Sang Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We assessed plaque erosion of culprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome in real world practice. Subjects and Methods Culprit lesion plaque rupture or plaque erosion was diagnosed with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was used to determine arterial remodeling. Positive remodeling was defined as a remodeling index (lesion/reference EEM [external elastic membrane area) >1.05. Results A total of 90 patients who had plaque rupture showing fibrous-cap discontinuity and ruptured cavity were enrolled. 36 patients showed definite OCT-plaque erosion, while 7 patients had probable OCT-plaque erosion. Overall, 26% (11/43) of definite/probable plaque erosion had non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) while 35% (15/43) had ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Conversely, 14.5% (13/90) of plaque rupture had NSTEMI while 71% (64/90) had STEMI (p<0.0001). Among plaque erosion, white thrombus was seen in 55.8% (24/43) of patients and red thrombus in 27.9% (12/43) of patients. Compared to plaque erosion, plaque rupture more often showed positive remodeling (p=0.003) with a larger necrotic core area examined by virtual histology (VH)-IVUS, while negative remodeling was prominent in plaque erosion. Overall, 65% 28/43 of plaque erosions were located in the proximal 30 mm of a culprit vessel-similar to plaque ruptures (72%, 65/90, p=0.29). Conclusion Although most of plaque erosions show nearly normal coronary angiogram, modest plaque burden with negative remodeling and an uncommon fibroatheroma might be the nature of plaque erosion. Multimodality intravascular imaging with OCT and VH-IVUS showed fundamentally different pathoanatomic substrates underlying plaque rupture and erosion. PMID:27482258

  14. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part I: Clinical Perspective, Anatomy and Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    Rapid evolution in technology in the recent years has lead to availability of multiple options for cardiac imaging. Availability of multiple options of varying capability, poses a challenge for optimal imaging choice. While new imaging choices are added, some of the established methods find their role re-defined. State of the art imaging practices are limited to few specialist cardiac centres, depriving many radiologists and radiologist in-training of optimal exposure to the field. This presentation is aimed at providing a broad idea about complexity of clinical problem, imaging options and a large library of images of congenital heart disease. Some emphasis is made as to the need of proper balance between performing examination with technical excellence in an ideal situation against the need of the majority of patients who are investigated with less optimal resources. Cases of congenital cardiac disease are presented in an illustrative way, showing imaging appearances in multiple modalities, highlighting specific observations in given instance. PMID:27376034

  15. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part I: Clinical Perspective, Anatomy and Imaging Techniques.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-05-01

    Rapid evolution in technology in the recent years has lead to availability of multiple options for cardiac imaging. Availability of multiple options of varying capability, poses a challenge for optimal imaging choice. While new imaging choices are added, some of the established methods find their role re-defined. State of the art imaging practices are limited to few specialist cardiac centres, depriving many radiologists and radiologist in-training of optimal exposure to the field. This presentation is aimed at providing a broad idea about complexity of clinical problem, imaging options and a large library of images of congenital heart disease. Some emphasis is made as to the need of proper balance between performing examination with technical excellence in an ideal situation against the need of the majority of patients who are investigated with less optimal resources. Cases of congenital cardiac disease are presented in an illustrative way, showing imaging appearances in multiple modalities, highlighting specific observations in given instance. PMID:27376034

  16. A new approach of building 3D visualization framework for multimodal medical images display and computed assisted diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenwei; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    As more and more CT/MR studies are scanning with larger volume of data sets, more and more radiologists and clinician would like using PACS WS to display and manipulate these larger data sets of images with 3D rendering features. In this paper, we proposed a design method and implantation strategy to develop 3D image display component not only with normal 3D display functions but also with multi-modal medical image fusion as well as compute-assisted diagnosis of coronary heart diseases. The 3D component has been integrated into the PACS display workstation of Shanghai Huadong Hospital, and the clinical practice showed that it is easy for radiologists and physicians to use these 3D functions such as multi-modalities' (e.g. CT, MRI, PET, SPECT) visualization, registration and fusion, and the lesion quantitative measurements. The users were satisfying with the rendering speeds and quality of 3D reconstruction. The advantages of the component include low requirements for computer hardware, easy integration, reliable performance and comfortable application experience. With this system, the radiologists and the clinicians can manipulate with 3D images easily, and use the advanced visualization tools to facilitate their work with a PACS display workstation at any time.

  17. Multimodal Translation System Using Texture-Mapped Lip-Sync Images for Video Mail and Automatic Dubbing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishima, Shigeo; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2004-12-01

    We introduce a multimodal English-to-Japanese and Japanese-to-English translation system that also translates the speaker's speech motion by synchronizing it to the translated speech. This system also introduces both a face synthesis technique that can generate any viseme lip shape and a face tracking technique that can estimate the original position and rotation of a speaker's face in an image sequence. To retain the speaker's facial expression, we substitute only the speech organ's image with the synthesized one, which is made by a 3D wire-frame model that is adaptable to any speaker. Our approach provides translated image synthesis with an extremely small database. The tracking motion of the face from a video image is performed by template matching. In this system, the translation and rotation of the face are detected by using a 3D personal face model whose texture is captured from a video frame. We also propose a method to customize the personal face model by using our GUI tool. By combining these techniques and the translated voice synthesis technique, an automatic multimodal translation can be achieved that is suitable for video mail or automatic dubbing systems into other languages.

  18. Multi-modality imaging for the assessment of myocardial perfusion with emphasis on stress perfusion CT and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sung Min; Hwang, Hweung Kon; Kim, Sung Mok; Cho, Ihn Ho

    2015-06-01

    High-quality and non-invasive diagnostic tools for assessing myocardial ischemia are necessary for therapeutic decisions regarding coronary artery disease. Myocardial perfusion has been studied using myocardial contrast echo perfusion, single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and, more recently, computed tomography. The addition of coronary computed tomography angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging improves the specificity and overall diagnostic accuracy of detecting the hemodynamic significance of coronary artery stenosis. This study reviews the benefits, limitations, and imaging findings of various imaging modalities for assessing myocardial perfusion, with particular emphasis on stress perfusion computed tomography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25809387

  19. Incidental findings on brain and spine imaging in children.

    PubMed

    Maher, Cormac O; Piatt, Joseph H

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the utilization of diagnostic imaging of the brain and spine in children has increased dramatically, leading to a corresponding increase in the detection of incidental findings of the central nervous system. Patients with unexpected findings on imaging are often referred for subspecialty evaluation. Even with rational use of diagnostic imaging and subspecialty consultation, the diagnostic process will always generate unexpected findings that must be explained and managed. Familiarity with the most common findings that are discovered incidentally on diagnostic imaging of the brain and spine will assist the pediatrician in providing counseling to families and in making recommendations in conjunction with a neurosurgeon, when needed, regarding additional treatments and prognosis. PMID:25825535

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Study of a Numerical Aperture for Multimode PCS Fiber Optics Using an Imaging Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saman, Q. Mawlud; Nahlah, Q. Muhamad

    2012-11-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the properties of numerical aperture (NA) of multimode graded-index plastic core silica (PCS) fibers by using an image technique. A He-Ne laser at wavelength 632.8 nm and output power 1 mW is used as the transmitter light source. The output beam images and intensity profiles of an optical fiber are investigated by using an imaging technique. The laser beam profiles captured by a sensitive digital Nikon camera are processed and analyzed by using a Gaussian intensity distribution in a 2D graph. A MathCAD 14 program is used for converting the image of the laser output beam into data. The theoretical and experimental values of the numerical aperture for the used optical fiber in this study are found to be 0.5 and 0.4924, respectively. The theoretical value of V-number is also calculated to be approximately 2482.

  1. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Based Multimodal Sensor for In vivo Brain Function Imaging with a Function for Simultaneous Cell Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Ayato; Mitani, Masahiro; Minami, Hiroki; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a multimodal complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor device embedded with Au electrodes for fluorescent imaging and cell stimulation in the deep brain of mice. The Au electrodes were placed on the pixel array of the image sensor. Windows over the photodiodes were opened in the electrode area for simultaneous fluorescent imaging and cell stimulation in the same area of the brain tissue. The sensor chip was shaped like a shank and was packaged by two packaging methods for high strength or minimal invasion. The experimental results showed that the 90 ×90 µm2 Au electrodes with windows were capable of injecting theta burst stimulation (TBS)-like current pulses at 0.2-1 mA in a saline solution. We successfully demonstrated that fluorescent imaging and TBS-like current injection can be simultaneously performed in the electrode area of a brain phantom.

  2. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Based Multimodal Sensor for In vivo Brain Function Imaging with a Function for Simultaneous Cell Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayato Tagawa,; Masahiro Mitani,; Hiroki Minami,; Toshihiko Noda,; Kiyotaka Sasagawa,; Takashi Tokuda,; Jun Ohta,

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a multimodal complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor device embedded with Au electrodes for fluorescent imaging and cell stimulation in the deep brain of mice. The Au electrodes were placed on the pixel array of the image sensor. Windows over the photodiodes were opened in the electrode area for simultaneous fluorescent imaging and cell stimulation in the same area of the brain tissue. The sensor chip was shaped like a shank and was packaged by two packaging methods for high strength or minimal invasion. The experimental results showed that the 90 × 90 μm2 Au electrodes with windows were capable of injecting theta burst stimulation (TBS)-like current pulses at 0.2-1 mA in a saline solution. We successfully demonstrated that fluorescent imaging and TBS-like current injection can be simultaneously performed in the electrode area of a brain phantom.

  3. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Multimodality Imaging Approach with Clinical-Pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Revzin, Margarita V; Mathur, Mahan; Dave, Haatal B; Macer, Matthew L; Spektor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common medical problem, with almost 1 million cases diagnosed annually. Historically, PID has been a clinical diagnosis supplemented with the findings from ultrasonography (US) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, the diagnosis of PID can be challenging because the clinical manifestations may mimic those of other pelvic and abdominal processes. Given the nonspecific clinical manifestations, computed tomography (CT) is commonly the first imaging examination performed. General CT findings of early- and late-stage PID include thickening of the uterosacral ligaments, pelvic fat stranding with obscuration of fascial planes, reactive lymphadenopathy, and pelvic free fluid. Recognition of these findings, as well as those seen with cervicitis, endometritis, acute salpingitis, oophoritis, pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, tubo-ovarian abscess, and pyometra, is crucial in allowing prompt and accurate diagnosis. Late complications of PID include tubal damage resulting in infertility and ectopic pregnancy, peritonitis caused by uterine and/or tubo-ovarian abscess rupture, development of peritoneal adhesions resulting in bowel obstruction and/or hydroureteronephrosis, right upper abdominal inflammation (Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome), and septic thrombophlebitis. Recognition of these late manifestations at CT can also aid in proper patient management. At CT, careful assessment of common PID mimics, such as endometriosis, adnexal torsion, ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst, adnexal neoplasms, appendicitis, and diverticulitis, is important to avoid misinterpretation, delay in management, and unnecessary surgery. Correlation with the findings from complementary imaging examinations, such as US and MR imaging, is useful for establishing a definitive diagnosis. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27618331

  4. Nd3+-sensitized NaLuF4 luminescent nanoparticles for multimodal imaging and temperature sensing under 808 nm excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Peng; Yuan, Qinghai; Xu, Xia; Lei, Pengpeng; Liu, Xiuling; Su, Yue; Dong, Lile; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, intense up- and down-conversion luminescence were successfully achieved in well designed and synthesized core-shell structured NaLuF4:Gd/Yb/Er@NaLuF4:Yb@NaLuF4:Nd/Yb@NaLuF4 nanoparticles (NPs) simultaneously under 808 nm continuous-wave laser excitation. The morphologies, luminescent properties and energy transfer mechanism of the nanoparticles were studied in detail. By employing this design, multimodal imaging performance including near-infrared down-conversion optical imaging and X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging were realized in one kind of NPs. Furthermore, the 808 nm excited optical temperature sensing property of the synthesized NPs was realized in a wide temperature range by monitoring the intensities of up- and down-conversion luminescence. This study provides a novel platform based on lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles for multifunctional imaging and temperature sensing in one system.In this paper, intense up- and down-conversion luminescence were successfully achieved in well designed and synthesized core-shell structured NaLuF4:Gd/Yb/Er@NaLuF4:Yb@NaLuF4:Nd/Yb@NaLuF4 nanoparticles (NPs) simultaneously under 808 nm continuous-wave laser excitation. The morphologies, luminescent properties and energy transfer mechanism of the nanoparticles were studied in detail. By employing this design, multimodal imaging performance including near-infrared down-conversion optical imaging and X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging were realized in one kind of NPs. Furthermore, the 808 nm excited optical temperature sensing property of the synthesized NPs was realized in a wide temperature range by monitoring the intensities of up- and down-conversion luminescence. This study provides a novel platform based on lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles for multifunctional imaging and temperature sensing in one system. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S5. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04889c

  5. Multimodality Imaging in the Assessment of the Physiological Significance of Myocardial Bridging.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Valtteri; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani

    2016-01-01

    In myocardial bridging (MB) a segment of the coronary artery is covered by the myocardium. MB can be seen as a systolic compression by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) or as an intramural course by computed tomography angiography (CTA). Intramural course is a common incidental finding in CTA studies. Only minority of the bridging segments are associated with systolic compression causing a possible impairment of myocardial perfusion. The relationship between myocardial blood flow and MB is complex and poorly evaluated by anatomic imaging. Furthermore, provocation tests are frequently needed to uncover systolic compression. Fractional flow reserve can be used to assess the hemodynamic significance of MB. Nuclear perfusion imaging can demonstrate flow abnormalities associated with MB. Stress echocardiography can demonstrate ischemic wall motion abnormalities. They can be complemented by hybrid imaging with CTA to distinguish epicardial coronary artery disease and MB. This article will review different imaging modalities for the evaluation of the physiologic significance of MB. PMID:26694724

  6. Comparative study of multimodal intra-subject image registration methods on a publicly available database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Ghayoor, Ali; Johnson, Hans J.; Sonka, Milan

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on a comparative study between five manual and automated methods for intra-subject pair-wise registration of images from different modalities. The study includes a variety of inter-modal image registrations (MR-CT, PET-CT, PET-MR) utilizing different methods including two manual point-based techniques using rigid and similarity transformations, one automated point-based approach based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, and two automated intensity-based methods using mutual information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI). These techniques were employed for inter-modal registration of brain images of 9 subjects from a publicly available dataset, and the results were evaluated qualitatively via checkerboard images and quantitatively using root mean square error and MI criteria. In addition, for each inter-modal registration, a paired t-test was performed on the quantitative results in order to find any significant difference between the results of the studied registration techniques.

  7. Development of a temporal multiplexed 3D beam-scanning Lissajous trajectory microscope for rapid multimodal volumetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Justin A.; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Dinh, Janny; Sarkar, Sreya; Simpson, Garth J.

    2016-03-01

    A beam-scanning microscope is described based on a temporally multiplexed Lissajous trajectory for achieving 1 kHz frame rate 3D imaging. The microscope utilizes two fast-scan resonant mirrors to direct the optical beam on a circuitous, Lissajous trajectory through the field of view. Acquisition of two simultaneous focal planes is achieved by implementation of an optical delay line, producing a second incident beam at a different focal plane relative to the initial incident beam. High frame rates are achieved by separating the full time-domain data into shorter sub-trajectories resulting in undersampling of the field of view. A model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) 3D in-painting algorithm is utilized for interpolating the missing data to recover full images. The MBIR algorithm uses a maximum a posteriori estimation with a generalized Gaussian Markov random field prior model for image interpolation. Because images are acquired using photomultiplier tubes or photodiodes, parallelization for multi-channel imaging is straightforward. Preliminary results obtained using a Lissajous trajectory beam-scanning approach coupled with temporal multiplexing by the implementation of an optical delay line demonstrate the ability to acquire 2 distinct focal planes simultaneously at frame rates >450 Hz for full 512 × 512 images. The use of multi-channel data acquisition cards allows for simultaneous multimodal image acquisition with perfect image registry between all imaging modalities. Also discussed here is the implementation of Lissajous trajectory beam-scanning on commercially available microscope hardware.

  8. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of Cardiac Cell Transplantation: Part I. Reporter Gene Design, Characterization, and Optical in Vivo Imaging of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells after Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Parashurama, Natesh; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Ziv, Keren; Ito, Ken; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Willmann, Jürgen K; Chung, Jaehoon; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Swanson, Julia C; Merk, Denis R; Lyons, Jennifer K; Yerushalmi, David; Teramoto, Tomohiko; Kosuge, Hisanori; Dao, Catherine N; Ray, Pritha; Patel, Manishkumar; Chang, Ya-Fang; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Cohen, Jeff Eric; Goldstone, Andrew Brooks; Habte, Frezghi; Bhaumik, Srabani; Yaghoubi, Shahriar; Robbins, Robert C; Dash, Rajesh; Yang, Phillip C; Brinton, Todd J; Yock, Paul G; McConnell, Michael V; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To use multimodality reporter-gene imaging to assess the serial survival of marrow stromal cells (MSC) after therapy for myocardial infarction (MI) and to determine if the requisite preclinical imaging end point was met prior to a follow-up large-animal MSC imaging study. Materials and Methods Animal studies were approved by the Institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care. Mice (n = 19) that had experienced MI were injected with bone marrow-derived MSC that expressed a multimodality triple fusion (TF) reporter gene. The TF reporter gene (fluc2-egfp-sr39ttk) consisted of a human promoter, ubiquitin, driving firefly luciferase 2 (fluc2), enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp), and the sr39tk positron emission tomography reporter gene. Serial bioluminescence imaging of MSC-TF and ex vivo luciferase assays were performed. Correlations were analyzed with the Pearson product-moment correlation, and serial imaging results were analyzed with a mixed-effects regression model. Results Analysis of the MSC-TF after cardiac cell therapy showed significantly lower signal on days 8 and 14 than on day 2 (P = .011 and P = .001, respectively). MSC-TF with MI demonstrated significantly higher signal than MSC-TF without MI at days 4, 8, and 14 (P = .016). Ex vivo luciferase activity assay confirmed the presence of MSC-TF on days 8 and 14 after MI. Conclusion Multimodality reporter-gene imaging was successfully used to assess serial MSC survival after therapy for MI, and it was determined that the requisite preclinical imaging end point, 14 days of MSC survival, was met prior to a follow-up large-animal MSC study. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27308957

  9. Imaging findings in megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ballisty, Marianne M; Braithwaite, Kiery A; Shehata, Bahig M; Dickson, Paula N

    2013-04-01

    Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare and frequently lethal form of severe functional intestinal obstruction more commonly found in girls. Imaging features characteristic of this disease include a large dilated bladder, microcolon and intestinal dysmotility. Additional imaging findings may include intestinal malrotation, hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux. It is usually fatal in the first year of life. Because presenting clinical and imaging features can mimic other causes of neonatal bowel obstruction, we compiled examples of this disorder to help the pediatric radiologist recognize imaging findings associated with MMIHS and aid in the development of a long-term management plan and in counseling the family regarding implications of this disorder. We reviewed recent and historical literature relevant to MMIHS and present the imaging and clinical features of four patients with MMIHS treated at our institution as examples of this uncommon disorder. PMID:22926452

  10. Label-free imaging and quantitative chemical analysis of Alzheimer's disease brain samples with multimodal multiphoton nonlinear optical microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang Hyuk; Kim, Dae Hwan; Song, Woo Keun; Oh, Myoung-Kyu; Ko, Do-Kyeong

    2015-05-01

    We developed multimodal multiphoton microspectroscopy using a small-diameter probe with gradient-index lenses and applied it to unstained Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain samples. Our system maintained the image quality and spatial resolution of images obtained using an objective lens of similar numerical aperture. Multicolor images of AD brain samples were obtained simultaneously by integrating two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation on a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microendoscope platform. Measurements of two hippocampal regions, the cornus ammonis-1 and dentate gyrus, revealed more lipids, amyloid fibers, and collagen in the AD samples than in the normal samples. Normal and AD brains were clearly distinguished by a large spectral difference and quantitative analysis of the CH mode using CARS microendoscope spectroscopy. We expect this system to be an important diagnosis tool in AD research.

  11. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  12. Multimodal interferometric microscopy for label-free 3D imaging of live cells in flow (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaked, Natan Tzvi

    2016-03-01

    I present multimodal wide-field interferometric microscopy platform for label-free 3-D imaging of live cells during fast flow. Using holographic optical tweezers, multiple cells can be optically trapped and rapidity rotated on all axes, while acquired using an external off-axis wide-field interferometric module developed in our lab. The interferometric projections are rapidly processed into the 3-D refractive-index profile of the cells using a tomographic phase microscopy algorithms that take into consideration optical diffraction effects. The algorithms for the 3-D refractive-index reconstruction, and for calculating various morphological parameters that should serve for online sorting of cells, are efficiently implemented in a nearly real-time manner. The potential of this new high-throughput imaging technique is for label-free image analysis and sorting of cells during flow, to substitute current cell sorting devices, which are based on external labeling that eventually damages the cell sample.

  13. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of Cardiac Cell Transplantation: Part II. In Vivo Imaging of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Swine with PET/CT and MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Parashurama, Natesh; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Ziv, Keren; Ito, Ken; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Willmann, Jürgen K; Chung, Jaehoon; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Swanson, Julia C; Merk, Denis R; Lyons, Jennifer K; Yerushalmi, David; Teramoto, Tomohiko; Kosuge, Hisanori; Dao, Catherine N; Ray, Pritha; Patel, Manishkumar; Chang, Ya-Fang; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Cohen, Jeff Eric; Goldstone, Andrew Brooks; Habte, Frezghi; Bhaumik, Srabani; Yaghoubi, Shahriar; Robbins, Robert C; Dash, Rajesh; Yang, Phillip C; Brinton, Todd J; Yock, Paul G; McConnell, Michael V; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To quantitatively determine the limit of detection of marrow stromal cells (MSC) after cardiac cell therapy (CCT) in swine by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET) reporter gene imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with cell prelabeling. Materials and Methods Animal studies were approved by the institutional administrative panel on laboratory animal care. Seven swine received 23 intracardiac cell injections that contained control MSC and cell mixtures of MSC expressing a multimodality triple fusion (TF) reporter gene (MSC-TF) and bearing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) (MSC-TF-NP) or NP alone. Clinical MR imaging and PET reporter gene molecular imaging were performed after intravenous injection of the radiotracer fluorine 18-radiolabeled 9-[4-fluoro-3-(hydroxyl methyl) butyl] guanine ((18)F-FHBG). Linear regression analysis of both MR imaging and PET data and nonlinear regression analysis of PET data were performed, accounting for multiple injections per animal. Results MR imaging showed a positive correlation between MSC-TF-NP cell number and dephasing (dark) signal (R(2) = 0.72, P = .0001) and a lower detection limit of at least approximately 1.5 × 10(7) cells. PET reporter gene imaging demonstrated a significant positive correlation between MSC-TF and target-to-background ratio with the linear model (R(2) = 0.88, P = .0001, root mean square error = 0.523) and the nonlinear model (R(2) = 0.99, P = .0001, root mean square error = 0.273) and a lower detection limit of 2.5 × 10(8) cells. Conclusion The authors quantitatively determined the limit of detection of MSC after CCT in swine by using clinical PET reporter gene imaging and clinical MR imaging with cell prelabeling. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27332865

  14. Multi-modal imaging of angiogenesis in a nude rat model of breast cancer bone metastasis using magnetic resonance imaging, volumetric computed tomography and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Bäuerle, Tobias; Komljenovic, Dorde; Berger, Martin R; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential feature of cancer growth and metastasis formation. In bone metastasis, angiogenic factors are pivotal for tumor cell proliferation in the bone marrow cavity as well as for interaction of tumor and bone cells resulting in local bone destruction. Our aim was to develop a model of experimental bone metastasis that allows in vivo assessment of angiogenesis in skeletal lesions using non-invasive imaging techniques. For this purpose, we injected 10(5) MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells into the superficial epigastric artery, which precludes the growth of metastases in body areas other than the respective hind leg. Following 25-30 days after tumor cell inoculation, site-specific bone metastases develop, restricted to the distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal fibula. Morphological and functional aspects of angiogenesis can be investigated longitudinally in bone metastases using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), volumetric computed tomography (VCT) and ultrasound (US). MRI displays morphologic information on the soft tissue part of bone metastases that is initially confined to the bone marrow cavity and subsequently exceeds cortical bone while progressing. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) functional data including regional blood volume, perfusion and vessel permeability can be obtained and quantified. Bone destruction is captured in high resolution using morphological VCT imaging. Complementary to MRI findings, osteolytic lesions can be located adjacent to sites of intramedullary tumor growth. After contrast agent application, VCT angiography reveals the macrovessel architecture in bone metastases in high resolution, and DCE-VCT enables insight in the microcirculation of these lesions. US is applicable to assess morphological and functional features from skeletal lesions due to local osteolysis of cortical bone. Using B-mode and Doppler techniques, structure and perfusion of the soft tissue metastases can be evaluated

  15. Multi-modal Imaging of Angiogenesis in a Nude Rat Model of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Volumetric Computed Tomography and Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Bäuerle, Tobias; Komljenovic, Dorde; Berger, Martin R.; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential feature of cancer growth and metastasis formation. In bone metastasis, angiogenic factors are pivotal for tumor cell proliferation in the bone marrow cavity as well as for interaction of tumor and bone cells resulting in local bone destruction. Our aim was to develop a model of experimental bone metastasis that allows in vivo assessment of angiogenesis in skeletal lesions using non-invasive imaging techniques. For this purpose, we injected 105 MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells into the superficial epigastric artery, which precludes the growth of metastases in body areas other than the respective hind leg1. Following 25-30 days after tumor cell inoculation, site-specific bone metastases develop, restricted to the distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal fibula1. Morphological and functional aspects of angiogenesis can be investigated longitudinally in bone metastases using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), volumetric computed tomography (VCT) and ultrasound (US). MRI displays morphologic information on the soft tissue part of bone metastases that is initially confined to the bone marrow cavity and subsequently exceeds cortical bone while progressing. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) functional data including regional blood volume, perfusion and vessel permeability can be obtained and quantified2-4. Bone destruction is captured in high resolution using morphological VCT imaging. Complementary to MRI findings, osteolytic lesions can be located adjacent to sites of intramedullary tumor growth. After contrast agent application, VCT angiography reveals the macrovessel architecture in bone metastases in high resolution, and DCE-VCT enables insight in the microcirculation of these lesions5,6. US is applicable to assess morphological and functional features from skeletal lesions due to local osteolysis of cortical bone. Using B-mode and Doppler techniques, structure and perfusion of the soft tissue metastases can be evaluated